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Sample records for identify influential individuals

  1. Identifying influential individuals on intensive care units: using cluster analysis to explore culture.

    PubMed

    Fong, Allan; Clark, Lindsey; Cheng, Tianyi; Franklin, Ella; Fernandez, Nicole; Ratwani, Raj; Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify attribute patterns of influential individuals in intensive care units using unsupervised cluster analysis. Despite the acknowledgement that culture of an organisation is critical to improving patient safety, specific methods to shift culture have not been explicitly identified. A social network analysis survey was conducted and an unsupervised cluster analysis was used. A total of 100 surveys were gathered. Unsupervised cluster analysis was used to group individuals with similar dimensions highlighting three general genres of influencers: well-rounded, knowledge and relational. Culture is created locally by individual influencers. Cluster analysis is an effective way to identify common characteristics among members of an intensive care unit team that are noted as highly influential by their peers. To change culture, identifying and then integrating the influencers in intervention development and dissemination may create more sustainable and effective culture change. Additional studies are ongoing to test the effectiveness of utilising these influencers to disseminate patient safety interventions. This study offers an approach that can be helpful in both identifying and understanding influential team members and may be an important aspect of developing methods to change organisational culture. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Identifying influential and susceptible members of social networks.

    PubMed

    Aral, Sinan; Walker, Dylan

    2012-07-20

    Identifying social influence in networks is critical to understanding how behaviors spread. We present a method that uses in vivo randomized experimentation to identify influence and susceptibility in networks while avoiding the biases inherent in traditional estimates of social contagion. Estimation in a representative sample of 1.3 million Facebook users showed that younger users are more susceptible to influence than older users, men are more influential than women, women influence men more than they influence other women, and married individuals are the least susceptible to influence in the decision to adopt the product offered. Analysis of influence and susceptibility together with network structure revealed that influential individuals are less susceptible to influence than noninfluential individuals and that they cluster in the network while susceptible individuals do not, which suggests that influential people with influential friends may be instrumental in the spread of this product in the network.

  3. Evolution of cooperation in a heterogeneous population with influential individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Qian; Wang, Dong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2012-02-01

    Influential individuals are introduced and integrated with the public goods game (PGG) to investigate their influence on the emergence and evolution of cooperation. In the model, some influential individuals whose behaviors can be controlled by us are introduced into a homogeneous population on a square lattice. The influential individuals can play three kinds of roles: I. exemplar, II. supervisor with the power to punish defectors, and III. supervisor with the power to reward cooperative co-players. It is found that the existence of influential individuals who play Role I turns out to be detrimental to cooperation and that the larger the number of influential individuals is, the more difficult it is for cooperation to be maintained. For those playing supervisory roles, both punishment and reward are found to be effective ways for the influential individuals to promote and stabilize cooperative behavior. By comparing the critical costs and the mean payoffs for a low multiplication factor under the role of punishment and the role of reward, it is found that reward is a more effective intervention measure than punishment for influential individuals seeking to improve cooperation and that reward leads to a higher mean payoff.

  4. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks based on gravity formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ling-ling; Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-06-01

    How to identify the influential spreaders in social networks is crucial for accelerating/hindering information diffusion, increasing product exposure, controlling diseases and rumors, and so on. In this paper, by viewing the k-shell value of each node as its mass and the shortest path distance between two nodes as their distance, then inspired by the idea of the gravity formula, we propose a gravity centrality index to identify the influential spreaders in complex networks. The comparison between the gravity centrality index and some well-known centralities, such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and k-shell centrality, and so forth, indicates that our method can effectively identify the influential spreaders in real networks as well as synthetic networks. We also use the classical Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model to verify the good performance of our method.

  5. Identifying the Educationally Influential Physician: A Systematic Review of Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronberger, Matthew P.; Bakken, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have indicated that educationally influential physicians' (EIPs) interactions with peers can lead to practice changes and improved patient outcomes. However, multiple approaches have been used to identify and investigate EIPs' informal or formal influence on practice, which creates study outcomes that are difficult…

  6. Identifying the Educationally Influential Physician: A Systematic Review of Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronberger, Matthew P.; Bakken, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have indicated that educationally influential physicians' (EIPs) interactions with peers can lead to practice changes and improved patient outcomes. However, multiple approaches have been used to identify and investigate EIPs' informal or formal influence on practice, which creates study outcomes that are difficult…

  7. A new measure of identifying influential nodes: Efficiency centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shasha; Du, Yuxian; Deng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks is a fundamental and practical topic at the moment. Local metric like degree centrality measure is relatively simple and of less effectiveness, although the global metrics such as closeness and betweenness centrality measure can better identify influential nodes, still, there are some disadvantages and limitations. In this paper, a new efficiency centrality (EffC) to rank the spreaders in the whole network is proposed, which identify influential nodes by removing each node and meanwhile considering the changing degree of the whole network efficiency after removal. To evaluate the performance of our method, Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model is used to simulate the epidemic spreading in four real networks. The experimental and simulated results show the efficiency and practicability of the proposed method. Thus, it is significant to rank spreaders in complex networks by using Network Efficiency. And our proposed EffC is proved to be a feasible and effective measure to identify influential nodes.

  8. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  9. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  10. A generalised approach for identifying influential data in hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David; Thyer, Mark; Westra, Seth; Renard, Benjamin; McInerney, David

    2017-04-01

    Influence diagnostics identify data points that have a disproportionate impact on model calibration, and are therefore useful to identify possible erroneous data points or scrutinise the sensitivity of the model results to a small portion of the overall calibration dataset. Case-deletion Cook's distance calculates influence; however, it has a large computational demand due to the requirement for recalibration of the model parameters for every data point in the calibration data. Regression based Cook's distance provides an approximation of case-deletion Cook's distance by combining two regression components for each observed data point: 1) the leverage which is used to assess the potential importance of individual observations, and 2) the standardised residuals. By combining these two components the regression based Cook's distance requires only a relatively small number of additional runs and is therefore an attractive alternative to the computationally demanding case-deletion Cook's distance. The objective of this study is to develop generalised regression based influence diagnostics that can be applied across a wide range models and objective functions in a computationally efficient manner. This overcomes the limitations of the current suite of influence diagnostics. For example, the regression based Cook's distance has two assumptions that are not satisfied in hydrological modelling: 1) the hydrological model is linear; 2) the objective function applied is limited to standard least squares. In addition, although the case-deletion diagnostics overcome these assumptions, they require high performance computing and therefore are not computationally feasible for most hydrological model applications. In this study we generalise regression based Cook's distance to be applied beyond linear models and to the vast majority of objective functions currently applied in hydrological model calibration. The improvements from the new formulation are then examined by comparing

  11. Identifying influential directors in the United States corporate governance network.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuqing; Vodenska, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The influence of directors has been one of the most engaging topics recently, but surprisingly little research has been done to quantitatively evaluate the influence and power of directors. We analyze the structure of the US corporate governance network for the 11-year period 1996-2006 based on director data from the Investor Responsibility Research Center director database, and we develop a centrality measure named the influence factor to estimate the influence of directors quantitatively. The US corporate governance network is a network of directors with nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards. We assume that information flows in the network through information-sharing processes among linked directors. The influence factor assigned to a director is based on the level of information that a director obtains from the entire network. We find that, contrary to commonly accepted belief that directors of large companies, measured by market capitalization, are the most powerful, in some instances, the directors who are influential do not necessarily serve on boards of large companies. By applying our influence factor method to identify the influential people contained in the lists created by popular magazines such as Fortune, Networking World, and Treasury and Risk Management, we find that the influence factor method is consistently either the best or one of the two best methods in identifying powerful people compared to other general centrality measures that are used to denote the significance of a node in complex network theory.

  12. Identify influential spreaders in complex networks, the role of neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Do, Younghae

    2016-06-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders is an important issue in controlling the spreading processes in complex networks. Centrality measures are used to rank node influence in a spreading dynamics. Here we propose a node influence measure based on the centrality of a node and its neighbors' centrality, which we call the neighborhood centrality. By simulating the spreading processes in six real-world networks, we find that the neighborhood centrality greatly outperforms the basic centrality of a node such as the degree and coreness in ranking node influence and identifying the most influential spreaders. Interestingly, we discover a saturation effect in considering the neighborhood of a node, which is not the case of the larger the better. Specifically speaking, considering the 2-step neighborhood of nodes is a good choice that balances the cost and performance. If further step of neighborhood is taken into consideration, there is no obvious improvement and even decrease in the ranking performance. The saturation effect may be informative for studies that make use of the local structure of a node to determine its importance in the network.

  13. Identifying influential directors in the United States corporate governance network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Vodenska, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The influence of directors has been one of the most engaging topics recently, but surprisingly little research has been done to quantitatively evaluate the influence and power of directors. We analyze the structure of the US corporate governance network for the 11-year period 1996-2006 based on director data from the Investor Responsibility Research Center director database, and we develop a centrality measure named the influence factor to estimate the influence of directors quantitatively. The US corporate governance network is a network of directors with nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards. We assume that information flows in the network through information-sharing processes among linked directors. The influence factor assigned to a director is based on the level of information that a director obtains from the entire network. We find that, contrary to commonly accepted belief that directors of large companies, measured by market capitalization, are the most powerful, in some instances, the directors who are influential do not necessarily serve on boards of large companies. By applying our influence factor method to identify the influential people contained in the lists created by popular magazines such as Fortune, Networking World, and Treasury and Risk Management, we find that the influence factor method is consistently either the best or one of the two best methods in identifying powerful people compared to other general centrality measures that are used to denote the significance of a node in complex network theory.

  14. Identifying influential nodes in complex networks based on AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Tian; Hu, Jiantao; Deng, Yong

    2017-08-01

    In the field of complex networks, how to identify influential nodes in the network is still an important research topic. In this paper, a method to identify the influence of the node based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is proposed. AHP, as a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) technique has become an important branch of decision making since then. Every centrality measure has its own disadvantages and limitations, thus we consider several different centrality measures as the multi-attribute of complex network in AHP application. AHP is used to aggregate the multi-attribute to obtain the evaluation of the influence of each node. The experiments on four real networks and an informative network show the efficiency and practicability of the proposed method.

  15. Highlighting impact: Do editors' selections identify influential papers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    A recent trend in scientific publishing is that journal editors highlight each week a select set among the papers published (usually) in their respective journals. The highlighted papers are deemed of higher quality, importance, or interest than the 'average' paper and feature prominently in the publishers' websites. We perform a citation analysis of the highlighted papers for a number of journals from various publishers in physics. By comparing the performance of highlighted papers relative to (a) typical papers and (b) highly cited papers in their source journals and in other journals in the field, we explore whether, and to what extent, the selection process at the time of publication identifies papers that will turn out to be influential. We discuss the broader implications for research assessment.

  16. Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Xiong; Chen, Duan-Bing; Dong, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-01

    Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks plays a crucial role in effective information spreading. A simple strategy is to choose top-r ranked nodes as spreaders according to influence ranking method such as PageRank, ClusterRank and k-shell decomposition. Besides, some heuristic methods such as hill-climbing, SPIN, degree discount and independent set based are also proposed. However, these approaches suffer from a possibility that some spreaders are so close together that they overlap sphere of influence or time consuming. In this report, we present a simply yet effectively iterative method named VoteRank to identify a set of decentralized spreaders with the best spreading ability. In this approach, all nodes vote in a spreader in each turn, and the voting ability of neighbors of elected spreader will be decreased in subsequent turn. Experimental results on four real networks show that under Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected (SI) models, VoteRank outperforms the traditional benchmark methods on both spreading rate and final affected scale. What’s more, VoteRank has superior computational efficiency. PMID:27296252

  17. Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Xiong; Chen, Duan-Bing; Dong, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2016-06-01

    Identifying a set of influential spreaders in complex networks plays a crucial role in effective information spreading. A simple strategy is to choose top-r ranked nodes as spreaders according to influence ranking method such as PageRank, ClusterRank and k-shell decomposition. Besides, some heuristic methods such as hill-climbing, SPIN, degree discount and independent set based are also proposed. However, these approaches suffer from a possibility that some spreaders are so close together that they overlap sphere of influence or time consuming. In this report, we present a simply yet effectively iterative method named VoteRank to identify a set of decentralized spreaders with the best spreading ability. In this approach, all nodes vote in a spreader in each turn, and the voting ability of neighbors of elected spreader will be decreased in subsequent turn. Experimental results on four real networks show that under Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected (SI) models, VoteRank outperforms the traditional benchmark methods on both spreading rate and final affected scale. What’s more, VoteRank has superior computational efficiency.

  18. Using global diversity and local topology features to identify influential network spreaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the most influential individuals spreading ideas, information, or infectious diseases is a topic receiving significant attention from network researchers, since such identification can assist or hinder information dissemination, product exposure, and contagious disease detection. Hub nodes, high betweenness nodes, high closeness nodes, and high k-shell nodes have been identified as good initial spreaders. However, few efforts have been made to use node diversity within network structures to measure spreading ability. The two-step framework described in this paper uses a robust and reliable measure that combines global diversity and local features to identify the most influential network nodes. Results from a series of Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic simulations indicate that our proposed method performs well and stably in single initial spreader scenarios associated with various complex network datasets.

  19. Identifying influential user communities on the social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weishu; Gong, Zhiguo; Hou U, Leong; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays social network services have been popularly used in electronic commerce systems. Users on the social network can develop different relationships based on their common interests and activities. In order to promote the business, it is interesting to explore hidden relationships among users developed on the social network. Such knowledge can be used to locate target users for different advertisements and to provide effective product recommendations. In this paper, we define and study a novel community detection problem that is to discover the hidden community structure in large social networks based on their common interests. We observe that the users typically pay more attention to those users who share similar interests, which enable a way to partition the users into different communities according to their common interests. We propose two algorithms to detect influential communities using common interests in large social networks efficiently and effectively. We conduct our experimental evaluation using a data set from Epinions, which demonstrates that our method achieves 4-11.8% accuracy improvement over the state-of-the-art method.

  20. Identifying multiple influential spreaders by a heuristic clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zhong-Kui; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The problem of influence maximization in social networks has attracted much attention. However, traditional centrality indices are suitable for the case where a single spreader is chosen as the spreading source. Many times, spreading process is initiated by simultaneously choosing multiple nodes as the spreading sources. In this situation, choosing the top ranked nodes as multiple spreaders is not an optimal strategy, since the chosen nodes are not sufficiently scattered in networks. Therefore, one ideal situation for multiple spreaders case is that the spreaders themselves are not only influential but also they are dispersively distributed in networks, but it is difficult to meet the two conditions together. In this paper, we propose a heuristic clustering (HC) algorithm based on the similarity index to classify nodes into different clusters, and finally the center nodes in clusters are chosen as the multiple spreaders. HC algorithm not only ensures that the multiple spreaders are dispersively distributed in networks but also avoids the selected nodes to be very "negligible". Compared with the traditional methods, our experimental results on synthetic and real networks indicate that the performance of HC method on influence maximization is more significant.

  1. Identifying Educationally Influential Specialists: Issues Arising from the Use of "Classic" Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Frances C.; Ryan, David P.; Dodge, Jason E.; Last, Linda D.; Law, Calvin H. L.; Smith, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Educationally influential physicians (EIPs) are identified by their colleagues as people who (1) encourage learning and enjoy sharing their knowledge, (2) are clinical experts and always seem up to date, and (3) treat others as equals. We aimed to identify surgical and pathologist EIPs for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Ontario as part…

  2. Identifying Educationally Influential Specialists: Issues Arising from the Use of "Classic" Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Frances C.; Ryan, David P.; Dodge, Jason E.; Last, Linda D.; Law, Calvin H. L.; Smith, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Educationally influential physicians (EIPs) are identified by their colleagues as people who (1) encourage learning and enjoy sharing their knowledge, (2) are clinical experts and always seem up to date, and (3) treat others as equals. We aimed to identify surgical and pathologist EIPs for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Ontario as part…

  3. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  4. Identifying influential nodes based on graph signal processing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jia; Yu, Li; Li, Jing-Ru; Zhou, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Identifying influential nodes in complex networks is of both theoretical and practical importance. Existing methods identify influential nodes based on their positions in the network and assume that the nodes are homogeneous. However, node heterogeneity (i.e., different attributes such as interest, energy, age, and so on) ubiquitously exists and needs to be taken into consideration. In this paper, we conduct an investigation into node attributes and propose a graph signal processing based centrality (GSPC) method to identify influential nodes considering both the node attributes and the network topology. We first evaluate our GSPC method using two real-world datasets. The results show that our GSPC method effectively identifies influential nodes, which correspond well with the underlying ground truth. This is compatible to the previous eigenvector centrality and principal component centrality methods under circumstances where the nodes are homogeneous. In addition, spreading analysis shows that the GSPC method has a positive effect on the spreading dynamics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61231010) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. HUST No. 2012QN076).

  5. An Examination of High School Graduates Who Identify Teachers as Influential in Their Choice of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozie-Ross, Yvette D.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to what is known about the college choice process by providing a quantitative comparative analysis to determine how high school graduates who identify teachers as influential in their choice of college differ from graduates who do not. Specifically, this study answers the following research question: How do…

  6. Identifying influential nodes in dynamic social networks based on degree-corrected stochastic block model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Dai, Weidi; Jiao, Pengfei; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-05-01

    Many real-world data can be represented as dynamic networks which are the evolutionary networks with timestamps. Analyzing dynamic attributes is important to understanding the structures and functions of these complex networks. Especially, studying the influential nodes is significant to exploring and analyzing networks. In this paper, we propose a method to identify influential nodes in dynamic social networks based on identifying such nodes in the temporal communities which make up the dynamic networks. Firstly, we detect the community structures of all the snapshot networks based on the degree-corrected stochastic block model (DCBM). After getting the community structures, we capture the evolution of every community in the dynamic network by the extended Jaccard’s coefficient which is defined to map communities among all the snapshot networks. Then we obtain the initial influential nodes of the dynamic network and aggregate them based on three widely used centrality metrics. Experiments on real-world and synthetic datasets demonstrate that our method can identify influential nodes in dynamic networks accurately, at the same time, we also find some interesting phenomena and conclusions for those that have been validated in complex network or social science.

  7. MIIB: A Metric to Identify Top Influential Bloggers in a Community.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hikmat Ullah; Daud, Ali; Malik, Tahir Afzal

    2015-01-01

    Social networking has revolutionized the use of conventional web and has converted World Wide Web into the social web as users can generate their own content. This change has been possible due to social web platforms like forums, wikis, and blogs. Blogs are more commonly being used as a form of virtual communication to express an opinion about an event, product or experience and can reach a large audience. Users can influence others to buy a product, have certain political or social views, etc. Therefore, identifying the most influential bloggers has become very significant as this can help us in the fields of commerce, advertisement and product knowledge searching. Existing approaches consider some basic features, but lack to consider some other features like the importance of the blog on which the post has been created. This paper presents a new metric, MIIB (Metric for Identification of Influential Bloggers), based on various features of bloggers' productivity and popularity. Productivity refers to bloggers' blogging activity and popularity measures bloggers' influence in the blogging community. The novel module of BlogRank depicts the importance of blog sites where bloggers create their posts. The MIIB has been evaluated against the standard model and existing metrics for finding the influential bloggers using dataset from the real-world blogosphere. The obtained results confirm that the MIIB is able to find the most influential bloggers in a more effective manner.

  8. MIIB: A Metric to Identify Top Influential Bloggers in a Community

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hikmat Ullah; Daud, Ali; Malik, Tahir Afzal

    2015-01-01

    Social networking has revolutionized the use of conventional web and has converted World Wide Web into the social web as users can generate their own content. This change has been possible due to social web platforms like forums, wikis, and blogs. Blogs are more commonly being used as a form of virtual communication to express an opinion about an event, product or experience and can reach a large audience. Users can influence others to buy a product, have certain political or social views, etc. Therefore, identifying the most influential bloggers has become very significant as this can help us in the fields of commerce, advertisement and product knowledge searching. Existing approaches consider some basic features, but lack to consider some other features like the importance of the blog on which the post has been created. This paper presents a new metric, MIIB (Metric for Identification of Influential Bloggers), based on various features of bloggers’ productivity and popularity. Productivity refers to bloggers’ blogging activity and popularity measures bloggers’ influence in the blogging community. The novel module of BlogRank depicts the importance of blog sites where bloggers create their posts. The MIIB has been evaluated against the standard model and existing metrics for finding the influential bloggers using dataset from the real-world blogosphere. The obtained results confirm that the MIIB is able to find the most influential bloggers in a more effective manner. PMID:26414063

  9. Identifying multiple influential spreaders in term of the distance-based coloring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Identifying influential nodes is of significance for understanding the dynamics of information diffusion process in complex networks. In this paper, we present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. In our method, each node is colored by a kind of color with the rule that the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance of a network. When all nodes are colored, nodes with the same color are sorted into an independent set. Then we choose the nodes at the top positions of the ranking list according to their centralities. The experimental results for an artificial network and three empirical networks show that, comparing with the performance of traditional coloring method, the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 12.82%, 8.16%, 4.45%, 2.93% for the ER, Erdős, Polblogs and Routers networks respectively.

  10. A bio-inspired methodology of identifying influential nodes in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cai; Lan, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoge; Deng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    How to identify influential nodes is a key issue in complex networks. The degree centrality is simple, but is incapable to reflect the global characteristics of networks. Betweenness centrality and closeness centrality do not consider the location of nodes in the networks, and semi-local centrality, leaderRank and pageRank approaches can be only applied in unweighted networks. In this paper, a bio-inspired centrality measure model is proposed, which combines the Physarum centrality with the K-shell index obtained by K-shell decomposition analysis, to identify influential nodes in weighted networks. Then, we use the Susceptible-Infected (SI) model to evaluate the performance. Examples and applications are given to demonstrate the adaptivity and efficiency of the proposed method. In addition, the results are compared with existing methods.

  11. Identifying the most influential spreaders in complex networks by an Extended Local K-Shell Sum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Ruisheng; Yang, Zhao; Hu, Rongjing; Li, Mengtian; Yuan, Yongna; Li, Keqin

    Identifying influential spreaders is crucial for developing strategies to control the spreading process on complex networks. Following the well-known K-Shell (KS) decomposition, several improved measures are proposed. However, these measures cannot identify the most influential spreaders accurately. In this paper, we define a Local K-Shell Sum (LKSS) by calculating the sum of the K-Shell indices of the neighbors within 2-hops of a given node. Based on the LKSS, we propose an Extended Local K-Shell Sum (ELKSS) centrality to rank spreaders. The ELKSS is defined as the sum of the LKSS of the nearest neighbors of a given node. By assuming that the spreading process on networks follows the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model, we perform extensive simulations on a series of real networks to compare the performance between the ELKSS centrality and other six measures. The results show that the ELKSS centrality has a better performance than the six measures to distinguish the spreading ability of nodes and to identify the most influential spreaders accurately.

  12. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks through local effective spreading paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Xue; Yi, Dongyun; Zhao, Chengli

    2017-05-01

    How to effectively identify a set of influential spreaders in complex networks is of great theoretical and practical value, which can help to inhibit the rapid spread of epidemics, promote the sales of products by word-of-mouth advertising, and so on. A naive strategy is to select the top ranked nodes as identified by some centrality indices, and other strategies are mainly based on greedy methods and heuristic methods. However, most of those approaches did not concern the connections between nodes. Usually, the distances between the selected spreaders are very close, leading to a serious overlapping of their influence. As a consequence, the global influence of the spreaders in networks will be greatly reduced, which largely restricts the performance of those methods. In this paper, a simple and efficient method is proposed to identify a set of discrete yet influential spreaders. By analyzing the spreading paths in the network, we present the concept of effective spreading paths and measure the influence of nodes via expectation calculation. The numerical analysis in undirected and directed networks all show that our proposed method outperforms many other centrality-based and heuristic benchmarks, especially in large-scale networks. Besides, experimental results on different spreading models and parameters demonstrates the stability and wide applicability of our method.

  13. A modified evidential methodology of identifying influential nodes in weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cai; Wei, Daijun; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2013-11-01

    How to identify influential nodes in complex networks is still an open hot issue. In the existing evidential centrality (EVC), node degree distribution in complex networks is not taken into consideration. In addition, the global structure information has also been neglected. In this paper, a new Evidential Semi-local Centrality (ESC) is proposed by modifying EVC in two aspects. Firstly, the Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) of degree generated by EVC is modified according to the actual degree distribution, rather than just following uniform distribution. BPA is the generation of probability in order to model uncertainty. Secondly, semi-local centrality combined with modified EVC is extended to be applied in weighted networks. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. PhysarumSpreader: A New Bio-Inspired Methodology for Identifying Influential Spreaders in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zili; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Identifying influential spreaders in networks, which contributes to optimizing the use of available resources and efficient spreading of information, is of great theoretical significance and practical value. A random-walk-based algorithm LeaderRank has been shown as an effective and efficient method in recognizing leaders in social network, which even outperforms the well-known PageRank method. As LeaderRank is initially developed for binary directed networks, further extensions should be studied in weighted networks. In this paper, a generalized algorithm PhysarumSpreader is proposed by combining LeaderRank with a positive feedback mechanism inspired from an amoeboid organism called Physarum Polycephalum. By taking edge weights into consideration and adding the positive feedback mechanism, PhysarumSpreader is applicable in both directed and undirected networks with weights. By taking two real networks for examples, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other standard centrality measures. PMID:26684194

  15. PhysarumSpreader: A New Bio-Inspired Methodology for Identifying Influential Spreaders in Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongping; Zhang, Yajuan; Zhang, Zili; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Identifying influential spreaders in networks, which contributes to optimizing the use of available resources and efficient spreading of information, is of great theoretical significance and practical value. A random-walk-based algorithm LeaderRank has been shown as an effective and efficient method in recognizing leaders in social network, which even outperforms the well-known PageRank method. As LeaderRank is initially developed for binary directed networks, further extensions should be studied in weighted networks. In this paper, a generalized algorithm PhysarumSpreader is proposed by combining LeaderRank with a positive feedback mechanism inspired from an amoeboid organism called Physarum Polycephalum. By taking edge weights into consideration and adding the positive feedback mechanism, PhysarumSpreader is applicable in both directed and undirected networks with weights. By taking two real networks for examples, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other standard centrality measures.

  16. Identifying the influential aquifer heterogeneity factor on nitrate reduction processes by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, E.; He, W.; Savoy, H.; Dietrich, P.; Kolditz, O.; Rubin, Y.; Schüth, C.; Kalbacher, T.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate reduction reactions in groundwater systems are strongly influenced by various aquifer heterogeneity factors that affect the transport of chemical species, spatial distribution of redox reactive substances and, as a result, the overall nitrate reduction efficiency. In this study, we investigated the influence of physical and chemical aquifer heterogeneity, with a focus on nitrate transport and redox transformation processes. A numerical modeling study for simulating coupled hydrological-geochemical aquifer heterogeneity was conducted in order to improve our understanding of the influence of the aquifer heterogeneity on the nitrate reduction reactions and to identify the most influential aquifer heterogeneity factors throughout the simulation. Results show that the most influential aquifer heterogeneity factors could change over time. With abundant presence of electron donors in the high permeable zones (initial stage), physical aquifer heterogeneity significantly influences the nitrate reduction since it enables the preferential transport of nitrate to these zones and enhances mixing of reactive partners. Chemical aquifer heterogeneity plays a comparatively minor role. Increasing the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity also increases the nitrate removal efficiency of the system. However, ignoring chemical aquifer heterogeneity can lead to an underestimation of nitrate removals in long-term behavior. With the increase of the spatial variability of the electron donor, i.e. chemical heterogeneity, the number of the "hot spots" i.e. zones with comparably higher reactivity, should also increase. Hence, nitrate removal efficiencies will also be spatially variable but overall removal efficiency will be sustained if longer time scales are considered and nitrate fronts reach these high reactivity zones.

  17. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  18. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  19. Using LTI Dynamics to Identify the Influential Nodes in a Network

    PubMed Central

    Jorswieck, Eduard; Scheunert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Networks are used for modeling numerous technical, social or biological systems. In order to better understand the system dynamics, it is a matter of great interest to identify the most important nodes within the network. For a large set of problems, whether it is the optimal use of available resources, spreading information efficiently or even protection from malicious attacks, the most important node is the most influential spreader, the one that is capable of propagating information in the shortest time to a large portion of the network. Here we propose the Node Imposed Response (NiR), a measure which accurately evaluates node spreading power. It outperforms betweenness, degree, k-shell and h-index centrality in many cases and shows the similar accuracy to dynamics-sensitive centrality. We utilize the system-theoretic approach considering the network as a Linear Time-Invariant system. By observing the system response we can quantify the importance of each node. In addition, our study provides a robust tool set for various protective strategies. PMID:28030548

  20. A novel weight neighborhood centrality algorithm for identifying influential spreaders in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junyi; Hou, Xiaoni; Li, Kezan; Ding, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders in complex networks is crucial for optimally using the network structure and designing efficient strategies to accelerate information dissemination or prevent epidemic outbreaks. In this paper, by taking into account the centrality of a node and its neighbors' centrality which depends on the diffusion importance of links, we propose a novel influence measure, the weight neighborhood centrality, to quantify the spreading ability of nodes in complex networks. To evaluate the performance of our method, we use the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to simulate the epidemic spreading process on six real-world networks and four artificial networks. By measuring the rank imprecision and the rank correlation between the rank lists generated by simulation results via SIR and the ones generated by centrality measures, it shows that in general the weight neighborhood centrality can rank the spreading ability of nodes more accurately than its benchmark centrality, especially when using the degree k or coreness ks as the benchmark centrality. Further, we compare the monotonicity and the computational complexity of different ranking methods, which show that our method not only can be better at distinguishing the spreading ability of nodes but also can be used in large-scale networks due to the high computation efficiency.

  1. Identifying and ranking influential spreaders in complex networks with consideration of spreading probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qian; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the influential spreaders in complex network has great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the spreading ability of the nodes, some centrality measures are usually computed, which include degree centrality (DC), betweenness centrality (BC), closeness centrality (CC), k-shell centrality (KS) and local centrality (LC). However, we observe that the performance of different centrality measures may change when these measures are used in a real network with different spreading probabilities. Specifically, DC performs well for small spreading probabilities and LC is more suitable for larger ones. To alleviate the sensitivity of these centrality measures to the spreading probability, we modify LC and then integrate it with DC by considering the spreading probability. We call the proposed measure hybrid degree centrality (HC). HC can take the advantages of DC or LC depending on the given spreading probability. We use SIR model to evaluate the performance of HC in both real networks and artificial networks. Experimental results show that HC performs robustly under different spreading probabilities. Compared with these known centrality measures such as DC, LC, BC, CC and KS, HC can evaluate the spreading ability of the nodes more accurately on most range of spreading probabilities. Furthermore, we show that our method can better distinguish the spreading ability of nodes.

  2. Parameter screening: the use of a dummy parameter to identify non-influential parameters in a global sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Nossent, Jiri; van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Parameter estimation is a major concern in hydrological modeling, which may limit the use of complex simulators with a large number of parameters. To support the selection of parameters to include in or exclude from the calibration process, Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is widely applied in modeling practices. Based on the results of GSA, the influential and the non-influential parameters are identified (i.e. parameters screening). Nevertheless, the choice of the screening threshold below which parameters are considered non-influential is a critical issue, which has recently received more attention in GSA literature. In theory, the sensitivity index of a non-influential parameter has a value of zero. However, since numerical approximations, rather than analytical solutions, are utilized in GSA methods to calculate the sensitivity indices, small but non-zero indices may be obtained for the indices of non-influential parameters. In order to assess the threshold that identifies non-influential parameters in GSA methods, we propose to calculate the sensitivity index of a "dummy parameter". This dummy parameter has no influence on the model output, but will have a non-zero sensitivity index, representing the error due to the numerical approximation. Hence, the parameters whose indices are above the sensitivity index of the dummy parameter can be classified as influential, whereas the parameters whose indices are below this index are within the range of the numerical error and should be considered as non-influential. To demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed "dummy parameter approach", 26 parameters of a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are selected to be analyzed and screened, using the variance-based Sobol' and moment-independent PAWN methods. The sensitivity index of the dummy parameter is calculated from sampled data, without changing the model equations. Moreover, the calculation does not even require additional model evaluations for the Sobol

  3. Identifying Influential Nodes in Large-Scale Directed Networks: The Role of Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan-Bing; Gao, Hui; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying influential nodes in very large-scale directed networks is a big challenge relevant to disparate applications, such as accelerating information propagation, controlling rumors and diseases, designing search engines, and understanding hierarchical organization of social and biological networks. Known methods range from node centralities, such as degree, closeness and betweenness, to diffusion-based processes, like PageRank and LeaderRank. Some of these methods already take into account the influences of a node’s neighbors but do not directly make use of the interactions among it’s neighbors. Local clustering is known to have negative impacts on the information spreading. We further show empirically that it also plays a negative role in generating local connections. Inspired by these facts, we propose a local ranking algorithm named ClusterRank, which takes into account not only the number of neighbors and the neighbors’ influences, but also the clustering coefficient. Subject to the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) spreading model with constant infectivity, experimental results on two directed networks, a social network extracted from delicious.com and a large-scale short-message communication network, demonstrate that the ClusterRank outperforms some benchmark algorithms such as PageRank and LeaderRank. Furthermore, ClusterRank can also be applied to undirected networks where the superiority of ClusterRank is significant compared with degree centrality and k-core decomposition. In addition, ClusterRank, only making use of local information, is much more efficient than global methods: It takes only 191 seconds for a network with about nodes, more than 15 times faster than PageRank. PMID:24204833

  4. Identifying influential nodes in large-scale directed networks: the role of clustering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan-Bing; Gao, Hui; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying influential nodes in very large-scale directed networks is a big challenge relevant to disparate applications, such as accelerating information propagation, controlling rumors and diseases, designing search engines, and understanding hierarchical organization of social and biological networks. Known methods range from node centralities, such as degree, closeness and betweenness, to diffusion-based processes, like PageRank and LeaderRank. Some of these methods already take into account the influences of a node's neighbors but do not directly make use of the interactions among it's neighbors. Local clustering is known to have negative impacts on the information spreading. We further show empirically that it also plays a negative role in generating local connections. Inspired by these facts, we propose a local ranking algorithm named ClusterRank, which takes into account not only the number of neighbors and the neighbors' influences, but also the clustering coefficient. Subject to the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) spreading model with constant infectivity, experimental results on two directed networks, a social network extracted from delicious.com and a large-scale short-message communication network, demonstrate that the ClusterRank outperforms some benchmark algorithms such as PageRank and LeaderRank. Furthermore, ClusterRank can also be applied to undirected networks where the superiority of ClusterRank is significant compared with degree centrality and k-core decomposition. In addition, ClusterRank, only making use of local information, is much more efficient than global methods: It takes only 191 seconds for a network with about [Formula: see text] nodes, more than 15 times faster than PageRank.

  5. Markov Mixed Effects Modeling Using Electronic Adherence Monitoring Records Identifies Influential Covariates to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Madrasi, Kumpal; Chaturvedula, Ayyappa; Haberer, Jessica E; Sale, Mark; Fossler, Michael J; Bangsberg, David; Baeten, Jared M; Celum, Connie; Hendrix, Craig W

    2016-12-06

    Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used. This study included once-daily dosing regimens of placebo, oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and TDF in combination with emtricitabine (FTC), administered to HIV-uninfected members of serodiscordant couples. One-coin and first- to third-order Markov models were fit to the data using NONMEM(®) 7.2. Model selection criteria included objective function value (OFV), Akaike information criterion (AIC), visual predictive checks, and posterior predictive checks. Covariates were included based on forward addition (α = 0.05) and backward elimination (α = 0.001). Markov models better described the data than 1-coin models. A third-order Markov model gave the lowest OFV and AIC, but the simpler first-order model was used for covariate model building because no additional benefit on prediction of target measures was observed for higher-order models. Female sex and older age had a positive impact on adherence, whereas Sundays, sexual abstinence, and sex with a partner other than the study partner had a negative impact on adherence. Our findings suggest adherence interventions should consider the role of these factors.

  6. Identifying influential metrics in the combined metrics approach of fault prediction.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rinkaj; Chandra, Pravin; Singh, Yogesh

    2013-01-01

    Fault prediction is a pre-eminent area of empirical software engineering which has witnessed a huge surge over the last couple of decades. In the development of a fault prediction model, combination of metrics results in better explanatory power of the model. Since the metrics used in combination are often correlated, and do not have an additive effect, the impact of a metric on another i.e. interaction should be taken into account. The effect of interaction in developing regression based fault prediction models is uncommon in software engineering; however two terms and three term interactions are analyzed in detail in social and behavioral sciences. Beyond three terms interactions are scarce, because interaction effects at such a high level are difficult to interpret. From our earlier findings (Softw Qual Prof 15(3):15-23) we statistically establish the pertinence of considering the interaction between metrics resulting in a considerable improvement in the explanatory power of the corresponding predictive model. However, in the aforesaid approach, the number of variables involved in fault prediction also shows a simultaneous increment with interaction. Furthermore, the interacting variables do not contribute equally to the prediction capability of the model. This study contributes towards the development of an efficient predictive model involving interaction among predictive variables with a reduced set of influential terms, obtained by applying stepwise regression.

  7. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely.

  8. Advance to and Persistence in Graduate School: Identifying the Influential Factors and Major-Based Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2014-01-01

    Structured within an expanded econometric theoretical framework, this study uses national data sources to identify the critical factors that influence college graduates' advance to and persistence in graduate education and to compare the systematic differences between students in the STEM and non-STEM majors. The findings indicate that there is a…

  9. Advance to and Persistence in Graduate School: Identifying the Influential Factors and Major-Based Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2014-01-01

    Structured within an expanded econometric theoretical framework, this study uses national data sources to identify the critical factors that influence college graduates' advance to and persistence in graduate education and to compare the systematic differences between students in the STEM and non-STEM majors. The findings indicate that there is a…

  10. Identifying influential spreaders and efficiently estimating infection numbers in epidemic models: A walk counting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Frank; Lizier, Joseph T.

    2012-09-01

    We introduce a new method to efficiently approximate the number of infections resulting from a given initially infected node in a network of susceptible individuals. Our approach is based on counting the number of possible infection walks of various lengths to each other node in the network. We analytically study the properties of our method, in particular demonstrating different forms for SIS and SIR disease spreading (e.g., under the SIR model our method counts self-avoiding walks). In comparison to existing methods to infer the spreading efficiency of different nodes in the network (based on degree, k-shell decomposition analysis and different centrality measures), our method directly considers the spreading process and, as such, is unique in providing estimation of actual numbers of infections. Crucially, in simulating infections on various real-world networks with the SIR model, we show that our walks-based method improves the inference of the effectiveness of nodes over a wide range of infection rates compared to existing methods. We also analyse the trade-off between estimate accuracy and computational cost, showing that the better accuracy here can still be obtained at a comparable computational cost to other methods.

  11. Individual Identifiability Predicts Population Identifiability in Forensic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B; Edge, Michael D; Kim, Jaehee; Li, Jun Z; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-04-04

    Highly polymorphic genetic markers with significant potential for distinguishing individual identity are used as a standard tool in forensic testing [1, 2]. At the same time, population-genetic studies have suggested that genetically diverse markers with high individual identifiability also confer information about genetic ancestry [3-6]. The dual influence of polymorphism levels on ancestry inference and forensic desirability suggests that forensically useful marker sets with high levels of individual identifiability might also possess substantial ancestry information. We study a standard forensic marker set-the 13 CODIS loci used in the United States and elsewhere [2, 7-9]-together with 779 additional microsatellites [10], using direct population structure inference to test whether markers with substantial individual identifiability also produce considerable information about ancestry. Despite having been selected for individual identification and not for ancestry inference [11], the CODIS markers generate nontrivial model-based clustering patterns similar to those of other sets of 13 tetranucleotide microsatellites. Although the CODIS markers have relatively low values of the F(ST) divergence statistic, their high heterozygosities produce greater ancestry inference potential than is possessed by less heterozygous marker sets. More generally, we observe that marker sets with greater individual identifiability also tend toward greater population identifiability. We conclude that population identifiability regularly follows as a byproduct of the use of highly polymorphic forensic markers. Our findings have implications for the design of new forensic marker sets and for evaluations of the extent to which individual characteristics beyond identification might be predicted from current and future forensic data.

  12. Identifying influential nodes in a wound healing-related network of biological processes using mean first-passage time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arodz, Tomasz; Bonchev, Danail

    2015-02-01

    In this study we offer an approach to network physiology, which proceeds from transcriptomic data and uses gene ontology analysis to identify the biological processes most enriched in several critical time points of wound healing process (days 0, 3 and 7). The top-ranking differentially expressed genes for each process were used to build two networks: one with all proteins regulating the transcription of selected genes, and a second one involving the proteins from the signaling pathways that activate the transcription factors. The information from these networks is used to build a network of the most enriched processes with undirected links weighted proportionally to the count of shared genes between the pair of processes, and directed links weighted by the count of relationships connecting genes from one process to genes from the other. In analyzing the network thus built we used an approach based on random walks and accounting for the temporal aspects of the spread of a signal in the network (mean-first passage time, MFPT). The MFPT scores allowed identifying the top influential, as well as the top essential biological processes, which vary with the progress in the healing process. Thus, the most essential for day 0 was found to be the Wnt-receptor signaling pathway, well known for its crucial role in wound healing, while in day 3 this was the regulation of NF-kB cascade, essential for matrix remodeling in the wound healing process. The MFPT-based scores correctly reflected the pattern of the healing process dynamics to be highly concentrated around several processes between day 0 and day 3, and becoming more diffuse at day 7.

  13. Identifying Influential Young People to Undertake Effective Peer-Led Health Promotion: the example of A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial (ASSIST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Fenella; Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Campbell, Rona

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate an effective whole-community approach to identifying a diverse group of influential young people to effectively diffuse health promotion messages among their peers. A peer nomination questionnaire, developed through extensive piloting work, was completed by 10 730 Year 8 students (aged 12-13…

  14. "Disproportionately Influential?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses why the Lumina Foundation is considered so influential in higher education despite its small size and the fact that is is a relatively new foundation. Lumina approaches its 10th anniversary this month with a focused higher education funding mission targeting efforts aimed at expanding access and success beyond high school,…

  15. "Disproportionately Influential?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses why the Lumina Foundation is considered so influential in higher education despite its small size and the fact that is is a relatively new foundation. Lumina approaches its 10th anniversary this month with a focused higher education funding mission targeting efforts aimed at expanding access and success beyond high school,…

  16. Identifying influential young people to undertake effective peer-led health promotion: the example of A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial (ASSIST).

    PubMed

    Starkey, Fenella; Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Campbell, Rona

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate an effective whole-community approach to identifying a diverse group of influential young people to effectively diffuse health promotion messages among their peers. A peer nomination questionnaire, developed through extensive piloting work, was completed by 10 730 Year 8 students (aged 12-13 years) in 59 schools (30 intervention, 29 control) as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Influential students identified in 30 intervention schools were trained to disseminate smoke-free health promotion messages through informal contacts with peers. This approach successfully identified, recruited and retained a diverse group of students, broadly representative of their year group, to undertake the role of 'peer supporter'. Although students and staff expressed doubts about the suitability of some young people recruited as peer supporters, the intervention achieved a 22% reduction in the odds of being a regular smoker in intervention compared with control schools [odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.96)]. Carefully designed and developed peer-led interventions have potential for delivering effective smoking prevention among adolescents. Paying close attention to the way in which peer educators are identified, and involving young people themselves in this process, may be the key to increasing the effectiveness of peer education.

  17. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  18. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Zoe C.; Alibhai, Sky K.; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN1. It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor2. Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,9053 to 13,5204. The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique5 is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify free

  19. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Zoe C; Alibhai, Sky K; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-05-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN(1). It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor(2). Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,905(3) to 13,520(4). The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique(5) is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify

  20. Individual heterogeneity and identifiability in capture-recapture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Individual heterogeneity in detection probabilities is a far more serious problem for capture-recapture modeling than has previously been recognized. In this note, I illustrate that population size is not an identifiable parameter under the general closed population mark-recapture model Mh. The problem of identifiability is obvious if the population includes individuals with pi = 0, but persists even when it is assumed that individual detection probabilities are bounded away from zero. Identifiability may be attained within parametric families of distributions for pi, but not among parametric families of distributions. Consequently, in the presence of individual heterogeneity in detection probability, capture-recapture analysis is strongly model dependent.

  1. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  2. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  3. Intelligence and Behavior among Individuals Identified with Attention Deficit Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.; Osborne, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe the nature of attention deficit disorders (ADDs) within an individual differences model of abilities. In so doing, a model-based explanation for the sources of learning and performance difficulties among individuals identified with ADDs is provided. Earlier models of ADDs are discussed, and the proposed loci of ADDs…

  4. Intelligence and Behavior among Individuals Identified with Attention Deficit Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.; Osborne, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe the nature of attention deficit disorders (ADDs) within an individual differences model of abilities. In so doing, a model-based explanation for the sources of learning and performance difficulties among individuals identified with ADDs is provided. Earlier models of ADDs are discussed, and the proposed loci of ADDs…

  5. The ACAPS and SESPRS surveys to identify the most influential innovators and innovations in plastic surgery: no line on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Charles Scott; Friedstat, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Who and what have been the most influential innovators and innovations in plastic surgery? This historical paper attempts to determine our most important contributors and contributions. We conducted an anonymous, 7-question, web-based survey of all members of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons (ACAPS) and the Southeastern Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (SESPRS). We asked respondents to list their top 5 most influential surgeons, the most important publications or bodies of work, and the most important innovations in plastic surgery, past and present. Of the 86 nominees from ACAPS, the 15 most influential surgeons of the past century were Tessier, Buncke, Murray, Millard, Gillies, Mathes, Jurkiewicz, Taylor, Converse, Blair, Kleinert, Edgerton, McCraw, Peacock, and Brown, in that order. The most 10 influential surgeons of the current era are Rohrich, McCarthy, Wei, Lee, Siemionow, Allen, Coleman, Guyuron, Serletti, and Nahai. Of the 112 nominees from SESPRS, the 15 most influential surgeons of the past century were Gillies, Millard, Tessier, Buncke, Murray, Jurkiewicz, Hartrampf, Mathes, Taylor, Bostwick, McCraw, Furlow, Converse, Peacock, and Blair, in that order. The 10 most influential surgeons of the current era are Rohrich, Nahai, Wei, McCarthy, Coleman, MacKinnon, McGrath, Rubin, Guyuron, and Hammond. Pooled from both lists, the 10 most influential publications or bodies of work were Hartrampf's TRAM flap, Millard's cleft lip repair, McCraw/Mathes/Nahai's myocutaneous flaps, Furlow's cleft palate repair, Tessier's cleft classification and craniofacial repairs, Ramirez's components separation, Buncke's replantation/toe-to-thumb transfer, McCarthy's mandibular distraction osteogenesis, Taylor's free flap and angiosome concepts, and Murray's kidney transplant. The top 10 innovations of the 20th century were myocutaneous flaps, microsurgery, craniofacial surgery, skin grafts, transplantation, liposuction, bioimplants, distraction

  6. Identifying individuals who might benefit from genetic services and information.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Chris; Patch, Christine

    This is the second in a series of articles on genetics. This article focuses on competency 1 of the revised framework for genetics/genomics for nurses. The authors discuss the importance of nurses identifying individuals who may benefit from genetic services. Recording a family history and drawing a family tree are useful skills that will help to identify these individuals and inform the healthcare team. The article explains when to refer individuals to genetic services and what they may expect from these referrals.

  7. Microbiota fingerprints lose individually identifying features over time.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, David; Leung, Marcus H Y; Lee, Patrick K H

    2017-01-09

    Humans host individually unique skin microbiota, suggesting that microbiota traces transferred from skin to surfaces could serve as forensic markers analogous to fingerprints. While it is known that individuals leave identifiable microbiota traces on surfaces, it is not clear for how long these traces persist. Moreover, as skin and surface microbiota change with time, even persistent traces may lose their forensic potential as they would cease to resemble the microbiota of the person who left them. We followed skin and surface microbiota within households for four seasons to determine whether accurate microbiota-based matching of individuals to their households could be achieved across long time delays. While household surface microbiota traces could be matched to the correct occupant or occupants with 67% accuracy, accuracy decreased substantially when skin and surface samples were collected in different seasons, and particularly when surface samples were collected long after skin samples. Most OTUs persisted on skin or surfaces for less than one season, indicating that OTU loss was the major cause of decreased matching accuracy. OTUs that were more useful for individual identification persisted for less time and were less likely to be deposited from skin to surface, suggesting a trade-off between the longevity and identifying value of microbiota traces. While microbiota traces have potential forensic value, unlike fingerprints they are not static and may degrade in a way that preferentially erases features useful in identifying individuals.

  8. Identifying Suitable Degradation Parameters for Individual-Based Prognostics

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Hines, Wes

    2012-09-30

    The ultimate goal of most prognostic systems is accurate prediction of the remaining useful life of individual systems or components based on their use and performance. Traditionally, individual-based prognostic methods use a measure of degradation to make lifetime estimates. Degradation measures may include sensed measurements, such as temperature or vibration level, or inferred measurements, such as model residuals or physics-based model predictions. Often, it is beneficial to combine several measures of degradation into a single parameter. Parameter features such as trendability, monotonicity, and prognosability can be used to compare candidate prognostic parameters to determine which is most useful for individual-based prognosis. By quantifying these features for a given parameter, the metrics can be used with any traditional optimization technique to identify an appropriate parameter. This parameter may be used with a parametric extrapolation model to make prognostic estimates for an individual unit. The proposed methods are illustrated with an application to simulated turbofan engine data.

