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Sample records for identifies strain-specific diagnostic

  1. Comparative genome-scale modelling of Staphylococcus aureus strains identifies strain-specific metabolic capabilities linked to pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Bosi, Emanuele; Monk, Jonathan M.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Fondi, Marco; Nizet, Victor; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a preeminent bacterial pathogen capable of colonizing diverse ecological niches within its human host. We describe here the pangenome of S. aureus based on analysis of genome sequences from 64 strains of S. aureus spanning a range of ecological niches, host types, and antibiotic resistance profiles. Based on this set, S. aureus is expected to have an open pangenome composed of 7,411 genes and a core genome composed of 1,441 genes. Metabolism was highly conserved in this core genome; however, differences were identified in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis pathways between the strains. Genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism were constructed for the 64 strains of S. aureus. These GEMs enabled a systems approach to characterizing the core metabolic and panmetabolic capabilities of the S. aureus species. All models were predicted to be auxotrophic for the vitamins niacin (vitamin B3) and thiamin (vitamin B1), whereas strain-specific auxotrophies were predicted for riboflavin (vitamin B2), guanosine, leucine, methionine, and cysteine, among others. GEMs were used to systematically analyze growth capabilities in more than 300 different growth-supporting environments. The results identified metabolic capabilities linked to pathogenic traits and virulence acquisitions. Such traits can be used to differentiate strains responsible for mild vs. severe infections and preference for hosts (e.g., animals vs. humans). Genome-scale analysis of multiple strains of a species can thus be used to identify metabolic determinants of virulence and increase our understanding of why certain strains of this deadly pathogen have spread rapidly throughout the world. PMID:27286824

  2. A strain-specific epitope of enterovirus 71 identified by cryo-electron microscopy of the complex with fab from neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunwook; Cifuente, Javier O; Ashley, Robert E; Conway, James F; Makhov, Alexander M; Tano, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Hafenstein, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a picornavirus that causes outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), primarily in the Asia-Pacific area. Unlike coxsackievirus A16, which also causes HFMD, EV71 induces severe neuropathology leading to high fatalities, especially among children under the age of 6 years. Currently, no established vaccines or treatments are available against EV71 infection. The monoclonal antibody MA28-7 neutralizes only specific strains of EV71 that have a conserved glycine at amino acid VP1-145, a surface-exposed residue that maps to the 5-fold vertex and that has been implicated in receptor binding. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a complex between EV71 and the Fab fragment of MA28-7 shows that only one Fab fragment occupies each 5-fold vertex. A positively charged patch, which has also been implicated in receptor binding, lies within the Fab footprint. We identify the strain-specific epitope of EV71 and discuss the possible neutralization mechanisms of the antibody.

  3. A Strain-Specific Epitope of Enterovirus 71 Identified by Cryo-Electron Microscopy of the Complex with Fab from Neutralizing Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunwook; Cifuente, Javier O.; Ashley, Robert E.; Conway, James F.; Makhov, Alexander M.; Tano, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Yorihiro

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a picornavirus that causes outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), primarily in the Asia-Pacific area. Unlike coxsackievirus A16, which also causes HFMD, EV71 induces severe neuropathology leading to high fatalities, especially among children under the age of 6 years. Currently, no established vaccines or treatments are available against EV71 infection. The monoclonal antibody MA28-7 neutralizes only specific strains of EV71 that have a conserved glycine at amino acid VP1-145, a surface-exposed residue that maps to the 5-fold vertex and that has been implicated in receptor binding. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a complex between EV71 and the Fab fragment of MA28-7 shows that only one Fab fragment occupies each 5-fold vertex. A positively charged patch, which has also been implicated in receptor binding, lies within the Fab footprint. We identify the strain-specific epitope of EV71 and discuss the possible neutralization mechanisms of the antibody. PMID:23946455

  4. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  5. Chlamydomonas Genome Resource for Laboratory Strains Reveals a Mosaic of Sequence Variation, Identifies True Strain Histories, and Enables Strain-Specific Studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a widely used reference organism in studies of photosynthesis, cilia, and biofuels. Most research in this field uses a few dozen standard laboratory strains that are reported to share a common ancestry, but exhibit substantial phenotypic differences. In order to facilitate ongoing Chlamydomonas research and explain the phenotypic variation, we mapped the genetic diversity within these strains using whole-genome resequencing. We identified 524,640 single nucleotide variants and 4812 structural variants among 39 commonly used laboratory strains. Nearly all (98.2%) of the total observed genetic diversity was attributable to the presence of two, previously unrecognized, alternate haplotypes that are distributed in a mosaic pattern among the extant laboratory strains. We propose that these two haplotypes are the remnants of an ancestral cross between two strains with ∼2% relative divergence. These haplotype patterns create a fingerprint for each strain that facilitates the positive identification of that strain and reveals its relatedness to other strains. The presence of these alternate haplotype regions affects phenotype scoring and gene expression measurements. Here, we present a rich set of genetic differences as a community resource to allow researchers to more accurately conduct and interpret their experiments with Chlamydomonas. PMID:26307380

  6. STRAIN-SPECIFIC MODIFIER GENES GOVERNING CRANIOFACIAL PHENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Webb, Cynthia; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The presence of strain-specific modifier genes is known to modulate the phenotype and pathophysiology of mice harboring genetically engineered mutations. Thus, identification of genetic modifier genes is requisite to understanding control of phenotypic expression. c-Ski is a transcriptional regulator. Ski−/− mice on a C57BL6J (B6) background exhibit facial clefting, while Ski−/− mice on a 129P3 (129) background present with exencephaly. METHODS In the present study, oligonucleotide-based gene expression profiling was utilized to identify potential strain-specific modifier gene candidates present in wild-type mice of B6 and 129 genetic backgrounds. Changes in gene expression were verified by TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS Steady-state levels of 89 genes demonstrated a significantly higher level of expression, and those of 68 genes demonstrated a significantly lower level of expression in the developing neural tubes from E8.5, B6 embryos when compared to expression levels in neural tubes derived from E8.5, 129 embryos. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results from the current comparative microarray study, and taking into consideration a number of relevant published reports, several potential strain-specific gene candidates, likely to modify the craniofacial phenotypes in various knockout mouse models have been identified. PMID:22371338

  7. Strain-specific variations in Toxoplasma gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, S.; Sari, Y.; Prasetyo, A. A.; Sariyatun, R.

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis and identification of the genetic group of T. gondii (Toxoplasma gondii) are important to control better the T. gondii infection, particularly in immunocompromised people as HIV patients. This study aimed to identify strain-specific variations in T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 in order to help design such diagnostic tool to detect and characterize the parasite. Forty-three T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 sequences deposited in GenBank were aligned. A number of positions in the gene sequences were highly conserved. All GRA sequences had strain-specific positions, however, only GRA1, GRA5, and GRA6, which contained specific variations for each T. gondii lineage. In conclusion, T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 are predicted to contain highly conserved regions and positions with strain-specific variation, which might be useful for the design of diagnostic tools detecting and distinguishing T. gondiistrains.

  8. A Review and Comparison of Diagnostic Instruments to Identify Students' Misconceptions in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian Christie

    2015-01-01

    Different diagnostic tools have been developed and used by researchers to identify students' conceptions. The present study aimed to provide an overview of the common diagnostic instruments in science to assess students' misconceptions. Also the study provides a brief comparison of these common diagnostic instruments with their strengths and…

  9. Legionella pneumophila pangenome reveals strain-specific virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila is a gram-negative γ-Proteobacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a form of epidemic pneumonia. It has a water-related life cycle. In industrialized cities L. pneumophila is commonly encountered in refrigeration towers and water pipes. Infection is always via infected aerosols to humans. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate Legionella from buildings, it still contaminates the water systems. The town of Alcoy (Valencian Region, Spain) has had recurrent outbreaks since 1999. The strain "Alcoy 2300/99" is a particularly persistent and recurrent strain that was isolated during one of the most significant outbreaks between the years 1999-2000. Results We have sequenced the genome of the particularly persistent L. pneumophila strain Alcoy 2300/99 and have compared it with four previously sequenced strains known as Philadelphia (USA), Lens (France), Paris (France) and Corby (England). Pangenome analysis facilitated the identification of strain-specific features, as well as some that are shared by two or more strains. We identified: (1) three islands related to anti-drug resistance systems; (2) a system for transport and secretion of heavy metals; (3) three systems related to DNA transfer; (4) two CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) systems, known to provide resistance against phage infections, one similar in the Lens and Alcoy strains, and another specific to the Paris strain; and (5) seven islands of phage-related proteins, five of which seem to be strain-specific and two shared. Conclusions The dispensable genome disclosed by the pangenomic analysis seems to be a reservoir of new traits that have mainly been acquired by horizontal gene transfer and could confer evolutionary advantages over strains lacking them. PMID:20236513

  10. Strategies to develop strain-specific PCR based assays for probiotics.

    PubMed

    Treven, P

    2015-01-01

    Since health benefits conferred by probiotics are strain-specific, identification to the strain level is mandatory to allow the monitoring of the presence and the abundance of specific probiotic in a product or in a gastrointestinal tract. Compared to standard plate counts, the reduced duration of the assays and higher specificity makes PCR-based methods (standard PCR and quantitative PCR) very appropriate for detection or quantification of probiotics. Development of strain-specific assay consists of 4 main stages: (1) strain-specific marker identification; (2) construction of potential strain-specific primers; (3) validation on DNA from pure cultures of target and related strains; and (4) validation on spiked samples. The most important and also the most challenging step is the identification of strain-specific sequences, which can be subsequently targeted by specific primers or probes. Such regions can be identified on sequences derived from 16S-23S internally transcribed spacers, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, representational difference analysis and suppression subtractive hybridisation. Already known phenotypic or genotypic characteristics of the target strain can also be used to develop the strain-specific assay. However, the initial stage of strain-specific assay development can be replaced by comparative genomics analysis of target genome with related genomes in public databases. Advances in whole genome sequencing (WGS) have resulted in a cost reduction for bacterial genome sequencing and consequently have made this approach available to most laboratories. In the present paper I reviewed the available literature on PCR and qPCR assays developed for detection of a specific probiotic strain and discussed future WGS and comparative genomics-based approaches.

  11. A homozygous mutation in PEX16 identified by whole-exome sequencing ending a diagnostic odyssey

    PubMed Central

    Bacino, Carlos A.; Chao, Yu-Hsin; Seto, Elaine; Lotze, Tim; Xia, Fan; Jones, Richard O.; Moser, Ann; Wangler, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with a unique neurological phenotype with a progressive neurodegenerative. An 18-year diagnostic odyssey for the patient ended when exome sequencing identified a homozygous PEX16 mutation suggesting an atypical peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD). Interestingly, the patient's peroxisomal biochemical abnormalities were subtle, such that plasma very-long-chain fatty acids initially failed to provide a diagnosis. This case suggests that next-generation sequencing may be diagnostic in some atypical peroxisomal biogenesis disorders. PMID:26644994

  12. Evaluation of strain-specific primer sequences from an abortifacient strain of ovine Chlamydophila abortus (Chalmydia psittaci) for the detection of EAE by PCR.

    PubMed

    Creelan, J L; McCullough, S J

    2000-09-01

    Strain-specific primer sequences derived from the helicase gene of an ovine abortifacient strain (S26/3) of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci) were evaluated for the diagnosis of enzootic abortion in ewes (EAE) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). C abortus DNA was amplified from tissues submitted from ovine abortion cases using genus-specific and strain-specific primers in a standard thermal cycler. Amplification was followed by Southern blotting and hybridisation with a strain-specific probe. Real-time PCR was also evaluated using strain-specific primers in a microvolume fluorimeter-based thermal cycler (LightCycler). Detection using both PCR methods was compared with other diagnostic methods against the standard of McCoy cell culture isolation. In this paper we report the application of strain-specific PCR as a fast, sensitive, specific method for the detection of EAE.

  13. Strain-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism assays for the Bacillus anthracis Ames strain.

    PubMed

    Van Ert, Matthew N; Easterday, W Ryan; Simonson, Tatum S; U'Ren, Jana M; Pearson, Talima; Kenefic, Leo J; Busch, Joseph D; Huynh, Lynn Y; Dukerich, Megan; Trim, Carla B; Beaudry, Jodi; Welty-Bernard, Amy; Read, Timothy; Fraser, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Keim, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Highly precise diagnostics and forensic assays can be developed through a combination of evolutionary analysis and the exhaustive examination of genomic sequences. In Bacillus anthracis, whole-genome sequencing efforts revealed ca. 3,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among eight different strains and evolutionary analysis provides the identification of canonical SNPs. We have previously shown that SNPs are highly evolutionarily stable, and the clonal nature of B. anthracis makes them ideal signatures for subtyping this pathogen. Here we identified SNPs that define the lineage of B. anthracis that contains the Ames strain, the strain used in the 2001 bioterrorist attacks in the United States. Sequencing and real-time PCR were used to validate these SNPs across B. anthracis strains, including (i) 88 globally and genetically diverse isolates; (ii) isolates that were shown to be genetic relatives of the Ames strain by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA); and (iii) several different lab stocks of the Ames strain, including a clinical isolate from the 2001 letter attack. Six SNPs were found to be highly specific for the Ames strain; four on the chromosome, one on the pX01 plasmid, and one on the pX02 plasmid. All six SNPs differentiated the B. anthracis Ames strain from the 88 unique B. anthracis strains, while five of the six separated Ames from its close genetic relatives. The use of these SNPs coupled with real-time PCR allows specific and sensitive (<100 fg of template DNA) identification of the Ames strain. This evolutionary and genomics-based approach provides an effective means for the discovery of strain-specific SNPs in B. anthracis.

  14. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Examination and Imaging Findings for Identifying Subacromial Pain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of subacromial pathology is limited by the poor accuracy of clinical tests for specific pathologies. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination and imaging features for identifying subacromial pain (SAP) defined by a positive response to diagnostic injection, and to evaluate the influence of imaging findings on the clinical diagnosis of SAP. Methods and Findings In a prospective, diagnostic accuracy design, 208 consecutive patients presenting to their primary healthcare practitioner for the first time with a new episode of shoulder pain were recruited. All participants underwent a standardized clinical examination, shoulder x-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Results were compared with the response to a diagnostic block of xylocaineTM injected into the SAB under ultrasound guidance using ≥80% post-injection reduction in pain intensity as the positive anaesthetic response (PAR) criterion. Diagnostic accuracy statistics were calculated for combinations of clinical and imaging variables demonstrating the highest likelihood of a PAR. A PAR was reported by 34% of participants. In participants with no loss of passive external rotation, combinations of three clinical variables (anterior shoulder pain, strain injury, absence of symptoms at end-range external rotation (in abduction)) demonstrated 100% specificity for a PAR when all three were positive (LR+ infinity; 95%CI 2.9, infinity). A full-thickness supraspinatus tear on ultrasound increased the likelihood of a PAR irrespective of age (specificity 98% (95%CI 94, 100); LR+ 6.2; 95% CI 1.5, 25.7)). Imaging did not improve the ability to rule-out a PAR. Conclusion Combinations of clinical examination findings and a full-thickness supraspinatus tear on ultrasound scan can help confirm, but not exclude, the presence of subacromial pain. Other imaging findings were of limited value for diagnosing SAP. PMID:27936246

  16. Strain specificity in antimicrobial activity of silver and copper nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Jayesh P; Chatterjee, Arup Kumar; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P; Mukherji, Suparna

    2008-05-01

    The antimicrobial properties of silver and copper nanoparticles were investigated using Escherichia coli (four strains), Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (three strains). The average sizes of the silver and copper nanoparticles were 3 nm and 9 nm, respectively, as determined through transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra of silver and copper nanoparticles revealed that while silver was in its pure form, an oxide layer existed on the copper nanoparticles. The bactericidal effect of silver and copper nanoparticles were compared based on diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of nanoparticles dispersed in batch cultures. Bacterial sensitivity to nanoparticles was found to vary depending on the microbial species. Disk diffusion studies with E. coli and S. aureus revealed greater effectiveness of the silver nanoparticles compared to the copper nanoparticles. B. subtilis depicted the highest sensitivity to nanoparticles compared to the other strains and was more adversely affected by the copper nanoparticles. Good correlation was observed between MIC and MBC (r2=0.98) measured in liquid cultures. For copper nanoparticles a good negative correlation was observed between the inhibition zone observed in disk diffusion test and MIC/MBC determined based on liquid cultures with the various strains (r2=-0.75). Although strain-specific variation in MIC/MBC was negligible for S. aureus, some strain-specific variation was observed for E. coli.

  17. Systems approaches in osteoarthritis: Identifying routes to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Alan J; Peffers, Mandy J; Proctor, Carole J; Clegg, Peter D

    2017-03-20

    Systems orientated research offers the possibility of identifying novel therapeutic targets and relevant diagnostic markers for complex diseases such as osteoarthritis. This review demonstrates that the osteoarthritis research community has been slow to incorporate systems orientated approaches into research studies, although a number of key studies reveal novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms that contribute both to joint tissue homeostasis and its dysfunction. The review introduces both top-down and bottom-up approaches employed in the study of osteoarthritis. A holistic and multiscale approach, where clinical measurements may predict dysregulation and progression of joint degeneration, should be a key objective in future research. The review concludes with suggestions for further research and emerging trends not least of which is the coupled development of diagnostic tests and therapeutics as part of a concerted effort by the osteoarthritis research community to meet clinical needs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of secondary data sources to identify Parkinson disease against clinical diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Jain, Samay; Himali, Jayandra; Beiser, Alexa; Ton, Thanh G N; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Biggs, Mary Lou; Delaney, Joseph A C; Rosano, Caterina; Seshadri, Sudha; Frank, Samuel A

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Its diagnosis relies solely on a clinical examination and is not straightforward because no diagnostic test exists. Large, population-based, prospective cohort studies designed to examine other outcomes that are more common than PD might provide cost-efficient alternatives for studying the disease. However, most cohort studies have not implemented rigorous systematic screening for PD. A majority of epidemiologic studies that utilize population-based prospective designs rely on secondary data sources to identify PD cases. Direct validation of these secondary sources against clinical diagnostic criteria is lacking. The Framingham Heart Study has prospectively screened and evaluated participants for PD based on clinical diagnostic criteria. We assessed the predictive value of secondary sources for PD identification relative to clinical diagnostic criteria in the Framingham Heart Study (2001-2012). We found positive predictive values of 1.0 (95% confidence interval: 0.868, 1.0), 1.0 (95% confidence interval: 0.839, 1.0), and 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.307, 0.694) for PD identified from self-report, use of antiparkinsonian medications, and Medicare claims, respectively. The negative predictive values were all higher than 0.99. Our results highlight the limitations of using only Medicare claims data and suggest that population-based cohorts may be utilized for the study of PD determined via self-report or medication inventories while preserving a high degree of confidence in the validity of PD case identification.

  19. Diagnostic Value of Screening Instruments for Identifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Kidney Failure

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, David D. M.; Ahmed, Sofia B.; Loewen, Andrea H. S.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sola, Darlene Y.; Beecroft, Jaime M.; Turin, Tanvir C.; Hanly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that can have significant clinical implications. An accurate clinical screening tool for OSA that identifies patients for further diagnostic testing would assist in the identification of this comorbidity. The Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), Adjusted Neck Circumference (ANC), and STOP-BANG questionnaire are 3 such instruments that have been validated in patients with normal kidney function. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the validity of these screening instruments in patients with CKD and ESRD, using overnight cardiopulmonary monitoring to diagnose OSA. Methods: One hundred seventy-two patients were recruited from nephrology clinics and hemodialysis units (CKD: n = 109; ESRD: n = 63). All patients completed the BQ, ANC, STOP-BANG, and overnight cardiopulmonary monitoring to diagnose OSA (respiratory disturbance index [RDI] ≥ 15). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated for the BQ, ANC, and STOP-BANG. Results: Obstructive sleep apnea was present in 41 CKD patients (38%) and 32 ESRD patients (51%). All screening instruments had satisfactory sensitivity (56% to 94%) but poor specificity (29% to 77%) and low accuracy (51% to 69%) in both CKD and ESRD patients with RDI ≥ 15. Using an RDI ≥ 30 yielded similar results. Conclusions: Current screening questionnaires do not accurately identify patients at high risk for OSA or rule out the presence of OSA in patients with CKD and ESRD. Consequently, objective monitoring during sleep is required to reliably identify sleep apnea in these patient populations. Citation: Nicholl DDM; Ahmed SB; Loewen AHS; Hemmelgarn BR; Sola DY; Beecroft JM; Turin TC; Hanly PJ. Diagnostic value of screening instruments for identifying obstructive sleep apnea in kidney failure. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):31-38. PMID:23319902

  20. Differential proteomic and tissue expression analyses identify valuable diagnostic biomarkers of hepatocellular differentiation and hepatoid adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Reis, Henning; Padden, Juliet; Ahrens, Maike; Pütter, Carolin; Bertram, Stefanie; Pott, Leona L; Reis, Anna-Carinna; Weber, Frank; Juntermanns, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Andreas-C; Eisenacher, Martin; Schlaak, Joörg F; Canbay, Ali; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A

    2015-10-01

    The exact discrimination of lesions with true hepatocellular differentiation from secondary tumours and neoplasms with hepatocellular histomorphology like hepatoid adenocarcinomas (HAC) is crucial. Therefore, we aimed to identify ancillary protein biomarkers by using complementary proteomic techniques (2D-DIGE, label-free MS). The identified candidates were immunohistochemically validated in 14 paired samples of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-tumourous liver tissue (NT). The candidates and HepPar1/Arginase1 were afterwards tested for consistency in a large cohort of hepatocellular lesions and NT (n = 290), non-hepatocellular malignancies (n = 383) and HAC (n = 13). Eight non-redundant, differentially expressed proteins were suitable for further immunohistochemical validation and four (ABAT, BHMT, FABP1, HAOX1) for further evaluation. Sensitivity and specificity rates for HCC/HAC were as follows: HepPar1 80.2%, 94.3% / 80.2%, 46.2%; Arginase1 82%, 99.4% / 82%, 69.2%; BHMT 61.4%, 93.8% / 61.4%, 100%; ABAT 84.4%, 33.7% / 84.4%, 30.8%; FABP1 87.2%, 95% / 87.2%, 69.2%; HAOX1 95.5%, 36.3% / 95.5%, 46.2%. The best 2×/3× biomarker panels for the diagnosis of HCC consisted of Arginase1/HAOX1 and BHMT/Arginase1/HAOX1 and for HAC consisted of Arginase1/FABP1 and BHMT/Arginase1/FABP1. In summary, we successfully identified, validated and benchmarked protein biomarker candidates of hepatocellular differentiation. BHMT in particular exhibited superior diagnostic characteristics in hepatocellular lesions and specifically in HAC. BHMT is therefore a promising (panel based) biomarker candidate in the differential diagnostic process of lesions with hepatocellular aspect.

  1. Multiple Serum Cytokine Profiling to Identify Combinational Diagnostic Biomarkers in Attacks of Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Migita, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shuntaro; Umeda, Masataka; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Masumoto, Junya; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yachie, Akihiro; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The precise cytokine networks in the serum of individuals with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) that are associated with its pathogenesis have been unknown. Here, we attempted to identify specific biomarkers to diagnose or assess disease activity in FMF patients. We measured serum levels of 45 cytokines in 75 FMF patients and 40 age-matched controls by multisuspension cytokine array. FMF in “attack” or “remission” was classified by Japan College of Rheumatology-certified rheumatologists according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Cytokines were ranked by their importance by a multivariate classification algorithm. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine specific biomarkers for discriminating FMF patients in attack. To identify specific molecular networks, we performed a cluster analysis of each cytokine. Twenty-nine of the 45 cytokines were available for further analyses. Eight cytokines’ serum levels were significantly elevated in the FMF attack versus healthy control group. Nine cytokines were increased in FMF attack compared to FMF remission. Multivariate classification algorithms followed by a logistic regression analysis revealed that the combined measurement of IL-6, IL-18, and IL-17 distinguished FMF patients in attack from the controls with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 95.5%). Among the FMF patients, the combined measurement of IL-6, G-CSF, IL-10, and IL-12p40 discriminated febrile attack periods from remission periods with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 87.9%, and accuracy 84.0%). Our data identified combinational diagnostic biomarkers in FMF patients based on the measurement of multiple cytokines. These findings help to improve the diagnostic performance of FMF in daily practice and extend our understanding of the activation of the inflammasome leading to enhanced cytokine networks. PMID:27100444

  2. Strain-specific Fibril Propagation by an Aβ Dodecamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Dexter N.; Das, Pradipta K.; Rana, Pratip; Burg, Franklin; Levites, Yona; Morgan, Sarah E.; Ghosh, Preetam; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) have emerged as the primary toxic agents in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). Polymorphism observed within the aggregation end products of fibrils are known to arise due to microstructural differences among the oligomers. Diversity in aggregate morphology correlates with the differences in AD, cementing the idea that conformational strains of oligomers could be significant in phenotypic outcomes. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the ability of strains to faithfully propagate their structure. Here we report fibril propagation of an Aβ42 dodecamer called large fatty acid-derived oligomers (LFAOs). The LFAO oligomeric strain selectively induces acute cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in neonatally-injected transgenic CRND8 mice. Propagation in-vitro occurs as a three-step process involving the association of LFAO units. LFAO-seeded fibrils possess distinct morphology made of repeating LFAO units that could be regenerated upon sonication. Overall, these data bring forth an important mechanistic perspective into strain-specific propagation of oligomers that has remained elusive thus far.

  3. Strain-specific Fibril Propagation by an Aβ Dodecamer

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Dexter N.; Das, Pradipta K.; Rana, Pratip; Burg, Franklin; Levites, Yona; Morgan, Sarah E.; Ghosh, Preetam; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) have emerged as the primary toxic agents in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). Polymorphism observed within the aggregation end products of fibrils are known to arise due to microstructural differences among the oligomers. Diversity in aggregate morphology correlates with the differences in AD, cementing the idea that conformational strains of oligomers could be significant in phenotypic outcomes. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the ability of strains to faithfully propagate their structure. Here we report fibril propagation of an Aβ42 dodecamer called large fatty acid-derived oligomers (LFAOs). The LFAO oligomeric strain selectively induces acute cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in neonatally-injected transgenic CRND8 mice. Propagation in-vitro occurs as a three-step process involving the association of LFAO units. LFAO-seeded fibrils possess distinct morphology made of repeating LFAO units that could be regenerated upon sonication. Overall, these data bring forth an important mechanistic perspective into strain-specific propagation of oligomers that has remained elusive thus far. PMID:28098204

  4. Strain-specific morphologies of yeast prion amyloid fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; King, Chih-Yen; Wall, Joseph; Simon, Martha; Caspar, Donald L. D.

    2005-01-01

    Mass per length (mpl) measurements on single amyloid fibrils that specifically propagate the [VH], [VK], and [VL] strains of the yeast prion [PSI] reveal unanticipated differences in their structures. Many fibrils have ≈1.0 prion molecule per 4.7-Å cross-β repeat period, which is consistent with a self-replicating model built by parallel β-sheet hydrogen-bonding of like prion peptide segments, but other fibrils are definitely heavier. The predominantly straight fibrils of the dominant [VH] strain have a bimodal mpl distribution, corresponding to components with ≈1.0 and 1.2 prions per repeat. Fibrils of the weaker [VK] strain, which are almost all wavy, have a monodisperse mpl distribution with a mean of 1.15 prions per repeat. The recessive [VL] strain sample has ≈1.05 prions per repeat in single fibrils and includes ≈10% double fibrils, which are rare in the duplicate [VH] and [VK] samples. All of these samples were assembled from purified recombinant Sup35 prion protein by seeded growth on nuclei extracted from yeast bearing the three [PSI] strains. Infectious and noninfectious spontaneously assembled fibrils of the recombinant prion protein also display different heterogeneous morphologies. The strain-specific morphological differences we have observed directly confirm the structural prediction of the protein-only prion theory but do not have an obvious molecular explanation. PMID:16006506

  5. H5N1 strain-specific hemagglutinin CD4+ T cell epitopes restricted by HLA DR4.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junbao; Gebe, John A; Huston, Laurie; James, Eddie; Tan, Venus; Yue, Betty B; Nepom, Gerald T; Kwok, William W

    2009-06-12

    CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the viral immunity, and as such identification of unique strain-specific HLA class II restricted epitopes is essential for monitoring cellular strain-specific viral immunity. Using Tetramer-Guided Epitope Mapping technique, we identified HLA-DR0401 restricted HA epitopes that are strain-specific to H5N1 virion. Two immunodominant epitopes H5HA(441-460) and H5HA(57-76) were identified from in vitro stimulated human PBMC. Both epitopes elicit strong cellular immune responses when HLA-DR0401 transgenic mice are immunized with H5N1 subvirion indicating in vivo naturally processed immunodominant epitopes. The H5HA(57-76) epitope is unique for the H5N1 strain but conserved among all H5N1 clades recommended for vaccine development by World Health Organization. The unique H5HA(57-76) response was uncommon in unexposed individuals and only observed in the naïve T cell subset. Thus, H5N1 strain-specific H5HA(57-76) immunogenic epitope represents a unique marker for monitoring the efficacy of vaccination or as a candidate vaccine peptide.

  6. H5N1 Strain-Specific Hemagglutinin CD4+ T cell Epitopes Restricted by HLA DR4

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junbao; Gebe, John A.; Huston, Laurie; James, Eddie; Tan, Venus; Yue, Betty B.; Nepom, Gerald T.; Kwok, William W.

    2009-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the viral immunity, and as such identification of unique strain specific HLA class II restricted epitopes is essential for monitoring cellular strain specific viral immunity. Using Tetramer-Guided Epitope Mapping technique, we identified HLA-DR0401 restricted HA epitopes that are strain-specific to H5N1 virion. Two immunodominant epitopes H5HA441-460 and H5HA57-76 were identified from in vitro stimulated human PBMC. Both epitopes elicit strong cellular immune responses when HLA-DR0401 transgenic mice are immunized with H5N1 subvirion indicating in vivo naturally processed immunodominant epitopes. The H5HA57-76 epitope is unique for the H5N1 strain but conserved among all H5N1 clades recommended for vaccine development by World Health Organization. The unique H5HA57-76 response was uncommon in unexposed individuals and only observed in the naïve T cell subset. Thus, H5N1 strain-specific H5HA57-76 immunogenic epitope represents a unique marker for monitoring the efficacy of vaccination or as a candidate vaccine peptide. PMID:19446935

  7. Multiple diagnostic techniques identify previously vaccinated individuals with protective immunity against monkeypox.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W; Carter, Shirley V; Amanna, Ian; Hansen, Scott G; Strelow, Lisa I; Wong, Scott W; Yoshihara, Paul; Hanifin, Jon M; Slifka, Mark K

    2005-09-01

    Approximately 50% of the US population received smallpox vaccinations before routine immunization ceased in 1972 for civilians and in 1990 for military personnel. Several studies have shown long-term immunity after smallpox vaccination, but skepticism remains as to whether this will translate into full protection against the onset of orthopoxvirus-induced disease. The US monkeypox outbreak of 2003 provided the opportunity to examine this issue. Using independent and internally validated diagnostic approaches with >or=95% sensitivity and >or=90% specificity for detecting clinical monkeypox infection, we identified three previously unreported cases of monkeypox in preimmune individuals at 13, 29 and 48 years after smallpox vaccination. These individuals were unaware that they had been infected because they were spared any recognizable disease symptoms. Together, this shows that the US monkeypox outbreak was larger than previously realized and, more importantly, shows that cross-protective antiviral immunity against West African monkeypox can potentially be maintained for decades after smallpox vaccination.

  8. Use of diagnostic bones to identify and estimate original lengths of ingested prey fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansel, H.C.; Duke, S.D.; Lofy, P.T.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    We examined and measured cleithra, dentaries, opercles, and pharyngeal arches – bones found to persist during digestion of most prey fish – to identify 24 prey fish species and back-calculate their original fork length. Eighteen of the 24 species examined could be easily distinguished; however, for certain congenerics, identification was neither consistent nor reliable for all bones within the size ranges examined. Relations between bone length and fish length were linear for 14 species for which the sample sizes were adequate (N > 30); coefficients of determination (r 2) ranged from 0.79 to 0.99. Diagnostic characteristics and measurements of these bones provided reliable identification of genera and species and estimates of original fork lengths of partly digested prey fish from three predators. This method, compared with that of examining only prey fish in a measurable condition, greatly increased the amount of dietary information available from gut analysis.

  9. Strain-Specific Proteogenomics Accelerates Discovery of Natural Products Via Their Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Jessica C.; Goering, Anthony W.; Doroghazi, James R.; Metcalf, William W.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of proteomics for direct detection of expressed pathways producing natural products has yielded many new compounds, even when used in a screening mode without a bacterial genome sequence available. Here we quantify the advantages of having draft DNA-sequence available for strain-specific proteomics using the latest in ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) for both proteins and the small molecules they generate. Using the draft sequence of Streptomyces lilacinus NRRL B-1968, we show a >10-fold increase in the number of peptide identifications vs. using publicly available databases. Detected in this strain were six expressed gene clusters with varying homology to those known. To date, we have identified three of these clusters as encoding for the production of griseobactin (known), rakicidin D (an orphan NRPS/PKS hybrid cluster), and a putative thr and DHB-containing siderophore produced by a new non-ribosomal peptide sythetase gene cluster. The remaining three clusters show lower homology to those known, and likely encode enzymes for production of novel compounds. Using an interpreted strain-specific DNA sequence enables deep proteomics for the detection of multiple pathways and their encoded natural products in a single cultured bacterium. PMID:24242000

  10. Using the Astronomy Diagnostic Test to Identify Teaching Strategies that Improve Conceptual Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, G. L.; Hufnagel, B.

    2002-05-01

    The Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) was developed in order to assess learning in undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but an underlying goal was to use the information supplied by the ADT to improve student learning. The ADT National Project collected pre-course (5346 students) and post-course (3842 students) test results from 97 classes at a variety of institutions in 31 states. These results have been compiled in an extensive database. The overall gain between pre-course and post-course average scores amounts to a disappointing 15%, but significant gains are identifiable for specific questions in individual classes. Results from the ADT National Project database will be presented for specific questions with minimal gains. Astronomy education researchers in Maryland are beginning to use ADT results to identify minimal gain concepts and then to modify and assess instructional strategies with the goal of improving student learning. A comparison will be made between ADT pre-course and post-course responses for several classes in which different teaching methods were used. Successful teaching strategies applicable in a variety of class settings will be offered and instructors are encouraged to become involved in assessing results in their own introductory astronomy classes. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through grant REC-0089239.

  11. Non-invasive urinary metabolomic profiling identifies diagnostic and prognostic markers in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mathé, Ewy A.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Haznadar, Majda; Manna, Soumen K.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Bowman, Elise D.; Shields, Peter G.; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Smith, Philip B.; Anami, Katsuhiro; Kazandjian, Dickran G.; Hatzakis, Emmanuel; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, yet there is currently a lack of diagnostic noninvasive biomarkers that could guide treatment decisions. Small molecules (<1500 Da) were measured in urine collected from 469 lung cancer patients and 536 population controls using unbiased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clinical putative diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers were validated by quantitation and normalized to creatinine levels at two different time points and further validated in an independent sample set, which comprises 80 cases and 78 population controls, with similar demographic and clinical characteristics when compared to the training set. Creatine riboside (IUPAC name: 2-{2-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-oxolan-2-yl]-1-methylcarbamimidamido}acetic acid), a novel molecule identified in this study, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), were each significantly (P <0.00001) elevated in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and associated with worse prognosis (hazard ratio (HR) =1.81 [P =0.0002], and 1.54 [P =0.025], respectively). Creatine riboside was the strongest classifier of lung cancer status in all and stage I–II cases, important for early detection, and also associated with worse prognosis in stage I–II lung cancer (HR =1.71, P =0.048). All measurements were highly reproducible with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.82 – 0.99. Both metabolites were significantly (P <0.03) enriched in tumor tissue compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue (N =48), thus revealing their direct association with tumor metabolism. Creatine riboside and NANA may be robust urinary clinical metabolomic markers that are elevated in tumor tissue and associated with early lung cancer diagnosis and worse prognosis. PMID:24736543

  12. On the processes generating latitudinal richness gradients: identifying diagnostic patterns and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Stegen, James C.

    2014-12-02

    Many processes have been put forward to explain the latitudinal gradient in species richness. Here, we use a simulation model to examine four of the most common hypotheses and identify patterns that might be diagnostic of those four hypotheses. The hypotheses examined include (1) tropical niche conservatism, or the idea that the tropics are more diverse because a tropical clade origin has allowed more time for diversification in the tropics and has resulted in few species adapted to extra-tropical climates. (2) The productivity, or energetic constraints, hypothesis suggests that species richness is limited by the amount of biologically available energy in a region. (3) The tropical stability hypothesis argues that major climatic fluctuations and glacial cycles in extratropical regions have led to greater extinction rates and less opportunity for specialization relative to the tropics. (4) Finally, the speciation rates hypothesis suggests that the latitudinal richness gradient arises from a parallel gradient in rates of speciation. We found that tropical niche conservatism can be distinguished from the other three scenarios by phylogenies which are more balanced than expected, no relationship between mean root distance and richness across regions, and a homogeneous rate of speciation across clades and through time. The energy gradient, speciation gradient, and disturbance gradient scenarios all exhibited phylogenies which were more imbalanced than expected, showed a negative relationship between mean root distance and richness, and diversity-dependence of speciation rate estimates through time. Using Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures on the simulated phylogenies, we found that the relationship between speciation rates and latitude could distinguish among these three scenarios. We emphasize the importance of considering multiple hypotheses and focusing on diagnostic predictions instead of predictions that are consistent with more than one hypothesis.

  13. A Novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab Rapid Diagnostic Test Using a Differential Diagnostic Marker Identified by Network Biology.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Jin; Lee, Jihoo; Lee, Hyun Jae; Jo, Hyun-Young; Sinniah, Mangalam; Kim, Hak-Yong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can detect anti-malaria antibodies in human blood. As they can detect parasite infection at the low parasite density, they are useful in endemic areas where light infection and/or re-infection of parasites are common. Thus, malaria antibody tests can be used for screening bloods in blood banks to prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM), an emerging problem in malaria endemic areas. However, only a few malaria antibody tests are available in the microwell-based assay format and these are not suitable for field application. A novel malaria antibody (Ab)-based RDT using a differential diagnostic marker for falciparum and vivax malaria was developed as a suitable high-throughput assay that is sensitive and practical for blood screening. The marker, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) was discovered by generation of a Plasmodium-specific network and the hierarchical organization of modularity in the network. Clinical evaluation revealed that the novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT shows improved sensitivity (98%) and specificity (99.7%) compared with the performance of a commercial kit, SD BioLine Malaria P.f/P.v (95.1% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity). The novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT has potential for use as a cost-effective blood-screening tool for malaria and in turn, reduces TTM risk in endemic areas.

  14. A Novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab Rapid Diagnostic Test Using a Differential Diagnostic Marker Identified by Network Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Jin; Lee, Jihoo; Lee, Hyun Jae; Jo, Hyun-Young; Sinniah, Mangalam; Kim, Hak-Yong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can detect anti-malaria antibodies in human blood. As they can detect parasite infection at the low parasite density, they are useful in endemic areas where light infection and/or re-infection of parasites are common. Thus, malaria antibody tests can be used for screening bloods in blood banks to prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM), an emerging problem in malaria endemic areas. However, only a few malaria antibody tests are available in the microwell-based assay format and these are not suitable for field application. A novel malaria antibody (Ab)-based RDT using a differential diagnostic marker for falciparum and vivax malaria was developed as a suitable high-throughput assay that is sensitive and practical for blood screening. The marker, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) was discovered by generation of a Plasmodium-specific network and the hierarchical organization of modularity in the network. Clinical evaluation revealed that the novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT shows improved sensitivity (98%) and specificity (99.7%) compared with the performance of a commercial kit, SD BioLine Malaria P.f/P.v (95.1% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity). The novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT has potential for use as a cost-effective blood-screening tool for malaria and in turn, reduces TTM risk in endemic areas. PMID:27313496

  15. [Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Toledano-Sierra, Pilar; Arriola-Hernández, Maite; Orueta-Sánchez, Ramón

    2015-01-19

    Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics.

  16. High-Resolution Transcriptome Maps Reveal Strain-Specific Regulatory Features of Multiple Campylobacter jejuni Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Förstner, Konrad U.; Heidrich, Nadja; Reinhardt, Richard; Nieselt, Kay; Sharma, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is currently the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Comparison of multiple Campylobacter strains revealed a high genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, little is known about differences in transcriptome organization, gene expression, and small RNA (sRNA) repertoires. Here we present the first comparative primary transcriptome analysis based on the differential RNA–seq (dRNA–seq) of four C. jejuni isolates. Our approach includes a novel, generic method for the automated annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS), which allowed us to provide genome-wide promoter maps in the analyzed strains. These global TSS maps are refined through the integration of a SuperGenome approach that allows for a comparative TSS annotation by mapping RNA–seq data of multiple strains into a common coordinate system derived from a whole-genome alignment. Considering the steadily increasing amount of RNA–seq studies, our automated TSS annotation will not only facilitate transcriptome annotation for a wider range of pro- and eukaryotes but can also be adapted for the analysis among different growth or stress conditions. Our comparative dRNA–seq analysis revealed conservation of most TSS, but also single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP) in promoter regions, which lead to strain-specific transcriptional output. Furthermore, we identified strain-specific sRNA repertoires that could contribute to differential gene regulation among strains. In addition, we identified a novel minimal CRISPR-system in Campylobacter of the type-II CRISPR subtype, which relies on the host factor RNase III and a trans-encoded sRNA for maturation of crRNAs. This minimal system of Campylobacter, which seems active in only some strains, employs a unique maturation pathway, since the crRNAs are transcribed from individual promoters in the upstream repeats and thereby minimize the requirements for the maturation machinery. Overall, our study provides new insights into

  17. A search strategy to identify studies on the prognosis of work disability: a diagnostic test framework

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Rob; Verbeek, Jos A H M; Faber, Babs; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hoving, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Searching the medical literature for evidence on prognosis is an important aspect of evidence-based disability evaluation. To facilitate this, we aimed to develop and evaluate a comprehensive and efficient search strategy in PubMed, to be used by either researchers or practitioners and that will identify articles on the prognosis of work disability. Methods We used a diagnostic test analytic framework. First, we created a reference set of 225 articles on the prognosis of work disability by screening a total of 65 692 titles and abstracts from10 journals in the period 2000–2009. Included studies had a minimum follow-up of 6 months, participants in the age of 18–64 with a minimum sick leave of 4 weeks or longer or having serious activity limitations in 50% of the cases and outcome measures that reflect impairments, activity limitations or participation restrictions. Using text mining methods, we extracted search terms from the reference set and, according to sensitivity and relative frequency, we combined these into search strings. Results Both the research and the practice search filter outperformed existing filters in occupational health, all combined with the Yale-prognostic filter. The Work Disability Prognosis filter for Research showed a comprehensiveness of 90% (95% CI 86 to 94) and efficiency expressed more user-friendly as Number Needed to Read=20 (95% CI 17 to 34). Conclusions The Work Disability Prognosis filter will help practitioners and researchers who want to find prognostic evidence in the area of work disability evaluation. However, further refining of this filter is possible and needed, especially for the practitioner for whom efficiency is especially important. PMID:25991444

  18. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives.

  19. Bayesian sample size for diagnostic test studies in the absence of a gold standard: Comparing identifiable with non-identifiable models.

    PubMed

    Dendukuri, Nandini; Bélisle, Patrick; Joseph, Lawrence

    2010-11-20

    Diagnostic tests rarely provide perfect results. The misclassification induced by imperfect sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests must be accounted for when planning prevalence studies or investigations into properties of new tests. The previous work has shown that applying a single imperfect test to estimate prevalence can often result in very large sample size requirements, and that sometimes even an infinite sample size is insufficient for precise estimation because the problem is non-identifiable. Adding a second test can sometimes reduce the sample size substantially, but infinite sample sizes can still occur as the problem remains non-identifiable. We investigate the further improvement possible when three diagnostic tests are to be applied. We first develop methods required for studies when three conditionally independent tests are available, using different Bayesian criteria. We then apply these criteria to prototypic scenarios, showing that large sample size reductions can occur compared to when only one or two tests are used. As the problem is now identifiable, infinite sample sizes cannot occur except in pathological situations. Finally, we relax the conditional independence assumption, demonstrating in this once again non-identifiable situation that sample sizes may substantially grow and possibly be infinite. We apply our methods to the planning of two infectious disease studies, the first designed to estimate the prevalence of Strongyloides infection, and the second relating to estimating the sensitivity of a new test for tuberculosis transmission. The much smaller sample sizes that are typically required when three as compared to one or two tests are used should encourage researchers to plan their studies using more than two diagnostic tests whenever possible. User-friendly software is available for both design and analysis stages greatly facilitating the use of these methods.