  9. Identifying ontogenetic, environmental and individual components of forest tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Chaubert-Pereira, Florence; Caraglio, Yves; Lavergne, Christian; Guédon, Yann

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims This study aimed to identify and characterize the ontogenetic, environmental and individual components of forest tree growth. In the proposed approach, the tree growth data typically correspond to the retrospective measurement of annual shoot characteristics (e.g. length) along the trunk. Methods Dedicated statistical models (semi-Markov switching linear mixed models) were applied to data sets of Corsican pine and sessile oak. In the semi-Markov switching linear mixed models estimated from these data sets, the underlying semi-Markov chain represents both the succession of growth phases and their lengths, while the linear mixed models represent both the influence of climatic factors and the inter-individual heterogeneity within each growth phase. Key Results On the basis of these integrative statistical models, it is shown that growth phases are not only defined by average growth level but also by growth fluctuation amplitudes in response to climatic factors and inter-individual heterogeneity and that the individual tree status within the population may change between phases. Species plasticity affected the response to climatic factors while tree origin, sampling strategy and silvicultural interventions impacted inter-individual heterogeneity. Conclusions The transposition of the proposed integrative statistical modelling approach to cambial growth in relation to climatic factors and the study of the relationship between apical growth and cambial growth constitute the next steps in this research. PMID:19684021

  10. Most influential FEMS publications.

    PubMed

    Prosser, James I; Cole, Jeff A; Nielsen, Jens; Bavoil, Patrik M; Häggblom, Max M

    2014-05-01

    A selection of influential FEMS publications to celebrate the 40th anniversary of FEMS. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Finding Influential Users in Social Media Using Association Rule Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Fredrik; Bródka, Piotr; Borg, Anton; Johnson, Henric

    2016-04-01

    Influential users play an important role in online social networks since users tend to have an impact on one other. Therefore, the proposed work analyzes users and their behavior in order to identify influential users and predict user participation. Normally, the success of a social media site is dependent on the activity level of the participating users. For both online social networking sites and individual users, it is of interest to find out if a topic will be interesting or not. In this article, we propose association learning to detect relationships between users. In order to verify the findings, several experiments were executed based on social network analysis, in which the most influential users identified from association rule learning were compared to the results from Degree Centrality and Page Rank Centrality. The results clearly indicate that it is possible to identify the most influential users using association rule learning. In addition, the results also indicate a lower execution time compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Who is that? Brain networks and mechanisms for identifying individuals

    PubMed Central

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Abel, Taylor J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2015-01-01

    Social animals can identify conspecifics by many forms of sensory input. However, whether the neuronal computations that support our ability to identify individuals rely on modality-independent convergence or involve ongoing synergistic interactions along the multiple sensory streams remains controversial. Direct neuronal measurements at relevant brain sites could address such questions, but this requires better bridging the work in humans and animal models. We overview recent studies in nonhuman primates on voice- and face-identity sensitive pathways and evaluate the correspondences to relevant findings in humans. This synthesis provides insights into converging sensory streams in the primate anterior temporal lobe for identity processing. Furthermore, we advance a model and suggest how alternative neuronal mechanisms could be tested. PMID:26454482

  13. Vision characteristics of individuals identified as Irlen Filter candidates.

    PubMed

    Scheiman, M; Blaskey, P; Ciner, E B; Gallaway, M; Parisi, M; Pollack, K; Selznick, R

    1990-08-01

    Individuals with "scotopic sensitivity syndrome" have been reported to have visual symptoms including eye strain, headaches, blurred vision, double vision and words moving on the page. This study was designed to investigate Irlen's claims that these symptoms are unrelated to vision anomalies. She suggests that the use of Irlen tinted lenses/filters relieves these symptoms and results in improved reading performance. Thirty nine subjects (age 10-49) were recruited by advertising for a study of Irlen Filters/Lenses. Before the Irlen screening all subjects received an optometric examination. The results of this study demonstrate that 95 percent of the subjects identified as candidates for Irlen Filters did have significant and readily identifiable vision anomalies. Fifty seven percent of the subjects had received vision care within the past year, yet testing revealed that 90 percent of these subjects had significant vision problems that had not been corrected.

  14. Identifying individuals with physcian diagnosed COPD in health administrative databases.

    PubMed

    Gershon, A S; Wang, C; Guan, J; Vasilevska-Ristovska, J; Cicutto, L; To, T

    2009-10-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common chronic respiratory disease responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Population-based health administrative databases provide a powerful and unbiased way of studying COPD in the population, however, their ability to accurately identify patients with this disease must first be confirmed. The objective was to validate population-based health administrative definitions of COPD. Previously abstracted medical records of adults over the age of 35 randomly selected from primary care practices in Ontario, Canada were reviewed by an expert panel to establish if an individual did or did not have a diagnosis of COPD. These reference designations were then linked to each individual's respective health administrative database record and compared with predefine health administrative data definitions of COPD. Concepts of diagnostic test evaluation were used to calculate and compare their test characteristics. The most sensitive health administrative definition of COPD was 1 or more ambulatory claims and/or 1 or more hospitalizations for COPD that yielded a sensitivity of 85.0% (95% confidence interval 77.0 to 91.0) and a specificity of 78.4% (95% confidence interval 73.6 to 82.7). As number of ambulatory claims in the definition increased, sensitivity decreased and specificity increased. Individuals with COPD can be accurately identified in health administrative data, and therefore it may be used to create an unbiased population cohort for surveillance and research. This offers a powerful means of generating evidence to inform strategies that optimize the prevention and management of COPD.

  15. Identifying incipient dementia individuals using machine learning and amyloid imaging.

    PubMed

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Pascoal, Tharick A; Shin, Monica; Benedet, Andrea L; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2017-11-01

    Identifying individuals destined to develop Alzheimer's dementia within time frames acceptable for clinical trials constitutes an important challenge to design studies to test emerging disease-modifying therapies. Although amyloid-β protein is the core pathologic feature of Alzheimer's disease, biomarkers of neuronal degeneration are the only ones believed to provide satisfactory predictions of clinical progression within short time frames. Here, we propose a machine learning-based probabilistic method designed to assess the progression to dementia within 24 months, based on the regional information from a single amyloid positron emission tomography scan. Importantly, the proposed method was designed to overcome the inherent adverse imbalance proportions between stable and progressive mild cognitive impairment individuals within a short observation period. The novel algorithm obtained an accuracy of 84% and an under-receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91, outperforming the existing algorithms using the same biomarker measures and previous studies using multiple biomarker modalities. With its high accuracy, this algorithm has immediate applications for population enrichment in clinical trials designed to test disease-modifying therapies aiming to mitigate the progression to Alzheimer's disease dementia. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Urban mockingbirds quickly learn to identify individual humans

    PubMed Central

    Levey, Douglas J.; Londoño, Gustavo A.; Ungvari-Martin, Judit; Hiersoux, Monique R.; Jankowski, Jill E.; Poulsen, John R.; Stracey, Christine M.; Robinson, Scott K.

    2009-01-01

    Practically all animals are affected by humans, especially in urban areas. Although most species respond negatively to urbanization, some thrive in human-dominated settings. A central question in urban ecology is why some species adapt well to the presence of humans and others do not. We show that Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) nesting on the campus of a large university rapidly learn to assess the level of threat posed by different humans, and to respond accordingly. In a controlled experiment, we found that as the same human approached and threatened a nest on 4 successive days, mockingbirds flushed from their nest at increasingly greater distances from that human. A different human approaching and threatening the nest identically on the fifth day elicited the same response as the first human on the first day. Likewise, alarm calls and attack flights increased from days 1–4 with the first human, and decreased on day 5 with the second human. These results demonstrate a remarkable ability of a passerine bird to distinguish one human from thousands of others. Also, mockingbirds learned to identify individual humans extraordinarily quickly: after only 2 30-s exposures of the human at the nest. More generally, the varying responses of mockingbirds to intruders suggests behavioral flexibility and a keen awareness of different levels of threat posed by individuals of another species: traits that may predispose mockingbirds and other species of urban wildlife to successful exploitation of human-dominated environments. PMID:19451622

  17. Urban mockingbirds quickly learn to identify individual humans.

    PubMed

    Levey, Douglas J; Londoño, Gustavo A; Ungvari-Martin, Judit; Hiersoux, Monique R; Jankowski, Jill E; Poulsen, John R; Stracey, Christine M; Robinson, Scott K

    2009-06-02

    Practically all animals are affected by humans, especially in urban areas. Although most species respond negatively to urbanization, some thrive in human-dominated settings. A central question in urban ecology is why some species adapt well to the presence of humans and others do not. We show that Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) nesting on the campus of a large university rapidly learn to assess the level of threat posed by different humans, and to respond accordingly. In a controlled experiment, we found that as the same human approached and threatened a nest on 4 successive days, mockingbirds flushed from their nest at increasingly greater distances from that human. A different human approaching and threatening the nest identically on the fifth day elicited the same response as the first human on the first day. Likewise, alarm calls and attack flights increased from days 1-4 with the first human, and decreased on day 5 with the second human. These results demonstrate a remarkable ability of a passerine bird to distinguish one human from thousands of others. Also, mockingbirds learned to identify individual humans extraordinarily quickly: after only 2 30-s exposures of the human at the nest. More generally, the varying responses of mockingbirds to intruders suggests behavioral flexibility and a keen awareness of different levels of threat posed by individuals of another species: traits that may predispose mockingbirds and other species of urban wildlife to successful exploitation of human-dominated environments.

  18. Neurocognition in individuals with incidentally-identified meningioma.

    PubMed

    Butts, Alissa M; Weigand, Stephen; Brown, Paul D; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Machulda, Mary M; Cerhan, Jane H

    2017-08-01

    Meningiomas are primary intracranial tumors that are often asymptomatic. To our knowledge, no study has attempted to describe neurocognitive function in patients with incidentally-discovered meningioma. We utilized the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA), which is a population-based sample of Olmsted County, Minnesota residents that includes neuropsychological testing and brain MRI approximately every 15 months. Using a text search of radiologists' notes of 2402 MCSA individuals (mean age 77 years, scanned between 2004 and 2014) we identified 48 eligible subjects (2%) who had at least one meningioma. Most meningiomas were small (90% <3 cm). We matched each of the 48 subjects to 5 non-demented MCSA controls (n = 240) on age, sex, and education. Cognitive domains assessed included memory, attention-executive function, language, and visuospatial. More women (67%) had a meningioma than men (33%). Groups did not differ on prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment (Meningioma = 19%, Controls = 13%). Across cognitive domains, we observed similar performance for the two groups (p's ≥ 0.21). Subtle differences emerged in memory and language domains (p = 0.05 and p = 0.11) when we divided the Meningioma group by tumor location, wherein the small group with an infratentorial tumor performed more poorly than controls globally as well as on select memory and language measures. Our findings suggest that small meningiomas are generally cognitively benign, but that may change as the tumor evolves, and might be impacted by other factors such as meningioma location.

  19. Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

  20. Identifying Behavioral Measures of Stress in Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.; DuBay, Michaela F.; Duff, Melissa C.; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop valid indicators of stress in individuals with aphasia (IWA) by examining the relationship between certain language variables (error frequency [EF] and word productivity [WP]) and cortisol reactivity. Method: Fourteen IWA and 10 controls participated in a speaking task. Salivary cortisol was collected pre- and posttask. WP and…

  1. Identifying individual sperm whales acoustically using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioup, Juliette W.; Ioup, George E.

    2005-09-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) is a consortium at Stennis Space Center comprising the University of New Orleans, the University of Southern Mississippi, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. LADC deployed three Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2001 to study ambient noise and marine mammals. Each LADC EARS was an autonomous, self-recording buoy capable of 36 days of continuous recording of a single channel at an 11.7-kHz sampling rate (bandwidth to 5859 Hz). The hydrophone selected for this analysis was approximately 50 m from the bottom in a water depth of 800 m on the continental slope off the Mississippi River delta. This paper contains recent analysis results for sperm whale codas recorded during a 3-min period. Results are presented for the identification of individual sperm whales from their codas, using the acoustic properties of the clicks within each coda. The recorded time series, the Fourier transform magnitude, and the wavelet transform coefficients are each used separately with a self-organizing map procedure for 43 codas. All show the codas as coming from four or five individual whales. [Research supported by ONR.

  2. Identifying contributions of individual layers constituting multilayer dielectric mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Lan; Fang, Yong; Lin, Xiaodong; Chen, Jianguo; Li, Dayi; Feng, Guoying

    2005-04-01

    First-order approximations have been used to study the recursion expressions of the reflection and transmission coefficients of a weakly absorptive multilayer mirror. It has been proved that in the proximity of the central frequency ω0 of a quarter-wave mirror, contributions of an individual layer to the reflection delay time and absorption-induced reflectivity reduction can be quantitatively specified with a single weighting factor pertinent to that layer. Derivations have indicated that the absorption-induced reductions of mirror reflectivity and reflection delay can be reduced by selecting an odd layer number and a large index ratio between alternating high and low refractive index coating materials. Calculations have also suggested that the absorbed incident light is not distributed, among the reflected and transmitting parts, according to the ratio between the reflectivity and potential transmission.

  3. Individually Identifiable Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors, Tags and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor); Solie, Leland P. (Inventor); Tucker, Dana Y. G. (Inventor); Hines, Andrew T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A surface-launched acoustic wave sensor tag system for remotely sensing and/or providing identification information using sets of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor tag devices is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include coding and other diversity techniques to produce groups of sensors that interact minimally, reducing or alleviating code collision problems typical of prior art coded SAW sensors and tags, and specific device embodiments of said coded SAW sensor tags and systems. These sensor/tag devices operate in a system which consists of one or more uniquely identifiable sensor/tag devices and a wireless interrogator. The sensor device incorporates an antenna for receiving incident RF energy and re-radiating the tag identification information and the sensor measured parameter(s). Since there is no power source in or connected to the sensor, it is a passive sensor. The device is wirelessly interrogated by the interrogator.

  4. Identifying individuals by sequencing mitochondrial DNA from teeth.

    PubMed

    Ginther, C; Issel-Tarver, L; King, M C

    1992-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was extracted from teeth stored from 3 months to 20 years, including teeth from the semi-skeletonized remains of a murder victim which had been buried for 10 months. Tooth donors and/or their maternal relatives provided blood or buccal cells, from which mtDNA was also extracted. Enzymatic amplification and direct sequencing of roughly 650 nucleotides from two highly polymorphic regions of mtDNA yielded identical sequences for each comparison of tooth and fresh DNA. Our results suggest that teeth provide an excellent source for high molecular weight mtDNA that can be valuable for extending the time in which decomposed human remains can be genetically identified.

  5. Content Analysis of the 20 Most Influential Articles in "PIQ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine key research themes in human performance technology (HPT) through content analysis of the 20 most influential articles identified in Cho, Jo, Park, Kang, and Chen (2011). Three questions guiding this inquiry are: (1) What are the key themes of the 20 most influential articles in "PIQ", (2) What information…

  6. Content Analysis of the 20 Most Influential Articles in "PIQ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine key research themes in human performance technology (HPT) through content analysis of the 20 most influential articles identified in Cho, Jo, Park, Kang, and Chen (2011). Three questions guiding this inquiry are: (1) What are the key themes of the 20 most influential articles in "PIQ", (2) What information…

  7. 49 CFR 1007.4 - Procedures for identifying the individual making the request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for identifying the individual making the request. 1007.4 Section 1007.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... CONTAINING INFORMATION ABOUT INDIVIDUALS § 1007.4 Procedures for identifying the individual making...

  8. Bat wing biometrics: using collagen–elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier

    Treesearch

    Sybill K. Amelon; Sarah E. Hooper; Kathryn M. Womack

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal...

  9. 17 CFR 146.4 - Procedures for identifying the individual making the request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADING COMMISSION RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS § 146.4 Procedures for identifying the individual making the request. When a request for information or for access to records has been made pursuant to... information is given and records are disclosed only to the proper person. (a) An individual may establish...

  10. The most influential investment.

    PubMed

    Summers, L

    1993-01-01

    Investment in women's education possibly has a greater return than investing in areas such as power generation. Education is an economic issue. When the self-fulfilling prophecy of girls' lack of education yielding lower economic worth is compared with the self-fulfilling prophecy of educated women having healthy children and greater earning ability, there is no doubt which scenario is more beneficial to the individual and society. Wages of educated female workers rise by 20%, and personal hygiene and public health improvements contribute to lower fertility and infant mortality. In Pakistan, educating an additional 1000 girls/year would cost $40,000 in 1990 prices. Each year of schooling would reduce the under-5 year child mortality rate by 10%. 1000 women with an extra year of schooling would prevent 60 infant deaths, which if prevented through health care interventions would cost an estimated $48,000. Female fertility would be reduced by about 10% for an extra year of schooling, and thus would avert 660 births or a saving $43,000. Social improvement alone is worth the extra cost. Investing in female education means establishing scholarship funds, providing more free books and other supplies, adapting curricula to cultural and practical concerns, and hiring female teachers. Increasing female primary school enrollment to equal boys enrollment in low income countries would mean educating an extra 25 million girls every/year at a total cost of about $938 million. Equalizing secondary school enrollment would entail educating an extra 21 million girls at a cost of $1.4 billion. The total cost of $2.4 billion constitutes less than .25% of the gross domestic product of low income countries, less than 1% of investment in new capital goods, and less than 10% of defense spending. Investment statistics on power plants in a sample of 57 developing countries showed a return on physical plant assets of less than 4% over the past 3 years and less than 6% over the past 10 years

  11. 100 Most Influential Publications in Scoliosis Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, James Jun; Koltz, Michael T; Agarwal, Nitin; Tempel, Zachary J; Kanter, Adam S; Okonkwo, David O; Hamilton, D Kojo

    2017-03-01

    Bibliometric analysis. To apply the established technique of citation analysis to identify the 100 most influential articles in scoliosis surgery research published between 1900 and 2015. Previous studies have applied the technique of citation analysis to other areas of study. This is the first article to apply this technique to the field of scoliosis surgery. A two-step search of the Thomson Reuters Web of Science was conducted to identify all articles relevant to the field of scoliosis surgery. The top 100 articles with the most citations were identified based on analysis of titles and abstracts. Further statistical analysis was conducted to determine whether measures of author reputation and overall publication influence affected the rate at which publications were recognized and incorporated by other researchers in the field. Total citations for the final 100 publications included in the list ranged from 82 to 509. The period for publication ranged from 1954 to 2010. Most studies were published in the journal Spine (n = 63). The most frequently published topics of study were surgical techniques (n = 35) and outcomes (n = 35). Measures of author reputation (number of total studies in the top 100, number of first-author studies in the top 100) were found to have no effect on the rate at which studies were adopted by other researchers (number of years until first citation, and number of years until maximum citations). The number of citations/year a publication received was found to be negatively correlated with the rate at which it was adopted by other researchers, indicating that more influential manuscripts attained more rapid recognition by the scientific community at large. In assembling this publication, we have strived to identify and recognize the 100 most influential articles in scoliosis surgery research from 1900 to 2015. N/A.

  12. Identification of influential spreaders in online social networks using interaction weighted K-core decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-garadi, Mohammed Ali; Varathan, Kasturi Dewi; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) have become a vital part of everyday living. OSNs provide researchers and scientists with unique prospects to comprehend individuals on a scale and to analyze human behavioral patterns. Influential spreaders identification is an important subject in understanding the dynamics of information diffusion in OSNs. Targeting these influential spreaders is significant in planning the techniques for accelerating the propagation of information that is useful for various applications, such as viral marketing applications or blocking the diffusion of annoying information (spreading of viruses, rumors, online negative behaviors, and cyberbullying). Existing K-core decomposition methods consider links equally when calculating the influential spreaders for unweighted networks. Alternatively, the proposed link weights are based only on the degree of nodes. Thus, if a node is linked to high-degree nodes, then this node will receive high weight and is treated as an important node. Conversely, the degree of nodes in OSN context does not always provide accurate influence of users. In the present study, we improve the K-core method for OSNs by proposing a novel link-weighting method based on the interaction among users. The proposed method is based on the observation that the interaction of users is a significant factor in quantifying the spreading capability of user in OSNs. The tracking of diffusion links in the real spreading dynamics of information verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method for identifying influential spreaders in OSNs as compared with degree centrality, PageRank, and original K-core.

  13. Using Medicare data to identify individuals who are electricity dependent to improve disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    DeSalvo, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Finne, Kristen; Worrall, Chris; Bogdanov, Alina; Dinkler, Ayame; Babcock, Sarah; Kelman, Jeffrey

    2014-07-01

    During a disaster or prolonged power outage, individuals who use electricity-dependent medical equipment are often unable to operate it and seek care in acute care settings or local shelters. Public health officials often report that they do not have proactive and systematic ways to rapidly identify and assist these individuals. In June 2013, we piloted a first-in-the-nation emergency preparedness drill in which we used Medicare claims data to identify individuals with electricity-dependent durable medical equipment during a disaster and securely disclosed it to a local health department. We found that Medicare claims data were 93% accurate in identifying individuals using a home oxygen concentrator or ventilator. The drill findings suggest that claims data can be useful in improving preparedness and response for electricity-dependent populations.

  14. Using Medicare Data to Identify Individuals Who Are Electricity Dependent to Improve Disaster Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    DeSalvo, Karen; Finne, Kristen; Worrall, Chris; Bogdanov, Alina; Dinkler, Ayame; Babcock, Sarah; Kelman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    During a disaster or prolonged power outage, individuals who use electricity-dependent medical equipment are often unable to operate it and seek care in acute care settings or local shelters. Public health officials often report that they do not have proactive and systematic ways to rapidly identify and assist these individuals. In June 2013, we piloted a first-in-the-nation emergency preparedness drill in which we used Medicare claims data to identify individuals with electricity-dependent durable medical equipment during a disaster and securely disclosed it to a local health department. We found that Medicare claims data were 93% accurate in identifying individuals using a home oxygen concentrator or ventilator. The drill findings suggest that claims data can be useful in improving preparedness and response for electricity-dependent populations. PMID:24832404

  15. Identifying the lineages of individual cells in cocultures by multivariate analysis of Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    Ilin, Yelena; Kraft, Mary L

    2014-05-07

    The cellular and matrix cues that induce stem cell differentiation into distinct cell lineages must be identified to permit the ex vivo expansion of desired cell populations for clinical applications. Combinatorial biomaterials enable screening multiple different microenvironments while using small numbers of rare stem cells. New methods to identify the phenotypes of individual cells in cocultures with location specificity would increase the efficiency and throughput of these screening platforms. Here, we demonstrate that partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models of calibration Raman spectra from cells in pure cultures can be used to identify the lineages of individual cells in more complex culture environments. The calibration Raman spectra were collected from individual cells of four different lineages, and a PLS-DA model that captured the Raman spectral profiles characteristic of each cell line was created. The application of these models to Raman spectra from test sets of cells indicated individual, fixed and living cells in separate monocultures, as well as those in more complex culture environments, such as cocultures, could be identified with low error. Cells from populations with very similar biochemistries could also be identified with high accuracy. We show that these identifications are based on reproducible cell-related spectral features, and not spectral contributions from the culture environment. This work demonstrates that PLS-DA of Raman spectra acquired from pure monocultures provides an objective, noninvasive, and label-free approach for accurately identifying the lineages of individual, living cells in more complex coculture environments.

  16. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  17. Individual-specific features of brain systems identified with resting state functional correlations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Evan M; Laumann, Timothy O; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Petersen, Steven E

    2017-02-01

    Recent work has made important advances in describing the large-scale systems-level organization of human cortex by analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data averaged across groups of subjects. However, new findings have emerged suggesting that individuals' cortical systems are topologically complex, containing small but reliable features that cannot be observed in group-averaged datasets, due in part to variability in the position of such features along the cortical sheet. This previous work has reported only specific examples of these individual-specific system features; to date, such features have not been comprehensively described. Here we used fMRI to identify cortical system features in individual subjects within three large cross-subject datasets and one highly sampled within-subject dataset. We observed system features that have not been previously characterized, but 1) were reliably detected across many scanning sessions within a single individual, and 2) could be matched across many individuals. In total, we identified forty-three system features that did not match group-average systems, but that replicated across three independent datasets. We described the size and spatial distribution of each non-group feature. We further observed that some individuals were missing specific system features, suggesting individual differences in the system membership of cortical regions. Finally, we found that individual-specific system features could be used to increase subject-to-subject similarity. Together, this work identifies individual-specific features of human brain systems, thus providing a catalog of previously unobserved brain system features and laying the foundation for detailed examinations of brain connectivity in individuals.

  18. Identifying functional reorganization of spelling networks: an individual peak probability comparison approach

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Jeremy J.; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that damage to the neural substrates of orthographic processing can lead to functional reorganization during reading (Tsapkini et al., 2011); in this research we ask if the same is true for spelling. To examine the functional reorganization of spelling networks we present a novel three-stage Individual Peak Probability Comparison (IPPC) analysis approach for comparing the activation patterns obtained during fMRI of spelling in a single brain-damaged individual with dysgraphia to those obtained in a set of non-impaired control participants. The first analysis stage characterizes the convergence in activations across non-impaired control participants by applying a technique typically used for characterizing activations across studies: Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). This method was used to identify locations that have a high likelihood of yielding activation peaks in the non-impaired participants. The second stage provides a characterization of the degree to which the brain-damaged individual's activations correspond to the group pattern identified in Stage 1. This involves performing a Mahalanobis distance statistics analysis (Tsapkini et al., 2011) that compares each of a control group's peak activation locations to the nearest peak generated by the brain-damaged individual. The third stage evaluates the extent to which the brain-damaged individual's peaks are atypical relative to the range of individual variation among the control participants. This IPPC analysis allows for a quantifiable, statistically sound method for comparing an individual's activation pattern to the patterns observed in a control group and, thus, provides a valuable tool for identifying functional reorganization in a brain-damaged individual with impaired spelling. Furthermore, this approach can be applied more generally to compare any individual's activation pattern with that of a set of other individuals. PMID:24399981

  19. Identifying functional reorganization of spelling networks: an individual peak probability comparison approach.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jeremy J; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that damage to the neural substrates of orthographic processing can lead to functional reorganization during reading (Tsapkini et al., 2011); in this research we ask if the same is true for spelling. To examine the functional reorganization of spelling networks we present a novel three-stage Individual Peak Probability Comparison (IPPC) analysis approach for comparing the activation patterns obtained during fMRI of spelling in a single brain-damaged individual with dysgraphia to those obtained in a set of non-impaired control participants. The first analysis stage characterizes the convergence in activations across non-impaired control participants by applying a technique typically used for characterizing activations across studies: Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). This method was used to identify locations that have a high likelihood of yielding activation peaks in the non-impaired participants. The second stage provides a characterization of the degree to which the brain-damaged individual's activations correspond to the group pattern identified in Stage 1. This involves performing a Mahalanobis distance statistics analysis (Tsapkini et al., 2011) that compares each of a control group's peak activation locations to the nearest peak generated by the brain-damaged individual. The third stage evaluates the extent to which the brain-damaged individual's peaks are atypical relative to the range of individual variation among the control participants. This IPPC analysis allows for a quantifiable, statistically sound method for comparing an individual's activation pattern to the patterns observed in a control group and, thus, provides a valuable tool for identifying functional reorganization in a brain-damaged individual with impaired spelling. Furthermore, this approach can be applied more generally to compare any individual's activation pattern with that of a set of other individuals.

  20. ISSUES AND INFLUENTIALS--THE DECISIONAL PROCESS IN SCHOOL DISTRICT REORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILEY, GLENN ELBERT

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF A REPRESENTATIVE MIDWESTERN SCHOOL DISTRICT TO DETERMINE SCHOOL LEADERS' AWARENESS OF (1) INDIVIDUALS WHO WERE INFLUENTIAL IN THE DECISIONMAKING PROCESS FOR SCHOOL DISTRICT REORGANIZATION AND (2) ACTIONS PERFORMED BY EACH INFLUENTIAL INDIVIDUAL IN THE DECISIONAL PROCESS. THE RESEARCH PROCEDURE INCLUDES IDENTIFICATION AND RANK…

  1. Computer-aided pattern recognition of large reptiles as a noninvasive application to identify individuals.

    PubMed

    Moro, Dorian; MacAulay, Isobel

    2014-01-01

    For large species, the capture and handling of individuals in capture-mark-recapture studies introduces nonhuman animal welfare issues associated with handling, physical marking, and possible wounding due to tag loss. The use of photographic identification for these species offers an alternative and less invasive marking technique. This study investigated the opportunity offered by photo identification to individually mark individuals of a large reptile, the perentie (Varanus giganteus), in Australia and therefore avoid the stress of physically capturing and handling. Photographs submitted by a remotely located community were first validated to confirm whether perenties could be individually identified from their spots electronically using a computer program. Computer-aided selection of unique patterns was found to be appropriate for the identification of individuals and confirmed 38 individuals during the sampling period. The value of this approach is 2-fold: There is a benefit to animal welfare in that handling an animal is not required to capture him or her, thus reducing capture-related stress; and confirmation that photo identification of distinctive patterns of the perentie is valid and offers a useful option to identify individuals of this large species.

  2. Identified ambivalence: When cognitive conflicts can help individuals overcome cognitive traps.

    PubMed

    Guarana, Cristiano L; Hernandez, Morela

    2016-07-01

    In this article we investigate the functional effects of ambivalence on decision-making processes. We build on the misattribution literature and recent work on ambivalence to propose that individuals who properly identify the causes of their ambivalence (i.e., identified ambivalence) can systematically process relevant situational cues to make more effective decisions. The results of 4 studies demonstrate that individuals experiencing identified ambivalence are less influenced by cognitive biases (i.e., the framing effect, availability bias, and conjunction bias) than individuals experiencing no ambivalence or felt ambivalence. Notably, we find that contextual awareness accounts for the effect of identified ambivalence on decision effectiveness. We then investigate the role of trait self-control as a specific contingency in our model; our results indicate that identified ambivalence leads to effective decisions when individuals are low in trait self-control. Taken together, we advance theory and offer robust, consistent empirical evidence that explains why and how ambivalence can result in functional outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Human Genome Project and Eugenics: Identifying the Impact on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuna, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)

  4. The Human Genome Project and Eugenics: Identifying the Impact on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuna, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)

  5. Real-Time Detection Method And System For Identifying Individual Aerosol Particles

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric Evan; Fergenson, David Philip

    2005-10-25

    A method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are compared against and identified with substantially matching known particle types by producing positive and negative test spectra of an individual aerosol particle using a bipolar single particle mass spectrometer. Each test spectrum is compared to spectra of the same respective polarity in a database of predetermined positive and negative spectra for known particle types and a set of substantially matching spectra is obtained. Finally the identity of the individual aerosol particle is determined from the set of substantially matching spectra by determining a best matching one of the known particle types having both a substantially matching positive spectrum and a substantially matching negative spectrum associated with the best matching known particle type.

  6. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  7. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli.

  8. Daily changes of individual gait patterns identified by means of support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Horst, F; Kramer, F; Schäfer, B; Eekhoff, A; Hegen, P; Nigg, B M; Schöllhorn, W I

    2016-09-01

    Despite the common knowledge about the individual character of human gait patterns and about their non-repeatability, little is known about their stability, their interactions and their changes over time. Variations of gait patterns are typically described as random deviations around a stable mean curve derived from groups, which appear due to noise or experimental insufficiencies. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of intrinsic inter-session variability in more detail by proving separable characteristics of gait patterns between individuals as well as within individuals in repeated measurement sessions. Eight healthy subjects performed 15 gait trials at a self-selected speed on eight days within two weeks. For each trial, the time-continuous ground reaction forces and lower body kinematics were quantified. A total of 960 gait patterns were analysed by means of support vector machines and the coefficient of multiple correlation. The results emphasise the remarkable amount of individual characteristics in human gait. Support vector machines results showed an error-free assignment of gait patterns to the corresponding individual. Thus, differences in gait patterns between individuals seem to be persistent over two weeks. Within the range of individual gait patterns, day specific characteristics could be distinguished by classification rates of 97.3% and 59.5% for the eight-day classification of lower body joint angles and ground reaction forces, respectively. Hence, gait patterns can be assumed not to be constant over time and rather exhibit discernible daily changes within previously stated good repeatability. Advantages for more individual and situational diagnoses or therapy are identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of discriminant proteins through antibody profiling, methods and apparatus for identifying an individual

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Gentillon, Cynthia A; Apel, William A

    2015-03-03

    A method for determining a plurality of proteins for discriminating and positively identifying an individual based from a biological sample. The method may include profiling a biological sample from a plurality of individuals against a protein array including a plurality of proteins. The protein array may include proteins attached to a support in a preselected pattern such that locations of the proteins are known. The biological sample may be contacted with the protein array such that a portion of antibodies in the biological sample reacts with and binds to the proteins forming immune complexes. A statistical analysis method, such as discriminant analysis, may be performed to determine discriminating proteins for distinguishing individuals. Proteins of interest may be used to form a protein array. Such a protein array may be used, for example, to compare a forensic sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source.

  10. Identification of discriminant proteins through antibody profiling, methods and apparatus for identifying an individual

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Gentillon, Cynthia A.

    2016-08-09

    A method for determining a plurality of proteins for discriminating and positively identifying an individual based from a biological sample. The method may include profiling a biological sample from a plurality of individuals against a protein array including a plurality of proteins. The protein array may include proteins attached to a support in a preselected pattern such that locations of the proteins are known. The biological sample may be contacted with the protein array such that a portion of antibodies in the biological sample reacts with and binds to the proteins forming immune complexes. A statistical analysis method, such as discriminant analysis, may be performed to determine discriminating proteins for distinguishing individuals. Proteins of interest may be used to form a protein array. Such a protein array may be used, for example, to compare a forensic sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source.

  11. SNP-microarrays can accurately identify the presence of an individual in complex forensic DNA mixtures.

    PubMed

    Voskoboinik, Lev; Ayers, Sheri B; LeFebvre, Aaron K; Darvasi, Ariel

    2015-05-01

    Common forensic and mass disaster scenarios present DNA evidence that comprises a mixture of several contributors. Identifying the presence of an individual in such mixtures has proven difficult. In the current study, we evaluate the practical usefulness of currently available "off-the-shelf" SNP microarrays for such purposes. We found that a set of 3000 SNPs specifically selected for this purpose can accurately identify the presence of an individual in complex DNA mixtures of various compositions. For example, individuals contributing as little as 5% to a complex DNA mixture can be robustly identified even if the starting DNA amount was as little as 5.0ng and had undergone whole-genome amplification (WGA) prior to SNP analysis. The work presented in this study represents proof-of-principle that our previously proposed approach, can work with real "forensic-type" samples. Furthermore, in the absence of a low-density focused forensic SNP microarray, the use of standard, currently available high-density SNP microarrays can be similarly used and even increase statistical power due to the larger amount of available information.

  12. The highly influential teacher: recognising our unsung heroes.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Lars; Swigris, Rachel; Weil, Amy; Branch, William T

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the roles, characteristics and contributions to the educational process of highly influential teachers described retrospectively by faculty members who were former medical students and trainees. The authors collected 20 appreciative inquiry narratives from a convenience sample of 22 faculty members (91% collection rate) at three medical schools that had volunteered to participate in a year-long programme of faculty development in humanism in medicine. The faculty members wrote narratives in response to the prompt: 'Write about your most influential teacher.' The four authors performed qualitative analysis of the 20 narratives using the constant comparison method to identify the characteristics of influential teachers. Particular relational features with their learners explain the profound influences of these teachers on the professional development of their learners. All influential teachers shared qualities of excellence in teaching and nearly all were described as caring, generous and selfless in their relationships with learners. Highly influential teachers have no official roles, yet appear to profoundly influence the professional development of many learners at various stages of the educational process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Influential Observations on Multiple Regression Analysis on Human Resource Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid A.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Burnett, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A case study of learning transfer demonstrates the possible effect of influential observation on linear regression analysis. A diagnostic method that tests for violation of assumptions, multicollinearity, and individual and multiple influential observations helps determine which observation to delete to eliminate bias. (SK)

  14. The risk of re-identification versus the need to identify individuals in rare disease research

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Mats G; Lochmüller, Hanns; Riess, Olaf; Schaefer, Franz; Orth, Michael; Rubinstein, Yaffa; Molster, Caron; Dawkins, Hugh; Taruscio, Domenica; Posada, Manuel; Woods, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing concern in the ethics literature and among policy makers that de-identification or coding of personal data and biospecimens is not sufficient for protecting research subjects from privacy invasions and possible breaches of confidentiality due to the possibility of unauthorized re-identification. At the same time, there is a need in medical science to be able to identify individual patients. In particular for rare disease research there is a special and well-documented need for research collaboration so that data and biosamples from multiple independent studies can be shared across borders. In this article, we identify the needs and arguments related to de-identification and re-identification of patients and research subjects and suggest how the different needs may be balanced within a framework of using unique encrypted identifiers. PMID:27222291

  15. Absence of influential spreaders in rumor dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-02-01

    Recent research [Kitsak, Gallos, Havlin, Liljeros, Muchnik, Stanley, and Makse, Nature Physics1745-247310.1038/nphys1746 6, 888 (2010)] has suggested that coreness, and not degree, constitutes a better topological descriptor to identify influential spreaders in complex networks. This hypothesis has been verified in the context of disease spreading. Here, we instead focus on rumor spreading models, which are more suited for social contagion and information propagation. To this end, we perform extensive computer simulations on top of several real-world networks and find opposite results. Namely, we show that the spreading capabilities of the nodes do not depend on their k-core index, which instead determines whether or not a given node prevents the diffusion of a rumor to a system-wide scale. Our findings are relevant both for sociological studies of contagious dynamics and for the design of efficient commercial viral processes.

  16. Ranking influential spreaders is an ill-defined problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jain; Lee, Sungmin; Saramäki, Jari; Holme, Petter

    2017-06-01

    Finding influential spreaders of information and disease in networks is an important theoretical problem, and one of considerable recent interest. It has been almost exclusively formulated as a node-ranking problem —methods for identifying influential spreaders output a ranking of the nodes. In this work, we show that such a greedy heuristic does not necessarily work: the set of most influential nodes depends on the number of nodes in the set. Therefore, the set of n most important nodes to vaccinate does not need to have any node in common with the set of n + 1 most important nodes. We propose a method for quantifying the extent and impact of this phenomenon. By this method, we show that it is a common phenomenon in both empirical and model networks.

  17. Who Are the Most Influential Emergency Physicians on Twitter?

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Jeff; Brown, Alisha; Kovic, Ivor; Jauregui, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Twitter has recently gained popularity in emergency medicine (EM). Opinion leaders on Twitter have significant influence on the conversation and content, yet little is known about these opinion leaders. We aimed to describe a methodology to identify the most influential emergency physicians (EP) on Twitter and present a current list. Methods We analyzed 2,234 English-language EPs on Twitter from a previously published list of Twitter accounts generated by a snowball sampling technique. Using NodeXL software, we performed a network analysis of these EPs and ranked them on three measures of influence: in-degree centrality, eigenvector centrality, and betweenness centrality. We analyzed the top 100 users in each of these three measures of influence and compiled a list of users found in the top 100 in all three measures. Results Of the 300 total users identified by one of the measures of influence, there were 142 unique users. Of the 142 unique users, 61 users were in the top 100 on all three measures of influence. We identify these 61 users as the most influential EM Twitter users. Conclusion We both describe a method for identifying the most influential users and provide a list of the 61 most influential EPs on Twitter as of January 1, 2016. This application of network science to the EM Twitter community can guide future research to better understand the networked global community of EM. PMID:28210365

  18. Analysis of individual cells identifies cell-to-cell variability following induction of cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Christopher D; Flynn, James M; Morrissey, Christapher; Lebofsky, Ronald; Shuga, Joe; Dong, Xiao; Unger, Marc A; Vijg, Jan; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Senescent cells play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and aging. In all cases, however, senescent cells comprise only a small fraction of tissues. Senescent phenotypes have been studied largely in relatively homogeneous populations of cultured cells. In vivo, senescent cells are generally identified by a small number of markers, but whether and how these markers vary among individual cells is unknown. We therefore utilized a combination of single-cell isolation and a nanofluidic PCR platform to determine the contributions of individual cells to the overall gene expression profile of senescent human fibroblast populations. Individual senescent cells were surprisingly heterogeneous in their gene expression signatures. This cell-to-cell variability resulted in a loss of correlation among the expression of several senescence-associated genes. Many genes encoding senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, a major contributor to the effects of senescent cells in vivo, showed marked variability with a subset of highly induced genes accounting for the increases observed at the population level. Inflammatory genes in clustered genomic loci showed a greater correlation with senescence compared to nonclustered loci, suggesting that these genes are coregulated by genomic location. Together, these data offer new insights into how genes are regulated in senescent cells and suggest that single markers are inadequate to identify senescent cells in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Identifying Effective Methods for Teaching Sex Education to Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, Dilana; Kok, Gerjo; Stoffelen, Joke M. T.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Sex education for individuals with intellectual disabilities is important. However, our knowledge about effective methods for teaching sex education to this population is limited. We report the results of a systematic review identifying methods for sex education programs aimed at individuals with intellectual disabilities. In all, 20 articles were included that met the criteria set in terms of topic—the effectiveness of sex education programs—and population of interest—individuals with intellectual disabilities. In these articles, methods for increasing knowledge and for improving skills and attitudes were reported. However, the studies revealed that generalization of skills to real-life situations was often not achieved. There are indications that the maintenance of knowledge and skills still needs extra attention. Moreover, detailed descriptions of the program materials, program goals, and methods used in the programs were often lacking in the reports. Although there is some evidence for methods that may improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to sex education aimed at individuals with intellectual disabilities, due to the lack of detailed descriptions provided it is unclear under which conditions these methods work. We therefore suggest that authors provide additional detail about methods in future publications or in online supplements. PMID:25085114

  20. Identifying effective methods for teaching sex education to individuals with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Dilana; Kok, Gerjo; Stoffelen, Joke M T; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2015-01-01

    Sex education for individuals with intellectual disabilities is important. However, our knowledge about effective methods for teaching sex education to this population is limited. We report the results of a systematic review identifying methods for sex education programs aimed at individuals with intellectual disabilities. In all, 20 articles were included that met the criteria set in terms of topic--the effectiveness of sex education programs--and population of interest--individuals with intellectual disabilities. In these articles, methods for increasing knowledge and for improving skills and attitudes were reported. However, the studies revealed that generalization of skills to real-life situations was often not achieved. There are indications that the maintenance of knowledge and skills still needs extra attention. Moreover, detailed descriptions of the program materials, program goals, and methods used in the programs were often lacking in the reports. Although there is some evidence for methods that may improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to sex education aimed at individuals with intellectual disabilities, due to the lack of detailed descriptions provided it is unclear under which conditions these methods work. We therefore suggest that authors provide additional detail about methods in future publications or in online supplements.

  1. Effects of chronic low level lead exposure on the physiology of individually identifiable neurons.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T

    1983-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to lead has been correlated with a variety of behavioral and neurochemical deficits in humans and other mammals, little is known of the mechanisms of action of chronic lead at the level of the individual nerve cell. We have used the individually identifiable neurons of the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a model system to investigate the effects of chronic low level (5 microM) lead exposure on neuronal physiology. Thirteen neuronal parameters were measured with intracellular microelectrode recording in each of six different identifiable neurons or homogeneous neuron clusters. Results were analyzed by a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). MANOVA analysis indicates that there is a significant overall effect of lead exposure (p = 0.0001) and a significant interaction between lead and neuron type (p = 0.01). In most neuron types, chronic lead causes an increase in the resting potential, a slowing of recovery of the membrane potential after the undershoot of a spike, a decrease in spontaneous spiking activity, and a decrease in the input resistance. Lead also has differential effects on identifiable neurons, depressing excitability in some neuron types while not altering excitability in others.

  2. Evaluation of non-invasive screening measures to identify individuals with prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwood, Karl K; Kramer, Mary Kaye; Miller, Rachel G.; Arena, Vincent C.; Kriska, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Because blood-based screening to identify those with prediabetes to take part in Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) translation efforts can be costly and time-consuming, non-invasive methods are needed. The aims of this paper are to evaluate the ability of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk test in identifying individuals with prediabetes, as well as the use of body composition measures for this purpose. In addition the utility of these alternate methods to ascertain the presence of the metabolic syndrome was assessed. Methods Potential participants were recruited from a worksite and three community centers to take part in a DPP translation study. Participants completed onsite screening where anthropometric measures, fasting lipids and glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were assessed. Those with a BMI ≥24kg/m2 and prediabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome were eligible to participate. Non-invasive screening methods were evaluated for their ability to identify those with prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome based on clinically measured values. Results All non-invasive methods were highly sensitive (68.9% to 98.5%) in the detection of prediabetes, but specificity was low (6.7% to 44.5%). None of the alternatives evaluated achieved acceptable discrimination levels in ROC analysis. Similar results were noted in identifying the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The non-invasive methods evaluated in this study effectively identify participants with prediabetes, but would also allow for enrollment of a large number of individuals who do not have prediabetes. Deciding whether to use these alternatives, blood-based measures, or a combination of both will ultimately depend on the purpose of the program and the level of flexibility regarding participant eligibility. PMID:25441924

  3. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles (“fingerprints”), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  4. Multiple diagnostic techniques identify previously vaccinated individuals with protective immunity against monkeypox.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W; Carter, Shirley V; Amanna, Ian; Hansen, Scott G; Strelow, Lisa I; Wong, Scott W; Yoshihara, Paul; Hanifin, Jon M; Slifka, Mark K

    2005-09-01

    Approximately 50% of the US population received smallpox vaccinations before routine immunization ceased in 1972 for civilians and in 1990 for military personnel. Several studies have shown long-term immunity after smallpox vaccination, but skepticism remains as to whether this will translate into full protection against the onset of orthopoxvirus-induced disease. The US monkeypox outbreak of 2003 provided the opportunity to examine this issue. Using independent and internally validated diagnostic approaches with >or=95% sensitivity and >or=90% specificity for detecting clinical monkeypox infection, we identified three previously unreported cases of monkeypox in preimmune individuals at 13, 29 and 48 years after smallpox vaccination. These individuals were unaware that they had been infected because they were spared any recognizable disease symptoms. Together, this shows that the US monkeypox outbreak was larger than previously realized and, more importantly, shows that cross-protective antiviral immunity against West African monkeypox can potentially be maintained for decades after smallpox vaccination.

  5. A novel FUT1 allele was identified in a Chinese individual with para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Tao, S; Ying, Y; Hong, X; He, Y; Zhu, F; Lv, H; Yan, L

    2011-12-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype is characterised by H-deficient or H partially deficient red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals who secrete ABH antigens in their saliva. Samples from an individual whose RBCs had an apparent para-Bombay phenotype and his family members were investigated and a novel FUT1 allele was identified. RBCs' phenotype was characterised by standard serologic technique. Genomic DNA was sequenced with primers that amplified the coding sequence of FUT1 and FUT2, respectively. Routine ABO genotyping analysis was performed. Haplotypes of FUT1 were identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. Recombination expression vectors of FUT1 mutation alleles were constructed and transfected into COS-7 cells. The pα-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activity of expression protein was determined. B101/O02 genotype of the proband was correlated with ABH substances in saliva. The proband carried a new FUT1 allele which showed 35C/T, 235G/C and 682A/G heterozygote by directly DNA sequencing. Two haplotypes, 235C and 35T+682G, were identified by TOPO cloning sequencing and COS-7 cells transfected with five recombination vectors including wild-type, 35T, 235C, 682G and 35T+682G alleles were established respectively. The α-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activities of cell lysates which had transfected with 35T, 235C, 682G and 35T+682G recombination vectors showed 79·45, 16·23, 80·32 and 24·59%, respectively, compared with that of the wild-type FUT1-transfected cell lysates. A novel FUT1 allele 235C was identified, which greatly diminished the activity of α-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase Genotype Identifies Individuals Less Susceptible to Bias in Computer-Assisted Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; de Visser, Ewart; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Greenwood, Pamela M.

    2012-01-01

    Computerized aiding systems can assist human decision makers in complex tasks but can impair performance when they provide incorrect advice that humans erroneously follow, a phenomenon known as “automation bias.” The extent to which people exhibit automation bias varies significantly and may reflect inter-individual variation in the capacity of working memory and the efficiency of executive function, both of which are highly heritable and under dopaminergic and noradrenergic control in prefrontal cortex. The dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) gene is thought to regulate the differential availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in prefrontal cortex. We therefore examined decision-making performance under imperfect computer aiding in 100 participants performing a simulated command and control task. Based on two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of the DBH gene, −1041 C/T (rs1611115) and 444 G/A (rs1108580), participants were divided into groups of low and high DBH enzyme activity, where low enzyme activity is associated with greater dopamine relative to norepinephrine levels in cortex. Compared to those in the high DBH enzyme activity group, individuals in the low DBH enzyme activity group were more accurate and speedier in their decisions when incorrect advice was given and verified automation recommendations more frequently. These results indicate that a gene that regulates relative prefrontal cortex dopamine availability, DBH, can identify those individuals who are less susceptible to bias in using computerized decision-aiding systems. PMID:22761865

  7. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV−) and co-infected (HIV+) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV− individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV+ individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV− TB, 0.95 for HIV+ TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  8. Expressed Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Horseradish Peroxidase Identifies Co-Clustering Molecules in Individual Lipid Raft Domains

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa-Yamaguchi, Arisa; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts that are enriched in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins serve as a platform for important biological events. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these events, identification of co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains is required. Here we describe an approach to this issue using the recently developed method termed enzyme-mediated activation of radical source (EMARS), by which molecules in the vicinity within 300 nm from horseradish peroxidase (HRP) set on the probed molecule are labeled. GPI-anchored HRP fusion proteins (HRP-GPIs), in which the GPI attachment signals derived from human decay accelerating factor and Thy-1 were separately connected to the C-terminus of HRP, were expressed in HeLa S3 cells, and the EMARS reaction was catalyzed by these expressed HRP-GPIs under a living condition. As a result, these different HRP-GPIs had differences in glycosylation and localization and formed distinct clusters. This novel approach distinguished molecular clusters associated with individual GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that it can identify co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains. PMID:24671047

  9. Foundations of identifying individual chromosomes by imaging flow cytometry with applications in radiation biodosimetry.

    PubMed

    Beaton-Green, Lindsay A; Rodrigues, Matthew A; Lachapelle, Sylvie; Wilkins, Ruth C

    2017-01-01

    Biodosimetry is an important tool for triage in the case of large-scale radiological or nuclear emergencies, but traditional microscope-based methods can be tedious and prone to scorer fatigue. While the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) has been adapted for use in triage situations, it is still time-consuming to create and score slides. Recent adaptations of traditional biodosimetry assays to imaging flow cytometry (IFC) methods have dramatically increased throughput. Additionally, recent improvements in image analysis algorithms in the IFC software have resulted in improved specificity for spot counting of small events. In the IFC method for the dicentric chromosome analysis (FDCA), lymphocytes isolated from whole blood samples are cultured with PHA and Colcemid. After incubation, lymphocytes are treated with a hypotonic solution and chromosomes are isolated in suspension, labelled with a centromere marker and stained for DNA content with DRAQ5. Stained individual chromosomes are analyzed on the ImageStream®(X) (EMD-Millipore, Billerica, MA) and mono- and dicentric chromosome populations are identified and enumerated using advanced image processing techniques. Both the preparation of the isolated chromosome suspensions as well as the image analysis methods were fine-tuned in order to optimize the FDCA. In this paper we describe the method to identify and score centromeres in individual chromosomes by IFC and show that the FDCA method may further improve throughput for triage biodosimetry in the case of large-scale radiological or nuclear emergencies.

  10. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Individuals from a Founder Population Identifies Candidate Genes for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catarina D.; Mohajeri, Kiana; Malig, Maika; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Nelson, Benjamin; Du, Gaixin; Patterson, Kristen M.; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Hu, Donglei; Herman, Catherine; Chong, Jessica X.; Ko, Arthur; O'Roak, Brian J.; Krumm, Niklas; Vives, Laura; Lee, Choli; Roth, Lindsey A.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Thyne, Shannon; Jackson, Daniel J.; Gern, James E.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Shendure, Jay; Abney, Mark; Burchard, Esteban G.; Ober, Carole; Eichler, Evan E.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. We sought to test classes of genetic variants largely missed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including copy number variants (CNVs) and low-frequency variants, by performing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 16 individuals from asthma-enriched and asthma-depleted families. The samples were obtained from an extended 13-generation Hutterite pedigree with reduced genetic heterogeneity due to a small founding gene pool and reduced environmental heterogeneity as a result of a communal lifestyle. We sequenced each individual to an average depth of 13-fold, generated a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants, and tested the most severe mutations for association with asthma. We identified and validated 1960 CNVs, 19 nonsense or splice-site single nucleotide variants (SNVs), and 18 insertions or deletions that were out of frame. As follow-up, we performed targeted sequencing of 16 genes in 837 cases and 540 controls of Puerto Rican ancestry and found that controls carry a significantly higher burden of mutations in IL27RA (2.0% of controls; 0.23% of cases; nominal p = 0.004; Bonferroni p = 0.21). We also genotyped 593 CNVs in 1199 Hutterite individuals. We identified a nominally significant association (p = 0.03; Odds ratio (OR) = 3.13) between a 6 kbp deletion in an intron of NEDD4L and increased risk of asthma. We genotyped this deletion in an additional 4787 non-Hutterite individuals (nominal p = 0.056; OR = 1.69). NEDD4L is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells, and conditional knockout of this gene in the lung in mice leads to severe inflammation and mucus accumulation. Our study represents one of the early instances of applying WGS to complex disease with a large environmental component and demonstrates how WGS can identify risk variants, including CNVs and low-frequency variants, largely untested in GWAS. PMID:25116239

  11. Whole-genome sequencing of individuals from a founder population identifies candidate genes for asthma.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catarina D; Mohajeri, Kiana; Malig, Maika; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Nelson, Benjamin; Du, Gaixin; Patterson, Kristen M; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G; Hu, Donglei; Herman, Catherine; Chong, Jessica X; Ko, Arthur; O'Roak, Brian J; Krumm, Niklas; Vives, Laura; Lee, Choli; Roth, Lindsey A; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A; Thyne, Shannon; Jackson, Daniel J; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Shendure, Jay; Abney, Mark; Burchard, Esteban G; Ober, Carole; Eichler, Evan E

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. We sought to test classes of genetic variants largely missed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including copy number variants (CNVs) and low-frequency variants, by performing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 16 individuals from asthma-enriched and asthma-depleted families. The samples were obtained from an extended 13-generation Hutterite pedigree with reduced genetic heterogeneity due to a small founding gene pool and reduced environmental heterogeneity as a result of a communal lifestyle. We sequenced each individual to an average depth of 13-fold, generated a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants, and tested the most severe mutations for association with asthma. We identified and validated 1960 CNVs, 19 nonsense or splice-site single nucleotide variants (SNVs), and 18 insertions or deletions that were out of frame. As follow-up, we performed targeted sequencing of 16 genes in 837 cases and 540 controls of Puerto Rican ancestry and found that controls carry a significantly higher burden of mutations in IL27RA (2.0% of controls; 0.23% of cases; nominal p = 0.004; Bonferroni p = 0.21). We also genotyped 593 CNVs in 1199 Hutterite individuals. We identified a nominally significant association (p = 0.03; Odds ratio (OR) = 3.13) between a 6 kbp deletion in an intron of NEDD4L and increased risk of asthma. We genotyped this deletion in an additional 4787 non-Hutterite individuals (nominal p = 0.056; OR = 1.69). NEDD4L is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells, and conditional knockout of this gene in the lung in mice leads to severe inflammation and mucus accumulation. Our study represents one of the early instances of applying WGS to complex disease with a large environmental component and demonstrates how WGS can identify risk variants, including CNVs and low-frequency variants, largely untested in GWAS.

  12. Alternative ankle-brachial index method identifies additional at-risk individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nead, Kevin T.; Cooke, John P.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether utilization of an alternative ankle-brachial index (ABI) calculation method improves mortality risk prediction compared to traditional methods. Background The ABI is used to diagnose peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to identify those at risk for cardiovascular events. Traditionally, the ABI is calculated using the higher of the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial ankle arteries. Studies directly comparing calculation methods are limited. Methods The ABI was calculated at baseline in 1,413 study participants undergoing non-emergent coronary angiography subsequently followed for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. There were 224 individuals assigned to the traditional-PAD group (ABI < 0.90) using the traditional ABI method. Of those remaining, an alternative ABI method utilizing the lower of the two ankle pressures assigned 282 patients to the alternative-PAD group. The 862 individuals not assigned to PAD by either method were the no-PAD group. Results There were 163 mortalities during a median follow-up of 5.0 years. Adjusted Cox regression models showed that the alternative-PAD group had an increased risk for all-cause (HR=1.49; 95% CI, 1.01-2.19) and cardiovascular mortality (HR=3.21; 95% CI, 1.53-6.37) versus the no-PAD group. Additionally, in the no-PAD group, there was an 11% (HR=1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17) increased risk of all-cause mortality per 1mm Hg increased difference between the left and right brachial systolic pressures. Conclusion The implementation of an alternative ABI method and use of the brachial difference identifies individuals at an increased risk for mortality who are currently missed using traditional ABI methods. Current ABI protocols may need to be evaluated. PMID:23707317

  13. Community centrality for node's influential ranking in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Biao; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Yang, Kai-Xue; Liu, Ming-Zhe

    2014-10-01

    Some tiny party of influential nodes may highly affect spread of information in complex networks. For the case of very high time complexity in the shortest path computation of global centralities, making use of local community centrality to identify influential nodes is an open and possible problem. Compared to degree and local centralities, a five-heartbeat forward community centrality is proposed in this paper, in which a five-step induced sub-graph of certain node in the network will be achieved. Next, we induce the minimal spanning tree (MMT) of the sub-graph. Finally, we take the sum of all weights of the MMT as community centrality measurement that needs to be the influential ranking of the node. We use the susceptible, infected and recovered (SIR) model to evaluate the performance of this method on several public test network data and explore the forward steps of community centrality by experiments. Simulative results show that our method with five steps can identify the influential ranking of nodes in complex network as well.

  14. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is “predicting” who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. Methods: A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Results: Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P < 0.001); and FIRST ≥ 18 (sensitivity 62%; specificity 67%; OR = 3.32, P < 0.001). Notably, both FIRST cut-points outperformed known maternal (OR = 1.49–1.59, P < 0.01) and paternal history (P = NS) in predicting insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST < 16: 37 min; FIRST < 18: 44 min); these groups did not differ on any other sleep parameters. Conclusions: The current study established a cost- and time-effective strategy for identifying individuals at elevated risk for insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts

  15. Using Clinical Classification Trees to Identify Individuals At Risk of STDs During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Lewis, Jessica; Westdahl, Claire; Wang, Yun F.; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Massey, Zohar; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT Few studies have used classification tree analysis to produce empirically driven decision tools that identify subgroups of women at risk of STDs during pregnancy. Such tools can guide care, treatment and prevention efforts in clinical settings. METHODS A sample of 647 women aged 14−25 attending two urban obstetrics and gynecology clinics in 2001−2004 were surveyed in their second and third trimesters. Baseline predictors at the individual, dyad, and family and community levels were used to develop a classification tree that differentiated subgroups of women by STD incidence at 35 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess whether the classification tree groups or commonly used risk factors better predicted STD incidence. RESULTS Nineteen percent of women had an incident STD during pregnancy. Classification tree analysis identified three subgroups with a high STD incidence (33−61%), one with a moderate incidence (16%) and three with a low incidence (6−11%). Women in subgroups with high STD incidence included those not living with the partner with whom they conceived and those who had a moderate or a high level of depression, a history of STDs and a low level of social support. A logistic regression model using groups defined by the classification tree analysis had better predictive ability than one using common demographic and sexual risk predictors. CONCLUSION This classification tree identified risk factors not captured by traditional risk screenings, and could be used to guide STD treatment, care and prevention within the prenatal care setting. PMID:17845525

  16. Detecting influential observations in nonlinear regression modeling of groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear regression is used to estimate optimal parameter values in models of groundwater flow to ensure that differences between predicted and observed heads and flows do not result from nonoptimal parameter values. Parameter estimates can be affected, however, by observations that disproportionately influence the regression, such as outliers that exert undue leverage on the objective function. Certain statistics developed for linear regression can be used to detect influential observations in nonlinear regression if the models are approximately linear. This paper discusses the application of Cook's D, which measures the effect of omitting a single observation on a set of estimated parameter values, and the statistical parameter DFBETAS, which quantifies the influence of an observation on each parameter. The influence statistics were used to (1) identify the influential observations in the calibration of a three-dimensional, groundwater flow model of a fractured-rock aquifer through nonlinear regression, and (2) quantify the effect of omitting influential observations on the set of estimated parameter values. Comparison of the spatial distribution of Cook's D with plots of model sensitivity shows that influential observations correspond to areas where the model heads are most sensitive to certain parameters, and where predicted groundwater flow rates are largest. Five of the six discharge observations were identified as influential, indicating that reliable measurements of groundwater flow rates are valuable data in model calibration. DFBETAS are computed and examined for an alternative model of the aquifer system to identify a parameterization error in the model design that resulted in overestimation of the effect of anisotropy on horizontal hydraulic conductivity.

  17. Platelet-Related Variants Identified by Exomechip Meta-analysis in 157,293 Individuals.

    PubMed

    Eicher, John D; Chami, Nathalie; Kacprowski, Tim; Nomura, Akihiro; Chen, Ming-Huei; Yanek, Lisa R; Tajuddin, Salman M; Schick, Ursula M; Slater, Andrew J; Pankratz, Nathan; Polfus, Linda; Schurmann, Claudia; Giri, Ayush; Brody, Jennifer A; Lange, Leslie A; Manichaikul, Ani; Hill, W David; Pazoki, Raha; Elliot, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Gao, He; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Mathias, Rasika A; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Burt, Amber; Crosslin, David R; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nikus, Kjell; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Kähönen, Mika; Raitoharju, Emma; Mononen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Lehtimäki, Terho; Cushman, Mary; Zakai, Neil A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Raffield, Laura M; Quarells, Rakale; Willer, Cristen J; Peloso, Gina M; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Liu, Dajiang J; Deloukas, Panos; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Fornage, Myriam; Richard, Melissa; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Rioux, John D; Dube, Marie-Pierre; de Denus, Simon; Lu, Yingchang; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Smith, Albert Vernon; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Torstenson, Eric S; Liu, Yongmei; Tracy, Russell P; Rotter, Jerome I; Rich, Stephen S; Highland, Heather M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Li, Jin; Lange, Ethan; Wilson, James G; Mihailov, Evelin; Mägi, Reedik; Hirschhorn, Joel; Metspalu, Andres; Esko, Tõnu; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Nalls, Mike A; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Engström, Gunnar; Orho-Melander, Marju; Melander, Olle; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Waterworth, Dawn M; Wallentin, Lars; White, Harvey D; Floyd, James S; Bartz, Traci M; Rice, Kenneth M; Psaty, Bruce M; Starr, J M; Liewald, David C M; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Greinacher, Andreas; Völker, Uwe; Thiele, Thomas; Völzke, Henry; van Rooij, Frank J A; Uitterlinden, André G; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas; Edwards, Todd L; Ganesh, Santhi K; Kathiresan, Sekar; Faraday, Nauder; Auer, Paul L; Reiner, Alex P; Lettre, Guillaume; Johnson, Andrew D

    2016-07-07

    Platelet production, maintenance, and clearance are tightly controlled processes indicative of platelets' important roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelets are common targets for primary and secondary prevention of several conditions. They are monitored clinically by complete blood counts, specifically with measurements of platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV). Identifying genetic effects on PLT and MPV can provide mechanistic insights into platelet biology and their role in disease. Therefore, we formed the Blood Cell Consortium (BCX) to perform a large-scale meta-analysis of Exomechip association results for PLT and MPV in 157,293 and 57,617 individuals, respectively. Using the low-frequency/rare coding variant-enriched Exomechip genotyping array, we sought to identify genetic variants associated with PLT and MPV. In addition to confirming 47 known PLT and 20 known MPV associations, we identified 32 PLT and 18 MPV associations not previously observed in the literature across the allele frequency spectrum, including rare large effect (FCER1A), low-frequency (IQGAP2, MAP1A, LY75), and common (ZMIZ2, SMG6, PEAR1, ARFGAP3/PACSIN2) variants. Several variants associated with PLT/MPV (PEAR1, MRVI1, PTGES3) were also associated with platelet reactivity. In concurrent BCX analyses, there was overlap of platelet-associated variants with red (MAP1A, TMPRSS6, ZMIZ2) and white (PEAR1, ZMIZ2, LY75) blood cell traits, suggesting common regulatory pathways with shared genetic architecture among these hematopoietic lineages. Our large-scale Exomechip analyses identified previously undocumented associations with platelet traits and further indicate that several complex quantitative hematological, lipid, and cardiovascular traits share genetic factors.

  18. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is "predicting" who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P < 0.001); and FIRST ≥ 18 (sensitivity 62%; specificity 67%; OR = 3.32, P < 0.001). Notably, both FIRST cut-points outperformed known maternal (OR = 1.49-1.59, P < 0.01) and paternal history (P = NS) in predicting insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST < 16: 37 min; FIRST < 18: 44 min); these groups did not differ on any other sleep parameters. The current study established a cost- and time-effective strategy for identifying individuals at elevated risk for insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Real-time detection method and system for identifying individual aerosol particles

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric E.; Coffee, Keith R.; Frank, Matthias; Tobias, Herbert J.; Fergenson, David P.; Madden, Norm; Riot, Vincent J.; Steele, Paul T.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2007-08-21

    An improved method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are collimated, tracked, and screened to determine which ones qualify for mass spectrometric analysis based on predetermined qualification or selection criteria. Screening techniques include one or more of determining particle size, shape, symmetry, and fluorescence. Only qualifying particles passing all screening criteria are subject to desorption/ionization and single particle mass spectrometry to produce corresponding test spectra, which is used to determine the identities of each of the qualifying aerosol particles by comparing the test spectra against predetermined spectra for known particle types. In this manner, activation cycling of a particle ablation laser of a single particle mass spectrometer is reduced.

  20. Structural attributes of individual trees for identifying homogeneous patches in a tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Cici; Korstjens, Amanda H.; Hill, Ross A.

    2017-03-01

    Mapping and monitoring tropical rainforests and quantifying their carbon stocks are important, both for devising strategies for their conservation and mitigating the effects of climate change. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) has advantages over other remote sensing techniques for describing the three-dimensional structure of forests. This study identifies forest patches using ALS-based structural attributes in a tropical rainforest in Sumatra, Indonesia. A method to group trees with similar attributes into forest patches based on Thiessen polygons and k-medoids clustering is developed, combining the advantages of both raster and individual tree-based methods. The structural composition of the patches could be an indicator of habitat type and quality. The patches could also be a basis for developing allometric models for more accurate estimation of carbon stock than is currently possible with generalised models.

  1. Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J C; Ibrahim-Verbaas, C A; Harold, D; Naj, A C; Sims, R; Bellenguez, C; DeStafano, A L; Bis, J C; Beecham, G W; Grenier-Boley, B; Russo, G; Thorton-Wells, T A; Jones, N; Smith, A V; Chouraki, V; Thomas, C; Ikram, M A; Zelenika, D; Vardarajan, B N; Kamatani, Y; Lin, C F; Gerrish, A; Schmidt, H; Kunkle, B; Dunstan, M L; Ruiz, A; Bihoreau, M T; Choi, S H; Reitz, C; Pasquier, F; Cruchaga, C; Craig, D; Amin, N; Berr, C; Lopez, O L; De Jager, P L; Deramecourt, V; Johnston, J A; Evans, D; Lovestone, S; Letenneur, L; Morón, F J; Rubinsztein, D C; Eiriksdottir, G; Sleegers, K; Goate, A M; Fiévet, N; Huentelman, M W; Gill, M; Brown, K; Kamboh, M I; Keller, L; Barberger-Gateau, P; McGuiness, B; Larson, E B; Green, R; Myers, A J; Dufouil, C; Todd, S; Wallon, D; Love, S; Rogaeva, E; Gallacher, J; St George-Hyslop, P; Clarimon, J; Lleo, A; Bayer, A; Tsuang, D W; Yu, L; Tsolaki, M; Bossù, P; Spalletta, G; Proitsi, P; Collinge, J; Sorbi, S; Sanchez-Garcia, F; Fox, N C; Hardy, J; Deniz Naranjo, M C; Bosco, P; Clarke, R; Brayne, C; Galimberti, D; Mancuso, M; Matthews, F; Moebus, S; Mecocci, P; Del Zompo, M; Maier, W; Hampel, H; Pilotto, A; Bullido, M; Panza, F; Caffarra, P; Nacmias, B; Gilbert, J R; Mayhaus, M; Lannefelt, L; Hakonarson, H; Pichler, S; Carrasquillo, M M; Ingelsson, M; Beekly, D; Alvarez, V; Zou, F; Valladares, O; Younkin, S G; Coto, E; Hamilton-Nelson, K L; Gu, W; Razquin, C; Pastor, P; Mateo, I; Owen, M J; Faber, K M; Jonsson, P V; Combarros, O; O'Donovan, M C; Cantwell, L B; Soininen, H; Blacker, D; Mead, S; Mosley, T H; Bennett, D A; Harris, T B; Fratiglioni, L; Holmes, C; de Bruijn, R F; Passmore, P; Montine, T J; Bettens, K; Rotter, J I; Brice, A; Morgan, K; Foroud, T M; Kukull, W A; Hannequin, D; Powell, J F; Nalls, M A; Ritchie, K; Lunetta, K L; Kauwe, J S; Boerwinkle, E; Riemenschneider, M; Boada, M; Hiltuenen, M; Martin, E R; Schmidt, R; Rujescu, D; Wang, L S; Dartigues, J F; Mayeux, R; Tzourio, C; Hofman, A; Nöthen, M M; Graff, C; Psaty, B M; Jones, L; Haines, J L; Holmans, P A; Lathrop, M; Pericak-Vance, M A; Launer, L J; Farrer, L A; van Duijn, C M; Van Broeckhoven, C; Moskvina, V; Seshadri, S; Williams, J; Schellenberg, G D; Amouyel, P

    2013-12-01

    Eleven susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) were identified by previous studies; however, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. We conducted a large, two-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In stage 1, we used genotyped and imputed data (7,055,881 SNPs) to perform meta-analysis on 4 previously published GWAS data sets consisting of 17,008 Alzheimer's disease cases and 37,154 controls. In stage 2, 11,632 SNPs were genotyped and tested for association in an independent set of 8,572 Alzheimer's disease cases and 11,312 controls. In addition to the APOE locus (encoding apolipoprotein E), 19 loci reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) in the combined stage 1 and stage 2 analysis, of which 11 are newly associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Identifying and Tracking Individual Updraft Cores using Cluster Analysis: A TWP-ICE case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Tao, W.; Collis, S. M.; Varble, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cumulus parameterizations in GCMs depend strongly on the vertical velocity structures of convective updraft cores, or plumes. There hasn't been an accurate way of identifying these cores. The majority of previous studies treat the updraft as a single grid column entity, thus missing many intrinsic characteristics, e.g., the size, strength and spatial orientation of an individual core, its life cycle, and the time variations of the entrainment/detrainment rates associated with its life cycle. In this study, we attempt to apply an innovative algorithm based on the centroid-based k-means cluster analysis to improve our understanding of convection and its associated updraft cores. Both 3-D Doppler radar retrievals and cloud-resolving model simulations of a TWP-ICE campaign case during the monsoon period will be used to test and improve this algorithm. This will provide for more in-depth comparisons between CRM simulations and observations that were not possible previously using the traditional piecewise analysis with each updraft column. The first step is to identify the strongest cores (maximum velocity >10 m/s), since they are well defined and produce definite answers when the cluster analysis algorithm is applied. The preliminary results show that the radar retrieved updraft cores are smaller in size and with the maximum velocity located uniformly at higher levels compared with model simulations. Overall, the model simulations produce much stronger cores compared with the radar retrievals. Within the model simulations, the bulk microphysical scheme simulation produces stronger cores than the spectral bin microphysical scheme. Planned researches include using high temporal-resolution simulations to further track the life cycle of individual updraft cores and study their characteristics.

  3. [Predicting individual risk of high healthcare cost to identify complex chronic patients].

    PubMed

    Coderch, Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Ibern, Pere; Carreras, Marc; Pérez-Berruezo, Xavier; Inoriza, José M

    2014-01-01

    To develop a predictive model for the risk of high consumption of healthcare resources, and assess the ability of the model to identify complex chronic patients. A cross-sectional study was performed within a healthcare management organization by using individual data from 2 consecutive years (88,795 people). The dependent variable consisted of healthcare costs above the 95th percentile (P95), including all services provided by the organization and pharmaceutical consumption outside of the institution. The predictive variables were age, sex, morbidity-based on clinical risk groups (CRG)-and selected data from previous utilization (use of hospitalization, use of high-cost drugs in ambulatory care, pharmaceutical expenditure). A univariate descriptive analysis was performed. We constructed a logistic regression model with a 95% confidence level and analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Individuals incurring costs >P95 accumulated 44% of total healthcare costs and were concentrated in ACRG3 (aggregated CRG level 3) categories related to multiple chronic diseases. All variables were statistically significant except for sex. The model had a sensitivity of 48.4% (CI: 46.9%-49.8%), specificity of 97.2% (CI: 97.0%-97.3%), PPV of 46.5% (CI: 45.0%-47.9%), and an AUC of 0.897 (CI: 0.892 to 0.902). High consumption of healthcare resources is associated with complex chronic morbidity. A model based on age, morbidity, and prior utilization is able to predict high-cost risk and identify a target population requiring proactive care. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    PubMed

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypo-osmotic swelling test identifies individual spermatozoa with minimal DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Stanger, James D; Vo, Long; Yovich, John L; Almahbobi, Ghanim

    2010-10-01

    One concern during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is that selected spermatozoa may have increased levels of DNA damage; however, the available testing for this is largely destructive in nature and therefore unsuitable as a tool for sperm selection. One alternative selection process that has previously achieved pregnancies is the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). This study reports that low HOST values of neat semen samples were significantly (P<0.001) associated with increased DNA damage identified by the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) from the sperm chromatin structure assay as well as the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The HOST value was highly predictive of an abnormal DFI value by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (P<0.001). Furthermore, when individual spermatozoa were assessed for both HOST status and DNA fragmentation by TUNEL, the key HOST-induced tail-swelling grades D, E and F were most commonly associated with high HOST values and were significantly (P<0.001) associated with minimal DNA damage regardless of the DNA status of the ejaculate. The application of HOST may be a valuable tool in the routine identification and selection of viable, DNA-intact individual spermatozoa for ICSI after further research to demonstrate its efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Periodontal findings in individuals with newly identified pre-diabetes or diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lamster, Ira B; Cheng, Bin; Burkett, Sandra; Lalla, Evanthia

    2014-11-01

    To assess the periodontal status and number of missing teeth in patients with newly identified pre-diabetes or diabetes mellitus. A total of 1097 subjects with previously undiagnosed diabetes were available for study, and were categorized into normoglycaemic, potentially pre-diabetes or potentially diabetes groups based on a point-of-care (POC) HbA1c test. In fully adjusted models, significant differences were observed between all groups for the per cent of teeth with at least one site with a probing depth of ≥5 mm. For bleeding on probing, there were significant differences between diabetes and pre-diabetes (p = 0.001), and between diabetes and normoglycaemic groups (p = 0.002). For missing teeth, there were significant differences between the pre-diabetes and normoglycaemic groups (p = 0.034), and the diabetes and normoglycaemic groups (p = 0.004). Individuals with previously unidentified pre-diabetes demonstrate a level of periodontal destruction between that observed for normoglycaemic individuals and persons with diabetes. These data emphasize the association of oral findings to dysglycaemia, and suggest that periodontal disease and tooth loss can be early complications of diabetes mellitus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Simulating Future Changes in Spatio-temporal Precipitation by Identifying and Characterizing Individual Rainstorm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Stein, M.; Wang, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Moyer, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that human-induced climate change may cause significant changes in precipitation patterns, which could in turn influence future flood levels and frequencies and water supply and management practices. Although climate models produce full three-dimensional simulations of precipitation, analyses of model precipitation have focused either on time-averaged distributions or on individual timeseries with no spatial information. We describe here a new approach based on identifying and characterizing individual rainstorms in either data or model output. Our approach enables us to readily characterize important spatio-temporal aspects of rainstorms including initiation location, intensity (mean and patterns), spatial extent, duration, and trajectory. We apply this technique to high-resolution precipitation over the continental U.S. both from radar-based observations (NCEP Stage IV QPE product, 1-hourly, 4 km spatial resolution) and from model runs with dynamical downscaling (WRF regional climate model, 3-hourly, 12 km spatial resolution). In the model studies we investigate the changes in storm characteristics under a business-as-usual warming scenario to 2100 (RCP 8.5). We find that in these model runs, rainstorm intensity increases as expected with rising temperatures (approximately 7%/K, following increased atmospheric moisture content), while total precipitation increases by a lesser amount (3%/K), consistent with other studies. We identify for the first time the necessary compensating mechanism: in these model runs, individual precipitation events become smaller. Other aspects are approximately unchanged in the warmer climate. Because these spatio-temporal changes in rainfall patterns would impact regional hydrology, it is important that they be accurately incorporated into any impacts assessment. For this purpose we have developed a methodology for producing scenarios of future precipitation that combine observational data and

  8. Advancing training to identify, intervene, and follow up with individuals at risk for suicide through research.

    PubMed

    Osteen, Philip J; Frey, Jodi J; Ko, Jungyai

    2014-09-01

    Research and training on suicide is critical given the fact that the majority of suicide deaths are preventable with accurate identification of risk and intervention by trained individuals. However, implementing and evaluating training is difficult because of the multiple factors involved, including, but not limited to, the heterogeneity of trainees, their diverse roles in suicide prevention, absence of clear guidelines for training content across settings, and limited methods for assessing outcomes. Here, three groups of trainees are discussed: community and professional gatekeepers and behavioral health providers. The roles each group plays in managing suicide risk and the training content it needs to be effective are addressed. A staged training approach is proposed, building on the core components of currently used suicide training: knowledge, attitudes, and skills/behaviors. Limitations of current assessment methods are identified and recommendations for alternative methods are provided. The article concludes with a discussion of next steps in moving the field forward, including overcoming challenges and identifying and engaging opportunities. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative Evaluation of an Instrument to Identify Chronic Pain in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Andrew O.; Chamot, Eric; Saag, Michael; Walcott, Melonie; Ritchie, Christine; Kertesz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A method to rapidly identify the presence of chronic pain would enhance the care of HIV-infected individuals, but such an instrument has not been assessed in this population to date. We assessed the construct validity of the two-question Brief Chronic Pain Questionnaire (BCPQ) in HIV-infected patients by assessing the association between BCPQ responses and known correlates of chronic pain. Participants in the University of Alabama Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort completed the BCPQ, along with the EuroQOL to assess physical function, the PHQ-9 to assess depression, and the PHQ-anxiety module to assess anxiety. Among 100 participants, 25% were female, the mean age was 45 (SD 12), 63% were African American, 27% were publicly insured, the median CD4+ T cell count was 572 cells/mm3 (IQR 307–788), and 82% had an undetectable viral load. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to have impaired mobility (43% vs. 12%, p=0.001), difficulty with usual activities (47% vs. 12%, p<0.001), lower overall health state (70 vs. 84, p=0.002), pain today (80% vs. 27%, p<0.001), depression (30% vs. 15%, p=0.10), and anxiety (43% vs. 10%, p<0.001) than those without chronic pain. This study provides preliminary evidence for the BCPQ as a brief questionnaire to identify the presence of chronic pain in HIV care settings. PMID:25693683

  10. Influential input classification in probabilistic multimedia models

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Dennis P.H.; Geng, Shu

    1999-05-01

    Monte Carlo analysis is a statistical simulation method that is often used to assess and quantify the outcome variance in complex environmental fate and effects models. Total outcome variance of these models is a function of (1) the uncertainty and/or variability associated with each model input and (2) the sensitivity of the model outcome to changes in the inputs. To propagate variance through a model using Monte Carlo techniques, each variable must be assigned a probability distribution. The validity of these distributions directly influences the accuracy and reliability of the model outcome. To efficiently allocate resources for constructing distributions one should first identify the most influential set of variables in the model. Although existing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods can provide a relative ranking of the importance of model inputs, they fail to identify the minimum set of stochastic inputs necessary to sufficiently characterize the outcome variance. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a novel sensitivity/uncertainty analysis method for assessing the importance of each variable in a multimedia environmental fate model. Our analyses show that for a given scenario, a relatively small number of input variables influence the central tendency of the model and an even smaller set determines the shape of the outcome distribution. For each input, the level of influence depends on the scenario under consideration. This information is useful for developing site specific models and improving our understanding of the processes that have the greatest influence on the variance in outcomes from multimedia models.

  11. Micro-Spectroscopic Chemical Imaging of Individual Identified Marine Biogenic and Ambient Organic Ice Nuclei (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, D. A.; Alpert, P. A.; Wang, B.; OBrien, R. E.; Moffet, R. C.; Aller, J. Y.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation represents one of the least understood atmospheric processes with important implications for the hydrological cycle and climate. Current freezing descriptions assume that ice active sites on the particle surface initiate ice nucleation, however, the nature of these sites remains elusive. Here, we present a new experimental method that allows us to relate physical and chemical properties of individual particles with observed water uptake and ice nucleation ability using a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical techniques. We apply this method to field-collected particles and particles generated via bursting of bubbles produced by glass frit aeration and plunging water impingement jets in a mesocosm containing artificial sea water and bacteria and/or phytoplankton. The most efficient ice nuclei (IN) within a particle population are identified and characterized. Single particle characterization is achieved by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. A vapor controlled cooling-stage coupled to an optical microscope is used to determine the onsets of water uptake, immersion freezing, and deposition ice nucleation of the individual particles as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. In addition, we perform CCSEM/EDX to obtain on a single particle level the elemental composition of the entire particle population. Thus, we can determine if the IN are exceptional in nature or belong to a major particle type class with respect to composition and size. We find that ambient and sea spray particles are coated by organic material and can induce ice formation under tropospheric relevant conditions. Micro-spectroscopic single particle analysis of the investigated particle samples invokes a potential

  12. ISCCP Cloud Properties Associated with Standard Cloud Types Identified in Individual Surface Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Carole J.; Rossow, William B.; Warren, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Individual surface weather observations from land stations and ships are compared with individual cloud retrievals of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), Stage C1, for an 8-year period (1983-1991) to relate cloud optical thicknesses and cloud-top pressures obtained from satellite data to the standard cloud types reported in visual observations from the surface. Each surface report is matched to the corresponding ISCCP-C1 report for the time of observation for the 280x280-km grid-box containing that observation. Classes of the surface reports are identified in which a particular cloud type was reported present, either alone or in combination with other clouds. For each class, cloud amounts from both surface and C1 data, base heights from surface data, and the frequency-distributions of cloud-top pressure (p(sub c) and optical thickness (tau) from C1 data are averaged over 15-degree latitude zones, for land and ocean separately, for 3-month seasons. The frequency distribution of p(sub c) and tau is plotted for each of the surface-defined cloud types occurring both alone and with other clouds. The average cloud-top pressures within a grid-box do not always correspond well with values expected for a reported cloud type, particularly for the higher clouds Ci, Ac, and Cb. In many cases this is because the satellites also detect clouds within the grid-box that are outside the field of view of the surface observer. The highest average cloud tops are found for the most extensive cloud type, Ns, averaging 7 km globally and reaching 9 km in the ITCZ. Ns also has the greatest average retrieved optical thickness, tau approximately equal 20. Cumulonimbus clouds may actually attain far greater heights and depths, but do not fill the grid-box. The tau-p(sub c) distributions show features that distinguish the high, middle, and low clouds reported by the surface observers. However, the distribution patterns for the individual low cloud types (Cu, Sc, St

  13. How to engage small retail businesses in workplace violence prevention: Perspectives from small businesses and influential organizations.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-06-01

    Small retail businesses experience high robbery and violent crime rates leading to injury and death. Workplace violence prevention programs (WVPP) based on Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design reduce this risk, but low small business participation limits their effectiveness. Recent dissemination models of occupational safety and health information recommend collaborating with an intermediary organization to engage small businesses. Qualitative interviews with 70 small business operators and 32 representatives of organizations with small business influence were conducted to identify factors and recommendations for improving dissemination of a WVPP. Both study groups recommended promoting WVPPs through personal contacts but differed on other promotion methods and the type of influential groups to target. Small business operators indicated few connections to formal business networks. Dissemination of WVPPs to small businesses may require models inclusive of influential individuals (e.g., respected business owners) as intermediaries to reach small businesses with few formal connections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identifying individuals with antisocial personality disorder using resting-state FMRI.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Jiang, Weixiong; Liao, Jian; Wang, Wei; Luo, Aijing

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is closely connected to criminal behavior. A better understanding of functional connectivity in the brains of ASPD patients will help to explain abnormal behavioral syndromes and to perform objective diagnoses of ASPD. In this study we designed an exploratory data-driven classifier based on machine learning to investigate changes in functional connectivity in the brains of patients with ASPD using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in 32 subjects with ASPD and 35 controls. The results showed that the classifier achieved satisfactory performance (86.57% accuracy, 77.14% sensitivity and 96.88% specificity) and could extract stabile information regarding functional connectivity that could be used to discriminate ASPD individuals from normal controls. More importantly, we found that the greatest change in the ASPD subjects was uncoupling between the default mode network and the attention network. Moreover, the precuneus, superior parietal gyrus and cerebellum exhibited high discriminative power in classification. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed and showed that the gray matter volumes in the parietal lobule and white matter volumes in the precuneus were abnormal in ASPD compared to controls. To our knowledge, this study was the first to use resting-state fMRI to identify abnormal functional connectivity in ASPD patients. These results not only demonstrated good performance of the proposed classifier, which can be used to improve the diagnosis of ASPD, but also elucidate the pathological mechanism of ASPD from a resting-state functional integration viewpoint.

  15. Risk Assessment Tools for Identifying Individuals at Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Buijsse, Brian; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Griffin, Simon J.; Schulze, Matthias B.

    2011-01-01

    Trials have demonstrated the preventability of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modifications or drugs in people with impaired glucose tolerance. However, alternative ways of identifying people at risk of developing diabetes are required. Multivariate risk scores have been developed for this purpose. This article examines the evidence for performance of diabetes risk scores in adults by 1) systematically reviewing the literature on available scores and 2) their validation in external populations; and 3) exploring methodological issues surrounding the development, validation, and comparison of risk scores. Risk scores show overall good discriminatory ability in populations for whom they were developed. However, discriminatory performance is more heterogeneous and generally weaker in external populations, which suggests that risk scores may need to be validated within the population in which they are intended to be used. Whether risk scores enable accurate estimation of absolute risk remains unknown; thus, care is needed when using scores to communicate absolute diabetes risk to individuals. Several risk scores predict diabetes risk based on routine noninvasive measures or on data from questionnaires. Biochemical measures, in particular fasting plasma glucose, can improve prediction of such models. On the other hand, usefulness of genetic profiling currently appears limited. PMID:21622851

  16. The accuracy of the functional movement screen to identify individuals with an elevated risk of musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Kirk; Flanagan, Molly; Bruner, Josh; Durall, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Injuries are somewhat commonplace in highly active populations. One strategy for reducing injuries is to identify individuals with an elevated injury risk before participation so that remediative interventions can be provided. Preparticipation screenings have traditionally entailed strength and flexibility measures thought to be indicative of inflated injury risk. Some researchers, however, have suggested that functional movements/tasks should be assessed to help identify individuals with a high risk of future injury. One assessment tool used for this purpose is the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). The FMS generates a numeric score based on performance attributes during 7 dynamic tasks; this score is purported to reflect future injury risk. Expanding interest in the FMS has led researchers to investigate how accurately it can identify individuals with an increased risk of injury. Can the Functional Movement Screen accurately identify highly active individuals with an elevated risk of injury?

  17. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  18. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  19. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, technological, and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption of a commercial product by an opinion leader in a social network may change its fate or just a few superspreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of the SIR model, we prove that the recently introduced nonbacktracking centrality is the optimal criterion for the identification of influential spreaders in locally tree-like networks at criticality. By means of simulations on synthetic networks and on a very extensive set of real-world networks, we show that the nonbacktracking centrality is a highly reliable metric to identify top influential spreaders also in generic graphs not embedded in space and for noncritical spreading.

  20. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, technological, and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption of a commercial product by an opinion leader in a social network may change its fate or just a few superspreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of the SIR model, we prove that the recently introduced nonbacktracking centrality is the optimal criterion for the identification of influential spreaders in locally tree-like networks at criticality. By means of simulations on synthetic networks and on a very extensive set of real-world networks, we show that the nonbacktracking centrality is a highly reliable metric to identify top influential spreaders also in generic graphs not embedded in space and for noncritical spreading.

  1. Chromic and iron oxides as fecal markers to identify individual whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Megan E.; Doyle, Robert; Chandler, Jane N.; Olsen, Glenn H.; French, John B.; Wildt, David E; Converse, Sarah J.; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin; Aborn, David; Urbanek, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is listed as endangered under the IUCN Red List, the United States Endangered Species Act, and the Canadian Species at Risk Act (BirdLife International 2012, CWS and USFWS 2007). A major focus of recovery efforts for this endangered species is reintroduction to establish new populations (CWS and USFWS 2007). Captive populations are critical as a source of individuals for reintroduction efforts and also serve as insurance populations. Currently, there are a total of 157 whooping cranes held in captive breeding centers across North America, with the largest at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) in Laurel, Maryland. Birds produced in this facility are currently being released as part of efforts to establish the Eastern Migratory Population (EMP, Urbanek et al. 2005) and in an effort to establish a non-migratory population in Louisiana. In the past decade, PWRC has produced and released annually an average of 18 birds into the wild; however, reproductive performance of birds at this facility is lower than desired. PWRC had a 60% fertility rate for eggs laid from 2000 through 2010 (J. N. Chandler, personal communication, 2011). Furthermore, reproductive onset in this captive population appears to be delayed compared to wild populations. In wild populations, reproductive onset (production of sperm and eggs) normally occurs ~5 years of age in both males and females, ~2 years after initial pair formation occurs (Ellis et al., 1996), while some females in the EMP have laid eggs earlier than 5 years of age (Converse et al. 2011). However, PWRC females in some cases do not start to lay eggs until 7 years of age (Mirande et al. 1996). Currently, the PWRC population consists of a total of 74 whooping cranes, including 22 pairs. Six of these pairs (27%) are consistently infertile (i.e., no production of fertile eggs) and 3 other pairs (14%) have low fertility (30- 45% fertility in eggs laid), which is variable from year to year

  2. Identifying Two Groups of Entitled Individuals: Cluster Analysis Reveals Emotional Stability and Self-Esteem Distinction.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Michael L; LoPilato, Alexander C; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-12-01

    The present study hypothesized that there exist two distinct groups of entitled individuals: grandiose-entitled, and vulnerable-entitled. Self-report scores of entitlement were collected for 916 individuals using an online platform. Model-based cluster analyses were conducted on the individuals with scores one standard deviation above mean (n = 159) using the five-factor model dimensions as clustering variables. The results support the existence of two groups of entitled individuals categorized as emotionally stable and emotionally vulnerable. The emotionally stable cluster reported emotional stability, high self-esteem, more positive affect, and antisocial behavior. The emotionally vulnerable cluster reported low self-esteem and high levels of neuroticism, disinhibition, conventionality, psychopathy, negative affect, childhood abuse, intrusive parenting, and attachment difficulties. Compared to the control group, both clusters reported being more antagonistic, extraverted, Machiavellian, and narcissistic. These results suggest important differences are missed when simply examining the linear relationships between entitlement and various aspects of its nomological network.

  3. 25 CFR 162.011 - How does a prospective lessee identify and contact individual Indian landowners to negotiate a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a prospective lessee identify and contact... How does a prospective lessee identify and contact individual Indian landowners to negotiate a lease? (a) Prospective lessees may submit a written request to us to obtain the following information....

  4. Enabling Teachers to Explore Grade Patterns to Identify Individual Needs and Promote Fairer Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedler, Sorelle A.; Tan, Yee Lin; Peer, Nir J.; Shneiderman, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Exploring student test, homework, and other assessment scores is a challenge for most teachers, especially when attempting to identify cross-assessment weaknesses and produce final course grades. During the course, teachers need to identify subject weaknesses in order to help students who are struggling with a particular topic. This identification…

  5. Meta-analysis of 375,000 individuals identifies 38 susceptibility loci for migraine

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, Padhraig; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Palta, Priit; Esko, Tonu; Pers, Tune H.; Farh, Kai-How; Cuenca-Leon, Ester; Muona, Mikko; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Kurth, Tobias; Ingason, Andres; McMahon, George; Ligthart, Lannie; Terwindt, Gisela M; Kallela, Mikko; Freilinger, Tobias M; Ran, Caroline; Gordon, Scott G; Stam, Anine H; Steinberg, Stacy; Borck, Guntram; Koiranen, Markku; Quaye, Lydia; Adams, Hieab HH; Lehtimäki, Terho; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Wedenoja, Juho; Hinds, David A; Buring, Julie E; Schürks, Markus; Ridker, Paul M; Hrafnsdottir, Maria Gudlaug; Stefansson, Hreinn; Ring, Susan M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Färkkilä, Markus; Artto, Ville; Kaunisto, Mari; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Malik, Rainer; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kurki, Mitja I; Kals, Mart; Mägi, Reedik; Pärn, Kalle; Hämäläinen, Eija; Huang, Hailiang; Byrnes, Andrea E; Franke, Lude; Huang, Jie; Stergiakouli, Evie; Lee, Phil H; Sandor, Cynthia; Webber, Caleb; Cader, Zameel; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schreiber, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Eriksson, Johan G; Salomaa, Veikko; Heikkilä, Kauko; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Cherkas, Lynn; Pedersen, Linda M.; Stubhaug, Audun; Nielsen, Christopher S; Männikkä, Minna; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Göbel, Hartmut; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Christensen, Anne Francke; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Werge, Thomas; Kaprio, Jaakko; Aromaa, Arpo J; Raitakari, Olli; Ikram, M Arfan; Spector, Tim; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Metspalu, Andres; Kubisch, Christian; Strachan, David P; Ferrari, Michel D; Belin, Andrea C; Dichgans, Martin; Wessman, Maija; van den Maagdenberg, Arn MJM; Zwart, John-Anker; Boomsma, Dorret I; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Eriksson, Nicholas; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Olesen, Jes; Chasman, Daniel I; Nyholt, Dale R; Palotie, Aarno

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting around 1 in 7 people worldwide, but its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Some debate exists over whether migraine is a disease of vascular dysfunction or a result of neuronal dysfunction with secondary vascular changes. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 13 independent loci associated with migraine. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed the largest genetic study of migraine to date, comprising 59,674 cases and 316,078 controls from 22 GWA studies. We identified 44 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with migraine risk (P < 5 × 10−8) that map to 38 distinct genomic loci, including 28 loci not previously reported and the first locus identified on chromosome X. In subsequent computational analyses, the identified loci showed enrichment for genes expressed in vascular and smooth muscle tissues, consistent with a predominant theory of migraine that highlights vascular etiologies. PMID:27322543

  6. Using Administrative Health Data to Identify Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison of Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, E.; Balogh, R.; Cobigo, V.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Wilton, A. S.; Lunsky, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high rates of physical and mental health problems; yet their health care is often inadequate. Information about their characteristics and health services needs is critical for planning efficient and equitable services. A logical source of such information is…

  7. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Phobic Avoidance in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather K.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature regarding the treatment of phobic avoidance in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for classifying interventions as empirically supported, developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, were used. For…

  8. Conceptualizing Masculinity in Female-to-Male Trans-Identified Individuals: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegter, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    A non-normative gender identity raises questions concerning widely accepted theories of gender that prevail in Western society. These theories are founded upon dichotomous models of gender identity that are posited as having a direct relationship to binary biological sex. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how individuals who…

  9. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Pica in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Rolider, Natalie U.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to critically examine the existing literature on the treatment of pica displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for empirically supported treatments as described by Divisions 12 and 16 of APA, and adapted for studies employing single-case designs were used to review this body of…

  10. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Phobic Avoidance in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather K.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature regarding the treatment of phobic avoidance in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for classifying interventions as empirically supported, developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, were used. For…

  11. Identifying Individual Differences among Doctoral Candidates: A Framework for Understanding Problematic Candidature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.; Bourke, Sid; Holbrook, Allyson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how candidates cope with the demands of PhD candidature is important for institutions, supervisors and candidates. Individual differences in affective and metacognitive disposition were explored in 263 PhD candidates from two Australian universities. Several questionnaires relating to affective and metacognitive beliefs were…

  12. 75 FR 42487 - Supplementary Identifying Information of Previously-Designated Individual, Foreign Narcotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Individual, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury... interests in property continue to be blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  13. Conceptualizing Masculinity in Female-to-Male Trans-Identified Individuals: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegter, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    A non-normative gender identity raises questions concerning widely accepted theories of gender that prevail in Western society. These theories are founded upon dichotomous models of gender identity that are posited as having a direct relationship to binary biological sex. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how individuals who…

  14. Using Administrative Health Data to Identify Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison of Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, E.; Balogh, R.; Cobigo, V.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Wilton, A. S.; Lunsky, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high rates of physical and mental health problems; yet their health care is often inadequate. Information about their characteristics and health services needs is critical for planning efficient and equitable services. A logical source of such information is…

  15. Enhanced understanding of predator-prey relationships using molecular methods to identify predator species, individual and sex.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Soulliere, Colleen E; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2014-01-01

    Predator species identification is an important step in understanding predator-prey interactions, but predator identifications using kill site observations are often unreliable. We used molecular tools to analyse predator saliva, scat and hair from caribou calf kills in Newfoundland, Canada to identify the predator species, individual and sex. We sampled DNA from 32 carcasses using cotton swabs to collect predator saliva. We used fragment length analysis and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA to distinguish between coyote, black bear, Canada lynx and red fox and used nuclear DNA microsatellite analysis to identify individuals. We compared predator species detected using molecular tools to those assigned via field observations at each kill. We identified a predator species at 94% of carcasses using molecular methods, while observational methods assigned a predator species to 62.5% of kills. Molecular methods attributed 66.7% of kills to coyote and 33.3% to black bear, while observations assigned 40%, 45%, 10% and 5% to coyote, bear, lynx and fox, respectively. Individual identification was successful at 70% of kills where a predator species was identified. Only one individual was identified at each kill, but some individuals were found at multiple kills. Predator sex was predominantly male. We demonstrate the first large-scale evaluation of predator species, individual and sex identification using molecular techniques to extract DNA from swabs of wild prey carcasses. Our results indicate that kill site swabs (i) can be highly successful in identifying the predator species and individual responsible; and (ii) serve to inform and complement traditional methods.

  16. A Study of the Educationally Influential Physician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David M.; Ryan, Kurt; Hodder, Ian

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 172 family doctors found that they approached educationally influential (EI) physicians they knew through their hospitals; only 20% used e-mail and 40% the Internet for medical information; EI physicians helped extend their knowledge and validate innovations found in the literature; and health care reform was negatively affecting…

  17. Meta-analysis of 375,000 individuals identifies 38 susceptibility loci for migraine.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Padhraig; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Palta, Priit; Esko, Tonu; Pers, Tune H; Farh, Kai-How; Cuenca-Leon, Ester; Muona, Mikko; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Kurth, Tobias; Ingason, Andres; McMahon, George; Ligthart, Lannie; Terwindt, Gisela M; Kallela, Mikko; Freilinger, Tobias M; Ran, Caroline; Gordon, Scott G; Stam, Anine H; Steinberg, Stacy; Borck, Guntram; Koiranen, Markku; Quaye, Lydia; Adams, Hieab H H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Wedenoja, Juho; Hinds, David A; Buring, Julie E; Schürks, Markus; Ridker, Paul M; Hrafnsdottir, Maria Gudlaug; Stefansson, Hreinn; Ring, Susan M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Färkkilä, Markus; Artto, Ville; Kaunisto, Mari; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Malik, Rainer; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kurki, Mitja I; Kals, Mart; Mägi, Reedik; Pärn, Kalle; Hämäläinen, Eija; Huang, Hailiang; Byrnes, Andrea E; Franke, Lude; Huang, Jie; Stergiakouli, Evie; Lee, Phil H; Sandor, Cynthia; Webber, Caleb; Cader, Zameel; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schreiber, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Eriksson, Johan G; Salomaa, Veikko; Heikkilä, Kauko; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Cherkas, Lynn; Pedersen, Linda M; Stubhaug, Audun; Nielsen, Christopher S; Männikkö, Minna; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Göbel, Hartmut; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Christensen, Anne Francke; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Werge, Thomas; Kaprio, Jaakko; Aromaa, Arpo J; Raitakari, Olli; Ikram, M Arfan; Spector, Tim; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Metspalu, Andres; Kubisch, Christian; Strachan, David P; Ferrari, Michel D; Belin, Andrea C; Dichgans, Martin; Wessman, Maija; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Zwart, John-Anker; Boomsma, Dorret I; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Eriksson, Nicholas; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Olesen, Jes; Chasman, Daniel I; Nyholt, Dale R; Palotie, Aarno

    2016-08-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting around one in seven people worldwide, but its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. There is some debate about whether migraine is a disease of vascular dysfunction or a result of neuronal dysfunction with secondary vascular changes. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 13 independent loci associated with migraine. To identify new susceptibility loci, we carried out a genetic study of migraine on 59,674 affected subjects and 316,078 controls from 22 GWA studies. We identified 44 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with migraine risk (P < 5 × 10(-8)) that mapped to 38 distinct genomic loci, including 28 loci not previously reported and a locus that to our knowledge is the first to be identified on chromosome X. In subsequent computational analyses, the identified loci showed enrichment for genes expressed in vascular and smooth muscle tissues, consistent with a predominant theory of migraine that highlights vascular etiologies.

  18. Human papillomavirus types 2, 27, and 57 Identified in plantar verrucae from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals.

    PubMed

    King, Christy M; Johnston, James S; Ofili, Kene; Tam, Maylynn; Palefsky, Joel; Da Costa, Maria; Mathur, Yasha; Barbosa, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Although an increased prevalence of plantar verrucae has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, human papillomavirus (HPV) typing studies have not been published about this patient population. We sought to determine the prevalence of HPV types in plantar verrucae of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals. Thirty-nine plantar verruca lesions in 17 individuals were examined. Nine participants were HIV+ and eight were HIV-. Detection of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction using two sets of primers: MY09/MY11. The type of HPV was determined by hybridization to 38 different HPV types. Clinical types of verrucae were correlated to the HPV strain identified in each lesion. Of the 39 plantar verruca samples, 38 typed to HPV-2, HPV-27, and HPV-57 strains in HIV+ and HIV- individuals. Specifically, a large proportion of the samples from HIV- individuals typed as HPV-27 (87.5%), and HPV-2 was the predominant type identified in HIV+ individuals (50%). No rare or atypical HPV types were found in either group. We identified HPV-2 and HPV-27 in 96% of verruca plantaris clinical type. Mosaic warts typed to HPV-27 and HPV-57, and 80% of punctate verrucae typed to HPV-57. This study presents an increased prevalence of HPV-2, HPV-27, and HPV-57 in plantar verrucae in this study population and provides insight into the occurrence of these types in HIV+ and HIV- individuals.