  20. Genetic assessment of strain-specific sources of lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Kevin S.; Scribner, Kim T.; Bennett, Kristine R.; Garzel, Laura M.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been extirpated from nearly all their historical habitats across the Great Lakes. Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout populations in U.S. waters have emphasized the stocking of coded-wire-tagged juveniles from six hatchery strains (Seneca Lake, Lewis Lake, Green Lake, Apostle Islands, Isle Royale, and Marquette) into vacant habitats. Strain-specific stocking success has historically been based on estimates of the survival and catch rates of coded-wire-tagged adults returning to spawning sites. However, traditional marking methods and estimates of relative strain abundance provide no means of assessing strain fitness (i.e., the realized contributions to natural recruitment) except by assuming that young-of-the-year production is proportional to adult spawner abundance. We used microsatellite genetic data collected from six hatchery strains with likelihood-based individual assignment tests (IA) and mixed-stock analysis (MSA) to identify the strain composition of young of the year recruited each year. We show that strain classifications based on IA and MSA were concordant and that the accuracy of both methods varied based on strain composition. Analyses of young-of-the-year lake trout samples from Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) and Six Fathom Bank (Lake Huron) revealed that strain contributions differed significantly from estimates of the strain composition of adults returning to spawning reefs. The Seneca Lake strain contributed the majority of juveniles produced on Six Fathom Bank and more young of the year than expected within Little Traverse Bay. Microsatellite markers provided a method for accurately classifying the lake trout hatchery strains used for restoration efforts in the Great Lakes and for assessment of strain-specific reproductive success.

  1. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  2. Strain-specific differentiation of lactococci in mixed starter culture populations using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-derived probes.

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, K; Batt, C A

    1997-01-01

    A hydrophobic grid membrane filtration (HGMF) colony hybridization assay was developed that allows strain-specific differentiation of defined bacterial populations. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique was used to identify potential signature nucleic acid sequences unique to each member of a commercial cheese starter culture blend. The blend consisted of two closely related Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains, 160 and 331, and one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain, 210. Three RAPD primers (OPX 1, OPX 12, and OPX 15) generated a total of 32 products from these isolates, 20 of which were potential strain-specific markers. Southern hybridization analyses revealed, that the RAPD-generated signature sequences OPX15-0.95 and a 0.36-kb HaeIII fragment of OPX1-1.0b were specific for strains 331 and 210, respectively, within the context of the test starter culture blend. These strain-specific probes were used in a HGMF colony hybridization assay. Colony lysis, hybridization, and nonradioactive detection parameters were optimized to allow specific differentiation and quantitation of the target strains in the mixed starter culture population. When the 210 and 331 probes were tested at their optimal hybridization temperatures against single cultures, they detected 100% of the target strain CFUs, without cross-reactivity to the other strains. The probes for strains 210 and 331 also successfully detected their targets in blended cultures even with a high background of the other two strains. PMID:9212417

  3. Strain-specific differentiation of lactococci in mixed starter culture populations using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-derived probes.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, K; Batt, C A

    1997-07-01

    A hydrophobic grid membrane filtration (HGMF) colony hybridization assay was developed that allows strain-specific differentiation of defined bacterial populations. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique was used to identify potential signature nucleic acid sequences unique to each member of a commercial cheese starter culture blend. The blend consisted of two closely related Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains, 160 and 331, and one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain, 210. Three RAPD primers (OPX 1, OPX 12, and OPX 15) generated a total of 32 products from these isolates, 20 of which were potential strain-specific markers. Southern hybridization analyses revealed, that the RAPD-generated signature sequences OPX15-0.95 and a 0.36-kb HaeIII fragment of OPX1-1.0b were specific for strains 331 and 210, respectively, within the context of the test starter culture blend. These strain-specific probes were used in a HGMF colony hybridization assay. Colony lysis, hybridization, and nonradioactive detection parameters were optimized to allow specific differentiation and quantitation of the target strains in the mixed starter culture population. When the 210 and 331 probes were tested at their optimal hybridization temperatures against single cultures, they detected 100% of the target strain CFUs, without cross-reactivity to the other strains. The probes for strains 210 and 331 also successfully detected their targets in blended cultures even with a high background of the other two strains.

  4. Identifying and Correcting Potential Sources of Experimental Error in HBT-EP Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, Daniel; Royce James, Lcdr; Mauel, Michael; Mauer, David; Levesque, Jeffrey; Navratil, Gerald; Rivera, Nicholas

    2011-10-01

    Successful modeling and implementation of diagnostic and support equipment must be carefully considered in order to minimize external interferences and experimental error. Several approaches to minimize diagnostic errors have been implemented at the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) including re-cabling diagnostics to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI), updating the HBT-EP ignitron Spice model to ensure accurate pulsed-power simulations, and determining non-ideal parameters of a transformer component in a proposed bias-probe experiment. Progress on recabling using twisted-pair wire for sensors adjacent to the chamber to reduce EMI; the design of the new Spice ignitron to replace the 1990 legacy model; plus results of a quantitative frequency-dependence analysis of a three-phase, step-down transformer recapitalized as a one-phase, step-up transformer consisting of a series of cascaded windings; are among the efforts to reduce systematic error during HBT-EP operations, that will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY11 and U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  5. The use of Diagnostic Imaging for Identifying Abnormal Gas Accumulations in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Sophie; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results. PMID:22685439

  6. The use of Diagnostic Imaging for Identifying Abnormal Gas Accumulations in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sophie; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results.

  7. Novel diagnostic and prognostic classifiers for prostate cancer identified by genome-wide microRNA profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Helle; Thomsen, Anni R.; Haldrup, Christa; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Høyer, Søren; Borre, Michael; Mouritzen, Peter; Ørntoft, Torben F.; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the diagnostic and prognostic biomarker potential of miRNAs in prostate cancer (PC). Results We identified several new deregulated miRNAs between non-malignant (NM) and PC tissue samples and between more/less aggressive PC subgroups. We also developed and validated a novel 13-miRNA diagnostic classifier with high sensitivity and specificity for PC. Finally, we trained a new 3-miRNA prognostic classifier (miR-185-5p+miR-221-3p+miR-326) that predicted time to biochemical recurrence (BCR) independently of routine clinicopathological variables in a training radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort (n = 126) as well as in two independent validation cohorts (n = 110 and n = 99). Experimental Design After RT-qPCR-based profiling of 752 miRNAs in 13 NM and 134 PC tissue samples (cohort 1), we selected 93 top candidate diagnostic/prognostic miRNAs for validation in two independent patient sets (cohort 2: 19 NM and 138 PC; cohort 3: 28 NM and 113 PC samples). Diagnostic potential was assessed by ROC curve analysis and prognostic potential by Kaplan-Meier, uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. BCR after RP was used as endpoint. Conclusions This is the first report of a miRNA signature with significant independent prognostic value demonstrated in three PC patient cohorts. PMID:27120795

  8. Diagnostic performance of core needle biopsy in identifying breast phyllodes tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Xiang-Jie; Yang, Zhao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Background A retrospective analysis of diagnoses was performed in patients with phyllodes tumors of the breast (PTB) who received preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) and had breast surgery at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 1, 2002 to April 1, 2013. The resulting data allowed us to compare the accordance between CNB and excision diagnoses of PTB patients and evaluate the accuracy of CNB in preoperative diagnosis. Methods Data from 128 patients with PTB who had undergone preoperative CNB and breast surgery were retrospectively analyzed. We reviewed the medical history, clinical follow-up data, and CNB diagnostic data. A diagnostic test was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CNB in diagnosing benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors. Results The accuracy of CNB for diagnosing PTB was 13.3% (17/128). Of the remaining patients, 98 (75.5% of the PTB patients) were diagnosed with fibroadenoma or fibroepithelial lesions. The sensitivity of CNB at diagnosing benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors were 4.9% (2/41), 4.2% (3/71), and 25.0% (4/16), respectively, whereas the corresponding specificity were 92.0%, 98.2%, and 100%, respectively. Some clinical features, such as large tumor size, rapid growth, or surgical history of fibroadenomas, were indicative of an increased possibility of PTB. Conclusions CNB provides a pathological basis for the preoperative diagnosis of PTB, but it has a poor accuracy and offers limited guidance for surgical decisions. Considering CNB along with multiple histologic features may improve the ability to accurately diagnose PTB. An integrated assessment using CNBs in combination with clinical data and imaging features is suggested as a reliable strategy to assist PTB diagnosis. PMID:28066593

  9. Diagnostic efficiency of several methods of identifying socially rejected children and effect of participation rate on classification accuracy.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M; Johnson, Jason

    2011-10-01

    Social rejection is associated with a wide variety of negative outcomes. Early identification of social rejection and intervention to minimize its negative impact is thus important. However, sociometric methods, which are considered high in validity for identifying socially rejected children, are frequently not used because of (a) procedural challenges, (b) community apprehension, and (c) sensitivity to missing data. In a sample of 316 students in grades K through 8, we used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses to compare the diagnostic efficiency of several methods for identifying socially rejected children. When not using least-liked nominations, (a) most-liked nominations yielded the greatest diagnostic efficiency (AUC=.96), (b) peer ratings were more efficient (AUC=.84 to .99) than teacher ratings (AUC=.74 to .81), and (c) teacher report of social status was more efficient (AUC=.81) than scores from teacher behavior rating scales (AUC=.74 to .75). We also examined the effects of nominator non-participation on diagnostic efficiency. At participation as low as 50%, classification of sociometric rejection (i.e., being rejected or not rejected) was quite accurate (κ=.63 to .77). In contrast, at participation as high as 70%, classification of sociometric status (i.e., popular, average, unclassified, neglected, controversial, or rejected) was significantly less accurate (κ=.50 to .59).

  10. Proteome Screening of Pleural Effusions Identifies Galectin 1 as a Diagnostic Biomarker and Highlights Several Prognostic Biomarkers for Malignant Mesothelioma*

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Filip; Johansson, Henrik J.; Forshed, Jenny; Arslan, Sertaç; Metintas, Muzaffer; Dobra, Katalin; Lehtiö, Janne; Hjerpe, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive asbestos-induced cancer, and affected patients have a median survival of approximately one year after diagnosis. It is often difficult to reach a conclusive diagnosis, and ancillary measurements of soluble biomarkers could increase diagnostic accuracy. Unfortunately, few soluble mesothelioma biomarkers are suitable for clinical application. Here we screened the effusion proteomes of mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma patients to identify novel soluble mesothelioma biomarkers. We performed quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics using isobaric tags for quantification and used narrow-range immobilized pH gradient/high-resolution isoelectric focusing (pH 4–4.25) prior to analysis by means of nano liquid chromatography coupled to MS/MS. More than 1,300 proteins were identified in pleural effusions from patients with malignant mesothelioma (n = 6), lung adenocarcinoma (n = 6), or benign mesotheliosis (n = 7). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000531. The identified proteins included a set of known mesothelioma markers and proteins that regulate hallmarks of cancer such as invasion, angiogenesis, and immune evasion, plus several new candidate proteins. Seven candidates (aldo-keto reductase 1B10, apolipoprotein C-I, galectin 1, myosin-VIIb, superoxide dismutase 2, tenascin C, and thrombospondin 1) were validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in a larger group of patients with mesothelioma (n = 37) or metastatic carcinomas (n = 25) and in effusions from patients with benign, reactive conditions (n = 16). Galectin 1 was identified as overexpressed in effusions from lung adenocarcinoma relative to mesothelioma and was validated as an excellent predictor for metastatic carcinomas against malignant mesothelioma. Galectin 1, aldo-keto reductase 1B10, and apolipoprotein C-I were all identified as potential prognostic biomarkers for malignant mesothelioma. This analysis of the effusion proteome

  11. Identifying sharks with DNA barcodes: assessing the utility of a nucleotide diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eugene H-K; Shivji, Mahmood S; Hanner, Robert H

    2009-05-01

    Shark fisheries worldwide are mostly unmanaged, but the burgeoning shark fin industry in the last few decades has made monitoring catch and trade of these animals critical. As a tool for molecular species identification, DNA barcoding offers significant potential. However, the genetic distance-based approach towards species identification employed by the Barcode of Life Data Systems may oftentimes lack the specificity needed for regulatory or legal applications that require unambiguous identification results. This is because such specificity is not typically realized by anything less than a 100% match of the query sequence to an entry in the reference database using genetic distance. Although various divergence thresholds have been proposed to define acceptable levels of intraspecific variation, enough exceptions exist to cast reasonable doubt on many less than exact matches using a distance-based approach for the identification of unknowns. An alternative approach relies on the identification of discrete molecular characters that can be used to unambiguously diagnose species. The objective of this study was to assess the performance differences between these competing approaches by examining more than 1000 DNA barcodes representing nearly 20% of all known elasmobranch species. Our results demonstrate that a character-based, nucleotide diagnostic (ND) approach to barcode identification is feasible and also provides novel insights into the structure of haplotype diversity among closely related species of sharks. Considerations for the use of NDs in applied fields are also explored.

  12. Identifying Strategy Use in Category Learning Tasks: A Case for More Diagnostic Data and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkin, Chris; Newell, Ben R.; Kalish, Mike; Dunn, John C.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of conclusions about the adoption of different categorization strategies--and their implications for theories about the cognitive and neural bases of category learning--depend heavily on the techniques for identifying strategy use. We examine performance in an often-used "information-integration" category structure and…

  13. Accuracy of Conventional Diagnostic Methods for Identifying Structural Changes in Patients with Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dakaj, Nazim; Kruja, Jera; Jashari, Fisnik; Boshnjaku, Dren; Shatri, Nexhat; Zeqiraj, Kamber

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal firing of nerve impulses in the brain. Aim: This study aims to investigate the frequency of appearance of pathological changes in conventional examination methods (electroencephalography–EEG, brain computerized tomography -CT or brain magnetic resonance imaging – MRI) in patients with epilepsy, and relationship between clinical manifestations and localization of changes in CT or MRI. Methods: In this study we have included 110 patients with focal epilepsy who fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of 557 initially diagnosed patients. Detailed clinical examination together with brain imaging (CT and MRI) and electroencephalography examination was performed. We have evaluated the accuracy of each diagnostic method to localize the epileptic focus. Diagnosis of epilepsy was determined by the ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy) criteria of the year 1989, and classification of epileptic seizures was made according to the ILAE classification 2010. Results: Electroencephalography presented changes in 60.9% of patients; brain CT in 42.1%, and MRI in 78% of the patients. The results of our study showed that clinical manifestations were not always conveyed with pathological changes in conventional examining methods performed. Of the total of 79 patients with changes in imaging (8 with changes in CT and 71 in MRI), 79.7% presented a clinical picture compatible with the region in which morphological changes were found, while in 20.3% of patients the presented morphological changes were not aligned with the clinical picture. Conclusion: In patients with epilepsy, conventional examination methods do not always find pathological changes, while clinical manifestations of epilepsy did not always coincide with the location of changes in imaging. Further studies are needed to see if there is clear border between focal and generalized epilepsy. PMID:28077892

  14. Identifying diagnostic endocrine markers and changes in endometrial gene expressions during pyometra in cats.

    PubMed

    Jursza-Piotrowska, Ewelina; Siemieniuch, Marta J

    2016-06-01

    Pyometra is a significant reproductive problem in cats. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the immunological profile of queens by studying plasma concentrations of metabolites of prostacyclin I2 (6-keto-PGF1α), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4); and (ii) the gene transcription profiles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 (TLR2/4), PGE2-synthase (PGES), PGF2α-synthase (PGFS) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in the feline endometrium throughout the estrous cycle, after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment and during pyometra. The concentration of plasma 6-keto-PGF1α in pyometra was increased in comparison to other groups studied (p<0.01). Endometrial mRNA coding for TLR2 was up-regulated in cats suffering from pyometra compared to other groups (p<0.001). Expression of mRNA for TLR4 was up-regulated in endometria originating from MPA-treated cats, pyometra and late diestrus cats, compared with tissues from cats during estrus and anestrus (p<0.05). As expected, endometrial mRNA for PTGS2 was up-regulated only in pyometra, compared with other groups (p<0.001). Similarly, endometrial mRNA for PGFS was up-regulated in pyometra, compared with endometria from anestrus, late diestrus and from MPA-treated cats (p<0.05), or from cats during estrus (p<0.01). Overall, these results indicate that plasma concentrations of LTB4 and LTC4 are not useful diagnostic markers since they were not increased in queens with pyometra, in contrast to 6-keto-PGF1α. In addition, treatment with MPA evoked neither endocrine nor molecular changes in endometria of cats.

  15. Knowledge-Guided Bioinformatics Model for Identifying Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic MicroRNA Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Lin, Yuxin; Sun, Zhandong; Yuan, Xuye; Chen, Luonan; Shen, Bairong

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopmental disease with a high incidence and effective biomarkers are urgently needed for its diagnosis. A few previous studies have reported the detection of miRNA biomarkers for autism diagnosis, especially those based on bioinformatics approaches. In this study, we developed a knowledge-guided bioinformatics model for identifying autism miRNA biomarkers. We downloaded gene expression microarray data from the GEO Database and extracted genes with expression levels that differed in ASD and the controls. We then constructed an autism-specific miRNA–mRNA network and inferred candidate autism biomarker miRNAs based on their regulatory modes and functions. We defined a novel parameter called the autism gene percentage as autism-specific knowledge to further facilitate the identification of autism-specific biomarker miRNAs. Finally, 11 miRNAs were screened as putative autism biomarkers, where eight miRNAs (72.7%) were significantly dysregulated in ASD samples according to previous reports. Functional enrichment results indicated that the targets of the identified miRNAs were enriched in autism-associated pathways, such as Wnt signaling (in KEGG and IPA), cell cycle (in KEGG), and glioblastoma multiforme signaling (in IPA), thereby supporting the predictive power of our model. PMID:28000768

  16. Identifying strategy use in category learning tasks: a case for more diagnostic data and models.

    PubMed

    Donkin, Chris; Newell, Ben R; Kalish, Mike; Dunn, John C; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2015-07-01

    The strength of conclusions about the adoption of different categorization strategies-and their implications for theories about the cognitive and neural bases of category learning-depend heavily on the techniques for identifying strategy use. We examine performance in an often-used "information-integration" category structure and demonstrate that strategy identification is affected markedly by the range of models under consideration, the type of data collected, and model-selection techniques. We use a set of 27 potential models that represent alternative rule-based and information-integration categorization strategies. Our experimental paradigm includes the presentation of nonreinforced transfer stimuli that improve one's ability to discriminate among the predictions of alternative models. Our model-selection techniques incorporate uncertainty in the identification of individuals as either rule-based or information-integration strategy users. Based on this analysis we identify 48% of participants as unequivocally using an information-integration strategy. However, adopting the standard practice of using a restricted set of models, restricted data, and ignoring the degree of support for a particular strategy, we would typically conclude that 89% of participants used an information-integration strategy. We discuss the implications of potentially erroneous strategy identification for the security of conclusions about the categorization capabilities of various participant and patient groups.

  17. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry.

  18. Strain-specific innate immune signaling pathways determine malaria parasitemia dynamics and host mortality.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Tian, Linjie; Yu, Xiao; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Li, Jian; Wang, Mingjun; Yu, Weishi; Qi, Yanwei; Zeituni, Amir E; Nair, Sethu C; Crampton, Steve P; Orandle, Marlene S; Bolland, Silvia M; Qi, Chen-Feng; Long, Carole A; Myers, Timothy G; Coligan, John E; Wang, Rongfu; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2014-01-28

    Malaria infection triggers vigorous host immune responses; however, the parasite ligands, host receptors, and the signaling pathways responsible for these reactions remain unknown or controversial. Malaria parasites primarily reside within RBCs, thereby hiding themselves from direct contact and recognition by host immune cells. Host responses to malaria infection are very different from those elicited by bacterial and viral infections and the host receptors recognizing parasite ligands have been elusive. Here we investigated mouse genome-wide transcriptional responses to infections with two strains of Plasmodium yoelii (N67 and N67C) and discovered differences in innate response pathways corresponding to strain-specific disease phenotypes. Using in vitro RNAi-based gene knockdown and KO mice, we demonstrated that a strong type I IFN (IFN-I) response triggered by RNA polymerase III and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, not Toll-like receptors (TLRs), binding of parasite DNA/RNA contributed to a decline of parasitemia in N67-infected mice. We showed that conventional dendritic cells were the major sources of early IFN-I, and that surface expression of phosphatidylserine on infected RBCs might promote their phagocytic uptake, leading to the release of parasite ligands and the IFN-I response in N67 infection. In contrast, an elevated inflammatory response mediated by CD14/TLR and p38 signaling played a role in disease severity and early host death in N67C-infected mice. In addition to identifying cytosolic DNA/RNA sensors and signaling pathways previously unrecognized in malaria infection, our study demonstrates the importance of parasite genetic backgrounds in malaria pathology and provides important information for studying human malaria pathogenesis.

  19. Diagnostic difficulty identifying Apophysomyces trapeziformis septic arthritis in a patient with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Wiley A.; Joyce, Maria; Alley, Christopher; Woods, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection, but can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Apophysomyces is a mucormycetes species ubiquitous in nature, particularly in soil, decaying wood and other organic matter. Apophysomyces is known to cause cutaneous fungal infections, particularly after penetrating trauma. Septic arthritis is a rare clinical manifestation. Case presentation: We describe a case of Apophysomyces trapeziformis causing septic arthritis of the knee of a patient with multiple myeloma. He was treated multiple times for bacterial septic arthritis with minimal improvement. Surgical tissue specimens finally grew mucoraceous mould, and DNA sequencing and morphological assessment of spores identified the mould as A. trapeziformis. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and posaconazole, but ultimately required an above-the-knee amputation for definitive treatment. Conclusion: This case illustrates the need to evaluate for fungal infection in a persistent septic arthritis that is culture negative and refractory to empiric antibiotics, particularly in an immunocompromised individual. It also shows the importance of a thorough social history and adequate tissue specimens for culture. PMID:28348796

  20. A diagnostic protocol to identify water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Atzeni, Marcello; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Ferri, Nicola; Marchi, Enrico; Martucciello, Alessandra; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The use of live vaccine strain RB51 for vaccination of domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at risk of infection with Brucella abortus is permitted notwithstanding the plans for the eradication and only under strict veterinary control. The antibodies induced by RB51 vaccination are not detectable using conventional diagnostic techniques; therefore, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic tool able to discriminate vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The combination of a complement fixation test (CFT) with specific RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT) and a brucellin skin test has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic system to identify single cattle (Bos taurus) vaccinated with RB51. So far, no data are available in the international scientific literature regarding the use of this test association in water buffalo. For this reason the suitability of this test combination has been evaluated in a water buffalo herd. One hundred twenty-seven animals farmed in a herd of Salerno province (Campania, Southern Italy), in the context of a presumptive unauthorized use of RB51 vaccine were chosen for this study. All tested animals resulted negative to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for the detection of specific antibodies against Brucella field strains. Seventy-one animals (56%) developed RB51 antigen-specific CFT (RB51-CFT) antibodies against RB51 vaccine in a first sampling, while 104 animals (82%) gave positive result to a second serum sampling conducted 11 days after the intradermal inoculation of the RB51 brucellin. One hundred and seven animals (84%) showed a positive reaction to the RB51-CFT in at least 1 sampling, while 111 animals (87%) resulted positive to the RB51 brucellin skin test. Thus, analysing the results of the 3 testing in parallel, 119 animals (94%) were positive to at least 1 of the performed tests. The results suggest that the use in parallel of the RB51 brucellin skin test with RB51-CFT may represent a reliable

  1. Strain-Specific Changes in Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish Elicited by Cholinergic Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some studies have compared the baseline behavior of different strains of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio), but there is sparse information on strain-specific responses to chemical challenges. The following study examines both the basal activity and response to a pharmacological cha...

  2. Bioorthogonal labeling cell-surface proteins expressed in pancreatic cancer cells to identify potential diagnostic/therapeutic biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Haun, Randy S; Quick, Charles M; Siegel, Eric R; Raju, Ilangovan; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Tackett, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    To develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to specifically target pancreatic tumors, it is necessary to identify cell-surface proteins that may serve as potential tumor-specific targets. In this study we used an azido-labeled bioorthogonal chemical reporter to metabolically label N-linked glycoproteins on the surface of pancreatic cancer cell lines to identify potential targets that may be exploited for detection and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. Labeled glycoproteins were tagged with biotin using click chemistry, purified by streptavidin-coupled magnetic beads, separated by gel electrophoresis, and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). MS/MS analysis of peptides from 3 cell lines revealed 954 unique proteins enriched in the azido sugar samples relative to control sugar samples. A comparison of the proteins identified in each sample indicated 20% of these proteins were present in 2 cell lines (193 of 954) and 17 of the proteins were found in all 3 cell lines. Five of the 17 proteins identified in all 3 cell lines have not been previously reported to be expressed in pancreatic cancer; thus indicating that novel cell-surface proteins can be revealed through glycoprotein profiling. Western analysis of one of these glycoproteins, ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E), revealed it is expressed in 8 out of 8 pancreatic cancer cell lines examined. Further, immunohistochemical analysis of human pancreatic tissues indicates NT5E is significantly overexpressed in pancreatic tumors compared to normal pancreas. Thus, we have demonstrated that metabolic labeling with bioorthogonal chemical reporters can be used to selectively enrich and identify novel cell-surface glycoproteins expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. PMID:26176765

  3. Peripheral Blood Cell Gene Expression Diagnostic for Identifying Symptomatic Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients: Male and Female Specific Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Sunil M.; Novais, Marta; Whisenant, Thomas; Gelbart, Terri; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Coelho, Teresa; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Endomyocardial biopsies are typically amyloid positive when cardiomyopathy is suspected, but this disease manifestation is generally diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is often difficult because patients exhibit apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy, but have a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for an additional early diagnostic strategy for TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Methods and Findings: Global peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles from 263 tafamidis-treated and untreated V30M Familiar Amyloid Neuropathy patients, asymptomatic V30M carriers, and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls without TTR mutations were used to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic patients. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent, as well as male- and female-specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers. These signatures differentiated symptomatic patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers with >80% accuracy. There was a global downregulation of the eIF2 pathway and its associated genes in all symptomatic FAP patients. We also demonstrated that the molecular scores based on these signatures significantly trended toward normalized values in an independent cohort of 46 FAP patients after only 3 months of tafamidis treatment. Conclusions: This study identifies novel molecular signatures that differentiate symptomatic FAP patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers as well as affected males and females. We envision using this approach, initially in parallel with amyloid biopsies, to identify individuals who are asymptomatic gene carriers that may convert to FAP patients. Upon further validation

  4. Identifying Students' Mathematical Skills from a Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test Using an Iterative Technique to Minimise False Positives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, S.; Dix, A.

    2008-01-01

    There is anecdotal evidence that a significant number of students studying computing related courses at degree level have difficulty with sub-GCE mathematics. Testing of students' skills is often performed using diagnostic tests and a number of computer-based diagnostic tests exist, which work, essentially, by testing one specific diagnostic skill…

  5. Modular microfluidic system fabricated in thermoplastics for the strain-specific detection of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Witek, Makgorzata; Dharmasiri, Udara; Pingle, Maneesh R; Barany, Francis; Soper, Steven A

    2012-09-21

    The recent outbreaks of a lethal E. coli strain in Germany have aroused renewed interest in developing rapid, specific and accurate systems for detecting and characterizing bacterial pathogens in suspected contaminated food and/or water supplies. To address this need, we have designed, fabricated and tested an integrated modular-based microfluidic system and the accompanying assay for the strain-specific identification of bacterial pathogens. The system can carry out the entire molecular processing pipeline in a single disposable fluidic cartridge and detect single nucleotide variations in selected genes to allow for the identification of the bacterial species, even its strain with high specificity. The unique aspect of this fluidic cartridge is its modular format with task-specific modules interconnected to a fluidic motherboard to permit the selection of the target material. In addition, to minimize the amount of finishing steps for assembling the fluidic cartridge, many of the functional components were produced during the polymer molding step used to create the fluidic network. The operation of the cartridge was provided by electronic, mechanical, optical and hydraulic controls located off-chip and packaged into a small footprint instrument (1 ft(3)). The fluidic cartridge was capable of performing cell enrichment, cell lysis, solid-phase extraction (SPE) of genomic DNA, continuous flow (CF) PCR, CF ligase detection reaction (LDR) and universal DNA array readout. The cartridge was comprised of modules situated on a fluidic motherboard; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and used for cell lysis, SPE, CF PCR and CF LDR. The modules were task-specific units and performed universal zip-code array readout or affinity enrichment of the target cells with both made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA. Two genes, uidA and sipB/C, were used to discriminate between E. coli and Salmonella, and evaluated as a model system. Results showed that the fluidic

  6. Diagnostic yield of targeted gene panel sequencing to identify the genetic etiology of disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja Hye; Kang, Eungu; Heo, Sun Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Jang, Ja-Hyun; Cho, Eun-Hae; Lee, Beom Hee; Yoo, Han-Wook; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-15

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) vary phenotypically and are caused by a number of genetic etiologies. This study investigated the genetic etiology of DSD patients using targeted exome sequencing of 67 known DSD-associated genes in humans. This study included 37 patients with 46, XY DSD and seven patients with 46, XX DSD. We identified known pathogenic mutations or deletion in nine (20.5%) patients in the AR, CYP17A1, SRD5A1, and DMRT1/2 genes. Novel variants were identified in nine patients (20.5%) in the AR, ATRX, CYP17A1, CHD7, MAP3K1, NR5A1, and WWOX genes. Among them, four patients harbored pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, while the remaining five patients (11.4%) had variants of uncertain significance. We were able to make a genetic diagnosis in 29.5% of patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations. Targeted exome sequencing is an efficient tool to improve the diagnostic yield of DSD, despite its phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity.

  7. Diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms for identifying westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, S T; Novak, B J; Drinan, D P; Jennings, R deM; Vu, N V

    2011-03-01

    We describe 12 diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays for use in species identification among rainbow and cutthroat trout: five of these loci have alleles unique to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), three unique to westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi) and four unique to Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri). These diagnostic assays were identified using a total of 489 individuals from 26 populations and five fish hatchery strains.

  8. Portable diagnostic devices for identifying obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: considerations and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunbai; Berger, Mark; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a syndrome defined by breathing abnormalities during sleep, can lead to fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. Identifying commercial motor vehicle operators with unrecognized OSA is a major public health priority. Portable monitors (PMs) are being actively marketed to trucking firms as potentially lower-cost and more accessible alternatives to the reference standard of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) in the diagnosis of OSA among commercial motor vehicle operators. Several factors regarding PMs remain uncertain in this unique patient population: their sensitivity and specificity; the cost-benefit ratio of the PMs versus PSG; potential barriers from human factors; and evolving technologic advancement. Human factors that alter test accuracy are a major concern among commercial drivers motivated to gain/maintain employment. Current available data using PMs as a diagnostic tool among CMV operators indicate relatively high data loss and high loss to follow-up. Loss to follow-up has also been an issue using PSG in commercial motor vehicle operators. Furthermore, PM testing and PM results interpretation protocols may have no sleep specialist oversight, and sometimes minimal physician oversight and involvement. Additional studies comparing unattended and unmonitored PMs directly against full in-laboratory PSG are needed to provide evidence for their efficacy among commercial motor vehicle operators.

  9. Next-generation sequencing in routine brain tumor diagnostics enables an integrated diagnosis and identifies actionable targets.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Felix; Schrimpf, Daniel; Jones, David T W; Meyer, Jochen; Kratz, Annekathrin; Reuss, David; Capper, David; Koelsche, Christian; Korshunov, Andrey; Wiestler, Benedikt; Buchhalter, Ivo; Milde, Till; Selt, Florian; Sturm, Dominik; Kool, Marcel; Hummel, Manuela; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Mawrin, Christian; Schüller, Ulrich; Jungk, Christine; Wick, Antje; Witt, Olaf; Platten, Michael; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M; Wick, Wolfgang; von Deimling, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    With the number of prognostic and predictive genetic markers in neuro-oncology steadily growing, the need for comprehensive molecular analysis of neuropathology samples has vastly increased. We therefore developed a customized enrichment/hybrid-capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) gene panel comprising the entire coding and selected intronic and promoter regions of 130 genes recurrently altered in brain tumors, allowing for the detection of single nucleotide variations, fusions, and copy number aberrations. Optimization of probe design, library generation and sequencing conditions on 150 samples resulted in a 5-workday routine workflow from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sample to neuropathological report. This protocol was applied to 79 retrospective cases with established molecular aberrations for validation and 71 prospective cases for discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Concordance of NGS compared to established, single biomarker methods was 98.0 %, with discrepancies resulting from one case where a TERT promoter mutation was not called by NGS and three ATRX mutations not being detected by Sanger sequencing. Importantly, in samples with low tumor cell content, NGS was able to identify mutant alleles that were not detectable by traditional methods. Information derived from NGS data identified potential targets for experimental therapy in 37/47 (79 %) glioblastomas, 9/10 (90 %) pilocytic astrocytomas, and 5/14 (36 %) medulloblastomas in the prospective target discovery cohort. In conclusion, we present the settings for high-throughput, adaptive next-generation sequencing in routine neuropathology diagnostics. Such an approach will likely become highly valuable in the near future for treatment decision making, as more therapeutic targets emerge and genetic information enters the classification of brain tumors.

  10. Phenanthrene Metabolism in Smokers: Use of a Two-Step Diagnostic Plot Approach to Identify Subjects with Extensive Metabolic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhong, Yan; Carmella, Steven G.; Hochalter, J. Bradley; Rauch, Diane; Oliver, Andrew; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smoke are among the most likely causes of lung cancer. PAHs require metabolic activation to initiate the carcinogenic process. Phenanthrene (Phe), a noncarcinogenic PAH, was used as a surrogate of benzo[α]pyrene and related PAHs to study the metabolic activation of PAHs in smokers. A dose of 10 μg of deuterated Phe ([D10]Phe) was administered to 25 healthy smokers in a crossover design, either as an oral solution or by smoking cigarettes containing [D10]Phe. Phe was deuterated to avoid interference from environmental Phe. Intensive blood and urine sampling was performed to quantitate the formation of deuterated r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene ([D10]PheT), a biomarker of the diol epoxide metabolic activation pathway. In both the oral and smoking arms approximately 6% of the dose was metabolically converted to diol epoxides, with a large intersubject variability in the formation of [D10]PheT observed. Two diagnostic plots were developed to identify subjects with large systemic exposure and significant lung contribution to metabolic activation. The combination of the two plots led to the identification of subjects with substantial local exposure. These subjects produced, in one single pass of [D10]Phe through the lung, a [D10]PheT exposure equivalent to the systemic exposure of a typical subject and may be an indicator of lung cancer susceptibility. Polymorphisms in PAH-metabolizing genes of the 25 subjects were also investigated. The integration of phenotyping and genotyping results indicated that GSTM1-null subjects produced approximately 2-fold more [D10]PheT than did GSTM1-positive subjects. PMID:22674470

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi strain-specific Osp C-mediated immunity in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bockenstedt, L K; Hodzic, E; Feng, S; Bourrel, K W; de Silva, A; Montgomery, R R; Fikrig, E; Radolf, J D; Barthold, S W

    1997-01-01

    Antibodies to the outer surface proteins (Osps) A, B, and C of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi can prevent infection in animal models of Lyme borreliosis. We have previously demonstrated that immune serum from mice infected with B. burgdorferi N40 can also prevent challenge infection and induce disease regression in infected mice. The antigens targeted by protective and disease-modulating antibodies are presently unknown, but they do not include Osp A or Osp B. Because Osp C antibodies are present in immune mouse serum, we investigated the ability of hyperimmune serum to recombinant Osp C (N40) to protect mice against challenge infection with N40 spirochetes. In both active and passive immunization studies, Osp C (N40) antiserum failed to protect mice from challenge infection with cultured organisms. Mice actively immunized with recombinant Osp C (N40) were susceptible to tick-borne challenge infection, and nymphal ticks remained infected after feeding on Osp C-hyperimmunized mice. In contrast, similar immunization studies performed with Osp C (PKo) antiserum prevented challenge infection of mice with a clone of PKo spirochetes pathogenic for mice. Both Osp C (N40) and Osp C (PKo) antisera showed minimal in vitro borreliacidal activity, and immunofluorescence studies localized Osp C beneath the outer membrane of both N40 and PKo spirochetes. We conclude that Osp C antibody-mediated immunity is strain specific and propose that differences in Osp C surface expression by spirochetes in vivo may account for strain-specific immunity. PMID:9353047

  12. Spontaneous voiding by mice reveals strain-specific lower urinary tract function to be a quantitative genetic trait

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weiqun; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Larigakis, John D.; MacIver, Bryce; Steers, William D.; Churchill, Gary A.; Hill, Warren G.

    2014-01-01

    Lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms become prevalent with aging and affect millions; however, therapy is often ineffective because the etiology is unknown. Existing assays of LUT function in animal models are often invasive; however, a noninvasive assay is required to study symptom progression and determine genetic correlates. Here, we present a spontaneous voiding assay that is simple, reproducible, quantitative, and noninvasive. Young female mice from eight inbred mouse strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/H1LtJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ) were tested for urination patterns on filter paper. Repeat testing at different times of the day showed minimal within-individual and within-strain variations, but all parameters (spot number, total volume, percent area in primary void, corner voiding, and center voiding) exhibited significant variations between strains. Calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient, an estimate of broad-sense heritability, for each time of day and for each voiding parameter revealed highly significant heritability [spot number: 61%, percent urine in primary void: 90%, and total volume: 94% (afternoon data)]. Cystometrograms confirmed strong strain-specific urodynamic characteristics. Behavior-voiding correlation analysis showed no correlation with anxiety phenotypes. Diagnostically, the assay revealed LUT symptoms in several systems, including a demonstration of voiding abnormalities in older C57BL/6J mice (18–24 mo), in a model of protamine sulfate-induced urothelial damage and in a model of sucrose-induced diuresis. This assay may be used to derive pathophysiological LUT readouts from mouse models. Voiding characteristics are heritable traits, opening the way for genetic studies of LUT symptoms using outbred mouse populations. PMID:24717733

  13. Influence of strain-specific parameters on hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae.

    PubMed

    López Barreiro, Diego; Zamalloa, Carlos; Boon, Nico; Vyverman, Wim; Ronsse, Frederik; Brilman, Wim; Prins, Wolter

    2013-10-01

    Algae are an interesting feedstock for producing biofuel via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), due to their high water content. In this study, algae slurries (5-7 wt% daf) from different species were liquefied at 250 and 375 °C in batch autoclaves during 5 min. The aim was to analyze the influence of strain-specific parameters (cell structure, biochemical composition and growth environment) on the HTL process. Results show big variations in the biocrude oil yield within species at 250 °C (from 17.6 to 44.8 wt%). At 375 °C, these differences become less significant (from 45.6 to 58.1 wt%). An appropriate characterization of feedstock appeared to be critical to interpret the results. If a high conversion of microalgae-to-biocrude is pursued, near critical conditions are required, with Scenedesmus almeriensis (freshwater) and Nannochloropsis gaditana (marine) leading to the biocrude oils with lower nitrogen content from each growth environment.

  14. Identifying High Ability Children with DSM-5 Autism Spectrum or Social Communication Disorder: Performance on Autism Diagnostic Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Fosenburg, Staci L.; Wurster, Kristin G.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    This study was a replication of Mazefsky et al.'s ("Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities" 43:1236-1242, 2013) investigation among a sample of 45 high ability children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD under DSM-IV-TR. Items from the ADOS and ADI-R were mapped onto DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD to determine…

  15. Differential mouse-strain specific expression of Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM)-B in placental structures.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Ina Annelies; Mori, Mayumi; DeMayo, Francesco; Lydon, John; Arck, Petra Clara; Solano, Maria Emilia

    2016-03-03

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in stabilization of interendothelial cell-cell contacts, formation of vascular tubes, homeostasis of stem cell niches and promotion of leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. In the human placenta, JAM-B protein is abundant and mRNA transcripts are enriched in first-trimester extravillous trophoblast in comparison to the villous trophoblast. We here aimed to elucidate the yet unexplored spatio-temporal expression of JAM-B in the mouse placenta. We investigated and semi-quantified JAM-B protein expression by immunohistochemistry in early post-implantation si tes and in mid- to late gestation placentae of various murine mating combinations. Surprisingly, the endothelium of the placental labyrinth was devoid of JAM-B expression. JAM-B was mainly present in spongiotrophoblast cells of the junctional zone, as well as in the fetal vessels of the chorionic plate, the umbilical cord and in maternal myometrial smooth muscle. We observed a strain-specific placental increase of JAM-B protein expression from mid- to late gestation in Balb/c-mated C57BL/6 females, which was absent in DBA/2J-mated Balb/c females. Due to the essential role of progesterone during gestation, we further assessed a possible modulation of JAM-B in mid-gestational placentae deficient in the progesterone receptor (Pgr(-/-)) and observed an increased expression of JAM-B in Pgr(-/-) placentae, compared to Pgr(+/+) tissue samples. We propose that JAM-B is an as yet underappreciated trophoblast lineage-specific protein, which is modulated via the progesterone receptor and shows unique strain-specific kinetics. Future work is needed to elucidate its possible contribution to placental processes necessary to ensuring its integrity, ultimately facilitating placental development and fetal growth.

  16. Development of a Strain-Specific Molecular Method for Quantitating Individual Campylobacter Strains in Mixed Populations▿

    PubMed Central

    Elvers, Karen T.; Helps, Christopher R.; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Allen, Vivien M.; Newell, Diane G.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of sites resulting in cross-contamination of poultry flocks in the abattoir and determination of the survival and persistence of campylobacters at these sites are essential for the development of intervention strategies aimed at reducing the microbial burden on poultry at retail. A novel molecule-based method, using strain- and genus-specific oligonucleotide probes, was developed to detect and enumerate specific campylobacter strains in mixed populations. Strain-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed for the short variable regions (SVR) of the flaA gene in individual Campylobacter jejuni strains. A 16S rRNA Campylobacter genus-specific probe was also used. Both types of probes were used to investigate populations of campylobacters by colony lift hybridization. The specificity and proof of principle of the method were tested using strains with closely related SVR sequences and mixtures of these strains. Colony lifts of campylobacters were hybridized sequentially with up to two labeled strain-specific probes, followed by the generic 16S rRNA probe. SVR probes were highly specific, differentiating down to 1 nucleotide in the target sequence, and were sufficiently sensitive to detect colonies of a single strain in a mixed population. The 16S rRNA probe detected all Campylobacter spp. tested but not closely related species, such as Arcobacter skirrowi and Helicobacter pullorum. Preliminary field studies demonstrated the application of this technique to target strains isolated from poultry transport crate wash tank water. This method is quantitative, sensitive, and highly specific and allows the identification and enumeration of selected strains among all of the campylobacters in environmental samples. PMID:18281428

  17. Strain-specific antiviral activity of iminosugars against human influenza A viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, S.; Miller, J. L.; Harvey, D. J.; Gu, Y.; Rosenthal, P. B.; Zitzmann, N.; McCauley, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Drugs that target host cell processes can be employed to complement drugs that specifically target viruses, and iminosugar compounds that inhibit host α-glucosidases have been reported to show antiviral activity against multiple viruses. Here the effect and mechanism of two iminosugar α-glucosidase inhibitors, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) and N-nonyl-deoxynojirimycin (NN-DNJ), on human influenza A viruses was examined. Methods The viruses examined were a recently circulating seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus strain A/Brisbane/10/2007, an older H3N2 strain A/Udorn/307/72, and A/Lviv/N6/2009, a strain representative of the currently circulating pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Results The inhibitors had the strongest effect on Brisbane/10 and NN-DNJ was more potent than NB-DNJ. Both compounds showed antiviral activity in cell culture against three human influenza A viruses in a strain-specific manner. Consistent with its action as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, NN-DNJ treatment resulted in an altered glycan processing of influenza haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), confirmed by MS. NN-DNJ treatment was found to reduce the cell surface expression of the H3 subtype HA. The level of sialidase activity of NA was reduced in infected cells, but the addition of exogenous sialidase to the cells did not complement the NN-DNJ-mediated inhibition of virus replication. Using reassortant viruses, the drug susceptibility profile was determined to correlate with the origin of the HA. Conclusions NN-DNJ inhibits influenza A virus replication in a strain-specific manner that is dependent on the HA. PMID:25223974

  18. Strain-Specific Genotyping of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis by Using Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Insertions, and Deletions▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Briczinski, Elizabeth P.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G.; Roberts, Anastasia M.; Roberts, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Several probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are widely supplemented into food products and dietary supplements due to their documented health benefits and ability to survive within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and acidified dairy products. The strain specificity of these characteristics demands techniques with high discriminatory power to differentiate among strains. However, to date, molecular approaches, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, have been ineffective at achieving strain separation due to the monomorphic nature of this subspecies. Previously, sequencing and comparison of two B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes (DSMZ 10140 and Bl-04) confirmed this high level of sequence similarity, identifying only 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and four insertions and/or deletions (INDELs) between them. In this study, we hypothesized that a sequence-based typing method targeting these loci would permit greater discrimination between strains than previously attempted methods. Sequencing 50 of these loci in 24 strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis revealed that a combination of nine SNPs/INDELs could be used to differentiate strains into 14 distinct genotypic groups. In addition, the presence of a nonsynonymous SNP within the gene encoding a putative glucose uptake protein was found to correlate with the ability of certain strains to transport glucose and to grow rapidly in a medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source. The method reported here can be used in clinical, regulatory, and commercial applications requiring identification of B. animalis subsp. lactis at the strain level. PMID:19801460

  19. Identifying High Ability Children with DSM-5 Autism Spectrum or Social Communication Disorder: Performance on Autism Diagnostic Instruments.