  19. Identifying and individuating cognitive systems: a task-based distributed cognition alternative to agent-based extended cognition.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jim; Michaelian, Kourken

    2016-08-01

    This article argues for a task-based approach to identifying and individuating cognitive systems. The agent-based extended cognition approach faces a problem of cognitive bloat and has difficulty accommodating both sub-individual cognitive systems ("scaling down") and some supra-individual cognitive systems ("scaling up"). The standard distributed cognition approach can accommodate a wider variety of supra-individual systems but likewise has difficulties with sub-individual systems and faces the problem of cognitive bloat. We develop a task-based variant of distributed cognition designed to scale up and down smoothly while providing a principled means of avoiding cognitive bloat. The advantages of the task-based approach are illustrated by means of two parallel case studies: re-representation in the human visual system and in a biomedical engineering laboratory.

  20. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Paul S.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chen, Ming-Huei; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Steri, Maristella; Tang, Weihong; Teumer, Alexander; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Grossmann, Vera; Hottenga, Jouke J.; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brody, Jennifer A.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Guo, Xiuqing; Wang, Jie Jin; Auer, Paul L.; Attia, John R.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Lahti, Jari; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Joshi, Peter K.; Rocanin-Arjo, Ares; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Rose, Lynda M.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Riess, Helene; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Goel, Anuj; Yang, Qiong; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rumley, Ann; Fiorillo, Edoardo; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Grotevendt, Anne; Scott, Robert; Taylor, Kent D.; Delgado, Graciela E.; Yao, Jie; Kifley, Annette; Kooperberg, Charles; Qayyum, Rehan; Lopez, Lorna M.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Räikkönen, Katri; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Peyser, Patricia A.; Wild, Sarah; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Wright, Alan F.; Marten, Jonathan; Zemunik, Tatijana; Morrison, Alanna C.; Sennblad, Bengt; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Binder, Harald; Völker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Mcknight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Jenny, Nancy S.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Qi, Lihong; Mcevoy, Mark G.; Becker, Diane M.; Starr, John M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Hysi, Pirro G.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Jhun, Min A.; Campbell, Harry; Hamsten, Anders; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Mcardle, Wendy L.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Koenig, Wolfgang; Psaty, Bruce M.; Haritunians, Talin; Liu, Jingmin; Palotie, Aarno; Uitterlinden, André G.; Stott, David J.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Wilson, James F.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hansen, Torben; Deary, Ian J.; Becker, Lewis C.; Scott, Rodney J.; Mitchell, Paul; März, Winfried; Wareham, Nick J.; Peters, Annette; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hayward, Caroline; Cucca, Francesco; Tracy, Russell; Watkins, Hugh; Reiner, Alex P.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Ridker, Paul M.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Strachan, David P.; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 34 studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel and including ∼120 000 participants of European ancestry (95 806 participants with data on the X-chromosome). Approximately 10.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1.2 million indels were examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration. PMID:26561523

  1. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Paul S; Chasman, Daniel I; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chen, Ming-Huei; Huffman, Jennifer E; Steri, Maristella; Tang, Weihong; Teumer, Alexander; Marioni, Riccardo E; Grossmann, Vera; Hottenga, Jouke J; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brody, Jennifer A; Kleber, Marcus E; Guo, Xiuqing; Wang, Jie Jin; Auer, Paul L; Attia, John R; Yanek, Lisa R; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Lahti, Jari; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Bielak, Lawrence F; Joshi, Peter K; Rocanin-Arjo, Ares; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Rose, Lynda M; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Riess, Helene; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Goel, Anuj; Yang, Qiong; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rumley, Ann; Fiorillo, Edoardo; de Craen, Anton J M; Grotevendt, Anne; Scott, Robert; Taylor, Kent D; Delgado, Graciela E; Yao, Jie; Kifley, Annette; Kooperberg, Charles; Qayyum, Rehan; Lopez, Lorna M; Berentzen, Tina L; Räikkönen, Katri; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Peyser, Patricia A; Wild, Sarah; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Wright, Alan F; Marten, Jonathan; Zemunik, Tatijana; Morrison, Alanna C; Sennblad, Bengt; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lowe, Gordon D; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Binder, Harald; Völker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Mcknight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Jenny, Nancy S; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Qi, Lihong; Mcevoy, Mark G; Becker, Diane M; Starr, John M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Hysi, Pirro G; Hernandez, Dena G; Jhun, Min A; Campbell, Harry; Hamsten, Anders; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Mcardle, Wendy L; Slagboom, P Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Koenig, Wolfgang; Psaty, Bruce M; Haritunians, Talin; Liu, Jingmin; Palotie, Aarno; Uitterlinden, André G; Stott, David J; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Wilson, James F; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D; Eriksson, Johan G; Hansen, Torben; Deary, Ian J; Becker, Lewis C; Scott, Rodney J; Mitchell, Paul; März, Winfried; Wareham, Nick J; Peters, Annette; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S; Jukema, J Wouter; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hayward, Caroline; Cucca, Francesco; Tracy, Russell; Watkins, Hugh; Reiner, Alex P; Folsom, Aaron R; Ridker, Paul M; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Smith, Nicholas L; Strachan, David P; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-15

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 34 studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel and including ∼120 000 participants of European ancestry (95 806 participants with data on the X-chromosome). Approximately 10.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1.2 million indels were examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration.

  2. Description of a Practitioner Model for Identifying Preferred Stimuli with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Amanda M.; Carr, James E.; Lepper, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The rich technology of stimulus preference assessment (SPA) is a product of 40 years of experimental research. Basic principles of reinforcement and a modest empirical literature suggest that high-preference stimuli identified via SPA may enhance treatment efficacy and decrease problem behavior more effectively than less-preferred stimuli. SPAs…

  3. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  4. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-arginine, N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD+, and NADP+. Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson’s coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4–2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  5. Environmental effects and individual body condition drive seasonal fecundity of rabbits: identifying acute and lagged processes.

    PubMed

    Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Cooke, Brian D; Mutze, Greg J; Prowse, Thomas A A; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-07-01

    The reproduction of many species is determined by seasonally-driven resource supply. But it is difficult to quantify whether the fecundity is sensitive to short- or long-term exposure to environmental conditions such as rainfall that drive resource supply. Using 25 years of data on individual fecundity of European female rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, from semiarid Australia, we investigate the role of individual body condition, rainfall and temperature as drivers of seasonal and long-term and population-level changes in fecundity (breeding probability, ovulation rate, embryo survival). We built distributed lag models in a hierarchical Bayesian framework to account for both immediate and time-lagged effects of climate and other environmental drivers, and possible shifts in reproduction over consecutive seasons. We show that rainfall during summer, when rabbits typically breed only rarely, increased breeding probability immediately and with time lags of up to 10 weeks. However, an earlier onset of the yearly breeding period did not result in more overall reproductive output. Better body condition was associated with an earlier onset of breeding and higher embryo survival. Breeding probability in the main breeding season declined with increased breeding activity in the preceding season and only individuals in good body condition were able to breed late in the season. Higher temperatures reduce breeding success across seasons. We conclude that a better understanding of seasonal dynamics and plasticity (and their interplay) in reproduction will provide crucial insights into how lagomorphs are likely to respond and potentially adapt to the influence of future climate and other environmental change.

  6. ProMMP-2: TIMP-1 complexes identified in plasma of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Stanley; Schmidt, Cathleen E; Dufour, Antoine; Kaplan, Robert C; Park, Hyun I; Jiang, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    Activation of MMPs in tissues is an important component of tissue injury. Based on earlier reports that (latent) proMMP-2 is incapable of forming a complex with TIMP-1, we reasoned that the identification of MMP-2:TIMP-1 complexes in blood might serve as a surrogate marker ("smoking gun") of MMP-2 activation in tissues. Using specific antibodies, we developed a sensitive and specific assay to detect MMP-2:TIMP-1 complexes. We were perplexed to find that approximate 40% of plasma specimens from healthy individuals had detectable levels of the MMP-2:TIMP-1 complexes. Employing recombinant TIMP-1 bound Sepharose beads and Western blots, we demonstrated binding between recombinant proMMP-2 and TIMP-1 proteins. Recombinant MMP-2 lacking the catalytic domain also bound to TIMP-1 coated beads. These data are consistent with TIMP-1 binding to the hemopexin or hinge domain of proMMP-2. The explanation for the presence of plasma proMMP-2:TIMP-1 complexes in selected healthy individuals remains to be determined. In contrast to our immunoassay and bead-binding experiments, proMMP-2 failed to bind to immobilized TIMP-1 employing surface plasmon resonance technology. Additional studies are needed to clarify these contrasting results.

  7. Engineered domain based assays to identify individual antibodies in oligoclonal combinations targeting the same protein

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Q.; Garcia-Rodriguez, C.; Manzanarez, G.; Silberg, M.A.; Conrad, F.; Bettencourt, J.; Pan, X.; Breece, T.; To, R.; Li, M.; Lee, D.; Thorner, L.; Tomic, M.T.; Marks, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitation of individual mAbs within a combined antibody drug product is required for preclinical and clinical drug development. We have developed two antitoxins (XOMA 3B and XOMA 3E) each consisting of three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize type B and type E botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/B and BoNT/E) to treat serotype B and E botulism. To develop mAb-specific binding assays for each antitoxin, we mapped the epitopes of the six mAbs. Each mAb bound an epitope on either the BoNT light chain (LC) or translocation domain (HN). Epitope mapping data was used to design LC-HN domains with orthogonal mutations to make them specific for only one mAb in either XOMA 3B or 3E. Mutant LC-HN domains were cloned, expressed, and purified from E. coli. Each mAb bound only to its specific domain with affinity comparable to the binding to holotoxin. Further engineering of domains allowed construction of ELISAs that could characterize the integrity, binding affinity, and identity of each of the six mAbs in XOMA 3B, and 3E without interference from the three BoNT/A mAbs in XOMA 3AB. Such antigen engineering is a general method allowing quantitation and characterization of individual mAbs in a mAb cocktail that bind the same protein. PMID:22922799

  8. An apparatus to manipulate and identify individual Ba ions from bulk liquid Xe.

    PubMed

    Twelker, K; Kravitz, S; Montero Díez, M; Gratta, G; Fairbank, W; Albert, J B; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; DeVoe, R; Delaquis, S; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fabris, L; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Hall, C; Heffner, M; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jiang, X S; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Leonard, F; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Ouellet, C; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Retiere, F; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tosi, D; Vuilleumier, J-L; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y-R; Zhao, Y B

    2014-09-01

    We describe a system to transport and identify barium ions produced in liquid xenon, as part of R&D towards the second phase of a double beta decay experiment, nEXO. The goal is to identify the Ba ion resulting from an extremely rare nuclear decay of the isotope (136)Xe, hence providing a confirmation of the occurrence of the decay. This is achieved through Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS). In the test setup described here, Ba ions can be produced in liquid xenon or vacuum and collected on a clean substrate. This substrate is then removed to an analysis chamber under vacuum, where laser-induced thermal desorption and RIS are used with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for positive identification of the barium decay product.

  9. A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION OF SYMPTOMS IN INDIVIDUALS IDENTIFIED AS PRODROMAL TO PSYCHOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Cheryl; Davidson, Larry; Sills-Shahar, Rachel; Nickou, Connie; Malaspina, Dolores; Miller, Tandy; McGlashan, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Because schizophrenia is difficult to treat and exacts large personal and societal costs, there is an effort underway to identify adolescents and young adults at high risk for psychosis. Theory-derived criteria of subthreshold positive symptoms identify a “prodromal” or clinically at-risk population who have conversion rates to psychosis of 40 to 50% within one to two years. However, further characterization of the psychosis prodrome by qualitative research methods could increase the predictive value of the “prodromal” designation. We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 parents of prodromal adolescents that focused on changes observed. The narratives fell into two thematically distinct subgroups, identified as “declining” and “never normal.” The prodromal adolescents described as “declining” had a higher subsequent rate of conversion to psychosis than did the “never normal” group. Although preliminary, these results suggest that a trajectory of change in personality, relationships, and behavior from an essentially normal baseline may be consistent with increased risk for psychosis among prodromal adolescents. PMID:14686457

  10. Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel LEPR mutations in individuals with severe early onset obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard; Cheung, Yee Him; Shen, Yufeng; Lanzano, Patricia; Mirza, Nazrat M.; Ten, Svetlana; Maclaren, Noel K.; Motaghedi, Roja; Han, Joan C.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a major public health problem that increases risk for a broad spectrum of co-morbid conditions. Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to susceptibility to obesity, previous efforts to discover the relevant genes using positional cloning have failed to account for most of the apparent genetic risk variance. Design and Methods Deploying a strategy combining analysis of exome sequencing data in extremely obese members of four consanguineous families with segregation analysis, we screened for causal genetic variants. Filter-based analysis and homozygosity mapping were used to identify and prioritize putative functional variants. Results We identified two novel frameshift mutations in the Leptin Receptor (LEPR) in two of the families. Conclusions These results provide proof-of-principle that whole-exome sequencing of families segregating for extreme obesity can identify causal pathogenic mutations. The methods described here can be extended to additional families segregating for extreme obesity and should enable the identification of mutations in novel genes that predispose to obesity. PMID:23616257

  11. GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; Pourcain, Beate St; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Rooij, Frank JAan; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent SNPs are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (R2 ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈ 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424

  12. GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Medland, Sarah E; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Benke, Kelly S; Bielak, Lawrence F; Boatman, Jeffrey A; Boyle, Patricia A; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J; Petrovic, Katja E; Peyrot, Wouter J; Polasek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P; Rizzi, Thais S; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V; Smith, Jennifer A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiríksdóttir, Guðny; Elderson, Martin F; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E; Grönberg, Henrik; Guðnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Heath, Andrew C; Hernandez, Dena G; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C; Madden, Pamela A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mäkinen, Tomi E; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B; Montgomery, Grant W; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J; Snieder, Harold; St Pourcain, Beate; Starr, John M; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rooij, Frank J A; Van Wagoner, David R; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L R; Krueger, Robert F; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G; Meyer, Michelle N; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2013-06-21

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

  13. Identifying mutation regions for closely related individuals without a known pedigree

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Linkage analysis is the first step in the search for a disease gene. Linkage studies have facilitated the identification of several hundred human genes that can harbor mutations leading to a disease phenotype. In this paper, we study a very important case, where the sampled individuals are closely related, but the pedigree is not given. This situation happens very often when the individuals share a common ancestor 6 or more generations ago. To our knowledge, no algorithm can give good results for this case. Results To solve this problem, we first developed some heuristic algorithms for haplotype inference without any given pedigree. We propose a model using the parsimony principle that can be viewed as an extension of the model first proposed by Dan Gusfield. Our heuristic algorithm uses Clark’s inference rule to infer haplotype segments. Conclusions We ran our program both on the simulated data and a set of real data from the phase II HapMap database. Experiments show that our program performs well. The recall value is from 90% to 99% in various cases. This implies that the program can report more than 90% of the true mutation regions. The value of precision varies from 29% to 90%. When the precision is 29%, the size of the reported regions is three times that of the true mutation region. This is still very useful for narrowing down the range of the disease gene location. Our program can complete the computation for all the tested cases, where there are about 110,000 SNPs on a chromosome, within 20 seconds. PMID:22731852

  14. Identifying Individuals at Risk for Cardiovascular Events Across the Spectrum of Blood Pressure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Kunal N; Ning, Hongyan; Goff, David C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined the proportion of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events that occur across the spectrum of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and assessed whether multivariable risk assessment can identify persons who experience ASCVD events at all levels of SBP, including those with goal levels. Methods and Results Participants aged 45 to 64 years from the Framingham Offspring and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities studies were stratified based on treated and untreated SBP levels (<120, 120 to 129, 130 to 139, 140 to 149, 150 to 159, ≥160 mm Hg). We determined the number of excess ASCVD events in each SBP stratum by calculating the difference between observed and expected events (ASCVD event rate in untreated SBP <120 mm Hg was used as the reference). We categorized participants into 10-year ASCVD risk groups using the Pooled Cohort risk equations. There were 18 898 participants (78% white; 22% black) who were followed for 10 years. We estimated 427 excess ASCVD events, of which 56% (109 of 197) and 50% (115 of 230), respectively, occurred among untreated and treated participants with elevated SBP who were not recommended for antihypertensive therapy. Among untreated participants, 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5% identified 64% of those who experienced an ASCVD at 10 years and 30% of those who did not. Multivariable risk assessment was less useful in baseline-treated participants. Conclusions Half of excess ASCVD events occurred in persons with elevated SBP who were not currently recommended for antihypertensive therapy. Multivariable risk assessment may help identify those likely to benefit from further risk-reducing therapies. These findings support consideration of multivariable risk in guiding prevention across the spectrum of SBP. PMID:26391134

  15. Development of a claims-based risk score to identify obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeanne M; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Bolen, Shari D; Shore, Andrew D; Goodwin, Suzanne M; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2010-08-01

    Obesity is underdiagnosed, hampering system-based health promotion and research. Our objective was to develop and validate a claims-based risk model to identify obese persons using medical diagnosis and prescription records. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of de-identified claims data from enrollees of 3 Blue Cross Blue Shield plans who completed a health risk assessment capturing height and weight. The final sample of 71,057 enrollees was randomly split into 2 subsamples for development and validation of the obesity risk model. Using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups case-mix/predictive risk methodology, we categorized study members' diagnosis (ICD) codes. Logistic regression was used to determine which claims-based risk markers were associated with a body mass index (BMI) > or = 35 kg/m(2). The sensitivities of the scores > or =90(th) percentile to detect obesity were 26% to 33%, while the specificities were >90%. The areas under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.67 to 0.73. In contrast, a diagnosis of obesity or an obesity medication alone had very poor sensitivity (10% and 1%, respectively); the obesity risk model identified an additional 22% of obese members. Varying the percentile cut-point from the 70(th) to the 99(th) percentile resulted in positive predictive values ranging from 15.5 to 59.2. An obesity risk score was highly specific for detecting a BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2) and substantially increased the detection of obese members beyond a provider-coded obesity diagnosis or medication claim. This model could be used for obesity care management and health promotion or for obesity-related research.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of over 106 000 individuals identifies 9 neuroticism-associated loci.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Escott-Price, V; Davies, G; Bailey, M E S; Colodro-Conde, L; Ward, J; Vedernikov, A; Marioni, R; Cullen, B; Lyall, D; Hagenaars, S P; Liewald, D C M; Luciano, M; Gale, C R; Ritchie, S J; Hayward, C; Nicholl, B; Bulik-Sullivan, B; Adams, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Graham, N; Mackay, D; Evans, J; Smith, B H; Porteous, D J; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Holmans, P; McIntosh, A M; Pell, J P; Deary, I J; O'Donovan, M C

    2016-06-01

    Neuroticism is a personality trait of fundamental importance for psychological well-being and public health. It is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and several other psychiatric conditions. Although neuroticism is heritable, attempts to identify the alleles involved in previous studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes. Here we report a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of neuroticism that includes 91 370 participants from the UK Biobank cohort, 6659 participants from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and 8687 participants from a QIMR (Queensland Institute of Medical Research) Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) cohort. All participants were assessed using the same neuroticism instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R-S) Short Form's Neuroticism scale. We found a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate for neuroticism of ∼15% (s.e.=0.7%). Meta-analysis identified nine novel loci associated with neuroticism. The strongest evidence for association was at a locus on chromosome 8 (P=1.5 × 10(-15)) spanning 4 Mb and containing at least 36 genes. Other associated loci included interesting candidate genes on chromosome 1 (GRIK3 (glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 3)), chromosome 4 (KLHL2 (Kelch-like protein 2)), chromosome 17 (CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau)) and on chromosome 18 (CELF4 (CUGBP elav-like family member 4)). We found no evidence for genetic differences in the common allelic architecture of neuroticism by sex. By comparing our findings with those of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortia, we identified a strong genetic correlation between neuroticism and MDD and a less strong but significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia, although not with bipolar disorder. Polygenic risk scores derived from the primary UK Biobank sample captured

  17. Genome-wide analysis of over 106 000 individuals identifies 9 neuroticism-associated loci

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Escott-Price, V; Davies, G; Bailey, M E S; Colodro-Conde, L; Ward, J; Vedernikov, A; Marioni, R; Cullen, B; Lyall, D; Hagenaars, S P; Liewald, D C M; Luciano, M; Gale, C R; Ritchie, S J; Hayward, C; Nicholl, B; Bulik-Sullivan, B; Adams, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Graham, N; Mackay, D; Evans, J; Smith, B H; Porteous, D J; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Holmans, P; McIntosh, A M; Pell, J P; Deary, I J; O'Donovan, M C

    2016-01-01

    Neuroticism is a personality trait of fundamental importance for psychological well-being and public health. It is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and several other psychiatric conditions. Although neuroticism is heritable, attempts to identify the alleles involved in previous studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes. Here we report a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of neuroticism that includes 91 370 participants from the UK Biobank cohort, 6659 participants from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and 8687 participants from a QIMR (Queensland Institute of Medical Research) Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) cohort. All participants were assessed using the same neuroticism instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R-S) Short Form's Neuroticism scale. We found a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate for neuroticism of ∼15% (s.e.=0.7%). Meta-analysis identified nine novel loci associated with neuroticism. The strongest evidence for association was at a locus on chromosome 8 (P=1.5 × 10−15) spanning 4 Mb and containing at least 36 genes. Other associated loci included interesting candidate genes on chromosome 1 (GRIK3 (glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 3)), chromosome 4 (KLHL2 (Kelch-like protein 2)), chromosome 17 (CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau)) and on chromosome 18 (CELF4 (CUGBP elav-like family member 4)). We found no evidence for genetic differences in the common allelic architecture of neuroticism by sex. By comparing our findings with those of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortia, we identified a strong genetic correlation between neuroticism and MDD and a less strong but significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia, although not with bipolar disorder. Polygenic risk scores derived from the primary UK Biobank sample captured

  18. Identifying Attributes of Teacher Leaders within the Advancement via Individual Determination Program: A Survey of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Karen M.; Mills, Shirley J.; Huerta, Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    This study identified what attributes principals believe best exemplify a teacher leader in schools implementing the Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) program and what attributes they take into consideration when selecting an AVID elective teacher. After surveying more than 1,100 principals, we found that principals tended to rate…

  19. Towards precision prevention: Technologies for identifying healthy individuals with high risk of disease.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Zachary D; Engelward, Bevin P; Brenner, David J; Begley, Thomas J; Sobol, Robert W; Bielas, Jason H; Stambrook, Peter J; Wei, Qingyi; Hu, Jennifer J; Terry, Mary Beth; Dilworth, Caroline; McAllister, Kimberly A; Reinlib, Les; Worth, Leroy; Shaughnessy, Daniel T

    2017-08-01

    The rise of advanced technologies for characterizing human populations at the molecular level, from sequence to function, is shifting disease prevention paradigms toward personalized strategies. Because minimization of adverse outcomes is a key driver for treatment decisions for diseased populations, developing personalized therapy strategies represent an important dimension of both precision medicine and personalized prevention. In this commentary, we highlight recently developed enabling technologies in the field of DNA damage, DNA repair, and mutagenesis. We propose that omics approaches and functional assays can be integrated into population studies that fuse basic, translational and clinical research with commercial expertise in order to accelerate personalized prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases linked to aberrant responses to DNA damage. This collaborative approach is generally applicable to efforts to develop data-driven, individualized prevention and treatment strategies for other diseases. We also recommend strategies for maximizing the use of biological samples for epidemiological studies, and for applying emerging technologies to clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying homogenous subgroups for individual patient meta-analysis based on Rough Set Theory.

    PubMed

    Gil-Herrera, Eleazar; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Kumar, Ambuj; Mhaskar, Rahul; Miladinovic, Branko; Yalcin, Ali; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Failure to detect and manage heterogeneity between clinical trials included in meta-analysis may lead to misinterpretation of summary effect estimates. This may ultimately compromise the validity of the results of the meta-analysis. Typically, when heterogeneity between trials is detected, researchers use sensitivity or subgroup analysis to manage it. However, both methods fail to explain why heterogeneity existed in the first place. Here we propose a novel methodology that relies on Rough Set Theory (RST) to detect, explain, and manage the sources of heterogeneity applicable to meta-analysis performed on individual patient data (IPD). The method exploits the RST relations of discernibility and indiscernibility to create homogeneous groups of patients. We applied our methodology on a dataset of 1,111 patients enrolled in 9 randomized controlled trials studying the effect of two transplantation procedures in the management of hematologic malignancies. Our method was able to create three subgroups of patients with remarkably low statistical heterogeneity values (16.8%, 0% and 0% respectively). The proposed methodology has the potential to automatize and standardize the process of detecting and managing heterogeneity in IPD meta-analysis. Future work involves investigating the applications of the proposed methodology in analyzing treatment effects in patients belonging to different risk groups, which will ultimately assist in personalized healthcare decision making.

  1. A novel approach to identifying the elemental composition of individual residue particles retained in single snow crystals.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chang-Jin; Hwang, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to describe the chemical characteristics of individual residual particles in hexagonal snow crystals, which can provide a clue to the aerosol removal mechanism during snowfall. In the present study, to collect snow crystal individually and to identify the elemental composition of individual residues retained in a hexagonal crystal, an orchestration of the replication technique and micro-particle induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) analysis was carried out. Information concerning the elemental compositions and their abundance in the snow crystals showed a severe crystal-to-crystal fluctuation. The residues retained in the hexagonal snow crystals were dominated primarily by mineral components, such as silica and calcium. Based on the elemental mask and the spectrum of micro-PIXE, it was possible to presume the chemical inner-structure as well as the elemental mixing state in and/or on the individual residues retained in single snow crystals.

  2. JK null alleles identified from Japanese individuals with Jk(a−b−) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Onodera, T; Sasaki, K; Tsuneyama, H; Isa, K; Ogasawara, K; Satake, M; Tadokoro, K; Uchikawa, M

    2014-05-01

    The Kidd blood group system consists of three common phenotypes: Jk(a+b−), Jk(a−b+) and Jk(a+b+), and one rare phenotype, Jk(a−b−). Jka/Jkb polymorphism is associated with c.838G>A (p.Asp280Asn) in exon 9 of the JK (SLC14A1) gene, and the corresponding alleles are named JK*01 and JK*02. The rare phenotype Jk(a−b−) was first found in a Filipina of Spanish and Chinese ancestry, and to date, several JK null alleles responsible for the Jk(a−b−) phenotype have been reported. We report seven novel JK null alleles, 4 with a JK*01 background and 3 with a JK*02 background, identified from Jk(a−b−) Japanese.

  3. Predose and Postdose Blood Gene Expression Profiles Identify the Individuals Susceptible to Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Cai; Fan, Xiaohui; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The extent of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can vary greatly between different individuals. Thus, it is crucial to identify susceptible population to DILI. The aim of this study was to determine whether transcriptomics analysis of predose and postdose rat blood would allow prediction of susceptible individuals to DILI using the widely applied analgesic acetaminophen (APAP) as a model drug. Based on ranking in alanine aminotransferase levels, five most susceptible and five most resistant rats were identified as two sub-groups after APAP treatment. Predose and postdose gene expression profiles of blood samples from these rats were determined by microarray analysis. The expression of 158 genes innately differed in the susceptible rats from the resistant rats in predose data. In order to identify more reliable biomarkers related to drug responses for detecting individuals susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury (AILI), the changes of these genes' expression posterior to APAP treatment were detected. Through the further screening method based on the trends of gene expression between the two sub-groups before and after drug treatment, 10 genes were identified as potential predose biomarkers to distinguish between the susceptible and resistant rats. Among them, four genes, Incenp, Rpgrip1, Sbf1, and Mmp12, were found to be reproducibly in real-time PCR with an independent set of animals. They were all innately higher expressed in resistant rats to AILI, which are closely related to cell proliferation and tissue repair functions. It indicated that rats with higher ability of cell proliferation and tissue repair prior to drug treatment might be more resistant to AILI. In this study, we demonstrated that combination of predose and postdose gene expression profiles in blood might identify the drug related inter-individual variation in DILI, which is a novel and important methodology for identifying susceptible population to DILI. PMID:26512990

  4. Investigations of Carotid Stenosis to Identify Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque and Determine Individual Stroke Risk.

    PubMed

    Liem, Madieke I; Kennedy, Fiona; Bonati, Leo H; van der Lugt, Aad; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Jager, Hans R; Brown, Martin M; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2017-08-25

    Selection of patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis for revascularization is mainly based on the degree of luminal narrowing of the carotid artery. However, identification of other features of plaque apart from the degree of stenosis could enable better selection for intervention if they are also associated with the occurrence of stroke. Before these risk factors can possibly play a role in treatment decisions, their prognostic value needs to be proven. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the risk factors for stroke in patients with carotid stenosis, how they can be determined, and to what extent they predict stroke, based on recent literature. References for this review were identified by searches of PubMed between 1995 and October, 2016 and references from relevant articles. For each topic in this review different relevant search terms were used. The main search terms were 'carotid stenosis', 'atherosclerosis', 'stroke risk', and 'vulnerable plaque'. Language was restricted to English. The final reference list was generated on the basis of relevance to the topics covered in this review.

  5. A 'Disease Severity Index' to identify individuals with Subjective Memory Decline who will progress to mild cognitive impairment or dementia.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daniel; Falahati, Farshad; Linden, Cecilia; Buckley, Rachel F; Ellis, Kathryn A; Savage, Greg; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Ames, David; Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric

    2017-03-13

    Subjective memory decline (SMD) is a heterogeneous condition. While SMD might be the earliest sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it also occurs in aging and various neurological, medical, and psychiatric conditions. Identifying those with higher risk to develop dementia is thus a major challenge. We tested a novel disease severity index generated by multivariate data analysis with numerous structural MRI measures as input. The index was used to identify SMD individuals with high risk of progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. A total of 69 healthy controls, 86 SMD, 45 MCI, and 38 AD patients were included. Subjects were followed up for 7.5 years. Clinical, cognitive, PET amyloid imaging and APOE ε4 data were used as outcome variables. The results showed that SMD evidenced cognitive performance intermediate between healthy controls and MCI. The disease severity index identified eleven (13%) SMD individuals with an AD-like pattern of brain atrophy. These individuals showed lower cognitive performance, increased CDR-SOB, higher amyloid burden and worse clinical progression (6.2 times higher likelihood to develop MCI, dementia or die than healthy controls). The current disease severity index may have relevance for clinical practice, as well as for selecting appropriate individuals for clinical trials.

  6. Identifying important factors for older adults' physical activity participation across individual/group, structured/unstructured contexts.

    PubMed

    Beck, Katie L; Weeks, Lori E; Montelpare, William J; MacDonald, Dany J

    2016-09-01

    Most Canadian older adults do not meet physical activity recommendations. Researchers have investigated participation barriers and facilitators, with little consideration given to how specific factors influence activity participation for older adults. The purpose of this study was to identify unique factors that influence older adults' activity selection and to determine in which type of setting they are preferred. Using a two-phase methodology, identification of 25 factors affecting participation was followed by 45 older adults ranking the factors within four categories of activities: individual unstructured, group unstructured, individual structured, and group structured. Phase 1 analysis ranked each factor within each category. Further analysis found that there was a statistical difference between categories, indicating that older adults found different factors important, depending on the category of physical activity in question. This led to phase 2 analyses which identified three levels of factor groupings including the following factors: level A: fun, satisfaction, commitment, and energize; level B: safety, learning, awareness, internal motivation, and productive; and level C: meaningful contribution, intensity, and motivation. Additionally, some factors which were not identified in all categories were identified as unique to certain categories. These included creativity, hobbies, meaningful contribution, spiritual, competence, interaction casual, regularly scheduled, competition, self-efficacy physical, and team. This information can be used by individuals as well as program providers to nurture these factors within physical activity programs, which may lead to increased participation in this age cohort.

  7. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  8. Identifying Twitter influencer profiles for health promotion in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane

    2015-10-29

    New media platforms, such as Twitter, provide the ideal opportunity to positively influence the health of large audiences. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest number of Twitter users of any country, some of whom are very influential in setting agendas and contributing to the dissemination of ideas. Those opinion leaders, both individuals and organizations, influential in the new media environment have the potential to raise awareness of health issues, advocate for health and potentially instigate change at a social level. To realize the potential of the new media platforms for public health, the function of opinion leaders is key. This study aims to identify and profile the most influential Twitter accounts in Saudi Arabia. Multiple measures, including: number of followers and four influence scores, were used to evaluate Twitter accounts. The data were then filtered and analysed using ratio and percentage calculations to identify the most influential users. In total, 99 Saudi Twitter accounts were classified, resulting in the identification of 25 religious men/women, 16 traditional media, 14 sports related, 10 new media, 6 political, 6 company and 4 health accounts. The methods used to identify the key influential Saudi accounts can be applied to inform profile development of Twitter users in other countries.

  9. Improved system identification using artificial neural networks and analysis of individual differences in responses of an identified neuron.

    PubMed

    Costalago Meruelo, Alicia; Simpson, David M; Veres, Sandor M; Newland, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Mathematical modelling is used routinely to understand the coding properties and dynamics of responses of neurons and neural networks. Here we analyse the effectiveness of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a modelling tool for motor neuron responses. We used ANNs to model the synaptic responses of an identified motor neuron, the fast extensor motor neuron, of the desert locust in response to displacement of a sensory organ, the femoral chordotonal organ, which monitors movements of the tibia relative to the femur of the leg. The aim of the study was threefold: first to determine the potential value of ANNs as tools to model and investigate neural networks, second to understand the generalisation properties of ANNs across individuals and to different input signals and third, to understand individual differences in responses of an identified neuron. A metaheuristic algorithm was developed to design the ANN architectures. The performance of the models generated by the ANNs was compared with those generated through previous mathematical models of the same neuron. The results suggest that ANNs are significantly better than LNL and Wiener models in predicting specific neural responses to Gaussian White Noise, but not significantly different when tested with sinusoidal inputs. They are also able to predict responses of the same neuron in different individuals irrespective of which animal was used to develop the model, although notable differences between some individuals were evident. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying the effects of education on the ability to cope with a disability among individuals with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The literature on disability has suggested that an educated individual with a disability is more likely to better cope with her/his disability than those without education. However, few published studies explore whether the relationship between education and ability to cope with a disability is anything more than an association. Using data on disability and accommodation from a large Danish survey from 2012–13 and exploiting a major Danish schooling reform as a natural experiment, we identified a potential causal effect of education on both economic (holding a job) as well as social (cultural activities, visiting clubs/associations, etc.) dimensions of coping among individuals with a disability, controlling for background factors, functioning, and disability characteristics. We found that endogeneity bias was only present in the case of economic participation and more educated individuals with a disability indeed had higher levels of both economic and social coping. To some extent, having more knowledge of public support systems and higher motivation explained the better coping among the group of individuals with disabilities who were educated. Our results indicated, however, that a large part of the effect of education on the ability to cope with a disability among individuals with disabilities was suggestive of a causal relationship. PMID:28355237

  11. Identifying the effects of education on the ability to cope with a disability among individuals with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Steen; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2017-01-01

    The literature on disability has suggested that an educated individual with a disability is more likely to better cope with her/his disability than those without education. However, few published studies explore whether the relationship between education and ability to cope with a disability is anything more than an association. Using data on disability and accommodation from a large Danish survey from 2012-13 and exploiting a major Danish schooling reform as a natural experiment, we identified a potential causal effect of education on both economic (holding a job) as well as social (cultural activities, visiting clubs/associations, etc.) dimensions of coping among individuals with a disability, controlling for background factors, functioning, and disability characteristics. We found that endogeneity bias was only present in the case of economic participation and more educated individuals with a disability indeed had higher levels of both economic and social coping. To some extent, having more knowledge of public support systems and higher motivation explained the better coping among the group of individuals with disabilities who were educated. Our results indicated, however, that a large part of the effect of education on the ability to cope with a disability among individuals with disabilities was suggestive of a causal relationship.

  12. Characteristics of influential peers in the eyes of secondary school students: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Loke, Alice Y; Mak, Yim-Wah; Wu, Cynthia S T

    2017-09-01

    Aim It is the aim of this study to explore the characteristics of influential peers identified by schoolmates, and the mechanism by which they exert their influence on their peers. Adolescent crowds are a salient influence on the health-risk behaviors of peers, contributing to adolescent substance use such as drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and taking drugs. A mixed method study. Three schools granted us access to students and those who had been nominated as influential by their peers. The students were asked to nominate and indicated the characteristics of peers whom they considered influential in a quantitative study. Those peers whom they considered influential were invited to take part in focus group interviews. A total of six focus group interviews were conducted, comprised of two groups from each school, with an average of seven participants in each group. Findings Students considered caring and friendliness (91.0%), being a buddy (88.5%), and entertaining/humor (86.8%) as the top three characteristics of influential peers. The interviews revealed that the students believed that they are influential because of their cheerfulness and humor, considerateness, ability to communicate, popularity and sociability, sincerity and trustworthiness, and because they possess the characteristics of a leader. They also believed that their power to influence came about through their helpfulness, accommodation, and the closeness of their relationships. Their influence was manifested in both positive and negative ways on the academic pursuits and health-risk behaviors of their peers. In order to engage at-risk students in health promotion programs, it is important to identify their influential peers, and to understand how adolescent friends may help one another to resist behaviors that pose a risk to their health.

  13. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals. PMID:23271914

  14. An Automated Method for Identifying Individuals with a Lung Nodule Can Be Feasibly Implemented Across Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Farhood; Halgrim, Scott; Buist, Diana S.M.; Gould, Michael K.; Zeliadt, Steven B.; Loggers, Elizabeth T.; Carrell, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of incidentally detected lung nodules is rapidly rising, but little is known about their management or associated patient outcomes. One barrier to studying lung nodule care is the inability to efficiently and reliably identify the cohort of interest (i.e. cases). Investigators at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) recently developed an automated method to identify individuals with an incidentally discovered lung nodule, but the feasibility of implementing this method across other health systems is unknown. Methods: A random sample of Group Health (GH) members who had a computed tomography in 2012 underwent chart review to determine if a lung nodule was documented in the radiology report. A previously developed natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was implemented at our site using only knowledge of the key words, qualifiers, excluding terms, and the logic linking these parameters. Results: Among 499 subjects, 156 (31%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 27–36%) had an incidentally detected lung nodule. NLP identified 189 (38%, 95% CI 33–42%) individuals with a nodule. The accuracy of NLP at GH was similar to its accuracy at KPSC: sensitivity 90% (95% CI 85–95%) and specificity 86% (95% CI 82–89%) versus sensitivity 96% (95% CI 88–100%) and specificity 86% (95% CI 75–94%). Conclusion: Automated methods designed to identify individuals with an incidentally detected lung nodule can feasibly and independently be implemented across health systems. Use of these methods will likely facilitate the efficient conduct of multi-site studies evaluating practice patterns and associated outcomes. PMID:27668266

  15. Failure to Identify HIV-Infected Individuals in a Clinical Trial Using a Single HIV Rapid Test for Screening

    PubMed Central

    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Fogel, Jessica M.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wolf, Shauna; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Wendel, Sarah; Wang, Lei; Swanson, Priscilla; Hackett, John; Mannheimer, Sharon; del Rio, Carlos; Kuo, Irene; Harawa, Nina T.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Moore, Richard; Blankson, Joel N.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 study, 8 (2.3%) of 348 HIV-infected participants identified as HIV uninfected at study enrollment using a single HIV rapid test for screening were found to be HIV infected after additional testing. Objectives To evaluate the performance of different HIV assays for detection of HIV infection in HPTN 061 participants with missed infection and individuals with viral suppression. Methods Plasma samples from 8 HPTN 061 participants, 17 elite controllers, and 101 individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) were tested for HIV with 3 rapid tests, 2 laboratory-based immunoassays, and a Western blot assay. The HPTN 061 samples were also tested with 2 HIV RNA assays and an antiretroviral drug assay. Results Of the 8 HPTN 061 participants with missed infection, 1 was an elite controller, 1 was taking ART, 2 were missed because of testing or clerical errors, 1 had recent HIV infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and 3 had acute HIV infection. Two (1.7%) of 118 individuals with viral suppression (both taking ART) had at least 1 false-negative test. Conclusions In clinical trials, HIV infections can be missed for a variety of reasons. Using more than one assay to screen for HIV infection may reduce the number of missed infections. PMID:24710920

  16. Failure to identify HIV-infected individuals in a clinical trial using a single HIV rapid test for screening.

    PubMed

    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Fogel, Jessica M; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wolf, Shauna; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Wendel, Sarah; Wang, Lei; Swanson, Priscilla; Hackett, John; Mannheimer, Sharon; Del Rio, Carlos; Kuo, Irene; Harawa, Nina T; Koblin, Beryl A; Moore, Richard; Blankson, Joel N; Eshleman, Susan H

    2014-01-01

    In the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 study, 8 (2.3%) of 348 HIV-infected participants identified as HIV uninfected at study enrollment using a single HIV rapid test for screening were found to be HIV infected after additional testing. To evaluate the performance of different HIV assays for detection of HIV infection in HPTN 061 participants with missed infection and individuals with viral suppression. Plasma samples from 8 HPTN 061 participants, 17 elite controllers, and 101 individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) were tested for HIV with 3 rapid tests, 2 laboratory-based immunoassays, and a Western blot assay. The HPTN 061 samples were also tested with 2 HIV RNA assays and an antiretroviral drug assay. Of the 8 HPTN 061 participants with missed infection, 1 was an elite controller, 1 was taking ART, 2 were missed because of testing or clerical errors, 1 had recent HIV infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and 3 had acute HIV infection. Two (1.7%) of 118 individuals with viral suppression (both taking ART) had at least 1 false-negative test. In clinical trials, HIV infections can be missed for a variety of reasons. Using more than one assay to screen for HIV infection may reduce the number of missed infections.

  17. The individual-cell-based cryo-chip for the cryopreservation, manipulation and observation of spatially identifiable cells. I: Methodology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryopreservation is the only widely applicable method of storing vital cells for nearly unlimited periods of time. Successful cryopreservation is essential for reproductive medicine, stem cell research, cord blood storage and related biomedical areas. The methods currently used to retrieve a specific cell or a group of individual cells with specific biological properties after cryopreservation are quite complicated and inefficient. Results The present study suggests a new approach in cryopreservation, utilizing the Individual Cell-based Cryo-Chip (i3C). The i3C is made of materials having appropriate durability for cryopreservation conditions. The core of this approach is an array of picowells, each picowell designed to maintain an individual cell during the severe conditions of the freezing - thawing cycle and accompanying treatments. More than 97% of cells were found to retain their position in the picowells throughout the entire freezing - thawing cycle and medium exchange. Thus the comparison between pre-freezing and post-thawing data can be achieved at an individual cell resolution. The intactness of cells undergoing slow freezing and thawing, while residing in the i3C, was found to be similar to that obtained with micro-vials. However, in a fast freezing protocol, the i3C was found to be far superior. Conclusions The results of the present study offer new opportunities for cryopreservation. Using the present methodology, the cryopreservation of individual identifiable cells, and their observation and retrieval, at an individual cell resolution become possible for the first time. This approach facilitates the correlation between cell characteristics before and after the freezing - thawing cycle. Thus, it is expected to significantly enhance current cryopreservation procedures for successful regenerative and reproductive medicine. PMID:20609216

  18. Potential and Limitations of Satellite Data to Identify Deaths of Individual Trees in a Central American Tropical Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. Q.; Kellner, J. R.; Peart, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Logistical constraints on sample size and spatial scale limit individual-based field research on tropical trees. With remote sensing data, we may escape these limitations if fates of individuals can be tracked rigorously. We assessed the potential of readily available, commercial satellite data (QuickBird, 0.7 m pixels) obtained in 2003, to track the fate of individual crowns (> 40 m height) in tropical rain forest at La Selva, Costa Rica. The positions and shapes of these crowns in 1997 had been established using small-footprint LiDAR data with field verification. We focused first on a subset (n=180) of trees monitored in the field over the period 1997-2003. For the 60% of those trees whose crown positions and shapes could be tracked with confidence in the satellite image, we correctly recorded all 3 actual deaths. But we also incorrectly assigned 4 additional deaths to living individuals, due to the abundance of dark pixels in their crown areas. For the 40% of field-monitored trees for which our tracking in the satellite data was less confident (due to lack of image clarity), we correctly identified the one real death event, but incorrectly assigned 6 additional deaths to living trees. Thus, for the field-monitored trees, we grossly overestimated mortality in the satellite image (by 350%). Although currently available high resolution satellite imagery was not adequate for reliable monitoring of individuals, even for the largest forest trees, time series satellite data, rather than time series LiDAR to satellite data, might provide unbiased estimates of overall tree mortality rates if errors compensate. Satellite data may be also be useful as a labor and time saving complement to fieldwork on individual forest trees.

  19. Discovering Influential Nodes for SIS Models in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazumi; Kimura, Masahiro; Motoda, Hiroshi

    We address the problem of efficiently discovering the influential nodes in a social network under the susceptible/infected/susceptible (SIS) model, a diffusion model where nodes are allowed to be activated multiple times. The computational complexity drastically increases because of this multiple activation property. We solve this problem by constructing a layered graph from the original social network with each layer added on top as the time proceeds, and applying the bond percolation with pruning and burnout strategies. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method gives much better solutions than the conventional methods that are solely based on the notion of centrality for social network analysis using two large-scale real-world networks (a blog network and a wikipedia network). We further show that the computational complexity of the proposed method is much smaller than the conventional naive probabilistic simulation method by a theoretical analysis and confirm this by experimentation. The properties of the influential nodes discovered are substantially different from those identified by the centrality-based heuristic methods.

  20. Evaluation of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Identifying Overweight Individuals at Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Maxine J. E.; Byrne, Christopher D.; Wilson, James F.; Wild, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether bioelectrical impedance analysis could be used to identify overweight individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, defined as the presence of metabolic syndrome and/or diabetes. Design and Methods Cross-sectional study of a Scottish population including 1210 women and 788 men. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of percentage body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis to identify people at increased cardiometabolic risk was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Odds ratios for increased cardiometabolic risk in body mass index categories associated with values above compared to below sex-specific percentage body fat thresholds with optimal diagnostic performance were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analyses. The validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure percentage body fat in this population was tested by examining agreement between bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a subgroup of individuals. Results Participants were aged 16-91 years and the optimal bioelectrical impedance analysis cut-points for percentage body fat for identifying people at increased cardiometabolic risk were 25.9% for men and 37.1% for women. Stratifying by these percentage body fat cut-points, the prevalence of increased cardiometabolic risk was 48% and 38% above the threshold and 24% and 19% below these thresholds for men and women, respectively. By comparison, stratifying by percentage body fat category had little impact on identifying increased cardiometabolic risk in normal weight and obese individuals. Fully adjusted odds ratios of being at increased cardiometabolic risk among overweight people with percentage body fat ≥25.9/37.1% compared with percentage body fat <25.9/37.1% as a reference were 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.20–3.10) for men and 1.79 (1.10–2.92) for women. Conclusion Percentage body fat measured using bioelectrical impedance

  1. An approach to family-centered coordinated co-management for individuals with conditions identified through newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Cooley, W Carl; Kemper, Alex R

    2013-03-01

    The care of individuals with rare heritable conditions, such as those detectable through newborn screening, is an important target for quality improvement. Not only is there great opportunity to improve long-term outcomes, but there are lessons that can be generalized to the care of all children with special health-care needs. To identify an approach to quality improvement for individuals with conditions identified through newborn screening, the National Coordinating Center for the Regional Genetic and Newborn Screening Service Collaboratives convened an expert workgroup to develop strategies based on a family-centered, community-based system of care. These recommendations centered on involving families, the primary care medical home, and specialty care providers as equal partners. Key activities to improve care include explicit care coordination, identification of the location of management, and planned co-management. To implement this model of care, the Regional Collaboratives will develop a clearinghouse of tools, engage in activities to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve co-management, and identify strategies to align incentives for health-care providers and families to work together.

  2. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity. PMID:27672500

  3. A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, R W; Heywood, W E; Heslegrave, A J; Magdalinou, N K; Andreasson, U; Sirka, E; Bliss, E; Slattery, C F; Toombs, J; Svensson, J; Johansson, P; Fox, N C; Zetterberg, H; Mills, K; Schott, J M

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as ‘AD' or ‘non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1–42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1–42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical

  4. The development and application of a multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) system for identifying subspecies, individuals and sex in tigers.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zheng-Ting; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Fomenko, Pavel; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Poaching and trans-boundary trafficking of tigers and body parts are threatening the world's last remaining wild tigers. Development of an efficient molecular genetic assay for tracing the origins of confiscated specimens will assist in law enforcement and wildlife forensics for this iconic flagship species. We developed a multiplex genotyping system "tigrisPlex" to simultaneously assess 22 short tandem repeat (STR, or microsatellite) loci and a gender-identifying SRY gene, all amplified in 4 reactions using as little as 1 ng of template DNA. With DNA samples used for between-run calibration, the system generates STR genotypes that are directly compatible with voucher tiger subspecies genetic profiles, hence making it possible to identify subspecies via bi-parentally inherited markers. We applied "tigrisPlex" to 12 confiscated specimens from Russia and identified 6 individuals (3 females and 3 males), each represented by duplicated samples and all designated as Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) with high confidence. This STR multiplex system can serve as an effective and versatile approach for genetic profiling of both wild and captive tigers as well as confiscated tiger products, fulfilling various conservation needs for identifying the origins of tiger samples. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Effectiveness of a screening programme in identifying individuals with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peer, Nasheeta; Balakrishna, Yusentha; de Villiers, Anniza; Crickmore, Christelle; Mungal-Singh, Vash

    2017-02-14

    To determine the proportion of participants identified with previously undiagnosed diabetes and untreated hypertension in the Heart and Stroke Foundation South Africa's screening programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted nationally in 2013 among ≥18-year-old adults self-selected for screening. Data collection included medical history and behaviours related to diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. Clinical measurements comprised blood pressure, anthropometry and point-of-care random blood glucose and cholesterol assessments. Among the 7711 participants, 2488 men and 5223 women, mean ages were 47.6 years and 48.6 years, respectively. Prevalence of diabetes was 13.8% in men and 12.8% in women but only 1.8% (45) and 0.9% (47), respectively, were newly diagnosed. Another 14.5% (men) and 12.4% (women) had impaired glycaemia. Only 32.9% and 36.3% with known diabetes were controlled. Hypertension was prevalent in 51.8% of men and 48.9% of women, 52.0% and 63.1% of whom were using anti-hypertensive medication; 43.2% of men and 45.5% of women on anti-hypertensive medication were controlled. Very few individuals with newly diagnosed diabetes were identified, which underscores the need for cost-effective targeted screening of high-risk individuals to optimize diagnosis. Furthermore, the suboptimal levels of diabetes and hypertension control highlights the need for improved care.