    PubMed

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; L Fosenburg, Staci; G Wurster, Kristin; Assouline, Susan G

    2017-02-01

    This study was a replication of Mazefsky et al.'s (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities 43:1236-1242, 2013) investigation among a sample of 45 high ability children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD under DSM-IV-TR. Items from the ADOS and ADI-R were mapped onto DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD to determine whether participants would meet either diagnosis under DSM-5. If the ADOS were administered alone, 62% of individuals diagnosed with ASD would no longer meet criteria under DSM-5; however, when the ADI-R and ADOS scores were combined, 100% of individuals would continue to meet ASD diagnosis. The ADOS was determined to be an insufficient measure for SCD due to the small number of algorithm items measuring SCD diagnostic criteria, suggesting the development of SCD measures is required.

  20. Development of strain-specific PCR primers for quantitative detection of Bacillus mesentericus strain TO-A in human feces.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki; Seo, Genichiro; Benno, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Strain-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for detection of Bacillus mesentericus strain TO-A (BM TO-A) were developed. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to produce potential strain-specific markers. A 991-bp RAPD marker found to be strain-specific was sequenced, and two primer pairs specific to BM TO-A were constructed based on this sequence. In addition, we explored a more specific DNA region using inverse PCR, and designed a strain-specific primer set for use in real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). These primer pairs were tested against 25 Bacillus subtilis strains and were found to be strain-specific. After examination of the detection limit and linearity of detection of BM TO-A in feces, the qPCR method and strain-specific primers were used to quantify BM TO-A in the feces of healthy volunteers who had ingested 3×10(8) colony forming unit (CFU) of BM TO-A per day in tablets. During the administration period, BM TO-A was detected in the feces of all 24 subjects, and the average number of BM TO-A detected using the culture method and qPCR was about 10(4.8) and 10(5.8) cells per gram of feces, respectively. Using the qPCR method, BM TO-A was detected in the feces of half of the subjects 3 d after withdrawal, and was detected in the feces of only one subject 1 week after withdrawal. These results suggest that the qPCR method using BM TO-A strain-specific primers is useful for the quantitative detection of this strain in feces.

  1. Diagnostic stability of autism spectrum disorder in toddlers prospectively identified in a community-based setting: Behavioural characteristics and predictors of change over time.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-07-28

    Autism spectrum disorder diagnoses in toddlers have been established as accurate and stable across time in high-risk siblings and clinic-referred samples. Few studies have investigated diagnostic stability in children prospective identified in community-based settings. Furthermore, there is a dearth of evidence on the individual behaviours that predict diagnostic change over time. The stability and change of autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were investigated from 24 to 48 months in 77 children drawn from the Social Attention and Communication Study. Diagnostic stability was high, with 88.3% overall stability and 85.5% autism spectrum disorder stability. The behavioural markers at 24 months that contributed to diagnostic shift off the autism spectrum by 48 months included better eye contact, more directed vocalisations, the integration of gaze and directed vocalisations/gestures and higher non-verbal developmental quotient. These four variables correctly predicted 88.7% of children into the autism spectrum disorder-stable and autism spectrum disorder-crossover groups overall, with excellent prediction for the stable group (96.2%) and modest prediction for the crossover group (44.4%). Furthermore, non-verbal developmental quotient at 24 months accounted for the significant improvement across time in 'Social Affect' scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule for both groups and was the only unique predictor of diagnostic crossover. These findings contribute to the body of evidence on the feasibility of diagnoses at earlier ages to facilitate children's access to interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes.

  2. Elucidation of strain-specific interaction of a GII-4 norovirus with HBGA receptors by site-directed mutagenesis study

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Ming |; Xia Ming; Cao Sheng; Huang Pengwei; Farkas, Tibor |; Meller, Jarek |; Hegde, Rashmi S. |; Li Xuemei; Rao Zihe; Jiang Xi |

    2008-09-30

    Noroviruses interact with histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors in a strain-specific manner probably detecting subtle structural differences in the carbohydrate receptors. The specific recognition of types A and B antigens by various norovirus strains is a typical example. The only difference between the types A and B antigens is the acetamide linked to the terminal galactose of the A but not to the B antigen. The crystal structure of the P dimer of a GII-4 norovirus (VA387) bound to types A and B trisaccharides has elucidated the A/B binding site on the capsid but did not explain the binding specificity of the two antigens. In this study, using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified three residues on the VA387 capsid that are sterically close to the acetamide and are required for binding to A but not B antigens, indicating that the acetamide determines the binding specificity between the A and B antigens. Further mutational analysis showed that a nearby open cavity may also be involved in binding specificity to HBGAs. In addition, a systematic mutational analysis of residues in and around the binding interface has identified a group of amino acids that are required for binding but do not have direct contact with the carbohydrate antigens, implying that these residues may be involved in the structural integrity of the receptor binding interface. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the carbohydrate/capsid interactions which are a valuable complement to the atomic structures in understanding the virus/host interaction and in the future design of antiviral agents.

  3. Development of novel microsatellite markers for strain-specific identification of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jo, Beom-Ho; Lee, Chang Soo; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2014-09-01

    A strain-specific identification method is required to secure Chlorella strains with useful genetic traits, such as a fast growth rate or high lipid productivity, for application in biofuels, functional foods, and pharmaceuticals. Microsatellite markers based on simple sequence repeats can be a useful tool for this purpose. Therefore, this study developed five novel microsatellite markers (mChl-001, mChl-002, mChl-005, mChl-011, and mChl-012) using specific loci along the chloroplast genome of Chlorella vulgaris. The microsatellite markers were characterized based on their allelic diversities among nine strains of C. vulgaris with the same 18S rRNA sequence similarity. Each microsatellite marker exhibited 2~5 polymorphic allele types, and their combinations allowed discrimination between seven of the C. vulgaris strains. The two remaining strains were distinguished using one specific interspace region between the mChl-001 and mChl-005 loci, which was composed of about 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 13~15 specific sequence sites, and (T)n repeat sites. Thus, the polymorphic combination of the five microsatellite markers and one specific locus facilitated a clear distinction of C. vulgaris at the strain level, suggesting that the proposed microsatellite marker system can be useful for the accurate identification and classification of C. vulgaris.

  4. Ability of trichloroethylene metabolite to promote immune pathology is strain-specific.

    PubMed

    Blossom, Sarah J; Doss, Jason C; Gilbert, Kathleen M

    2006-12-01

    Chronic low-level exposure to the environmental pollutant trichloroethylene has been shown to promote autoimmune disease in association with CD4(+) T-lymphocyte activation in lupus-prone MRL(+/+) mice. One of the primary metabolites of trichloroethylene, trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate (TCAH), was similarly shown to increase the percentage of IFNgamma-producing CD4(+) T-lymphocytes when added to the drinking water of MRL(+/+) mice. In addition, TCAH-treated MRL(+/+) mice developed skin inflammation and alopecia. In the present study TCAH was tested for its ability to accelerate the development of alopecia in C3H/HeJ mice which tend to develop the disorder spontaneously late in life. In contrast to MRL(+/+) mice, C3H/HeJ mice treated with TCAH did not develop alopecia at an increased rate. In addition, TCAH did not promote the expansion of activated IFNgamma-producing CD4(+) T-lymphocytes in C3H/HeJ mice. CD4(+) T-lymphocytes from TCAH-treated C3H/HeJ mice, unlike their MRL(+/+) counterparts, did not become resistant to activation-induced apoptosis following in vivo exposure to TCAH. Taken together, it appears that the ability of TCAH to promote immune-mediated pathology is strain-specific and may require an autoimmune-prone genetic background.

  5. Strain-specific protective immunity following vaccination against experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Haolla, Filipe A; Claser, Carla; de Alencar, Bruna C G; Tzelepis, Fanny; de Vasconcelos, José Ronnie; de Oliveira, Gabriel; Silvério, Jaline C; Machado, Alexandre V; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Soares, Milena B P; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2009-09-18

    Immunisation with Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (asp-2) and trans-sialidase (ts) genes induces protective immunity in highly susceptible A/Sn mice, against infection with parasites of the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. Based on immunological and biological strain variations in T. cruzi parasites, our goal was to validate our vaccination results using different parasite strains. Due to the importance of the CD8(+) T cells in protective immunity, we initially determined which strains expressed the immunodominant H-2K(k)-restricted epitope TEWETGQI. We tested eight strains, four of which elicited immune responses to this epitope (Y, G, Colombian and Colombia). We selected the Colombian and Colombia strains for our studies. A/Sn mice were immunised with different regimens using both T. cruzi genes (asp-2 and ts) simultaneously and subsequently challenged with blood trypomastigotes. Immune responses before the challenge were confirmed by the presence of specific antibodies and peptide-specific T cells. Genetic vaccination did not confer protective immunity against acute infection with a lethal dose of the Colombian strain. In contrast, we observed a drastic reduction in parasitemia and a significant increase in survival, following challenge with an otherwise lethal dose of the Colombia strain. In many surviving animals with late-stage chronic infection, we observed alterations in the heart's electrical conductivity, compared to naive mice. In summary, we concluded that immunity against T. cruzi antigens, similar to viruses and bacteria, may be strain-specific and have a negative impact on vaccine development.

  6. Strain-specific antibodies reduce co-feeding transmission of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Maxime; Durand, Jonas; Rais, Olivier; Voordouw, Maarten J

    2016-03-01

    Vector-borne pathogens use a diversity of strategies to evade the vertebrate immune system. Co-feeding transmission is a potential immune evasion strategy because the vector-borne pathogen minimizes the time spent in the vertebrate host. We tested whether the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii, can use co-feeding transmission to escape the acquired immune response in the vertebrate host. We induced a strain-specific, protective antibody response by immunizing mice with one of two variants of OspC (A3 and A10), the highly variable outer surface protein C of Borrelia pathogens. Immunized mice were challenged via tick bite with B. afzelii strains A3 or A10 and infested with larval ticks at days 2 and 34 post-infection to measure co-feeding and systemic transmission respectively. Antibodies against a particular OspC variant significantly reduced co-feeding transmission of the targeted (homologous) strain but not the non-targeted (heterologous) strain. Cross-immunity between OspC antigens had no effect in co-feeding ticks but reduced the spirochaete load twofold in ticks infected via systemic transmission. In summary, OspC-specific antibodies reduced co-feeding transmission of a homologous but not a heterologous strain of B. afzelii. Co-feeding transmission allowed B. afzelii to evade the negative consequences of cross-immunity on the tick spirochaete load.

  7. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzyme activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strain-specific.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, M; Semchyshyn, H; Lushchak, V

    2006-09-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the survival and activity of antioxidant and associated enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. A difference found in the response of wild-type yeast strains treated with hydrogen peroxide was probably related to the different protective effects of antioxidant enzymes in these strains. Exposure of wild-type YPH250 cells to 0.25 mM H(2)O(2) for 30 min increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 3.4- and 2-fold, respectively. However, no activation of catalase in the EG103 strain, as well as of SOD in the YPH98 and EG103 wild strains was detected, which was in parallel to lower survival of these strains under oxidative stress. There is a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.95) between activities of catalase and SOD in YPH250 cells treated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. It is conceivable that catalase would protect SOD against inactivation caused by oxidative stress and vice versa. Finally, yeast cell treatment with hydrogen peroxide can lead to either a H(2)O(2)-induced increase in activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes or their decrease depending on the H(2)O(20 concentration used or the yeast strain specificity.

  8. Ralstonia solanacearum RSc0411 (lptC) is a determinant for full virulence and has a strain-specific novel function in the T3SS activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Mei; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Cheng, Chiu-Ping

    2013-06-01

    Previously, we have identified an avirulent Ralstonia solanacearum mutant carrying a transposon insertion in RSc0411, a gene homologous to the Escherichia coli LPS-transporting protein LptC. However, how the disruption of RSc0411 affects the bacterium-plant interactions and leads to decreased pathogenicity was not known. Here we show that the disruption of RSc0411 leads to pleiotropic defects, including reducing bacterial motility, biofilm formation, root attachment, rough-form LPS production and virulence in tomato and increasing membrane permeability. Disruption of the orthologous RSc0411 present in other R. solanacearum strains proves that most of these functions are conserved in the species. In contrast, trans-complementation analyses show that only RSc0411 orthologues from closely related bacteria can rescue the defects of the disruption mutant. These results enable us to propose a function for RSc0411, and for the clustered genes, in LPS biogenesis, and for the first time, to our knowledge, also a role of a gene from the DUF1239 gene family in bacterial pathogenicity. In addition and notably, the RSc0411 mutant displays a strain-specific phenotype for hypersensitive response (HR), in which the RSc0411 disruption impairs the HR caused by strain Pss190 but not that by strain Pss1308. Consistent with this strain-specific defect, the mutation clearly affects expression of the type III secretion system (T3SS) in Pss190 but not in other strains, suggesting that the HR-deficient phenotype of the RSc0411 mutant in Pss190 is due to impairment of the T3SS and thus RSc0411 has a strain-specific role in the T3SS activity of R. solanacearum.

  9. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-10-01

    A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coli was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis FFC199 showed adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells (1.6, 1.1 and 0.9%, respectively) similar to the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1.5%). They were able to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells over 24 h (p < 0.05). The present work showed that the probiotic characteristics were strain-specific and that the isolates L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties.

  10. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Christopher G.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.; Ilag, Leodevico L.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; de Veer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11–12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  11. Combined diagnostic methods identify a remarkable proportion of asymptomatic Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi carriers who present modulated cytokine profiles.

    PubMed

    de Gouvêa Viana, Luciana; de Assis, Tália Santana Machado; Orsini, Marcela; da Silva, Alexandre Rotondo; de Souza, Guenael Freire; Caligiorne, Rachel; da Silva, Aline Christiane Louredo; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Marciano, Ana Paula Vieira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Rabello, Ana

    2008-06-01

    Peripheral blood samples of 138 co-habitants from 25 families with recently diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), rK39 and Leishmania chagasi Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), intradermal skin-test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) over a 12-month period. The cumulative positivity was significantly higher by PCR (29.7%) than by IFAT, rK39 ELISA, L. chagasi ELISA and intradermal skin-test (5.1%, 6.5%, 14.5% and 2.9%, respectively). In addition, the cytokine profile was measured in 16 of the 138 volunteers, of whom eight were asymptomatic carriers and eight were non-infected co-habitants. The innate immunity cells from asymptomatic carriers displayed, upon in vitro antigenic stimulation, a modulated increase in cytokine synthesis that was distinct from that observed in non-infected volunteers. This study suggests that the identification of a large proportion of asymptomatic carriers is facilitated when more than one diagnostic method is applied and that a mixed pattern of immune response is correlated with clinical status of asymptomatic individuals. These observations suggest also that asymptomatic infection by L. chagasi is a frequent event and that control programs could benefit by including this indicator in their interventions.

  12. Raman spectroscopy and PCA-SVM as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify and classify qualitatively glycated hemoglobin levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Villa-Manríquez, J F; Castro-Ramos, J; Gutiérrez-Delgado, F; Lopéz-Pacheco, M A; Villanueva-Luna, A E

    2016-12-23

    In this study we identify and classify high and low levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in healthy volunteers (HV) and diabetic patients (DP). Overall, 86 subjects were evaluated. The Raman spectrum was measured in three anatomical regions of the body: index fingertip, right ear lobe, and forehead. The measurements were performed to compare the difference between the HV and DP (22 well controlled diabetic patients (WCDP) (HbA1c <6.5%), and 49 not controlled diabetic patients (NCDP) (HbA1c ≥6.5%)). Multivariable methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) combined with support vector machine (SVM) were used to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification among these groups. The forehead of HV versus WCDP showed the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). Sensitivity (100%) and specificity (60%), were highest in the forehead of WCDP, versus NCDP. In HV versus NCDP, the fingertip had the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (80%). The efficacy of the diagnostic algorithm by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was confirmed. Overall, our study demonstrated that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and PCA-SVM are feasible non-invasive diagnostic tool in diabetes to classify qualitatively high and low levels of HbA1c in vivo.

  13. Excavating the surface-associated and secretory proteome of Mycobacterium leprae for identifying vaccines and diagnostic markers relevant immunodominant epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rana, Aarti; Thakur, Shweta; Bhardwaj, Nupur; Kumar, Devender; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    For centuries, Mycobacterium leprae, etiological agent of leprosy, has been afflicting mankind regardless of extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines and antibiotics. Surface-associated and secretory proteins (SASPs) are attractive targets against bacteria. We have integrated biological knowledge with computational approaches and present a proteome-wide identification of SASPs. We also performed computational assignment of immunodominant epitopes as coordinates of prospective antigenic candidates in most important class of SASPs, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Exploiting the known protein sequence and structural characteristics shared by the SASPs from bacteria, 17 lipoproteins, 11 secretory and 19 novel OMPs (including 4 essential proteins) were identified in M. leprae As OMPs represent the most exposed antigens on the cell surface, their immunoinformatics analysis showed that the identified 19 OMPs harbor T-cell MHC class I epitopes and class II epitopes against HLA-DR alleles (54), while 15 OMPs present potential T-cell class II epitopes against HLA-DQ alleles (6) and 7 OMPs possess T-cell class II epitopes against HLA-DP alleles (5) of humans. Additionally, 11 M. leprae OMPs were found to have B-cell epitopes and these may be considered as prime candidates for the development of new immunotherapeutics against M. leprae.

  14. Temperature diagnostic to identify high risk areas and optimize Legionella pneumophila surveillance in hot water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Emilie; Fey, Stéphanie; Charron, Dominique; Lalancette, Cindy; Cantin, Philippe; Dolcé, Patrick; Laferrière, Céline; Déziel, Eric; Prévost, Michèle

    2015-03-15

    Legionella pneumophila is frequently detected in hot water distribution systems and thermal control is a common measure implemented by health care facilities. A risk assessment based on water temperature profiling and temperature distribution within the network is proposed, to guide effective monitoring strategies and allow the identification of high risk areas. Temperature and heat loss at control points (water heater, recirculation, representative points-of-use) were monitored in various sections of five health care facilities hot water distribution systems and results used to develop a temperature-based risk assessment tool. Detailed investigations show that defective return valves in faucets can cause widespread temperature losses because of hot and cold water mixing. Systems in which water temperature coming out of the water heaters was kept consistently above 60 °C and maintained above 55 °C across the network were negative for Legionella by culture or qPCR. For systems not meeting these temperature criteria, risk areas for L. pneumophila were identified using temperature profiling and system's characterization; higher risk was confirmed by more frequent microbiological detection by culture and qPCR. Results confirmed that maintaining sufficiently high temperatures within hot water distribution systems suppressed L. pneumophila culturability. However, the risk remains as shown by the persistence of L. pneumophila by qPCR.

  15. Diagnostic Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Gene, EMILIN1, Associated with Autosomal‐Dominant Hereditary Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Alessandra; Bucciotti, Francesco; Farwell, Kelly D.; Tippin Davis, Brigette; Mroske, Cameron; Hulick, Peter J.; Weissman, Scott M.; Gao, Qingshen; Spessotto, Paola; Doliana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heritable connective tissue diseases are a highly heterogeneous family of over 200 disorders that affect the extracellular matrix. While the genetic basis of several disorders is established, the etiology has not been discovered for a large portion of patients, likely due to rare yet undiscovered disease genes. By performing trio‐exome sequencing of a 55‐year‐old male proband presenting with multiple symptoms indicative of a connective disorder, we identified a heterozygous missense alteration in exon 1 of the Elastin Microfibril Interfacer 1 (EMILIN1) gene, c.64G>A (p.A22T). The proband presented with ascending and descending aortic aneurysms, bilateral lower leg and foot sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, arthropathy, and increased skin elasticity. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the EMILIN1 alteration, which maps around the signal peptide cleavage site, segregated with disease in the affected proband, mother, and son. The impaired secretion of EMILIN‐1 in cells transfected with the mutant p.A22T coincided with abnormal protein accumulation within the endoplasmic reticulum. In skin biopsy of the proband, we detected less EMILIN‐1 with disorganized and abnormal coarse fibrils, aggregated deposits underneath the epidermis basal lamina, and dermal cells apoptosis. These findings collectively suggest that EMILIN1 may represent a new disease gene associated with an autosomal‐dominant connective tissue disorder. PMID:26462740

  16. Diagnostic Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Gene, EMILIN1, Associated with Autosomal-Dominant Hereditary Connective Tissue Disease.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Alessandra; Bucciotti, Francesco; Farwell, Kelly D; Tippin Davis, Brigette; Mroske, Cameron; Hulick, Peter J; Weissman, Scott M; Gao, Qingshen; Spessotto, Paola; Colombatti, Alfonso; Doliana, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Heritable connective tissue diseases are a highly heterogeneous family of over 200 disorders that affect the extracellular matrix. While the genetic basis of several disorders is established, the etiology has not been discovered for a large portion of patients, likely due to rare yet undiscovered disease genes. By performing trio-exome sequencing of a 55-year-old male proband presenting with multiple symptoms indicative of a connective disorder, we identified a heterozygous missense alteration in exon 1 of the Elastin Microfibril Interfacer 1 (EMILIN1) gene, c.64G>A (p.A22T). The proband presented with ascending and descending aortic aneurysms, bilateral lower leg and foot sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, arthropathy, and increased skin elasticity. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the EMILIN1 alteration, which maps around the signal peptide cleavage site, segregated with disease in the affected proband, mother, and son. The impaired secretion of EMILIN-1 in cells transfected with the mutant p.A22T coincided with abnormal protein accumulation within the endoplasmic reticulum. In skin biopsy of the proband, we detected less EMILIN-1 with disorganized and abnormal coarse fibrils, aggregated deposits underneath the epidermis basal lamina, and dermal cells apoptosis. These findings collectively suggest that EMILIN1 may represent a new disease gene associated with an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder.

  17. Multiplex Serum Protein Analysis Identifies Novel Biomarkers of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease with the Potential to Improve Diagnostic Accuracy of Established Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Hoffmann, Isabell; Horsfall, Leigh U.; Fagan, Kevin J.; Bijin, Veonice; Lee, Bernett; Clouston, Andrew D.; Lampe, Guy; Connolly, John E.; Powell, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis are urgently required, especially for use in non-specialist settings. The aim of this study was to identify novel serum biomarkers of advanced fibrosis. Methods We performed an unbiased screen of 120 serum analytes including cytokines, chemokines and proteases in 70 patients (35 without fibrosis, 35 with cirrhosis on biopsy), and selected a panel of 44 candidate biomarkers, which were subsequently measured in a mixed-etiology cohort of 432 patients with known serum HA, PIIINP and TIMP1 (which comprise the validated Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test). Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to generate models for the prediction of advanced or significant fibrosis (METAVIR ≥F3 and ≥F2, respectively); in addition to identifying biomarkers of disease activity and steatohepatitis. Results Seventeen analytes were significantly differentially expressed between patients with no advanced fibrosis and patients with advanced fibrosis, the most significant being hyaluronic acid (HA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 7 (p = 2.9E-41 and p = 1.0E-26, respectively). The optimal model for the prediction of advanced fibrosis comprised HA, MMP7, MMP1, alphafetoprotein (AFP) and the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI). We demonstrate enhanced diagnostic accuracy (AUROC = 0.938) compared to a model comprising HA, PIIINP and TIMP1 alone (ELF) (AUROC = 0.898, p<0.0001, De Long’s test). Conclusions We have identified novel serum biomarkers of advanced liver fibrosis, which have the potential to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of established biomarkers. Our data suggest MMP7 is a valuable indicator of advanced fibrosis and may play a role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:27861569

  18. Infrared imaging as a cancer diagnostic tool: introducing a new concept of spectral barcodes for identifying molecular changes in colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Piot, Olivier; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Gobinet, Cyril; Bouché, Olivier; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2013-03-01

    Complementary diagnostic methods to conventional histopathology are under scrutiny for various types of cancers for rapid and molecular level diagnostics. In this perspective, a biophotonic approach based on infrared spectral micro-imaging combined with multivariate statistical analysis has been implemented on colon tissues. The ability of infrared imaging to investigate the intrinsic biochemical features of cells and tissues has been exploited to develop a new concept of spectral bar coding. To implement this concept, 10 frozen colon tissue samples (five nontumoral and tumoral pairs from five patients) were imaged using infrared spectral micro-imaging in a nondestructive manner. The spectral images were processed by a multivariate clustering method to identify the histological organization in a label-free manner. Spectral information from the epithelial components was then automatically recovered on the basis of their intrinsic biochemical composition, and compared using a statistical method (Mann-Whitney U-test) to construct spectral barcodes specific to each patient. The spectral barcodes representing the discriminant infrared spectral wavenumbers (900-1,800 cm(-1) ) enabled characterization of some of the malignancy-associated biochemical alterations associated with mucin, nucleotides, carbohydrates, and protein regions. This approach not only allowed the identification of common biochemical alterations among all the colon cancer patients, but also revealed a difference of gradient within individual patients. This new concept of spectral bar coding gives insight into the potential of infrared spectral micro-imaging as a complementary diagnostic tool to conventional histopathology, for biochemical level understanding of malignancy in colon cancers in an objective and label-free manner.

  19. Strain-specific pulmonary defense achieved after repeated airway immunizations with non-typeable haemophilus influenzae in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Jun; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Zhao, Jizi; Saito, Mariko; Onizuka, Shozaburo; Oma, Keita; Watanabe, Kiwao; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Oishi, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Strain-specific immune responses may play a critical role in the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and the outer membrane protein P2 is one of surface antigens of NTHi, which may contribute to the strain-specific protective immunity. We examined whether repeated airway immunizations with killed-NTHi strains bearing different P2 molecules were capable of inducing protective immunity against homologous or heterologous strains in the lungs of a mouse model. Three different strains of NTHi were used in this study. Three serial intratracheal (IT) immunizations of a single strain or three different strains of NTHi led to the production of cross-reactive immunoglobulins G and A in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Three serial IT immunizations with a single strain enhanced the bacterial clearance of the homologous strain in the lungs, but no enhancement of bacterial clearance was found with three serial IT immunizations of heterologous strains. The enhancement in bacterial clearance, therefore, appears to be primarily strain-specific. Enhanced bacterial clearance of a heterologous strain was also found after three serial IT immunizations of a single strain among two of the three strains employed for bacterial challenge. These findings suggest that P2 molecules and surface antigens other than P2 are involved in the development of pulmonary defense against NTHi in mice. Our data may explain, in part, why patients with COPD experience recurrent NTHi infections.

  20. The accuracy of pain drawing in identifying psychological distress in low back pain—systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertozzi, Lucia; Rosso, Anna; Romeo, Antonio; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Guccione, Andrew A.; Pillastrini, Paolo; Vanti, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the accuracy of qualitative pain drawings (PDs) in identifying psychological distress in subacute and chronic low back pain (LBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from searches of PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science from their inception to July 2014. Quality assessments of bias and applicability were conducted using the Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). [Results] The summary estimates were: sensitivity=0.45 (95% CI 0.34, 0.61), specificity=0.66 (95% CI 0.53, 0.82), positive likelihood ratio=1.23 (95% CI 0.93, 1.62), negative likelihood ratio=0.84 (95% CI 0.70, 1.01), and diagnostic odds ratio=1.46 (95% CI 0.79, 2.68). The area under the curve was 78% (CI, 57 to 99%). [Conclusion] The results of this systematic review do not show broad and unqualified support for the accuracy of PDs in detecting psychological distress in subacute and chronic LBP. PMID:26644701

  1. Real-time PCR-based analysis of the human bile microRNAome identifies miR-9 as a potential diagnostic biomarker for biliary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Kengo; Yokomuro, Shigeki; Ishibashi, Osamu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Arima, Yasuo; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Kanda, Tomohiro; Akagi, Ichiro; Tajiri, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Uchida, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is often difficult to diagnose definitively, even through histological examination. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a variety of physiological processes. In recent years, it has been suggested that profiles for circulating miRNAs, as well as those for tissue miRNAs, have the potential to be used as diagnostic biomarkers for cancer. The aim of this study was to confirm the existence of miRNAs in human bile and to assess their potential as clinical biomarkers for BTC. We sampled bile from patients who underwent biliary drainage for biliary diseases such as BTC and choledocholithiasis. PCR-based miRNA detection and miRNA cloning were performed to identify bile miRNAs. Using high-throughput real-time PCR-based miRNA microarrays, the expression profiles of 667 miRNAs were compared in patients with malignant disease (n = 9) and age-matched patients with the benign disease choledocholithiasis (n = 9). We subsequently characterized bile miRNAs in terms of stability and localization. Through cloning and using PCR methods, we confirmed that miRNAs exist in bile. Differential analysis of bile miRNAs demonstrated that 10 of the 667 miRNAs were significantly more highly expressed in the malignant group than in the benign group at P<0.0005. Setting the specificity threshold to 100% showed that some miRNAs (miR-9, miR-302c*, miR-199a-3p and miR-222*) had a sensitivity level of 88.9%, and receiver-operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that miR-9 and miR-145* could be useful diagnostic markers for BTC. Moreover, we verified the long-term stability of miRNAs in bile, a characteristic that makes them suitable for diagnostic use in clinical settings. We also confirmed that bile miRNAs are localized to the malignant/benign biliary epithelia. These findings suggest that bile miRNAs could be informative biomarkers for hepatobiliary disease and that some miRNAs, particularly miR-9, may be helpful in the diagnosis and clinical management of BTC.

  2. Real-Time PCR-Based Analysis of the Human Bile MicroRNAome Identifies miR-9 as a Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Biliary Tract Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shigehara, Kengo; Yokomuro, Shigeki; Ishibashi, Osamu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Arima, Yasuo; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Kanda, Tomohiro; Akagi, Ichiro; Tajiri, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Uchida, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is often difficult to diagnose definitively, even through histological examination. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a variety of physiological processes. In recent years, it has been suggested that profiles for circulating miRNAs, as well as those for tissue miRNAs, have the potential to be used as diagnostic biomarkers for cancer. The aim of this study was to confirm the existence of miRNAs in human bile and to assess their potential as clinical biomarkers for BTC. We sampled bile from patients who underwent biliary drainage for biliary diseases such as BTC and choledocholithiasis. PCR-based miRNA detection and miRNA cloning were performed to identify bile miRNAs. Using high-throughput real-time PCR-based miRNA microarrays, the expression profiles of 667 miRNAs were compared in patients with malignant disease (n = 9) and age-matched patients with the benign disease choledocholithiasis (n = 9). We subsequently characterized bile miRNAs in terms of stability and localization. Through cloning and using PCR methods, we confirmed that miRNAs exist in bile. Differential analysis of bile miRNAs demonstrated that 10 of the 667 miRNAs were significantly more highly expressed in the malignant group than in the benign group at P<0.0005. Setting the specificity threshold to 100% showed that some miRNAs (miR-9, miR-302c*, miR-199a-3p and miR-222*) had a sensitivity level of 88.9%, and receiver-operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that miR-9 and miR-145* could be useful diagnostic markers for BTC. Moreover, we verified the long-term stability of miRNAs in bile, a characteristic that makes them suitable for diagnostic use in clinical settings. We also confirmed that bile miRNAs are localized to the malignant/benign biliary epithelia. These findings suggest that bile miRNAs could be informative biomarkers for hepatobiliary disease and that some miRNAs, particularly miR-9, may be helpful in the diagnosis and clinical management of BTC. PMID

  3. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  4. Candidate-gene criteria for clinical reporting: diagnostic exome sequencing identifies altered candidate genes among 8% of patients with undiagnosed diseases

    PubMed Central

    Farwell Hagman, Kelly D.; Shinde, Deepali N.; Mroske, Cameron; Smith, Erica; Radtke, Kelly; Shahmirzadi, Layla; El-Khechen, Dima; Powis, Zöe; Chao, Elizabeth C.; Alcaraz, Wendy A.; Helbig, Katherine L.; Sajan, Samin A.; Rossi, Mari; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Huether, Robert; Li, Shuwei; Wu, Sitao; Nuñes, Mark E.; Tang, Sha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) is now a commonly ordered test for individuals with undiagnosed genetic disorders. In addition to providing a diagnosis for characterized diseases, exome sequencing has the capacity to uncover novel candidate genes for disease. Methods: Family-based DES included analysis of both characterized and novel genetic etiologies. To evaluate candidate genes for disease in the clinical setting, we developed a systematic, rule-based classification schema. Results: Testing identified a candidate gene among 7.7% (72/934) of patients referred for DES; 37 (4.0%) and 35 (3.7%) of the genes received evidence scores of “candidate” and “suspected candidate,” respectively. A total of 71 independent candidate genes were reported among the 72 patients, and 38% (27/71) were subsequently corroborated in the peer-reviewed literature. This rate of corroboration increased to 51.9% (27/52) among patients whose gene was reported at least 12 months previously. Conclusions: Herein, we provide transparent, comprehensive, and standardized scoring criteria for the clinical reporting of candidate genes. These results demonstrate that DES is an integral tool for genetic diagnosis, especially for elucidating the molecular basis for both characterized and novel candidate genetic etiologies. Gene discoveries also advance the understanding of normal human biology and more common diseases. Genet Med 19 2, 224–235. PMID:27513193

  5. Strain-Specific Battery of Tests for Domains of Mania: Effects of Valproate, Lithium and Imipramine

    PubMed Central

    Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit; Einat, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The lack of efficient animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD), especially for the manic pole, is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of improved drug treatments. The present study was designed to identify an appropriate mouse strain for modeling some behavioral domains of mania and to evaluate the effects of drugs using this strain. The study compared the behavior of four strains: Black Swiss, C57Bl/6, CBA/J and A/J mice in a battery of tests that included spontaneous activity; sweet solution preference; light/dark box; resident-intruder; forced-swim and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Based on the ‘manic-like’ behavior demonstrated by the Black Swiss strain, the study evaluated the effects of the mood stabilizers valproate and lithium and of the antidepressant imipramine in the same tests using this strain. Results indicated that lithium and valproate attenuate the ‘manic-like’ behavior of Black Swiss mice whereas imipramine had no effects. These findings suggest that Black Swiss mice might be a good choice for modeling several domains of mania and distinguishing the effects of drugs on these specific domains. However, the relevance of the behavioral phenotype of Black Swiss mice to the biology of BPD is unknown at this time and future studies will investigate molecular differences between Black Swiss mice and other strains and asess the interaction between strain and mood stabilizing treatment. PMID:21423422

  6. Strain-specific estimation of epidemic success provides insights into the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Barbier, Maxime; Dumitrescu, Oana; Pichat, Catherine; Carret, Gérard; Ronnaux-Baron, Anne-Sophie; Blasquez, Ghislaine; Godin-Benhaim, Christine; Boisset, Sandrine; Carricajo, Anne; Jacomo, Véronique; Fredenucci, Isabelle; Pérouse de Montclos, Michèle; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Ader, Florence; Supply, Philip; Lina, Gérard; Wirth, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of tuberculosis involves complex interactions of socio-economic and, possibly, microbiological factors. We describe an analytical framework to infer factors of epidemic success based on the joint analysis of epidemiological, clinical and pathogen genetic data. We derive isolate-specific, genetic distance-based estimates of epidemic success, and we represent success-related time-dependent concepts, namely epidemicity and endemicity, by restricting analysis to specific time scales. The method is applied to analyze a surveillance-based cohort of 1,641 tuberculosis patients with minisatellite-based isolate genotypes. Known predictors of isolate endemicity (older age, native status) and epidemicity (younger age, sputum smear positivity) were identified with high confidence (P < 0.001). Long-term epidemic success also correlated with the ability of Euro-American and Beijing MTBC lineages to cause active pulmonary infection, independent of patient age and country of origin. Our results demonstrate how important insights into the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis can be gained from active surveillance data. PMID:28349973

  7. Strain-specific salt tolerance and osmoregulatory mechanisms in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Nagarajan, Thirunavukkarasu; Tripathi, Rachna; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Le Rudulier, Daniel; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2007-02-01

    Salinity stress inhibits the growth and nitrogen fixation ability of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Five strains of A. brasilense were isolated from the rhizosphere of Indian cereals and grasses and identified on the basis of their phenotypic features and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The five Indian isolates and two standard strains of A. brasilense, Sp7 and Cd, showed notable differences in growth, acetylene-reducing activity under salt stress, and ability to take up and use glycine betaine for the restoration of growth and acetylene-reducing activity under salt stress. Salt stress also enhanced the production of exopolysaccharides and cell aggregates, the extent of which varied in different strains of A. brasilense at different carbon to nitrogen ratios in the culture medium. It can be concluded that the production of exopolysaccharides and cell aggregates is a more consistent physiological response of A. brasilense to salt stress than is the uptake and osmoprotection by glycine betaine.

  8. Identification of Strain-Specific Sequences That Distinguish a Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Strain from Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, Camir; Pickler, Larissa; Maurer, John; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; García, Maricarmen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite attempts to control avian mycoplasmosis through management, vaccination, and surveillance, Mycoplasma gallisepticum continues to cause significant morbidity, mortality, and economic losses in poultry production. Live attenuated vaccines are commonly used in the poultry industry to control avian mycoplasmosis; unfortunately, some vaccines may revert to virulence and vaccine strains are generally difficult to distinguish from natural field isolates. In order to identify genome differences among vaccine revertants, vaccine strains, and field isolates, whole-genome sequencing of the M. gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 and several “ts-11-like” strains isolated from commercial flocks was performed using Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing and the sequenced genomes compared to the M. gallisepticum Rlow reference genome. The collective contigs for each strain were annotated using the fully annotated Mycoplasma reference genome. The analysis revealed genetic differences among vlhA alleles, as well as among genes annotated as coding for a cell wall surface anchor protein (mg0377) and a hypothetical protein gene, mg0359, unique to M. gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine strain. PCR protocols were designed to target 5 sequences unique to the M. gallisepticum ts-11 strain: vlhA3.04a, vlhA3.04b, vlhA3.05, mg0377, and mg0359. All ts-11 isolates were positive for the five gene alleles tested by PCR; however, 5 to 36% of field isolates were also positive for at least one of the alleles tested. A combination of PCR tests for vlhA3.04a, vlhA3.05, and mg0359 was able to distinguish the M. gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine strain from field isolates. This method will further supplement current approaches to quickly distinguish M. gallisepticum vaccine strains from field isolates. PMID:27847370

  9. Strain-Specific Virolysis Patterns of Human Noroviruses in Response to Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Woo; Collins, Nikail; Barclay, Leslie; Hu, Liya; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Vinjé, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are widely used to disinfect hands to prevent the spread of pathogens including noroviruses. Alcohols inactivate norovirus by destruction of the viral capsid, resulting in the leakage of viral RNA (virolysis). Since conflicting results have been reported on the susceptibility of human noroviruses against alcohols, we exposed a panel of 30 human norovirus strains (14 GI and 16 GII strains) to different concentrations (50%, 70%, 90%) of ethanol and isopropanol and tested the viral RNA titer by RT-qPCR. Viral RNA titers of 10 (71.4%), 14 (100%), 3 (21.4%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 GI strains were reduced by > 1 log10 RNA copies/ml after exposure to 70% and 90% ethanol, and 70% and 90% isopropanol, respectively. RNA titers of 6 of the 7 non-GII 4 strains remained unaffected after alcohol exposure. Compared to GII strains, GI strains were more susceptible to ethanol than to isopropanol. At 90%, both alcohols reduced RNA titers of 8 of the 9 GII.4 strains by ≥ 1 log10 RNA copies/ml. After exposure to 70% ethanol, RNA titers of GII.4 Den Haag and Sydney strains decreased by ≥ 1.9 log10, whereas RNA reductions for GII.4 New Orleans strains were < 0.5 log10. To explain these differences, we sequenced the complete capsid gene of the 9 GII.4 strains and identified 17 amino acid substitutions in the P2 region among the 3 GII.4 variant viruses. When comparing with an additional set of 200 GII.4 VP1 sequences, only S310 and P396 were present in all GII.4 New Orleans viruses but not in the ethanol-sensitive GII.4 Sydney and GII.4 Den Haag viruses Our data demonstrate that alcohol susceptibility patterns between different norovirus genotypes vary widely and that virolysis data for a single strain or genotype are not representative for all noroviruses. PMID:27337036

  10. Species- and Strain-Specific Adaptation of the HSP70 Super Family in Pathogenic Trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Drini, Sima; Criscuolo, Alexis; Lechat, Pierre; Imamura, Hideo; Skalický, Tomáš; Rachidi, Najma; Lukeš, Julius; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Späth, Gerald F

    2016-07-02

    All eukaryotic genomes encode multiple members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which evolved distinctive structural and functional features in response to specific environmental constraints. Phylogenetic analysis of this protein family thus can inform on genetic and molecular mechanisms that drive species-specific environmental adaptation. Here we use the eukaryotic pathogen Leishmania spp. as a model system to investigate the evolution of the HSP70 protein family in an early-branching eukaryote that is prone to gene amplification and adapts to cytotoxic host environments by stress-induced and chaperone-dependent stage differentiation. Combining phylogenetic and comparative analyses of trypanosomatid genomes, draft genome of Paratrypanosoma and recently published genome sequences of 204 L. donovani field isolates, we gained unique insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the Leishmania HSP70 protein family. We provide evidence for (i) significant evolutionary expansion of this protein family in Leishmania through gene amplification and functional specialization of highly conserved canonical HSP70 members, (ii) evolution of trypanosomatid-specific, non-canonical family members that likely gained ATPase-independent functions, and (iii) loss of one atypical HSP70 member in the Trypanosoma genus. Finally, we reveal considerable copy number variation of canonical cytoplasmic HSP70 in highly related L. donovani field isolates, thus identifying this locus as a potential hot spot of environment-genotype interaction. Our data draw a complex picture of the genetic history of HSP70 in trypanosomatids that is driven by the remarkable plasticity of the Leishmania genome to undergo massive intra-chromosomal gene amplification to compensate for the absence of regulated transcriptional control in these parasites.

  11. Species- and Strain-Specific Adaptation of the HSP70 Super Family in Pathogenic Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Drini, Sima; Criscuolo, Alexis; Lechat, Pierre; Imamura, Hideo; Skalický, Tomáš; Rachidi, Najma; Lukeš, Julius; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Späth, Gerald F.

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic genomes encode multiple members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which evolved distinctive structural and functional features in response to specific environmental constraints. Phylogenetic analysis of this protein family thus can inform on genetic and molecular mechanisms that drive species-specific environmental adaptation. Here we use the eukaryotic pathogen Leishmania spp. as a model system to investigate the evolution of the HSP70 protein family in an early-branching eukaryote that is prone to gene amplification and adapts to cytotoxic host environments by stress-induced and chaperone-dependent stage differentiation. Combining phylogenetic and comparative analyses of trypanosomatid genomes, draft genome of Paratrypanosoma and recently published genome sequences of 204 L. donovani field isolates, we gained unique insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the Leishmania HSP70 protein family. We provide evidence for (i) significant evolutionary expansion of this protein family in Leishmania through gene amplification and functional specialization of highly conserved canonical HSP70 members, (ii) evolution of trypanosomatid-specific, non-canonical family members that likely gained ATPase-independent functions, and (iii) loss of one atypical HSP70 member in the Trypanosoma genus. Finally, we reveal considerable copy number variation of canonical cytoplasmic HSP70 in highly related L. donovani field isolates, thus identifying this locus as a potential hot spot of environment–genotype interaction. Our data draw a complex picture of the genetic history of HSP70 in trypanosomatids that is driven by the remarkable plasticity of the Leishmania genome to undergo massive intra-chromosomal gene amplification to compensate for the absence of regulated transcriptional control in these parasites. PMID:27371955

  12. CONCENTRATIONS OF DIMETHYLSULFONIOPROPIONATE AND DIMETHYL SULFIDE ARE STRAIN-SPECIFIC IN SYMBIOTIC DINOFLAGELLATES (SYMBIODINIUM SP., DINOPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Steinke, Michael; Brading, Patrick; Kerrison, Philip; Warner, Mark E; Suggett, David J

    2011-08-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) are sulfur compounds that may function as antioxidants in algae. Symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium show strain-specific differences in their susceptibility to temperature-induced oxidative stress and have been shown to contain high concentrations of DMSP. We investigated continuous cultures of four strains from distinct phylotypes (A1, A13, A2, and B1) that can be characterized by differential thermal tolerances. We hypothesized that strains with high thermal tolerance have higher concentrations of DMSP and DMS in comparison to strains with low thermal tolerance. DMSP concentrations were strain-specific with highest concentrations occurring in A1 (225 ± 3.5 mmol · L(-1 ) cell volume [CV]) and lowest in A2 (158 ± 3.8 mmol · L(-1 ) CV). Both strains have high thermal tolerance. Strains with low thermal tolerance (A13 and B1) showed DMSP concentrations in between these extremes (194 ± 19.0 and 160 ± 6.1 mmol · L(-1 ) CV, respectively). DMS data further confirmed this general pattern with high DMS concentrations in A1 and A13 (4.1 ± 1.22 and 2.1 ± 0.37 mmol · L(-1 ) CV, respectively) and low DMS concentrations in A2 and B1 (0.3 ± 0.06 and 0.5 ± 0.22 mmol · L(-1) CV, respectively). Hence, the strain-specific differences in DMSP and DMS concentrations did not match the different abilities of the four phylotypes to withstand thermal stress. Future work should quantify the possible dynamics in DMSP and DMS concentrations during periods of high oxidative stress in Symbiodinium sp. and address the role of these antioxidants in zooxanthellate cnidarians.

  13. Comparative evaluation of three Lactobacilli with strain-specific activities for rats when supplied in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Jae-Myung

    2012-11-01

    To test the in vivo benefits of three lactobacilli and to compare their different efficacies based on strain-specific activities by using rats as an experimental model, a growth-promotion and a challenge trial were conducted. The three strains, Lactobacillus salivarius G1-1, Lactobacillus reuteri G22-2, and Lactobacillus reuteri G8-5 shared antimicrobial, bile-salt-hydrolase and amylolytic activities in vitro, respectively. In the 17 day growth-promotion trial, 48 rats were allotted to four treatments with 12 replicates per treatment: a control group, which received saline, as well as three experimental groups, which received 10(8) cells/ml of one of the three lactobacilli in saline suspension. The results showed that compared with the control group, L. reuteri G8-5 significantly improved feed efficiency and decreased fecal pH values on days 8 and 17, concomitant with reduced faecal coliform counts on d 17 (p < 0.05). All treatments with lactobacilli caused an increase in the moisture content of the faeces and a decrease in the serum total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was only elevated for rats which received L. reuteri G22-2. In the Salmonella-challenge trial, 40 rats were allotted to five treatments (8 replicates per treatment) which consisted of a positive control (infected, no Lactobacillus pretreatment), a negative control (uninfected, no Lactobacillus pretreatment) and three Lactobacillus-pretreated groups (10(9) cells/ml in saline). The results showed that rats in all Lactobacillus pretreated groups were protected from infection with significantly higher weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency compared with positive control rats (p < 0.05). Rats treated with L. salivarius G1-1 and L. reuteri G22-2 tended to exhibit higher weight gains than those pretreated with L. reuteri G8-5. Significantly lower Salmonella shedding in faeces, Salmonella numbers in the spleen and the relative weight of the spleen

  14. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    about capabilities); and guideline awareness and agreements ( knowledge). Conclusions Chiropractors’ use of diagnostic imaging appears to be influenced by a number of factors. Five key domains may be important considering the presence of conflicting beliefs, evidence of strong beliefs likely to impact the behavior of interest, and high frequency of beliefs. The results will inform the development of a theory-based survey to help identify potential targets for behavioral-change strategies. PMID:22938135

  15. Ester synthesis and hydrolysis in an aqueous environment, and strain specific changes during malolactic fermentation in wine with Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Sumby, Krista M; Jiranek, Vladimir; Grbin, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Previous work has shown that Oenococcus oeni produces esterases that are capable of hydrolysing artificial substrates. Using SPME-GCMS, this study provides evidence that purified O. oeni esterases have the ability to both synthesise and hydrolyse esters. Two purified esterases (EstA2 and EstB28) synthesised ethyl butanoate and ethyl hexanoate to varying degrees. Both purified esterases hydrolysed ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. Once this dual activity was confirmed, malolactic fermentation (MLF) trials were conducted in wine with O. oeni strains that had been previously observed to have either high or low esterase activity against artificial substrates. Strain specific differences were observed and strains with low esterase hydrolysis activity against artificial substrates had a higher level of total esters measured after MLF. The results demonstrate the impact that O. oeni has on wine aroma and relates this to the ester hydrolysis and synthesis abilities of O. oeni strains.

  16. The Impact of Lactobacillus casei on the Composition of the Cecal Microbiota and Innate Immune System Is Strain Specific

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Busra; De Wolfe, Travis J.; Safdar, Nasia; Darien, Benjamin J.; Steele, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic function to impact human health is thought to be related to their ability to alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the human innate immune system. The ability to function as a probiotic is believed to be strain specific. Strains of Lactobacillus casei are commonly utilized as probiotics that when consumed alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the host immune response. L. casei strains are known to differ significantly in gene content. The objective of this study was to investigate seven different L. casei strains for their ability to alter the murine gut microbiota and modulate the murine immune system. C57BL/6 mice were fed L. casei strains at a dose of 108 CFU/day/mouse for seven days and sacrificed 3.5h after the last administration. The cecal content and the ileum tissue were collected for microbiota analysis and immune profiling, respectively. While 5 of the L. casei strains altered the gut microbiota in a strain specific manner, two of the strains did not alter the overall cecal microbiota composition. The observed changes cluster into three groups containing between 1 and 2 strains. Two strains that did not affect the gut microbiota composition cluster together with the control in their impact on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expression, suggesting that the ability to alter the cecal microbiota correlates with the ability to alter PRR expression. They also cluster together in their impact on the expression of intestinal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This result suggests that a relationship exists between the capability of a L. casei strains to alter the composition of the gut microbiota, PRR regulation, and AMP regulation. PMID:27244133

  17. Strain-specific differences in the grazing sensitivities of closely related ultramicrobacteria affiliated with the Polynucleobacter cluster.

    PubMed

    Boenigk, Jens; Stadler, Peter; Wiedlroither, Anneliese; Hahn, Martin W

    2004-10-01

    Ultramicrobacteria (cell volume < 0.1 microm(3)) are the numerically dominant organisms in the plankton of marine and freshwater habitats. Flagellates and other protists are assumed to be the most important predators of these ultramicrobacteria as well as of larger planktonic bacteria. However, due to controversial observations conducted previously, it is not clear as to whether fractions of the ultramicrobacteria are resistant to flagellate predation. Furthermore, it is not known if closely related bacteria vary significantly in their sensitivity to flagellate predation. We investigated the sensitivity of ultramicrobacteria affiliated with the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter cluster to grazing by Spumella-like nanoflagellates. Laboratory grazing experiments with four closely related (> or =99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) bacteria and three closely related (100% 18S rRNA gene sequence similarity) flagellates were performed. In comparison to larger bacteria, predation on the ultramicrobacterial Polynucleobacter strains was weak, and the growth of the predating flagellates was slow. Specific clearance rates ranged between 0.14 x 10(5) and 2.8 x 10(5) units of predator size h(-1). Feeding rates strongly depended on the flagellate and bacterial strain (P < 0.001). Grazing mortality rates of the three flagellate strains investigated varied for the same prey strain by up to almost fourfold. We conclude that (i) ultramicrobacteria affiliated with the Polynucleobacter cluster are not protected from grazing, (ii) strain-specific variations in grazing sensitivity even between closely related bacteria are high, and (iii) strain-specific differences in predator-prey interaction could be an important factor in the evolution and maintenance of microbial microdiversity.

  18. Does ductal lavage assert its role as a noninvasive diagnostic modality to identify women at low risk of breast cancer development?

    PubMed Central

    Konstandiadou, Ioanna; Kotsilianou, Olympia; Karakitsos, Petros; Athanasas, George; Smyrniotis, Vasilios; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Objective Ductal lavage (DL) involves evaluation of the ductal system of the breast for detection of intra-ductal carcinomas and precursor lesions by collecting breast epithelial cells using a small-gauge catheter inserted into a ductal orifice on the nipple. The aim of this survey was to analyze cytologic features of samples obtained from low-risk women with DL and to elucidate the efficacy of this diagnostic modality in evaluating fluid production, cannulating and determining atypical breast epithelial cells. Methods Into this prospective study were consecutively registered 80 women between ages 28 to 67. Nipple aspiration was performed to identify all fluid-yielding ducts. According to the grading of specific features the interpretation of the sample included: normal/benign (category, 0), mild atypical (category, I), markedly atypical (category, II) or malignant (category, III) disorders. Results Ninety five percent (316/334) of the nipple aspirate fluid samples were classified as category 0, 4.8% (16/334) as category I and 0.2% (2/334) as category II changes. Category III disorders were not detected. Therefore, in 80% of the women examined results were within normal limits while 17.5% of the participants presented mild atypical and 2.5% markedly atypical rates. Conclusion DL collection procedure proved to be rapid as well as acceptable by the women studied. It retains the advantage over other methods of nipple aspirate fluid in that it is easy to perform, thereby removing most clinician variability. It also helped low risk women to discriminate those with breast disorders that require additional investigation, further follow-up or administration of preventive medication. PMID:22523627

  19. Suppression subtractive hybridisation and real-time PCR for strain-specific quantification of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis BAN in broiler feed.

    PubMed

    Fibi, Silvia; Klose, Viviana; Mohnl, Michaela; Weber, Barbara; Haslberger, Alexander G; Sattler, Verity Ann

    2016-04-01

    To ensure quality management during the production processes of probiotics and for efficacy testing in vivo, accurate tools are needed for the identification and quantification of probiotic strains. In this study, a strain-specific qPCR assay based on Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation (SSH) for identifying unique sequences, was developed to quantify the strain Bifidobacterium animalis BAN in broiler feed. Seventy potential BAN specific sequences were obtained after SSH of the BAN genome, with a pool of closely related strain genomes and subsequent differential screening by dot blot hybridisation. Primers were designed for 30 sequences which showed no match with any sequence database entry, using BLAST and FASTA. Primer specificity was assessed by qPCR using 45 non-target strains and species in a stepwise approach. Primer T39_S2 was the only primer pair without any unspecific binding properties and it showed a PCR efficiency of 80% with a Cq value of 17.32 for 20 ng BAN DNA. Optimised feed-matrix dependent calibration curve for the quantification of BAN was generated, ranging from 6.28 × 10(3)cfu g(-1) to 1.61 × 10(6)cfu g(-1). Limit of detection of the qPCR assay was 2 × 10(1)cfu g(-1) BAN. Applicability of the strain-specific qPCR assay was confirmed in a spiking experiment which added BAN to the feed in two concentrations, 2 × 10(6)cfu g(-1) and 2 × 10(4)cfu g(-1). Results showed BAN mean recovery rates in feed of 1.44 × 10(6) ± 4.39 × 10(5)cfu g(-1) and 1.59 × 10(4) ± 1.69 × 10(4)cfu g(-1), respectively. The presented BAN-specific qPCR assay can be applied in animal feeding trials, in order to control the correct inclusion rates of the probiotic to the feed, and it could further be adapted, to monitor the uptake of the probiotic into the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

  20. Fast and low-cost decentralized surveillance of transmission of tuberculosis based on strain-specific PCRs tailored from whole genome sequencing data: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lago, L; Martínez Lirola, M; Herranz, M; Comas, I; Bouza, E; García-de-Viedma, D

    2015-03-01

    Molecular epidemiology has transformed our knowledge of how tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has reached unprecedented levels of accuracy. However, it has increased technical requirements and costs, and analysis of data delays results. Our objective was to find a way to reconcile speed and ease of implementation with the high resolution of WGS. The targeted regional allele-specific oligonucleotide PCR (TRAP) assay presented here is based on allele-specific PCR targeting strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms, identified from WGS, and makes it possible to track actively transmitted Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. A TRAP assay was optimized to track the most actively transmitted strains in a population in Almería, Southeast Spain, with high rates of TB. TRAP was transferred to the local laboratory where transmission was occurring. It performed well from cultured isolates and directly from sputa, enabling new secondary cases of infection from the actively transmitted strains to be detected. TRAP constitutes a fast, simple and low-cost tool that could modify surveillance of TB transmission. This pilot study could help to define a new model to survey TB transmission based on a decentralized multinodal network of local laboratories applying fast and low-cost TRAPs, which are developed by central reference centres, tailored to the specific demands of transmission at each local node.

  1. Strain-specific polymorphisms in Paneth cell α-defensins of C57BL/6 mice and evidence of vestigial myeloid α-defensin pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Michael T; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ouellette, André J

    2011-01-01

    Paneth cells at the base of small intestinal crypts secrete microbicidal α-defensins, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, as mediators of innate immunity. Proteomic studies show that five abundant Paneth cell α-defensins in C57BL/6 mice are strain specific in that they have not been identified in other inbred strains of mice. Two C57BL/6-specific peptides are coded for by the Defcr20 and -21 genes evident in the NIH C57BL/6 genome but absent from the Celera mixed-strain assembly, which excludes C57BL/6 data and differs from the NIH build with respect to the organization of the α-defensin gene locus. Conversely, C57BL/6 mice lack the Crp1, -2, -4, and -6 peptides and their corresponding Defcr1, -2, -4, and -6 genes, which are common to several mouse strains, including those of the Celera assembly. In C57BL/6 mice, α-defensin gene diversification appears to have occurred by tandem duplication of a multigene cassette that was not found in the mixed-strain assembly. Both mouse genome assemblies contain conserved α-defensin pseudogenes that are closely related to functional myeloid α-defensin genes in the rat, suggesting that the neutrophil α-defensin defect in mice resulted from progressive gene loss. Given the role of α-defensins in shaping the composition of the enteric microflora, such polymorphisms may influence outcomes in mouse models of disease or infection.

  2. Comparative Proteomics Reveals Strain-Specific β-TrCP Degradation via Rotavirus NSP1 Hijacking a Host Cullin-3-Rbx1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Siyuan; Mooney, Nancie; Li, Bin; Kelly, Marcus R.; Feng, Ningguo; Loktev, Alexander V.; Sen, Adrish; Patton, John T.; Jackson, Peter K.; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2016-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children, accounting for half a million deaths annually worldwide. RV encodes non-structural protein 1 (NSP1), a well-characterized interferon (IFN) antagonist, which facilitates virus replication by mediating the degradation of host antiviral factors including IRF3 and β-TrCP. Here, we utilized six human and animal RV NSP1s as baits and performed tandem-affinity purification coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to comprehensively characterize NSP1-host protein interaction network. Multiple Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes were identified. Importantly, inhibition of cullin-3 (Cul3) or RING-box protein 1 (Rbx1), by siRNA silencing or chemical perturbation, significantly impairs strain-specific NSP1-mediated β-TrCP degradation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that NSP1 localizes to the Golgi with the host Cul3-Rbx1 CRL complex, which targets β-TrCP and NSP1 for co-destruction at the proteasome. Our study uncovers a novel mechanism that RV employs to promote β-TrCP turnover and provides molecular insights into virus-mediated innate immunity inhibition. PMID:27706223

  3. An Investigation of the Effects of a Diagnostic Prescriptive Kindergarten Program on the Predicted Reading Levels of Children Identified as Potential Reading Failures. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stank, Peggy L.; Hayes, Robert B.

    An experimental design with experimental and control groups was used to evaluate the effect of a diagnostic structured kindergarten program upon the predicted reading levels of low income area children. The effect was compared with the effect of the traditional kindergarten program. The effects of the two curricula upon the total group of children…

  4. Bifidobacterium adolescentis Exerts Strain-Specific Effects on Constipation Induced by Loperamide in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Hu, Lujun; Xu, Qi; Yin, Boxing; Fang, Dongsheng; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669) once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora. B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 relieved constipation symptoms by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells, growing quickly in vitro and increasing the concentrations of propionic and butyric acids. The effect of B. adolescentis on the gut microbiota in mice with constipation was investigated via 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased and the amount of Clostridium decreased in the B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 treatment groups. In conclusion, B. adolescentis exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of constipation, mostly due to the strains’ growth rates, adhesive capacity and effects on the gut microbiome and microenvironment. PMID:28230723

  5. Comparison of the Cowpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Mature Virion Proteome: Analysis of the Species- and Strain-Specific Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Doellinger, Joerg; Schaade, Lars; Nitsche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) causes most zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe and Northern as well as Central Asia. The virus has the broadest host range of OPV and is transmitted to humans from rodents and other wild or domestic animals. Increasing numbers of human CPXV infections in a population with declining immunity have raised concerns about the virus’ zoonotic potential. While there have been reports on the proteome of other human-pathogenic OPV, namely vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV), the protein composition of the CPXV mature virion (MV) is unknown. This study focused on the comparative analysis of the VACV and CPXV MV proteome by label-free single-run proteomics using nano liquid chromatography and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The presented data reveal that the common VACV and CPXV MV proteome contains most of the known conserved and essential OPV proteins and is associated with cellular proteins known to be essential for viral replication. While the species-specific proteome could be linked mainly to less genetically-conserved gene products, the strain-specific protein abundance was found to be of high variance in proteins associated with entry, host-virus interaction and protein processing. PMID:26556597

  6. Inhibition of chlamydiae by primary alcohols correlates with the strain-specific complement of plasticity zone phospholipase D genes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Crane, Deborah D; Taylor, Lacey D; Dorward, David W; Goheen, Morgan M; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2006-01-01

    Members of the genus Chlamydia are obligate intracellular pathogens that have a unique biphasic developmental cycle and interactions with host cells. Many genes that dictate host infection tropism and, putatively, pathogenic manifestations of disease are clustered in a hypervariable region of the genome termed the plasticity zone (PZ). Comparative genomics studies have determined that an uncharacterized family of PZ genes encoding orthologs of eukaryotic and prokaryotic members of the phospholipase D (PLD) enzyme family varies among chlamydiae. Here, we show that the PZ PLD (pzPLD) of Chlamydia trachomatis are transcribed during both normal and persistent infection and that the corresponding PLD proteins are predominantly localized in reticulate bodies on the inner leaflet of the inclusion membrane. Further, we show that strains of chlamydiae encoding the pzPLD, but not a strain lacking these genes, are inhibited by primary alcohols, potent PLD inhibitors, during growth in HeLa 229 cells. This inhibitory effect is amplified approximately 5,000-fold during recovery from persistent infection. These findings suggest that the chlamydial pzPLD may be important, strain-specific, pathogenesis factors in vivo.

  7. Development of a strain-specific genomic marker for monitoring a Bacillus subtilis biocontrol strain in the rhizosphere of tomato.

    PubMed

    Felici, Cristiana; Vettori, Lorenzo; Toffanin, Annita; Nuti, Marco

    2008-08-01

    A strain-specific molecular marker enabling the detection and tracking of the biological control agent Bacillus subtilis 101, when released into the environment, was developed. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to differentiate this from other B. subtilis strains. A differentially amplified fragment obtained from RAPD profiles was sequenced and characterized as sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker, and four primer pairs were designed and evaluated for their specificity towards this strain. The sensibility of the selected SCAR primer pair was evaluated by qualitative PCR and Southern blotting, and the detection limit was assessed around 10(2) CFU (g dry wt soil)(-1), thus providing a reliable tool for the traceability of this B. subtilis strain in greenhouse or field trials. A plating assay coupled to PCR with the SCAR primer pair was then used as a detection method in microcosm experiments for monitoring the population of B. subtilis 101 in the rhizosphere of tomato, grown under two different soil conditions, i.e. nonsterile peat-based substrate and sandy-loam agricultural soil, respectively. The data of rhizosphere colonization indicated that the soil conditions significantly affected the rhizosphere establishment of strain 101.

  8. A pseudaminic acid or a legionaminic acid derivative transferase is strain-specifically implicated in the general protein O-glycosylation system of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Tomek, Markus B; Janesch, Bettina; Maresch, Daniel; Windwarder, Markus; Altmann, Friedrich; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2017-03-16

    The occurrence of nonulosonic acids in bacteria is wide-spread and linked to pathogenicity. However, the knowledge of cognate nonulosonic acid transferases is scarce. In the periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, several proposed virulence factors carry strain-specifically either a pseudaminic or a legionaminic acid derivative as terminal sugar on an otherwise structurally identical, protein-bound oligosaccharide. This study aims to shed light on the transfer of either nonulosonic acid derivative on a proximal N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid residue within the O-glycan structure, exemplified with the bacterium's abundant S-layer glycoproteins. Bioinformatic analyses provided the candidate genes Tanf_01245 (strain ATCC 43037) and TFUB4_00887 (strain UB4), encoding a putative pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase, respectively. These transferases have identical C-termini and contain motifs typical of glycosyltransferases (DXD) and bacterial sialyltransferases (D/E-D/E-G and HP). They share homology to type B glycosyltransferases and TagB, an enzyme catalyzing glycerol transfer to an N-acetylmannosamine residue in teichoic acid biosynthesis. Analysis of a cellular pool of nucleotide-activated sugars confirmed the presence of the CMP-activated nonulosonic acid derivatives, which are most likely serving as substrates for the corresponding transferase. Single gene knock-out mutants targeted at either transferase were analyzed for S-layer O-glycan composition by ESI-MS, confirming the loss of the nonulosonic acid derivative. Cross-complementation of the mutants with the nonnative nonulosonic acid transferase was not successful indicating high stringency of the enzymes. This study identified plausible candidates for a pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase; these may serve as valuable tools for engineering of novel sialoglycoconjugates.

  9. A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory immune responses.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shashank; Balasubramaniam, Vinod R M T; Brown, Julia A; Mena, Ignacio; Grant, Alesha; Bardina, Susana V; Maringer, Kevin; Schwarz, Megan C; Maestre, Ana M; Sourisseau, Marion; Albrecht, Randy A; Krammer, Florian; Evans, Matthew J; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Lim, Jean K; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS), gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms. Further, we exploit this model to compare ZIKV pathogenesis caused by a panel of ZIKV strains of a range of spatiotemporal history of isolation and representing African and Asian lineages. We observed that African ZIKV strains induce short episodes of severe neurological symptoms followed by lethality. In comparison, Asian strains manifest prolonged signs of neuronal malfunctions, occasionally causing death of the Stat2-/- mice. African ZIKV strains induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers associated with cellular infiltration in the infected brain in mice, which may explain exacerbated pathogenesis in comparison to those of the Asian lineage. Interestingly, viral RNA levels in different organs did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the different strains. Taken together, we have established a new murine model that supports ZIKV infection and demonstrate its utility in highlighting intrinsic differences in the inflammatory response induced by different ZIKV strains leading to severity of disease. This study paves the way for the future interrogation of strain-specific changes in the ZIKV genome and their contribution to viral pathogenesis.

  10. A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shashank; Balasubramaniam, Vinod R. M. T.; Grant, Alesha; Maestre, Ana M.; Sourisseau, Marion; Krammer, Florian; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Lim, Jean K.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS), gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms. Further, we exploit this model to compare ZIKV pathogenesis caused by a panel of ZIKV strains of a range of spatiotemporal history of isolation and representing African and Asian lineages. We observed that African ZIKV strains induce short episodes of severe neurological symptoms followed by lethality. In comparison, Asian strains manifest prolonged signs of neuronal malfunctions, occasionally causing death of the Stat2-/- mice. African ZIKV strains induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers associated with cellular infiltration in the infected brain in mice, which may explain exacerbated pathogenesis in comparison to those of the Asian lineage. Interestingly, viral RNA levels in different organs did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the different strains. Taken together, we have established a new murine model that supports ZIKV infection and demonstrate its utility in highlighting intrinsic differences in the inflammatory response induced by different ZIKV strains leading to severity of disease. This study paves the way for the future interrogation of strain-specific changes in the ZIKV genome and their contribution to viral pathogenesis. PMID:28278235

  11. Gut Microbes manuscript type: Commentary and views submission probiotics, D-Lactic acidosis, oxidative stress and strain specificity.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Coulson, Samantha; Thomsen, Michael; Nguyen, Tony; Hall, Sean

    2017-01-12

    The existence of an implicit living microscopic world, composed primarily of bacteria, has been known for centuries. The exact mechanisms that govern the contribution of bacteria to human health and disease have only recently become the subject of intense research efforts. Within this very evident shift in paradigms, the rational design of probiotic formulations has led to the creation of an industry that seeks to progress the engineering of probiotic bacteria that produce metabolites that may enhance human host health and prevent disease. The promotion of probiotics is often made in the absence of quality scientific and clinically plausible data. The latest incursions into the probiotic market of claims have posited the amelioration of oxidative stress via potent antioxidant attributes or limiting the administration of probiotics to those species that do not produce D-Lactic acid (i.e., claims that D-Lactic acid acidosis is linked to chronic health conditions) or are strain-specific (shaping an industry point of difference) for appraising a therapeutic effect. Evidence-based research should guide clinical practice, as there is no place in science and medicine that supports unsubstantiated claims. Extravagant industry based notions continue to fuel the imprimatur of distrust and skepticism that is leveled by scientists and clinicians at an industry that is already rife with scientific and medical distrust and questionable views on probiotics. Ignoring scientifically discordant data, when sorting through research innovations and false leads relevant to the actions of probiotics, drives researcher discomfit and keeps the bar low, impeding the progress of knowledge. Biologically plausible posits are obligatory in any research effort; companies formulating probiotics often exhibit a lack of analytical understanding that then fuels questionable investigations failing to build on research capacity.

  12. cis Elements and trans factors are both important in strain-specific regulation of the leukotoxin gene in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodrubetz, D; Spitznagel, J; Wang, B; Phillips, L H; Jacobs, C; Kraig, E

    1996-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, the etiologic agent of localized juvenile periodontitis, produces a potent leukotoxin that kills human neutrophils. The production of leukotoxin RNA can vary more than 50-fold among isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and strains expressing high levels of leukotoxin RNA are most often found at sites of periodontal disease. To assess the relative contributions of transcription factors and promoter sequences in setting the disparate levels of leukotoxin RNA found, we have undertaken classical cis/trans analyses. First, the leukotoxin promoter regions from moderately leukotoxic (Y4) and minimally leukotoxic (ATCC 33384) strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously sequences leukotoxin promoter region of the high-producer strain JP2. The Y4 and ATCC 33384 promoter regions each contain a 528-bp segment that is absent from JP2. Interestingly, the analysis of various deletion constructs in A. actinomycetemcomitans indicated that Y4, despite the large insertion, initiates leukotoxin RNA synthesis at the same promoter as JP2 does. To perform cis/trans analyses, these three leukotoxin promoter regions were cloned into a plasmid upstream of the reporter gene beta-galactosidase. Each plasmid was transformed into JP2, Y4, and ATCC 33384, and the beta-galactosidase levels were determined. The results indicated that the sequences responsible for down-regulating leukotoxin RNA levels in Y4 relative to JP2 are found within the transcribed region of the Y4 leukotoxin operon. Importantly, in ATCC 33384, strain-specific trans factors and promoter sequence differences are equally significant in determining the lower levels of leukotoxin RNA. We hypothesize that either strain ATCC 33384 has a negative regulatory protein (which is missing or mutated in JP2/Y4) or that JP2 and Y4 carry an activator that is missing or mutated in ATCC 33384. PMID:8751884

  13. [Strain-specific antibodies as an indicator of the circulation of wild poliomyelitis viruses and their role in the formation of collective immunity in the population].

    PubMed

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P; Lavrova, I K; Efimova, V F

    2004-01-01

    Essential differences in the intensity of collective immunity to poliomyelitis in the donors of Moscow and Kaluga were established. To find out the nature of high characteristics of collective immunity to poliovirus, types 1 and 2, in the donors of Kaluga, strain-specific antibodies to wild and vaccine polioviruses were studied. In a considerable number of donors strain-specific antibodies to poliovirus, types 1 and 2, were detected. This made it possible to presume a sufficiently wide circulation of these viruses among the population of the city in the middle of the 20th century and, as a consequence, high level of collective immunity appeared. Strain-specific antibodies to poliovirus of type 3 were rarely detected. This made it possible to suggest that the circulation of viruses of this type among the population was limited. Immunity to viruses of this type was due only to immunization. For this reason the characteristics of collective immunity in the donors of Moscow and Kaluga coincided. The detection of strain-specific antibodies to poliomyelitis virus allowed to retrospectively form the opinion of the spread and time of the circulation of wild poliomyelitis viruses in the population.

  14. Pseudomonas fluorescens Transportome Is Linked to Strain-Specific Plant Growth Promotion in Aspen Seedlings under Nutrient Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Shalaka; Cumming, Jonathan R.; Collart, Frank R.; Noirot, Philippe H.; Larsen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Diverse communities of bacteria colonize plant roots and the rhizosphere. Many of these rhizobacteria are symbionts and provide plant growth promotion (PGP) services, protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic stresses and increasing plant productivity by providing access to nutrients that would otherwise be unavailable to roots. In return, these symbiotic bacteria receive photosynthetically-derived carbon (C), in the form of sugars and organic acids, from plant root exudates. PGP activities have been characterized for a variety of forest tree species and are important in C cycling and sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. The molecular mechanisms of these PGP activities, however, are less well-known. In a previous analysis of Pseudomonas genomes, we found that the bacterial transportome, the aggregate activity of a bacteria's transmembrane transporters, was most predictive for the ecological niche of Pseudomonads in the rhizosphere. Here, we used Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen) seedlings inoculated with one of three Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and WH6) and one Pseudomonas protegens (Pf-5) as a laboratory model to further investigate the relationships between the predicted transportomic capacity of a bacterial strain and its observed PGP effects in laboratory cultures. Conditions of low nitrogen (N) or low phosphorus (P) availability and the corresponding replete media conditions were investigated. We measured phenotypic and biochemical parameters of P. tremuloides seedlings and correlated P. fluorescens strain-specific transportomic capacities with P. tremuloides seedling phenotype to predict the strain and nutrient environment-specific transporter functions that lead to experimentally observed, strain, and media-specific PGP activities and the capacity to protect plants against nutrient stress. These predicted transportomic functions fall in three groups: (i) transport of compounds that modulate aspen seedling root

  15. Strain-specific Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition among Malian children immunized with a blood-stage malaria vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kouriba, Bourema; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke; Angov, Evelina; Coulibaly, Drissa; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Niangaly, Amadou; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W. Ripley; Vekemans, Johan; Lanar, David E.; Dutta, Sheetij; Diggs, Carter; Soisson, Lorraine; Heppner, D. Gray; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2017-01-01

    The blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A, comprised of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the adjuvant system AS02A, had strain-specific efficacy against clinical malaria caused by P. falciparum with the vaccine strain 3D7 AMA1 sequence. To evaluate a potential correlate of protection, we measured the ability of participant sera to inhibit growth of 3D7 and FVO strains in vitro using high-throughput growth inhibition assay (GIA) testing. Sera from 400 children randomized to receive either malaria vaccine or a control rabies vaccine were assessed at baseline and over two annual malaria transmission seasons after immunization. Baseline GIA against vaccine strain 3D7 and FVO strain was similar in both groups, but more children in the malaria vaccine group than in the control group had 3D7 and FVO GIA activity ≥15% 30 days after the last vaccination (day 90) (49% vs. 16%, p<0.0001; and 71.8% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.02). From baseline to day 90, 3D7 GIA in the vaccine group was 7.4 times the mean increase in the control group (p<0.0001). In AMA1 vaccinees, 3D7 GIA activity subsequently returned to baseline one year after vaccination (day 364) and did not correlate with efficacy in the extended efficacy time period to day 730. In Cox proportional hazards regression models with time-varying covariates, there was a slight suggestion of an association between 3D7 GIA activity and increased risk of clinical malaria between day 90 and day 240. We conclude that vaccination with this AMA1-based malaria vaccine increased inhibition of parasite growth, but this increase was not associated with allele-specific efficacy in the first malaria season. These results provide a framework for testing functional immune correlates of protection against clinical malaria in field trials, and will help to guide similar analyses for next-generation malaria vaccines. Clinical trials registry: This clinical trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov, registry

  16. Musculoskeletal Management of a Patient With a History of Chronic Ankle Sprains: Identifying Rupture of Peroneal Brevis and Peroneal Longus With Diagnostic Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Bruin, Dick B.; von Piekartz, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of mobilization and eccentric exercise training for a patient with ankle pain and a history of chronic ankle sprains and discuss the course of diagnostic decision making when the patient did not respond to care. Clinical Features A 48-year-old police officer who had sustained multiple ankle sprains throughout his life presented with pain and restriction in his ability to walk, run, and work. The Global Rating of Change Scale score was − 6, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale score was 7/10, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale score was − 33. Palpation of the peroneus longus and brevis muscles and inversion with overpressure reproduced the chief concern (Numeric Pain Rating Scale 7/10). The patient was initially diagnosed with chronic peroneal tendinopathy. Intervention and Outcome Treatment included lateral translation mobilization of the talocrural joint combined with eccentric exercise using an elastic band for the peroneal muscles. The patient reported improvement in pain and function during the course of intervention but not as rapidly as expected. Therefore, follow-up ultrasonographic imaging and radiography were performed. These studies revealed partial rupture of the peroneal brevis muscle and total rupture of the peroneal longus muscle. Conclusion A patient with long-term concerns of the foot complex with a diagnosis of peroneal tendinopathy showed slight improvement with eccentric exercises combined with manual therapy of the talocrural joint. After a course of treatment but minimal response, a diagnosis of tendon rupture was confirmed with diagnostic ultrasonography. Clinicians should be aware that when injuries do not improve with care, tendon rupture should be considered. PMID:25225470

  17. Heterosubtypic Antibodies to Influenza A Virus Have Limited Activity against Cell-Bound Virus but Are Not Impaired by Strain-Specific Serum Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wyrzucki, Arkadiusz; Bianchi, Matteo; Kohler, Ines; Steck, Marco

    2014-01-01

    irreversible and that efficient neutralization is possible only if stem-specific hMAbs bind to HA before the virus attaches to the cell surface. No interference between strain-specific human serum immunoglobulin and hMAbs was found, indicating that preexisting humoral immunity to influenza virus does not limit the efficacy of stem-reactive heterosubtypic antibodies. This knowledge supports the development of a pan-influenza virus vaccine. PMID:25552718

  18. Identifying Misconceptions Related to Chemical Bonding Concepts in the Slovak School System Using the Bonding Representations Inventory as a Diagnostic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrabec, Michal; Prokša, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present the results of a study in which we tested the use of the experimental inventory BRI (Bonding Representations Inventory), developed by Cynthia J. Luxford and Stacey Lowery Bretz. The aim of our study was to test the usability of the experimental instrument in the Slovak educational system and to identify concrete…

  19. Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

  20. Development of a sequence-characterized amplified region marker-targeted quantitative PCR assay for strain-specific detection of Oenococcus oeni during wine malolactic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa; Giudici, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Control over malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a difficult goal in winemaking and needs rapid methods to monitor Oenococcus oeni malolactic starters (MLS) in a stressful environment such as wine. In this study, we describe a novel quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay enabling the detection of an O. oeni strain during MLF without culturing. O. oeni strain LB221 was used as a model to develop a strain-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker derived from a discriminatory OPA20-based randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band. The 5' and 3' flanking regions and the copy number of the SCAR marker were characterized using inverse PCR and Southern blotting, respectively. Primer pairs targeting the SCAR sequence enabled strain-specific detection without cross amplification of other O. oeni strains or wine species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and yeasts. The SCAR-QPCR assay was linear over a range of cell concentrations (7 log units) and detected as few as 2.2 × 10(2) CFU per ml of red wine with good quantification effectiveness, as shown by the correlation of QPCR and plate counting results. Therefore, the cultivation-independent monitoring of a single O. oeni strain in wine based on a SCAR marker represents a rapid and effective strain-specific approach. This strategy can be adopted to develop easy and rapid detection techniques for monitoring the implantation of inoculated O. oeni MLS on the indigenous LAB population, reducing the risk of unsuccessful MLF.

  1. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  2. A comparative proteomic study of plasma in feline pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify diagnostic biomarkers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Meachem, Melissa D.; Snead, Elisabeth R.; Kidney, Beverly A.; Jackson, Marion L.; Dickinson, Ryan; Larson, Victoria; Simko, Elemir

    2015-01-01

    While pancreatitis is now recognized as a common ailment in cats, the diagnosis remains challenging due to discordant results and suboptimal sensitivity of ultrasound and specific feline pancreatic lipase (Spec fPL) assay. Pancreatitis also shares similar clinical features with pancreatic carcinoma, a rare but aggressive disease with a grave prognosis. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the plasma proteomes of normal healthy cats (n = 6), cats with pancreatitis (n = 6), and cats with pancreatic carcinoma (n = 6) in order to identify potential new biomarkers of feline pancreatic disease. After plasma protein separation by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein spots were detected by Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 staining and identified by mass spectrometry. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), and apolipoprotein-A1 precursor (Pre Apo-A1) appeared to be differentially expressed, which suggests the presence of a systemic acute-phase response and alteration of lipid metabolism in cats with pancreatic disease. Future studies involving greater case numbers are needed in order to assess the utility of these proteins as potential biomarkers. More sensitive proteomic techniques may also be helpful in detecting significant but low-abundance proteins. PMID:26130850

  3. Proteome Profiling of Urinary Exosomes Identifies Alpha 1-Antitrypsin and H2B1K as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Wu, His-Chin; Lin, Ching-Chan; Chang, Kai-Po; Yang, Chi-Rei; Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chen, Chao-Jung

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF spectrometry has not been used for urinary exosome analysis. We used it for determining UC biomarkers. From 2012 to 2015, we enrolled 129 consecutive patients with UC and 62 participants without UC. Exosomes from their urine were isolated, and analyzed through MALDI-TOF spectrometry. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of another 122 UC and 26 non-UC tissues was conducted to verify the discovered biomarkers. Two peaks at m/z 5593 (fragmented peptide of alpha-1-antitrypsin; sensitivity, 50.4%; specificity, 96.9%) and m/z 5947 (fragmented peptide of histone H2B1K sensitivity, 62.0%; specificity, 92.3%) were identified as UC diagnosis exosome biomarkers. UC patients with detectable histone H2B1K showed 2.29- and 3.11-fold increased risks of recurrence and progression, respectively, compared with those with nondetectable histone H2B1K. Verification results of IHC staining revealed significantly higher expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin (p = 0.038) and H2B1K (p = 0.005) in UC tissues than in normal tissues. The expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin and H2B1K in UC tissues was significantly correlated with UC grades (p < 0.05). Urinary exosome proteins alpha 1-antitrypsin and histone H2B1K, which are identified through MALDI-TOF analysis, could facilitate rapid diagnosis and prognosis of UC. PMID:27686150

  4. Simultaneous use of camera and probe diagnostics to unambiguously identify and study the dynamics of multiple underlying instabilities during the route to plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, S. C. Tynan, G. R.; Brandt, C.; Cui, L.; Gosselin, J. J.; Light, A.

    2014-11-15

    We use multiple-tip Langmuir probes and fast imaging to unambiguously identify and study the dynamics of underlying instabilities during the controlled route to fully-developed plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized helicon plasma device. Langmuir probes measure radial profiles of electron temperature, plasma density and potential; from which we compute linear growth rates of instabilities, cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations, Reynold's stress, particle flux, vorticity, time-delay estimated velocity, etc. Fast imaging complements the 1D probe measurements by providing temporally and spatially resolved 2D details of plasma structures associated with the instabilities. We find that three radially separated plasma instabilities exist simultaneously. Density gradient driven resistive drift waves propagating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction separate the plasma into an edge region dominated by strong, velocity shear driven Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and a central core region which shows coherent Rayleigh-Taylor modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. The simultaneous, complementary use of both probes and camera was crucial to identify the instabilities and understand the details of the very rich plasma dynamics.

  5. Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moltzahn, Felix; Olshen, Adam B.; Baehner, Lauren; Peek, Andrew; Fong, Lawrence; Stöppler, Hubert; Simko, Jeffry; Hilton, Joan F.; Carroll, Peter; Blelloch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and non-invasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as non-invasive markers for physiological and pathological conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method involving purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA - deficient) mouse ES cells (mESC) as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique, while uncovering a significant lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21098088

  6. Postnatal Identification of Trisomy 21: An Overview of 7,133 Postnatal Trisomy 21 Cases Identified in a Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Menghua; Jiang, Shuai; Wu, Binbin; Luo, Huali; Wen, Jingyi; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the cytogenetic characteristics of 7,133 trisomy 21 (Tri21) identified from 247,818 consecutive postnatal cases karyotyped in a single reference laboratory in China for a period of 4 years. The average detection rate of Tri21 is 2.88% ranging from 3.39% in 2011 to 2.52% in 2014. The decreased detection rates over the years might reflect a possible impact of noninvasive prenatal testing applied rapidly in China and elective termination of affected pregnancies. 95.32% of the Tri21 karyotypes are standard Tri21, 4.53% are Robertsonian Tri21, and less than 1% are other Tri21 forms. There are more mosaic Tri21 in older children and adults, consistent with previous observations that clinical features in individuals with mosaic Tri21 are generally milder and easily missed during perinatal period. The male/female (M/F ratio) for the total 7,133 Tri21 cases and for the 6,671 cases with non-mosaic standard Tri21 are 1.50 and 1.53 respectively, significantly higher than the 0.93 for all the 247,818 cases we karyotyped, the 1.30 for the Down syndrome (DS) identified during perinatal period in China, and the 1.20 for the livebirth in Chinese population. In contrast, the mosaic standard Tri21 case has a significantly lower proportion of males when compared with the non-mosaic standard Tri21, indicating different underlying mechanisms leading to their formations. Opposite M/F ratios in different subtypes of ROB Tri21 were observed. A long list of rare or private karyotypes where Tri21 are concurrently present was identified. The large collection of Tri21 cases with a diversity of clinical findings and a wide age range allowed us to determine the frequency of the different karyotypes of Down syndrome in China, given the fact that this kind of national epidemiological data is lacking currently. PMID:26176847

  7. Postnatal Identification of Trisomy 21: An Overview of 7,133 Postnatal Trisomy 21 Cases Identified in a Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Chen, Fan; Wu, Menghua; Jiang, Shuai; Wu, Binbin; Luo, Huali; Wen, Jingyi; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the cytogenetic characteristics of 7,133 trisomy 21 (Tri21) identified from 247,818 consecutive postnatal cases karyotyped in a single reference laboratory in China for a period of 4 years. The average detection rate of Tri21 is 2.88% ranging from 3.39% in 2011 to 2.52% in 2014. The decreased detection rates over the years might reflect a possible impact of noninvasive prenatal testing applied rapidly in China and elective termination of affected pregnancies. 95.32% of the Tri21 karyotypes are standard Tri21, 4.53% are Robertsonian Tri21, and less than 1% are other Tri21 forms. There are more mosaic Tri21 in older children and adults, consistent with previous observations that clinical features in individuals with mosaic Tri21 are generally milder and easily missed during perinatal period. The male/female (M/F ratio) for the total 7,133 Tri21 cases and for the 6,671 cases with non-mosaic standard Tri21 are 1.50 and 1.53 respectively, significantly higher than the 0.93 for all the 247,818 cases we karyotyped, the 1.30 for the Down syndrome (DS) identified during perinatal period in China, and the 1.20 for the livebirth in Chinese population. In contrast, the mosaic standard Tri21 case has a significantly lower proportion of males when compared with the non-mosaic standard Tri21, indicating different underlying mechanisms leading to their formations. Opposite M/F ratios in different subtypes of ROB Tri21 were observed. A long list of rare or private karyotypes where Tri21 are concurrently present was identified. The large collection of Tri21 cases with a diversity of clinical findings and a wide age range allowed us to determine the frequency of the different karyotypes of Down syndrome in China, given the fact that this kind of national epidemiological data is lacking currently.

  8. Identifying diagnostically-relevant resting state brain functional connectivity in the ventral posterior complex via genetic data mining in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Philip R; Curtis, Kaylah N; Patriquin, Michelle A; Wolf, Varina; Viswanath, Humsini; Shaw, Chad; Sakai, Yasunari; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-05-01

    Exome sequencing and copy number variation analyses continue to provide novel insight to the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The growing speed at which massive genetic data are produced causes serious lags in analysis and interpretation of the data. Thus, there is a need to develop systematic genetic data mining processes that facilitate efficient analysis of large datasets. We report a new genetic data mining system, ProcessGeneLists and integrated a list of ASD-related genes with currently available resources in gene expression and functional connectivity of the human brain. Our data-mining program successfully identified three primary regions of interest (ROIs) in the mouse brain: inferior colliculus, ventral posterior complex of the thalamus (VPC), and parafascicular nucleus (PFn). To understand its pathogenic relevance in ASD, we examined the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the homologous ROIs in human brain with other brain regions that were previously implicated in the neuro-psychiatric features of ASD. Among them, the RSFC of the VPC with the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) was significantly more anticorrelated, whereas the RSFC of the PN with the globus pallidus was significantly increased in children with ASD compared with healthy children. Moreover, greater values of RSFC between VPC and MFG were correlated with severity index and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. No significant RSFC differences were detected in adults with ASD. Together, these data demonstrate the utility of our data-mining program through identifying the aberrant connectivity of thalamo-cortical circuits in children with ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 553-562. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study.

  10. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.

  11. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 to determine strain-specific genomic regions and gentisate biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Madsen, Eugene L; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2011-10-01

    The comparative genomics of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 assayed with A. baylyi ADP1, A. calcoaceticus PHEA-2, and A. baumannii ATCC 17978 revealed that the incorporation of phage-related genomic regions and the absence of transposable elements have contributed to the large size (4.15 Mb) of the DR1 genome. A horizontally transferred genomic region and a higher proportion of transcriptional regulator- and signal peptide-coding genes were identified as characteristics of the DR1 genome. Incomplete glucose metabolism, metabolic pathways of aromatic compounds, biofilm formation, antibiotics and metal resistance, and natural competence genes were conserved in four compared genomes. Interestingly, only strain DR1 possesses gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (nagI) and grows on gentisate, whereas other species cannot. Expression of the nagI gene was upregulated during gentisate utilization, and four downstream open reading frames (ORFs) were cotranscribed, supporting the notion that gentisate metabolism is a unique characteristic of strain DR1. The genomic analysis of strain DR1 provides additional insights into the function, ecology, and evolution of Acinetobacter species.

  13. Detection and serotyping of Mediterranean plum pox virus isolates by means of strain-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Boscia, D; Caglayan, K; Gavriel, I; Ghanem, G; Varveri, C; Savino, V

    1998-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a major threat to the expanding Mediterranean stone fruit industry. In order to control the plum pox disease it is of utmost importance to detect early PPV foci and to identify the PPV isolates involved. A survey was therefore carried out in Albania, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy and Turkey by a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with the following monoclonal antibodies (MAbs): 5B (universal), 4DG5 (PPV-D-specific), AL (PPV-M-specific), TUV and AC (PPV-C-specific), and EA24 (PPV-El Amar-specific). A hundred and seventy Mediterranean PPV isolates were tested for strain type. PPV-M was detected in Albania, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, and Turkey; PPV-D was detected in Albania and Italy, whereas samples with natural mixtures of both strains were found in a couple of orchards in Albania. Seven PPV isolates from apricots in two Egyptian localities were recognized only by MAb EA24. In conclusion, DAS-ELISA with a combination of the universal MAb5B and the MAbs specific to the four PPV serotypes currently known (M, D, C and El Amar) is an efficient tool for a simple, sensitive and routine detection of PPV and discrimination of its serotypes.