  6. Secondary Variants in Individuals Undergoing Exome Sequencing: Screening of 572 Individuals Identifies High-Penetrance Mutations in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jennifer J.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Facio, Flavia M.; Ng, David; Singh, Larry N.; Teer, Jamie K.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2012-01-01

    Genome- and exome-sequencing costs are continuing to fall, and many individuals are undergoing these assessments as research participants and patients. The issue of secondary (so-called incidental) findings in exome analysis is controversial, and data are needed on methods of detection and their frequency. We piloted secondary variant detection by analyzing exomes for mutations in cancer-susceptibility syndromes in subjects ascertained for atherosclerosis phenotypes. We performed exome sequencing on 572 ClinSeq participants, and in 37 genes, we interpreted variants that cause high-penetrance cancer syndromes by using an algorithm that filtered results on the basis of mutation type, quality, and frequency and that filtered mutation-database entries on the basis of defined categories of causation. We identified 454 sequence variants that differed from the human reference. Exclusions were made on the basis of sequence quality (26 variants) and high frequency in the cohort (77 variants) or dbSNP (17 variants), leaving 334 variants of potential clinical importance. These were further filtered on the basis of curation of literature reports. Seven participants, four of whom were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and three of whom did not meet family-history-based referral criteria, had deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. One participant had a deleterious SDHC mutation, which causes paragangliomas. Exome sequencing, coupled with multidisciplinary interpretation, detected clinically important mutations in cancer-susceptibility genes; four of such mutations were in individuals without a significant family history of disease. We conclude that secondary variants of high clinical importance will be detected at an appreciable frequency in exomes, and we suggest that priority be given to the development of more efficient modes of interpretation with trials in larger patient groups. PMID:22703879

  7. Release of skeletal muscle peptide fragments identifies individual proteins degraded during insulin deprivation in type 1 diabetic humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew M; Dasari, Surendra; Karakelides, Helen; Bergen, H Robert; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2016-09-01

    Insulin regulates skeletal muscle protein degradation, but the types of proteins being degraded in vivo remain to be determined due to methodological limitations. We present a method to assess the types of skeletal muscle proteins that are degraded by extracting their degradation products as low-molecular weight (LMW) peptides from muscle samples. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify the original intact proteins that generated the LMW peptides, which we validated in rodents and then applied to humans. We deprived insulin from insulin-treated streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice for 6 and 96 h and for 8 h in type 1 diabetic humans (T1D) for comparison with insulin-treated conditions. Protein degradation was measured using activation of autophagy and proteasome pathways, stable isotope tracers, and LMW approaches. In mice, insulin deprivation activated proteasome pathways and autophagy in muscle homogenates and isolated mitochondria. Reproducibility analysis of LMW extracts revealed that ∼80% of proteins were detected consistently. As expected, insulin deprivation increased whole body protein turnover in T1D. Individual protein degradation increased with insulin deprivation, including those involved in mitochondrial function, proteome homeostasis, nDNA support, and contractile/cytoskeleton. Individual mitochondrial proteins that generated more LMW fragment with insulin deprivation included ATP synthase subunit-γ (+0.5-fold, P = 0.007) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6 (+0.305-fold, P = 0.03). In conclusion, identifying LMW peptide fragments offers an approach to determine the degradation of individual proteins. Insulin deprivation increases degradation of select proteins and provides insight into the regulatory role of insulin in maintaining proteome homeostasis, especially of mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Using structural MRI to identify individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorders: a 2-cohort, machine learning study

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Tomas; Cooke, Christopher; Kopecek, Miloslav; Novak, Tomas; Hoschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain imaging is of limited diagnostic use in psychiatry owing to clinical heterogeneity and low sensitivity/specificity of between-group neuroimaging differences. Machine learning (ML) may better translate neuroimaging to the level of individual participants. Studying unaffected offspring of parents with bipolar disorders (BD) decreases clinical heterogeneity and thus increases sensitivity for detection of biomarkers. The present study used ML to identify individuals at genetic high risk (HR) for BD based on brain structure. Methods We studied unaffected and affected relatives of BD probands recruited from 2 sites (Halifax, Canada, and Prague, Czech Republic). Each participant was individually matched by age and sex to controls without personal or family history of psychiatric disorders. We applied support vector machines (SVM) and Gaussian process classifiers (GPC) to structural MRI. Results We included 45 unaffected and 36 affected relatives of BD probands matched by age and sex on an individual basis to healthy controls. The SVM of white matter distinguished unaffected HR from control participants (accuracy = 68.9%, p = 0.001), with similar accuracy for the GPC (65.6%, p = 0.002) or when analyzing data from each site separately. Differentiation of the more clinically heterogeneous affected familiar group from healthy controls was less accurate (accuracy = 59.7%, p = 0.05). Machine learning applied to grey matter did not distinguish either the unaffected HR or affected familial groups from controls. The regions that most contributed to between-group discrimination included white matter of the inferior/middle frontal gyrus, inferior/middle temporal gyrus and precuneus. Limitations Although we recruited 126 participants, ML benefits from even larger samples. Conclusions Machine learning applied to white but not grey matter distinguished unaffected participants at high and low genetic risk for BD based on regions previously implicated in the

  9. Using structural MRI to identify individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorders: a 2-cohort, machine learning study.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Tomas; Cooke, Christopher; Kopecek, Miloslav; Novak, Tomas; Hoschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Brain imaging is of limited diagnostic use in psychiatry owing to clinical heterogeneity and low sensitivity/specificity of between-group neuroimaging differences. Machine learning (ML) may better translate neuroimaging to the level of individual participants. Studying unaffected offspring of parents with bipolar disorders (BD) decreases clinical heterogeneity and thus increases sensitivity for detection of biomarkers. The present study used ML to identify individuals at genetic high risk (HR) for BD based on brain structure. We studied unaffected and affected relatives of BD probands recruited from 2 sites (Halifax, Canada, and Prague, Czech Republic). Each participant was individually matched by age and sex to controls without personal or family history of psychiatric disorders. We applied support vector machines (SVM) and Gaussian process classifiers (GPC) to structural MRI. We included 45 unaffected and 36 affected relatives of BD probands matched by age and sex on an individual basis to healthy controls. The SVM of white matter distinguished unaffected HR from control participants (accuracy = 68.9%, p = 0.001), with similar accuracy for the GPC (65.6%, p = 0.002) or when analyzing data from each site separately. Differentiation of the more clinically heterogeneous affected familiar group from healthy controls was less accurate (accuracy = 59.7%, p = 0.05). Machine learning applied to grey matter did not distinguish either the unaffected HR or affected familial groups from controls. The regions that most contributed to between-group discrimination included white matter of the inferior/middle frontal gyrus, inferior/middle temporal gyrus and precuneus. Although we recruited 126 participants, ML benefits from even larger samples. Machine learning applied to white but not grey matter distinguished unaffected participants at high and low genetic risk for BD based on regions previously implicated in the pathophysiology of BD.

  10. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sniekers, Suzanne; Stringer, Sven; Watanabe, Kyoko; Jansen, Philip R; Coleman, Jonathan R I; Krapohl, Eva; Taskesen, Erdogan; Hammerschlag, Anke R; Okbay, Aysu; Zabaneh, Delilah; Amin, Najaf; Breen, Gerome; Cesarini, David; Chabris, Christopher F; Iacono, William G; Ikram, M Arfan; Johannesson, Magnus; Koellinger, Philipp; Lee, James J; Magnusson, Patrik K E; McGue, Matt; Miller, Mike B; Ollier, William E R; Payton, Antony; Pendleton, Neil; Plomin, Robert; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Posthuma, Danielle

    2017-07-01

    Intelligence is associated with important economic and health-related life outcomes. Despite intelligence having substantial heritability (0.54) and a confirmed polygenic nature, initial genetic studies were mostly underpowered. Here we report a meta-analysis for intelligence of 78,308 individuals. We identify 336 associated SNPs (METAL P < 5 × 10(-8)) in 18 genomic loci, of which 15 are new. Around half of the SNPs are located inside a gene, implicating 22 genes, of which 11 are new findings. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 30 genes (MAGMA P < 2.73 × 10(-6)), of which all but one had not been implicated previously. We show that the identified genes are predominantly expressed in brain tissue, and pathway analysis indicates the involvement of genes regulating cell development (MAGMA competitive P = 3.5 × 10(-6)). Despite the well-known difference in twin-based heritability for intelligence in childhood (0.45) and adulthood (0.80), we show substantial genetic correlation (rg = 0.89, LD score regression P = 5.4 × 10(-29)). These findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of intelligence.

  11. Analysis of the effects of rare variants on splicing identifies alterations in GABAA receptor genes in autism spectrum disorder individuals

    PubMed Central

    Piton, Amélie; Jouan, Loubna; Rochefort, Daniel; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Lachapelle, Karine; Dion, Patrick A; Gauthier, Julie; Rouleau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale sequencing screen of X-linked synaptic genes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or schizophrenia (SCZ), two common neurodevelopmental disorders, identified many variants most of which have no easily predictable effect on gene function. In this report, we evaluated the impact of these rare missense and silent variants on gene splicing. For this purpose, we used complementary in silico analyses, in vitro minigene-based assays and RNA prepared from lymphoblastoid cells derived from patients with these mutations. Our goal was to identify the variants which might either create or disrupt an acceptor splice site, a donor splice site or an exonic splicing enhancer, thus leading to aberrant splicing that could be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD or SCZ. We identified truncating mutations in distinct X-linked gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunit-encoding genes, GABRQ and GABRA3, in two different families. Furthermore, missense and silent variants in nuclear RNA export factor 5 and histone deacetylase 6 were shown to partially disrupt the protein. While genes from the GABAergic pathway have previously been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of ASD, this is the first report of ASD patients with truncating mutations in GABA receptors genes. PMID:23169495

  12. An Empirical Analysis of Student Satisfaction Influential Factors in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Alina; Hamzaee, Reza G.

    2009-01-01

    There exists the need to better understand the effectiveness of online education. In recent years, academic institutions (of higher education) have increased the number of online courses offered to students. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that are most influential in determining student satisfaction of overall course…

  13. Motor dual-task Timed Up & Go test better identifies prefrailty individuals than single-task Timed Up & Go test.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Fang; Yang, Hao-Jan; Peng, Ya-Chi; Chen, Hui-Ya

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated whether dual-task Timed Up & Go tests (TUG) could identify prefrail individuals more sensitively than the single-task TUG (TUGsingle ) in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. This cross-sectional study recruited adults aged 50 years and older who actively participated in local community programs. Time taken to complete single-task TUG and dual-task TUG, carrying a cup of water (TUGmanual ) or carrying out serial-3 subtraction (TUGcognitive ) while executing TUG, was measured. Prefrailty status was defined based on Fried's phenotypic definition. Of the 65 participants (mean age 71.5±8.1 years), 33.3% of the 12 middle-aged (50-64 years) and 62.3% of the 53 older (≥65 years) adults were prefrail, mainly as a result of weak grip strength. The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for differentiating prefrailty from non-frailty showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for TUGmanual (0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.86) was better than that for TUGsingle (0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.80), whereas the AUC value was not significant for TUGcognitive (0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.74). The optimal cut-off points for detecting prefrailty using TUGsingle , TUGmanual and TUGcognitive were 7.7 s (sensitivity 68%), 8.2 s (sensitivity 83%), and 14.3 s (sensitivity 29%), respectively. After adjusting for age, logistic regression analyses showed that individuals with TUGmanual 8.2 s or slower were 7.2-fold more likely to have prefrailty than those with TUGmanual faster than 8.2 s. TUGmanual is more valid and sensitive than TUGsingle in identifying prefrail individuals. The TUGmanual thus could serve as a screening tool for early detection of individuals with prefrailty in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Identifying posttraumatic amnesia in individuals with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 15 after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Meares, Susanne; Shores, E Arthur; Smyth, Tracy; Batchelor, Jennifer; Murphy, Margaret; Vukasovic, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    To examine the utility of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale, which includes the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and 3 picture cards used to measure amnesia, in identifying the presence or absence of posttraumatic amnesia in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Prospective study using data from the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale. Trauma hospital. Individuals with possible mTBI who presented between April and September 2011 (N=252; age range, 18-65y; mean age, 37.4±13.9y; 77% men). Administration of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale. GCS and Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale pass/fail rates. Of the individuals, 169 (mean age, 35.1±13.6y; 77% men) received the scale. A pass/fail performance was achieved a median 121 minutes (interquartile range, 89-205min) after triage. Of the 45 who failed, 31 (69%) had a GCS score of 15. The likelihood of failing was associated with being older (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.06; P<.05), having consumed alcohol (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.42-6.74; P<.01), and the scale being administered closer to the time of the injury (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00; P<.05). Nineteen (42%) of those who failed had consumed alcohol, 11 had a GCS score of 15, and 8 had a GCS score of 14. A GCS score of 15 does not always signify return to normative cognitive function. Individuals with a GCS score of 15 who are acutely cognitively impaired are at risk of not being accurately identified. The addition of an amnesia score to the GCS in the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale will assist in making a diagnosis of mTBI. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Analysis of the Rhodopsin Gene Identifies a Mosaic Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutation in a Healthy Individual

    PubMed Central

    Beryozkin, Avigail; Levy, Gal; Blumenfeld, Anat; Meyer, Segev; Namburi, Prasanthi; Morad, Yair; Gradstein, Libe; Swaroop, Anand; Banin, Eyal; Sharon, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous hereditary retinal diseases that result in blindness due to photoreceptor degeneration. Mutations in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant RP (adRP) and are responsible for 16% to 35% of adRP cases in the Western population. Our purpose was to investigate the contribution of RHO to adRP in the Israeli and Palestinian populations. Methods Thirty-two adRP families participated in the study. Mutation detection was performed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing of RHO exons. Fluorescence PCR reactions of serially diluted samples were used to predict the percentage of mosaic cells in blood samples. Results Eight RHO disease-causing mutations were identified in nine families, with only one novel mutation, c.548-638dup91bp, identified in a family where WES failed to detect any causal variant. Segregation analysis revealed that the origin of the mutation is in a mosaic healthy individual carrying the mutation in approximately 13% of blood cells. Conclusions This is the first report of the mutation spectrum of a known adRP gene in the Israeli and Palestinian populations, leading to the identification of seven previously reported mutations and one novel mutation. Our study shows that RHO mutations are a major cause of adRP in this cohort and are responsible for 28% of adRP families. The novel mutation exhibits a unique phenomenon in which an unaffected individual is mosaic for an adRP-causing mutation. PMID:26962691

  16. Twelve-single nucleotide polymorphism genetic risk score identifies individuals at increased risk for future atrial fibrillation and stroke.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hayato; Shiffman, Dov; Smith, J Gustav; Sjögren, Marketa; Lubitz, Steven A; Ellinor, Patrick T; Louie, Judy Z; Catanese, Joseph J; Engström, Gunnar; Devlin, James J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent and there is a clinical need for biomarkers to identify individuals at higher risk for AF. Fixed throughout a life course and assayable early in life, genetic biomarkers may meet this need. Here, we investigate whether multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms together as an AF genetic risk score (AF-GRS) can improve prediction of one's risk for AF. In 27 471 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective, community-based cohort, we used Cox models that adjusted for established AF risk factors to assess the association of AF-GRS with incident AF and ischemic stroke. Median follow-up was 14.4 years for incident AF and 14.5 years for ischemic stroke. The AF-GRS comprised 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously shown to be associated with AF at genome-wide significance. During follow-up, 2160 participants experienced a first AF event and 1495 had a first ischemic stroke event. Participants in the top AF-GRS quintile were at increased risk for incident AF (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-2.31; P=2.7×10(-21)) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.46; P=0.02) when compared with the bottom quintile. Addition of the AF-GRS to established AF risk factors modestly improved both discrimination and reclassification (P<0.0001 for both). An AF-GRS can identify 20% of individuals who are at ≈2-fold increased risk for incident AF and at 23% increased risk for ischemic stroke. Targeting diagnostic or therapeutic interventions to this subset may prove clinically useful. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. A Meta-Analysis Identifies New Loci Associated with Body Mass index in Individuals of African Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Monda, Keri L.; Chen, Gary K.; Taylor, Kira C.; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Allison, Matthew A.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Chen, Guanji; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Rhie, Suhn K.; Li, Guo; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Youfang; Lu, Yingchang; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ademola, Adeyinka; Amos, Christopher I.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Britton, Angela; Broeckel, Ulrich; Cai, Quiyin; Caporaso, Neil E.; Carlson, Chris; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Chiang, Charleston W.K.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Demerath, Ellen; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Driver, Ryan W.; Dubbert, Patricia; Feitosa, Mary F.; Freedman, Barry I.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Xiuqing; Haritunians, Talin; Harris, Tamara; Harris, Curtis C.; Hennis, Anselm JM; Hernandez, Dena G.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Howard, Timothy D.; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Virginia J.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kang, Sun J.; Keating, Brendan J.; Kolb, Suzanne; Kuller, Lewis H.; Kutlar, Abdullah; Langefeld, Carl D.; Lettre, Guillaume; Lohman, Kurt; Lotay, Vaneet; Lyon, Helen; Manson, JoAnn E.; Maixner, William; Meng, Yan A.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Murphy, Adam B.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Nayak, Uma; N’Diaye, Amidou; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M. Cristina; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Neuhouser, Marian; Nyante, Sarah; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Press, Michael F.; Rampersaud, Evandine; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Salako, Babatunde; Schadt, Eric E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shriner, Daniel A.; Siscovick, David; Smith, Shad B.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sucheston, Lara; Taylor, Herman; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, James J.; Levin, Albert M.; Young, Taylor R.; Zakai, Neil A.; Cushman, Mary; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Yonglan; Zhou, Jie; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Kamen, Diane L.; Hunt, Kelly J.; Spruill, Ida J.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ambs, Stefan; Arnett, Donna K.; Atwood, Larry; Becker, Diane M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bowden, Donald W.; Burke, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; Ding, Jingzhong; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K.; Fox, Caroline; Garvey, W. Timothy; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hsing, Ann; Chu, Lisa; Hu, Jennifer J.; Huo, Dezheng; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kittles, Rick A.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Simin; McKnight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert C.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Williams, L. Keoki; Patel, Sanjay R.; Peters, Ulrike; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Redline, Susan; Rotimi, Charles N.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Sale, Michèle M.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Stanford, Janet L.; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara; Zheng, Wei; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Scott M.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zonderman, Alan B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Papanicolaou, George; Henderson, Brian E.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth JF; North, Kari E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry, and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one novel locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, p=3.4×10−11) and another at 7p15 when combined with data from the Giant consortium (MIR148A/NFE2L3, rs10261878, p=1.2×10−10). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, p=6.9×10−8). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants displayed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial p=9.7×10−7), of which five reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations. PMID:23583978

  18. Immunocytochemistry and fluorescence imaging efficiently identify individual neurons with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene disruption in primary cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Hiroto; Uyeda, Akiko; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Sugo, Noriyuki

    2017-08-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful method to investigate the role of genes by introducing a mutation selectively and efficiently to specific genome positions in cell and animal lines. However, in primary neuron cultures, this method is affected by the issue that the effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9 is different in each neuron. Here, we report an easy, quick and reliable method to identify mutants induced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system at a single neuron level, using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and fluorescence imaging. Dissociated cortical cells were transfected with CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids targeting the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Fluorescence ICC with CREB antibody and quantitative analysis of fluorescence intensity demonstrated that CREB expression disappeared in a fraction of the transfected neurons. The downstream FOS expression was also decreased in accordance with suppressed CREB expression. Moreover, dendritic arborization was decreased in the transfected neurons which lacked CREB immunoreactivity. Detection of protein expression is efficient to identify individual postmitotic neurons with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene disruption in primary cortical cultures. The present method composed of CRISPR/Cas9 system, ICC and fluorescence imaging is applicable to study the function of various genes at a single-neuron level.

  19. A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Monda, Keri L; Chen, Gary K; Taylor, Kira C; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L; Lange, Leslie A; Ng, Maggie C Y; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Allison, Matthew A; Bielak, Lawrence F; Chen, Guanjie; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R; Rhie, Suhn K; Li, Guo; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Youfang; Lu, Yingchang; Nalls, Michael A; Sun, Yan V; Wojczynski, Mary K; Yanek, Lisa R; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ademola, Adeyinka; Amos, Christopher I; Bandera, Elisa V; Bock, Cathryn H; Britton, Angela; Broeckel, Ulrich; Cai, Quiyin; Caporaso, Neil E; Carlson, Chris S; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Chen, Yii-Der I; Chiang, Charleston W K; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Demerath, Ellen; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Driver, Ryan W; Dubbert, Patricia; Feitosa, Mary F; Feng, Ye; Freedman, Barry I; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Xiuqing; Haritunians, Talin; Harris, Tamara; Harris, Curtis C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hernandez, Dena G; McNeill, Lorna H; Howard, Timothy D; Howard, Barbara V; Howard, Virginia J; Johnson, Karen C; Kang, Sun J; Keating, Brendan J; Kolb, Suzanne; Kuller, Lewis H; Kutlar, Abdullah; Langefeld, Carl D; Lettre, Guillaume; Lohman, Kurt; Lotay, Vaneet; Lyon, Helen; Manson, Joann E; Maixner, William; Meng, Yan A; Monroe, Kristine R; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Murphy, Adam B; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Nathanson, Katherine L; Nayak, Uma; N'diaye, Amidou; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M Cristina; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Neuhouser, Marian; Nyante, Sarah; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Palmer, Julie R; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Palmer, Nicholette D; Press, Michael F; Rampersaud, Evandine; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Salako, Babatunde; Schadt, Eric E; Schwartz, Ann G; Shriner, Daniel A; Siscovick, David; Smith, Shad B; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Spitz, Margaret R; Sucheston, Lara; Taylor, Herman; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tucker, Margaret A; Van Den Berg, David J; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Winkler, Thomas W; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, James J; Levin, Albert M; Young, Taylor R; Zakai, Neil A; Cushman, Mary; Zanetti, Krista A; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Yonglan; Zhou, Jie; Ziegler, Regina G; Zmuda, Joseph M; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L; Hunt, Kelly J; Spruill, Ida J; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ambs, Stefan; Arnett, Donna K; Atwood, Larry; Becker, Diane M; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bowden, Donald W; Burke, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; Ding, Jingzhong; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K; Fox, Caroline; Garvey, W Timothy; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A; Hsing, Ann; Chu, Lisa; Hu, Jennifer J; Huo, Dezheng; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Jordan, Joanne M; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kittles, Rick A; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Simin; McKnight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert C; Mosley, Thomas H; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Williams, L Keoki; Patel, Sanjay R; Peters, Ulrike; Pettaway, Curtis A; Peyser, Patricia A; Psaty, Bruce M; Redline, Susan; Rotimi, Charles N; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Sale, Michèle M; Schreiner, Pamela J; Signorello, Lisa B; Singleton, Andrew B; Stanford, Janet L; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Vitolins, Mara; Zheng, Wei; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Scott M; Ketkar, Shamika; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zonderman, Alan B; Kooperberg, Charles; Papanicolaou, George J; Henderson, Brian E; Reiner, Alex P; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one new locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, P = 3.4 × 10(-11)) and another at 7p15 when we included data from the GIANT consortium (MIR148A-NFE2L3, rs10261878, P = 1.2 × 10(-10)). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African-ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, P = 6.9 × 10(-8)). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants showed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial P = 9.7 × 10(-7)), five of which reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations, as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations.

  20. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging and Characterization of Individually Identified Ice Nucleating Particles from a Case Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, Daniel A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Wang, Bingbing; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Moffet, Ryan C.

    2014-09-03

    The effect of anthropogenic and biogenic organic particles on atmospheric glaciation processes is poorly understood. We use an optical microscopy (OM) setup to identify the location of ice nuclei (IN) active in immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation for temperatures of 200-273 K within a large population of particles sampled from an ambient environment. Applying multi-modal micro-spectroscopy methods we characterize the physicochemical properties of individual IN in particle populations collected in central California. Chemical composition and mixing state analysis of particle populations are performed to identify characteristic particle-type classes. All particle-types contained organic material. Particles in these samples take up water at subsaturated conditions, induce immersion freezing at subsaturated and saturated conditions above 226 K, and act as deposition IN below 226 K. The identified IN belong to the most common particle-type classes observed in the field samples: organic coated sea salt, Na-rich, and secondary and refractory carbonaceous particles. Based on these observations, we suggest that the IN are not always particles with unique chemical composition and exceptional ice nucleation propensity; rather, they are common particles in the ambient particle population. Thus, particle composition and morphology alone are insufficient to assess their potential to act as IN. The results suggest that particle-type abundance is also a crucial factor in determining the ice nucleation efficiency of specific IN types. These findings emphasize that ubiquitous organic particles can induce ice nucleation under atmospherically relevant conditions and that they may play an important role in atmospheric glaciation processes.

  1. Identifying risk profiles for childhood obesity using recursive partitioning based on individual, familial, and neighborhood environment factors.

    PubMed

    Van Hulst, Andraea; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Henderson, Mélanie; Barnett, Tracie A

    2015-02-15

    Few studies consider how risk factors within multiple levels of influence operate synergistically to determine childhood obesity. We used recursive partitioning analysis to identify unique combinations of individual, familial, and neighborhood factors that best predict obesity in children, and tested whether these predict 2-year changes in body mass index (BMI). Data were collected in 2005-2008 and in 2008-2011 for 512 Quebec youth (8-10 years at baseline) with a history of parental obesity (QUALITY study). CDC age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles were computed and children were considered obese if their BMI was ≥95th percentile. Individual (physical activity and sugar-sweetened beverage intake), familial (household socioeconomic status and measures of parental obesity including both BMI and waist circumference), and neighborhood (disadvantage, prestige, and presence of parks, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants) factors were examined. Recursive partitioning, a method that generates a classification tree predicting obesity based on combined exposure to a series of variables, was used. Associations between resulting varying risk group membership and BMI percentile at baseline and 2-year follow up were examined using linear regression. Recursive partitioning yielded 7 subgroups with a prevalence of obesity equal to 8%, 11%, 26%, 28%, 41%, 60%, and 63%, respectively. The 2 highest risk subgroups comprised i) children not meeting physical activity guidelines, with at least one BMI-defined obese parent and 2 abdominally obese parents, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods without parks and, ii) children with these characteristics, except with access to ≥1 park and with access to ≥1 convenience store. Group membership was strongly associated with BMI at baseline, but did not systematically predict change in BMI. Findings support the notion that obesity is predicted by multiple factors in different settings and provide some indications of potentially

  2. An Absolute Risk Model to Identify Individuals at Elevated Risk for Pancreatic Cancer in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alison P.; Lindström, Sara; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Steplowski, Emily; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea; Li, Donghui; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Olson, Sara H.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Zheng, Wei; Amundadottir, Laufey; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Bamlet, William R.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Bracci, Paige M.; Canzian, Federico; Clipp, Sandra; Cotterchio, Michelle; Duell, Eric J.; Elena, Joanne; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Hallmans, Göran; Hassan, Manal; Hutchinson, Amy; Hunter, David J.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kurtz, Robert C.; Liu, Simin; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Patel, Alpa V.; Rabe, Kari G.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slimani, Nadia; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hartge, Patricia; Kraft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We developed an absolute risk model to identify individuals in the general population at elevated risk of pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods Using data on 3,349 cases and 3,654 controls from the PanScan Consortium, we developed a relative risk model for men and women of European ancestry based on non-genetic and genetic risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We estimated absolute risks based on these relative risks and population incidence rates. Results Our risk model included current smoking (multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval: 2.20 [1.84–2.62]), heavy alcohol use (>3 drinks/day) (OR: 1.45 [1.19–1.76]), obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) (OR: 1.26 [1.09–1.45]), diabetes >3 years (nested case-control OR: 1.57 [1.13–2.18], case-control OR: 1.80 [1.40–2.32]), family history of pancreatic cancer (OR: 1.60 [1.20–2.12]), non-O ABO genotype (AO vs. OO genotype) (OR: 1.23 [1.10–1.37]) to (BB vs. OO genotype) (OR 1.58 [0.97–2.59]), rs3790844(chr1q32.1) (OR: 1.29 [1.19–1.40]), rs401681(5p15.33) (OR: 1.18 [1.10–1.26]) and rs9543325(13q22.1) (OR: 1.27 [1.18–1.36]). The areas under the ROC curve for risk models including only non-genetic factors, only genetic factors, and both non-genetic and genetic factors were 58%, 57% and 61%, respectively. We estimate that fewer than 3/1,000 U.S. non-Hispanic whites have more than a 5% predicted lifetime absolute risk. Conclusion Although absolute risk modeling using established risk factors may help to identify a group of individuals at higher than average risk of pancreatic cancer, the immediate clinical utility of our model is limited. However, a risk model can increase awareness of the various risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including modifiable behaviors. PMID:24058443

  3. Scale-Free Correlations, Influential Neighbours and Speed Control in Flocks of Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Hildenbrandt, Hanno

    2015-02-01

    Coordination of birds in large flocks is amazing, especially, since individual birds only interact with a few neighbors (the so-called `influential neighbours'). Yet, empirical data show that fluctuations of velocity and speed of different birds are correlated beyond the influential neighbours and are correlated over a larger distance in a larger flock. This correlation between the correlation length of velocity or speed and flock size was found to be linear, called a scale-free correlation. It depends on the way individuals interact in the flock, for instance, on the number of influential neighbours and speed control. It is unknown however, how exactly the number of influential neighbours affects this scale-free correlation. Recent empirical data show that different degrees of control of speed affect the scale-free correlation for speed fluctuations. Theoretically, based on statistical mechanics, it is predicted that at very high speed control, the correlation is no longer scale-free but saturates at a certain correlation length and this hampers coordination in flocks. We study these issues in a model, called StarDisplay, because its behavioural rules are biologically inspired and many of its flocking patterns resemble empirical data. Our results show that the correlation length of fluctuations of velocity as well as speed correlate with flock size in a scale-free manner. A higher number of influential neighbours causes a diminishing increase of the slope of the scale-free correlation with velocity, resulting thus in flocks that coordinate more uniformly. Similar to recent empirical data higher speed control reduces the correlation length of speed fluctuations in our model. As predicted theoretically, at very high speed control the model generates a non-scale free correlation, and although there are still flocks, they are in the process of disintegrating.

  4. Job satisfaction and its influential factors.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ahmad; Mokhtari, Abbas Ali

    2010-06-24

    This study aimed at determining the job satisfaction level of the staff in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), northern Iran, and its influential factors.                         In this descriptive study, conducted in 2008, the participants were 384 workers in SUMS selected through simple random sampling procedure. The par-ticipants received a 33-item questionnaire in a Likert format (8 general items and 25 items related to job satisfaction facets). The collected data in form of frequen-cies and percentages were analyzed with SPSS software. 53.4% of interviewees were female and more than 60% had associate or higher degrees. 42.6% had less than 10 yr and 30.9% had 20 to 30 yr of job experience, respectively. The mean of the overall satisfaction was 13.02 out of 20. Regarding the facets of job satisfaction, work, coworkers, supervisor, and pro-motion had the highest means, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correla-tion coefficients showed a significant relationship between overall satisfaction and the facets (P= 0.001). Analysis of variance also showed significant difference in overall satisfaction based on organizational units; however, no significant rela-tionship was observed between overall satisfaction and gender, degree, age, job experience and type of employment. Improvement of promotion process, training and qualifying manag-ers, observing meritocracy principles in appointments, using  cooperative man-agement, creating convivial and friendly atmosphere and improving work envi-ronment conditions, have brought about an increase in overall satisfaction of em-ployees in SUMS.

  5. Identify and Quantify the Mechanistic Sources of Sensor Performance Variation Between Individual Sensors SN1 and SN2

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Baldwin, David L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Jones, Anthony M.; Larche, Michael R.; Mathews, Royce; Mullen, Crystal A.; Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Hartman, Trenton S.; Edwards, Matthew K.

    2014-08-06

    This Technical Letter Report satisfies the M3AR-14PN2301022 milestone, and is focused on identifying and quantifying the mechanistic sources of sensor performance variation between individual, 22-element, linear phased-array sensor prototypes, SN1 and SN2, respectively. This effort constitutes an iterative evolution that supports the longer term goal of producing and demonstrating a pre-manufacturing prototype ultrasonic probe that possesses the fundamental performance characteristics necessary to enable the development of a high-temperature sodium-cooled fast reactor inspection system. The scope of the work for this portion of the PNNL effort conducted in FY14 includes performing a comparative evaluation and assessment of the performance characteristics of the SN1 and SN2 22 element PA-UT probes manufactured at PNNL. Key transducer performance parameters, such as sound field dimensions, resolution capabilities, frequency response, and bandwidth are used as a metric for the comparative evaluation and assessment of the SN1 and SN2 engineering test units.

  6. Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jean-Charles; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Harold, Denise; Naj, Adam C; Sims, Rebecca; Bellenguez, Céline; Jun, Gyungah; DeStefano, Anita L; Bis, Joshua C; Beecham, Gary W; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Russo, Giancarlo; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Jones, Nicola; Smith, Albert V; Chouraki, Vincent; Thomas, Charlene; Ikram, M Arfan; Zelenika, Diana; Vardarajan, Badri N; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Gerrish, Amy; Schmidt, Helena; Kunkle, Brian; Dunstan, Melanie L; Ruiz, Agustin; Bihoreau, Marie-Thérèse; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Reitz, Christiane; Pasquier, Florence; Hollingworth, Paul; Ramirez, Alfredo; Hanon, Olivier; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Campion, Dominique; Crane, Paul K; Baldwin, Clinton; Becker, Tim; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cruchaga, Carlos; Craig, David; Amin, Najaf; Berr, Claudine; Lopez, Oscar L; De Jager, Philip L; Deramecourt, Vincent; Johnston, Janet A; Evans, Denis; Lovestone, Simon; Letenneur, Luc; Morón, Francisco J; Rubinsztein, David C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sleegers, Kristel; Goate, Alison M; Fiévet, Nathalie; Huentelman, Matthew J; Gill, Michael; Brown, Kristelle; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Keller, Lina; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; McGuinness, Bernadette; Larson, Eric B; Green, Robert; Myers, Amanda J; Dufouil, Carole; Todd, Stephen; Wallon, David; Love, Seth; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Gallacher, John; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleo, Alberto; Bayer, Anthony; Tsuang, Debby W; Yu, Lei; Tsolaki, Magda; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Proitsi, Petroula; Collinge, John; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez-Garcia, Florentino; Fox, Nick C; Hardy, John; Deniz Naranjo, Maria Candida; Bosco, Paolo; Clarke, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Galimberti, Daniela; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Matthews, Fiona; Moebus, Susanne; Mecocci, Patrizia; Zompo, Maria Del; Maier, Wolfgang; Hampel, Harald; Pilotto, Alberto; Bullido, Maria; Panza, Francesco; Caffarra, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Gilbert, John R; Mayhaus, Manuel; Lannfelt, Lars; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pichler, Sabrina; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Ingelsson, Martin; Beekly, Duane; Alvarez, Victoria; Zou, Fanggeng; Valladares, Otto; Younkin, Steven G; Coto, Eliecer; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L; Gu, Wei; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Pau; Mateo, Ignacio; Owen, Michael J; Faber, Kelley M; Jonsson, Palmi V; Combarros, Onofre; O’Donovan, Michael C; Cantwell, Laura B; Soininen, Hilkka; Blacker, Deborah; Mead, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; Harris, Tamara B; Fratiglioni, Laura; Holmes, Clive; de Bruijn, Renee F A G; Passmore, Peter; Montine, Thomas J; Bettens, Karolien; Rotter, Jerome I; Brice, Alexis; Morgan, Kevin; Foroud, Tatiana M; Kukull, Walter A; Hannequin, Didier; Powell, John F; Nalls, Michael A; Ritchie, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kauwe, John S K; Boerwinkle, Eric; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Boada, Mercè; Hiltunen, Mikko; Martin, Eden R; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rujescu, Dan; Wang, Li-san; Dartigues, Jean-François; Mayeux, Richard; Tzourio, Christophe; Hofman, Albert; Nöthen, Markus M; Graff, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Jones, Lesley; Haines, Jonathan L; Holmans, Peter A; Lathrop, Mark; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Launer, Lenore J; Farrer, Lindsay A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Moskvina, Valentina; Seshadri, Sudha; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Amouyel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Eleven susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) were identified by previous studies; however, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. We conducted a large, two-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In stage 1, we used genotyped and imputed data (7,055,881 SNPs) to perform meta-analysis on 4 previously published GWAS data sets consisting of 17,008 Alzheimer’s disease cases and 37,154 controls. In stage 2,11,632 SNPs were genotyped and tested for association in an independent set of 8,572 Alzheimer’s disease cases and 11,312 controls. In addition to the APOE locus (encoding apolipoprotein E), 19 loci reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) in the combined stage 1 and stage 2 analysis, of which 11 are newly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24162737

  7. Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

  8. Validity of administrative data claim-based methods for identifying individuals with diabetes at a population level.

    PubMed

    Southern, Danielle A; Roberts, Barbara; Edwards, Alun; Dean, Stafford; Norton, Peter; Svenson, Lawrence W; Larsen, Erik; Sargious, Peter; Lau, David C W; Ghali, William A

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of a widely-accepted administrative data surveillance methodology for identifying individuals with diabetes relative to three laboratory data reference standard definitions for diabetes. We used a combination of linked regional data (hospital discharge abstracts and physician data) and laboratory data to test the validity of administrative data surveillance definitions for diabetes relative to a laboratory data reference standard. The administrative discharge data methodology includes two definitions for diabetes: a strict administrative data definition of one hospitalization code or two physician claims indicating diabetes; and a more liberal definition of one hospitalization code or a single physician claim. The laboratory data, meanwhile, produced three reference standard definitions based on glucose levels +/- HbA1c levels. Sensitivities ranged from 68.4% to 86.9% for the administrative data definitions tested relative to the three laboratory data reference standards. Sensitivities were higher for the more liberal administrative data definition. Positive predictive values (PPV), meanwhile, ranged from 53.0% to 88.3%, with the liberal administrative data definition producing lower PPVs. These findings demonstrate the trade-offs of sensitivity and PPV for selecting diabetes surveillance definitions. Centralized laboratory data may be of value to future surveillance initiatives that use combined data sources to optimize case detection.

  9. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Hunter, Jill V.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Saleh, Mohammed A.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum. PMID:26942288

  10. Genome-Wide Association Analyses in 128,266 Individuals Identifies New Morningness and Sleep Duration Loci

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Samuel E.; Tyrrell, Jessica; Tuke, Marcus A.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Hu, Youna; Teder-Laving, Maris; Hayward, Caroline; Roenneberg, Till; Del Greco, Fabiola; Hicks, Andrew A.; Shin, Chol; Metspalu, Andres; Byrne, Enda M.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Tiemeier, Henning; Allebrandt, Karla V.; Murray, Anna; Hinds, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythms and reduced sleep duration are associated with several human diseases, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes, but until recently, little was known about the genetic factors influencing these heritable traits. We performed genome-wide association studies of self-reported chronotype (morning/evening person) and self-reported sleep duration in 128,266 white British individuals from the UK Biobank study. Sixteen variants were associated with chronotype (P<5x10-8), including variants near the known circadian rhythm genes RGS16 (1.21 odds of morningness, 95% CI [1.15, 1.27], P = 3x10-12) and PER2 (1.09 odds of morningness, 95% CI [1.06, 1.12], P = 4x10-10). The PER2 signal has previously been associated with iris function. We sought replication using self-reported data from 89,283 23andMe participants; thirteen of the chronotype signals remained associated at P<5x10-8 on meta-analysis and eleven of these reached P<0.05 in the same direction in the 23andMe study. We also replicated 9 additional variants identified when the 23andMe study was used as a discovery GWAS of chronotype (all P<0.05 and meta-analysis P<5x10-8). For sleep duration, we replicated one known signal in PAX8 (2.6 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.9, 3.2], P = 5.7x10-16) and identified and replicated two novel associations at VRK2 (2.0 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.3, 2.7], P = 1.2x10-9; and 1.6 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.1, 2.2], P = 7.6x10-9). Although we found genetic correlation between chronotype and BMI (rG = 0.056, P = 0.05); undersleeping and BMI (rG = 0.147, P = 1x10-5) and oversleeping and BMI (rG = 0.097, P = 0.04), Mendelian Randomisation analyses, with limited power, provided no consistent evidence of causal associations between BMI or type 2 diabetes and chronotype or sleep duration. Our study brings the total number of loci associated with chronotype to 22 and with sleep duration to three, and provides new insights into the biology of sleep and circadian

  11. Genome-Wide Association Analyses in 128,266 Individuals Identifies New Morningness and Sleep Duration Loci.

    PubMed

    Jones, Samuel E; Tyrrell, Jessica; Wood, Andrew R; Beaumont, Robin N; Ruth, Katherine S; Tuke, Marcus A; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Hu, Youna; Teder-Laving, Maris; Hayward, Caroline; Roenneberg, Till; Wilson, James F; Del Greco, Fabiola; Hicks, Andrew A; Shin, Chol; Yun, Chang-Ho; Lee, Seung Ku; Metspalu, Andres; Byrne, Enda M; Gehrman, Philip R; Tiemeier, Henning; Allebrandt, Karla V; Freathy, Rachel M; Murray, Anna; Hinds, David A; Frayling, Timothy M; Weedon, Michael N

    2016-08-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythms and reduced sleep duration are associated with several human diseases, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes, but until recently, little was known about the genetic factors influencing these heritable traits. We performed genome-wide association studies of self-reported chronotype (morning/evening person) and self-reported sleep duration in 128,266 white British individuals from the UK Biobank study. Sixteen variants were associated with chronotype (P<5x10-8), including variants near the known circadian rhythm genes RGS16 (1.21 odds of morningness, 95% CI [1.15, 1.27], P = 3x10-12) and PER2 (1.09 odds of morningness, 95% CI [1.06, 1.12], P = 4x10-10). The PER2 signal has previously been associated with iris function. We sought replication using self-reported data from 89,283 23andMe participants; thirteen of the chronotype signals remained associated at P<5x10-8 on meta-analysis and eleven of these reached P<0.05 in the same direction in the 23andMe study. We also replicated 9 additional variants identified when the 23andMe study was used as a discovery GWAS of chronotype (all P<0.05 and meta-analysis P<5x10-8). For sleep duration, we replicated one known signal in PAX8 (2.6 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.9, 3.2], P = 5.7x10-16) and identified and replicated two novel associations at VRK2 (2.0 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.3, 2.7], P = 1.2x10-9; and 1.6 minutes per allele, 95% CI [1.1, 2.2], P = 7.6x10-9). Although we found genetic correlation between chronotype and BMI (rG = 0.056, P = 0.05); undersleeping and BMI (rG = 0.147, P = 1x10-5) and oversleeping and BMI (rG = 0.097, P = 0.04), Mendelian Randomisation analyses, with limited power, provided no consistent evidence of causal associations between BMI or type 2 diabetes and chronotype or sleep duration. Our study brings the total number of loci associated with chronotype to 22 and with sleep duration to three, and provides new insights into the biology of sleep and circadian

  12. Sources of individual variability: miRNAs that predispose to neuropathic pain identified using genome-wide sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We carried out a genome-wide study, using microRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq), aimed at identifying miRNAs in primary sensory neurons that are associated with neuropathic pain. Such scans usually yield long lists of transcripts regulated by nerve injury, but not necessarily related to pain. To overcome this we tried a novel search strategy: identification of transcripts regulated differentially by nerve injury in rat lines very similar except for a contrasting pain phenotype. Dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) L4 and 5 in the two lines were excised 3 days after spinal nerve ligation surgery (SNL) and small RNAs were extracted and sequenced. Results We identified 284 mature miRNA species expressed in rat DRGs, including several not previously reported, and 3340 unique small RNA sequences. Baseline expression of miRNA was nearly identical in the two rat lines, consistent with their shared genetic background. In both lines many miRNAs were nominally up- or down-regulated following SNL, but the change was similar across lines. Only 3 miRNAs that were expressed abundantly (rno-miR-30d-5p, rno-miR-125b-5p) or at moderate levels (rno-miR-379-5p) were differentially regulated. This makes them prime candidates as novel PNS determinants of neuropathic pain. The first two are known miRNA regulators of the expression of Tnf, Bdnf and Stat3, gene products intimately associated with neuropathic pain phenotype. A few non-miRNA, small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) were also differentially regulated. Conclusions Despite its genome-wide coverage, our search strategy yielded a remarkably short list of neuropathic pain-related miRNAs. As 2 of the 3 are validated regulators of important pro-nociceptive compounds, it is likely that they contribute to the orchestration of gene expression changes that determine individual variability in pain phenotype. Further research is required to determine whether some of the other known or predicted gene targets of these miRNAs, or of the differentially

  13. In vivo readout of CFTR function: ratiometric measurement of CFTR-dependent secretion by individual, identifiable human sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Wine, Jeffrey J; Char, Jessica E; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A C; Tran, Kim V; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (~50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ~0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with 'CFTR-related' conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics.

  14. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-24

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  15. Systems Perturbation Analysis of a Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates for Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Allen, Laura; Hochfelder, Colleen; Majumder, Mahbubul; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model's components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components based on the magnitude of their influence on the rest of the system. Based on the premise that the most influential components might serve as better drug targets, we characterized them for biological functions, housekeeping genes, essential genes, and druggable proteins. The most influential components under all environmental conditions were enriched with several biological processes. The inositol pathway was found as most influential under inactivating perturbations, whereas the kinase and small lung cancer pathways were identified as the most influential under activating perturbations. The most influential components were enriched with essential genes and druggable proteins. Moreover, known cancer drug targets were also classified in influential components based on the affected components in the network. Additionally, the systemic perturbation analysis of the model revealed a network motif of most influential components which affect each other. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel combinations of cancer drug targets with various effects on other most influential components. We found that the combinatorial perturbation consisting of PI3K inactivation and overactivation of IP3R1 can lead to increased activity levels of apoptosis

  16. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I; Conti, David V; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B; Partin, Alan W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian E; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.

  17. 10 CFR 1008.4 - Procedures for identifying the individual making a request for access to or amendment of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system of records has been made pursuant to § 1008.6, valid identification of the individual making the... address and date of birth; or (2) Appearing at the appropriate DOE location during the regular business... address and date of birth; or (3) Providing such other proof of identity as the Privacy Act Officer...

  18. Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education…

  19. Analyzing Learner Characteristics, Undergraduate Experience and Individual Teamwork Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Toward Identifying Themes to Promote Higher Workforce Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Consuelo V.

    2009-01-01

    With the world amidst globalization and economic flux affecting business, industry, and communities the need to work together becomes increasingly important. Higher education serves an important role in developing the individual teaming capabilities of the workforce. This environment is the time and place--opportunity for student personnel to…

  20. A novel HLA-B*40 allele, B*40:01:40, identified in a Chinese individual.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y F; Huang, H N; Li, H C; Shen, W D

    A new allele, officially named B*40:01:40, was detected in a Chinese individual by sequence-based typing (SBT). The new allele differs from B*40:01:01 by a single nucleotide exchange at position 99 in codon 9, which results in synonymous substitution and seems not to compromise the HLA complex and T-cell receptor interaction.

  1. 10 CFR 1008.4 - Procedures for identifying the individual making a request for access to or amendment of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) General Provisions § 1008.4 Procedures for... address and date of birth; or (2) Appearing at the appropriate DOE location during the regular business... address and date of birth; or (3) Providing such other proof of identity as the Privacy Act Officer...

  2. 10 CFR 1008.4 - Procedures for identifying the individual making a request for access to or amendment of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) General Provisions § 1008.4 Procedures for... address and date of birth; or (2) Appearing at the appropriate DOE location during the regular business... address and date of birth; or (3) Providing such other proof of identity as the Privacy Act Officer...

  3. 10 CFR 1008.4 - Procedures for identifying the individual making a request for access to or amendment of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) General Provisions § 1008.4 Procedures for... address and date of birth; or (2) Appearing at the appropriate DOE location during the regular business... address and date of birth; or (3) Providing such other proof of identity as the Privacy Act Officer...

  4. 10 CFR 1008.4 - Procedures for identifying the individual making a request for access to or amendment of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) General Provisions § 1008.4 Procedures for... address and date of birth; or (2) Appearing at the appropriate DOE location during the regular business... address and date of birth; or (3) Providing such other proof of identity as the Privacy Act Officer...

  5. A Data-Based Approach to Discovering Multi-Topic Influential Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xing; Miao, Qiguang; Yu, Shangshang; Quan, Yining

    2016-01-01

    Recently, increasing numbers of users have adopted microblogging services as their main information source. However, most of them find themselves drowning in the millions of posts produced by other users every day. To cope with this, identifying a set of the most influential people is paramount. Moreover, finding a set of related influential users to expand the coverage of one particular topic is required in real world scenarios. Most of the existing algorithms in this area focus on topology-related methods such as PageRank. These methods mine link structures to find the expected influential rank of users. However, because they ignore the interaction data, these methods turn out to be less effective in social networks. In reality, a variety of topics exist within the information diffusing through the network. Because they have different interests, users play different roles in the diffusion of information related to different topics. As a result, distinguishing influential leaders according to different topics is also worthy of research. In this paper, we propose a multi-topic influence diffusion model (MTID) based on traces acquired from historic information. We decompose the influential scores of users into two parts: the direct influence determined by information propagation along the link structure and indirect influence that extends beyond the restrictions of direct follower relationships. To model the network from a multi-topical viewpoint, we introduce topic pools, each of which represents a particular topic information source. Then, we extract the topic distributions from the traces of tweets, determining the influence propagation probability and content generation probability. In the network, we adopt multiple ground nodes representing topic pools to connect every user through bidirectional links. Based on this multi-topical view of the network, we further introduce the topic-dependent rank (TD-Rank) algorithm to identify the multi-topic influential users

  6. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I.; Conti, David V.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O.; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A.; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Tim J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B.; Partin, Alan W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L.; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S. Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E.; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three novel susceptibility loci were revealed at P<5×10-8; 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 from multiethnic analyses and one was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with the known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk of the disease in European ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the utility of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  7. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1–Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Mackelprang, Romel D.; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure. Methods. We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1. Results. HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1–infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time. Conclusions. A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1–discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection. PMID:22926009

  8. Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Lindstrom, Sara; Canisius, Sander; Dennis, Joe; Lush, Michael; Maranian, Mel J; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Brand, Judith S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Behrens, Sabine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Ursin, Giske; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Casey, Graham; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Hoover, Robert N; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; van Limbergen, Erik; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Mulot, Claire; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Surowy, Harald; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm WR; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; TAN, Gie-Hooi; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John WM; Collée, J Margriet; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kristensen, Vessela N; Nord, Silje; Alnaes, Grethe I Grenaker; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Canzian, Federico; Trichopoulos, Dmitrios; Peeters, Petra; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc J; Palli, Domenico; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Dossus, Laure; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sutter, Christian; Yang, Rongxi; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Chan, Ching Wan; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Haeberle, Lothar; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Brinton, Louise; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert AEM; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul PDP; Kraft, Peter; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) and large scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ~14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS comprising of 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls, and 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 200K custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. Genotypes for more than 11M SNPs were generated by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. We identified 15 novel loci associated with breast cancer at P<5×10−8. Combining association analysis with ChIP-Seq data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data in ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 on 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 on 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino-acid substitution in EXO1. PMID:25751625

  9. A new HLA-B*51 variant, B*5158, identified by sequence-based typing in a Korean individual.

    PubMed

    Roh, E Y; Shin, S; Yoon, J H; Ahn, B M; Chang, J Y

    2009-04-01

    A novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*51 allele, officially named HLA-B*5158, was identified in the cord blood from Korean. HLA-B*5158 allele shows single nucleotide difference from B*510101 in exon 2 at nucleotide position 214 (C/T), resulting in an amino acid substitution, Trp48Arg.

  10. Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Lindstrom, Sara; Canisius, Sander; Dennis, Joe; Lush, Michael J; Maranian, Mel J; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Brand, Judith S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Behrens, Sabine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Ursin, Giske; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Casey, Graham; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J; Figueroa, Jonine; Hoover, Robert N; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; van Limbergen, Erik; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Mulot, Claire; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Surowy, Harald; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Tan, Gie-Hooi; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kristensen, Vessela N; Nord, Silje; Alnaes, Grethe I Grenaker; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Canzian, Federico; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc J; Palli, Domenico; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Dossus, Laure; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sutter, Christian; Yang, Rongxi; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Chan, Ching Wan; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Haeberle, Lothar; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Brinton, Louise; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul P D P; Kraft, Peter; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and large-scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ∼14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS, comprising 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls together with 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 211,155-marker custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. We generated genotypes for more than 11 million SNPs by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, and we identified 15 new loci associated with breast cancer at P < 5 × 10(-8). Combining association analysis with ChIP-seq chromatin binding data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data from ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 at 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 at 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino acid substitution encoded in EXO1.

  11. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality. PMID:26905891

  12. What factors are most influential in governing stemflow production from plantation-grown teak trees?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Levia, Delphis; Igarashi, Yasunori; Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Tanaka, Katsunori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Nanko, Kazuki; Suzuki, Masakazu; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2017-01-01

    Stemflow (SF) has been recognized as an important process delivering water to spatially localized areas of the forest floor. Based on almost six years of daily SF data from nine teak trees in a Thai plantation, together with detailed above-canopy meteorological data and daily leaf area index (LAI) data, this study sought to better understand how specific biotic and abiotic factors affect both individual and stand-scale SF production from teak trees. Specifically, the factors affecting stemflow funneling ratio (SFFR) at individual and stand scales were analyzed and compared by means of boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis. The largest variation of SFFR among individual teak trees was observed in the leafed state. For trees taller than average, the BRT analysis revealed that vapor pressure deficit during rain was the most influential factor affecting SFFR. Vapor pressure deficit had a negative influence on SFFR, implying significant control of evaporative demand during rain. In contrast, for trees shorter than the average, rain duration (RD) was the most influential variable, having a positive correlation with SFFR. The stand-scale BRT analysis for all nine teak trees demonstrated that RD was the most influential factor affecting SFFR (exerting positive influence) but that an array of other factors (both abiotic and biotic) played intricate and complex roles in governing SFFR. The effect of LAI on SFFR was complicated and varied greatly among individual teak trees. It is possible that spatially heterogeneous flowpaths of intercepted water inside the teak canopy, which could be a product of the large-sized mature leaves of teak, may account for the tree-to-tree variation in the responses of SFFR to changing LAI. Although our study focused on teak trees, the demonstrated physically-based mechanistic explanations of stemflow production could apply to other even-aged deciduous forests and monospecific plantations.

  13. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E; Looger, Loren L; Zhou, Xu-Jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Wren, Jonathan D; Harley, John B; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,478 SLE cases and 12,656 controls from six East Asian cohorts to identify new SLE susceptibility loci and better localize known loci. We identified ten new loci and confirmed 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the new loci, the most significant locus was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta = 3.75 × 10(-117), odds ratio (OR) = 2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We identified the most likely functional variants at each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene expression data. Ten candidate variants are known to alter gene expression in cis or in trans. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B cell and T cell biology. The new loci, together with previously known loci, increase the explained heritability of SLE to 24%. The new loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics.

  14. The development of a preference for cocaine over food identifies individual rats with addiction-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Westenbroek, Christel; Becker, Jill B

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-preferring and pellet-preferring rats. We also examined behavior in males and females to identify sex differences in this "addicted" phenotype. Preferences were identified during self-administration on a fixed-ratio schedule with cocaine-only, pellet-only and choice sessions. Motivation for each reward was probed early and late during self-administration using a progressive-ratio schedule. Reinstatement of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was examined following exposure to their cues and non-contingent delivery of each reward. Cocaine preferring rats increased their drug intake at the expense of pellets, displayed increased motivation for cocaine, attenuated motivation for pellets and greater cocaine and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Females were more likely to develop cocaine preferences and recidivism of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was sexually dimorphic. The choice self-administration paradigm is a valid preclinical model of addiction. The unbiased selection criteria also revealed sex-specific vulnerability factors that could be differentiated from generalized sex differences in behavior, which has implications for the neurobiology of addiction and effective treatments in each sex.

  15. One-year persistence of individual gait patterns identified in a follow-up study - A call for individualised diagnose and therapy.

    PubMed

    Horst, F; Mildner, M; Schöllhorn, W I

    2017-09-06

    Although a hunch about the individuality of human movements generally exists, differences in gait patterns between individuals are often neglected. To date, only a few studies distinguished individual gait patterns in terms of uniqueness and emphasised the relevance of individualised diagnoses and therapy. However, small sample sizes have been a limitation on identifying subjects based on gait patterns, and little is known about the permanence of subject-specific characteristics over time. The purpose of this study was (1) to prove the uniqueness of individual gait patterns within a larger sample and (2) to prove the long-term permanence of individual gait patterns. A sample of 128 healthy participants each walked a distance of 10m barefoot 10 times. Two force plates recorded the ground reaction forces during a double step at a self-selected walking speed. A subsample of 46 participants repeated this procedure after a period of 7-16 months. The application of support vector machines resulted in classification rates of 99.8% (1278 out of 1280) and 99.4% (914 out of 920) for the initial subject-classification and the subsample follow-up-classification, respectively. The results showed that gait patterns based on time-continuous ground reaction forces were unique to an individual and could be differentiated from those of other individuals. Support vector machines classified gait patterns to the corresponding individual almost error-free. Hence, human gait is not only different between individuals but also exhibits unique individual characteristics that are persistent over years. Our findings provide evidence for the individual nature of human walking and emphasise the need to evaluate individualised clinical approaches for diagnoses and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  17. Genome-wide association study of 40,000 individuals identifies two novel loci associated with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Liping; Bergen, Sarah E.; Akula, Nirmala; Song, Jie; Hultman, Christina M.; Landén, Mikael; Adli, Mazda; Alda, Martin; Ardau, Raffaella; Arias, Bárbara; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bauer, Michael; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bellivier, Frank; Benabarre, Antonio; Bengesser, Susanne; Berrettini, Wade H.; Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Birner, Armin; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise T.; Byerley, William; Cervantes, Pablo; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Colom, Francesc; Coryell, William; Craig, David W.; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Czerski, Piotr M.; Davis, Tony; Dayer, Alexandre; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Zompo, Maria; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Edenberg, Howard J.; Étain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Foroud, Tatiana; Forstner, Andreas J.; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A.; Fullerton, Janice M.; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie S.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Goes, Fernando S.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Herms, Stefan; Hipolito, Maria; Hitturlingappa, Shashi; Hoffmann, Per; Hofmann, Andrea; Jamain, Stephane; Jiménez, Esther; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kelsoe, John R.; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Koller, Daniel L.; König, Barbara; Lackner, Nina; Laje, Gonzalo; Lang, Maren; Lavebratt, Catharina; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G.; Liu, Chunyu; Maaser, Anna; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Maj, Mario; Manchia, Mirko; Martinsson, Lina; McCarthy, Michael J.; McElroy, Susan L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; McKinney, Rebecca; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mitjans, Marina; Mondimore, Francis M.; Monteleone, Palmiero; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Novák, Tomas; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Ösby, Urban; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B.; Propping, Peter; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Rice, John; Rietschel, Marcella; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Schalling, Martin; Scheftner, William A.; Schofield, Peter R.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schweizer, Barbara W.; Severino, Giovanni; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Shilling, Paul D.; Simhandl, Christian; Slaney, Claire M.; Smith, Erin N.; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Stopkova, Pavla; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Tighe, Sarah K.; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Vieta, Eduard; Volkert, Julia; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zollner, Sebastian; McMahon, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a genetically complex mental illness characterized by severe oscillations of mood and behaviour. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci that together account for a small portion of the heritability. To identify additional risk loci, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis of >9 million genetic variants in 9,784 bipolar disorder patients and 30,471 controls, the largest GWAS of BD to date. In this study, to increase power we used ∼2,000 lithium-treated cases with a long-term diagnosis of BD from the Consortium on Lithium Genetics, excess controls, and analytic methods optimized for markers on the X-chromosome. In addition to four known loci, results revealed genome-wide significant associations at two novel loci: an intergenic region on 9p21.3 (rs12553324, P =  5.87 × 10 − 9; odds ratio (OR) = 1.12) and markers within ERBB2 (rs2517959, P =  4.53 × 10 − 9; OR = 1.13). No significant X-chromosome associations were detected and X-linked markers explained very little BD heritability. The results add to a growing list of common autosomal variants involved in BD and illustrate the power of comparing well-characterized cases to an excess of controls in GWAS. PMID:27329760

  18. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E.; Looger, Loren L.; Zhou, Xu-jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Harley, John B.; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,492 SLE cases and 12,675 controls from six East-Asian cohorts, to identify novel and better localize known SLE susceptibility loci. We identified 10 novel loci as well as 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the novel loci, the most significant was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta=3.75×10−117, OR=2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We localized the most likely functional variants for each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene regulation data. Ten putative variants are known to alter cis- or trans-gene expression. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B- and T-cell biology. Together with previously known loci, the explained heritability of SLE increases to 24%. Novel loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci, and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics. PMID:26808113

  19. ConformRank: A conformity-based rank for finding top-k influential users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiyao; Jin, Yuehui; Cheng, Shiduan; Yang, Tan

    2017-05-01

    Finding influential users is a hot topic in social networks. For example, advertisers identify influential users to make a successful campaign. Retweeters forward messages from original users, who originally publish messages. This action is referred to as retweeting. Retweeting behaviors generate influence. Original users have influence on retweeters. Whether retweeters keep the same sentiment as original users is taken into consideration in this study. Influence is calculated based on conformity from emotional perspective after retweeting. A conformity-based algorithm, called ConformRank, is proposed to find top-k influential users, who make the most users keep the same sentiment after retweeting messages. Emotional conformity is introduced to denote how users conform to original users from the emotional perspective. Conforming weights are introduced to denote how two users keep the same sentiment after retweeting messages. Emotional conformity is applied for users and conforming weights are used for relations. Experiments were conducted on Sina Weibo. Experimental results show that users have larger influence when they publish positive messages.

  20. Exploring the influential factors in incident clearance time: Disentangling causation from self-selection bias.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuan; Ma, Xiaolei; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between influential factors and incident clearance time is crucial to make effective countermeasures for incident management agencies. Although there have been a certain number of achievements on incident clearance time modeling, limited effort is made to investigate the relative role of incident response time and its self-selection in influencing the clearance time. To fill this gap, this study uses the endogenous switching model to explore the influential factors in incident clearance time, and aims to disentangle causation from self-selection bias caused by response process. Under the joint two-stage model framework, the binary probit model and switching regression model are formulated for both incident response time and clearance time, respectively. Based on the freeway incident data collected in Washington State, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method is utilized to estimate the endogenous switching model parameters. Significant factors affecting incident response time and clearance time can be identified, including incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational attributes. The estimate results reveal the influential effects of incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational factors on incident response time and clearance time. In addition, the causality of incident response time itself and its self-selection correction on incident clearance time are found to be indispensable. These findings suggest that the causal effect of response time on incident clearance time will be overestimated if the self-selection bias is not considered.

  1. Role of centrality for the identification of influential spreaders in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Barbieri, André Luiz; Rodríguez, Pablo Martín; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Moreno, Yamir; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2014-09-01

    The identification of the most influential spreaders in networks is important to control and understand the spreading capabilities of the system as well as to ensure an efficient information diffusion such as in rumorlike dynamics. Recent works have suggested that the identification of influential spreaders is not independent of the dynamics being studied. For instance, the key disease spreaders might not necessarily be so important when it comes to analyzing social contagion or rumor propagation. Additionally, it has been shown that different metrics (degree, coreness, etc.) might identify different influential nodes even for the same dynamical processes with diverse degrees of accuracy. In this paper, we investigate how nine centrality measures correlate with the disease and rumor spreading capabilities of the nodes in different synthetic and real-world (both spatial and nonspatial) networks. We also propose a generalization of the random walk accessibility as a new centrality measure and derive analytical expressions for the latter measure for simple network configurations. Our results show that for nonspatial networks, the k-core and degree centralities are the most correlated to epidemic spreading, whereas the average neighborhood degree, the closeness centrality, and accessibility are the most related to rumor dynamics. On the contrary, for spatial networks, the accessibility measure outperforms the rest of the centrality metrics in almost all cases regardless of the kind of dynamics considered. Therefore, an important consequence of our analysis is that previous studies performed in synthetic random networks cannot be generalized to the case of spatial networks.

  2. [Which are the most influential journals, books and scientists in Latin American biology?].

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal

    2004-03-01

    A survey was distributed by e-mail to 553 biologists who study the Neotropics, in order to identify the journals, books and researchers with the greatest influence over Latin American biology. The biologists' database of the Revista de Biología Tropical was used to obtain their addresses. One third of them answered. The Revista de Biología Tropical is considered the most influential journal in the region. The majority of other influential journals are published in developed countries. The thematic distribution of answers, as well as independent assessments found in the literature, indicate that these and other survey results are not biased by the use of the journal's database. By subject, marine and ecological journals are the most influential. In contrast with American science, there are no researchers or books that clearly dominate the field. These results hint to the subjectivity of many awards and qualifications and possibly reflect a lack of tradition regarding appearance of local scientists in the mass media, the small capacity of world wide diffusion for local research and the low priority of science in the Iberoamerican culture. Latin American journals should improve, specially through efficient communication with authors, stringent rejection of inferior manuscripts and through widespread and timely distribution. The marked dominance by male researchers may reflect the lower number of women in the field, and social inequality. Despite the absence of "superstars", there was a correlation: most scientists in the "list of outstanding researchers" were from large countries. The publication of the most influential journal in one of the smallest countries of the region might reflect the relatively long period of existence of the Revista (half a century), the lack of other alternatives in the region and the journal's inclusion in international indices. Recommendations for Latin American science include a selection of the best journals to receive financial

  3. Genome-wide association study of 40,000 individuals identifies two novel loci associated with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liping; Bergen, Sarah E; Akula, Nirmala; Song, Jie; Hultman, Christina M; Landén, Mikael; Adli, Mazda; Alda, Martin; Ardau, Raffaella; Arias, Bárbara; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A; Barrett, Thomas B; Bauer, Michael; Baune, Bernhard T; Bellivier, Frank; Benabarre, Antonio; Bengesser, Susanne; Berrettini, Wade H; Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Biernacka, Joanna M; Birner, Armin; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise T; Byerley, William; Cervantes, Pablo; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Colom, Francesc; Coryell, William; Craig, David W; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Czerski, Piotr M; Davis, Tony; Dayer, Alexandre; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Zompo, Maria; DePaulo, J Raymond; Edenberg, Howard J; Étain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Foroud, Tatiana; Forstner, Andreas J; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A; Fullerton, Janice M; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie S; Gershon, Elliot S; Goes, Fernando S; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Herms, Stefan; Hipolito, Maria; Hitturlingappa, Shashi; Hoffmann, Per; Hofmann, Andrea; Jamain, Stephane; Jiménez, Esther; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kelsoe, John R; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Koller, Daniel L; König, Barbara; Lackner, Nina; Laje, Gonzalo; Lang, Maren; Lavebratt, Catharina; Lawson, William B; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G; Liu, Chunyu; Maaser, Anna; Mahon, Pamela B; Maier, Wolfgang; Maj, Mario; Manchia, Mirko; Martinsson, Lina; McCarthy, Michael J; McElroy, Susan L; McInnis, Melvin G; McKinney, Rebecca; Mitchell, Philip B; Mitjans, Marina; Mondimore, Francis M; Monteleone, Palmiero; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Nöthen, Markus M; Novák, Tomas; Nurnberger, John I; Nwulia, Evaristus A; Ösby, Urban; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B; Propping, Peter; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Rice, John; Rietschel, Marcella; Rouleau, Guy A; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Schalling, Martin; Scheftner, William A; Schofield, Peter R; Schork, Nicholas J; Schulze, Thomas G; Schumacher, Johannes; Schweizer, Barbara W; Severino, Giovanni; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Shilling, Paul D; Simhandl, Christian; Slaney, Claire M; Smith, Erin N; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Stopkova, Pavla; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Tighe, Sarah K; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Vieta, Eduard; Volkert, Julia; Witt, Stephanie H; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P; Zhang, Peng; Zollner, Sebastian; McMahon, Francis J

    2016-08-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a genetically complex mental illness characterized by severe oscillations of mood and behaviour. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci that together account for a small portion of the heritability. To identify additional risk loci, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis of >9 million genetic variants in 9,784 bipolar disorder patients and 30,471 controls, the largest GWAS of BD to date. In this study, to increase power we used ∼2,000 lithium-treated cases with a long-term diagnosis of BD from the Consortium on Lithium Genetics, excess controls, and analytic methods optimized for markers on the X-chromosome. In addition to four known loci, results revealed genome-wide significant associations at two novel loci: an intergenic region on 9p21.3 (rs12553324, P =  5.87 × 10 (-)  (9); odds ratio (OR) = 1.12) and markers within ERBB2 (rs2517959, P =  4.53 × 10 (-)  (9); OR = 1.13). No significant X-chromosome associations were detected and X-linked markers explained very little BD heritability. The results add to a growing list of common autosomal variants involved in BD and illustrate the power of comparing well-characterized cases to an excess of controls in GWAS. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  4. Ten Lives in Mine: Creating Portraits of Influential Chinese Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This is an essay about research methodology, particularly the use of narrative method, in a project which depicts portraits of 10 influential educators of China. The essay begins with reflections on the dialogue of civilizations and the potential future influence of Chinese civilization in the global community. It then goes on to consider the…

  5. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Nico M.; Pier, Naomi M.; Reeder, Deeann M.; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    treatments—in the sense of the same name identifying congruent taxonomic meanings. The RCC-5 alignment approach is potentially widely applicable in systematics and can achieve scalable, precise resolution of semantically evolving name usages in synthetic, next-generation biodiversity, and phylogeny data platforms. PMID:27009895

  6. Meta-Analysis of 28,141 Individuals Identifies Common Variants within Five New Loci That Influence Uric Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Serena; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Perola, Markus; Mangino, Massimo; Albrecht, Eva; Wallace, Chris; Farrall, Martin; Johansson, Åsa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Campbell, Harry; Connell, John; Dominiczak, Anna; Homuth, Georg; Lamina, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia; Nauck, Matthias; Peden, John; Prokisch, Holger; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Waterworth, Dawn; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Wright, Alan F.; Adamski, Jerzy; Whitfield, John B.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter; Watkins, Hugh; Doering, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Spector, Tim D.; Peltonen, Leena; Völzke, Henry; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Vollenweider, Peter; Caulfield, Mark; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2×10−201), ABCG2 (p = 3.1×10−26), SLC17A1 (p = 3.0×10−14), SLC22A11 (p = 6.7×10−14), SLC22A12 (p = 2.0×10−9), SLC16A9 (p = 1.1×10−8), GCKR (p = 1.4×10−9), LRRC16A (p = 8.5×10−9), and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7×10−9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0×10−26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0×10−8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4×10−57 and p = 8.1×10−54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels. PMID:19503597

  7. Comparison of methods to identify aberrant expression patterns in individual patients: augmenting our toolkit for precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-specific aberrant expression patterns in conjunction with functional screening assays can guide elucidation of the cancer genome architecture and identification of therapeutic targets. Since most statistical methods for expression analysis are focused on differences between experimental groups, the performance of approaches for patient-specific expression analyses are currently less well characterized. A comparison of methods for the identification of genes that are dysregulated relative to a single sample in a given set of experimental samples, to our knowledge, has not been performed. Methods We systematically evaluated several methods including variations on the nearest neighbor based outlying degree method, as well as the Zscore and a robust variant for their suitability to detect patient-specific events. The methods were assessed using both simulations and expression data from a cohort of pediatric acute B lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Results We first assessed power and false discovery rates using simulations and found that even under optimal conditions, high effect sizes (>4 unit differences) were necessary to have acceptable power for any method (>0.9) though high false discovery rates (>0.1) were pervasive across simulation conditions. Next we introduced a technical factor into the simulation and found that performance was reduced for all methods and that using weights with the outlying degree could provide performance gains depending on the number of samples and genes affected by the technical factor. In our use case that highlights the integration of functional assays and aberrant expression in a patient cohort (the identification of gene dysregulation events associated with the targets from a siRNA screen), we demonstrated that both the outlying degree and the Zscore can successfully identify genes dysregulated in one patient sample. However, only the outlying degree can identify genes dysregulated across several patient samples

  8. Genome-wide association analysis identifies novel loci for chronotype in 100,420 individuals from the UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Jacqueline M.; Vlasac, Irma; Anderson, Simon G.; Kyle, Simon D.; Dixon, William G.; Bechtold, David A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Little, Max A.; Luik, Annemarie; Loudon, Andrew; Emsley, Richard; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Lawlor, Deborah A.; Redline, Susan; Ray, David W.; Rutter, Martin K.; Saxena, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Our sleep timing preference, or chronotype, is a manifestation of our internal biological clock. Variation in chronotype has been linked to sleep disorders, cognitive and physical performance, and chronic disease. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of self-reported chronotype within the UK Biobank cohort (n=100,420). We identify 12 new genetic loci that implicate known components of the circadian clock machinery and point to previously unstudied genetic variants and candidate genes that might modulate core circadian rhythms or light-sensing pathways. Pathway analyses highlight central nervous and ocular systems and fear-response-related processes. Genetic correlation analysis suggests chronotype shares underlying genetic pathways with schizophrenia, educational attainment and possibly BMI. Further, Mendelian randomization suggests that evening chronotype relates to higher educational attainment. These results not only expand our knowledge of the circadian system in humans but also expose the influence of circadian characteristics over human health and life-history variables such as educational attainment. PMID:26955885

  9. GWAS of 89,283 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with self-reporting of being a morning person

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Youna; Shmygelska, Alena; Tran, David; Eriksson, Nicholas; Tung, Joyce Y.; Hinds, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are a nearly universal feature of living organisms and affect almost every biological process. Our innate preference for mornings or evenings is determined by the phase of our circadian rhythms. We conduct a genome-wide association analysis of self-reported morningness, followed by analyses of biological pathways and related phenotypes. We identify 15 significantly associated loci, including seven near established circadian genes (rs12736689 near RGS16, P=7.0 × 10−18; rs9479402 near VIP, P=3.9 × 10−11; rs55694368 near PER2, P=2.6 × 10−9; rs35833281 near HCRTR2, P=3.7 × 10−9; rs11545787 near RASD1, P=1.4 × 10−8; rs11121022 near PER3, P=2.0 × 10−8; rs9565309 near FBXL3, P=3.5 × 10−8. Circadian and phototransduction pathways are enriched in our results. Morningness is associated with insomnia and other sleep phenotypes; and is associated with body mass index and depression but we did not find evidence for a causal relationship in our Mendelian randomization analysis. Our findings reinforce current understanding of circadian biology and will guide future studies. PMID:26835600

  10. Does Vitamin D Supplementation Enhance Musculoskeletal Performance in Individuals Identified as Vitamin D Deficient through Blood Spot Testing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Kellie A.

    This thesis investigated possible changes in performance after one month of vitamin D supplementation in individuals found to be vitamin D deficient or insufficient through blood spot testing. Thirty-two males, ages 18-32, participated. Each subject visited the lab three times in one-month, completing four performance tests each session, including an isometric mid-thigh pull and a vertical jump on a force plate, a isometric 90-degree elbow flexion test using a load cell, and a psychomotor vigilance test on a palm pilot. The initial lab included blood spot tests to find vitamin D levels. In a single blind manner, 16 subjects were assigned vitamin D and 16 the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=2.626, p=0.364), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.282, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.304, p=0.999) for maximum force production during an isometric mid-thigh pull. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.323, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.510, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.625, p=0.860) for rate of force production during a vertical jump. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.194, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=2.452, p=0.513), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 1.179, p=0.999) for maximal force production during a 90-degree isometric elbow flexion. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=1.710, p=0.804), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=1.471, p=0.94), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F= 0.293, p=0.999) for mean reaction time to random stimuli during the psychomotor vigilance test. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis did not reveal any main effects for time (F=0.530, p=0.999), treatment (vitamin D3 vs placebo; F=0.141, p=0.999), or interaction effects for treatment by time (F=0.784 p=0

  11. A ‘Disease Severity Index’ to identify individuals with Subjective Memory Decline who will progress to mild cognitive impairment or dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daniel; Falahati, Farshad; Linden, Cecilia; Buckley, Rachel F.; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Savage, Greg; Villemagne, Victor L.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Ames, David; Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Subjective memory decline (SMD) is a heterogeneous condition. While SMD might be the earliest sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it also occurs in aging and various neurological, medical, and psychiatric conditions. Identifying those with higher risk to develop dementia is thus a major challenge. We tested a novel disease severity index generated by multivariate data analysis with numerous structural MRI measures as input. The index was used to identify SMD individuals with high risk of progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. A total of 69 healthy controls, 86 SMD, 45 MCI, and 38 AD patients were included. Subjects were followed up for 7.5 years. Clinical, cognitive, PET amyloid imaging and APOE ε4 data were used as outcome variables. The results showed that SMD evidenced cognitive performance intermediate between healthy controls and MCI. The disease severity index identified eleven (13%) SMD individuals with an AD-like pattern of brain atrophy. These individuals showed lower cognitive performance, increased CDR-SOB, higher amyloid burden and worse clinical progression (6.2 times higher likelihood to develop MCI, dementia or die than healthy controls). The current disease severity index may have relevance for clinical practice, as well as for selecting appropriate individuals for clinical trials. PMID:28287184

  12. Identifying high risk individuals for targeted lung cancer screening: Independent validation of the PLCOm2012 risk prediction tool.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marianne; Yap, Sarsha; Goldsbury, David; Manners, David; Tammemagi, Martin; Marshall, Henry; Brims, Fraser; McWilliams, Annette; Fong, Kwun; Kang, Yoon Jung; Caruana, Michael; Banks, Emily; Canfell, Karen

    2017-07-15

    Lung cancer screening with computerised tomography holds promise, but optimising the balance of benefits and harms via selection of a high risk population is critical. PLCOm2012 is a logistic regression model based on U.S. data, incorporating sociodemographic and health factors, which predicts 6-year lung cancer risk among ever-smokers, and thus may better predict those who might benefit from screening than criteria based solely on age and smoking history. We aimed to validate the performance of PLCOm2012 in predicting lung cancer outcomes in a cohort of Australian smokers. Predicted risk of lung cancer was calculated using PLCOm2012 applied to baseline data from 95,882 ever-smokers aged ≥45 years in the 45 and Up Study (2006-2009). Predictions were compared to lung cancer outcomes captured to June 2014 via linkage to population-wide health databases; a total of 1,035 subsequent lung cancer diagnoses were identified. PLCOm2012 had good discrimination (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve; AUC 0.80, 95%CI 0.78-0.81) and excellent calibration (mean and 90th percentiles of absolute risk difference between observed and predicted outcomes: 0.006 and 0.016, respectively). Sensitivity (69.4%, 95%CI, 65.6-73.0%) of the PLCOm2012 criteria in the 55-74 year age group for predicting lung cancers was greater than that using criteria based on ≥30 pack-years smoking and ≤15 years quit (57.3%, 53.3-61.3%; p < 0.0001), but specificity was lower (72.0%, 71.7-72.4% versus 75.2%, 74.8-75.6%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Targeting high risk people for lung cancer screening using PLCOm2012 might improve the balance of benefits versus harms, and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. © 2017 UICC.

  13. Development and validation of a scoring system to identify individuals at high risk for advanced colorectal neoplasms who should undergo colonoscopy screening.

    PubMed

    Tao, Sha; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Screening the population for colorectal cancer (CRC) by colonoscopy could reduce the disease burden. However, targeted screening of individuals at high risk could increase its cost effectiveness. We developed a scoring system to identify individuals with at least 1 advanced adenoma, based on easy-to-collect risk factors among 7891 participants of the German screening colonoscopy program. The system was validated in an independent sample of 3519 participants. Multiple logistic regression was used to develop the algorithm, and the regression coefficient-based scores were used to determine individual risks. Relative risk and numbers of colonoscopies needed for detecting one or more advanced neoplasm(s) were calculated for quintiles of the risk score. The predictive ability of the scoring system was quantified by the area under the curve. We identified 9 risk factors (sex, age, first-degree relatives with a history of CRC, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, red meat consumption, ever regular use [at least 2 times/wk for at least 1 y] of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, previous colonoscopy, and previous detection of polyps) that were associated significantly with risk of advanced neoplasms. The developed score was associated strongly with the presence of advanced neoplasms. In the validation sample, individuals in the highest quintile of scores had a relative risk for advanced neoplasm of 3.86 (95% confidence interval, 2.71-5.49), compared with individuals in the lowest quintile. The number needed to screen to detect 1 or more advanced neoplasm(s) varied from 20 to 5 between quintiles of the risk score. In the validation sample, the scoring system identified patients with CRC or any advanced neoplasm with area under the curve values of 0.68 and 0.66, respectively. We developed a scoring system, based on easy-to-collect risk factors, to identify individuals most likely to have advanced neoplasms. This system might be used to stratify individuals for CRC

  14. Distinct parasite populations infect individuals identified through passive and active case detection in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Searle, Kelly M; Katowa, Ben; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Siame, Mwiche N S; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Carpi, Giovanna; Norris, Douglas E; Stevenson, Jennifer C; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J

    2017-04-19

    Substantial reductions in the burden of malaria have been documented in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, with elimination strategies and goals being formulated in some regions. Within this context, understanding the epidemiology of low-level malaria transmission is crucial to achieving and sustaining elimination. A 24 single-nucleotide-polymorphism Plasmodium falciparum molecular barcode was used to characterize parasite populations from infected individuals identified through passive and active case detection in an area approaching malaria elimination in southern Zambia. The study was conducted in the catchment area of Macha Hospital in Choma District, Southern Province, Zambia, where the parasite prevalence declined over the past decade, from 9.2% in 2008 to less than 1% in 2013. Parasite haplotypes from actively detected, P. falciparum-infected participants enrolled in a serial cross-sectional, community-based cohort study from 2008 to 2013 and from passively detected, P. falciparum-infected individuals enrolled at five rural health centres from 2012 to 2015 were compared. Changes in P. falciparum genetic relatedness, diversity and complexity were analysed as malaria transmission declined. Actively detected cases identified in the community were most commonly rapid diagnostic test negative, asymptomatic and had submicroscopic parasitaemia. Phylogenetic reconstruction using concatenated 24 SNP barcode revealed a separation of parasite haplotypes from passively and actively detected infections, consistent with two genetically distinct parasite populations. For passively detected infections identified at health centres, the proportion of detectable polyclonal infections was consistently low in all seasons, in contrast with actively detected infections in which the proportion of polyclonal infections was high. The mean genetic divergence for passively detected infections was 34.5% for the 2012-2013 transmission season, 37.8% for the 2013-2014 season, and 30.8% for the

  15. Contact networks in a wildlife-livestock host community: identifying high-risk individuals in the transmission of bovine TB among badgers and cattle.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Monika; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2009-01-01

    The management of many pathogens, which are of concern to humans and their livestock, is complicated by the pathogens' ability to cross-infect multiple host species, including wildlife. This has major implications for the management of such diseases, since the dynamics of infection are dependent on the rates of both intra- and inter-specific transmission. However, the difficulty of studying transmission networks in free-living populations means that the relative opportunities for intra- versus inter-specific disease transmission have not previously been demonstrated empirically within any wildlife-livestock disease system. Using recently-developed proximity data loggers, we quantify both intra- and inter-specific contacts in a wildlife-livestock disease system, using bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in badgers and cattle in the UK as our example. We assess the connectedness of individuals within the networks in order to identify whether there are certain 'high-risk' individuals or groups of individuals for disease transmission within and between species. Our results show that contact patterns in both badger and cattle populations vary widely, both between individuals and over time. We recorded only infrequent interactions between badger social groups, although all badgers fitted with data loggers were involved in these inter-group contacts. Contacts between badgers and cattle occurred more frequently than contacts between different badger groups. Moreover, these inter-specific contacts involved those individual cows, which were highly connected within the cattle herd. This work represents the first continuous time record of wildlife-host contacts for any free-living wildlife-livestock disease system. The results highlight the existence of specific individuals with relatively high contact rates in both livestock and wildlife populations, which have the potential to act as hubs in the spread of disease through complex contact networks. Targeting testing or preventive

  16. Identifying Individual Risk Factors and Documenting the Pattern of Heat-Related Illness through Analyses of Hospitalization and Patterns of Household Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Schmeltz, Michael T.; Sembajwe, Grace; Marcotullio, Peter J.; Grassman, Jean A.; Himmelstein, David U.; Woolhandler, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events researchers and public health officials must work towards understanding the causes and outcomes of heat-related morbidity and mortality. While there have been many studies on both heat-related illness (HRI), there are fewer on heat-related morbidity than on heat-related mortality. Objective To identify individual and environmental risk factors for hospitalizations and document patterns of household cooling. Methods We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis of secondary U.S. data, the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Risk ratios were calculated from multivariable models to identify risk factors for hospitalizations. Hierarchical modeling was also employed to identify relationships between individual and hospital level predictors of hospitalizations. Patterns of air conditioning use were analyzed among the vulnerable populations identified. Results Hospitalizations due to HRI increased over the study period compared to all other hospitalizations. Populations at elevated risk for HRI hospitalization were blacks, males and all age groups above the age of 40. Those living in zip-codes in the lowest income quartile and the uninsured were also at an increased risk. Hospitalizations for HRI in rural and small urban clusters were elevated, compared to urban areas. Conclusions Risk factors for HRI include age greater than 40, male gender and hospitalization in rural areas or small urban clusters. Our analysis also revealed an increasing pattern of HRI hospitalizations over time and decreased association between common comorbidities and heat illnesses which may be indicative of underreporting. PMID:25742021

  17. Using Local Climate Science to Educate "Key Influentials" and their Communities in the San Diego Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Yin, Z.; Schultz, P.; Young, E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Diego Regional Climate Education Partnership has formed an innovative and collaborative team whose mission is to implement a research-based climate science education and communications program to increase knowledge about climate science among highly-influential leaders and their communities and foster informed decision making based on climate science and impacts. The team includes climate scientists, behavioral psychologists, formal and informal educators and communication specialists. The Partnership's strategic plan has three major goals: (1) raise public understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change; (2) identify the most effective educational methods to educate non-traditional audiences (Key Influentials) about the causes and consequences of climate change; and (3) develop and implement a replicable model for regional climate change education. To implement this strategic plan, we have anchored our project on three major pillars: (1) Local climate science (causes, impacts and long-term consequences); (2) theoretical, research-based evaluation framework (TIMSI); and (3) Key! Influentials (KI) as primary audience for messages (working w! ith and through them). During CCEP-I, the Partnership formed and convened an advisory board of Key Influentials, completed interviews with a sample of Key Influentials, conducted a public opinion survey, developed a website (www.sandiego.edu/climate) , compiled inventories on literature of climate science education resources and climate change community groups and local activities, hosted stakeholder forums, and completed the first phase of on an experiment to test the effects of different messengers delivering the same local climate change message via video. Results of 38 KI Interviews provided evidence of local climate knowledge, strong concern about climate change, and deeply held values related to climate change education and regional leadership. The most intriguing result was that while 90% of Key

  18. Anatomy of a serial killer: differential diagnosis of tuberculosis based on rib lesions of adult individuals from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Luísa; Roberts, Charlotte Ann

    2006-05-01

    The role of new bone formation on visceral surfaces of ribs in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in past human populations has been explored by many researchers, using both skeletal remains with known causes of death and archaeological samples. This study focuses, firstly, on adult skeletons from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection in Portugal and investigates the skeletal manifestations of individuals known to have died from TB; secondly, this study focuses on the role of rib lesions in the diagnostic criteria for TB. One hundred and fifty-seven males and 106 females aged between 22-87 years were examined; causes of death were assigned as pulmonary TB, extrapulmonary TB, and pulmonary non-TB; a control group, extrapulmonary non-TB, was selected from the remaining individuals. Of individuals with rib lesions, 85.7% (69/81) had pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB as an assigned cause of death, while 17.8% (16/90) of individuals with rib lesions had a non-TB cause of death. Rib lesions were significantly more common in individuals who had died from TB, although the lesions cannot be considered pathognomonic for TB. In individuals dying from pulmonary TB, ribs in the central part of the rib cage were most affected, at their vertebral ends. The lower part of the rib cage may be a marker for peritoneal TB, and "coral-like" new bone formation on ribs may be an indicator of neoplastic disease. Further work on rib involvement in TB in clinical contexts, and the study of further documented skeletal collections, are recommended.

  19. Nonparametric linkage regression. II: Identification of influential pedigrees in tests for linkage.

    PubMed

    Davis, C C; Brown, W M; Lange, E M; Rich, S S; Langefeld, C D

    2001-01-01

    We applied case-deletion-based diagnostics to the combined Caucasian genome scan data for asthma and IgE from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) and German family studies in order to identify influential pedigrees in tests for linkage. These methods identified 12 pedigrees whose data appear not to fit the asthma linkage model and for whom alternative genetic and nongenetic explanations can be explored. The methods also identified four pedigrees for chromosome 1 and two pedigrees for chromosome 2 that provide strong evidence for linkage at their respective loci. Similarly, these methods helped identify four pedigrees that strongly influenced the linkage tests for IgE. From these data, we can construct an enriched subset of pedigrees to be used in further analysis for mapping region-specific putative trait predisposing loci.

  20. Performance analysis of a machine learning flagging system used to identify a group of individuals at a high risk for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kinar, Yaron; Akiva, Pinchas; Choman, Eran; Kariv, Revital; Shalev, Varda; Levin, Bernard; Narod, Steven A.; Goshen, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a tendency to intestinal bleeding which may result in mild to severe iron deficiency anemia, but for many colon cancer patients hematological abnormalities are subtle. The fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is used as a pre-screening test whereby those with a positive FOBT are referred to colonscopy. We sought to determine if information contained in the complete blood count (CBC) report coud be processed automatically and used to predict the presence of occult colorectal cancer (CRC) in the setting of a large health services plan. Using the health records of the Maccabi Health Services (MHS) we reviewed CBC reports for 112,584 study subjects of whom 133 were diagnosed with CRC in 2008 and analysed these with the MeScore tool. The odds ratio for being diagnosed with CRC in 2008 was calculated with regards to the MeScore, using cutoff levels of 97% and 99% percentiles. For individuals in the highest one percentile, the odds ratio for CRC was 21.8 (95% CI 13.8 to 34.2). For the majority of the individuals with cancer, CRC was not suspected at the time of the blood draw. Frequent use of anticoagulants, the presence of other gastrointestinal pathologies and non-GI malignancies were assocaitged with false positive MeScores. The MeScore can help identify individuals in the population who would benefit most from CRC screening, including those with no clinical signs or symptoms of CRC. PMID:28182647

  1. Identifying a hunter responsible for killing a hunting dog by individual-specific genetic profiling of wild boar DNA transferred to the canine during the accidental shooting.

    PubMed

    Schleimer, Anna; Frantz, Alain C; Lang, Johannes; Reinert, Phillipe; Heddergott, Mike

    2016-12-01

    While genetic profiling can be a powerful tool to solve wildlife crime, comparably few examples of individual identification in wildlife forensics are available in the literature. Here, we report a case of an accidental shooting of a hunting dog during a wild boar drive hunt. The market value of trained hunting dogs can reach several thousand euro. No one admitted to killing the dog. Wild boar hairs were found in the dog's wound, suggesting that the bullet first hit a wild boar and then the dog. Since it was known who harvested each boar, we aimed to use individual-specific genetic profiles to link these hairs to a bagged animal and to identify the culprit. We genotyped 19 harvested boar and the unknown hair sample using 13 STRs. In the case of the hair sample, we performed multiple genotyping to ensure the reliability of the genetic profile. We showed that we genotyped sufficient loci to distinguish between separate individuals with certainty. While the three most informative loci were enough to differentiate the 19 reference individuals, we did find a perfect match at all 13 STRs between the hair DNA and one tissue sample. Since our methods were reliable and reproducible, we passed the relevant information on to forestry officials who will use the information we have provided to attempt to find an amicable solution.

  2. Characterizing public health emergency perceptions and influential modifiers of willingness to respond among pediatric healthcare staff.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christopher M; Barnett, Daniel J; Thompson, Carol B; Hsu, Edbert B; Catlett, Christina L; Gwon, Howard S; Semon, Natalie L; Balicer, Ran D; Links, Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the public health emergency perceptions and willingness to respond (WTR) of hospital-based pediatric staff and to use these findings to propose a methodology for developing an institution-specific training package to improve response willingness. A prospective anonymous web-based survey was conducted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, including the 180-bed Johns Hopkins Children's Center, between January and March 2009. In this survey, participants' attitudes/beliefs regarding emergency response to a pandemic influenza and a radiological dispersal device (RDD or "dirty bomb") event were assessed. Of the 1,620 eligible pediatric staff 246 replies (15.2 percent response rate) were received, compared with an overall staff response rate of 18.4 percent. Characteristics of respondent demographics and professions were similar to those of overall hospital staff. Self-reported WTR was greater for a pandemic influenza than for an RDD event if required (84.6 percent vs 75.1 percent), and if asked, but not required (74.4 percent vs 64.5 percent). The majority of pediatric staff were not confident in their safety at work (pandemic influenza: 51.8 percent and RDD: 76.6 percent), were far less likely to respond if personal protective equipment was unavailable (pandemic influenza: 33.5 percent and RDD: 21.6percent), and wanted furtherpre-event preparation and training (pandemic influenza: 89.6 percent and RDD: 82.6 percent). The following six distinct perceived attitudes / beliefs were identified as having institution-specific high impact on response willingness: colleague response, skill mastery, safety getting to work, safety at work, ability to perform duties, and individual response efficacy. Children represent a uniquely vulnerable population in public health emergencies, and pediatric hospital staff accordingly represent a vital subset of responders distinguished by specialized education, training, clinical skills, and disaster

  3. Identifying Differentiation Stage of Individual Primary Hematopoietic Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow by Multivariate Analysis of TOF-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Data

    PubMed Central

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Choi, Ji Sun; Wilson, Robert L.; Harley, Brendan A. C.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple types of blood and immune cells renders hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) valuable for clinical treatment of hematopoietic pathologies and as models of stem cell differentiation for tissue engineering applications. To study directed HSC differentiation and identify the conditions that recreate the native bone marrow environment, combinatorial biomaterials that exhibit lateral variations in chemical and mechanical properties are employed. New experimental approaches are needed to facilitate correlating cell differentiation stage with location in the culture system. We demonstrate that multivariate analysis of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) data can be used to identify the differentiation state of individual hematopoietic cells (HCs) isolated from mouse bone marrow. Here, we identify primary HCs from three distinct stages of B cell lymphopoiesis at the single cell level: HSPCs, common lymphoid progenitors, and mature B cells. The differentiation state of individual HCs in a test set could be identified with a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model that was constructed with calibration spectra from HCs of known differentiation status. The lowest error of identification was obtained when the intra-population spectral variation between the cells in the calibration and test sets was minimized. This approach complements the traditional methods that are used to identify HC differentiation stage. Further, the ability to gather mass spectrometry data from single HSCs cultured on graded biomaterial substrates may provide significant new insight into how HSPCs respond to extrinsic cues as well as the molecular changes that occur during cell differentiation. PMID:22507202

  4. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level.

  5. Accuracy of Pooled-Cohort Equation and SCORE cardiovascular risk calculators to identify individuals with high coronary atherosclerotic burden - implications for statin treatment.

    PubMed

    Tralhão, António; Ferreira, António M; Gonçalves, Pedro de Araújo; Rodrigues, Rita; Costa, Cátia; Guerreiro, Sara; Cardim, Nuno; Marques, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Different cardiovascular risk calculators and risk-based thresholds for initiating statin therapy are currently in use. Using coronary computed tomography angiography, we sought to compare the Pooled-Cohort Equation [atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score] with the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in the identification of patients with high coronary atherosclerotic burden. In a single-center prospective registry of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography, we identified individuals aged 40-75 years without diabetes or known cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk and eligibility for statin therapy were determined individually on the basis of the two calculators and the guidelines that endorse them. Coronary atherosclerotic burden was assessed by coronary calcium score, presence of stenosis greater than or equal to 50%, and several measures of plaque severity and extension. In the 327 patients assessed (181 men, mean age 59±9 years), the median SCORE and ASCVD values were 2.6 and 9.7%, respectively. Compared with SCORE, the ASCVD calculator showed greater discriminative power to identify patients with calcium score greater than or equal to 300 [C-statistic 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.82 vs. 0.69, 95% CI 0.61-0.78, P=0.008] and showed a trend toward better identification of patients with obstructive stenosis (C-statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.64-0.80 vs. 0.68, 95% CI 0.60-0.76, P=0.053). The proportion of statin-eligible patients would be higher with the SCORE-based criteria, particularly among individuals with little or no detectable coronary atherosclerosis. The SCORE calculator seems to be less discriminative than the ASCVD equation in identifying patients with high atherosclerotic burden. Current SCORE-based criteria would assign statin therapy to a larger proportion of patients with low-risk features, which could result in a lower yield of cholesterol-reducing strategies.

  6. Individualized Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification Using the 2005 Caprini Score to Identify the Benefits and Harms of Chemoprophylaxis in Surgical Patients: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pannucci, Christopher J; Swistun, Lukasz; MacDonald, John K; Henke, Peter K; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2017-06-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to investigate benefits and harms of chemoprophylaxis among surgical patients individually risk stratified for venous thromboembolism (VTE) using Caprini scores. Individualized VTE risk stratification may identify high risk surgical patients who benefit from peri-operative chemoprophylaxis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were queried. Eligible studies contained data on postoperative VTE and/or bleeding events with and without chemoprophylaxis. Primary outcomes included rates of VTE and clinically relevant bleeding after surgical procedures, stratified by Caprini score. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. Among 13 included studies, 11 (n = 14,776) contained data for VTE events and 8 (n = 7590) contained data for clinically relevant bleeding with and without chemoprophylaxis. The majority of patients received mechanical prophylaxis. A 14-fold variation in VTE risk (from 0.7% to 10.7%) was identified among surgical patients who did not receive chemoprophylaxis, and patients at increased levels of Caprini risk were significantly more likely to have VTE. Patients with Caprini scores of 7 to 8 [odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.37-0.97] and >8 (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.65) had significant VTE risk reduction after surgery with chemoprophylaxis. Patients with Caprini scores ≤6 comprised 75% of the overall population, and these patients did not have a significant VTE risk reduction with chemoprophylaxis. No association between postoperative bleeding risk and Caprini score was identified. The benefit of peri-operative VTE chemoprophylaxis was only found among surgical patients with Caprini scores ≥7. Precision medicine using individualized VTE risk stratification helps ensure that chemoprophylaxis is used only in appropriate surgical patients and may minimize bleeding complications.

  7. [Analysis of colliery migrant workers quality of life and its influential factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodeng; Tuo, Anxie; Peng, Anhui; Liao, Weifang; He, Wanjing; Zhu, Peijia; Yan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    To study colliery migrant workers' quality of life and related influential factors. By multi-stage random sampling, 1161 colliery migrant workers were collected and assessed with the SF-36 and the self-made questionnaires. Multiple covariance and optimal scaling regression statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Physiological and mental health filed of colliery migrant workers, the physical functioning (PF), role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH) and vitality (VT) score of those colliery migrant workers whose working age was less than 5 years higher than those over 10 years. The PF, RP, BP, GH, mental health (MH), VT and SF based within the health group, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who suffer from chronic diseases. The RP, GH and social functioning (SF) based within the mild labor intensity, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who severe labor intensity. The PF and RE based within the non-initial coal mine work, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who initial coal mine work. The PF, BP and VT based within the pre-employment physical examination, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who non pre-employment physical examination. The MH based within the smoking, resulted in a higher score, compared to those who no smoking. These differences were statistical significance (P < 0.05). Multiple factors analysis showed that working age (F = 19.26, P < 0.01), chronic diseases (F = 13.89, P < 0.01) and initial coal mine work (F = 8.48, P < 0.01) were the influential factors of physical component summary (PCS). Labor intensity (F = 5.90, P < 0.01), smoking (F = 10.45, P < 0.01) and chronic diseases (F = 7.91, P < 0.01) were the influential factors of mental component summary (MCS). There are some difference in individual characteristics (e. g. working age). Working age, chronic diseases, initial coal mine work, labor intensity, smoking are the influential factors for quality of life.

  8. Serotonin-immunoreactivity in the ventral nerve cord of Pycnogonida--support for individually identifiable neurons as ancestral feature of the arthropod nervous system.