  14. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  15. Strain-specific variation of the decorin-binding adhesin DbpA influences the tissue tropism of the lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Pin; Benoit, Vivian; Yang, Xiuli; Martínez-Herranz, Raúl; Pal, Utpal; Leong, John M

    2014-07-01

    Lyme disease spirochetes demonstrate strain- and species-specific differences in tissue tropism. For example, the three major Lyme disease spirochete species, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, are each most commonly associated with overlapping but distinct spectra of clinical manifestations. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common Lyme spirochete in the U.S., is closely associated with arthritis. The attachment of microbial pathogens to cells or to the extracellular matrix of target tissues may promote colonization and disease, and the Lyme disease spirochete encodes several surface proteins, including the decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding adhesin DbpA, which vary among strains and have been postulated to contribute to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. DbpA variants differ in their ability to bind to its host ligands and to cultured mammalian cells. To directly test whether variation in dbpA influences tissue tropism, we analyzed murine infection by isogenic B. burgdorferi strains that encode different dbpA alleles. Compared to dbpA alleles of B. afzelii strain VS461 or B. burgdorferi strain N40-D10/E9, dbpA of B. garinii strain PBr conferred the greatest decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding activity, promoted the greatest colonization at the inoculation site and heart, and caused the most severe carditis. The dbpA of strain N40-D10/E9 conferred the weakest decorin- and GAG-binding activity, but the most robust joint colonization and was the only dbpA allele capable of conferring significant joint disease. Thus, dbpA mediates colonization and disease by the Lyme disease spirochete in an allele-dependent manner and may contribute to the etiology of distinct clinical manifestations associated with different Lyme disease strains. This study provides important support for the long-postulated model that strain-specific variations of Borrelia surface proteins influence tissue tropism.

  16. [Optimisation of diagnostics and differential diagnostics disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Demikhova, O V; Karpina, N L; Lepekha, L N; Bagirov, M A; Amansakhedov, R B

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons of dramatic situation with tuberculosis in Russia is untimely diagnostics of tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to identify the causes of diagnostic mistakes when we deal with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis at current stage and to modernize the diagnostic process. The analysis of the diagnostic activity of the consultative diagnostic center of Central Tuberculosis Research Institute of Russian Academy Medical Sciences for 2011 was performed with special attention on the results of the survey of 505 patients with pulmonary dissemination. The frequency of discrepancies of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostics was 96.1%. Based on the studies carried out the main causes diagnostic mistakes in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis were determined. New directions of improving of tuberculosis diagnostics were developed: overall high-technology examination of patient, adherence to the diagnostic procedure, developed by consultative diagnostic center of Central Tuberculosis Research Institute (CTRI), timely performing fiber-optic bronchoscopy with complex biopsy and diagnostic surgery procedures, further training of primary health care doctors. Implementation of proposed activities will significantly (by 3-5 times) reduce the time for diagnostics of respiratory system disease.

  17. [Thalassaemia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kusters, Elske; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; van Rossum, André P

    2014-01-01

    The thalassaemias are characterised by quantitative aberrations in the production of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin, and are a subgroup of the haemoglobinopathies. In this LabQuiz we show how thalassaemia carrier status can be indicated in the results of regular laboratory tests, and discuss the laboratory diagnostics that can confirm or rule out thalassaemia. In these two cases we will present a man of Moroccan descent, and two brothers of Filipino descent, all with anaemia and microcytosis. We show it is possible to differentiate between iron-deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia carrier status on the basis of a complete blood count and measurement of ferritin levels, and which laboratory diagnostics can be subsequently performed in order to confirm a suspicion of thalassaemia. The background section discusses the properties and pitfalls of routine laboratory diagnostics for the thalassaemias, and thalassaemia diagnostics in the Dutch newborn screening programme.

  18. Paradoxical suppression of poly-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies in the presence of strain-specific neutralizing antibodies following HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ciupe, Stanca M; De Leenheer, Patrick; Kepler, Thomas B

    2011-05-21

    One of the first immunologic responses against HIV infection is the presence of neutralizing antibodies that seem able to inactivate several HIV strains. Moreover, in vitro studies have shown the existence of monoclonal antibodies that exhibit broad crossclade neutralizing potential. Yet their number is low and slow to develop in vivo. In this paper, we investigate the potential benefits of inducing poly-specific neutralizing antibodies in vivo throughout immunization. We develop a mathematical model that considers the activation of families of B lymphocytes producing poly-specific and strain-specific antibodies and use it to demonstrate that, even if such families are successful in producing neutralizing antibodies, the competition between them may limit the poly-specific response allowing the virus to escape. We modify this model to account for viral evolution under the pressure of antibody responses in natural HIV infection. The model can reproduce viral escape under certain conditions of B lymphocyte competition. Using these models we provide explanations for the observed antibody failure in controlling natural infection and predict quantitative measures that need to be satisfied for long-term control of HIV infection.

  19. Diagnosis of amebic dysentery by detection of Entamoeba histolytica fecal antigen by an invasive strain-specific, monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ruiz, A; Haque, R; Rehman, T; Aguirre, A; Hall, A; Guhl, F; Warhurst, D C; Miles, M A

    1994-01-01

    An invasive strain-specific monoclonal antibody against Entamoeba histolytica has been used in a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of invasive E. histolytica fecal antigen in clinical specimens and for the diagnosis of amebic dysentery in patients from Bangladesh. The fecal antigen capture ELISA (FAC-ELISA) did not cross-react with other parasite species in the clinical specimens or with noninvasive E. histolytica present in those specimens and in experimentally seeded stools. The limit of detection of the assay for invasive E. histolytica crude antigen diluted in phosphate-buffered saline or in stools was 0.58 and 3.9 micrograms/ml, respectively, which is the equivalent of approximately 72 and 487 E. histolytica trophozoites per well, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the FAC-ELISA were 87, 100, and 98%, respectively, for the detection of invasive E. histolytica antigens and 100, 100, and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of amebic dysentery. The FAC-ELISA is a potential alternative for the field diagnosis of amebic dysentery and for epidemiological studies to define the distribution of invasive E. histolytica. PMID:8027351

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and K-12 cultures exposed to inorganic and organic acids in stationary phase reveals acidulant- and strain-specific acid tolerance responses.

    PubMed

    King, Thea; Lucchini, Sacha; Hinton, Jay C D; Gobius, Kari

    2010-10-01

    The food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is commonly exposed to organic acid in processed and preserved foods, allowing adaptation and the development of tolerance to pH levels otherwise lethal. Since little is known about the molecular basis of adaptation of E. coli to organic acids, we studied K-12 MG1655 and O157:H7 Sakai during exposure to acetic, lactic, and hydrochloric acid at pH 5.5. This is the first analysis of the pH-dependent transcriptomic response of stationary-phase E. coli. Thirty-four genes and three intergenic regions were upregulated by both strains during exposure to all acids. This universal acid response included genes involved in oxidative, envelope, and cold stress resistance and iron and manganese uptake, as well as 10 genes of unknown function. Acidulant- and strain-specific responses were also revealed. The acidulant-specific response reflects differences in the modes of microbial inactivation, even between weak organic acids. The two strains exhibited similar responses to lactic and hydrochloric acid, while the response to acetic acid was distinct. Acidulant-dependent differences between the strains involved induction of genes involved in the heat shock response, osmoregulation, inorganic ion and nucleotide transport and metabolism, translation, and energy production. E. coli O157:H7-specific acid-inducible genes were identified, suggesting that the enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain possesses additional molecular mechanisms contributing to acid resistance that are absent in K-12. While E. coli K-12 was most resistant to lactic and hydrochloric acid, O157:H7 may have a greater ability to survive in more complex acidic environments, such as those encountered in the host and during food processing.

  1. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  2. Sensitivity of the green alga Pediastrum duplex Meyen to allelochemicals is strain-specific and not related to co-occurrence with allelopathic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Eigemann, Falk; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Hilt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific differences in the response of microalgae to stress have numerous ecological implications. However, little is known of intraspecific sensitivities and the potential role of local genetic adaptation of populations. We compared the allelochemical sensitivity of 23 Pediastrum duplex Meyen strains, a common component of the freshwater phytoplankton. In order to test for local genetic adaptation, strains were isolated from water bodies with and without the allelopathically-active submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum. Strains were assigned to P. duplex on the basis of cell shape and colony morphology and only P. duplex strains that belonged to the same lineage in an ITS rDNA phylogeny were used. Inhibition of strain growth rates and maximum quantum yields of photosystem II were measured after exposure to tannic acid (TA) and co-culture with Myriophyllum spicatum. Growth rate inhibition varied over one order of magnitude between the P. duplex strains. There was no correlation between the presence of Myriophyllum in the source location and the sensitivity of the strains to TA or the presence of Myriophyllum, suggesting that at least strong unidirectional local adaptation to Myriophyllum had not taken place in the studied water bodies. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II of TA exposed algae decreased, whereas the yield of algae exposed to M. spicatum was slightly higher than that of the controls. The ranking of P. duplex strain sensitivities differed between the types of exposure (single additions of TA versus co-existence with M. spicatum) and the parameter measured (growth rate versus maximum quantum yield), emphasizing the importance of measuring multiple traits when analysing strain-specific sensitivities towards allelochemicals. The observation that sensitivities to allelochemicals vary widely among strains of a single freshwater algal species should be taken into account if evaluating ecological consequences of allelopathic interactions.

  3. Sensitivity of the Green Alga Pediastrum duplex Meyen to Allelochemicals Is Strain-Specific and Not Related to Co-Occurrence with Allelopathic Macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Eigemann, Falk; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Hilt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific differences in the response of microalgae to stress have numerous ecological implications. However, little is known of intraspecific sensitivities and the potential role of local genetic adaptation of populations. We compared the allelochemical sensitivity of 23 Pediastrum duplex Meyen strains, a common component of the freshwater phytoplankton. In order to test for local genetic adaptation, strains were isolated from water bodies with and without the allelopathically-active submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum. Strains were assigned to P. duplex on the basis of cell shape and colony morphology and only P. duplex strains that belonged to the same lineage in an ITS rDNA phylogeny were used. Inhibition of strain growth rates and maximum quantum yields of photosystem II were measured after exposure to tannic acid (TA) and co-culture with Myriophyllum spicatum. Growth rate inhibition varied over one order of magnitude between the P. duplex strains. There was no correlation between the presence of Myriophyllum in the source location and the sensitivity of the strains to TA or the presence of Myriophyllum, suggesting that at least strong unidirectional local adaptation to Myriophyllum had not taken place in the studied water bodies. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II of TA exposed algae decreased, whereas the yield of algae exposed to M. spicatum was slightly higher than that of the controls. The ranking of P. duplex strain sensitivities differed between the types of exposure (single additions of TA versus co-existence with M. spicatum) and the parameter measured (growth rate versus maximum quantum yield), emphasizing the importance of measuring multiple traits when analysing strain-specific sensitivities towards allelochemicals. The observation that sensitivities to allelochemicals vary widely among strains of a single freshwater algal species should be taken into account if evaluating ecological consequences of allelopathic interactions. PMID

  4. A Noncanonical Autophagy Pathway Restricts Toxoplasma gondii Growth in a Strain-Specific Manner in IFN-γ-Activated Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Selleck, Elizabeth M.; Orchard, Robert C.; Lassen, Kara G.; Beatty, Wandy L.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Levine, Beth; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A core set of autophagy proteins is required for gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-mediated clearance of Toxoplasma gondii in the mouse because of their control of several downstream effectors, including immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs). However, these effectors are absent (i.e., IRGs) from or nonessential (i.e., GBPs) in IFN-γ-activated human cells, raising the question of how these cells control parasite replication. Here, we define a novel role for ubiquitination and recruitment of autophagy adaptors in the strain-specific control of T. gondii replication in IFN-γ-activated human cells. Vacuoles containing susceptible strains of T. gondii became ubiquitinated, recruited the adaptors p62 and NDP52, and were decorated with LC3. Parasites within LC3-positive vacuoles became enclosed in multiple layers of host membranes, resulting in stunting of parasite replication. However, LC3-positive T. gondii-containing vacuoles did not fuse with endosomes and lysosomes, indicating that this process is fundamentally different from xenophagy, a form of autophagy involved in the control of intracellular bacterial pathogens. Genetic knockout of ATG16L or ATG7 reverted the membrane encapsulation and restored parasite replication, indicating that core autophagy proteins involved in LC3 conjugation are important in the control of parasite growth. Despite a role for the core autophagy machinery in this process, upstream activation through Beclin 1 was not sufficient to enhance the ubiquitination of T. gondii-containing vacuoles, suggesting a lack of reliance on canonical autophagy. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism for IFN-γ-dependent control of T. gondii in human cells that depends on ubiquitination and core autophagy proteins that mediate membrane engulfment and restricted growth. PMID:26350966

  5. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  6. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of a P1.7b,4 strain-specific serogroup B meningococcal vaccine given to preteens.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Jamie; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Mow, Florina Chan; Jackson, Catherine; Martin, Diana; O'Hallahan, Jane; Oster, Philipp; Ypma, Ellen; Reid, Stewart; Aaberge, Ingeborg; Crengle, Sue; Stewart, Joanna; Lennon, Diana

    2007-11-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has experienced a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic since 1991. MeNZB, a strain-specific outer membrane vesicle vaccine made using an NZ epidemic strain isolate, NZ98/254 (B:4:P1.7b,4), from two manufacturing sites, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) and Chiron Vaccines (CV; now Novartis), was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity in this observer-blind trial with 8- to 12-year-old children. In year 1, cohort A (n = 302) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of NIPH-MeNZB or MenBvac (Norwegian parent vaccine strain 44/76; B:15:P1.7,16). In year 2, cohort B (n = 313) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of CV-MeNZB or NIPH-MeNZB. Participants all received three vaccinations 6 weeks apart. Local and systemic reactions were monitored for 7 days. Seroresponse was defined as a fourfold or greater rise in the serum bactericidal antibody titer from the baseline titer as measured by a serum bactericidal assay. Those with baseline titers of <1:4 required titers of >/=1:8 to serorespond. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses are presented. In cohort A, 74% (ITT) and 73% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients demonstrated seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses, versus 32% (ITT and PP) of MenBvac recipients. In cohort B, seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses occurred in 79% (ITT and PP) of CV-MeNZB versus 75% (ITT) and 76% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients. Vaccines were tolerable, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, the NZ strain meningococcal B vaccine (MeNZB) from either manufacturing site was immunogenic against New Zealand epidemic vaccine strain meningococci with no safety concerns when given in three doses to these 8- to 12-year-old children.

  7. The utilization of fluorescence to identify the components of lipofuscin by imaging mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ablonczy, Zsolt; Smith, Noah; Anderson, David M; Grey, Angus C.; Spraggins, Jeffrey; Koutalos, Yiannis; Schey, Kevin L.; Crouch, Rosalie K.

    2014-01-01

    Lipofuscin, an aging marker in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with the development of age-related macular degeneration, is primarily characterized by its fluorescence. The most abundant component of RPE lipofuscin is N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) but its exact composition is not known due to the complexity of the RPE extract. In this study, we utilized MALDI imaging to find potential molecules responsible for lipofuscin fluorescence in RPE tissue from Abca4−/−, Sv129, and C57Bl6/J mice ages 2 and 6 month. To assert relationships, the individual images in the MALDI imaging datasets were correlated with lipofuscin fluorescence recorded from the same tissues following proper registration. Spatial correlation information, which is usually is lost in bioanalytics, pinpointed a relatively small number of potential lipofuscin components. The comparison of four samples in each condition further limited the possibility of false positives and provided various new, age- and strain-specific targets. Validating the usefulness of the fluorescence-enhanced imaging strategy, many known adducts of A2E were identified in the short list of lipofuscin components. These results provided evidence that mass spectrometric imaging can be utilized as a tool to begin to identify the molecular substructure of clinically-relevant diagnostic information. PMID:24453194

  8. Salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.M.; Garon, E.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to monitor health status, disease onset and progression, and treatment outcome through non-invasive means is a most desirable goal in the health care promotion and delivery. There are three prerequisites to materialize this goal: specific biomarkers associated with a health or disease state; a non-invasive approach to detect and monitor the biomarkers; and the technologies to discriminate the biomarkers. A national initiative catalyzed by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) has created a roadmap to achieve these goals through the use of oral fluids as the diagnostic medium to scrutinize the health and/or disease status of individuals. Progress has shown this is an ideal opportunity to bridge state of the art saliva-based biosensors, optimized to disease discriminatory salivary biomarkers, for diagnostic applications. Oral fluid being the ‘mirror of body’ is a perfect medium to be explored for health and disease surveillance. The translational applications and opportunities are enormous. PMID:19627522

  9. Battling Malaria in Rural Zambia with Modern Technology: A Qualitative Study on the Value of Cell Phones, Geographical Information Systems, Asymptomatic Carriers and Rapid Diagnostic Tests to Identify, Treat and Control Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Isaksson, Arvid Lissel

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade much progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission in Macha, Southern Province, Zambia. Introduction of artemisinin combination therapies as well as mass screenings of asymptomatic carriers is believed to have contributed the most. When an endemic malaria situation is moving towards a non-endemic situation the resident population loses acquired immunity and therefore active case detection and efficient surveillance is crucial to prevent epidemic outbreaks. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of cell phone surveillance and geographical information systems on malaria control in Macha. Furthermore, it evaluates what screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests in rural health care has led to. Ten in-depth semi-structured interviews, field observations and data collection were performed at the Macha Research Trust and at surrounding rural health centers. This qualitative method was inspired by rapid assessment procedure. The cell phone surveillance has been easily integrated in health care, and its integration with Geographical Information Systems has provided the ability to follow malaria transmission on a weekly basis. In addition, active case detection of asymptomatic carriers has been fruitful, which is reflected in it soon being applied nationwide. Furthermore, rapid diagnostic tests have provided rural health centers with reliable malaria diagnostics, thereby decreasing excessive malaria treatments and selection for drug resistance. This report reflects the importance of asymptomatic carriers in targeting malaria elimination, as well as development of effective surveillance systems when transmission decreases. Such an approach would be cost-efficient in the long run through positive effects in reduced child mortality and relief in health care. PMID:28299110

  10. Battling Malaria in Rural Zambia with Modern Technology: A Qualitative Study on the Value of Cell Phones, Geographical Information Systems, Asymptomatic Carriers and Rapid Diagnostic Tests to Identify, Treat and Control Malaria.

    PubMed

    Nygren, David; Isaksson, Arvid Lissel

    2014-02-04

    During the last decade much progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission in Macha, Southern Province, Zambia. Introduction of artemisinin combination therapies as well as mass screenings of asymptomatic carriers is believed to have contributed the most. When an endemic malaria situation is moving towards a non-endemic situation the resident population loses acquired immunity and therefore active case detection and efficient surveillance is crucial to prevent epidemic outbreaks. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of cell phone surveillance and geographical information systems on malaria control in Macha. Furthermore, it evaluates what screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests in rural health care has led to. Ten in-depth semi-structured interviews, field observations and data collection were performed at the Macha Research Trust and at surrounding rural health centers. This qualitative method was inspired by rapid assessment procedure. The cell phone surveillance has been easily integrated in health care, and its integration with Geographical Information Systems has provided the ability to follow malaria transmission on a weekly basis. In addition, active case detection of asymptomatic carriers has been fruitful, which is reflected in it soon being applied nationwide. Furthermore, rapid diagnostic tests have provided rural health centers with reliable malaria diagnostics, thereby decreasing excessive malaria treatments and selection for drug resistance. This report reflects the importance of asymptomatic carriers in targeting malaria elimination, as well as development of effective surveillance systems when transmission decreases. Such an approach would be cost-efficient in the long run through positive effects in reduced child mortality and relief in health care.

  11. Status of US ITER Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.; Pablant, N.; Barnsley, R.; Bertschinger, G.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Reichle, R.; Udintsev, V. S.; Watts, C.; Austin, M.; Phillips, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Biewer, T. M.; Hanson, G.; Klepper, C. C.; Carlstrom, T.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Brower, D.; Doyle, E.; Peebles, A.; Ellis, R.; Levinton, F.; Yuh, H.

    2013-10-01

    The US is providing 7 diagnostics to ITER: the Upper Visible/IR cameras, the Low Field Side Reflectometer, the Motional Stark Effect diagnostic, the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic, the Toroidal Interferometer/Polarimeter, the Core Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer, and the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer. The front-end components of these systems must operate with high reliability in conditions of long pulse operation, high neutron and gamma fluxes, very high neutron fluence, significant neutron heating (up to 7 MW/m3) , large radiant and charge exchange heat flux (0.35 MW/m2) , and high electromagnetic loads. Opportunities for repair and maintenance of these components will be limited. These conditions lead to significant challenges for the design of the diagnostics. Space constraints, provision of adequate radiation shielding, and development of repair and maintenance strategies are challenges for diagnostic integration into the port plugs that also affect diagnostic design. The current status of design of the US ITER diagnostics is presented and R&D needs are identified. Supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC05-00OR22725 (UT-Battelle, LLC).

  12. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  13. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  14. Graphical presentation of diagnostic information

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Westwood, Marie E; Bachmann, Lucas M; Harbord, Roger; Egger, Matthias; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test characteristics (diagnostic accuracy) and the potential for use in clinical practice (predictive value). Methods We discuss the types of graphical display commonly encountered in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies, and systematically review the use of graphical displays in recent diagnostic primary studies and systematic reviews. Results We identified 57 primary studies and 49 systematic reviews. Fifty-six percent of primary studies and 53% of systematic reviews used graphical displays to present results. Dot-plot or box-and- whisker plots were the most commonly used graph in primary studies and were included in 22 (39%) studies. ROC plots were the most common type of plot included in systematic reviews and were included in 22 (45%) reviews. One primary study and five systematic reviews included a probability-modifying plot. Conclusion Graphical displays are currently underused in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies. Diagnostic accuracy studies need to include multiple types of graphic in order to provide both a detailed overview of the results (diagnostic accuracy) and to communicate information that can be used to inform clinical practice (predictive value). Work is required to improve graphical displays, to better communicate the utility of a test in clinical practice and the implications of test results for individual patients. PMID:18405357

  15. Identifying Hazards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The federal government has established a system of labeling hazardous materials to help identify the type of material and threat posed. Summaries of information on over 300 chemicals are maintained in the Envirofacts Master Chemical Integrator.

  16. Unmet Diagnostic Needs in Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blaschke, Anne J.; Hersh, Adam L.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases. New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed Infectious Diseases physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

  17. Clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium exhibit strain-specific collagen binding mediated by Acm, a new member of the MSCRAMM family.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E

    2003-03-01

    A collagen-binding adhesin of Enterococcus faecium, Acm, was identified. Acm shows 62% similarity to the Staphylococcus aureus collagen adhesin Cna over the entire protein and is more similar to Cna (60% and 75% similarity with Cna A and B domains respectively) than to the Enterococcus faecalis collagen-binding adhesin, Ace, which shares homology with Acm only in the A domain. Despite the detection of acm in 32 out of 32 E. faecium isolates, only 11 of these (all clinical isolates, including four vancomycin-resistant endocarditis isolates and seven other isolates) exhibited binding to collagen type I (CI). Although acm from three CI-binding vancomycin-resistant E. faecium clinical isolates showed 100% identity, analysis of acm genes and their promoter regions from six non-CI-binding strains identified deletions or mutations that introduced stop codons and/or IS elements within the gene or the promoter region in five out of six strains, suggesting that the presence of an intact functional acm gene is necessary for binding of E. faecium strains to CI. Recombinant Acm A domain showed specific and concentration-dependent binding to collagen, and this protein competed with E. faecium binding to immobilized CI. Consistent with the adherence phenotype and sequence data, probing with Acm-specific IgGs purified from anti-recombinant Acm A polyclonal rabbit serum confirmed the surface expression of Acm in three out of three collagen-binding clinical isolates of E. faecium tested, but in none of the strains with a non-functional pseudo acm gene. Introduction of a functional acm gene into two non-CI-binding natural acm mutant strains conferred a CI-binding phenotype, further confirming that native Acm is sufficient for the binding of E. faecium to CI. These results demonstrate that acm, which encodes a potential virulence factor, is functional only in certain infection-derived clinical isolates of E. faecium, and suggest that Acm is the primary adhesin responsible for the

  18. Analysis of the Fam181 gene family during mouse development reveals distinct strain-specific expression patterns, suggesting a role in nervous system development and function.

    PubMed

    Marks, Matthias; Pennimpede, Tracie; Lange, Lisette; Grote, Phillip; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Wittler, Lars

    2016-01-10

    During somitogenesis differential gene expression can be observed for so-called cyclic genes, which display expression changes with a periodicity of 120min in the mouse. In screens to identify novel cyclic genes in murine embryos, Fam181b was predicted to be an oscillating gene in the presomitic mesoderm (psm). This gene, and its closely related paralog Fam181a, belong to the thus far uncharacterized Fam181 gene family. Here we describe the expression of Fam181b and Fam181a during murine embryonic development. In addition, we confirm oscillation of Fam181b in the psm in-phase with targets of, and regulated by, Notch signaling. Fam181b expression in the psm, as well as in the lateral plate mesoderm, was found to be affected by genetic background. We show that Fam181a and b exhibit partially overlapping mRNA expression patterns, and encode for proteins containing highly-conserved motifs, which predominantly localize to the nucleus. A Fam181b loss-of-function model was generated and found to result in no obvious phenotype.

  19. Identifying Distant AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

    2014-07-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/Hβ versus [NII]/Hα, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]λ6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]λ3869, and [OII]λλ3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

  20. Strain-specific variation in a soilborne phytopathogenic fungus for the expression of genes involved in pH signal transduction pathway, pathogenesis and saprophytic survival in response to environmental pH changes.

    PubMed

    Daval, Stéphanie; Lebreton, Lionel; Gracianne, Cécile; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Boutin, Morgane; Marchi, Muriel; Gazengel, Kévin; Sarniguet, Alain

    2013-12-01

    The soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) causes take-all, a wheat root disease. In an original strain-specific way, a previous study indicates that inside the Ggt species, some strains grow preferentially at acidic pH and other strains at neutral/alkaline pH. The most important mechanism for a fungal response to the environmental pH is the Pal pathway which integrates the products of the six pal genes and the transcription factor PacC. To evaluate whether the Ggt strain-specific growth in function of the ambient pH is mediated via the Pal pathway, a transcriptional study of the genes encoding this pathway was carried out. This study provided the first evidence that the pH signalling pathway similar to those described in other fungi operated in Ggt. The pacC gene was induced at neutral pH whatever the strain. In an original way, the expression of Ggt genes coding for the different Pal proteins depended on the strain and on the ambient pH. In the strain growing better at acidic pH, few pal genes were pH-regulated, and some were overexpressed at neutral pH when regulated. In the strain growing better at neutral pH, underexpression of most of the pal genes at neutral pH occurred. The strains displayed higher gene expression in the ambient pH that unfavoured their growth as if it was a compensation system. All pH taken together, a globally weaker Pal transcript level occurred in the strains that were less sensitive to acidic pH, and on the contrary, the strain growing better on neutral pH showed higher Pal mRNA levels. The expression of genes involved in pathogenesis and saprophytic growth was also regulated by the ambient pH and the strain: each gene displayed a specific pH-regulation that was similar between strains. But all pH taken together, the global transcript levels of four out of six genes were higher in the strain growing better on neutral pH. Altogether, for the first time, the results show that inside a species, conditions affecting

  1. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  2. The Diagnostic/Therapeutic Preabortion Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekelheide, Priscilla Day

    1978-01-01

    The therapeutic and diagnostic aspect of the preabortion interview are discussed with attention to specifics that will identify students with the greatest likelihood for psychological problems and/or repeat abortions. (JD)

  3. Combining Quantitative Genetic Footprinting and Trait Enrichment Analysis to Identify Fitness Determinants of a Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, Travis J.; Norton, J. Paul; Russell, Colin W.; Dalley, Brian K.; Fischer, Kael F.; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Strains of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia c oli (ExPEC) exhibit an array of virulence strategies and are a major cause of urinary tract infections, sepsis and meningitis. Efforts to understand ExPEC pathogenesis are challenged by the high degree of genetic and phenotypic variation that exists among isolates. Determining which virulence traits are widespread and which are strain-specific will greatly benefit the design of more effective therapies. Towards this goal, we utilized a quantitative genetic footprinting technique known as transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) in conjunction with comparative pathogenomics to functionally dissect the genetic repertoire of a reference ExPEC isolate. Using Tn-seq and high-throughput zebrafish infection models, we tracked changes in the abundance of ExPEC variants within saturated transposon mutant libraries following selection within distinct host niches. Nine hundred and seventy bacterial genes (18% of the genome) were found to promote pathogen fitness in either a niche-dependent or independent manner. To identify genes with the highest therapeutic and diagnostic potential, a novel Trait Enrichment Analysis (TEA) algorithm was developed to ascertain the phylogenetic distribution of candidate genes. TEA revealed that a significant portion of the 970 genes identified by Tn-seq have homologues more often contained within the genomes of ExPEC and other known pathogens, which, as suggested by the first axiom of molecular Koch's postulates, is considered to be a key feature of true virulence determinants. Three of these Tn-seq-derived pathogen-associated genes—a transcriptional repressor, a putative metalloendopeptidase toxin and a hypothetical DNA binding protein—were deleted and shown to independently affect ExPEC fitness in zebrafish and mouse models of infection. Together, the approaches and observations reported herein provide a resource for future pathogenomics-based research and highlight the diversity of

  4. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  5. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ164, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  6. Diagnostics for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A. J. H.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Barnsley, R.

    2008-10-22

    After an introduction into the specific challenges in the field of diagnostics for ITER (specifically high level of nuclear radiation, long pulses, high fluxes of particles to plasma facing components, need for reliability and robustness), an overview will be given of the spectroscopic diagnostics foreseen for ITER. The paper will describe both active neutral-beam based diagnostics as well as passive spectroscopic diagnostics operating in the visible, ultra-violet and x-ray spectral regions.

  7. Thymineless death in Escherichia coli: strain specificity.

    PubMed

    Cummings, D J; Mondale, L

    1967-06-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, B(s-12), K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon(-), all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation.

  8. Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: Strain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee

    1967-01-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772

  9. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The role of imaging in cases of child abuse is to identify the extent of physical injury when abuse is present and to elucidate all imaging findings that point to alternative diagnoses. Effective diagnostic imaging of child abuse rests on high-quality technology as well as a full appreciation of the clinical and pathologic alterations occurring in abused children. This statement is a revision of the previous policy published in 2000.

  10. System diagnostic builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The System Diagnostic Builder (SDB) is an automated software verification and validation tool using state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB is used extensively by project BURKE at NASA-JSC as one component of a software re-engineering toolkit. The SDB is applicable to any government or commercial organization which performs verification and validation tasks. The SDB has an X-window interface, which allows the user to 'train' a set of rules for use in a rule-based evaluator. The interface has a window that allows the user to plot up to five data parameters (attributes) at a time. Using these plots and a mouse, the user can identify and classify a particular behavior of the subject software. Once the user has identified the general behavior patterns of the software, he can train a set of rules to represent his knowledge of that behavior. The training process builds rules and fuzzy sets to use in the evaluator. The fuzzy sets classify those data points not clearly identified as a particular classification. Once an initial set of rules is trained, each additional data set given to the SDB will be used by a machine learning mechanism to refine the rules and fuzzy sets. This is a passive process and, therefore, it does not require any additional operator time. The evaluation component of the SDB can be used to validate a single software system using some number of different data sets, such as a simulator. Moreover, it can be used to validate software systems which have been re-engineered from one language and design methodology to a totally new implementation.

  11. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  12. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  13. Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

  14. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  15. Mission Risk Diagnostic (MRD) Method Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Mission Risk Diagnostic ( MRD ) Method Description Christopher Alberts Audrey Dorofee February 2012 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2012-TN-005...Analyzing Risk 13 3.1 Tactical Risk Analysis 14 3.2 Mission Risk Analysis 15 4 Mission Risk Diagnostic ( MRD ) Concepts 18 4.1 Identify Mission and...4.2.3 Tailoring an Existing Set of Drivers 25 4.3 Analyze Drivers 26 5 Mission Risk Diagnostic ( MRD ) Method 32 5.1 MRD Structure 34 5.2 Prepare

  16. Verification of Loop Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.

  17. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1806-01 - On-board diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diagnostic trouble code shall identify multiple misfiring cylinder conditions; under multiple misfire conditions, the misfiring cylinders need not be uniquely identified if a distinct multiple misfire diagnostic... monitoring is disabled for a multiple number of driving cycles (i.e., more than one) due to the...

  19. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  20. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  1. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

  2. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.; Hurst, M.; Jobe, D.; Torres, J.; Seaman, J.; Struve, K.; Lazier, S.; Gilliland, T.; Ruggles, L. A.; Simpson, W. A.; Adams, R.; Seaman, J. A.; Wenger, D.; Nielsen, D.; Riley, P.; French, R.; Stygar, B.; Wagoner, T.; Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R.; Asay, J.; Hall, C.; Knudson, M.; Armijo, J.; McKenney, J.; Hawn, R.; Schroen-Carey, D.; Hebron, D.; Cutler, T.; Dropinski, S.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P. D.; Coverdale, C. A.; Douglas, M.; Cuneo, M.; Hanson, D.; Bailey, J. E.; Lake, P.; Carlson, A.; Wakefield, C.; Mills, J.; Slopek, J.; Dinwoodie, T.; Idzorek, G.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12° above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them.

  3. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  4. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    PubMed Central

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  5. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  6. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  7. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  8. Fermilab recycler diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a permanent magnet storage ring for the storage and cooling of antiprotons. The following note describes the diagnostic tools currently available for commissioning, as well as the improvements and upgrades planned for the near future.

  9. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  10. Laser fluorescence diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. K.; Krasilnikov, D. M.; Turkin, V. V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper descsribes the development of an apparatus, method, and practical recommendation on using fluorescence diagnostics in alimentary-intestinal tract surgery and analyses of blood serum and plasma for investigating influence of various drug preparations on a human organism. The report of the firm Israel Aircraft Industries on the high efficiency of using fluorescent analysis in early diagnostics of rectum, lung, and breast cancer has stimulated our publication.

  11. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  12. Better tests, better care: improved diagnostics for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Angela M; Gilbert, David N; Ginocchio, Christine C; Hanson, Kimberly E; May, Larissa; Quinn, Thomas C; Tenover, Fred C; Alland, David; Blaschke, Anne J; Bonomo, Robert A; Carroll, Karen C; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Joseph, W Patrick; Karchmer, Tobi; MacIntyre, Ann T; Reller, L Barth; Jackson, Audrey F

    2013-12-01

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians.

  13. A new classification system for lesbians: the Dyke Diagnostic Manual.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long-standing need for a diagnostic manual that documents the unique pathological behaviors of lesbians. The Dyke Diagnostic Manual (DDM) is meant to supplement mainstream classification systems used to identify problematic behaviors in heterosexuals. This article presents thirteen uniquely lesbian conditions that are nowhere to be found in heterosexist diagnostic systems. The DDM may help to reduce the pain and suffering found in many lesbian relationships where one or both partners are afflicted.

  14. Better Tests, Better Care: Improved Diagnostics for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Caliendo, Angela M.; Gilbert, David N.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Hanson, Kimberly E.; May, Larissa; Quinn, Thomas C.; Tenover, Fred C.; Alland, David; Blaschke, Anne J.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Joseph, W. Patrick; Karchmer, Tobi; MacIntyre, Ann T.; Reller, L. Barth; Jackson, Audrey F.

    2013-01-01

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians. PMID:24200831

  15. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN.

  16. Diagnostic Hypothesis Generation and Human Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick P.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Sprenger, Amber M.; Harbison, J. Isaiah

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic hypothesis-generation processes are ubiquitous in human reasoning. For example, clinicians generate disease hypotheses to explain symptoms and help guide treatment, auditors generate hypotheses for identifying sources of accounting errors, and laypeople generate hypotheses to explain patterns of information (i.e., data) in the…

  17. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

    2013-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

  18. Development of companion diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2015-12-12

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. Lastly, the review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  19. Development of companion diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; ...

    2015-12-12

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods asmore » companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. Lastly, the review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.« less

  20. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  1. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  2. [Peripheral neuropathies: Diagnostic strategy].

    PubMed

    Magy, L

    2017-02-28

    Diagnosing a peripheral neuropathy is sometimes challenging, as the causes are diverse and the clinical pictures heterogeneous. Overall, diagnosing a patient with peripheral neuropathy will require some knowledge in almost every field of medicine. Therefore, it appears crucial to adopt a diagnostic strategy that is based on solid clinical and neurophysiological grounds. The present paper describes a three-step diagnostic strategy: (1) to delineate a clinico-pathologic entity from clinical and electrodiagnostic findings; (2) to propose a list of plausible causes based on step one, history and clinical context; (3) to use appropriate workup in order to determine the cause or mechanism of the neuropathy. The three steps of this diagnostic strategy necessitate a high level of expertise and interaction between physicians is highly desirable. Finally, an aggressive course and a severe impairment should lead to relentlessly look for a curable cause.

  3. [Molecular diagnostics in pathology].

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, A; Penzel, R; Endris, V; Weichert, W

    2013-05-01

    Tissue-based molecular diagnostics is a fast growing diagnostic field, which already complements morphologic classifications in many cases. Pathology based molecular diagnosis is performed almost exclusively on paraffin embedded material and always in conjunction with histopathology. Besides the classic field of tissue based detection of pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, molecular diagnostics of tumor tissue is one of the current hot topics in oncology. In this context the detection of predictive molecular biomarkers, such as specific mutations, allows patient stratification for individually tailored treatment strategies and thereby is one of the key components of individualized patient care in oncology. The rapidly growing number of clinically relevant predictive biomarkers together with impressive technical advances, specifically the development of massive parallel sequencing, will modify the care of patients with malignant diseases. Pathology, therefore, has returned in the very center of interdisciplinary patient care.

  4. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  5. Harmonic Approaches to Non-Intrusive Load Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    physical characteristics, such as induction motor rotor slots, coupled with using clean current spectral regions support automated diagnostic system...3.4 Developing NILM-based Diagnostics for Induction Machines ....................................... 41 3.4.1 Identify key motor parameters...24 Figure 2-10: Typical Induction Motor Start-up Current Measurement [22]................................ 24 Figure 2-11: Block diagram of

  6. Diagnostic Errors in Ambulatory Care: Dimensions and Preventive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Hardeep; Weingart, Saul N.

    2009-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on patient safety in ambulatory care, progress in understanding and reducing diagnostic errors in this setting lag behind many other safety concerns such as medication errors. To explore the extent and nature of diagnostic errors in ambulatory care, we identified five dimensions of ambulatory care from which errors may…

  7. [Complex diagnostics of osteosarcomas].

    PubMed

    Muradov, Kh K; Sadykhova, G G

    2014-01-01

    It was analyzed the examination results of 156 patients with osteosarcoma. The data show that definition of histogenetic source, diagnostics and prognosis of treatment results are possible and expedient in case of analysis of signs reflecting tumor cells specificity. These signs may be determined by using of clinical parameters, X-ray imaging and light microscopy in case of moderately and highly differentiated sarcomas. Ample opportunities of flow citometry and immunohistochemistry allow to perform histogenetic identification, differential diagnostics and prognosis for low-grade sarcomas.

  8. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  9. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  10. Clinical diagnostic gene expression thyroid testing.

    PubMed

    Steward, David L; Kloos, Richard T

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies are cytologically indeterminate in 15% to 30% of cases. When cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules undergo diagnostic surgery, approximately three-quarters prove to be histologically benign. A negative predictive value of more than or equal to 94% for the Afirma Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) is achieved for indeterminate nodules. Most Afirma GEC benign nodules can be clinically observed, as suggested by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Thyroid Carcinoma Guideline. More than half of the benign nodules with indeterminate cytology (Bethesda categories III/IV) can be identified as GEC benign and removed from the surgical pool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic surgery.

  11. Diagnostic workup for ARDS patients.

    PubMed

    Papazian, Laurent; Calfee, Carolyn S; Chiumello, Davide; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Meyer, Nuala J; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Matthay, Michael A; Meduri, Gianfranco Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by the association of bilateral infiltrates and hypoxaemia following an initial insult. Although a new definition has been recently proposed (Berlin definition), there are various forms of ARDS with potential differences regarding their management (ventilator settings, prone positioning use, corticosteroids). ARDS can be caused by various aetiologies, and the adequate treatment of the responsible cause is crucial to improve the outcome. It is of paramount importance to characterize the mechanisms causing lung injury to optimize both the aetiological treatment and the symptomatic treatment. If there is no obvious cause of ARDS or if a direct lung injury is suspected, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) should be strongly considered to identify microorganisms responsible for pneumonia. Blood samples can also help to identify microorganisms and to evaluate biomarkers of infection. If there is no infectious cause of ARDS or no other apparent aetiology is found, second-line examinations should include markers of immunologic diseases. In selected cases, open lung biopsy remains useful to identify the cause of ARDS when all other examinations remain inconclusive. CT scan is fundamental when there is a suspicion of intra-abdominal sepsis and in some cases of pneumonia. Ultrasonography is important not only in evaluating biventricular function but also in identifying pleural effusions and pneumothorax. The definition of ARDS remains clinical and the main objective of the diagnostic workup should be to be focused on identification of its aetiology, especially a treatable infection.

  12. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  13. Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugliano, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

  14. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  15. Tele diagnostic by web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2006-03-01

    Because of the development of multimedia technologies like Web and Internet, it now becomes possible to think about Tele Medicine and Tele Diagnostic for a distant place where no doctors and no nurses are situated at or are available. And also some kind of intelligence can be added onto them, which makes possible to give certain kind of medical treatment assistance or suggestions for a patient from a computer diagnostic base through the Internetworking. For doing this, here considers about a basic system of "Tele Diagnostic for a remote place" where it dose not have a doctor and a medical assistance. In order to implement the system, JAVA, VRML, HTML, and CORTONA are used as a basic language and a viewer. And also in order to add a kind of intelligence, Augmented Knowledge In Agent (AKIA) by using Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) is used. And by this study, here can introduce the system that has the following basic mechanisms; By inputting physical data like temperature or blood pressure, the system would show a diagnostic assistance by TEXT. And also the bad place of body would be shown graphically if there were any. The system can be put onto Web, so that anybody could have this assistance at any place ubiquitously only if a person has Internetworking access.

  16. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    monitoring systems for gauging performance of the ESPC. This is an integral part of the overall ESPC goal of developing a global coupled system between...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics Maria Flatau Naval...quantitative skill metrics to assess the advancements in the Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC). This work will also implement automated

  17. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indication URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100159.htm Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - series—Indication To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  18. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  19. Diagnosing Diagnostic Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic language assessment (DLA) is gaining a lot of attention from language teachers, testers, and applied linguists. With a recent surge of interest in DLA, there seems to be an urgent need to assess where the field of DLA stands at the moment and develop a general sense of where it should be moving in the future. The current article, as the…

  20. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  1. Diagnostic validity of basic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Klosterkötter, J; Ebel, H; Schultze-Lutter, F; Steinmeyer, E M

    1996-01-01

    Although the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) [13] has come into use in several European countries, its diagnostic validity has not yet been sufficiently examined. That is why we have assessed BSABS items on a sample of 243 consecutive admissions to the Department of Psychiatry at the RWTH University, Aachen, and 79 psychologically healthy persons. Then, a cluster analysis was calculated to identify the empirical item-grouping. Five well-interpretable BSABS subsyndromes were found. In addition, uni- and multivariate analyses were computed to evaluate the diagnostic validity of these subsyndromes. We were able to show that every BSABS subsyndrome separates at least schizophrenic, organic mental and affective disorders from personality, neurotic and substance-induced disorders, as well as from psychological health. Furthermore, the subsyndrome "information processing disturbances" differentiates between schizophrenic and organic mental disorders, on the one hand, and affective disorders, on the other, and additionally, the subsyndrome "interpersonal irritation" between schizophrenics and all other persons examined.

  2. Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, D H

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved.

  3. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  4. Diagnostics for the Combustion Science Workbench

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, J.F.; Day, M.S.; Bell, J.B.

    2007-02-21

    As the cost of computers declines relative to outfitting andmaintaining laser spectroscopy laboratories, computers will account foran increasing proportion of the research conducted in fundamentalcombustion science. W.C. Gardiner foresaw that progress will be limitedby the ability to understand the implications of what has been computedand to draw inferences about the elementary components of the combustionmodels. Yet the diagnostics that are routinely applied to computerexperiments have changed little from the sensitivity analyses includedwith the original chemkin software distribution. This paper describessome diagnostics capabilities that may be found on the virtual combustionscience workbench of the future. These diagnostics are illustrated bysome new results concerning which of the hydrogen/oxygen chain branchingreactions actually occur in flames, the increased formation of NOx inwrinkled flames versus flat flames, and the adequacy oftheoreticalpredictions of the effects of stretch. Several areas are identified wherework is needed, including the areas of combustion chemistry and laserdiagnostics, to make the virtual laboratory a reality.