    PubMed

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2015-07-10

    The arthropod ventral nerve cord features a comparably low number of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, occurring in segmentally repeated arrays. In different crustaceans and hexapods, these neurons have been individually identified and even inter-specifically homologized, based on their soma positions and neurite morphologies. Stereotypic sets of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons are also present in myriapods, whereas in the investigated chelicerates segmental neuron clusters with higher and variable cell numbers have been reported. This led to the suggestion that individually identifiable serotonin-immunoreactive neurons are an apomorphic feature of the Mandibulata. To test the validity of this neurophylogenetic hypothesis, we studied serotonin-immunoreactivity in three species of Pycnogonida (sea spiders). This group of marine arthropods is nowadays most plausibly resolved as sister group to all other extant chelicerates, rendering its investigation crucial for a reliable reconstruction of arthropod nervous system evolution. In all three investigated pycnogonids, the ventral walking leg ganglia contain different types of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, the somata of which occurring mostly singly or in pairs within the ganglionic cortex. Several of these neurons are readily and consistently identifiable due to their stereotypic soma position and characteristic neurite morphology. They can be clearly homologized across different ganglia and different specimens as well as across the three species. Based on these homologous neurons, we reconstruct for their last common ancestor (presumably the pycnogonid stem species) a minimal repertoire of at least seven identified serotonin-immunoreactive neurons per hemiganglion. Beyond that, each studied species features specific pattern variations, which include also some neurons that were not reliably labeled in all specimens. Our results unequivocally demonstrate the presence of individually identifiable serotonin

  9. Real-time PCR/DNA melting curve-based assay to identify individual strongylid larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jacqueline S; Bisset, Stewart A

    2015-12-15

    A closed-tube real-time PCR (RT PCR) method was developed to identify individual strongylid nematode larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures. The method builds on an earlier conventional PCR assay established by our group and similarly targets species-specific sequence motifs in the ITS-2 region of ribosomal DNA. The new procedure combines RT PCR with DNA melting curve analyses to identify species-specific amplicons, thus avoiding the need to undertake gel electrophoresis. As with the earlier method, it involves two sets of species-specific reactions. The first targets Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Nematodirus spathiger and Oesophagostomum venulosum while the second targets Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina. With two exceptions, all the DNA primers employed in the new assay were among those described and tested in developing the earlier assay. The exceptions are the forward "generic" primer, which was re-designed to generate smaller amplicon sizes more suitable for melting curve analyses, and the T. axei-specific primer, which was modified to achieve a higher amplicon melt temperature to enable larvae of this species to be more readily differentiated from those of C. curticei. The melt temperature range for amplicons representing each of the species targeted was determined using lysates derived from both microscopically identified adult male worms (2-12/species), as well as 30 larvae of each of the species which were derived from at least 6 different geographical locations throughout New Zealand. The new assay potentially provides a simpler, faster method to identify individual ovine strongylid larvae for downstream applications than was provided by the earlier conventional PCR assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the relative importance of surface ozone influential variables in regional-scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Zhen; Wang, Dong

    The multilayer perceptron (MLP) model is frequently used to assess the relative importance (RI) of surface ozone influential variables when they are used to investigate ozone variation mechanisms. Previous studies, however, suffer from two limitations: 1) indentifying or searching the optimal MLP topology to avoid a biased RI assessment inevitably incurs a heavy computational burden, and 2) the model is suitable only for local-scale analysis of ozone variation mechanisms. To tackle both problems, we selected three typical air-quality monitoring sites in Hong Kong as our study targets, as the ozone variations at these sites are inhomogeneously affected by regional and local factors. An MLP model trained by automatic relevance determination (referred to as MLP-ARD), a Bayesian MLP approach, was employed to assess the RI for both regional and local ozone influential variables. The results indicated the following remarks: 1) The MLP-ARD model, due to its high degree of resistance to both the over-fitting and the under-fitting problems, is exempt from identifying or searching the optimal MLP topology when used to obtain an unbiased RI assessment and thus avoid the heavy computational burden. Furthermore, the RI assessment results obtained with the MLP-ARD method are comparable to those of the best assessment method in the literature. Based on these findings, decision-makers can scientifically promulgate a site-specific air pollution control strategy site; 2) Regional-scale analysis of ozone variation is indispensable, as taking the key regional ozone influential variables into account significantly improves the prediction accuracy of the MLP-ARD model, especially on peak ozone days.

  11. The 100 most influential publications pertaining to intracranial aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, James; Agarwal, Nitin; Hamilton, D Kojo; Koltz, Michael T

    2017-03-25

    The study of intracranial aneurysms has grown at an astounding rate since Sir Charles Symond's association of hemorrhage within the subarachnoid space to intracranial aneurysms in 1923. These associations led to the first surgical treatment of an intracranial aneurysm with wrapping by Norman Dott in 1931, and shortly thereafter, clip ligation by Walter Dandy in 1938. Surgical outcomes were improved by the introduction of the operative microscope in the 1960s and perioperative care utilizing induced hypertension, hypovolemia, and hemodilution ("HHH therapy"). Recent monumental advancements, such as coil embolization in 1990 by Guglielmi, have continued to advance the field forward. The authors hope to highlight some of the most seminal and influential works. Herein, we utilize the technique of citation analysis to assemble a list of the 100 most influential works pertaining to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage published between the years 1900 and 2015 to honor these individuals and to provide guidance to current and future researchers in the field. We additionally calculate the effects of author, journal, topic, and study design on the overall influence of publications in this field.

  12. [Demands for cardiac rehabilitation information in patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and influential factors].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Huang, Lingzhi; Li, Lezhi

    2017-08-28

    To investigate the demands for cardiac rehabilitation information in patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD) and influential factors. 
 Methods: Information demands for cardiac rehabilitation in CHD patients were surveyed by questionnaire and the influential factors were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and multi-factor analysis of variance.
 Results: The score of demands for cardiac rehabilitation information in CHD patients was 3.86±0.53. Among them, the most urgent top 5 items were: drug knowledge, diagnosis and treatment, basic knowledge of the heart, emergency and safety and nutrition knowledge. The top 3-demand modes were: communication with medical workers, movies or videos to take home, and lectures. The score of demands for cardiac rehabilitation information was different in different age groups. The highest score was in the patients with age less than 60. There were different demands in different characteristic groups.
 Conclusion: The most urgent need and mode are drug knowledge and communication with medical workers, respectively. With the age increase, the demands for patients' cardiac rehabilitation information decrease. An individualized health education strategy should be developed according to the characteristics of CHD patients.

  13. Alternative effector-function profiling identifies broad HIV-specific T-cell responses in highly HIV-exposed individuals who remain uninfected.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-03-15

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine-like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders.

  14. Alternative Effector-Function Profiling Identifies Broad HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses in Highly HIV-Exposed Individuals Who Remain Uninfected

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A.; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T.; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine–like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:25249264

  15. Gene-centric Meta-analysis in 87,736 Individuals of European Ancestry Identifies Multiple Blood-Pressure-Related Loci

    PubMed Central

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N.; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C.; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gho, Johannes M.I.H.; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E.; Leach, Irene Mateo; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J.; Van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O.L.; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Curtis, Sean P.; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E.; Hofker, Marten H.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kim, Daniel S.; Kirkland, Susan A.; Klein, Barbara E.; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R.; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O’Brien, Eoin T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M.; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P.; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J. Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Davidson, Karina W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Gums, John G.; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L.; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S.; O’Connell, Jeffery R.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Pankow, James S.; Rader, Daniel J.; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P.; Schadt, Eric E.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D.; Reiner, Alex P.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Keating, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10−7) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification. PMID:24560520

  16. A meta-analysis of public microarray data identifies gene regulatory pathways deregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus compared to those without.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Wendy; Mapiye, Darlington; Entfellner, Jean-Baka Domelevo; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-11-15

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex, multi-systemic, autoimmune disease for which the underlying aetiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The genetic and molecular processes underlying lupus have been extensively investigated using a variety of -omics approaches, including genome-wide association studies, candidate gene studies and microarray experiments of differential gene expression in lupus samples compared to controls. This study analyses a combination of existing microarray data sets to identify differentially regulated genetic pathways that are dysregulated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients compared to unaffected controls. Two statistical approaches, quantile discretisation and scaling, are used to combine publicly available expression microarray datasets and perform a meta-analysis of differentially expressed genes. Differentially expressed genes implicated in interferon signaling were identified by the meta-analysis, in agreement with the findings of the individual studies that generated the datasets used. In contrast to the individual studies, however, the meta-analysis and subsequent pathway analysis additionally highlighted TLR signaling, oxidative phosphorylation and diapedesis and adhesion regulatory networks as being differentially regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SLE patients compared to controls. Our analysis demonstrates that it is possible to derive additional information from publicly available expression data using meta-analysis techniques, which is particularly relevant to research into rare diseases where sample numbers can be limiting.

  17. Gene-centric meta-analysis in 87,736 individuals of European ancestry identifies multiple blood-pressure-related loci.

    PubMed

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R; Ganesh, Santhi K; Lanktree, Matthew B; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E; Gaunt, Tom R; Gho, Johannes M I H; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E; Mateo Leach, Irene; McDonough, Caitrin W; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P; Nolte, Ilja M; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J; Van Iperen, Erik P A; Vonk, Judith M; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O L; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L; Berenson, Gerald S; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Connell, John M; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Curtis, Sean P; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E; Hofker, Marten H; Hovingh, G Kees; Kim, Daniel S; Kirkland, Susan A; Klein, Barbara E; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Brien, Eoin T; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ranchalis, Jane E; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Verschuren, W Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Bezzina, Connie R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Davidson, Karina W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Dominiczak, Anna F; FitzGerald, Garret A; Gums, John G; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P; Johnson, Julie A; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pankow, James S; Rader, Daniel J; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P; Schadt, Eric E; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V; Tobin, Martin D; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Samani, Nilesh J; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D; Reiner, Alex P; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I W; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Munroe, Patricia B; Keating, Brendan J

    2014-03-06

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ~50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10(-7)) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  19. Repurposed Automated Handheld Counter as a Point-of-Care Tool to Identify Individuals ‘At Risk’ of Serious Post-Ivermectin Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Kamgno, Joseph; Wanji, Samuel; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Administration of ivermectin (IVM) as part of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs) associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml). One simple approach for preventing SAEs is to identify and exclude individuals at risk from MDA. Here, we describe a repurposed hand-held automated cell counter (Scepter 2.0; HHAC) as a rapid, point-of-care method for quantifying microfilariae (mf) in the blood of infected individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings The quantification of microfilarial levels in blood of naturally infected humans, experimentally infected baboons, or mf-spiked human blood was tested using a microfluidic-based automated counter and compared to traditional calibrated thick-smears. We demonstrate that mf can be quantified in 20 µl of whole blood following lysis with 10% saponin within a minute of obtaining blood. There was a highly significant concordance between the counts obtained by the HHAC and those by microscopy for mf densities of >5,000 (p<0.0001, rc = 0.97) or >30,000 per ml (p<0.0001, rc = 0.90). Preliminary proof of concept field studies in Cameroon with 20 µl of blood from L. loa infected humans (n = 22) and baboons (n = 4) also demonstrated a significantly high concordance (p<0.0001, rc = 0.89) with calibrated thick blood smears counts. Conclusions/Significance A repurposed HHAC is a portable, sensitive, rapid, point-of-care and quantitative tool to identify individuals with high levels of L. loa mf that put them at risk for SAEs following MDA. In addition, it provides ease of data storage and accessibility. PMID:25232954

  20. The individual-cell-based cryo-chip for the cryopreservation, manipulation and observation of spatially identifiable cells. II: Functional activity of cryopreserved cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cryopreservation and thawing processes are known to induce many deleterious effects in cells and might be detrimental to several cell types. There is an inherent variability in cellular responses among cell types and within individual cells of a given population with regard to their ability to endure the freezing and thawing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of cryopreserved cells within an optical cryo apparatus, the individual-cell-based cryo-chip (i3C), by monitoring several basic cellular functional activities at the resolution of individual cells. Results In the present study, U937 cells underwent the freezing and thawing cycle in the i3C device. Then a panel of vital tests was performed, including the number of dead cells (PI staining), apoptotic rate (Annexin V staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (TMRM staining), cytoplasm membrane integrity and intracellular metabolism (FDA staining), as well as post-thawing cell proliferation assays. Cells that underwent the freezing - thawing cycle in i3C devices exhibited the same functional activity as control cells. Moreover, the combination of the multi-parametric analysis at a single cell resolution and the optical and biological features of the device enable an accurate determination of the functional status of individual cells and subsequent retrieval and utilization of the most valuable cells. Conclusions The means and methodologies described here enable the freezing and thawing of spatially identifiable cells, as well as the efficient detection of viable, specific, highly biologically active cells for future applications. PMID:20973993

  1. Genome-wide haplotype association study identify TNFRSF1A, CASP7, LRP1B, CDH1 and TG genes associated with Alzheimer's disease in Caribbean Hispanic individuals.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhenwei; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Duan, Lian; Wang, Situo; Li, Jin; Liu, Guiyou; Ruijie, Zhang; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-12-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an acquired disorder of cognitive and behavioral impairment. It is considered to be caused by variety of factors, such as age, environment and genetic factors. In order to identify the genetic affect factors of AD, we carried out a bioinformatic approach which combined genome-wide haplotype-based association study with gene prioritization. The raw SNP genotypes data was downloaded from GEO database (GSE33528). It contains 615 AD patients and 560 controls of Caribbean Hispanic individuals. Firstly, we identified the linkage disequilibrium (LD) haplotype blocks and performed genome-wide haplotype association study to screen significant haplotypes that were associated with AD. Then we mapped these significant haplotypes to genes and obtained candidate genes set for AD. At last, we prioritized AD candidate genes based on their similarity with 36 known AD genes, so as to identify AD related genes. The results showed that 141 haplotypes on 134 LD blocks were significantly associated with AD (P<1E-4), and these significant haplotypes were mapped to 132 AD candidate genes. After prioritizing these candidate genes, we found seven AD related genes: APOE, APOC1, TNFRSF1A, LRP1B, CDH1, TG and CASP7. Among these genes, APOE and APOC1 are known AD risk genes. For the other five genes TNFRSF1A, CDH1, CASP7, LRP1B and TG, this is the first genetic association study which showed the significant association between these five genes and AD susceptibility in Caribbean Hispanic individuals. We believe that our findings can provide a new perspective to understand the genetic affect factors of AD.

  2. Post-discharge electrocardiogram Holter monitoring in recently hospitalised individuals with chronic atrial fibrillation to enhance therapeutic monitoring and identify potentially predictive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jocasta; Carrington, Melinda J; Thompson, David R; Horowitz, John D; Stewart, Simon

    2015-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia managed in clinical practice. Maintenance of intended rate or rhythm control following hospitalisation is a key therapeutic goal. The purpose of this study was to assess post-discharge maintenance of intended AF control and classify potentially predictive heart rate (HR) phenotypes via electrocardiogram (ECG) Holter monitoring. In a sub-study of a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing AF-specific management with usual care, 24-hour ECG Holter monitoring was undertaken in 133 patients 7-14 days post-discharge. Intended rate and rhythm control were compared to Holter data. Analysis of the frequency distribution of mean hour-to-hour differences identified those with labile HRs. Mean age was 71 ± 10 years, 67 (50%) were male and mean HR was 72 ± 14 bpm. Most (89%) had persistent AF (median time in AF=39% (IQR 0-100%)). Uncontrolled HR (>90 bpm for >10% of recording) occurred in 35 (26%) patients and 49 (37%) patients did not achieve their intended rate (n=26) or rhythm control (n=23). Patients in the upper quartile of mean hour-to-hour HR variability were identified as persistently labile (n=33). A further group (n=22) with periodically labile HRs was identified. Those with coronary artery disease (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.13-0.91, p=0.033) or renal disease/dysfunction (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.06-0.98, p=0.047) were less likely to demonstrate HR stability (n=78). Post-discharge ECG Holter monitoring of AF patients represents a valuable tool to identify deviations in intended rhythm/rate control and adjust therapeutic management accordingly. It may also identify individuals who demonstrate labile HRs. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  3. Identifying influential observations in Bayesian models by using Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dan; White, Ian R; Carpenter, James

    2012-05-20

    In statistical modelling, it is often important to know how much parameter estimates are influenced by particular observations. An attractive approach is to re-estimate the parameters with each observation deleted in turn, but this is computationally demanding when fitting models by using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), as obtaining complete sample estimates is often in itself a very time-consuming task. Here we propose two efficient ways to approximate the case-deleted estimates by using output from MCMC estimation. Our first proposal, which directly approximates the usual influence statistics in maximum likelihood analyses of generalised linear models (GLMs), is easy to implement and avoids any further evaluation of the likelihood. Hence, unlike the existing alternatives, it does not become more computationally intensive as the model complexity increases. Our second proposal, which utilises model perturbations, also has this advantage and does not require the form of the GLM to be specified. We show how our two proposed methods are related and evaluate them against the existing method of importance sampling and case deletion in a logistic regression analysis with missing covariates. We also provide practical advice for those implementing our procedures, so that they may be used in many situations where MCMC is used to fit statistical models.

  4. Identification of influential nodes in complex networks: Method from spreading probability viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Chuang; Xiang, Bing-Bing; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-02-01

    The problem of identifying influential nodes in complex networks has attracted much attention owing to its wide applications, including how to maximize the information diffusion, boost product promotion in a viral marketing campaign, prevent a large scale epidemic and so on. From spreading viewpoint, the probability of one node propagating its information to one other node is closely related to the shortest distance between them, the number of shortest paths and the transmission rate. However, it is difficult to obtain the values of transmission rates for different cases, to overcome such a difficulty, we use the reciprocal of average degree to approximate the transmission rate. Then a semi-local centrality index is proposed to incorporate the shortest distance, the number of shortest paths and the reciprocal of average degree simultaneously. By implementing simulations in real networks as well as synthetic networks, we verify that our proposed centrality can outperform well-known centralities, such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, k-shell centrality, and nonbacktracking centrality. In particular, our findings indicate that the performance of our method is the most significant when the transmission rate nears to the epidemic threshold, which is the most meaningful region for the identification of influential nodes.

  5. Identifying risk factors for progression to critical care admission and death among individuals with acute pancreatitis: a record linkage analysis of Scottish healthcare databases

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Gungabissoon, Usha; Johnston, Philip; Cochrane, Lynda; Hopkins, Leanne; Wyper, Grant M A; Skouras, Christos; Dibben, Chris; Sullivan, Frank; Morris, Andrew; Ward, Hester J T; Lawton, Andrew M; Donnan, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Acute pancreatitis (AP) can initiate systemic complications that require support in critical care (CC). Our objective was to use the unified national health record to define the epidemiology of AP in Scotland, with a specific focus on deterministic and prognostic factors for CC admission in AP. Setting Health boards in Scotland (n=4). Participants We included all individuals in a retrospective observational cohort with at least one episode of AP (ICD10 code K85) occurring in Scotland from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2012. 3340 individuals were coded as AP. Methods Data from 16 sources, spanning general practice, community prescribing, Accident and Emergency attendances, hospital in-patient, CC and mortality registries, were linked by a unique patient identifier in a national safe haven. Logistic regression and gamma models were used to define independent predictive factors for severe AP (sAP) requiring CC admission or leading to death. Results 2053 individuals (61.5% (95% CI 59.8% to 63.2%)) met the definition for true AP (tAP). 368 patients (17.9% of tAP (95% CI 16.2% to 19.6%)) were admitted to CC. Predictors of sAP were pre-existing angina or hypertension, hypocalcaemia and age 30–39 years, if type 2 diabetes mellitus was present. The risk of sAP was lower in patients with multiple previous episodes of AP. In-hospital mortality in tAP was 5.0% (95% CI 4.1% to 5.9%) overall and 21.7% (95% CI 19.9% to 23.5%) in those with tAP necessitating CC admission. Conclusions National record-linkage analysis of routinely collected data constitutes a powerful resource to model CC admission and prognosticate death during AP. Mortality in patients with AP who require CC admission remains high. PMID:27311912

  6. Hospital discharge abstracts have limited accuracy in identifying occurrence of Clostridium difficile infections among hospitalized individuals with inflammatory bowel disease: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harminder; Nugent, Zoann; Yu, B. Nancy; Lix, Lisa M.; Targownik, Laura; Bernstein, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Background Hospital discharge databases are used to study the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CDI in IBD is increasingly important and accurately estimating its occurrence is critical in understanding its comorbidity. There are limited data on the reliability of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) (now widely used in North America) CDI code in determining occurrence of CDI among hospitalized patients. We compared the performance of ICD-10 CDI coding to laboratory confirmed CDI diagnoses. Methods The University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database was used to identify individuals with and without IBD discharged with CDI diagnoses between 07/01/2005 and 3/31/2014. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of ICD-10 CDI code was compared to laboratory CDI diagnoses recorded in a province wide CDI dataset. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to test the predictors of diagnostic inaccuracy of ICD-10 CDI code. Results There were 273 episodes of laboratory confirmed CDI (hospitalized and non-hospitalized) among 7396 individuals with IBD and 536 among 66,297 matched controls. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ICD-10 CDI code in discharge abstracts was 72.8%, 99.6%, 64.1% and 99.7% among those with IBD and 70.8%, 99.9%, 79.0% and 99.9% among those without IBD. Predictors of diagnostic inaccuracy included IBD, older age, increased co-morbidity and earlier years of hospitalization. Conclusions Identification of CDI using ICD-10 CDI code in hospital discharge abstracts may not identify up to 30% of CDI cases, with worse performance among those with IBD. PMID:28199401

  7. Using individualized predictive disease modeling to identify patients with the potential to benefit from a disease management program for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christian; Neeser, Kurt

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes is an increasing health problem, but efforts to handle this pandemic by disease management programs (DMP) have shown conflicting results. Our hypothesis is that, in addition to a program's content and setting, the choice of the right patients is crucial to a program's efficacy and effectiveness. We used individualized predictive disease modeling (IPDM) on a cohort of 918 patients with type 2 diabetes to identify those patients with the greatest potential to benefit from inclusion in a DMP. A portion of the patients (4.7%) did not have even a theoretical potential for an increase in life expectancy and would therefore be unlikely to benefit from a DMP. Approximately 16.1% had an increase in life expectancy of less than half a year. Stratification of the entire cohort by surrogate parameters like preventable 10-year costs or gain in life expectancy was much more effective than stratification by classical clinical parameters such as high HbA1c level. Preventable costs increased up to 50.6% (or 1,010 per patient (1 = US dollars 1.28), p < 0.01) and life expectancy increased up to 54.8% (or 2.3 years, p < 0.01). IPDM is a valuable strategy to identify those patients with the greatest potential to avoid diabetes-related complications and thus can improve the overall effectiveness and efficacy of DMPs for diabetes mellitus.

  8. Using parent and youth reports from the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition to identify individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Pitts, Steven C; Bussell, Kristin; Schiffman, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Brief self-report screening can help facilitate early identification of individuals at risk for or in early stages of psychosis. Existing screening tools focus on self-reported attenuated positive symptoms to detect potential risk; however, parent reports may also be helpful for assessing symptoms, especially in younger patients. Recent evidence has shown that the "atypicality" scale within the self-report form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) may be useful for identifying high-risk youth within a more clinically comprehensive and potentially minimally stigmatizing format. The BASC-2 parent report form also includes the atypicality scale, but no research has investigated the relation of this scale to psychosis risk. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the association of parent along with youth reports of BASC-2 atypicality with attenuated positive symptoms as assessed by the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS), in a sample of help-seeking adolescents (n=63). Results indicate that both parent and youth reports of atypicality predict clinician-rated symptoms. Moreover, the combination of parent and youth report significantly improved prediction of SIPS scores over either single-informant scale. These findings suggest that parent report scales, as ascertained through part of a larger, commonly used measure, may help identify youth at risk for psychosis, particularly if used in conjunction with youth self-report. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the influential leaders, power structure, community decisions, and geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, E.W.; Hall, C.H.; Pick, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The economy of Imperial County, California, is now dominated by agriculture, but economic studies indicate that the emerging geothermal sector could grow to a size comparable to that of agriculture. The purpose of this study is to discover the kind of power structure operating in Imperial County, the influential leaders, the source of their power, their probable reactions to geothermal development, and the possible effects geothermal development will have on the power structure. Several social science research methods are used to identify the influential leaders and to describe the power structure in Imperial County. An analysis of the opinions of leadership and the public shows the likely response to geothermal development. The power structure analysis, combined with forecasts of the economic effects of geothermal development, indicates the ways in which the power structure itself may change.

  10. A machine learning approach to identify functional biomarkers in human prefrontal cortex for individuals with traumatic brain injury using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karamzadeh, Nader; Amyot, Franck; Kenney, Kimbra; Anderson, Afrouz; Chowdhry, Fatima; Dashtestani, Hadis; Wassermann, Eric M; Chernomordik, Victor; Boccara, Claude; Wegman, Edward; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Gandjbakhche, Amir H

    2016-11-01

    We have explored the potential prefrontal hemodynamic biomarkers to characterize subjects with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by employing the multivariate machine learning approach and introducing a novel task-related hemodynamic response detection followed by a heuristic search for optimum set of hemodynamic features. To achieve this goal, the hemodynamic response from a group of 31 healthy controls and 30 chronic TBI subjects were recorded as they performed a complexity task. To determine the optimum hemodynamic features, we considered 11 features and their combinations in characterizing TBI subjects. We investigated the significance of the features by utilizing a machine learning classification algorithm to score all the possible combinations of features according to their predictive power. The identified optimum feature elements resulted in classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 85%, 85%, and 84%, respectively. Classification improvement was achieved for TBI subject classification through feature combination. It signified the major advantage of the multivariate analysis over the commonly used univariate analysis suggesting that the features that are individually irrelevant in characterizing the data may become relevant when used in combination. We also conducted a spatio-temporal classification to identify regions within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that contribute in distinguishing between TBI and healthy subjects. As expected, Brodmann areas (BA) 10 within the PFC were isolated as the region that healthy subjects (unlike subjects with TBI), showed major hemodynamic activity in response to the High Complexity task. Overall, our results indicate that identified temporal and spatio-temporal features from PFC's hemodynamic activity are promising biomarkers in classifying subjects with TBI.

  11. Referral outcomes of individuals identified at high risk of cardiovascular disease by community health workers in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Naomi S.; Puoane, Thandi; Denman, Catalina A.; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Surka, Sam; Mendoza, Carlos; Khanam, Masuma; Alam, Sartaj; Gaziano, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We have found that community health workers (CHWs) with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Design Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Results Thirty-seven percent (96/263) of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69%) were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4%) were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN) was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. Conclusions The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment. PMID:25854780

  12. Referral outcomes of individuals identified at high risk of cardiovascular disease by community health workers in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Naomi S; Puoane, Thandi; Denman, Catalina A; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Surka, Sam; Mendoza, Carlos; Khanam, Masuma; Alam, Sartaj; Gaziano, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    We have found that community health workers (CHWs) with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Thirty-seven percent (96/263) of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69%) were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4%) were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN) was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment.

  13. Emergence of Influential Spreaders in Modified Rumor Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Meloni, Sandro; Gonçalves, Bruno; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-04-01

    The burst in the use of online social networks over the last decade has provided evidence that current rumor spreading models miss some fundamental ingredients in order to reproduce how information is disseminated. In particular, recent literature has revealed that these models fail to reproduce the fact that some nodes in a network have an influential role when it comes to spread a piece of information. In this work, we introduce two mechanisms with the aim of filling the gap between theoretical and experimental results. The first model introduces the assumption that spreaders are not always active whereas the second model considers the possibility that an ignorant is not interested in spreading the rumor. In both cases, results from numerical simulations show a higher adhesion to real data than classical rumor spreading models. Our results shed some light on the mechanisms underlying the spreading of information and ideas in large social systems and pave the way for more realistic diffusion models.

  14. Cognitive Functioning in Adults Aging with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Cognitive Subtypes and Influential Factors.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Pariya L; Crowe, Michael; Ross, Lesley A; Wadley, Virginia; Ball, Karlene; Vance, David E

    2014-02-18

    This cross-sectional study examined cognitive subtypes and influential factors in HIV-positive (HIV+) adults. Two-step cluster analysis was conducted on a neurocognitive test battery in a sample (N = 78) of adults and older adults with HIV (Mage = 46.1). Next, cognitive, functional, and mental and physical health differences were compared between the HIV+ clusters and an HIV- reference group (N = 84; Mage = 47.9). A two-cluster solution emerged, with a lower performing cluster exhibiting poorer performance across all domains except psychomotor speed, and a "normal" cluster displaying similar performance as the HIV- group. The most influential factors to classification in the lower performing cluster were older age and presence of stroke and hypertension. There were trends for longer duration of HIV-infection, higher unemployment rates, and greater prevalence of Hepatitis C co-infection in the lower performing cluster. These findings suggest that there are not unique cognitive subtypes in HIV, but rather a subset of individuals who exhibit globally normal performance and those with below average performance. Older age and the related cardiovascular comorbidities of both aging and HIV medications may be key influential factors to variability in neurocognitive functioning in this population and thus should be considered in future studies. Implications for research and practice are provided.

  15. Salmonella enterica Infections in the United States and Assessment of Coefficients of Variation: A Novel Approach to Identify Epidemiologic Characteristics of Individual Serotypes, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Boore, Amy L.; Hoekstra, R. Michael; Iwamoto, Martha; Fields, Patricia I.; Bishop, Richard D.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite control efforts, salmonellosis continues to cause an estimated 1.2 million infections in the United States (US) annually. We describe the incidence of salmonellosis in the US and introduce a novel approach to examine the epidemiologic similarities and differences of individual serotypes. Methods Cases of salmonellosis in humans reported to the laboratory-based National Salmonella Surveillance System during 1996–2011 from US states were included. Coefficients of variation were used to describe distribution of incidence rates of common Salmonella serotypes by geographic region, age group and sex of patient, and month of sample isolation. Results During 1996–2011, more than 600,000 Salmonella isolates from humans were reported, with an average annual incidence of 13.1 cases/100,000 persons. The annual reported rate of Salmonella infections did not decrease during the study period. The top five most commonly reported serotypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Javiana, accounted for 62% of fully serotyped isolates. Coefficients of variation showed the most geographically concentrated serotypes were often clustered in Gulf Coast states and were also more frequently found to be increasing in incidence. Serotypes clustered in particular months, age groups, and sex were also identified and described. Conclusions Although overall incidence rates of Salmonella did not change over time, trends and epidemiological factors differed remarkably by serotype. A better understanding of Salmonella, facilitated by this comprehensive description of overall trends and unique characteristics of individual serotypes, will assist in responding to this disease and in planning and implementing prevention activities. PMID:26701276

  16. Identifying risk factors for progression to critical care admission and death among individuals with acute pancreatitis: a record linkage analysis of Scottish healthcare databases.

    PubMed

    Mole, Damian J; Gungabissoon, Usha; Johnston, Philip; Cochrane, Lynda; Hopkins, Leanne; Wyper, Grant M A; Skouras, Christos; Dibben, Chris; Sullivan, Frank; Morris, Andrew; Ward, Hester J T; Lawton, Andrew M; Donnan, Peter T

    2016-06-15

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) can initiate systemic complications that require support in critical care (CC). Our objective was to use the unified national health record to define the epidemiology of AP in Scotland, with a specific focus on deterministic and prognostic factors for CC admission in AP. Health boards in Scotland (n=4). We included all individuals in a retrospective observational cohort with at least one episode of AP (ICD10 code K85) occurring in Scotland from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2012. 3340 individuals were coded as AP. Data from 16 sources, spanning general practice, community prescribing, Accident and Emergency attendances, hospital in-patient, CC and mortality registries, were linked by a unique patient identifier in a national safe haven. Logistic regression and gamma models were used to define independent predictive factors for severe AP (sAP) requiring CC admission or leading to death. 2053 individuals (61.5% (95% CI 59.8% to 63.2%)) met the definition for true AP (tAP). 368 patients (17.9% of tAP (95% CI 16.2% to 19.6%)) were admitted to CC. Predictors of sAP were pre-existing angina or hypertension, hypocalcaemia and age 30-39 years, if type 2 diabetes mellitus was present. The risk of sAP was lower in patients with multiple previous episodes of AP. In-hospital mortality in tAP was 5.0% (95% CI 4.1% to 5.9%) overall and 21.7% (95% CI 19.9% to 23.5%) in those with tAP necessitating CC admission. National record-linkage analysis of routinely collected data constitutes a powerful resource to model CC admission and prognosticate death during AP. Mortality in patients with AP who require CC admission remains high. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Investigation of influential parameters for zone-refinement of germanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Govani, Jayesh; Guan, Yutong; Huang, Mianliang; Mei, Hao; Wang, Guojian; Mei, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    In zone-refining of high-purity germanium crystals, the influential parameters include vacuum level, container of germanium ingot, ambient gases, zone travel speed, zone length, etc. In the present work, the influences of zone length and zone travel speed on the purity level of the zone-refined ingot have been investigated with many experiments. The impurity level in the zone-refined ingot was characterized by van der pauw hall measurement. The shallow impurities are measured with a photothermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS), which identifies existence of boron, aluminum and phosphor as three main impurities, in the zone-refined germanium ingot. Utilizing the multiple experiments, we have optimized the zone length and zone travel speed. We demonstrate our experimental results with solidification theory of metals.

  18. Validity of teacher ratings in selecting influential aggressive adolescents for a targeted preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Henry, David B; Miller-Johnson, Shari; Simon, Thomas R; Schoeny, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    This study describes a method for using teacher nominations and ratings to identify socially influential, aggressive middle school students for participation in a targeted violence prevention intervention. The teacher nomination method is compared with peer nominations of aggression and influence to obtain validity evidence. Participants were urban, predominantly African American and Latino sixth-grade students who were involved in a pilot study for a large multi-site violence prevention project. Convergent validity was suggested by the high correlation of teacher ratings of peer influence and peer nominations of social influence. The teacher ratings of influence demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and specificity when predicting peer nominations of influence among the most aggressive children. Results are discussed in terms of the application of teacher nominations and ratings in large trials and full implementation of targeted prevention programs.

  19. Biodegradation of antibiotic ciprofloxacin: pathways, influential factors, and bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaobin; Li, Bingxin; Zou, Rusen; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Yuan, Baoling

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic ciprofloxacin is ubiquitous in the environment. However, little is known about ciprofloxacin dissipation by microbial community. The present study investigated the biodegradation potential of ciprofloxacin by mixed culture and the influential factors and depicted the structure of ciprofloxacin-degrading microbial community. Both the original microbiota from drinking water biofilter and the microbiota previously acclimated to high levels of ciprofloxacin could utilize ciprofloxacin as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, while the acclimated microbiota had a much stronger removal capacity. Temperature rise and the presence of carbon or nitrogen sources favored ciprofloxacin biodegradation. Many novel biotransformation products were identified, and four different metabolic pathways for ciprofloxacin were proposed. Bacterial community structure illustrated a profound shift with ciprofloxacin biodegradation. The ciprofloxacin-degrading bacterial community was mainly composed of classes Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Betaproteobacteria. Microorganisms from genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Phenylobacterium, and Leucobacter might have links with the dissipation of ciprofloxacin. This work can provide some new insights towards ciprofloxacin biodegradation.

  20. Validity of Teacher Ratings in Selecting Influential Aggressive Adolescents for a Targeted Preventive Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David B.; Miller-Johnson, Shari; Simon, Thomas R.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a method for using teacher nominations and ratings to identify socially influential, aggressive middle school students for participation in a targeted violence prevention intervention. The teacher nomination method is compared with peer nominations of aggression and influence to obtain validity evidence. Participants were urban, predominantly African American and Latino sixth-grade students who were involved in a pilot study for a large multi-site violence prevention project. Convergent validity was suggested by the high correlation of teacher ratings of peer influence and peer nominations of social influence. The teacher ratings of influence demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and specificity when predicting peer nominations of influence among the most aggressive children. Results are discussed m terms of the application of teacher nominations and ratings in large trials and full implementation of targeted prevention programs. PMID:16378226

  1. A case study of publication bias in an influential series of reviews of drug education.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim

    2007-09-01

    There has been remarkably little demonstration of the deleterious impact of publication bias within addiction science or indeed in wider healthcare policy and practice. An account is provided here of how publication bias was identified in relation to a series of drug education reviews which have been very influential on subsequent research, policy and practice. Later data analyses unpublished by the same review team demonstrated earlier findings to be unreliable. These later findings were not published. The policy context in which evidence on drug education in schools is produced is considered and the need for unbiased evidence is emphasised. A broadened conception of publication bias is proposed which takes account of the environment in which publication decision-making occurs. It is suggested that this is particularly necessary for subjects with such direct policy relevance as the effectiveness of drug education in schools.

  2. Analysis and identification of influential phenomena on iron losses in embedded permanent magnet synchronous machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breznik, Mitja; Goričan, Viktor; Hamler, Anton; Čorović, Selma; Miljavec, Damijan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents magnetic flux density behaviour in laminated electrical sheets which affects the results and precision of iron losses calculation in imbedded permanent magnet (IPM) machine. Objective of the research was to analyse all the influential phenomena that were identified through iron loss models analysis, finite element method simulations and iron loss measurements. The presence of phenomena such as harmonic content and rotational magnetic fields are confirmed with finite element method analysis of concentrated and distributed winding IPM machine. A significant magnetic flux density ripple in the rotor of concentrated winding IPM machine in comparison to distributed winding IPM machine is revealed and analysed. Behaviour that affects iron loss in the rotor of synchronous machines in the absence of first order harmonic is analysed. The DC level added to alternating magnetic flux density was used in experiment to mimic magnetic behaviour on the rotor of IPM machine and further to calculate iron losses.

  3. Comparisons of stemflow and its bio-/abiotic influential factors between two xerophytic shrub species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chuan; Gao, Guangyao; Fu, Bojie

    2017-03-01

    Stemflow transports nutrient-enriched precipitation to the rhizosphere and functions as an efficient terrestrial flux in water-stressed ecosystems. However, its ecological significance has generally been underestimated because it is relatively limited in amount, and the biotic mechanisms that affect it have not been thoroughly studied at the leaf scale. This study was conducted during the 2014 and 2015 rainy seasons at the northern Loess Plateau of China. We measured the branch stemflow volume (SFb), shrub stemflow equivalent water depth (SFd), stemflow percentage of incident precipitation (SF %), stemflow productivity (SFP), funnelling ratio (FR), the meteorological characteristics and the plant traits of branches and leaves of C. korshinskii and S. psammophila. This study evaluated stemflow efficiency for the first time with the combined results of SFP and FR, and sought to determine the inter- and intra-specific differences of stemflow yield and efficiency between the two species, as well as the specific bio-/abiotic mechanisms that affected stemflow. The results indicated that C. korshinskii had a greater stemflow yield and efficiency at all precipitation levels than that of S. psammophila. The largest inter-specific difference generally occurred at the 5-10 mm branches during rains of ≤ 2 mm. Precipitation amount was the most influential meteorological characteristic that affected stemflow yield and efficiency in these two endemic shrub species. Branch angle was the most influential plant trait on FR. For SFb, stem biomass and leaf biomass were the most influential plant traits for C. korshinskii and S. psammophila, respectively. For SFP of these two shrub species, leaf traits (the individual leaf area) and branch traits (branch size and biomass allocation pattern) had a great influence during lighter rains ≤ 10 mm and heavier rains > 15 mm, respectively. The lower precipitation threshold to start stemflow allowed C. korshinskii (0.9 mm vs. 2

  4. Novel mutations causing biotinidase deficiency in individuals identified by newborn screening in Michigan including an unique intronic mutation that alters mRNA expression of the biotinidase gene.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Spencer, L; Nahhas, F; Miller, J; Fribley, A; Feldman, G; Conway, R; Wolf, B

    2014-07-01

    Biotinidase deficiency (BD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in the inability to recycle the vitamin biotin. Individuals with biotinidase deficiency can develop neurological and cutaneous symptoms if they are not treated with biotin. To date, more than 165 mutations in the biotinidase gene (BTD) have been reported. Essentially all the mutations result in enzymatic activities with less than 10% of mean normal serum enzyme activity (profound biotinidase deficiency) with the exception of the c.1330G>C (p.D444H) mutation, which results in an enzyme having 50% of mean normal serum activity and causes partial biotinidase deficiency (10-30% of mean normal serum biotinidase activity) if there is a mutation for profound biotinidase deficiency on the second allele. We now reported eight novel mutations in ten children identified by newborn screening in Michigan from 1988 to the end of 2012. Interestingly, one intronic mutation, c.310-15delT, results in an approximately two-fold down-regulation of BTD mRNA expression by Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). This is the first report of an intronic mutation in the BTD gene with demonstration of its effect on enzymatic activity by altering mRNA expression. This study identified three other mutations likely to cause partial biotinidase deficiency. These results emphasize the importance of full gene sequencing of BTD on patients with biotinidase deficiency to better understand the genotype and phenotype correlation in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gunshot induced injuries in orthopaedic trauma research. A bibliometric analysis of the most influential literature.

    PubMed

    Held, M; Engelmann, E; Dunn, R; Ahmad, S S; Laubscher, M; Keel, M J B; Maqungo, S; Hoppe, S

    2017-09-01

    A growing burden of gunshot injuries demands evidence-based ballistic trauma management. No comprehensive systematic overview of the current knowledge is available to date. This study aims to identify and analyze the most influential publications in the field of orthopedic ballistic trauma research. All databases available in the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge were searched to conduct this bibliometrical study. The most cited orthopedic ballistic trauma articles published between 1950 and 2015 were identified by use of a multi-step approach. Publications with ten citations and more were analyzed for citations, journal, authorship, geographic origin, area of research, anatomical site, study type, study category, and level of evidence. Citations of the 128 included studies ranged from 113 to 10. These were published in fifty different journals between 1953 and 2011. Most publications (n=106; 83%) originated from the USA, were retrospective (n=85; 66.4%), level IV studies (n=90; 70.3%), reported on spinal gunshot injuries (n=49; 38.33%) and were published between 1980 and 2000 (n=111; 86.7%). This bibliometric study provides the first comprehensive overview of influential publications in the field of orthopedic ballistic trauma research. More prospective studies and high-quality systematic reviews are needed. Centres with a high burden of gunshot injuries from the developing world need to share their experience in form of international publications, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the global gun-related orthopedic injury burden. bibliometric analysis: level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. "It's Too Crowded": A Qualitative Study of the Physical Environment Factors That Adolescent Girls Perceive to Be Important and Influential on Their PE Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Ailsa; Henretty, Joan; Fawkner, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent girls do not achieve a health-enhancing level of physical activity. This study aimed to identify the school physical environment factors that adolescent girls perceive to be important and influential regarding their physical education (PE) behaviour. Adolescent girls (n = 38; aged 13-16) participated in eight moderated focus…

  7. "It's Too Crowded": A Qualitative Study of the Physical Environment Factors That Adolescent Girls Perceive to Be Important and Influential on Their PE Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Ailsa; Henretty, Joan; Fawkner, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent girls do not achieve a health-enhancing level of physical activity. This study aimed to identify the school physical environment factors that adolescent girls perceive to be important and influential regarding their physical education (PE) behaviour. Adolescent girls (n = 38; aged 13-16) participated in eight moderated focus…

  8. Deep sequencing of RYR3 gene identifies rare and common variants associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Degui; Shendre, Aditi; Scherzer, Rebecca; Irvin, Marguerite R; Perry, Rodney T; Levy, Shawn; Arnett, Donna K; Grunfeld, Carl; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2015-02-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis with mounting evidence that higher cIMT confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The ryanodine receptor 3 gene (RYR3) has previously been linked to increased cIMT; however, the causal variants have not yet been localized. Therefore, we sequenced 339,480 bp encompassing 104 exons and 2 kb flanking region of the RYR3 gene in 96 HIV-positive white men from the extremes of the distribution of common cIMT from the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Changes in HIV infection study (FRAM). We identified 2710 confirmed variants (2414 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 296 insertion/deletions (indels)), with a mean count of 736 SNPs (ranging from 528 to 1032) and 170 indels (ranging from 128 to 214) distributed in each individual. There were 39 variants in the exons and 15 of these were non-synonymous, of which with only 4 were common variants and the remaining 11 were rare variants, one was a novel SNP. We confirmed that the common variant rs2229116 was significantly associated with cIMT in this design (P<7.9 × 10(-9)), and observed seven other significantly associated SNPs (P<10(-8)). These variants including the private non-synonymous SNPs need to be followed up in a larger sample size and also tested with clinical atherosclerotic outcomes.

  9. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z; Overley, Samuel C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today.

  10. A GWAS meta-analysis and replication study identifies a novel locus within CLPTM1L/TERT associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in individuals of Chinese ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Hsu, Wan-Lun; McKay, James D.; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chen, Li-Zhen; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Cui, Qian; Feng, Fu-Tuo; Feng, Qi-Shen; Guo, Yun-Miao; Jia, Wei-Hua; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Pua, Kin-Choo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Tse, Ka-Po; Xia, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Hongxin; Zhou, Gang-Qiao; Liu, Jian-Jun; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Hildesheim, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic loci within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancer, in several GWAS. Results outside this region have varied. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of four NPC GWAS among Chinese individuals (2,152 cases;3,740 controls). 43 noteworthy findings outside the MHC region were identified and targeted for replication in a pooled analysis of 4 independent case-control studies across 3 regions in Asia (4,716 cases;5,379 controls). A meta-analysis that combined results from the initial GWA and replication studies was performed. Results In the combined meta-analysis, rs31489, located within the CLPTM1L/TERT region on chromosome 5p15.33, was strongly associated with NPC (OR=0.81;p-value 6.3*10−13). Our results also provide support for associations reported from published NPC GWAS - rs6774494 (p = 1.5*10−12;located in the MECOM gene region), rs9510787 (p = 5.0*10−10;located in the TNFRSF19 gene region), and rs1412829/rs4977756/rs1063192 (p = 2.8*10−8,p = 7.0*10−7,and p = 8.4*10−7 respectively;located in the CDKN2A/B gene region). Conclusion We have identified a novel association between genetic variation in the CLPTM1L/TERT region and NPC. Supporting our finding, rs31489 and other SNPs in this region have been reported to be associated with multiple cancer sites, candidate-based studies have reported associations between polymorphisms in this region and NPC, the TERT gene is important for telomere maintenance and has been reported to be over-expressed in NPC, and an EBV protein expressed in NPC (LMP1) modulates TERT expression/telomerase activity. Impact Our finding suggests that factors involved in telomere length maintenance are involved in NPC pathogenesis. PMID:26545403

  11. Strategies in identifying individuals in a segregant population of common bean and implications of genotype x environment interaction in the success of selection.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M P; Ramalho, M A P; Abreu, A F B

    2012-04-10

    The objective of this study was to compare the BLUP selection method with different selection strategies in F(2:4) and assess the efficiency of this method on the early choice of the best common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lines. Fifty-one F(2:4) progenies were produced from a cross between the CVIII8511 x RP-26 lines. A randomized block design was used with 20 replications and one-plant field plots. Character data on plant architecture and grain yield were obtained and then the sum of the standardized variables was estimated for simultaneous selection of both traits. Analysis was carried out by mixed models (BLUP) and the least squares method to compare different selection strategies, like mass selection, stratified mass selection and between and within progeny selection. The progenies selected by BLUP were assessed in advanced generations, always selecting the greatest and smallest sum of the standardized variables. Analyses by the least squares method and BLUP procedure ranked the progenies in the same way. The coincidence of the individuals identified by BLUP and between and within progeny selection was high and of the greatest magnitude when BLUP was compared with mass selection. Although BLUP is the best estimator of genotypic value, its efficiency in the response to long term selection is not different from any of the other methods, because it is also unable to predict the future effect of the progenies x environments interaction. It was inferred that selection success will always depend on the most accurate possible progeny assessment and using alternatives to reduce the progenies x environments interaction effect.

  12. An Individual with Both MUTYH-Associated Polyposis and Lynch Syndrome Identified by Multi-Gene Hereditary Cancer Panel Testing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stephanie A.; Tan, Christopher A.; Bisson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of next-generation sequencing technology to interrogate multiple genes simultaneously is being utilized more frequently in hereditary cancer testing. While this has benefits of reducing cost and allowing clinicians to cast a wide net in the elucidation of their patient's cancer, panel testing has the potential to reveal unexpected information. We report on a proband with pathogenic variants resulting in two different hereditary colon cancer syndromes. A 39-year-old male with a history of colon cancer, more than 20 colon polyps and a family history of colon cancer presented for genetic counseling. Testing with a 7-gene high-risk hereditary colon cancer panel identified a homozygous pathogenic variant, c.1187G>A (p.Gly396Asp) in MUTYH, and a likely pathogenic duplication of exon 7 in MSH2. Since this test result, the proband's mother was diagnosed with colon cancer; subsequent genetic testing confirmed she also carries the likely pathogenic duplication in the MSH2 gene. Although the cancer risk in individuals who carry multiple pathogenic variants has not been established for combined biallelic MUTYH-associated polyposis and Lynch syndrome, the identification of multiple pathogenic variants does allow for screening for cancers associated with both syndromes and has implications for cancer risk for family members. In particular, this has significant impact on those who test negative for a known familial pathogenic variant, yet could be still be at risk for cancer due to a second pathogenic variant in a family. More information is needed on the frequency of occurrence of multiple pathogenic variants, as well as the phenotypic spectrum when multiple pathogenic variants are present. PMID:27014339

  13. An Individual with Both MUTYH-Associated Polyposis and Lynch Syndrome Identified by Multi-Gene Hereditary Cancer Panel Testing: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stephanie A; Tan, Christopher A; Bisson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of next-generation sequencing technology to interrogate multiple genes simultaneously is being utilized more frequently in hereditary cancer testing. While this has benefits of reducing cost and allowing clinicians to cast a wide net in the elucidation of their patient's cancer, panel testing has the potential to reveal unexpected information. We report on a proband with pathogenic variants resulting in two different hereditary colon cancer syndromes. A 39-year-old male with a history of colon cancer, more than 20 colon polyps and a family history of colon cancer presented for genetic counseling. Testing with a 7-gene high-risk hereditary colon cancer panel identified a homozygous pathogenic variant, c.1187G>A (p.Gly396Asp) in MUTYH, and a likely pathogenic duplication of exon 7 in MSH2. Since this test result, the proband's mother was diagnosed with colon cancer; subsequent genetic testing confirmed she also carries the likely pathogenic duplication in the MSH2 gene. Although the cancer risk in individuals who carry multiple pathogenic variants has not been established for combined biallelic MUTYH-associated polyposis and Lynch syndrome, the identification of multiple pathogenic variants does allow for screening for cancers associated with both syndromes and has implications for cancer risk for family members. In particular, this has significant impact on those who test negative for a known familial pathogenic variant, yet could be still be at risk for cancer due to a second pathogenic variant in a family. More information is needed on the frequency of occurrence of multiple pathogenic variants, as well as the phenotypic spectrum when multiple pathogenic variants are present.

  14. Meta-analysis of 65,734 Individuals Identifies TSPAN15 and SLC44A2 as Two Susceptibility Loci for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Marine; Chasman, Daniel I.; de Haan, Hugoline; Tang, Weihong; Lindström, Sara; Weng, Lu-Chen; de Andrade, Mariza; de Visser, Marieke C.H.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Suchon, Pierre; Saut, Noémie; Smadja, David M.; Le Gal, Grégoire; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Di Narzo, Antonio; Hao, Ke; Nelson, Christopher P.; Rocanin-Arjo, Ares; Folkersen, Lasse; Monajemi, Ramin; Rose, Lynda M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Slagboom, Eline; Aïssi, Dylan; Gagnon, France; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Deloukas, Panos; Tzourio, Christophe; Dartigues, Jean-Francois; Berr, Claudine; Taylor, Kent D.; Civelek, Mete; Eriksson, Per; Psaty, Bruce M.; Houwing-Duitermaat, Jeanine; Goodall, Alison H.; Cambien, François; Kraft, Peter; Amouyel, Philippe; Samani, Nilesh J.; Basu, Saonli; Ridker, Paul M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Kabrhel, Christopher; Folsom, Aaron R.; Heit, John; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Smith, Nicholas L.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, is a complex thrombotic disorder with environmental and genetic determinants. Although several genetic variants have been found associated with VTE, they explain a minor proportion of VTE risk in cases. We undertook a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to identify additional VTE susceptibility genes. Twelve GWASs totaling 7,507 VTE case subjects and 52,632 control subjects formed our discovery stage where 6,751,884 SNPs were tested for association with VTE. Nine loci reached the genome-wide significance level of 5 × 10−8 including six already known to associate with VTE (ABO, F2, F5, F11, FGG, and PROCR) and three unsuspected loci. SNPs mapping to these latter were selected for replication in three independent case-control studies totaling 3,009 VTE-affected individuals and 2,586 control subjects. This strategy led to the identification and replication of two VTE-associated loci, TSPAN15 and SLC44A2, with lead risk alleles associated with odds ratio for disease of 1.31 (p = 1.67 × 10−16) and 1.21 (p = 2.75 × 10−15), respectively. The lead SNP at the TSPAN15 locus is the intronic rs78707713 and the lead SLC44A2 SNP is the non-synonymous rs2288904 previously shown to associate with transfusion-related acute lung injury. We further showed that these two variants did not associate with known hemostatic plasma markers. TSPAN15 and SLC44A2 do not belong to conventional pathways for thrombosis and have not been associated to other cardiovascular diseases nor related quantitative biomarkers. Our findings uncovered unexpected actors of VTE etiology and pave the way for novel mechanistic concepts of VTE pathophysiology. PMID:25772935

  15. [Anxiety status and influential factors in patients with infertility].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Liu, Yang; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the anxiety status of infertile patients and the influential factors.
 A questionnaire survey was performed in 306 infertile patients, who were consulted in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, and Productive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya from June, 2013 to June, 2014. A self-designed questionnaire and general information on the anxiety due to infertility were used in the investigation.
 The anxiety incidence for the participants was 61.4%. The single factor analysis showed that some information about the patients, including ages, marriage age, duration of infertility, number of reproductive technological intervention, infertility sources, the cost of treatment and the number of infertility clinic visits, significantly affected the anxiety of infertile patients (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that the number of reproductive technological intervention and infertile causes was related to the anxiety of infertile patients. Among them, the number of reproductive intervention more than 6 times was the risk factor for the low score of anxiety while the infertile causes from both spouses were the protective factor for low scores of anxiety.
 Infertility treatment are of complexity and long duration with the relatively low cure rate, which may cause and aggravate the patient's psychological burden, leading to the anxiety. As a result, infertility patients were the high-risk groups for anxiety symptoms.