  5. Automated diagnostics scoping study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.; Lash, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the Automated Diagnostics Scoping Study was to investigate the needs for diagnostics in building operation and to examine some of the current technologies in automated diagnostics that can address these needs. The study was conducted in two parts. In the needs analysis, the authors interviewed facility managers and engineers at five building sites. In the technology survey, they collected published information on automated diagnostic technologies in commercial and military applications as well as on technologies currently under research. The following describe key areas that the authors identify for the research, development, and deployment of automated diagnostic technologies: tools and techniques to aid diagnosis during building commissioning, especially those that address issues arising from integrating building systems and diagnosing multiple simultaneous faults; technologies to aid diagnosis for systems and components that are unmonitored or unalarmed; automated capabilities to assist cause-and-effect exploration during diagnosis; inexpensive, reliable sensors, especially those that expand the current range of sensory input; technologies that aid predictive diagnosis through trend analysis; integration of simulation and optimization tools with building automation systems to optimize control strategies and energy performance; integration of diagnostic, control, and preventive maintenance technologies. By relating existing technologies to perceived and actual needs, the authors reached some conclusions about the opportunities for automated diagnostics in building operation. Some of a building operator`s needs can be satisfied by off-the-shelf hardware and software. Other needs are not so easily satisfied, suggesting directions for future research. Their conclusions and suggestions are offered in the final section of this study.

  6. System Related Interventions to Reduce Diagnostic Error: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Graber, Mark L.; Kissam, Stephanie M.; Sorensen, Asta V.; Lenfestey, Nancy F.; Tant, Elizabeth M.; Henriksen, Kerm; LaBresh, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnostic errors (missed, delayed, or wrong diagnosis) have gained recent attention and are associated with significant preventable morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the recent literature to identify interventions that have been, or could be, implemented to address systems-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic error. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search using multiple search strategies. We first identified candidate articles in English between 2000 and 2009 from a PubMed search that exclusively evaluated for articles related to diagnostic error or delay. We then sought additional papers from references in the initial dataset, searches of additional databases, and subject matter experts. Articles were included if they formally evaluated an intervention to prevent or reduce diagnostic error; however, we also included papers if interventions were suggested and not tested in order to inform the state-of-the science on the topic. We categorized interventions according to the step in the diagnostic process they targeted: patient-provider encounter, performance and interpretation of diagnostic tests, follow-up and tracking of diagnostic information, subspecialty and referral-related; and patient-specific. Results We identified 43 articles for full review, of which 6 reported tested interventions and 37 contained suggestions for possible interventions. Empirical studies, though somewhat positive, were non-experimental or quasi-experimental and included a small number of clinicians or health care sites. Outcome measures in general were underdeveloped and varied markedly between studies, depending on the setting or step in the diagnostic process involved. Conclusions Despite a number of suggested interventions in the literature, few empirical studies have tested interventions to reduce diagnostic error in the last decade. Advancing the science of diagnostic error prevention will require more robust study designs and rigorous definitions

  7. Culture-independent diagnostics for health security

    DOE PAGES

    Doggett, Norman A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; ...

    2016-06-17

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamosmore » National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification–based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. Furthermore, this article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop.« less

  8. Culture-independent diagnostics for health security

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, Norman A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Slezak, Tom R.; Chain, Patrick Sam; Morse, Stephen; Anderson, Kevin; Hodge, David R.; Pillai, Segaran

    2016-06-17

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification–based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. Furthermore, this article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop.

  9. DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL

    SciTech Connect

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

  10. ICF diagnostics. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, L.W.

    1982-12-17

    In the past several years there have been significant advances and accomplishments in the field of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research which are directly attributable to an active experimental program supported by the development and applications of sophisticated and specialized diagnostics instruments and techniques. The continued development of high temporal-and spatial-resolution diagnostics, although with a somewhat different technical emphasis than previously, is essential for maintaining progress in ICF. With the generation of inertial fusion drivers now becoming available progress toward higher density compression of fusion fuel will be attained at the expense of temperature, and consequently emissions from the targets will be limited. At the same time since the targets are being driven to higher density they are more opaque to the low-to-moderate energy x-rays (up to a few keV) and particles (alpha particles, protons, and knock-on charged particles) that have been utilized for diagnosing target performance.

  11. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Racsa, Lori D.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Olinger, Gene G.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  12. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  13. Advances in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic radiology are discussed on the basis of current publications in Investigative Radiology. Publications in the journal during 2009 and 2010 are reviewed, evaluating developments by modality and anatomic region. Technological advances continue to play a major role in the evolution and clinical practice of diagnostic radiology, and as such constitute a major publication focus. In the past 2 years, this includes advances in both magnetic resonance and computed tomography (in particular, the advent of dual energy computed tomography). An additional major focus of publications concerns contrast media, and in particular continuing research involving nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, its etiology, and differentiation of the gadolinium chelates on the basis of in vivo stability.

  14. Endodontic diagnostic terminology update.

    PubMed

    McClannahan, Scott B; Baisden, Michael K; Bowles, Walter R

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the etiology of the patient's chief complaint and a correct diagnosis are paramount prior to a recommendation of endodontic therapy. Reproduction of the patient's chief complaint is critical. If the chief complaint cannot be reproduced, consider consultation with or referral to an endodontist or orofacial pain specialist. The diagnostic terminology presented in this update provides for a more accurate description and communication of the health or pathological conditions of both pulpal and apical tissues. This information is summarized in Table I.

  15. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1μm fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1μm microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  16. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  17. [Histopathological meniscus diagnostic].

    PubMed

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2009-06-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resections and operative refixation are the treatments of choice. With regard to diagnostics, this means that in general terms, the histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. An experienced pathologist's knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential during a diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting so that cases involving insurance problems - which are numerous, often long-term, and often unsatisfactory - can be clarified quickly.

  18. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  19. 2012 HIV Diagnostics Conference: the molecular diagnostics perspective.

    PubMed

    Branson, Bernard M; Pandori, Mark

    2013-04-01

    2012 HIV Diagnostic Conference Atlanta, GA, USA, 12-14 December 2012. This report highlights the presentations and discussions from the 2012 National HIV Diagnostic Conference held in Atlanta (GA, USA), on 12-14 December 2012. Reflecting changes in the evolving field of HIV diagnostics, the conference provided a forum for evaluating developments in molecular diagnostics and their role in HIV diagnosis. In 2010, the HIV Diagnostics Conference concluded with the proposal of a new diagnostic algorithm which included nucleic acid testing to resolve discordant screening and supplemental antibody test results. The 2012 meeting, picking up where the 2010 meeting left off, focused on scientific presentations that assessed this new algorithm and the role played by RNA testing and new developments in molecular diagnostics, including detection of total and integrated HIV-1 DNA, detection and quantification of HIV-2 RNA, and rapid formats for detection of HIV-1 RNA.

  20. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools. PMID:24992636

  1. The Health Technology Assessment of companion diagnostics: experience of NICE.

    PubMed

    Byron, Sarah K; Crabb, Nick; George, Elisabeth; Marlow, Mirella; Newland, Adrian

    2014-03-15

    Companion diagnostics are used to aid clinical decision making to identify patients who are most likely to respond to treatment. They are becoming increasingly important as more new pharmaceuticals receive licensed indications that require the use of a companion diagnostic to identify the appropriate patient subgroup for treatment. These pharmaceuticals have proven benefit in the treatment of some cancers and other diseases, and also have potential to precisely tailor treatments to the individual in the future. However, the increasing use of companion diagnostics could place a substantial burden on health system resources to provide potentially high volumes of testing. This situation, in part, has led policy makers and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) bodies to review the policies and methods used to make reimbursement decisions for pharmaceuticals requiring companion diagnostics. The assessment of a pharmaceutical alongside the companion diagnostic used in the clinical trials may be relatively straightforward, although there are a number of challenges associated with assessing pharmaceuticals where a range of alternative companion diagnostics are available for use in routine clinical practice. The UK HTA body, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), has developed policy for considering companion diagnostics using its Technology Appraisal and Diagnostics Assessment Programs. Some HTA bodies in other countries have also adapted their policies and methods to accommodate the assessment of companion diagnostics. Here, we provide insight into the HTA of companion diagnostics for reimbursement decisions and how the associated challenges are being addressed, in particular by NICE. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "The Precision Medicine Conundrum: Approaches to Companion Diagnostic Co-development."

  2. Identification of factors associated with diagnostic error in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Missed, delayed or incorrect diagnoses are considered to be diagnostic errors. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a study to analyse cognitive aspects of the process by which primary care (PC) physicians diagnose dyspnoea. It examines the possible links between the use of heuristics, suboptimal cognitive acts and diagnostic errors, using Reason’s taxonomy of human error (slips, lapses, mistakes and violations). The influence of situational factors (professional experience, perceived overwork and fatigue) is also analysed. Methods Cohort study of new episodes of dyspnoea in patients receiving care from family physicians and residents at PC centres in Granada (Spain). With an initial expected diagnostic error rate of 20%, and a sampling error of 3%, 384 episodes of dyspnoea are calculated to be required. In addition to filling out the electronic medical record of the patients attended, each physician fills out 2 specially designed questionnaires about the diagnostic process performed in each case of dyspnoea. The first questionnaire includes questions on the physician’s initial diagnostic impression, the 3 most likely diagnoses (in order of likelihood), and the diagnosis reached after the initial medical history and physical examination. It also includes items on the physicians’ perceived overwork and fatigue during patient care. The second questionnaire records the confirmed diagnosis once it is reached. The complete diagnostic process is peer-reviewed to identify and classify the diagnostic errors. The possible use of heuristics of representativeness, availability, and anchoring and adjustment in each diagnostic process is also analysed. Each audit is reviewed with the physician responsible for the diagnostic process. Finally, logistic regression models are used to determine if there are differences in the diagnostic error variables based on the heuristics identified. Discussion This work sets out a new approach to studying the

  3. Universal microbial diagnostics using random DNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Amirali; Lin, Adam Y.; Sheikh, Mona A.; Chen, Allen L.; Atkins, Lisa M.; Johnson, Coreen L.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Baraniuk, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of pathogens is essential for limiting development of therapy-resistant pathogens and mitigating infectious disease outbreaks. Most bacterial detection schemes use target-specific probes to differentiate pathogen species, creating time and cost inefficiencies in identifying newly discovered organisms. We present a novel universal microbial diagnostics (UMD) platform to screen for microbial organisms in an infectious sample, using a small number of random DNA probes that are agnostic to the target DNA sequences. Our platform leverages the theory of sparse signal recovery (compressive sensing) to identify the composition of a microbial sample that potentially contains novel or mutant species. We validated the UMD platform in vitro using five random probes to recover 11 pathogenic bacteria. We further demonstrated in silico that UMD can be generalized to screen for common human pathogens in different taxonomy levels. UMD’s unorthodox sensing approach opens the door to more efficient and universal molecular diagnostics. PMID:27704040

  4. Social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Susan; Armstrong, David

    2006-01-01

    The role of diagnostic labels in medicine is usually that of labelling an illness as a means of communication. Control over labelling processes in medicine is ordinarily imposed via medical schools, textbooks, education or by diagnostic manuals. Diagnostic labels often change following new discoveries in underlying pathology such as 'consumption' being relabelled as 'TB' or 'cancer'. Sub-types of broad diagnostic labels also often emerge from such discoveries e.g. 'lung cancer' or 'throat cancer'. In mental health, underlying pathology is the subject of ongoing debate spanning ideas including the brain as a faulty organ, faulty genetics and environmental problems. With controversy over pathology comes controversy over labels and the idea that labels may be used not just for communication, but as devices of social and professional control, arising out of a social process. This study explores the codification of the diagnostic label 'depression' which emerged in the twentieth-century and has proliferated with numerous sub-types over the last 40 years. The aim is to examine its social determinants and context. Medline is used as a data source for professional label usage. A range of depression sub-type labels in professional use was identified. This exercise revealed many official and 'unofficial' terms in professional use. Citation rate plots by year were then generated for these depression sub-type labels. The rise and fall of different labels are examined in relation to social determinants and context, including publication of diagnostic manuals DSM and ICD, power shifts in psychiatry, the discovery of psychiatric drugs and the shift from inpatient to community care. Exploring the changing use of official and unofficial labels over time in this way provides a novel historical perspective on the concept of depression in the late twentieth-century.

  5. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  6. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-21

    dogs and a cat . Vet Pathol 1987;24:192-194. 4. Migaki G, Casey HW, Bayles WB. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a dog . J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987;191(8):997...IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic

  7. Diagnostic Applications of Saliva in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    AR, Prabhakar; Gulati, Akanksha; Mehta, Deepak; Sugandhan, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of saliva to identify individuals with disease and to follow the progress of the affected individual has attracted the attention of numerous investigators. Its noninvasive method of collection, simplicity, and cost effectiveness make it a useful tool not only to the general practitioner but also to the pediatric dentist. Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a comprehensive review of the diagnostic uses of saliva in dentistry. PMID:25206116

  8. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  9. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker β-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction- or other nucleic acid- or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy.

  10. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle.

  11. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  12. [Molecular diagnostics in neuropathology].

    PubMed

    Dietmaier, W; Lorenz, J; Riemenschneider, M J

    2015-03-01

    As in only few other areas of oncology, molecular markers in neurooncology have become an integral part of clinical decision-making. This development is driven by a bustling scientific activity exploring the molecular basis and pathogenesis of human brain tumors. In addition, a high percentage of brain tumor patients are included in clinical studies in which molecular markers are assessed and linked with clinical informativeness. First steps towards more differentiated therapeutic strategies against brain tumors have thus been taken. The implementation in the clinical and diagnostic routine requires a detailed knowledge and a close collaboration between all medical disciplines involved.

  13. Diagnostic Antigens of Leishmania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-31

    braziliensis (MHOM/BR/75/M2903), L. chagasi (MJOM/BR/82/BA-2,C 1), L. donovani (MHOMiEt/67iHU3), Leishmania guyanensis (MIHOMJBR/75/M4147), L. infantum (IPT-1...comparative test to a variety of other recombinant Leishmania antigens including L. chagasi hsp70, L. braziliensis hsp83/90, L. braziliensis eIF4A, L...34 4. AD CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-92-C-2082 EC•£ 2 j 994 ’i, L TITLE: DIAGNOSTIC ANTIGENS OF LEISHMANIA L PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven G. Reed, Ph.D

  14. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  15. NIO1 diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniol, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cavenago, M.; De Muri, M.; Mimo, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.

    2015-04-01

    The radio frequency ion source NIO1, jointly developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, will generate a 60kV-135mA hydrogen negative ion beam, composed of 9 beamlets over an area of about 40 × 40 mm2. This experiment will operate in continuous mode and in conditions similar to those foreseen for the larger ion sources of the Neutral Beam Injectors for ITER. The modular design of NIO1 is convenient to address the several still open important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and performance optimization. To this purpose a set of diagnostics is being implemented. Electric and water cooling plant related measurements will allow monitoring current, pressure, flow, and temperature. The plasma in the source will be characterized by emission spectroscopy, cavity ring-down and laser absorption spectroscopy. The accelerated beam will be analyzed with a fast emittance scanner, its intensity profile and divergence with beam emission spectroscopy and visible tomography. The power distribution of the beam on the calorimeter will be monitored by thermocouples and by an infrared camera. This contribution presents the implementation and initial operation of some of these diagnostics in the commissioning phase of the experiment, in particular the cooling water calorimetry and emission spectroscopy.

  16. Laboratory Diagnostics of Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. Human pathogenic neurotoxins of types A, B, E, and F are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium botulinum groups I and II, Clostridium butyricum, and Clostridium baratii. The routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. Detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms the diagnosis. The neurotoxin detection is based on the mouse lethality assay. Sensitive and rapid in vitro assays have been developed, but they have not yet been appropriately validated on clinical and food matrices. Culture methods for C. botulinum are poorly developed, and efficient isolation and identification tools are lacking. Molecular techniques targeted to the neurotoxin genes are ideal for the detection and identification of C. botulinum, but they do not detect biologically active neurotoxin and should not be used alone. Apart from rapid diagnosis, the laboratory diagnostics of botulism should aim at increasing our understanding of the epidemiology and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the toxin-producing organisms should be routinely isolated from the patient and the vehicle. The physiological group and genetic traits of the isolates should be determined. PMID:16614251

  17. [Diagnostic Management of Exophthalmos].

    PubMed

    Klingenstein, A; Hintschich, C

    2017-01-01

    Exophthalmos is a common and important symptom in orbital consultation. It can be either uni- or bilateral. A wide spectrum of benign and malignant diseases has to be considered and evaluated for differential diagnosis, in order to maintain complete ocular function and to lead the patient to adequate therapy. Exophthalmos can be accompanied by variable symptoms, ranging from neurogenic or myogenic to corneal alterations. Symptoms at presentation depend on the underlying disease and may manifest systemically. Interdisciplinary teamwork is essential for diagnostics and therapy of exophthalmos. In addition to ophthalmological routine diagnostics, various supplementary examinations are available which are of importance for disease monitoring. Exact radiological imaging is important for the detailed visualisation of the pathology, surgery as well as treatment planning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are the standard imaging techniques used. Contrast enhancement and specific sequences can answer specific problems in detail. Combined positron emission tomography (PET) with CT permits evaluation of metabolic and morphological data and is employed in diagnosis of meningioma, lymphoma and metastases. In summary, the reader should learn important differential diagnoses and accompanying symptoms of exophthalmos, thus enabling essential clinical examinations and adequate imaging.

  18. NIO1 diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniol, B. Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Cavenago, M.; De Muri, M.; Mimo, A.

    2015-04-08

    The radio frequency ion source NIO1, jointly developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, will generate a 60kV-135mA hydrogen negative ion beam, composed of 9 beamlets over an area of about 40 × 40 mm{sup 2}. This experiment will operate in continuous mode and in conditions similar to those foreseen for the larger ion sources of the Neutral Beam Injectors for ITER. The modular design of NIO1 is convenient to address the several still open important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and performance optimization. To this purpose a set of diagnostics is being implemented. Electric and water cooling plant related measurements will allow monitoring current, pressure, flow, and temperature. The plasma in the source will be characterized by emission spectroscopy, cavity ring-down and laser absorption spectroscopy. The accelerated beam will be analyzed with a fast emittance scanner, its intensity profile and divergence with beam emission spectroscopy and visible tomography. The power distribution of the beam on the calorimeter will be monitored by thermocouples and by an infrared camera. This contribution presents the implementation and initial operation of some of these diagnostics in the commissioning phase of the experiment, in particular the cooling water calorimetry and emission spectroscopy.

  19. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  1. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A.; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors’ diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  2. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

  3. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  4. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  5. Diagnostic paediatric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.M.; Lingam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a case study teaching manual presenting radiographs and examples of other imaging modalities from 100 paediatric patients. The material comes from the radiological teaching collection at the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond Street in London and was compiled over a ten year period. With each case a short clinical history is given and a series of questions posed, similar to those encountered in postgraduate medical examinations. Sample answers with comments and more illustrations are presented on the following page. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion in the range and sophistication of diagnostic imaging modalities which are available to clinicians. Since it is impossible to achieve comprehensive coverage in a book of this size, the authors have selected examples of cases which illustrate the range of imaging modalities currently available and which may be encountered in both clinical practice and in examinations.

  6. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-10-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  7. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Diagnostic Evaluation of Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Jessica R.; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days following an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. The clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbance, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. PMID:25678154

  9. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  10. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  11. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  12. Towards increase of diagnostic efficacy in gynecologic OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Eliseeva, Darya; Kachalina, Olga; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Dubasova, Lyubov; Agrba, Pavel; Mikailova, Gyular; Prudnikov, Maxim; Shakhova, Natalia

    2013-06-01

    Gynecologic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are usually performed in combination with routine diagnostic procedures: laparoscopy and colposcopy. In combination with laparoscopy OCT is employed for inspection of fallopian tubes in cases of unrecognized infertility while in colposcopy it is used to identify cervix pathologies including cancer. In this paper we discuss methods for increasing diagnostic efficacy of OCT application in these procedures. For OCT-laparoscopy we demonstrate independent criteria for pathology recognition which allow to increase accuracy of diagnostics. For OCT-colposcopy we report on application of device for controlled compression allowing to sense the elasticity of the inspected cervix area and distinguish between neoplasia and inflammatory processes.

  13. Variola virus-specific diagnostic assays: characterization, sensitivity, and specificity.

    PubMed

    Kondas, Ashley V; Olson, Victoria A; Li, Yu; Abel, Jason; Laker, Miriam; Rose, Laura; Wilkins, Kimberly; Turner, Jonathan; Kline, Richard; Damon, Inger K

    2015-04-01

    A public health response relies upon rapid and reliable confirmation of disease by diagnostic assays. Here, we detail the design and validation of two variola virus-specific real-time PCR assays, since previous assays cross-reacted with newly identified cowpox viruses. The assay specificity must continually be reassessed as other closely related viruses are identified.

  14. 40 CFR 86.005-17 - On-board diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... code must identify multiple misfiring cylinder conditions; under multiple misfire conditions, the misfiring cylinders need not be uniquely identified if a distinct multiple misfire diagnostic trouble code... for a multiple number of driving cycles (i.e., more than one) due to the continued presence of...

  15. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  16. Optimized diagnostic model combination for improving diagnostic accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunche, S.; Chen, C.; Pecht, M. G.

    Identifying the most suitable classifier for diagnostics is a challenging task. In addition to using domain expertise, a trial and error method has been widely used to identify the most suitable classifier. Classifier fusion can be used to overcome this challenge and it has been widely known to perform better than single classifier. Classifier fusion helps in overcoming the error due to inductive bias of various classifiers. The combination rule also plays a vital role in classifier fusion, and it has not been well studied which combination rules provide the best performance during classifier fusion. Good combination rules will achieve good generalizability while taking advantage of the diversity of the classifiers. In this work, we develop an approach for ensemble learning consisting of an optimized combination rule. The generalizability has been acknowledged to be a challenge for training a diverse set of classifiers, but it can be achieved by an optimal balance between bias and variance errors using the combination rule in this paper. Generalizability implies the ability of a classifier to learn the underlying model from the training data and to predict the unseen observations. In this paper, cross validation has been employed during performance evaluation of each classifier to get an unbiased performance estimate. An objective function is constructed and optimized based on the performance evaluation to achieve the optimal bias-variance balance. This function can be solved as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. Sequential Quadratic Programming based optimization with better convergence property has been employed for the optimization. We have demonstrated the applicability of the algorithm by using support vector machine and neural networks as classifiers, but the methodology can be broadly applicable for combining other classifier algorithms as well. The method has been applied to the fault diagnosis of analog circuits. The performance of the proposed

  17. [Genetic diagnostic testing in inherited retinal dystrophies].

    PubMed

    Kohl, S; Biskup, S

    2013-03-01

    Inherited retinal dystrophies are clinically and genetically highly heterogeneous. They can be divided according to the clinical phenotype and course of the disease, as well as the underlying mode of inheritance. Isolated retinal dystrophies (i.e., retinitis pigmentosa, Leber's congenital amaurosis, cone and cone-rod dystrophy, macular dystrophy, achromatopsia, congenital stationary nightblindness) and syndromal forms (i.e., Usher syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome) can be differentiated. To date almost 180 genes and thousands of distinct mutations have been identified that are responsible for the different forms of these blinding illnesses. Until recently, there was no adequate diagnostic genetic testing available. With the development of the next generation sequencing technologies, a comprehensive genetic screening analysis for all known genes for inherited retinal dystrophies has been established at reasonable costs and in appropriate turn-around times. Depending on the primary clinical diagnosis and the presumed mode of inheritance, different diagnostic panels can be chosen for genetic testing. Statistics show that in 55-80 % of the cases the genetic defect of the inherited retinal dystrophy can be identified with this approach, depending on the initial clinical diagnosis. The aim of any genetic diagnostics is to define the genetic cause of a given illness within the affected patient and family and thereby i) confirm the clinical diagnosis, ii) provide targeted genetic testing in family members, iii) enable therapeutic intervention, iv) give a prognosis on disease course and progression and v) in the long run provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches and personalised medicine.

  18. Strain-specific SCAR markers for the detection of Trichoderma harzianum AS12-2, a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rice sheath blight.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, S; Kocsubé, S; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Okhovvat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M; Vágvölgyi, C; Kredics, L

    2011-03-01

    In order to identify a specific marker for T. harzianum AS12-2, a strain capable of controlling rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, UP-PCR was performed using five universal primers (UP) both separately and in pairwise combinations. The application of two UP primers resulted in the amplification of unique fragments from the genomic DNA of T. harzianum AS12-2, clearly distinguishing it from other Trichoderma strains. The unique fragments had no significant sequence homology with any other known sequence available in databases. Based on the sequences of the unique fragments, 14 oligonucleotide primers were designed. Two primer sets amplified a fragment of expected size from the DNA of strain T. harzianum AS12-2 but not from any other examined strains belonging to T. harzianum, to other Trichoderma species assayed, or to other common fungi present in paddy fields of Mazandaran province, Iran. In conclusion, SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers were successfully identified and rapid, reliable tools were provided for the detection of an effective biocontrol Trichoderma strain, which can facilitate studies of its population dynamics and establishment after release into the natural environment.

  19. Epidemiology of and diagnostic strategies for toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-04-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies.

  20. [Diagnostic testing in fragile X syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sireteanu, Adriana; Rusu, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation. It is caused by a progressive expansion of polymeric (CGG)n trinucleotide repeats located on the FMR1 gene at Xq27.3. The spectrum of clinical involvement is broad, clinical diagnosis being difficult especially in young children. Hence, all cases of mental retardation without obvious cause should be tested for fragile X syndrome; the relatives of such a case need to be offered genetic counseling. Cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic tests are available. Recently, an immunocytochemical test has been described to identify fragile X patients, based on detection of FMR1 protein in cells using a monoclonal antibody. This method is used for screening, PCR based tests and Southern blot hybridization being the diagnostic tests for mutation and pre-mutation detection. Prenatal diagnosis is possible.

  1. Clinically isolated neurosarcoidosis: a recommended diagnostic path.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Susanne; Linnebank, Michael; Martin, Roland; Valavanis, Anton; Weller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system in sarcoidosis can manifest with a variety of neurological symptoms, most of them nonspecific. We identified 13 patients with neurosarcoidosis diagnosed at our clinic. Six of 13 patients presented with clinically isolated neurosarcoidosis (CINS) without signs or symptoms of systemic disease. CINS patients were not different with respect to age, as well as imaging and spinal fluid findings, or disease course. However, we found spinal cord involvement in neurosarcoidosis patients much more common than previously described (in 8 out of 13 patients). Spinal cord affection was associated with older age at diagnosis and a less favorable response to therapy. Based on our findings, we propose a diagnostic path for neurosarcoidosis, including spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a mandatory and early step during diagnostic workup.

  2. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

  3. Moyamoya disease: diagnostic accuracy of MRI.

    PubMed

    Yamada, I; Suzuki, S; Matsushima, Y

    1995-07-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in moyamoya disease. We studied 30 patients with this disease, comparing MRI and angiographic findings. The diagnostic value of MRI was evaluated for occlusive lesions, collateral vessels, and parenchymal lesions. In all patients bilateral occlusion or stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and proximal anterior and middle cerebral arteries was clearly shown by MRI, and staging of the extent of occlusion agreed with angiographic staging in 44 (73%) of 60 arteries. MRI, particularly coronal images, clearly showed basal cerebral moyamoya vessels in 54 hemispheres, and 45 of a total of 71 large leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels were identified. MRI also showed parenchymal lesions in 48 (80%) hemispheres, and the extent of occlusion in the anterior and posterior circulations respectively correlated with white matter and cortical and/or subcortical infarcts.

  4. Diagnostic Tools for Onchocerciasis Elimination Programs.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Fischer, Peter U; Weil, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Major disease-control programs have greatly reduced both disease and infection prevalence by mass distribution of donated ivermectin. Recent studies have shown that local elimination was achieved in some areas following many years of ivermectin. The global health community has recently decided to build on these successes with a new program that aims to eliminate onchocerciasis. Diagnostic tests that were useful for identifying priority areas for disease prevention may not be adequate tools for elimination programs. This paper reviews available and emerging diagnostic tests for onchocerciasis and considers how they might be best employed during different stages of onchocerciasis elimination programs.

  5. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  6. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  7. Motor neurone disease: diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Williams, Timothy L

    2013-02-01

    The misdiagnosis of MND (particularly of the ALS phenotype), is uncommon. Atypical presentations, particularly of focal onset and with pure LMN or UMN signs, present a more difficult diagnostic challenge, although perhaps reassuringly, treatable mimics are rare. A working knowledge of potential alternative conditions and MND diagnostic pitfalls should help to reduce the misdiagnosis rate, particularly if the key points are considered.

  8. Ellipsoidal reflectors in biomedical diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyi, M. A.; Bezuglaya, N. V.

    2013-11-01

    In this work were considered photometric tools for biomedical diagnostics, which contain a mirror ellipsoid of revolution. Proposed schemes with ellipsoidal reflectors for diagnostics in reflected and in reflected and transmitted light. A comparative analysis of measurement standards scattering surfaces was held.

  9. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  10. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  11. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  12. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  13. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

  14. Magnetic Diagnostics in LDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.; Hansen, A.; Mauel, M.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetic diagnostics will play an essential role in understanding the equilibrium and stability of LDX plasmas. Flux loops, poloidal field coils, Hall probes, and Mirnov coils have been installed and tested for the first experimental campaign. These measurements will provide the boundary field and flux values needed as inputs to a Grad-Shafranov solver for equilibrium reconstruction. Specifically, the boundary magnetic signals constrain the location and shape of the pressure function, p(ψ). The sensors, excluding the Mirnov coils, have been installed in accordance with an optimization scheme that maximizes their sensitivity to diamagnetic currents. The Mirnov coils have been designed to detect plasma fluctuations up to MHz range to characterize MHD activity. Initial testing and calibration of the sensors have been performed in-laboratorio using a medium-sized Helmholtz pair, and the results have subsequently been compared to data obtained in-loco with a large Helmholtz pair installed on the LDX vacuum chamber. Additionally, an equilibrium reconstruction model that incorporates pressure models more appropriate for the LDX plasmas than the more common polynomial expansion has been completed.

  15. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future.

  16. ISM Diagnostics: Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Infrared (IR) observations provide significant information on the lifecycle of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM), which is crucial for the understanding of the evolution of matter in the universe. The IR spectral energy distribution (SED) of the dust emission tells us the relative abundance of sub-micron grains, very small grains, and carriers of the unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands, since they emit the far-IR, the mid-IR, and the UIR bands from the near- to mid-IR, respectively. On the other hand, the UIR emission bands themselves offer a useful means to probe the physical conditions from which the band emission arises because each band is assigned to a specific C-H or C-C vibration mode and because its relative intensity should reflect the properties of the band carriers and the physical conditions of the environment. Here the two diagnostic methods using IR observations are briefly described together with examples of the observational results. Implications for the dust lifecycle are also discussed.

  17. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  18. Diagnostic of Horndeski theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perenon, Louis; Marinoni, Christian; Piazza, Federico

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of Horndeski models of dark energy on the observables of the large-scale structure in the late time universe. A novel classification into Late dark energy, Early dark energy and Early modified gravity scenarios is proposed, according to whether such models predict deviations from the standard paradigm persistent at early time in the matter domination epoch. We discuss the physical imprints left by each specific class of models on the effective Newton constant μ, the gravitational slip parameter η, the light deflection parameter Σ and the growth function fσ8 and demonstrate that a convenient way to dress a complete portrait of the viability of the Horndeski accelerating mechanism is via two, redshift-dependent, diagnostics: the μ(z) ‑ Σ(z) and the fσ8(z) ‑ Σ(z) planes. If future, model-independent, measurements point to either Σ ‑ 1 < 0 at redshift zero or μ ‑ 1 < 0 with Σ ‑ 1 > 0 at high redshifts or μ ‑ 1 > 0 with Σ ‑ 1 < 0 at high redshifts, Horndeski theories are effectively ruled out. If fσ8 is measured to be larger than expected in a ΛCDM model at z > 1.5 then Early dark energy models are definitely ruled out. On the opposite case, Late dark energy models are rejected by data if Σ < 1, while, if Σ > 1, only Early modifications of gravity provide a viable framework to interpret data.

  19. Magnetic Diagnostics in LDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Ishtak; Kesner, Jay; Garnier, Darren; Mauel, Mike

    2001-10-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) will investigate the stability and equilibrium of a high-beta plasma confined in a dipolar magnetic field. One of the principal goals of the experiment is to understand the effect of the plasma pressure profile on its global stability. We describe our plan to characterize the pressure profile by iteratively fitting solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation to the magnetic inputs obtained from various magnetic sensors. Equilibrium fields will be measured using coils and loops placed outside the vacuum vessel. A poloidal array of pairs of orthogonally oriented B_p-coils will be placed at nine positions, and ten poloidal flux loops will be placed at optimal locations. Hall probes will be placed outside of the vessel to supplement the coil measurements. A toroidal array of Mirnov coils will be installed inside the vessel to measure fast (MHz) plasma oscillations caused by instability and to deduce their mode numbers. A detailed design of the proposed diagnostics and the current progress on their construction will be presented. Calibration test results of the B_p-coils will also be given. A general overview of the reconstruction algorithm will be shown.

  20. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: current diagnostic criteria and advances in MRI diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Magill, Stephen T; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Weinstein, Philip R; Chin, Cynthia T; Jacques, Line

    2015-09-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is caused by compression of the brachial plexus as it traverses from the thoracic outlet to the axilla. Diagnosing nTOS can be difficult because of overlap with other complex pain and entrapment syndromes. An nTOS diagnosis is made based on patient history, physical exam, electrodiagnostic studies, and, more recently, interpretation of MR neurograms with tractography. Advances in high-resolution MRI and tractography can confirm an nTOS diagnosis and identify the location of nerve compression, allowing tailored surgical decompression. In this report, the authors review the current diagnostic criteria, present an update on advances in MRI, and provide case examples demonstrating how MR neurography (MRN) can aid in diagnosing nTOS. The authors conclude that improved high-resolution MRN and tractography are valuable tools for identifying the source of nerve compression in patients with nTOS and can augment current diagnostic modalities for this syndrome.

  1. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  2. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

  3. Peptides specific for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection: diagnostic potential.

    PubMed

    Casey, J L; Sanalla, A M; Tamvakis, D; Thalmann, C; Carroll, E L; Parisi, K; Coley, A M; Stewart, D J; Vaughan, J A; Michalski, W P; Luke, R; Foley, M

    2011-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). Current serological diagnostic tests for JD are limited by their sensitivity when used in sub-clinical stages of the disease. Our objective was to identify peptides that mimic diagnostically important Map epitopes that might be incorporated into a new-generation JD diagnostic. Four peptides were isolated from a phage-displayed random peptide library by screening on antibodies derived from Map-infected goats. The peptides were recognised by antibodies from Map-infected goats but not by antibodies from uninfected goats. The peptides elicited immune responses in rabbits, which reacted strongly with bona fide Map antigens proving the peptides were true epitope mimics. To assess the diagnostic value a panel of goat sera was screened for reactivity's with peptides. The peptides were recognised by antibodies from a proportion of goats infected with Map compared with control animals with a diagnostic specificity of 100% and the sensitivity ranged from 50 to 75%. Combinations of any two peptides improved sensitivity 62.5-87.5% and 100% sensitivity was achieved with three of the four peptides in combination. These data suggest peptides representing diagnostically important Map epitopes could be incorporated into a sensitive diagnostic test.

  4. [Novel methods for dementia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Wiltfang, J

    2015-04-01

    Novel diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) and [18F] amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) are meanwhile recommended for specific indications by international guidelines for the improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In the case of CSF-NDD the German neuropsychiatric guidelines have already been validated on the S3 level of evidence (http://www.DGPPN.de) and the additional consideration of [18F] amyloid-PET in the current update of the guidelines is to be expected. By means of CSF-NDD and/or [18F] amyloid-PET a predictive diagnosis of incipient (preclinical) AD is also possible for patients at high risk for AD who are in prodromal stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As accompanying (secondary) preventive therapy of AD cannot be offered a predictive molecular dementia diagnostics is not recommended by the German neuropsychiatric dementia guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, novel diagnostic approaches, which offer molecular positive diagnostics of AD have already gained high relevance in therapy research as they allow promising preventive treatment avenues to be validated directly in the clinical trial. Moreover, future blood-based dementia diagnostics by means of multiplex assays is becoming increasingly more feasible; however, so far corresponding proteomic or epigenetic assays could not be consistently validated in independent studies.

  5. [BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS].

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Kei

    2006-08-01

    Rome I diagnostic criteria for IBS was published in 1992 and it became a global diagnostic criteria. However, the criteria was not practical and somewhat complicated. Moreover, its symptomatic duration was too long (defined as more than 3 months) to be introduced in clinical practice. Therefore, Japanese member of BMW(Bowel Motility Workshop) tried to develop a new diagnostic criteria for IBS and it was established in 1995 by way of the Delphi method. The criteria was named as BMW diagnostic criteria and it was shown below: BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS (1995) At least one month or more of repetitive symptoms of the following 1) and 2) and no evidence of organic disease that likely to explain the symptoms. 1) Existence of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort or abdominal distension 2) Existence of abnormal bowel movement (diarrhea, constipation) Abnormal bowel movement includes at least one of the below; (1) Abnormal stool frequency (2) Abnormal stool form (lumpy/hard or loose/wartery stool) Moreover, the following test should be performed as a rule to exclude organic diseases. (1) Urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, CBC, chemistry (2) Barium enema or colonofiberscopic examination The other diagnostic criteria for IBS was also reviewed and their characteristics were compared with BMW diagnostic criteria.

  6. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, R.M.; Coulam, C.M.; Allen, J.H.; Fleischer, A.; Lee, G.S.; Kirchner, S.G.; James A.E. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Evaluation of pediatric emergencies by diagnostic imaging technics can involve both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Nuclear medicine, conventional radiography, ultrasound, computerized axial tomography, and xeroradiography are the major nonangiographic diagnostic technics available for patient evaluation. We will emphasize the use of computerized axial tomography, nuclear medicine, xeroradiography, and ultrasound in the evaluation of emergencies in the pediatric age group. Since the radiologist is the primary consultant with regard to diagnostic imaging, his knowledge of these modulities can greatly influence patient care and clinical results.

  7. GENOSENSE Diagnostics GmbH.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Christian

    2004-07-01

    GENOSENSE Diagnostics GmbH, a company specialized in preventive genetic diagnostics, has committed itself to applying molecular medical knowledge to realizing the vision of individual, preventive and patient-tailored medicine. GENOSENSE offers a unique line of preventive genomic diagnostic profiles. Each profile focuses on a carefully selected set of polymorphisms associated with particular diseases or physiologic imbalances. GENOSENSE does not only provide the genetic test results, but highly capable medical experts 'translate' the results into a clinical language and assist the customer with established support regarding their medical interpretation. In addition, the company provides academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies with turnkey solutions for research-based projects.

  8. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  9. Next-generation confirmatory disease diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Robert; Gerver, Rachel; Karns, Kelly; Apori, Akwasi A.; Denisin, Aleksandra K.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-06-01

    Microfluidic tools are advancing capabilities in screening diagnostics for use in near-patient settings. Here, we review three case studies to illustrate the flexibility and analytical power offered by microanalytical tools. We first overview a near-patient tool for detection of protein markers found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a means to identify the presence of cerebrospinal fluid in nasal mucous - an indication that CSF is leaking into the nasal cavity. Microfluidic design allowed integration of several up-stream preparatory steps and rapid, specific completion of the human CSF protein assay. Second, we overview a tear fluid based assay for lactoferrin, a protein produced in the lacrimal gland, then secreted into tear fluid. Tear Lf is a putative biomarker for primary SS. A critical contribution of this and related work being measurement of Lf, even in light of well-known and significant matrix interactions and losses during the tear fluid collection and preparation. Lastly, we review a microfluidic barcode platform that enables rapid measurement of multiple infectious disease biomarkers in human sera. The assay presents a new approach to multiplexed biomarker detection, yet in a simple straight microchannel - thus providing a streamlined, simplified microanalytical platform, as is relevant to robust operation in diagnostic settings. We view microfluidic design and analytical chemistry as the basis for emerging, sophisticated assays that will advance not just screening diagnostic technology, but confirmatory assays, sample preparation and handling, and thus introduction and utilization of new biomarkers and assay formats.

  10. In-flight Diagnostics in LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Sanjuan, J.; Conchillo, A.; Ortega, J. A.; Xirgu, X.; Araujo, H.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Grimani, C.; Puigdengoles, C.; Wass, P.; García-Berro, E.; García, S.; Martínez, L. M.; Montero, G.

    2006-11-01

    LISA PathFinder (LPF) will be flown with the objective to test in space key technologies for LISA. However its sensitivity goals are, for good reason, one order of magnitude less than those which LISA will have to meet, both in drag-free and optical metrology requirements, and in the observation frequency band. While the expected success of LPF will of course be of itself a major step forward to LISA, one might not forget that a further improvement by an order of magnitude in performance will still be needed. Clues for the last leap are to be derived from proper disentanglement of the various sources of noise which contribute to the total noise, as measured in flight during the PathFinder mission. This paper describes the principles, workings and requirements of one of the key tools to serve the above objective: the diagnostics subsystem. This consists in sets of temperature, magnetic field, and particle counter sensors, together with generators of controlled thermal and magnetic perturbations. At least during the commissioning phase, the latter will be used to identify feed-through coefficients between diagnostics sensor readings and associated actual noise contributions. A brief progress report of the current state of development of the diagnostics subsystem will be given as well.

  11. Measurements and Diagnostics of Diamond Films and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    The commercial potential of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films has been established and a number of applications have been identified through university, industry, and government research studies. This paper discusses the methodologies used for property measurement and diagnostic of CVD diamond films and coatings. Measurement and diagnostic techniques studied include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and friction examination. Each measurement and diagnostic technique provides unique information. A combination of techniques can provide the technical information required to understand the quality and properties of CVD diamond films, which are important to their application in specific component systems and environments. In this study the combination of measurement and diagnostic techniques was successfully applied to correlate deposition parameters and resultant diamond film composition, crystallinity, grain size, surface roughness, and coefficient of friction.

  12. Spectroscopic diagnostics for bacteria in biologic sample

    DOEpatents

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; El-Sayed, Ivan H.

    2002-01-01

    A method to analyze and diagnose specific bacteria in a biologic sample using spectroscopy is disclosed. The method includes obtaining the spectra of a biologic sample of a non-infected patient for use as a reference, subtracting the reference from the spectra of an infected sample, and comparing the fingerprint regions of the resulting differential spectrum with reference spectra of bacteria in saline. Using this diagnostic technique, specific bacteria can be identified sooner and without culturing, bacteria-specific antibiotics can be prescribed sooner, resulting in decreased likelihood of antibiotic resistance and an overall reduction of medical costs.

  13. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    PubMed

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method.

  14. Diagnostic procedures in immunodermatology.

    PubMed

    Cormane, R H; Asghar, S S

    1976-07-01

    gold or radiolabeled glucosamine. In contact allergic dermatitis, an increase in the IgD-bearing lymphocytes and granulocytes has also been correlated with cellular hypersensitivity. Lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes coated with antibodies mainly directed against nuclear antigens of the basal layer cells of the noninvolved epidermis have invariably been encountered in psoriasis. The use of these findings for diagnostic purposes and for understanding the mechanisms of certain diseases is being explored.

  15. Immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis using Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-03-25

    We demonstrate a Google Glass-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) reader platform capable of qualitative and quantitative measurements of various lateral flow immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical diagnostics tests. Using a custom-written Glass application and without any external hardware attachments, one or more RDTs labeled with Quick Response (QR) code identifiers are simultaneously imaged using the built-in camera of the Google Glass that is based on a hands-free and voice-controlled interface and digitally transmitted to a server for digital processing. The acquired JPEG images are automatically processed to locate all the RDTs and, for each RDT, to produce a quantitative diagnostic result, which is returned to the Google Glass (i.e., the user) and also stored on a central server along with the RDT image, QR code, and other related information (e.g., demographic data). The same server also provides a dynamic spatiotemporal map and real-time statistics for uploaded RDT results accessible through Internet browsers. We tested this Google Glass-based diagnostic platform using qualitative (i.e., yes/no) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. For the quantitative RDTs, we measured activated tests at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL for free and total PSA. This wearable RDT reader platform running on Google Glass combines a hands-free sensing and image capture interface with powerful servers running our custom image processing codes, and it can be quite useful for real-time spatiotemporal tracking of various diseases and personal medical conditions, providing a valuable tool for epidemiology and mobile health.

  16. Identifying learning styles.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  17. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  18. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  19. FEL-accelerator related diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

    2007-08-02

    Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

  20. Microfluidic technology for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tom; Dittrich, Petra S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics have helped to improve the lives of millions of patients worldwide by allowing clinicians to diagnose patients earlier as well as providing better ongoing therapies. Point-of-care (POC) testing can bring these laboratory-based techniques to the patient in a home setting or to remote settings in the developing world. However, despite substantial progress in the field, there still remain many challenges. Progress in molecular diagnostics has benefitted greatly from microfluidic technology. This chapter aims to summarise the more recent advances in microfluidic-based molecular diagnostics. Sections include an introduction to microfluidic technology, the challenges of molecular diagnostics, how microfluidic advances are working to solve these issues, some alternative design approaches, and detection within these systems.

  1. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Visser, Theodoor; Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them.

  2. Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Malamud, Daniel; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Here, we critically review the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. PMID:21094724

  3. Diagnostic Studies With GLA Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Assessments of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System-1 Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS) regarding heating rates, energetics and angular momentum quantities were made. These diagnostics can be viewed as measures of climate variability. Comparisons with the NOAA/NCEP reanalysis system of momentum and energetics diagnostics are included. Water vapor and angular momentum are diagnosed in many models, including those of NASA, as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Relevant preprints are included herein.

  4. Cotton-based Diagnostic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2014-01-01

    A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a “cotton-based diagnostic device” capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

  5. Identifying Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Millicent E.

    1978-01-01

    Using a matched sample of students who stay in school and those who drop out, or leave early, an attempt was made, via multiple discriminant analysis, to identify the significant characteristics which distinguish "drop outs" from their peers who remain at school. Results indicated that both types of students have similar value orientations and…

  6. Identifying Nursing's Future Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunning, Carolyn S.; Hawken, Patty L.

    1990-01-01

    A study determined that encouraging and supporting students in professional activities while they were still in school would lead those students to participate in professional nursing organizations after they graduated. Organized nursing needs to identify the factors that influence nurses to join organizations and concentrate on these factors to…

  7. 40 CFR 86.099-17 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certain operating conditions. The diagnostic trouble code shall identify multiple misfiring cylinder conditions; under multiple misfire conditions, the misfiring cylinders need not be uniquely identified if a distinct multiple misfire diagnostic trouble code is stored. (3) The diagnostic system may erase...

  8. Molecular diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Stephen; Skubisz, Monika M; Horne, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancies are a serious gynaecological emergency that can be fatal. As such, prompt diagnosis and safe timely treatment is essential. Here, we review the literature on the development of molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy. A blood-based biomarker that accurately identifies an ectopic pregnancy could be used to offer early diagnostic certainty in cases where ultrasound cannot determine the location of the embryo ('a pregnancy of unknown location'). Molecules examined so far can be broadly grouped into biological themes of relevance to reproduction: (i) Fallopian tube (dys)function, (ii) embryo/trophoblast growth, (iii) corpus luteum function, (iv) inflammation, (v) uterine function and (vi) angiogenesis. While a sensitive and specific biomarker for ectopic pregnancy has yet to be identified, it is possible that improvements in platform technologies or a multi-modal biomarker approach may yield an accurate diagnostic biomarker test. Furthermore, with the advent of better imaging technology, the need for a blood-based biomarker test may be superseded by improvements in ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging technology. There have been some recent preclinical studies describing molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches for ectopic pregnancy. Notably, bench-to-bedside studies have examined the use of combination gefitinib (orally available epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) and methotrexate. Preclinical studies suggest that combination gefitinib and methotrexate is highly effective in inducing placental cell death, and is significantly more effective than methotrexate alone. In early human trials, encouraging preliminary efficacy data have shown that combination gefitinib and methotrexate can rapidly resolve tubal ectopic pregnancies, and large extra-tubal ectopic pregnancies. If a large clinical randomized controlled trial confirms these findings, combination gefitinib and methotrexate could become a new

  9. Urinary peptidomics identifies potential biomarkers for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Liang; Zheng, Peng; Xu, Hong-Bo; Lu, Jia; Zhong, Jiaju; Lei, Yang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Ma, Qingwei; Li, Yan; Xie, Peng

    2014-06-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric illness with no available objective laboratory-based diagnostic test. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based peptidomics was applied to identify potential urinary diagnostic biomarkers for MDD. A training set of 42 first-episode drug-naive MDD patients and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) was used to develop a peptide diagnostic pattern. Then, the diagnostic efficacy of this pattern was assessed in an independent blinded test set consisting of 24 MDD patients and 13 age- and gender-matched HC. A combination of five potential biomarkers was identified, yielding a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 84.6% in the test set. Moreover, the protein precursors of four of the five peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometric analysis: serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I, protein AMBP, and basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Taken together, the peptide pattern may be valuable for establishing an objective laboratory-based diagnostic test for MDD.

  10. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargraves, Paul E.

    Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped marine science library trying in vain to keep up with the rapidly evolving field of phytoplankton systematics and taxonomy, or track down one of the rarest of endangered species—a phytoplankton taxonomist—and beg for help.To these unfortunate choices is added one considerably more hopeful: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. This volume, which has seven contributing authors, contains most of the taxonomic groups that make up the planktonic autotrophs and some heterotrophs of the seas, coasts, and estuaries of the world (missing are cyanobacteria and some of the picoplankton groups).

  11. Guide to good practices for teamwork training and diagnostic skills development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.

  12. Exosomes in Cancer Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Soung, Young Hwa; Ford, Shane; Zhang, Vincent; Chung, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are endosome derived extracellular vesicles of 30–120 nm size ranges. Exosomes have been identified as mediators of cell-to-cell communication by transferring bioactive molecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids into recipient cells. While exosomes are secreted by multiple cell types, cancer derived exosomes not only influence the invasive potentials of proximally located cells, but also affect distantly located tissues. Based on their ability to alter tumor microenvironment by regulating immunity, angiogenesis and metastasis, there has been growing interest in defining the clinical relevance of exosomes in cancers. In particular, exosomes are valuable sources for biomarkers due to selective cargo loading and resemblance to their parental cells. In this review, we summarize the recent findings to utilize exosomes as cancer biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis and therapy selection. PMID:28085080

  13. Advances in sarcoma diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dancsok, Amanda R; Asleh-Aburaya, Karama; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2017-01-01

    The heterogeneity of sarcomas with regard to molecular genesis, histology, clinical characteristics, and response to treatment makes management of these rare yet diverse neoplasms particularly challenging. This review encompasses recent developments in sarcoma diagnostics and treatment, including cytotoxic, targeted, epigenetic, and immune therapy agents. In the past year, groups internationally explored the impact of adding mandatory molecular testing to histological diagnosis, reporting some changes in diagnosis and/or management; however, the impact on outcomes could not be adequately assessed. Transcriptome sequencing techniques have brought forward new diagnostic tools for identifying fusions and/or characterizing unclassified entities. Next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular techniques were also applied to identify potential targets for directed and epigenetic therapy, where preclinical studies reported results for agents active within the receptor tyrosine kinase, mTOR, Notch, Wnt, Hedgehog, Hsp90, and MDM2 signaling networks. At the level of clinical practice, modest developments were seen for some sarcoma subtypes in conventional chemotherapy and in therapies targeting the pathways activated by various receptor tyrosine kinases. In the burgeoning field of immune therapy, sarcoma work is in its infancy; however, elaborate protocols for immune stimulation are being explored, and checkpoint blockade agents advance from preclinical models to clinical studies. PMID:27732970

  14. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  15. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains. PMID:26930612

  16. Strain-specific virulence of Bordetella hinzii in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella hinzii is commonly acquired from the respiratory tract of diseased poultry but regarded as nonpathogenic in avian hosts. Recently, it was recognized that some previously used isolates were misidentified at the time of their acquisition as B. avium, B. avium-like or Alcaligenes faecalis ty...

  17. Strain specific transcriptional response in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant health problem worldwide with a third of the world population infected and nearly nine million new cases claiming 1.1 million deaths every year. The outcome following infection by Mtb is determined by a complex and dynamic host-pathogen interaction in which the phenotype of the pathogen and the immune status of the host play a role. However, the molecular mechanism by which Mtb strains induce different responses during intracellular infection of the host macrophage is not fully understood. To explore the early molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, we studied the transcriptional responses of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) to infection with two clinical Mtb strains, CDC1551 and HN878. These strains have previously been shown to differ in their virulence/immunogenicity in the mouse and rabbit models of pulmonary TB. Results In spite of similar intracellular growth rates, we observed that compared to HN878, infection by CDC1551 of BMM was associated with an increased global transcriptome, up-regulation of a specific early (6 hours) immune response network and significantly elevated nitric oxide production. In contrast, at 24 hours post-infection of BMM by HN878, more host genes involved in lipid metabolism, including cholesterol metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis were up-regulated, compared to infection with CDC1551. In association with the differences in the macrophage responses to infection with the 2 Mtb strains, intracellular CDC1551 expressed higher levels of stress response genes than did HN878. Conclusions In association with the early and more robust macrophage activation, intracellular CDC1551 cells were exposed to a higher level of stress leading to increased up-regulation of the bacterial stress response genes. In contrast, sub-optimal activation of macrophages and induction of a dysregulated host cell lipid metabolism favored a less stressful intracellular environment for HN878. Our findings suggest that the ability of CDC1551 and HN878 to differentially activate macrophages during infection probably determines their ability to either resist host cell immunity and progress to active disease or to succumb to the host protective responses and be driven into a non-replicating latent state in rabbit lungs. PMID:22280836

  18. Comparison of Experimental Diagnostic Signals with Numerical Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, K.; Turnbull, A. D.

    1997-11-01

    A new code has been written to compare experimental diagnostic signals with those predicted by stability code output and experimental equilibrium diagnostic signals such as SXR, ECE, BSE, and reflectometry. Comparison of expected and actual diagnostic signals will help distinguish or identify modes by the signals they produce, and will also help validate stability codes. Predicted diagnostic signals are obtained by taking the total time derivative of S, the signal amplitude, and assuming steady state conditions so that the partial time derivative can be set to zero. Multiplying by delta-time (Dt) results in δ S = tilde\\underlineξ \\cdot \\underlinenablaS, where δ S is the predicted diagnostic signal, tilde\\underlineξ is the plasma displacement predicted by various equilibrium codes (such as GATO or MARS), and \\underlinenablaS is the gradient of the equilibrium diagnostic signal. \\underlinenablaS may be obtained from an experimental equilibrium signal amplitude profile, or from a functional dependence of the signal amplitude on equilibrium temperature and density. Comparisons of predicted and actual signals from linear ideal and resistive codes show reasonable agreement with the measured signals in some cases, but there are also some significant discrepancies.

  19. PICADAR: a diagnostic predictive tool for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Behan, Laura; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Hogg, Claire; Carroll, Mary; Evans, Hazel J.; Goutaki, Myrofora; Harris, Amanda; Packham, Samantha; Walker, Woolf T.

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are nonspecific and guidance on whom to refer for testing is limited. Diagnostic tests for PCD are highly specialised, requiring expensive equipment and experienced PCD scientists. This study aims to develop a practical clinical diagnostic tool to identify patients requiring testing. Patients consecutively referred for testing were studied. Information readily obtained from patient history was correlated with diagnostic outcome. Using logistic regression, the predictive performance of the best model was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The model was simplified into a practical tool (PICADAR) and externally validated in a second diagnostic centre. Of 641 referrals with a definitive diagnostic outcome, 75 (12%) were positive. PICADAR applies to patients with persistent wet cough and has seven predictive parameters: full-term gestation, neonatal chest symptoms, neonatal intensive care admittance, chronic rhinitis, ear symptoms, situs inversus and congenital cardiac defect. Sensitivity and specificity of the tool were 0.90 and 0.75 for a cut-off score of 5 points. Area under the curve for the internally and externally validated tool was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. PICADAR represents a simple diagnostic clinical prediction rule with good accuracy and validity, ready for testing in respiratory centres referring to PCD centres. PMID:26917608

  20. Enhancing ADHD and LD Diagnostic Accuracy Using Career Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Hargrave, Stephanie; Storlie, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with mental health disorders may have work-related difficulties that impact functioning in all life domains. With limited research on the integration of career and mental health counseling, authors used a discriminant function analysis to assess the predictability of accurately identifying diagnostic categories among 258…

  1. Factors influencing hospital employee motivation: a diagnostic instrument.

    PubMed

    Alpander, G G

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a diagnostic instrument which identifies the most salient elements of employee motivation in hospitals. Application of this instrument in medium-sized U.S. hospitals indicates that recognition is the primary motivating factor. The results are greatly different in other countries.

  2. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  3. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods which first emerged in the mid-1970’s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individua...

  4. Diagnostic Delay and Antibiotic Overuse in Acute Pulmonary Blastomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, Jonathan D.; Bahr, Nathan C.; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Boulware, David R.; Sellman, Jonathan S.; Sarosi, George A.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of blastomycosis is often delayed. We identified 28 cases of pulmonary blastomycosis in a retrospective chart review. Most patients received multiple antibiotic courses before being diagnosed, and the sputum KOH smear was rarely used. Diagnostic delay can be decreased with higher suspicion for pulmonary blastomycosis and early use of the sputum KOH smear. PMID:27419155

  5. Clearinghouse: Diagnostic Categories and Obstetric Complication Histories in Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Thomas F.; Wiegerink, Ronald

    1971-01-01

    No significant differences in the obstetric complication measures were found among the various diagnostic groupings of 61 psychologically or behaviorally disturbed children, nor between any complication measures and any of the three disturbed behavior patterns identified (psychotic withdrawal, acting-out aggression, organic signs). (KW)

  6. Diagnostic Models for Procedural Bugs in Basic Mathematics Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Burton, Richard R.

    A new diagnostic modeling system for automatically synthesizing a deep structure model of a student's misconceptions or bugs in his/her basic mathematics skills provides a mechanism for explaining why a student is making a mistake as opposed to simply identifying the mistake. This report consists of four sections. The first provides examples of…

  7. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

  8. Pea Disease Diagnostic Series- Rhizoctonia seed, seedling and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea disease diagnostic cards that growers can carry with them into the field that are water resistant and durable which can be used to identify the signs and symptoms of major pea pathogens were developed. Color photographs of major fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens on peas and a brief descript...

  9. Systemic and Nonsystemic Diagnostic Processes: An Empirical Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuirk, James G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined how systemic and nonsystemic clinicians differ in diagnostic processes. Experienced therapists, with family systems or psychodynamic orientations viewed a stimulus film of a family session and individual interviews with parent and patients. Compared to nonsystems clinicians systemic clinicians identified as clinically relevant more…

  10. Diagnostics for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Diagnostic techniques for neutral-beam-heated tokamak plasmas fall into three categories: (1) magnetic diagnostics for measurements of gross stored energy, (2) profile diagnostics for measurements of stored thermal and beam energy, impurity content and plasma rotation, and (3) fast time resolution diagnostics to study MHD fluctuations and micro-turbulence.

  11. Laser diagnostics for small rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J.; Degroot, Wilhelmus A.

    1993-01-01

    Two nonintrusive flowfield diagnostics based on spectrally-resolved elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Raman) laser light scattering were developed for obtaining local flowfield measurements in low-thrust gaseous H2/O2 rocket engines. The objective is to provide an improved understanding of phenomena occurring in small chemical rockets in order to facilitate the development and validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for analyzing engine performance. The laser Raman scattering diagnostic was developed to measure major polyatomic species number densities and rotational temperatures in the high-density flowfield region extending from the injector through the chamber throat. Initial application of the Raman scattering diagnostic provided O2 number density and rotational temperature measurements in the exit plane of a low area-ratio nozzle and in the combustion chamber of a two-dimensional, optically-accessible rocket engine. In the low-density nozzle exit plane region where the Raman signal is too weak, a Doppler-resolved laser Rayleigh scattering diagnostic was developed to obtain axial and radial mean gas velocities, and in certain cases, H2O translational temperature and number density. The results from these measurements were compared with theoretical predictions from the RPLUS CFD code for analyzing rocket engine performance. Initial conclusions indicate that a detailed and rigorous modeling of the injector is required in order to make direct comparisons between laser diagnostic measurements and CFD predictions at the local level.

  12. Microarray Technologies in Fungal Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Microarray technologies have been a major research tool in the last decades. In addition they have been introduced into several fields of diagnostics including diagnostics of infectious diseases. Microarrays are highly parallelized assay systems that initially were developed for multiparametric nucleic acid detection. From there on they rapidly developed towards a tool for the detection of all kind of biological compounds (DNA, RNA, proteins, cells, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, etc.) or their modifications (methylation, phosphorylation, etc.). The combination of closed-tube systems and lab on chip devices with microarrays further enabled a higher automation degree with a reduced contamination risk. Microarray-based diagnostic applications currently complement and may in the future replace classical methods in clinical microbiology like blood cultures, resistance determination, microscopic and metabolic analyses as well as biochemical or immunohistochemical assays. In addition, novel diagnostic markers appear, like noncoding RNAs and miRNAs providing additional room for novel nucleic acid based biomarkers. Here I focus an microarray technologies in diagnostics and as research tools, based on nucleic acid-based arrays.

  13. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  14. New diagnostic tools in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, J; Becker, S L; van Lieshout, L; van Dam, G J; Knopp, S

    2015-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based parasitic disease that affects over 250 million people. Control efforts have long been in vain, which is one reason why schistosomiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease. However, since the new millennium, interventions against schistosomiasis are escalating. The initial impetus stems from a 2001 World Health Assembly resolution, urging member states to scale-up deworming of school-aged children with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Because praziquantel is safe, efficacious and inexpensive when delivered through the school platform, diagnosis before drug intervention was deemed unnecessary and not cost-effective. Hence, there was little interest in research and development of novel diagnostic tools. With the recent publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) Roadmap to overcome the impact of neglected tropical diseases in 2020, we have entered a new era. Elimination of schistosomiasis has become the buzzword and this has important ramifications for diagnostic tools. Indeed, measuring progress towards the WHO Roadmap and whether local elimination has been achieved requires highly accurate diagnostic assays. Here, we introduce target product profiles for diagnostic tools that are required for different stages of a schistosomiasis control programme. We provide an update of the latest developments in schistosomiasis diagnosis, including microscopic techniques, rapid diagnostic tests for antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and proxy markers for morbidity assessments. Particular emphasis is placed on challenges and solutions for new technologies to enter clinical practice.

  15. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  16. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  17. A network approach to diagnostic biomarkers in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Jose A; Potashkin, Judith A

    2014-04-01

    Diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) remains challenging because of the clinical overlap with Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, disease-specific biomarkers have yet to be identified. In the absence of reliable biomarkers, we used an integrated network approach to identify genes and related biological pathways associated with PSP. We tested a highly ranked gene in cellular whole-blood samples from 122 patients enrolled in the Prognostic Biomarker Study. Biological and functional analysis identified 13 modules related to activation of leukocytes and lymphocytes, protein dephosphorylation, and phosphatase activity. Integration of these results with those from microarrays identified ptpn1 as a potential biomarker for PSP. Assessment of biomarker performance revealed that ptpn1 could be used to distinguish PSP patients from PD patients with 86% diagnostic accuracy. Ptpn1 may be a diagnostic marker useful for distinguishing PSP and PD. Further evaluation in a larger well-characterized prospective study is warranted.

  18. Diagnostic strategies in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, J.

    1985-06-28

    Technetium-/sup 99/ pyrophosphate bone scanning often identifies patients with osteomyelitis before roentgenographic findings appear. However, recent studies have shown that /sup 99/Tc bone scanning often gives false-negative results, especially in neonates. The accuracy of computed tomographic scanning and indium-111 leukocyte scanning for diagnosis of early osteomyelitis has not been established. /sup 99/Tc bone scanning often gives false-positive results in patients with other conditions leading to bone injury and repair, such as trauma or recent surgery, further limiting the usefulness of this imaging procedure. Newer imaging techniques have not been adequately evaluated to establish their specificity. Because of their high cost and unproved accuracy, these new imaging procedures should not be routinely applied until their usefulness has been established. Bone biopsy remains the procedure of choice for establishing the diagnosis in patients suspected clinically to have osteomyelitis with negative findings on roentgenography and /sup 99/Tc bone scanning. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of osteomyelitis, other pathogens cause 30 to 40 percent of cases. Aspiration or biopsy of the involved bone is usually required to choose appropriate antibiotic therapy. Bone biopsy is essential in chronic osteomyelitis, since cultures of sinus drainage are unreliable. Osteomyelitis in diabetics with foot infection and in association with decubitus ulcers presents special problems. Radionuclide scanning often give false-positive results in these patients. Proper diagnosis usually requires careful assessment of clinical and roentgenographic findings. 33 references.

  19. Proteomics, nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Zhukovsky, Nikolay; Cass, Anthony E G; Nagy, Judit M

    2008-02-01

    Sequencing of the human genome opened the way to the exploration of the proteome and this has lead to the identification of large numbers of proteins in complex biological samples. The identification of diagnostic patterns in samples taken from patients to aid diagnosis is in the early stages of development. The solution to many of the technical challenges in proteomics and protein based molecular diagnostics will be found in new applications of nanomaterials. This review describes some of the physical and chemical principles underlying nanomaterials and devices and outlines how they can be used in proteomics; developments which are establishing nanoproteomics as a new field. Nanoproteomics will provide the platform for the discovery of next generation biomarkers. The field of molecular diagnostics will then come of age.

  20. Diagnostic errors in interactive telepathology.

    PubMed

    Stauch, G; Schweppe, K W; Kayser, K

    2000-01-01

    Telepathology (TP) as a service in pathology at a distance is now widely used. It is integrated in the daily workflow of numerous pathologists. Meanwhile, in Germany 15 departments of pathology are using the telepathology technique for frozen section service; however, a common recognised quality standard in diagnostic accuracy is still missing. In a first step, the working group Aurich uses a TP system for frozen section service in order to analyse the frequency and sources of errors in TP frozen section diagnoses for evaluating the quality of frozen section slides, the important components of image quality and their influences an diagnostic accuracy. The authors point to the necessity of an optimal training program for all participants in this service in order to reduce the risk of diagnostic errors. In addition, there is need for optimal cooperation of all partners involved in TP service.

  1. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  2. Optical beam diagnostics on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Sabersky, A.P.

    1981-02-01

    In designing the PEP optical diagnostics we have been able to build on the experience gained with SPEAR. Most of the problems at SPEAR could be traced to the optical diagnostic system being inside the tunnel. A machine shutdown is required for any maintenance or modification. This implies that in order to make such an instrument successful, a large engineering effort must be mounted to ensure 100% operation at startup. The functions that do not work at startup may never be made to work; this has happened at several machines. Experimental setups are likewise risky and time consuming. A point which has been borne out in both SPEAR and PEP is that the mechanical part of the instrument, the special vacuum chamber, the optical mounts, the alignment and adjustments, require approximately 60% of the effort and cost of the optical diagnostics. It is far better to economize on detectors and electronics than on mechanical and optical essentials.

  3. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the {sup 89}Zr/{sup 89m}Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  4. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Megha; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, G.J.; Adams, J.M.; Barnes, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next.

  6. Use of a Diagnostic Errors Framework to Classify Mistakes in an Assessment of a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Brason

    2014-01-01

    This study applies a diagnostic errors framework to identify and classify mistakes that were made in a psychoeducational assessment of a bilingual student who was misidentified as a person with autism. Findings of diagnostic errors were categorized under four domains--faulty knowledge, faulty data gathering, faulty data processing, and faulty…

  7. Anemia: Evaluation and Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Michael J; DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2017-03-01

    Anemia is among the most common medical problems and clinical and laboratory evaluation need to be approached logically. The complete blood count with red cell indices offers clues to diagnosis. Many anemias have characteristic red cell morphology. The reticulocyte count serves as a useful screen for hemolysis or blood loss. Testing for specific causes of the anemia is performed. Occasionally, examination of the bone marrow is required for diagnosis. Molecular testing is increasingly being use to aid the diagnostic process. This article reviews diagnostic tests for anemia and suggests a rational approach to determining the etiology of a patient's anemia.

  8. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  9. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  10. Diagnostic testing for Giardia infections.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-03-01

    The traditional method for diagnosing Giardia infections involves microscopic examination of faecal specimens for Giardia cysts. This method is subjective and relies on observer experience. From the 1980s onwards, objective techniques have been developed for diagnosing Giardia infections, and are superseding diagnostic techniques reliant on microscopy. Detection of Giardia antigen(s) by immunoassay is the basis of commercially available diagnostic kits. Various nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) can demonstrate DNA of Giardia intestinalis, and have the potential to become standard approaches for diagnosing Giardia infections. Of such techniques, methods involving either fluorescent microspheres (Luminex) or isothermal amplification of DNA (loop-mediated isothermal amplification; LAMP) are especially promising.

  11. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  12. Identifying potential academic leaders

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members. PMID:27331226

  13. Porphyria or Catatonia: Diagnostic Dilemma on the Medical Wards.

    PubMed

    Kurkjian, Natalie; Tucker, Phebe

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old Caucasian female, DD, was admitted to the medical service at an academic hospital with symptoms of weakness in bilateral lower extremities, falls, headaches, and altered mental status. Psychiatry was consulted to evaluate for psychiatric causes of her symptoms. This case presented a diagnostic challenge as the patient's identified symptoms changed almost daily, depending on what practitioner or medical service she encountered. In this study, we discuss the differential diagnoses, tests and treatments the patient received, with a review of literature helping differentiate between diagnostic parameters.

  14. A New Diagnostic Test for Endometrial Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Guralp, Onur; Sheridan, Susan M.; Harter, Josephine; Hinshaw, James Louis; Seo, Songwon; Hartenbach, Ellen M.; Lindheim, Steven; Stewar, Sarah; Kushner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective During saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS), the distension fluid is typically discarded. If cytology analysis could identify those patients with endometrial cancer, many women would be spared from further procedures. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with clinical stage I or II endometrial adenocarcinoma were prospectively recruited preoperatively. Saline-infused sonohysterography was performed by instilling 5 mL of saline, withdrawing and sending for analysis. Saline was reinfused until complete SIS images were obtained and sent separately for cytology. Results Of the 30 women enrolled, SIS was technically successful in 29. Demographics included mean age (60.5 ± 6.99 years), body mass index (35.55 ± 8.18 kg/m2), endometrioid histology (76%), and grade (grade 1, 67%). Prestudy diagnostic method included biopsy (70%), dilatation and curettage (17%), and hysteroscopy (10%). Adequate cytology specimens were obtained in 66% of the 5mL flushes and 72% of the complete SIS collections. Of adequate specimens, the sensitivities to detect endometrial cancer for the 5-mL, complete, and combined fluid samples were 26% (95% confidence interval, 9%–51%), 36% (17%–59%), and 42% (22%–63%). Sensitivity based on the whole study sample (N = 30) was 33% (17%–53%). Statistical significance was not found in the association between a positive test and age, body mass index, grade, diagnostic method, or volume instilled or aspirated. Conclusions Most patients with early endometrial cancer can undergo SIS procedures with adequate cytology specimens obtained from distention media. However, the sensitivity is low, and refinements are necessary before utilizing as a diagnostic test. In cases with positive results, the patient may be able to avoid other costly and painful procedures. PMID:23881100

  15. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  16. SDQ: discriminative validity and diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Thaysa B. F.; Osório, Flávia L.; Loureiro, Sonia R.

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was designed to screen for behavioral problems in youths based on cutoff points that favor the instrument's diagnostic sensitivity. The present study aimed to analyze the discriminative validity of the SDQ to identify behavioral difficulties and prosocial resources in school-age children compared with the diagnostic data collected by the corresponding sections of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA). In addition, new cutoff points that value specificity were defined for the SDQ scales, exploring its diagnostic potential. This study was conducted in Brazil and assessed a community convenience sample that consisted of 120 children aged 6–12 years who were not under psychological/psychiatric treatment. The mothers of the participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to clinically characterize the sample. A ROC curve was used to assess the discriminant validity of the SDQ, and new cutoff points were established to maximize the instrument's specificity. The new cutoff points enabled a significant increase in specificity without a significant loss of sensitivity, which favors approaches based on measures of screening and diagnosis yet does not damage the instrument's screening capacity. The following increases were observed: 100% for the depressive disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 95.1% for the generalized anxiety disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 46.6% for the conduct disorder scale (cutoff point = 6), 19.2% for the hyperactive disorder scale (cutoff point = 8), and 27.6% for the antisocial personality disorder scale (cutoff point = 6). A cutoff point of 8 was applied to the prosocial behavior scale, which exhibited a 62.1% increase in specificity. The use of more specific cutoff points generated more accurate results and favored SDQ's use, particularly in contexts of care that require more precise and faster procedures for identification of problems

  17. Managing waiting times in diagnostic medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sabina; Vainieri, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to analyse the variation in the delivery of diagnostic imaging services in order to suggest possible solutions for the reduction of waiting times, increase the quality of services and reduce financial costs. Design This study provides a logic model to manage waiting times in a regional context. Waiting times measured per day were compared on the basis of the variability in the use rates of CT and MRI examinations in Tuscany for the population, as well as on the basis of the capacity offered with respect to the number of radiologists available. The analysis was performed at the local health authority level to support the decision-making process of local managers. Setting Diagnostic imaging services, in particular the CT and MRI examinations. The study involved all the 12 local health authorities that provide services for 3.7 million inhabitants of the Italian Tuscany Region. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants: the study uses regional administrative data on outpatients and survey data on inpatient diagnostic examinations in order to measure productivity. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study uses the volumes per 1000 inhabitants, the days of waiting times and the number of examinations per radiologist. Variability was measured using the traditional SD measures. Results A significant variation in areas considered homogeneous in terms of age, gender or mortality may indicate that the use of radiological services is not optimal and underuse or overuse occurs and that there is room for improvement in the service organisation. Conclusions Considering that there is a high level of variability among district use rates and waiting times, this study provides managers with a specific tool to find the cause of the problem, identify a possible solution, assess the financial impact and initiate the eventual reduction of waste. PMID:23242480

  18. A Forward Search Procedure for Identifying Influential Observations in the Estimation of a Covariance Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Wai-Yin; Wong, Yuen-Kwan

    2004-01-01

    This study uses a Cook's distance type diagnostic statistic to identify unusual observations in a data set that unduly influence the estimation of a covariance matrix. Similar to many other deletion-type diagnostic statistics, this proposed measure is susceptible to masking or swamping effect in the presence of several unusual observations. In…

  19. Diagnostics for Hypersonic Engine Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    hypersonic engine control are changes in isolator margin, inlet mass capture, and performance (thrust, combustion efficiency, etc.). 15. SUBJECT TERMS...Most interesting for hypersonic engine control are changes in isolator margin, inlet mass capture, and performance (thrust, combustion efficiency, etc...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2015-0037 DIAGNOSTICS FOR HYPERSONIC ENGINE CONTROL Michael S. Brown and Jeffrey M. Donbar Hypersonic Sciences Branch

  20. Laser Diagnostics for Reacting Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-11

    absorption diagnostic for vapor-phase measurements in an evaporating n-decane aerosol,” Appied Physics B. 97, 215-225, (2009). 30. J.M. Porter, J.B...fluorescence of toluene for time- resolved imaging of gaseous flows,” Appied Physics B, 2010, in press. 35. J.M. Porter, J.B. Jeffries and R.K. Hanson

  1. Immunosensors in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine I L; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2016-01-01

    The application of simple, cost-effective, rapid, and accurate diagnostic technologies for detection and identification of cardiac and cancer biomarkers has been a central point in the clinical area. Biosensors have been recognized as efficient alternatives for the diagnostics of various diseases due to their specificity and potential for application on real samples. The role of nanotechnology in the construction of immunological biosensors, that is, immunosensors, has contributed to the improvement of sensitivity, since they are based in the affinity between antibody and antigen. Other analytes than biomarkers such as hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus have also been detected by immunosensors for clinical point-of-care applications. In this chapter, we first introduced the various types of immunosensors and discussed their applications in clinical diagnostics over the recent 6 years, mainly as point-of-care technologies for the determination of cardiac and cancer biomarkers, hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus. The future perspectives of these devices in the field of clinical diagnostics are also evaluated.

  2. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  3. Diagnostic Teaching, Writing and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Provides ethnographic information about preservice teachers and their formative relationships to diagnostic teaching and letter writing within the school mathematics curriculum. Also, indicates that elementary school students benefit from letter writing as it relates to mathematics attitudes and achievement levels. (nine references) (JJK)

  4. Diagnostic Prescriptive Reading System (DPRS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinskas, Gloria

    The purpose of this diagnostic-prescriptive reading system (DPRS), proposed by Palm Beach County and the Florida Atlantic University and sponsored by the Florida Department of Education, was to provide classroom teachers with resources which would enable them to more effectively meet the individual reading needs of their students. This report…

  5. Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic models (CDM) have been around for more than a decade but their application is far from widespread for mainly two reasons: (1) CDMs are novel, as compared to traditional IRT models. Consequently, many researchers lack familiarity with them and their properties, and (2) Software programs doing CDMs have been expensive and not…

  6. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  7. Biological Signals In Medical Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlíková, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    Biological signals—biosignals are material carriers of the information about the state of the biological system of interest. They are the basis of all diagnostic methods. This paper gives an overview of biosignals used in medicine, their classification and processing.

  8. Diagnostic discrepancies in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Dinardi, Layara Fernanda Lipari; Pereira, Thiago Vicente; de Almeida, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Thaisa Silveira; Benvenutti, Luiz Alberto; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF). We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000–May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis. Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008–1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168–0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies. Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients. PMID:28121951

  9. Small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, Sybil; Reed, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Instrumented and optically-accessible rocket chambers are being developed to be used for diagnostics of small rocket (less than 440 N thrust level) flowfields. These chambers are being tested to gather local fluid dynamic and thermodynamic flowfield data over a range of test conditions. This flowfield database is being used to better understand mixing and heat transfer phenomena in small rockets, influence the numerical modeling of small rocket flowfields, and characterize small rocket components. The diagnostic chamber designs include: a chamber design for gathering wall temperature profiles to be used as boundary conditions in a finite element heat flux model; a chamber design for gathering inner wall temperature and static pressure profiles; and optically-accessible chamber designs, to be used with a suite of laser-based diagnostics for gathering local species concentration, temperature, density, and velocity profiles. These chambers were run with gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) propellants, while subsequent versions will be run on liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/HC) propellants. The purpose, design, and initial test results of these small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers are summarized.

  10. Salivary Diagnostics-Point-of-Care diagnostics of MMP-8 in dentistry and medicine.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Nilminie; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2017-01-20

    Human saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid and contains a variety of disease-related biomarkers, which makes it a potential diagnostic medium. The clinical use of salivary/oral fluid biomarkers to identify oral and systemic conditions requires the development of non-invasive screening and diagnostic technologies, and is among the main goals of oral fluid researchers. The analysis of the disease-specific oral and systemic biomarkers in saliva and oral fluids (i.e., mouth-rinse, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peri-implantitis sulcular fluid (PISF)) is demanding. Several factors influence their expression and release; these factors include the intracellular location, the molecular size and the flow characteristics of the biological fluid. The type of saliva/oral fluid utilized for the diagnostics affects the analysis. High sensitivity together with sophisticated methods and techniques are essential to get a useful outcome. We describe here a recently developed mouth-rinse that is practical, convenient and inexpensive, as well as PISF chair-side/point of care (PoC) lateral-flow active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP-8) immunoassays to detect, predict and monitor the course and treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis.

  11. R&D ERL: Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This report outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation. The BNL Prototype ERL is an R&D effort aimed at reducing risks and costs associated with the proposed RHIC II electron cooler and eRHIC collider. The ERL will serve as a test bed for developing and testing instrumentation and studying physics and technological issues relevant to very high current ERL's. The prototype ERL, mated to a high current SRF gun, is expected to demonstrate production and energy recovery of high intensity, low emittance beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps. To successfully accomplish this task the ERL will include beam diagnostics required to characterize and tune beam parameters, as well as for machine protection. A preliminary diagnostics plan was presented in earlier publications. In this report, we describe the diagnostics presently planned to provide the data needed to meet these goals.

  12. Dynamic diagnostic and decision procedures under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we consider uncertainty that arises when the true state x {element_of} E is not accessible to direct observation and remains unknown. Instead, we observe some features {theta} {element_of} {Theta} that carry a certain information about the true state. This information is described by the conditional distribution P({Theta}{vert_bar}E), which we call the linkage distribution. Regarding this distribution we assume that it exists but is unknown. This leads to uncertainty with respect to states from E and the linkage distribution P({Theta}{vert_bar}E), which we denote by NEP. The substantive problem can be stated as follows: from observations of the features {theta}{element_of}{Theta} made at each time instant n = 1,2,...,recognize the state x {element_of} E, identify the linkage distribution P, and use the results of recognition and identification to choose a decision y {element_of} Y so that the decision process is optimal in some sense. State recognition is the subject of diagnostics. The uncertainty NEP thus generates a problem of diagnostics and dynamic decision making.

  13. Atypical Bilateral Fuchs Uveitis: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Cristóbal; Hurtado, Erika; Faingold, Dana; Demetrio, Carmen; Schlaen, Ariel; Zas, Marcelo; Zarate, Jorge; Rosetti, Silvia; de Lima, Andrea Paes; Croxatto, Juan Oscar; Chiaradía, Pablo; Burnier, Miguel N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Fuchs uveitis associated with vitreous infiltration and posterior segment involvement requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of this entity difficult. The aim of this case report was to present the characteristics of a patient with atypical Fuchs uveitis and the procedures needed to rule out the differential diagnosis with specific attention to the utility of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Case Report One case of chronic bilateral uveitis with severe vitreous opacities is presented. After extensive systemic workup, including vitrectomy, the case had no identifiable systemic etiology. IVCM of the cornea revealed the presence of dendritiform keratic precipitates. Conclusion The diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis is based on clinical findings as no confirmatory laboratory tests are available. A high index of suspicion is key to an early diagnosis, especially in the cases with vitreous opacities and posterior segment manifestations. Auxiliary tests such as IVCM may aid the clinician in the diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis. PMID:26483668

  14. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  15. Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soubra, Ayman; Risk, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the most common presentation of bladder cancer and is often treatable with endoscopic resection and intravesical therapies. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold standard in diagnosis and surveillance but are limited by their sensitivity in some situations. We seek to provide an overview of recent additions to the diagnostic armamentarium for urologists treating this disease. Methods: Articles were identified through a literature review of articles obtained through PubMed searches including the terms “bladder cancer” and various diagnostic techniques described in the article. Results: A variety of urinary biomarkers are available to assist the diagnosis and management of patients with NMIBC. Many have improved sensitivity over urine cytology, but less specificity. There are certain situations in which this has proved valuable, but as yet these are not part of the standard guidelines for NMIBC. Fluorescence cystoscopy has level 1 evidence demonstrating increased rates of tumor detection and prolonged recurrence-free survival when utilized for transurethral resection. Other technologies seeking to enhance cystoscopy, such as narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography are still under evaluation. Conclusions: A variety of urine biomarker and adjunctive endoscopic technologies have been developed to assist the management of NMIBC. While some, such as fluorescence cystoscopy, have demonstrated a definite benefit in this disease, others are still finding their place in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Future studies should shed light on how these can be incorporated to improve outcomes in NMIBC. PMID:26604438

  16. Diagnostic imaging techniques in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Toriumi, D.M.; Mafee, M.F.

    1988-02-01

    With the refinement of fine-needle aspiration, the specific applications of thyroid imaging techniques need to be reevaluated for efficiency and cost containment. No thyroid imaging test should be routinely obtained. Radionuclide scanning is most beneficial in evaluating the functional status of thyroid nodules when fine-needle aspiration is inadequate, the findings are benign, or when there is no discrete nodule that is palpated in an enlarged gland. When fine-needle aspiration is unavailable or unreliable, radionuclide scanning becomes a first-line diagnostic tool. Ultrasonography should be used primarily for identifying a solid component of a cystic nodule, determining the size of nodules on thyroxine suppression that are not easily palpable, or for performing guided fine-needle aspiration. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging both have a definite role in the evaluation of thyroid tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior to computerized tomography for the evaluation of metastatic, retrotracheal, or mediastinal involvement of large thyroid tumors or goiters. Careful selection of the diagnostic techniques will ensure more accurate diagnosis and reduce unnecessary patient costs in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  17. Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

  18. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  19. [Cross-Mapping: diagnostic labels formulated according to the ICNP® versus diagnosis of NANDA International].

    PubMed

    Tannure, Meire Chucre; Salgado, Patrícia de Oliveira; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study aimed at elaborating nursing diagnostic labels according to ICNP®; conducting a cross-mapping between the diagnostic formulations and the diagnostic labels of NANDA-I; identifying the diagnostic labels thus obtained that were also listed in the NANDA-I; and mapping them according to Basic Human Needs. The workshop technique was applied to 32 intensive care nurses, the cross-mapping and validation based on agreement with experts. The workshop produced 1665 diagnostic labels which were further refined into 120 labels. They were then submitted to a cross-mapping process with both NANDA-I diagnostic labels and the Basic Human Needs. The mapping results underwent content validation by two expert nurses leading to concordance rates of 92% and 100%. It was found that 63 labels were listed in NANDA-I and 47 were not.

  20. Reducing Diagnostic Errors through Effective Communication: Harnessing the Power of Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand Dinkar; Rao, Raghuram; Petersen, Laura Ann

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic errors are poorly understood despite being a frequent cause of medical errors. Recent efforts have aimed to advance the "basic science" of diagnostic error prevention by tracing errors to their most basic origins. Although a refined theory of diagnostic error prevention will take years to formulate, we focus on communication breakdown, a major contributor to diagnostic errors and an increasingly recognized preventable factor in medical mishaps. We describe a comprehensive framework that integrates the potential sources of communication breakdowns within the diagnostic process and identifies vulnerable steps in the diagnostic process where various types of communication breakdowns can precipitate error. We then discuss potential information technology-based interventions that may have efficacy in preventing one or more forms of these breakdowns. These possible intervention strategies include using new technologies to enhance communication between health providers and health systems, improve patient involvement, and facilitate management of information in the medical record. PMID:18373151

  1. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  2. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome. PMID:27200076

  3. Critical appraisal of the 1977 diagnostic criteria for Minamata disease.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Inoue, Sachiko; Takao, Soshi; Harada, Masazumi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale food poisoning caused by methylmercury was identified in Minamata, Japan, in the 1950s (Minamata disease). Although the diagnostic criteria for the disease remain current, few studies have been carried out to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the criteria. From a 1971 population-based investigation, data from 2 villages were selected: Minamata (high-exposure area; n = 779) and Ariake (low-exposure area; n = 755). The authors examined the prevalence of neurologic signs characteristic of methylmercury poisoning and the validity of the criteria. A substantial number of residents in the exposed area exhibited neurologic signs even after excluding officially certified patients. Using paresthesia of the extremities as the gold standard of diagnosis, the criteria had a sensitivity of 66%. The current diagnostic criteria as well as the official certification system substantially underestimate the incidence of Minamata disease.

  4. Nematode molecular diagnostics: from bands to barcodes.

    PubMed

    Powers, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Nematodes are considered among the most difficult animals to identify. DNA-based diagnostic methods have already gained acceptance in applications ranging from quarantine determinations to assessments of biodiversity. Researchers are currently in an information-gathering mode, with intensive efforts applied to accumulating nucleotide sequence of 18S and 28S ribosomal genes, internally transcribed spacer regions, and mitochondrial genes. Important linkages with collateral data such as digitized images, video clips and specimen voucher web pages are being established on GenBank and NemATOL, the nematode-specific Tree of Life database. The growing DNA taxonomy of nematodes has lead to their use in testing specific short sequences of DNA as a "barcode" for the identification of all nematode species.

  5. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  6. Automatic Generation of Conditional Diagnostic Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Tyler; Guo, Yufan; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic workup for many diseases can be extraordinarily nuanced, and as such reference material text often contains extensive information regarding when it is appropriate to have a patient undergo a given procedure. In this work we employ a three task pipeline for the extraction of statements indicating the conditions under which a procedure should be performed, given a suspected diagnosis. First, we identify each instance in the text where a procedure is being recommended. Next we examine the context around these recommendations to extract conditional statements that dictate the conditions under which the recommendation holds. Finally, corefering recommendations across the document are linked to produce a full recommendation summary. Results indicate that each underlying task can be performed with above baseline performance, and the output can be used to produce concise recommendation summaries.

  7. Automatic Generation of Conditional Diagnostic Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Tyler; Guo, Yufan; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic workup for many diseases can be extraordinarily nuanced, and as such reference material text often contains extensive information regarding when it is appropriate to have a patient undergo a given procedure. In this work we employ a three task pipeline for the extraction of statements indicating the conditions under which a procedure should be performed, given a suspected diagnosis. First, we identify each instance in the text where a procedure is being recommended. Next we examine the context around these recommendations to extract conditional statements that dictate the conditions under which the recommendation holds. Finally, corefering recommendations across the document are linked to produce a full recommendation summary. Results indicate that each underlying task can be performed with above baseline performance, and the output can be used to produce concise recommendation summaries. PMID:28269823

  8. Attenuated psychosis syndrome: a new diagnostic class?

    PubMed

    Carpenter, William T

    2015-05-01

    Early detection and treatment of illness are fundamental in providing optimal health care. However, this is a major challenge in mental illness, where diagnoses depend on symptom manifestation and the symptoms are often on a continuum with behaviors observed in the non-ill population. During the past 25 years, substantial progress has been made in identifying clinical high risk for psychoses with extensive validation and the beginning of treatment trials for symptom reduction and secondary prevention of psychoses. Attenuated psychosis syndrome is placed in Section 3 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, as a new disorder for further study. But the value and wisdom of creating a new disorder are hotly debated. The author advocates establishing a new disorder class as essential for progress. Key reasons to justify this view are described. Reasons to oppose the creation of a new class are briefly described.

  9. Tinea cutis glabrae: causes of diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz, Oliwia; Łuczkowska, Magdalena; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-12-01

    Dermatophytoses belong to the most common disease entities encountered in everyday dermatological practice. Despite the fact that their clinical presentation, course and treatment response remain rather typical, they often present a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of a 54-year-old male who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology in December 2012 with the diagnosis of erythema gyratum repens for further diagnosis and treatment of skin lesions gradually intensifying in the previous 2 years. The skin changes presented as spreading annular erythematous lesions, with papules and plaques located peripherally, and accompanying pruritus. Due to the clinical presentation and anamnesis, working conditions (poultry farm), and lack of response to previous treatment, mycological culture was performed. Epithelial scrapings of the trunk and the groins proved to be positive. After 3 weeks, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var mentagrophytes was identified by epithelial cell culture.

  10. Tinea cutis glabrae: causes of diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Łuczkowska, Magdalena; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytoses belong to the most common disease entities encountered in everyday dermatological practice. Despite the fact that their clinical presentation, course and treatment response remain rather typical, they often present a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of a 54-year-old male who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology in December 2012 with the diagnosis of erythema gyratum repens for further diagnosis and treatment of skin lesions gradually intensifying in the previous 2 years. The skin changes presented as spreading annular erythematous lesions, with papules and plaques located peripherally, and accompanying pruritus. Due to the clinical presentation and anamnesis, working conditions (poultry farm), and lack of response to previous treatment, mycological culture was performed. Epithelial scrapings of the trunk and the groins proved to be positive. After 3 weeks, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var mentagrophytes was identified by epithelial cell culture. PMID:25610361

  11. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ponsaing, Laura Graves; Kiss, Katalin; Loft, Annika; Jensen, Lise Ingemann; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally. Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined. Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools. PMID:17659668

  12. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Diagnoses and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many of malaria's signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other febrile diseases. Detection of the presence of Plasmodium parasites is essential, therefore, to guide case management. Improved diagnostic tools are required to enable targeted treatment of infected individuals. In addition, field-ready diagnostic tools for mass screening and surveillance that can detect asymptomatic infections of very low parasite densities are needed to monitor transmission reduction and ensure elimination. Antibody-based tests for infection and novel methods based on biomarkers need further development and validation, as do methods for the detection and treatment of Plasmodium vivax. Current rapid diagnostic tests targeting P. vivax are generally less effective than those targeting Plasmodium falciparum. Moreover, because current drugs for radical cure may cause serious side effects in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, more information is needed on the distribution of G6PD-deficiency variants as well as tests to identify at-risk individuals. Finally, in an environment of very low or absent malaria transmission, sustaining interest in elimination and maintaining resources will become increasingly important. Thus, research is required into the context in which malaria diagnostic tests are used, into diagnostics for other febrile diseases, and into the integration of these tests into health systems. PMID:21311583

  13. Diagnostic stages of the parasites of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Bando, Monica; Larkin, Iskande V; Wright, Scott D; Greiner, Ellis C

    2014-02-01

    Limited information is available on diagnostic stages of parasites in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). We examined 67 fecal samples from captive and wild manatees to define the diagnostic stages of the parasite fauna known to occur in Florida manatees. Parasite eggs were freshly extracted ex utero from identified mature helminths and subsequently characterized, illustrated, and matched to those isolated from fecal samples. In addition, coccidian oocysts in the fecal samples were identified. These diagnostic stages included eggs from 5 species of trematodes (Chiorchis fabaceus, Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Moniligerum blairi, and Nudacotyle undicola), 1 nematode (Heterocheilus tunicatus), and oocysts of 2 coccidians (Eimeria manatus and Eimeria nodulosa).

  14. Haemophilus haemolyticus is infrequently misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in diagnostic specimens in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bowen; Kunde, Dale; Tristram, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    The commensal Haemophilus haemolyticus is difficult to differentiate from the respiratory pathogen Haemophilus influenzae using phenotypic tests. In a study that used molecular tests to retrospectively identify 447 phenotypically identified H. influenzae isolates from diagnostic specimens in Australia, only 7 (1.5%) H. haemolyticus were identified.

  15. The Diagnostic Process in Accounting Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Ralph, Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents ideas on developing a diagnostic accounting instrument, and answers the following questions: Are the diagnostic instruments given to accounting students measuring what they should measure? What advice can be given to students regarding questions that were missed? (CT)

  16. Progeria Research Foundation Diagnostic Testing Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interview with John Tacket Find the Other 150 Medical Research NEW! Lonafarnib Pre-clinical Drug Supply Program What's ... Scientific Publications Grand Rounds Workshop 2010 Videos Home » Medical Research » Diagnostic Testing The PRF Diagnostic Testing Program The ...

  17. Novette diagnostic support. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, R.; Franco, E.; Koppel, L.; Rodrigues, B.; Smith, J.

    1985-02-01

    The primary research areas were the following: (1) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette DANTE x-ray spectrometer experiments. This effort was expanded to improve the overall quality of the Novette database; (2) experimental and calculational characterization of the x-ray imaging properties of an ellipsoidal x-ray collection optic serving as a sensitivity enhancing component of the Transmission Grating Streak Spectrometer; (3) performance simulation of the x-ray dispersion properties of candidate x-ray laser cavity, normal incidence end-mirror optics; (4) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette Henway crystal spectrometer and the MCPIGS microchannel plate intensified grazing incident spectrometer experiments; and (5) perform a technical performance vs cost evaluation of commercially available hardware required to perform the NOVA neutron time-of-flight experiments.

  18. Spectroscopic problems in ITER diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitsa, V. S.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Kadomtsev, M. B.; Krupin, V. A.; Levashova, M. G.; Medvedev, A. A.; Mukhin, E. E.; Shurygin, V. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.; Vukolov, K. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Problems of spectroscopic diagnostics of ITER plasma are under consideration. Three types of diagnostics are presented: 1) Balmer lines spectroscopy in the edge and divertor plasmas; 2) Thomson scattering, 3) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The Zeeman-Stark structure of line shapes is discussed. The overlapping of isotopes H-D-T spectral line shapes are presented for the SOL and divertor conditions. The polarization measurements of H-alpha spectral lines for H-D mixture on T-10 tokamak are shown in order to separate Zeeman splitting in more details. The problem of plasma background radiation emission for Thomson scattering in ITER is discussed in details. The line shape of P-7 hydrogen spectral line having a wave length close to laser one is presented together with continuum radiation. The charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) is discussed in details. The data on Dα, HeII and CVI measurements in CXRS experiments on T-10 tokamak are presented.

  19. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie

    2015-10-06

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed.

  20. DSM-5: Challenging diagnostic testimony.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Leigh D; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (DSM) 60-year evolution has not been particularly linear nor cumulative with respect to the process of its construction, its stated purpose, its framework, and inclusion of specific disorders. We consider DSM-5's stated purpose in light of the manual's explicit cautions and other complications encountered when presenting diagnoses in the course of psychological expert testimony under the applicable rules of evidence. This review considers the extent to which DSM-5 bears up under numerous criticisms when employed for forensic purposes and points out challenges that the expert should anticipate when offering diagnostic opinions underpinned by DSM-5 generally and by neurocognitive disorders in particular.

  1. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, P.E.S.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1984-11-16

    This article discusses ways in which more appropriate use can be made of roentgenography with a resulting decrease in radiation doses to the patient population. The authors recommend that fewer films be made and that traditional roentgenography be replaced with endoscopy, ultrasound, computerized tomography, or angiography where appropriate. They also recommend that medical schools and medical subspecialty groups study the World Health Organization document which provides indications for diagnostic imaging, the choice of procedure and the limitations of each.

  2. Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-09-01

    Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis.

  3. Nails: diagnostic clue to genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Nails are cutaneous appendages mostly involved in mechanical functions. However, nails may reflect presence of various systemic disorders evidenced by alteration of their shape, size, color or texture. Genodermatoses are multisystem disorders with cutaneous involvement. Many of the genodermatoses present with nail changes and some of these may be the clinical pointers to the diagnosis. Diagnostic clues to various genodermatoses derived from nail findings have been discussed.

  4. Identifying Inefficient Single-Family Homes With Utility Bill Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Krarti, M.; Bianchi, M.; Roberts, D.

    2010-08-01

    Differentiating between energy-efficient and inefficient single-family homes on a community scale helps identify and prioritize candidates for energy-efficiency upgrades. Prescreening diagnostic procedures can further retrofit efforts by providing efficiency information before a site-visit is conducted. We applied the prescreening diagnostic to a simulated community of homes in Boulder, Colorado and analyzed energy consumption data to identify energy-inefficient homes.

  5. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  6. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Lewis, Jay; Thomas, David

    2010-10-01

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures. We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  7. Malaria Diagnostics in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean C.; Shott, Joseph P.; Parikh, Sunil; Etter, Paige; Prescott, William R.; Stewart, V. Ann

    2013-01-01

    Malaria diagnostics are widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate natural history of disease and in drug and vaccine clinical trials to exclude participants or evaluate efficacy. The Malaria Laboratory Network (MLN), managed by the Office of HIV/AIDS Network Coordination, is an international working group with mutual interests in malaria disease and diagnosis and in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome clinical trials. The MLN considered and studied the wide array of available malaria diagnostic tests for their suitability for screening trial participants and/or obtaining study endpoints for malaria clinical trials, including studies of HIV/malaria co-infection and other malaria natural history studies. The MLN provides recommendations on microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, serologic tests, and molecular assays to guide selection of the most appropriate test(s) for specific research objectives. In addition, this report provides recommendations regarding quality management to ensure reproducibility across sites in clinical trials. Performance evaluation, quality control, and external quality assessment are critical processes that must be implemented in all clinical trials using malaria tests. PMID:24062484

  8. Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

    2015-01-01

    The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome. PMID:25369205

  9. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications.

  10. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Fluorescence diagnostics in oncological gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaeva, Ludmila A.; Adamyan, Leila V.; Kozachenko, Vladimir P.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Stranadko, Eugene F.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-10-01

    The method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) of tumors is a promising tool that may allow to increase sensitivity of tumor detection especially at initial stages. One of the most promising photosensitizers today is 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) that, actually, is not photosensitizer itself but precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This paper deals with cancer diagnostics in gynecology by means of ALA-induced Pp IX laser-fluorescence spectroscopy. The tissue fluorescence spectra in vivo were studied in patients with various pathologies of ovaries, uterine and vulva after 5-aminolevulinic acid administration. It was shown that different pathologies varies in accumulation of Pp IX. Coefficient of fluorescence kf for normal tissue is not high, but exceptions are endometrium and mucous membrane of uterine tubes. Benign tumors of uterus and ovary have low values of kf, but polyps of endometrium exhibit high kf. Optical express-biopsy is important for diagnosis of ovarian cancer and micrometastatic spread. Coefficients of diagnostic contrast were determined for cancer of endometrium, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer.

  12. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Mu; Chunhua, Ma; Yuan, Lv; Jinduo, Li; Bin, Wang; Liwei, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess circulating tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid as a diagnostic approach to identify meningeal metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by using tumor marker immunostaining–fluorescence in situ hybridization (TM-iFISH). Methods In 5 non-small cell lung cancer patients who were confirmed to have developed meningeal metastasis by cerebrospinal fluid cytology, 20 ml of cerebrospinal fluid was obtained through lumbar puncture, from which 7.5 ml was utilized for TM-iFISH to identify and quantitate circulating tumor cells, 10ml for cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and 2.5ml for detection of cerebrospinal fluid tumor markers. Results TM-iFISH examination identified 18 to 1,823 circulating tumor cells per 7.5ml cerebrospinal fluid. In contrast, cytology assessment revealed tumor cells in only 2 cases. The expression levels of cerebrospinal fluid tumor markers were all increased in all 5 patients when compared with their respective serum levels. Contrast-enhanced MRI scans demonstrated presence of meningeal metastasis in all 5 cases. Conclusion TM-iFISH may become a novel cerebrospinal fluid-based diagnostic strategy to identify circulating tumor cells and meningeal metastasis as compared to traditional diagnostic approaches, although its superior sensitivity and specificity needs to be confirmed through additional studies with a larger sample size.

  13. Diagnostics of Pupils' Attitude to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminli, Tovuz

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the questions connected with the pedagogical diagnostics, in particular, the diagnostics of pupils' attitude to education. It is considered reasonable to apply the practice of development of an individual pedagogical and psychological map for productive implementation of the pedagogical diagnostics and…

  14. DDS: The Dental Diagnostic Simulation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Daniel E.

    The Dental Diagnostic Simulation (DDS) System provides an alternative to simulation systems which represent diagnostic case studies of relatively limited scope. It may be used to generate simulated case studies in all of the dental specialty areas with case materials progressing through the gamut of the diagnostic process. The generation of a…

  15. Real-Time PCR Diagnostics for Detecting and Identifying Potential Bioweapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-18

    var niger Staphylococcus saprophyticus Bacillus anthracis BA0068 Bacillus bronchiseptica Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacillus anthracis Clostridium...botulinium Staphylococcus Aureus Bacillus anthracis Comamonas acidivarns Streptococcus pyogenes Bacillus anthracis N.H. Corynebacterium sp. Streptococcus...flexneri Yersinia pestis Bacillus macerans Shigella sonnei Yersinia pestis Bacillus megaterium Staphylococcus aureus Yersinia pestis Bacillus popilliae

  16. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Diagnostic Challenges in Identifying Symptoms and Course of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    Based on available literature, this article reviews the challenges associated with diagnosing pediatric bipolar disorder. The article also reviews and provides discussion on the assessment tools, complex mood cycling, and clinical symptoms of pediatric bipolar disorder. The challenge of differentiating common comorbid disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder from pediatric bipolar disorder is presented and discussed. A discussion of the validity of diagnosis in longitudinal studies is also provided. PMID:19727283

  17. Diagnostic testing managed by hematopathology specialty and other laboratories: costs and patient diagnostic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Successful management of patients with hematologic malignancies depends upon accurate and timely diagnosis, which frequently requires integration and interpretation of multiple tests. Our retrospective analysis compared diagnostic uncertainty, resource utilization, and costs for patients with diagnostic bone marrow (BM) tests managed by commercial laboratories. Methods Patients with BM biopsies and suspected hematologic cancer/condition were identified from claims (2005–2011) within a large US health plan (coverage ≥6 pre- and ≥3-months post-biopsy). Cohorts defined by laboratories performing BM morphologic assessment/directing testing sequence: Genoptix (GX, specialty hematology-testing laboratory), large commercial laboratories (LL), other laboratories (OL). One-year post-biopsy changes in diagnosis or treatments, tests performed, and diagnostic/treatment medical costs (measured as per-patient-per-month [PPPM]) were examined. Results The study population included 1,387 GX, 4,162 LL, and 19,115 OL patients with suspected hematologic malignancy/disease and BM morphology assessment. GX had lower diagnostic uncertainty measured between 2 time periods by diagnostic stability (no conditions the same; 6.16% GX, 8.04% LL, 9.73% OL; p < 0.001) and changes (≥1 condition different; 7.88% GX, 11.19% LL, and 14.08% OL; p < 0.001), fewer repeat BM biopsies, and fewer chemotherapy changes (30-days and 60-days post-initiation). One-year PPPM costs adjusted for patient characteristics differences were $8,202 GX, $7,711 LL, and $10,302 OL (p < 0.05); adjusted PPPM costs (excluding testing period) were $6,019 GX, $6,649 LL, and $7,801 OL (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our data suggests that a hematopathology specialty laboratory may result in earlier final diagnosis, fewer subsequent diagnosis changes, reduced need for follow-on testing requiring repeat biopsy procedures, and may result in lower downstream healthcare costs. Further evaluations using

  18. Excellence in sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnostics: recognition of past successes and strategies for the future

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, A; Kuypers, J; Lukehart, S A; Peeling, R W; Pope, V

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic advances do not generally receive the recognition given to prevention and treatment contributions, for the control and management of infectious diseases including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In order to identify seminal diagnostic contributions over a half century (1950–2000), the Editorial Board of the WHO Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative (SDI) Publication Review or “electronic journal club” were asked to nominate their choices of peer‐reviewed publications for special recognition. From 43 nominations, 13 were voted by a panel of 25 “experts” as having made the most significant contributions. The 1964 article by Thayer and Martin, which identified a selective media for gonococcal culture, was chosen unanimously by all panel members and is identified as the classic STI diagnostic article for this era. PMID:17135329

  19. Inferences of clinical diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Anton E; Daniel, Erno S

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses clinical diagnostic reasoning in terms of a pattern of If/then/Therefore reasoning driven by data gathering and the inference of abduction, as defined in the present paper, and the inferences of retroduction, deduction, and induction as defined by philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The complex inferential reasoning driving clinical diagnosis often takes place subconsciously and so rapidly that its nature remains largely hidden from the diagnostician. Nevertheless, we propose that raising such reasoning to the conscious level reveals not its basic pattern and basic inferences, it also reveals where errors can and do occur and how such errors might be reduced or even eliminated.

  20. Acute kidney injury as a risk factor for diagnostic discrepancy among geriatric patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Shih, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Su-Hsuan; Hung, Yu-Chien; Lai, Chun-Fu; Chan, Derrick Ding-Cheng; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chu, Tzong-Shinn

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic discrepancy, defined as different admission and discharge diagnoses, could be a potential source of diagnostic error. We evaluated whether acute kidney injury (AKI) in the elderly affected their risk for diagnostic discrepancy. Patients aged ≥60 years from the general medical wards were prospectively enrolled and divided according to AKI status upon admission, using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We compared their discharge and admission diagnoses and identified patients with a diagnostic discrepancy, using multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between initial AKI and the presence of a diagnostic discrepancy. A total of 188 participants (mean age, 77.9 years) were recruited. Regression analysis showed that initial AKI on admission was associated with a higher risk of diagnostic discrepancy upon discharge (odds ratio [OR] 3.3; p < 0.01). In contrast, higher AKI severity was also associated with an increased risk of diagnostic discrepancy (for KDIGO grade 1, 2, and 3; OR 2.92, 3.91, and 4.32; p = 0.04, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively), suggesting that initial AKI upon admission could be an important risk factor for diagnostic discrepancy. Consequently, reducing geriatric AKI might have the potential to reduce diagnostic discrepancy among these patients. PMID:27982065

  1. A clinical and diagnostic approach to the patient with seizures.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah A

    2013-05-01

    Seizures are one of the most common neurologic problems encountered by the small animal practitioner. Successful management of the patient with seizure is facilitated by an appropriate diagnostic workup to identify underlying causes when they exist. Veterinary patients with seizures can be divided in to 3 main categories based on underlying cause: those with primary epilepsy, those with structural epilepsy, and those with reactive seizures. Additionally, some patients may be given a label of unknown epilepsy when they do not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of primary epilepsy, but no structural or reactive cause of seizures can be identified. This article reviews the key clinical findings associated with each of the 3 main categories of seizures and suggests a standardized approach to the diagnostic workup for patients with seizure based on their signalment and neurologic examination findings.

  2. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  3. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches.

  4. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology

    PubMed Central

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  6. Groin pain in athletes: a novel diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Vijay D.; Shetty, Nikhil S.; Shetty, Amith P.

    2015-01-01

    Groin pain in a performing athlete can be very challenging to diagnose and treat. The differential diagnosis includes intra-articular causes, extra-articular causes and non-musculoskeletal causes. A detailed clinical and radiological assessment of groin pain in this group is critical and can identify the underlying pathology. Diagnostic hip block is a valuable tool to differentiate intra-articular causes from extra-articular causes. Hip arthroscopy can help in identifying some of the elusive intra-articular conditions, which were once undiagnosed and therefore, left untreated, resulting in premature ending of competitive careers. This article attempts to explore current thinking on evaluation of groin pain, particularly in young individuals, and to establish a simple protocol for a clinical and diagnostic approach to this difficult problem. PMID:27163072

  7. Diagnostic Imaging of Canine Hepatobiliary Affections: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Adarsh; Varshney, A. C.; Tyagi, S. P.; Kanwar, M. S.; Sharma, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic disease is often treatable and has a predictable prognosis when a definitive diagnosis is made. The aim of clinicopathological evaluation of hepatobiliary affections is to identify and characterize hepatic damage and dysfunction, identify possible primary causes of secondary liver disease, differentiate causes of icterus, evaluate potential anaesthetic risks, assess prognosis and response to xenobiotics, and monitor response to therapy. This paper describes the different diagnostic methods and imaging techniques employed in diagnosis of hepatobiliary affections in dogs. Besides reviewing the significant clinical manifestations and imaging structural abnormalities in diagnostic approach to different hepatic affections, it also depicts radiographic, ultrasonographic, and wherever applicable, the laparoscopic characterization of different hepatic affections and target lesions encountered in clinical cases presented in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, COVAS, Palampur in the year 2007-2008. PMID:22577609

  8. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24–0.52; k = 0.19–0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22–0.67; k = 0.24–0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family—especially maternal depression and low social support—lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.

  9. Overview of the microfluidic diagnostics commercial landscape.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Since its birth in the late 1980s, the field of microfluidics has continued to mature, with a growing number of companies pursuing diagnostic applications. In 2009 the worldwide in vitro diagnostics market was estimated at >$40 billion USD, and microfluidic diagnostics are poised to reap a significant part of this market across a range of areas including laboratory diagnostics, point-of-care diagnostics, cancer diagnostics, and others. The potential economic advantages of microfluidics are numerous and compelling: lower reagent and/or sample volumes, lower equipment costs, improved portability, increased automation, and increased measurement speed. All of these factors may help put more information in the hands of doctors and patients sooner, enabling earlier disease detection and more tailored, effective treatments. This chapter reviews the microfluidic diagnostics commercial landscape and discusses potential commercialization challenges and opportunities.

  10. Nocturnal Sleep Dynamics Identify Narcolepsy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Franceschini, Christian; Liguori, Rocco; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of nocturnal sleep dynamics in the differential diagnosis of central disorders of hypersomnolence. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: One hundred seventy-five patients with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, n = 79), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2, n = 22), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH, n = 22), and “subjective” hypersomnolence (sHS, n = 52). Interventions: None. Methods: Polysomnographic (PSG) work-up included 48 h of continuous PSG recording. From nocturnal PSG conventional sleep macrostructure, occurrence of sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP), sleep stages distribution, and sleep stage transitions were calculated. Patient groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to test the diagnostic utility of nocturnal PSG data to identify NT1. Results: Sleep macrostructure was substantially stable in the 2 nights of each diagnostic group. NT1 and NT2 patients had lower latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and NT1 patients showed the highest number of awakenings, sleep stage transitions, and more time spent in N1 sleep, as well as most SOREMPs at daytime PSG and at multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) than all other groups. ROC curve analysis showed that nocturnal SOREMP (area under the curve of 0.724 ± 0.041, P < 0.0001), percent of total sleep time spent in N1 (0.896 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), and the wakefulness-sleep transition index (0.796 ± 0.034, P < 0.0001) had a good sensitivity and specificity profile to identify NT1 sleep, especially when used in combination (0.903 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), similarly to SOREMP number at continuous daytime PSG (0.899 ± 0.026, P < 0.0001) and at MSLT (0.956 ± 0.015, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sleep macrostructure (i.e. SOREMP, N1 timing) including stage transitions reliably identifies hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 among central disorders of hypersomnolence. Citation: Pizza F, Vandi S

  11. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  12. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David; Dakin, Bill

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  13. Molecular diagnostic assays for infectious diseases in cats.

    PubMed

    Veir, Julia K; Lappin, Michael R

    2010-11-01

    With the advent of more accessible polymerase chain reaction panels, the use of molecular techniques for the detection of infectious organisms has become more routine in veterinary medicine. The use of molecular diagnostics is best reserved for the detection of organisms that are difficult to detect or identify expediently. In this article, the fundamentals of molecular techniques are reviewed along with an examination of specific feline infectious diseases in which diagnosis via molecular techniques is advantageous.

  14. High-frequency Probing Diagnostic for Hall Current Plasma Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Litvak; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-25

    High-frequency oscillations (1-100 MHz) in Hall thrusters have apparently eluded significant experimental scrutiny. A diagnostic setup, consisting of a single Langmuir probe, a special shielded probe connector-positioner, and an electronic impedance-matching circuit, was successfully built and calibrated. Through simultaneous high-frequency probing of the Hall thruster plasma at multiple locations, high-frequency plasma waves have been identified and characterized for various thruster operating conditions.

  15. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics*

    PubMed Central

    Sebag, J.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. Methods This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Results Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. Conclusions This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further

  16. Recent advances in diagnostic bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Philip G.; Debiane, Labib G.

    2016-01-01

    The field of diagnostic bronchoscopy has been revolutionized in the last decade primarily with the advent of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) but also with the addition of multiple different techniques for “guided-bronchoscopy”. These advances have had a substantial impact in the management of lung cancer with bronchoscopy now providing both diagnosis and mediastinal staging in a single procedure. EBUS has, in fact, become the first choice for staging of the mediastinum over cervical mediastinoscopy (CM). Although EBUS is now a well-established technique, there are continuous efforts from the scientific community to improve its diagnostic performance, and these will be reviewed in this manuscript. The term “guided-bronchoscopy” was recently coined to describe a myriad of techniques that guide our bronchoscopes or bronchoscopic tools into the periphery of the lungs in addition to our conventional fluoroscopy. Electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic navigation, thin and ultrathin scopes, as well as radial-probe EBUS have collectively increased our yield for smaller peripheral lung lesions and continue to evolve. Despite this improved diagnostic yield, there is still ample room for improvement and newer techniques are under way. With new therapies available for patients with interstitial lung disease, achieving a specific histologic diagnosis is now of paramount importance. Given the high morbidity and mortality of surgical biopsies, bronchoscopic cryobiopsy is being rapidly adopted as a safer and effective alternative, and it is likely going to play a major role in the management of these diseases in the near future. This manuscript we will focus on recent advances in EBUS, guided-bronchoscopy, and the use of cryobiopsy. PMID:28149581

  17. Enhancing and evaluating diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Swets, J A; Getty, D J; Pickett, R M; D'Orsi, C J; Seltzer, S E; McNeil, B J

    1991-01-01

    Techniques that may enhance diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings were tested in the context of mammography. Statistical information about the relevant features among those visible in a mammogram and about their relative importances in the diagnosis of breast cancer was the basis of two decision aids for radiologists: a checklist that guides the radiologist in assigning a scale value to each significant feature of the images of a particular case, and a computer program that merges those scale values optimally to estimate a probability of malignancy. A test set of approximately 150 proven cases (including normals and benign and malignant lesions) was interpreted by six radiologists, first in their usual manner and later with the decision aids. The enhancing effect of these feature-analytic techniques was analyzed across subsets of cases that were restricted progressively to more and more difficult cases, where difficulty was defined in terms of the radiologists' judgements in the standard reading condition. Accuracy in both standard and enhanced conditions decreased regularly and substantially as case difficulty increased, but differentially, such that the enhancement effect grew regularly and substantially. For the most difficult case sets, the observed increases in accuracy translated into an increase of about 0.15 in sensitivity (true-positive proportion) for a selected specificity (true-negative proportion) of 0.85 or a similar increase in specificity for a selected sensitivity of 0.85. That measured accuracy can depend on case-set difficulty to different degrees for two diagnostic approaches has general implications for evaluation in clinical medicine. Comparative, as well as absolute, assessments of diagnostic performances--for example, of alternative imaging techniques--may be distorted by inadequate treatments of this experimental variable. Subset analysis, as defined and illustrated here, can be useful in alleviating the problem.

  18. Spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this article, we discuss fundamentals of the spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics, where several important particle motions in a circular accelerator are considered. The properties of the Fourier transform are presented. Then the coasting and the bunched beam motion in both longitudinal and transverse are studied. The discussions are separated for the signal particle, multiple particle, and the Schottky noise cases. To demonstrate the interesting properties of the beam motion spectrum, time domain functions are generated, and then the associated spectra are calculated and plotted. In order to show the whole picture in a single plot, some data have been scaled, therefore they may not be realistic in an accelerator.

  19. Diagnostic management of renal colic.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, C; Salvador, R; Artigas, J M

    2015-01-01

    Renal colic is a common reason for presentation to emergency departments, and imaging has become fundamental for the diagnosis and clinical management of this condition. Ultrasonography and particularly noncontrast computed tomography have good diagnostic performance in diagnosing renal colic. Radiologic management will depend on the tools available at the center and on the characteristics of the patient. It is essential to use computed tomography techniques that minimize radiation and to use alternatives like ultrasonography in pregnant patients and children. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical and radiologic presentations, and clinical management of ureteral lithiasis.

  20. Diagnostic imaging for aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Kapustin, Andrew J; Litt, Harold I

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging for aortic dissection has dramatically changed in recent years. Previously, imaging consisted of conventional X-ray radiography, followed by invasive catheter angiography. Now imaging of dissection is performed primarily with multidetector CT, and to a lesser extent, with ultrasound and MRI. Catheter angiography is used primarily as a means of treating complications. Which modality to choose depends on patient factors, physician preference, and differences in availability of state-of-the-art equipment. All three modalities are highly accurate in experienced hands and have revolutionized the detection and evaluation of this condition.

  1. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  2. Diagnostic enhancements for plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Henins, I.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Funds obtained under this project were used to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of the plasma-processing program in the Physics Division at LANL and include successful development and implementation of in-situ Raman spectroscopy and infrared emission spectroscopy. These methods were used to detect the presence and nature of ground-state and electronically excited molecular oxygen formed in an atmospheric-pressure, nonthermal plasma source used for environmental, industrial and decontamination applications.

  3. Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

  4. Understanding Onychomycosis Resolving Diagnostic Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Stein Gold, Linda F

    2016-03-01

    No scientifically rigorous, large, prospective studies have been done to document the true prevalence of onychomycosis; the reported rates vary mainly by climate and by population, but the overall prevalence in the United States is estimated to be at least 10%. Advanced age and diabetes are the most commonly reported risk factors for onychomycosis. The differential diagnosis of onychomycosis is lengthy, and visual inspection alone is not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis-direct microscopic examination of a wet-mount preparation with 10% to 20% potassium hydroxide is the first-line diagnostic test.

  5. Circulating Plasma MicroRNAs As Diagnostic Markers for NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinpao; Meng, Fei; Chan, Lawrence W. C.; Cho, William C. S.; Wong, S. C. Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths all over the world, in which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~85% of cases. It is well known that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in various cellular processes, mediating post-transcriptional silencing either by mRNA degradation through binding the 3′ UTR of target mRNA or by translational inhibition of the protein. In the past decade, miRNAs have also been increasingly identified in biological fluids such as human serum or plasma known as circulating or cell-free miRNAs, and may function as non-invasive diagnostic markers for various cancer types including NSCLC. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are those cells that are shed from solid tumors and then migrate into the circulation. However, reports concerning the roles of CTCs are quite rare, which may be attributed to the difficulties in the enrichment and detection of CTCs in the circulation. Although, there have been reassuring advances in identifying circulating miRNA-panels, which are assumed to be of diagnostic value in NSCLC early stage, some issues remain concerning the reliability of using miRNA panels as a diagnostic tool for NSCLC. In the current review, we are aiming at providing insights into the miRNAs biology, the mechanisms of miRNAs release into the bloodstream, cell-free miRNAs as the diagnostic markers for NSCLC and the current limitations of CTCs as diagnostic markers in NSCLC. PMID:27857721

  6. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  7. The diagnostic process: examples in orthopedic physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Delitto, A; Snyder-Mackler, L

    1995-03-01

    Diagnosis by the physical therapist has received increased attention in the physical therapy literature. The contributions thus far are in agreement that although physical therapists do not identify disease in the sense of pathology, they certainly can identify clusters of signs, symptoms, symptom-related behavior, and other data from patient history and other testing. These clusters can be labeled as classifications or diagnoses by physical therapists and can guide management of the patient. The purpose of this article is to discuss what has yet to be included in articles about diagnosis: the diagnostic process. We first acknowledge the complexity of the diagnostic process, reviewing the study of clinical diagnosis mostly from the field of medicine, including statistical as well as process-tracing approaches. We next discuss steps we believe are important to consider in order to interface the diagnostic process into entry-level training curricula, urging teachers and mentors of future physical therapists to rethink our emphasis on the problem-oriented medical record's "SOAP" type of approach as a clinical decision-making format. We next discuss error and clinical judgment and strategies to constructively deal with error in the clinical environment. We urge physical therapists to strive to reach a point at which we can (1) identify and classify patients in such a manner that allows for more efficient treatment management and (2) demonstrate such abilities in peer-reviewed publication form.

  8. Identification of mimotopes of Mycobacterium leprae as potential diagnostic reagents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An early diagnostic test for detecting infection in leprosy is fundamental for reducing patients’ sequelae. The currently used lepromin is not adequate for disease diagnosis and, so far, no antigen to be used in intradermoreaction has proved to be sensitive and specific for that purpose. Aiming at identifying new reagents to be used in skin tests, candidate antigens were investigated. Methods Random peptide phage display libraries were screened by using antibodies from leprosy patients in order to identify peptides as diagnostic reagents. Results Seven different phage clones were identified using purified antibodies pooled from sera of leprosy patients. When the clones were tested with serum samples by ELISA, three of them, 5A, 6A and 1B, allowed detecting a larger number of leprosy patients when compared to controls. The corresponding peptides expressed by selected phage clones were chemically synthesized. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the use of peptides in skin tests. The intradermal challenge with peptides in animals previously sensitized with Mycobacterium leprae induced a delayed-type hypersensitivity with peptide 5A (2/5) and peptide 1B (1/5). In positive controls, there was a 3/5 reactivity for lepromin and a 4/5 reactivity of the sensitized animals with soluble extract of M. leprae. Conclusions The preliminary data suggest that may be possible to develop reagents with diagnostic potential based on peptide mimotopes selected by phage display using polyclonal human antibodies. PMID:23351151

  9. Sonicated Diagnostic Immunoblot for Bartonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallqui, Vania; Speelmon, Emily C.; Verástegui, Manuela; Maguiña-Vargas, Ciro; Pinell-Salles, Paula; Lavarello, Rosa; Delgado, Jose; Kosek, Margaret; Romero, Sofia; Arana, Yanina; Gilman, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    Two simple Bartonella bacilliformis immunoblot preparation methods were developed. Antigen was prepared by two different methods: sonication of whole organisms or glycine extraction. Both methods were then tested for sensitivity and specificity. Well-defined control sera were utilized in the development of these diagnostic immunoblots, and possible cross-reactions were thoroughly examined. Sera investigated for cross-reaction with these diagnostic antigens were drawn from patients with brucellosis, chlamydiosis, Q fever, and cat scratch disease, all of whom were from regions where bartonellosis is not endemic. While both immunoblots yielded reasonable sensitivity and high specificity, we recommend the use of the sonicated immunoblot, which has a higher sensitivity when used to detect acute disease and produces fewer cross-reactions. The sonicated immunoblot reported here is 94% sensitive to chronic bartonellosis and 70% sensitive to acute bartonellosis. In a healthy group, it is 100% specific. This immunoblot preparation requires a simple sonication protocol for the harvesting of B. bacilliformis antigens and is well suited for use in regions of endemicity. PMID:10618267

  10. Progress on ITER Diagnostic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ; Klabacha, Jonathan; Loesser, Doug; Messineo, Mike; Stratton, Brentley; Wood, Rick; Zhai, Yuhu; Andrew, Phillip; Barnsley, Robin; Bertschinger, Guenter; Debock, Maarten; Reichle, Roger; Udintsev, Victor; Vayakis, George; Watts, Christopher; Walsh, Michael

    2013-10-01

    On ITER, front-end components must operate reliably in a hostile environment. Many will be housed in massive port plugs, which also shield the machine from radiation. Multiple diagnostics reside in a single plug, presenting new challenges for developers. Front-end components must tolerate thermally-induced stresses, disruption-induced mechanical loads, stray ECH radiation, displacement damage, and degradation due to plasma-induced coatings. The impact of failures is amplified due to the difficulty in performing robotic maintenance on these large structures. Motivated by needs to minimize disruption loads on the plugs, standardize the handling of shield modules, and decouple the parallel efforts of the many parties, the packaging strategy for diagnostics has recently focused on the use of 3 vertical shield modules inserted from the plasma side into each equatorial plug structure. At the front of each is a detachable first wall element with customized apertures. Progress on US equatorial and upper plugs will be used as examples, including the layout of components in the interspace and port cell regions. Supported by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and UT-Battelle, LLC under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. DOE.

  11. [Diagnostic imaging of splenic disease].

    PubMed

    Völk, M; Strotzer, M

    2006-03-01

    Primary diseases of the spleen are relatively rare. More frequently, the spleen is involved secondarily in hematological, oncological, infectious, immunological, vascular, and other systemic diseases. The spleen is the most commonly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Anatomical and physiological basics are explained, in addition to embryological facts with resulting abnormalities, such as accessory and "wandering" spleen, and polysplenia. The most frequent primary and secondary diseases of the spleen, including rare diagnoses, are presented and illustrated. Hemangioma represents the most common primary benign tumor, and lymphoma the most common primary malignant tumor of the spleen. Diagnostic imaging does not a allow safe differentiation between Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. One section deals with the clinical value and diagnostic workup of incidentally detected lesions. Simple cysts and calcifications need neither clarification nor a follow-up examination. Atypical cysts should be controlled within 3-6 months. Additional clarification using CT or MRT should be reserved for cases with a strong suspicion of clinically relevant primary or secondary splenic disease.

  12. Medical diagnostic applications and sources.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, T A

    2007-01-01

    The ways in which ultrasound is used in medical diagnosis are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the ultrasound source (probe) and implications for acoustic exposure. A brief discussion of the choice of optimum frequency for various target depths is followed by a description of the general features of diagnostic ultrasound probes, including endo-probes. The different modes of diagnostic scanning are then discussed in turn: A-mode, M-mode, B-mode, three-dimensional (3D) and 4D scanning, continuous wave (CW) Doppler, pulse-wave spectral Doppler and Doppler imaging. Under the general heading of B-mode imaging, there are individual descriptions of the principles of chirps and binary codes, B-flow, tissue harmonic imaging and ultrasound contrast agent-specific techniques. Techniques for improving image quality within the constraints of real-time operation are discussed, including write zoom, parallel beam forming, spatial compounding and multiple zone transmission focusing, along with methods for reducing slice thickness. At the end of each section there is a summarising comment on the basic features of the acoustic output and its consequences for patient safety.

  13. Diagnostic Studies with GLA Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Assessments of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System-1 Data Assimilation System(GEOS-1 DAS), regarding heating rates, energetics, and angular momentum quantities were made. These diagnostics can be viewed as measures of climate variability. Comparisons with the NOAA/NCEP reanalysis system of momentum and energetics diagnostics are included. Water vapor and angular momentum are diagnosed in many models, including those of NASA, as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. 'Me GEOS-I and NOAA/NCEP global atmospheric angular momentum values are coherent on time scales down to about three days. Furthermore, they agree with the series of Earth angular momentum, as measured by tiny fluctuations in the rotation rate of the Earth, as variations in the length of day. The torques that effect such changes in atmospheric and Earth momentum are dominated by the influence of particular mountain systems, including the Rockies, Himalayas, and Andes, upon mountain torques on time scales shorter than about two weeks. Other project areas included collaboration with Goddard Space Flight Center to examine the impact of mountainous areas and the treatments of parameterizations on diagnoses of the atmosphere. Relevant preprints are included herein.

  14. Diagnostic tests for model structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Hilary; Clark, Martyn; Woods, Ross; Bowden, Breck

    2010-05-01

    It is common knowledge that hydrological models based on inappropriate conceptualisations of the catchment can still be calibrated to give good performance in reproducing discharge records. Calibrated models of this type are unsuitable for many of their intended uses. To improve model conceptualisations and allow models to be tailored for individual applications and catchments, modellers need a toolbox of diagnostic tests for model structure. These tests would use a range of field measurements to allow hydrological modellers to test hypotheses about different aspects of model structure. This presentation demonstrates how multiple datasets (rain, flow, soil moisture, tracer studies) can be used to develop perceptual and conceptual models; using a case study in the intensively monitored Mahurangi catchment in New Zealand. Our emphasis is on the use of field data to target individual modelling decisions, and hence to draw conclusions relevant to model building at the catchment scale. The goal is to "bridge the gap" between experimental studies and larger-scale model simulations. The model building decisions are then tested using the FUSE multi-model framework. The framework allows independent control of model choices in representing a range of storages and fluxes. We compare structural diagnostics from field data, realistic and unrealistic model structures, with the aim of untangling the effects of model structure and parameterisation.

  15. Software diagnostic aids on Aladdin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisert, David E.; Stott, John P.

    1990-08-01

    The upgrade of the Aladdin control system included many enhancements in the software. Some of the new diagnostic aids provided are: - intelligent temporary logging of all readbacks for at least the previous 12 hours, - permanent logging of specified readbacks into disk files, - temporary logging of beam positions at an operator-specified interval, - an alarm system for all devices, including range limits for analogue readbacks that should remain fixed and window limits which automatically track readbacks that should decay or increase monotonically, - automated checklists to verify that devices are within the specified operating range for a particular phase of operation, - latched digital signals to capture momentary changes. The software has been designed to alert the operator when something is wrong, without generating a flood of unimportant messages, and to make it possible to observe and record readbacks over a range of time scales. The latter capability is essential for tracking down marginal components and correlating observed problems with possible causes. The algorithms used for these diagnostic aids, and how well they perform their desired tasks, are described in this paper.

  16. Obturator hernia: A diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Punamiya, Aditya R.; Naniwadekar, Ramchandra G.; Janugade, Hemant B.; Chotai, Tejas D.; Vimal Singh, T.; Natchair, Arafath

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obturator hernia is an extremely rare type of hernia with relatively high mortality and morbidity. Its early diagnosis is challenging since the signs and symptoms are non specific. PRESENTATION OF CASE Here in we present a case of 70 years old women who presented with complaints of intermittent colicky abdominal pain and vomiting. Plain radiograph of abdomen showed acute dilatation of stomach. Ultrasonography showed small bowel obstruction at the mid ileal level with evidence of coiled loops of ileum in pelvis. On exploration, Right Obstructed Obturator hernia was found. The obstructed Intestine was reduced and resected and the obturator foramen was closed with simple sutures. Postoperative period was uneventful. DISCUSSION Obturator hernia is a rare pelvic hernia and poses a diagnostic challenge. Obturator hernia occurs when there is protrusion of intra-abdominal contents through the obturator foramen in the pelvis. The signs and symptoms are non specific and generally the diagnosis is made during exploration for the intestinal obstruction, one of the four cardinal features. Others are pain on the medial aspect of thigh called as Howship Rombergs sign, repeated attacks of Intestinal Obstruction and palpable mass on the medial aspect of thigh. CONCLUSION Obturator hernia is a rare but significant cause of intestinal obstruction especially in emaciated elderly woman and a diagnostic challenge for the Doctors. CT scan is valuable to establish preoperative diagnosis. Surgery either open or laproscopic, is the only treatment. The need for the awareness is stressed and CT scan can be helpful. PMID:23708307

  17. A fault injection experiment using the AIRLAB Diagnostic Emulation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Robert; Mangum, Scott; Scheper, Charlotte

    1988-01-01

    The preparation for, conduct of, and results of a simulation based fault injection experiment conducted using the AIRLAB Diagnostic Emulation facilities is described. An objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of the diagnostic self-test sequences used to uncover latent faults in a logic network providing the key fault tolerance features for a flight control computer. Another objective was to develop methods, tools, and techniques for conducting the experiment. More than 1600 faults were injected into a logic gate level model of the Data Communicator/Interstage (C/I). For each fault injected, diagnostic self-test sequences consisting of over 300 test vectors were supplied to the C/I model as inputs. For each test vector within a test sequence, the outputs from the C/I model were compared to the outputs of a fault free C/I. If the outputs differed, the fault was considered detectable for the given test vector. These results were then analyzed to determine the effectiveness of some test sequences. The results established coverage of selt-test diagnostics, identified areas in the C/I logic where the tests did not locate faults, and suggest fault latency reduction opportunities.

  18. Refining Diagnostic Procedures for Adults With Symptoms of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Coxe, Stefany; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disorder that afflicts individuals into adulthood. The field continues to refine diagnostic standards for ADHD in adults, complicated by the disorder's heterogeneous presentation, subjective symptoms, and overlap with other disorders. Two key diagnostic questions are from whom to collect diagnostic information and which symptoms should be contained on an adult diagnostic checklist. Using a trifactor model, Martel et al. examine these questions in a sample of adults with and without self-identified ADHD symptoms. In this response, we highlight the importance of their finding that self and informant symptom reports differ in a sample of adults who acknowledge ADHD symptoms. We also review issues that continue to face the field related to model specification, evaluating symptom utility, and sample composition, discussing how these issues influence conclusions that may be drawn from Martel et al. and similar investigations. We conclude that the article makes an important research contribution about the nature of self and informant ADHD symptom reports but emphasize that symptom checklist refinement must occur through a broad lens that considers work from a range of sample types and clinically informative analytic strategies.

  19. REDEX: The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990's.

  20. New developments in APSTNG neutron probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) show potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. The gamma-ray dector and neutron generator can be located on the same side of the interrogated object, so spaces behind walls and other confirmed areas can be inspected. No collimators or radiation shielding are needed, the neutron generator is relatively simple and small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. A complete system could be transported in an automotive van. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Inspection applications have been investigated for presence of cocaine in propane tanks, uranium and plutonium smuggling, and radioactive and toxic waste characterization. An advanced APSTNG tube is being designed and constructed that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.