  16. Influential factors for pressure pulse waveform in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Wang, Ling; Li, Shuyu; Zhi, Guang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and other contributory factors on pulse waveform are still under arguments. In view of different results caused by few considerations of possible influential factors and general agreement of gender relating to pulse waveform, this study aims to address the confounding factors interfering with the association between gender and pulse waveform characteristics. A novel method was proposed to noninvasively detect pressure pulse wave and assess the morphology of pulse wave. Forty healthy young subjects were included in the present research. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured manually and body mass index (BMI), pulse blood pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR) were calculated automatically. Student's t test was used to analyze the gender difference and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effects of intrinsic factors. Univariate regression analysis was performed to assess the main factors on the waveform characteristics. Waveform features were found significantly different between genders. However this study indicates that the main factors for time-related and amplitude-related parameters are HR and SBP respectively. In conclusion, the impact of HR and SBP on pulse waveform features should not be underestimated, especially when analyzing the gender difference.

  17. The most influential articles in critical care medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Andrew L; Tripathi, Ravi S; Blum, James

    2010-03-01

    The study aimed to examine query strategies that would provide an exhaustive search method to retrieve the most referenced articles within specific categories of critical care. A comprehensive list of the most cited critical care medicine articles was generated by searching the Science Citation Index Expanded data set using general critical care terms keywords such as "critical care," critical care journal titles, and keywords for subsubjects of critical care. The final database included 1187 articles published between 1905 and 2006. The most cited article was referenced 4909 times. The most productive search term was intensive care. However, this term only retrieved 25% of the top 100 articles. Furthermore, 662 of the top 1000 articles could not be found using any of the basic critical care search terms. Sepsis, acute lung injury, and mechanical ventilation were the most common areas of focus for the articles retrieved. Retrieving frequently cited, influential articles in critical care requires using multiple search terms and manuscript sources. Periodic compilations of most cited articles may be useful for critical care practitioners and researches to keep abreast of important information. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Influential parameters on particle exposure of pedestrians in urban microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Fuoco, F. C.; Stabile, L.

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to particle concentrations in urban areas was evaluated in several studies since airborne particles are considered to bring about adverse health effects. Transportation modes and urban microenvironments account for the highest contributions to the overall daily particle exposure concentration. In the present study an evaluation of the influential parameters affecting particle exposure of pedestrian in urban areas is reported. Street geometry, traffic mode, wind speed and direction effects were analyzed through an experimental campaign performed in different streets of an Italian town. To this purpose a high-resolution time measurement apparatus was used in order to capture the dynamic of the freshly emitted particles. Number, surface area and mass concentrations and distributions were measured continuously along both the sides of street canyons and avenue canyons during 10-minutes walking routes. The combined effect of street geometry and wind direction may contribute strongly to dilute the fresh particles emitted by vehicles. In particular, street canyons are characterized by lower ventilation phenomena which lead to similar concentration values on both the side of the street. Higher wind speed was found to decrease concentrations in the canyon. Traffic mode also seems to influence exposure concentrations. In particular, submicrometer particle mass concentration was higher as the traffic is more congested; otherwise, coarse fraction dominates mass exposure concentration along street characterized by a more fluent traffic, showing a typical resuspension modality.

  19. Transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brandford H Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y; Pang, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities and to identify associated risk factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Social media (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram). Participants David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Hawking, Mark Zuckerberg, Oprah Winfrey, Homer Simpson, and Kermit the Frog were defined as index cases. We included contacts up to the fifth generation seeded from each index case and enrolled a total of 99 participants into the cohort. Main outcome measures Basic reproduction number R0, serial interval of accepting the challenge, and odds ratios of associated risk factors based on fully observed nomination chains; R0 is a measure of transmissibility and is defined as the number of secondary cases generated by a single index in a fully susceptible population. Serial interval is the duration between onset of a primary case and onset of its secondary cases. Results Based on the empirical data and assuming a branching process we estimated a mean R0 of 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.65) and a mean serial interval for accepting the challenge of 2.1 days (median 1 day). Higher log (base 10) net worth of the participants was positively associated with transmission (odds ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.50), adjusting for age and sex. Conclusions The Ice Bucket Challenge was moderately transmissible among a group of globally influential celebrities, in the range of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza. The challenge was more likely to be spread by richer celebrities, perhaps in part reflecting greater social influence. PMID:25514905

  20. Transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ni, Michael Y; Chan, Brandford H Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y; Pang, Herbert

    2014-12-16

    To estimate the transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities and to identify associated risk factors. Retrospective cohort study. Social media (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram). David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Hawking, Mark Zuckerberg, Oprah Winfrey, Homer Simpson, and Kermit the Frog were defined as index cases. We included contacts up to the fifth generation seeded from each index case and enrolled a total of 99 participants into the cohort. Basic reproduction number R0, serial interval of accepting the challenge, and odds ratios of associated risk factors based on fully observed nomination chains; R0 is a measure of transmissibility and is defined as the number of secondary cases generated by a single index in a fully susceptible population. Serial interval is the duration between onset of a primary case and onset of its secondary cases. Based on the empirical data and assuming a branching process we estimated a mean R0 of 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.65) and a mean serial interval for accepting the challenge of 2.1 days (median 1 day). Higher log (base 10) net worth of the participants was positively associated with transmission (odds ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.50), adjusting for age and sex. The Ice Bucket Challenge was moderately transmissible among a group of globally influential celebrities, in the range of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza. The challenge was more likely to be spread by richer celebrities, perhaps in part reflecting greater social influence. © Ni et al 2014.

  1. Identification of influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole over southern Brazil and the biological effects induced by UVB and UVA radiation in an endemic treefrog species.

    PubMed

    Passaglia Schuch, André; Dos Santos, Mauricio Beux; Mendes Lipinski, Victor; Vaz Peres, Lucas; Dos Santos, Caroline Peripolli; Zanini Cechin, Sonia; Jorge Schuch, Nelson; Kirsh Pinheiro, Damaris; da Silva Loreto, Elgion Lúcio

    2015-08-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) due to ozone depletion has been affecting both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and it may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations in specific localities. In this work, influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole were identified in a dataset containing 35 years of ozone measurements over southern Brazil. The effects of environmental doses of UVB and UVA radiation were addressed on the morphology and development of Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpole (Anura: Hylidae), as well as on the induction of malformation after the conclusion of metamorphosis. These analyzes were complemented by the detection of micronucleus formation in blood cells. 72 ozone depletion events were identified from 1979 to 2013. Surprisingly, their yearly frequency increased three-fold during the last 17 years. The results clearly show that H. pulchellus tadpole are much more sensitive to UVB than UVA light, which reduces their survival and developmental rates. Additionally, the rates of micronucleus formation by UVB were considerably higher compared to UVA even after the activation of photolyases enzymes by a further photoreactivation treatment. Consequently, a higher occurrence of malformation was observed in UVB-irradiated individuals. These results demonstrate the severe genotoxic impact of UVB radiation on this treefrog species and its importance for further studies aimed to assess the impact of the increased levels of solar UVB radiation on declining species of the Hylidae family.

  2. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z.; Overley, Samuel C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Caridi, John M.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study with Targeted and Non-targeted NMR Metabolomics Identifies 15 Novel Loci of Urinary Human Metabolic Individuality

    PubMed Central

    Raffler, Johannes; Friedrich, Nele; Arnold, Matthias; Kacprowski, Tim; Rueedi, Rico; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Bergmann, Sven; Budde, Kathrin; Gieger, Christian; Homuth, Georg; Pietzner, Maik; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völker, Uwe; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Suhre, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies with metabolic traits (mGWAS) uncovered many genetic variants that influence human metabolism. These genetically influenced metabotypes (GIMs) contribute to our metabolic individuality, our capacity to respond to environmental challenges, and our susceptibility to specific diseases. While metabolic homeostasis in blood is a well investigated topic in large mGWAS with over 150 known loci, metabolic detoxification through urinary excretion has only been addressed by few small mGWAS with only 11 associated loci so far. Here we report the largest mGWAS to date, combining targeted and non-targeted 1H NMR analysis of urine samples from 3,861 participants of the SHIP-0 cohort and 1,691 subjects of the KORA F4 cohort. We identified and replicated 22 loci with significant associations with urinary traits, 15 of which are new (HIBCH, CPS1, AGXT, XYLB, TKT, ETNPPL, SLC6A19, DMGDH, SLC36A2, GLDC, SLC6A13, ACSM3, SLC5A11, PNMT, SLC13A3). Two-thirds of the urinary loci also have a metabolite association in blood. For all but one of the 6 loci where significant associations target the same metabolite in blood and urine, the genetic effects have the same direction in both fluids. In contrast, for the SLC5A11 locus, we found increased levels of myo-inositol in urine whereas mGWAS in blood reported decreased levels for the same genetic variant. This might indicate less effective re-absorption of myo-inositol in the kidneys of carriers. In summary, our study more than doubles the number of known loci that influence urinary phenotypes. It thus allows novel insights into the relationship between blood homeostasis and its regulation through excretion. The newly discovered loci also include variants previously linked to chronic kidney disease (CPS1, SLC6A13), pulmonary hypertension (CPS1), and ischemic stroke (XYLB). By establishing connections from gene to disease via metabolic traits our results provide novel hypotheses about molecular mechanisms

  4. Clinical Validation of a miRNA Blood Test to Identify High-Risk Individuals Eligible for Low-Dose Computed Tomography Screening for Lung Cancer Early Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    LDCT screening. Such samples can be classified into two risk classes ( Bach -high, and Bach -low), as determined by a risk model developed at IEO. Under...separate funding, samples from Bach -high subjects are being analyzed using the miR-Test. The DoD-funded project aims to improve the clinical...applicability of the miR-Test blood test by analyzing ~1000 serum samples of Bach -low individuals. A parallel study of 1000 individuals undergoing LDCT

  5. The impact of objective function selection on the influence of individual data points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David; Thyer, Mark; Westra, Seth; McInerney, David

    2016-04-01

    Across the field of hydrology practitioners apply a range of objective functions which are selected based upon the intended model application and suitability of the objective function assumptions to the data in question. Despite most objective functions providing fundamentally different calibration results there are currently limited methods for comparison of alternatives. Influence diagnostics quantify the impact of individual data points on model performance, parameters and predictions. The goal of this study is to use compare four commonly applied objective functions in hydrology using influence diagnostics to provide insights on how objective function selection changes the influence of individual data points on model calibration. The specific aims are to: 1) explore the impact on magnitude of influence of objective functions, 2) investigate similarities between influential points identified by objective functions and, 3) categorise flows that are influential under objective functions. We use case-deletion influence diagnostics to examine four objective functions: Standard Least Squares (SLS), Weighted Least Squares (WLS), Log transformed flows (LOG) and the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE). We apply these objective functions to six scenarios: two conceptual hydrological models (GR4J and IHACRES) across three catchment case studies with varying runoff coefficients (0.14 to 0.57). We quantify influence using the case-deletion relative change in flow metrics: mean flow prediction, maximum flow prediction, and the 10th percentile low flow prediction. The results show that when using objective functions SLS and KGE influential data points have larger magnitude influence (maximum of 10% change in the flow metrics across all data points for both objective functions) than heteroscedastic WLS and LOG (WLS maximum of 8% and LOG maximum of 6% change in the flow metrics). SLS and KGE identify similar influential points (75% of the most influential points are common to both

  6. Combining animal personalities with transcriptomics resolves individual variation within a wild-type zebrafish population and identifies underpinning molecular differences in brain function.

    PubMed

    Rey, S; Boltana, S; Vargas, R; Roher, N; Mackenzie, S

    2013-12-01

    Resolving phenotype variation within a population in response to environmental perturbation is central to understanding biological adaptation. Relating meaningful adaptive changes at the level of the transcriptome requires the identification of processes that have a functional significance for the individual. This remains a major objective towards understanding the complex interactions between environmental demand and an individual's capacity to respond to such demands. The interpretation of such interactions and the significance of biological variation between individuals from the same or different populations remain a difficult and under-addressed question. Here, we provide evidence that variation in gene expression between individuals in a zebrafish population can be partially resolved by a priori screening for animal personality and accounts for >9% of observed variation in the brain transcriptome. Proactive and reactive individuals within a wild-type population exhibit consistent behavioural responses over time and context that relates to underlying differences in regulated gene networks and predicted protein-protein interactions. These differences can be mapped to distinct regions of the brain and provide a foundation towards understanding the coordination of underpinning adaptive molecular events within populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Whole-exome-sequencing identifies mutations in histone acetyltransferase gene KAT6B in individuals with the Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clayton-Smith, Jill; O'Sullivan, James; Daly, Sarah; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Day, Ruth; Anderson, Beverley; Voss, Anne K; Thomas, Tim; Biesecker, Leslie G; Smith, Philip; Fryer, Alan; Chandler, Kate E; Kerr, Bronwyn; Tassabehji, May; Lynch, Sally-Ann; Krajewska-Walasek, Malgorzata; McKee, Shane; Smith, Janine; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Mansour, Sahar; Mohammed, Shehla; Donnai, Dian; Black, Graeme

    2011-11-11

    Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS or Ohdo syndrome) is a multiple anomaly syndrome characterized by severe intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and a mask-like facial appearance. A number of individuals with SBBYSS also have thyroid abnormalities and cleft palate. The condition usually occurs sporadically and is therefore presumed to be due in most cases to new dominant mutations. In individuals with SBBYSS, a whole-exome sequencing approach was used to demonstrate de novo protein-truncating mutations in the highly conserved histone acetyltransferase gene KAT6B (MYST4/MORF)) in three out of four individuals sequenced. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm truncating mutations of KAT6B, clustering in the final exon of the gene in all four individuals and in a further nine persons with typical SBBYSS. Where parental samples were available, the mutations were shown to have occurred de novo. During mammalian development KAT6B is upregulated specifically in the developing central nervous system, facial structures, and limb buds. The phenotypic features seen in the Qkf mouse, a hypomorphic Kat6b mutant, include small eyes, ventrally placed ears and long first digits that mirror the human phenotype. This is a further example of how perturbation of a protein involved in chromatin modification might give rise to a multisystem developmental disorder.

  8. Establishing a Framework of Influential Factors on Empowering Primary School Students in Peer Mediation

    PubMed Central

    Jorbozeh, Hamideh; Dehdari, Tahereh; Ashoorkhani, Mahnaz; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empowerment of children and adolescents in terms of social skills is critical for promoting their social health. Objectives: This study attempts to explore a framework of influential factors on empowering primary school students by means of peer mediation from the stakeholders' point of view, as a qualitative content analysis design. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis (conventional method). Seven focused group discussions and six in-depth interviews were conducted with schoolchildren, parents and education authorities. Following each interview, recordings were entered to an open code software and analyzed. Data collection was continued up to data saturation. Results: Within the provided framework, the participants' views and comments were classified into two major categories “educational empowerment” and “social empowerment”, and into two themes; “program” and “advocacy”. The “program” theme included factors such as design and implementation, development, maintenance and improvement, and individual and social impact. The “advocacy” theme included factors such as social, emotional and physical support. Conclusions: The explained framework components regarding peer mediation are useful to design peace education programs and to empower school-age children in peer mediation. PMID:25763191

  9. Analysis of the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bomjin; Park, Soyun; Han, Dongwook

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 83 healthy elderly women. The study's methods and purpose were explained and these women agreed to participate. The maximal-effort expiratory capacity was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). We measured forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%. [Results] Regarding forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, it was found that height and age were influential factors. Regarding forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity %, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%, it was found that only age was an influential factor. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the most influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women were age, and the second influential factor was height. We noticed that weight was the least influential factor among them.

  10. Analysis of the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bomjin; Park, Soyun; Han, Dongwook

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 83 healthy elderly women. The study’s methods and purpose were explained and these women agreed to participate. The maximal-effort expiratory capacity was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). We measured forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%. [Results] Regarding forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, it was found that height and age were influential factors. Regarding forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity %, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%, it was found that only age was an influential factor. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the most influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women were age, and the second influential factor was height. We noticed that weight was the least influential factor among them. PMID:27821963

  11. Using the Social Communication Questionnaire to Identify "Autistic Spectrum" Disorders Associated with Other Genetic Conditions: Findings from a Study of Individuals with Cohen Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Karpf, Janne

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, recent research has identified relatively high rates of autistic types of symptoms in a variety of genetic conditions, such as fragile X (Turk and Graham, 1997), tuberous sclerosis (Bolton and Griffiths, 1997), Angelman syndrome (Trillingsgaard and Ostergaard, this issue) and others (see Gillberg and Coleman, 2000). Detailed…

  12. Using the Social Communication Questionnaire to Identify "Autistic Spectrum" Disorders Associated with Other Genetic Conditions: Findings from a Study of Individuals with Cohen Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Karpf, Janne

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, recent research has identified relatively high rates of autistic types of symptoms in a variety of genetic conditions, such as fragile X (Turk and Graham, 1997), tuberous sclerosis (Bolton and Griffiths, 1997), Angelman syndrome (Trillingsgaard and Ostergaard, this issue) and others (see Gillberg and Coleman, 2000). Detailed…

  13. Influential psychotherapy figures, authors, and books: An Internet survey of over 2,000 psychotherapists.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C

    2009-03-01

    In a partial replication and extension of a survey conducted 25 years ago (Smith, 1982), over 2,400 North American psychotherapists completed a Web-based survey in which they identified prominent figures in the psychotherapy field who have most influenced their practice and the best psychotherapy books they had read in the past 3 years. There is a continued prominence to leaders of the field from 25 years ago but who are now deceased, notably the top-ranked Carl Rogers. Three books on the top-10 list represent empirically supported therapies (ESTs); two are treatment manuals for an EST, and one is a self-help book derived from an EST that has itself been shown to be efficacious bibliotherapy. Differences between psychologist and nonpsychologist therapists in the choice of influential figures, authors, and books are negligible. Implications are discussed in terms of the contemporary context into which therapeutic innovations are disseminated, as well as the conditions that may be necessary for successful dissemination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. INFLUENTIAL PSYCHOTHERAPY FIGURES, AUTHORS, AND BOOKS: AN INTERNET SURVEY OF OVER 2,000 PSYCHOTHERAPISTS

    PubMed Central

    COOK, JOAN M.; BIYANOVA, TATYANA; COYNE, JAMES C.

    2013-01-01

    In a partial replication and extension of a survey conducted 25 years ago (Smith, 1982), over 2,400 North American psychotherapists completed a Web-based survey in which they identified prominent figures in the psychotherapy field who have most influenced their practice and the best psychotherapy books they had read in the past 3 years. There is a continued prominence to leaders of the field from 25 years ago but who are now deceased, notably the top-ranked Carl Rogers. Three books on the top-10 list represent empirically supported therapies (ESTs); two are treatment manuals for an EST, and one is a self-help book derived from an EST that has itself been shown to be efficacious bibliotherapy. Differences between psychologist and nonpsychologist therapists in the choice of influential figures, authors, and books are negligible. Implications are discussed in terms of the contemporary context into which therapeutic innovations are disseminated, as well as the conditions that may be necessary for successful dissemination. PMID:22122569

  15. Discovering the influential users oriented to viral marketing based on online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiguo

    2013-08-01

    The target of viral marketing on the platform of popular online social networks is to rapidly propagate marketing information at lower cost and increase sales, in which a key problem is how to precisely discover the most influential users in the process of information diffusion. A novel method is proposed in this paper for helping companies to identify such users as seeds to maximize information diffusion in the viral marketing. Firstly, the user trust network oriented to viral marketing and users’ combined interest degree in the network including isolated users are extensively defined. Next, we construct a model considering the time factor to simulate the process of information diffusion in viral marketing and propose a dynamic algorithm description. Finally, experiments are conducted with a real dataset extracted from the famous SNS website Epinions. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm has better scalability and is less time-consuming. Compared with the classical model, the proposed algorithm achieved a better performance than does the classical method on the two aspects of network coverage rate and time-consumption in our four sub-datasets.

  16. Developing an instrument to measure the influential factors on career choice among Iranian nursing students.

    PubMed

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Abedian, Kobra; Jannati, Yadollah; Khaki, Nasrin

    2013-09-01

    Understanding why the graduates from the high schools choose nursing is essential for the health policy makers in each country and Iran is not an exception. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument measuring the influential factors on career choice among Iranian nursing students. This methodological study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. In the first phase of the study, the items were generated for the instrument. These items were drawn from a relevant literature review along with taking a poll of experts' opinions. Then the psychometric properties of instrument were measured using content validity, face validity, and construct (exploratory factor analysis) validity as well as its reliability. Initially, a 35-item instrument was developed. In the second phase, a scale-level content validity index of 0.90 was obtained for the instrument. The factor structure of the inventory was identified by undertaking a principal component analysis in a sample of 139 nursing students. Three factors were extracted with a total variance account of 42.03%. Reliability was demonstrated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.77 for the entire scale. Consistency of the instrument was established with test - retest reliability with an interval of 2 weeks (intra-cluster correlation = 0.94, P < 0.001). Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated no significant differences between the test - retest scores (P > 0.05). It seems a culturally sensitive instrument with a satisfactory level of validity and reliability has some implications for policy makers in nursing education.

  17. Connected component masking accurately identifies the ratio of phagocytosed and cell-bound particles in individual cells by imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fei, Chenjie; Lillico, Dustin M E; Hall, Brian; Rieger, Aja M; Stafford, James L

    2017-04-01

    Innate immune cell-mediated recognition, capture, and engulfment of large particulate targets such as bacteria is known as phagocytosis. This highly dynamic cellular process involves a series of steps including receptor-mediated target binding, phagocytic cup formation, pseudopod extension, and phagosome closure, which depend on distinct actin polymerization events. Using flow cytometry, precise determination of target locations relative to cell membranes (i.e., surface-bound vs. fully engulfed/internalized) during the phagocytic process is difficult to quantify. Here, we describe the application of new analysis features within the IDEAS® software to distinguish internalized and surface-bound particles on individual cells with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility. Through the use of connected component masks, the accurate discrimination of surface-bound beads versus those internalized is clearly demonstrated. In addition, we were able to further analyze the ratio of beads that had been surface-bound or internalized within individual cells. This novel method of analyzing the phagocytic process provides more accurate determination of target-cell interactions that will assist in examination of the signalling events that occur during the various stages of phagocytosis. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. A Simple Indian Diabetes Risk Score Could Help Identify Nondiabetic Individuals at High Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (CURES-117)

    PubMed Central

    Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Vamsi, Mamilla; Deepa, Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aim to determine whether a simple Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is associated with individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among nondiabetic Asian Indians. Methods Nondiabetic participants (n = 409) were selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Mean age was 40 ± 11.9 years, mean body mass index was 23.2 ± 3.9 kg/m2, and 224 (54.8%) were women. The IDRS was classified as high (≥60), medium (30–50), and low (<30) risk. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was assessed by high-resolution β mode ultrasonography. To determine the factors associated with NAFLD, a univariate analysis was first done and a stepwise logistic regression analysis was done based on the factors associated with NAFLD. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. Results The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 24.7% (101/409 participants), and it was significantly higher among those with a high (30.4%) and medium IDRS (21%) compared with the low IDRS group (15.8%; trend chi square; p = .022). In stepwise logistic regression, IDRS was associated with NAFLD with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.78 (95% confidence interval 1.04–3.06), even after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions The IDRS can be used as the initial step to screen individuals at high risk of NAFLD in the community. PMID:23294790

  19. Six new examples of the bipartite trapezoid bone: morphology, significant population variation, and an examination of pre-existing criteria to identify bipartition of individual carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Scott E; Stojanowski, Christopher M; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2015-03-01

    Carpal bone bipartition is a developmental variant resulting in the division of a normally singular carpal into two distinct segments. Cases involving the scaphoid are best known, though many other carpals can be affected, including the trapezoid. Six new examples of bipartite trapezoids, identified in African and Asian anatomical and archeological samples, are reported here and compared with the eight previously known. While the site of bipartition is consistent, the resulting segments exhibit variability in their articulations with neighboring carpals. Five of the six affected trapezoids were identified in African or African-derived samples, yielding a significantly higher frequency (0.323%) of bipartite trapezoid than seen in anatomical or archeological series of European origin. Bilateral bipartite trapezoids in archeological remains from the Mid Holocene site of Gobero (Niger) are potentially the oldest bipartite carpals yet identified in humans. Their discovery may indicate that trapezoid bipartition is a condition that has been present in African populations since prehistoric times, though more data are needed. Because bipartite carpals may be symptomatic and can occur as part of syndromes, the significant population variation in frequency identified here has potential utility in both anatomical and clinical contexts. However, a comparison of the morphological appearance of bipartite trapezoids with the suggested criteria for bipartite scaphoid diagnosis indicates that these criteria are not equally applicable to other carpals. Fortunately, due to the rarity of fracture, identification of the bipartite trapezoid and separating it from pathological conditions is considerably easier than diagnosing a bipartite scaphoid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy.

  1. Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability Assessment Identifies Individual Differences in Fear Response Magnitudes to Earthquake, Free Fall, and Air Puff in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.; Zhao, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR) with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse’s fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models. PMID:24667366

  2. Heart rate and heart rate variability assessment identifies individual differences in fear response magnitudes to earthquake, free fall, and air puff in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z; Zhao, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR) with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse's fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models.

  3. Do Colleges Identify or Develop Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Most colleges and universities emphasize identifying smartness much more than developing smartness. This value is made explicit in the many influential rankings of colleges and universities, in which elitist schools who recruit students with high SAT scores, grade point averages, and class rankings are declared "better" than other…

  4. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  5. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  6. The influential roles of antibiotics prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcer bleeding after initial endoscopic treatments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Chieh; Tai, Wei-Chen; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2014-01-01

    The influential roles of antibiotic prophylaxis on cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcer bleeding are still not well documented. The purpose of this study is to clarify these influential roles and to identify the risk factors associated with rebleeding, bacterial infection and in-hospital mortality. A cross-sectional, chart review study was conducted on 210 cirrhotic patients with acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage who underwent therapeutic endoscopic procedures. Patients were divided into group A (with prophylactic intravenous ceftriaxone, n = 74) and group B (without antibiotics, n = 136). The outcomes were length of hospital days, prevention of infection, rebleeding rate and in-hospital mortality. Our results showed that more patients suffered from rebleeding and infection in group B than group A (31.6% vs. 5.4%; p<0.001 and 25% vs. 10.8%; p = 0.014 respectively). The risk factors for rebleeding were active alcoholism, unit of blood transfusion, Rockall score, model for end-stage liver disease score and antibiotic prophylaxis. The risk factors for infection were active alcoholism, Child-Pugh C, Rockall score and antibiotic prophylaxis. Rockall score was the predictive factor for in-hospital mortality. In conclusions, antibiotic prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients after endoscopic interventions for acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage reduced infections and rebleeding rate but not in-hospital mortality. Rockall score was the predictive factor of in-hospital mortality.

  7. Spa Goers' Repeated Visits for Health and Wellness and the Influential Factors: An Exploratory Study of the UK Spa Goers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myungsuk; Poade, Donna; Sohn, Minsung; Choi, Mankyu

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of spa services across the globe and its market saturation drive demand for differentiated communication methods. This study aims to explore the influential factors on spa goers' repeated visits and their practical applications in the health and wellness spa industry. The identified factors were used as the measurement variables to examine the relation with spa goers' repeated visits. The proposed concept was tested by a mixed method combining a self-administered questionnaire and semistructured interview with 54 survey participants and 6 interviewees. It was meaningful to use a sample of the UK spa goers from the southwest region since global spa trends stem from the EU spas, and the United Kingdom is one of the market leaders. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, multiple logistic regression analysis, and coding process. The survey findings demonstrated that the most significant influential factor on the repeated spa visits is a memorable experience of which showed 13.7 times higher probability than the reference up-to-date facility. The details of memorable experiences were discovered throughout the interviews that include the rediscovery of self, feeling of connectedness, recharge for positive emotions, self-reward through escapism, and experience of noncommercialized local products and attractions. Therefore, using experiential marketing methods can be effective spa service marketing.

  8. The Manchester Color Wheel: development of a novel way of identifying color choice and its validation in healthy, anxious and depressed individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background For the purposes of our research programme we needed a simple, reliable and validated method for allowing choice of a color in response to a series of questions. On reviewing the literature no such instrument was available and this study aimed to rectify this situation. This was achieved by developing a simple method of presenting a series of colors to people validating it in healthy volunteers and in individuals where color choice might be distorted, namely anxiety and depression. Methods A series of different presentations of four shades of eight colors and grey, as well as black and white were evaluated. 'Mood', 'favourite' and 'drawn to' colors were assessed in 105 healthy, 108 anxious and 110 depressed participants. The positive, neutral or negative attribution of these colors was recorded in a further 204 healthy volunteers. Results The circular presentation of colors was most favoured (Color Wheel). Yellow was the most 'drawn to' color and blue the commonest 'favourite' color in all subjects. Yellow was most often associated with a normal mood and grey with an anxious or depressed mood. Different shades of the same color had completely different positive or negative connotations. Reproducibility was exceptionally high when color choice was recorded in positive, neutral or negative terms. Conclusions The Color Wheel could be used to assess health status, mood or even treatment outcome in a variety of clinical situations. It may also have utility in circumstances where verbal communication may not be optimal, such as with children. PMID:20144203

  9. Neuropsychopharmacology and Neurogenetic Aspects of Executive Functioning: Should Reward Gene Polymorphisms Constitute a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Individuals at Risk for Impaired Judgment?

    PubMed Central

    Bowirrat, Abdalla; Chen, Thomas JH; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Madigan, Margaret; Chen, Amanda LH; Bailey, John A.; Braverman, Eric R.; Kerner, Mallory; Giordano, John; Morse, Siohban; Downs, B. William; Waite, Roger L.; Fornari, Frank; Armaly, Zaher; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions are processes that act in harmony to control behaviors necessary for maintaining focus and achieving outcomes. Executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders is attributed to structural or functional pathology of brain networks involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections with other brain regions. The PFC receives innervations from different neurons associated with a number of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine (DA). Here we review findings on the contribution of PFC DA to higher-order cognitive and emotional behaviors. We suggest examination of multifactorial interactions of an individual’s genetic history, along with environmental risk factors, can assist in the characterization of executive functioning for that individual. Based upon the results of genetic studies we also propose genetic mapping as a probable diagnostic tool serving as a therapeutic adjunct for augmenting executive functioning capabilities. We conclude that preservation of the neurological underpinnings of executive functions requires the integrity of complex neural systems including the influence of specific genes and associated polymorphisms to provide adequate neurotransmission. PMID:22371275

  10. Social Desirability Bias and Prevalence of Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among People Who Use Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland: Implications for Identifying Individuals Prone to Underreporting Sexual Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amrita; Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-07-01

    The role of social desirability bias (SDB) in self-reported HIV risk behaviors continues to be problematic. This study examined whether SDB was associated with self-reported, via audio computer assisted self-interviewing, sexual risk behaviors among people who use drugs. The present study was conducted among 559 participants who reported having a recent sexual partner at their 6-month visit of a longitudinal study. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the association between SDB and five risk behaviors. Analyses were stratified by gender and partner type. Higher scores of SDB were associated with decreased reporting of selling sex and having more than one sexual partner. Higher SDB scores were associated with increased reporting of always using condoms during oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Gender-specific differences were observed. The inclusion of a measure of SDB in data collection, along with other strategies, can be used to both identify and reduce self-report biases.

  11. The Co-Occurrence of Obesity, Elevated Blood Pressure and Acanthosis Nigricans among American Indian School-children: Identifying Individual Heritage and Environment-level Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O.; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Himes, John H.; Butterbrodt, Mark; Sinaiko, Alan; Cloud, Richard Iron; Tobacco, Mary; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and explore the social and cultural etiologic roots of weight status, blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans among American Indian children on a reservation in South Dakota. Methods This observational study was conducted in 26 schools from 1998–2002 and included 5,422 observations representing 3,841 children, ages 3–19. Trained staff measured height, weight, blood pressure and assessed the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN). Percent Indian heritage (PIH) was abstracted from tribal records. Sociodemographic environment (SDE) was calculated using the 2000 Census at the city/town level. Descriptive analyses were conducted using one measurement time point, including tests for trend and co-occurrence of risk factors using the kappa statistic. Hierarchical, multivariate logistic regression estimated associations with overweight/obesity status, accounting for multiple measures on individuals and SDE. Results The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 46%, of hypertension 9%, and of AN 14%. The co-occurrence of risk factors was moderate to high. PIH and AN were positively associated in unadjusted analysis. Controlling for sex, age, and SDE, higher PIH was a significant correlate of overweight/obesity, although when hypertension (OR=5.92, CI=3.27–10.72), pre-hypertension (OR=3.80, CI=1.99–7.26) and AN (OR=16.20, CI=8.08–32.48) were included in the model PIH was no longer significant. SDE was not significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion PIH appeared to be an important correlate of overweight and obesity, except when adjusted for the co-occurrence of high blood pressure and AN. Overall, the prevalence and co-occurrence of various risk factors in this population was high. Obesity prevention initiatives targeting families and communities are needed, as well as access to screening and treatment services. PMID:21445934

  12. Steel Rack Connections: Identification of Most Influential Factors and a Comparison of Stiffness Design Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shah, S. N. R.; Sulong, N. H. Ramli; Shariati, Mahdi; Jumaat, M. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Steel pallet rack (SPR) beam-to-column connections (BCCs) are largely responsible to avoid the sway failure of frames in the down-aisle direction. The overall geometry of beam end connectors commercially used in SPR BCCs is different and does not allow a generalized analytic approach for all types of beam end connectors; however, identifying the effects of the configuration, profile and sizes of the connection components could be the suitable approach for the practical design engineers in order to predict the generalized behavior of any SPR BCC. This paper describes the experimental behavior of SPR BCCs tested using a double cantilever test set-up. Eight sets of specimens were identified based on the variation in column thickness, beam depth and number of tabs in the beam end connector in order to investigate the most influential factors affecting the connection performance. Four tests were repeatedly performed for each set to bring uniformity to the results taking the total number of tests to thirty-two. The moment-rotation (M-θ) behavior, load-strain relationship, major failure modes and the influence of selected parameters on connection performance were investigated. A comparative study to calculate the connection stiffness was carried out using the initial stiffness method, the slope to half-ultimate moment method and the equal area method. In order to find out the more appropriate method, the mean stiffness of all the tested connections and the variance in values of mean stiffness according to all three methods were calculated. The calculation of connection stiffness by means of the initial stiffness method is considered to overestimate the values when compared to the other two methods. The equal area method provided more consistent values of stiffness and lowest variance in the data set as compared to the other two methods. PMID:26452047

  13. Cluster analysis of quantitative MRI T2 and T1ρ relaxation times of cartilage identifies differences between healthy and ACL-injured individuals at 3T.

    PubMed

    Monu, U D; Jordan, C D; Samuelson, B L; Hargreaves, B A; Gold, G E; McWalter, E J

    2017-04-01

    To identify focal lesions of elevated MRI T2 and T1ρ relaxation times in articular cartilage of an ACL-injured group using a novel cluster analysis technique. Eighteen ACL-injured patients underwent 3T MRI T2 and T1ρ relaxometry at baseline, 6 months and 1 year and six healthy volunteers at baseline, 1 day and 1 year. Clusters of contiguous pixels above or below T2 and T1ρ intensity and area thresholds were identified on a projection map of the 3D femoral cartilage surface. The total area of femoral cartilage plate covered by clusters (%CA) was split into areas above (%CA+) and below (%CA-) the thresholds and the differences in %CA(+ or -) over time in the ACL-injured group were determined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. %CA+ was greater in the ACL-injured patients than the healthy volunteers at 6 months and 1 year with average %CA+ of 5.2 ± 4.0% (p = 0.0054) and 6.6 ± 3.7% (p = 0.0041) for T2 and 6.2 ± 7.1% (p = 0.063) and 8.2 ± 6.9% (p = 0.042) for T1ρ, respectively. %CA- at 6 months and 1 year was 3.0 ± 1.8% (p > 0.1) and 5.9 ± 5.0% (p > 0.1) for T2 and 4.4 ± 4.9% (p > 0.1) and 4.5 ± 4.6% (p > 0.1) for T1ρ, respectively. With the proposed cluster analysis technique, we have quantified cartilage lesion coverage and demonstrated that the ACL-injured group had greater areas of elevated T2 and T1ρ relaxation times as compared to healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Discussing mental illness in Chinese social media: the impact of influential sources on stigmatization and support among their followers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weirui; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis was conducted to examine depression-related discourses by public opinion leaders and mainstream media in the Chinese social media platform Sina Weibo, as well as the impact of these discourses on their followers. The study revealed that stereotypical presentations of people with depression by influential sources often promoted stigmatization of or reduced support for depressed individuals among their followers. Environmental and genetic attributions for the disease in the original posts reduced stigmatization in the response posts. Information about recovery and treatment proved to be a double-edged sword, reducing stigmatization and support among followers at the same time. The use of a crime context to discuss depression in the original posts often promoted stigmatization, while discussing it in a health context increased support in the response posts.

  15. Influential Factors for Mobile Learning Acceptance among Chinese Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Shuang; Dennen, Vanessa P.; Mei, Li

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factors that influence mobile learning adoption among Chinese university students. China's higher education market is large and mobile device ownership is considered a status symbol. Combined, these two factors suggest mobile learning could have a big impact in China. From the literature, we identified three major areas…

  16. Influential Factors for Mobile Learning Acceptance among Chinese Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Shuang; Dennen, Vanessa P.; Mei, Li

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factors that influence mobile learning adoption among Chinese university students. China's higher education market is large and mobile device ownership is considered a status symbol. Combined, these two factors suggest mobile learning could have a big impact in China. From the literature, we identified three major areas…

  17. Comparing the use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Behavior Checklist protocols to identify and characterize autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thaís Helena Ferreira; Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Pimentel, Ana Gabriela Lopes; Lacerda, Camila Andrioli; Balestro, Juliana Izidro; Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2012-01-01

    To compare the results obtained in the Autism Behavior Checklist with those obtained in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to identify and characterize children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Participants were 28 children with psychiatric diagnosis within the autism spectrum that were enrolled in language therapy in a specialized service. These children were assessed according to the Autism Behavior Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale criteria, based on information obtained with parents and therapists, respectively. Data were statistically analyzed regarding the agreement between responses. Results indicating high or moderate probability of autism in the Autism Behavior Checklist were considered concordant with the results indicating mild-to-moderate or severe autism in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Results indicating low probability of autism in the Autism Behavior Checklist and without autism in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale were also considered concordant. There was agreement on most of the responses. Cases in which there was disagreement between results obtained on both protocols corroborate literature data, showing that the instruments may not be sufficient, if applied alone, to define the diagnosis. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale may not effectively diagnose autistic children, while the Autism Behavior Checklist may result in over- diagnose, including within the autism spectrum children with other disorders. Therefore, the associated use of both protocols is recommended.

  18. Interpretation of clinical relevance of X-chromosome copy number variations identified in a large cohort of individuals with cognitive disorders and/or congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leeuw, Nicole; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Pfundt, Rolph; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y; Yntema, Helger G; Nillesen, Willy M; de Vries, Bert B A; van Bokhoven, Hans; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-11-01

    Genome-wide array studies are now routinely being used in the evaluation of patients with cognitive disorders (CD) and/or congenital anomalies (CA). Therefore, inevitably each clinician is confronted with the challenging task of the interpretation of copy number variations detected by genome-wide array platforms in a diagnostic setting. Clinical interpretation of autosomal copy number variations is already challenging, but assessment of the clinical relevance of copy number variations of the X-chromosome is even more complex. This study provides an overview of the X-Chromosome copy number variations that we have identified by genome-wide array analysis in a large cohort of 4407 male and female patients. We have made an interpretation of the clinical relevance of each of these copy number variations based on well-defined criteria and previous reports in literature and databases. The prevalence of X-chromosome copy number variations in this cohort was 57/4407 (∼1.3%), of which 15 (0.3%) were interpreted as (likely) pathogenic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-wide association meta-analysis in Chinese and European individuals identifies ten new loci associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Fei; Zhu, Zhengwei; Tombleson, Philip; Chen, Lingyan; Cunninghame Graham, Deborah S; Bentham, James; Roberts, Amy L; Chen, Ruoyan; Zuo, Xianbo; Wang, Tingyou; Wen, Leilei; Yang, Chao; Liu, Lu; Yang, Lulu; Li, Feng; Huang, Yuanbo; Yin, Xianyong; Yang, Sen; Rönnblom, Lars; Fürnrohr, Barbara G; Voll, Reinhard E; Schett, Georg; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Gaffney, Patrick M; Lau, Yu Lung; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Wanling; Cui, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 1 152700) is a genetically complex autoimmune disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 50 loci as robustly associated with the disease in single ancestries, but genome-wide transancestral studies have not been conducted. We combined three GWAS data sets from Chinese (1,659 cases and 3,398 controls) and European (4,036 cases and 6,959 controls) populations. A meta-analysis of these studies showed that over half of the published SLE genetic associations are present in both populations. A replication study in Chinese (3,043 cases and 5,074 controls) and European (2,643 cases and 9,032 controls) subjects found ten previously unreported SLE loci. Our study provides further evidence that the majority of genetic risk polymorphisms for SLE are contained within the same regions across both populations. Furthermore, a comparison of risk allele frequencies and genetic risk scores suggested that the increased prevalence of SLE in non-Europeans (including Asians) has a genetic basis. PMID:27399966

  20. De Novo variants in the KMT2A (MLL) gene causing atypical Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome in two unrelated individuals identified by clinical exome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome (WSS) is characterized by short stature, a variety of dysmorphic facial and skeletal features, characteristic hypertrichosis cubiti (excessive hair on the elbows), mild-to-moderate developmental delay and intellectual disability. [MIM#: 605130]. Here we report two unrelated children for whom clinical exome sequencing of parent-proband trios was performed at UCLA, resulting in a molecular diagnosis of WSS and atypical clinical presentation. Case presentation For patient 1, clinical features at 9 years of age included developmental delay, craniofacial abnormalities, and multiple minor anomalies. Patient 2 presented at 1 year of age with developmental delay, microphthalmia, partial 3–4 left hand syndactyly, and craniofacial abnormalities. A de novo missense c.4342T>C variant and a de novo splice site c.4086+G>A variant were identified in the KMT2A gene in patients 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions Based on the clinical and molecular findings, both patients appear to have novel presentations of WSS. As the hallmark hypertrichosis cubiti was not initially appreciated in either case, this syndrome was not suspected during the clinical evaluation. This report expands the phenotypic spectrum of the clinical phenotypes and KMT2A variants associated with WSS. PMID:24886118

  1. Are offending trajectories identified in population sample studies relevant for treatment settings? A comparison of long-term offending trajectories in individuals treated for substance abuse in adolescence, to a matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Molero, Yasmina; Larsson, Agne; Tengström, Anders; Eklund, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Most studies on offending heterogeneity have been conducted with general population samples. It is not clear to what extent these can inform such outcomes for individuals with substance use disorders specifically. The aim of this study is to compare the offending trajectories of individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence with a matched general population sample, and to test for gender differences in this respect. Growth mixture models were applied to identify offending trajectories from age 15 to 33 of 1568 individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence, and in a matched population-based sample of 1500 individuals. Several parallel trajectories for men and for women were identified in both samples. The substance misuse treatment sample, however, had higher levels of offending, larger offender classes, longer careers and two additional, distinct trajectories. Although there were similarities between the men and women, the men were more heterogeneous offenders. There were two distinct offending trajectories among male substance misusers-decreasing high level and decreasing low level offending. Differences between substance using and general population samples indicate that results from the latter could underestimate the severity, heterogeneity, and persistence of offending trajectories if merely generalised to individuals with substance use disorders. Our results also indicated that population--based samples might be underpowered for detecting female offending heterogeneity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    PubMed

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  3. Interprofessional collaboration regarding patients' care plans in primary care: a focus group study into influential factors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; Lenzen, Stephanie Anna; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Daniëls, Ramon; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2016-05-28

    The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development in primary care. A qualitative study, including four semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 4). In total, a heterogeneous group of experts (n = 16) and health care professionals (n = 15) participated. Participants discussed viewpoints, barriers, and facilitators regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development. The data were analysed by means of inductive content analysis. The findings show a variety of factors influencing the interprofessional collaboration in developing a care plan. Factors can be divided into 5 key categories: (1) patient-related factors: active role, self-management, goals and wishes, membership of the team; (2) professional-related factors: individual competences, domain thinking, motivation; (3) interpersonal factors: language differences, knowing each other, trust and respect, and motivation; (4) organisational factors: structure, composition, time, shared vision, leadership and administrative support; and (5) external factors: education, culture, hierarchy, domain thinking, law and regulations, finance, technology and ICT. Improving interprofessional collaboration regarding care plan development calls for an integral approach including patient- and professional related factors, interpersonal, organisational, and external factors. Further, the leader of the team seems to play a key role in watching the patient perspective, organising and coordinating interprofessional collaborations, and guiding the team through developments. The results of this study can be used as input for developing tools and interventions targeted at executing and improving interprofessional

  4. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  5. Fearfulness in the Community: Empirical Assessments of Influential Factors.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Francis D

    2016-04-06

    Fear of crime has been well studied; however, there has yet not been widespread consideration of the potential impact of both individual- and neighborhood-level factors on residents' level of fear of crime. From a logistic-regression analytical standpoint, the present study empirically explores the contribution of several factors in explaining residents' propensity for being fearful of crime. Precisely, the study tests the applicability and generalizability of three theoretical perspectives of fear of crime in the Ghanaian context and examines the effects of residents' attitudes toward the police on their levels of fear of crime. Using large-scale cross-sectional data collected on more than 1,000 residents from 25 neighborhoods in Ghana, the results demonstrate significant predictive effects of both individual- and neighborhood-level factors on citizens' rate of fearfulness. Findings from this study have both theoretical and practical implications, and provide important insights for the police to reduce levels of fear of crime in the community. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Legends of the field: influential scholars in multicultural counseling.

    PubMed

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Fingerhut, Esther C; McGuinness, Ryan

    2012-10-01

    This study identified the most frequently cited scholars across 28 leading multicultural textbooks used in the training of counselors and counseling psychologists. Four spheres or clusters of multicultural scholars were identified and were characterized, respectively, as having either a profound, highly significant, significant, or important impact on the academic multicultural training of counseling graduate students. The top-cited scholars across the textbooks were also examined in relation to their scholarly productivity (number of publications) and their impact (number of citations) in peer-reviewed journals. Specifically, multicultural scholars were assessed on the delta-beta coefficient, Scopus and PsycINFO publications count, Scopus citations, and the increasingly popular h-index of scientific impact. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings for counseling training were highlighted.

  7. Genetic-based interactions among tree neighbors: identification of the most influential neighbors, and estimation of correlations among direct and indirect genetic effects for leaf disease and growth in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Costa E Silva, J; Potts, B M; Gilmour, A R; Kerr, R J

    2017-09-01

    An individual's genes may influence the phenotype of neighboring conspecifics. Such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are important as they can affect the apparent total heritable variance in a population, and thus the response to selection. We studied these effects in a large, pedigreed population of Eucalyptus globulus using variance component analyses of Mycosphearella leaf disease, diameter growth at age 2 years, and post-infection diameter growth at ages 4 and 8 years. In a novel approach, we initially modeled IGEs using a factor analytic (FA) structure to identify the most influential neighbor positions, with the FA loadings being position-specific regressions on the IGEs. This involved sequentially comparing FA models for the variance-covariance matrices of the direct and indirect effects of each neighbor. We then modeled IGEs as a distance-based, combined effect of the most influential neighbors. This often increased the magnitude and significance of indirect genetic variance estimates relative to using all neighbors. The extension of a univariate IGEs model to bivariate analyses also provided insights into the genetic architecture of this population, revealing that: (1) IGEs arising from increased probability of neighbor infection were not associated with reduced growth of neighbors, despite adverse fitness effects being evident at the direct genetic level; and (2) the strong, genetic-based competitive interactions for growth, established early in stand development, were highly positively correlated over time. Our results highlight the complexities of genetic-based interactions at the multi-trait level due to (co)variances associated with IGEs, and the marked discrepancy occurring between direct and total heritable variances.

  8. Effective identification of multiple influential spreaders by DegreePunishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Su, Yanyuan; Zhao, Chengli; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of social networks, how to effectively identify a small group of nodes to maximize their spreading influence becomes a crucial topic. Traditional centrality-based methods are often very simple but not so effective compared to other complex methods. In this paper, we propose a heuristic method to select spreaders sequentially by carrying out a punishing strategy to the neighbors of those already selected spreaders. We use the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to evaluate the performance by considering the number of infected nodes in the end. Experiments on four real networks show that our method outperforms traditional centrality-based methods and several heuristic ones.

  9. Developing an instrument to measure the influential factors on career choice among Iranian nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Abedian, Kobra; Jannati, Yadollah; Khaki, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding why the graduates from the high schools choose nursing is essential for the health policy makers in each country and Iran is not an exception. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument measuring the influential factors on career choice among Iranian nursing students. Materials and Methods: This methodological study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. In the first phase of the study, the items were generated for the instrument. These items were drawn from a relevant literature review along with taking a poll of experts’ opinions. Then the psychometric properties of instrument were measured using content validity, face validity, and construct (exploratory factor analysis) validity as well as its reliability. Results: Initially, a 35-item instrument was developed. In the second phase, a scale-level content validity index of 0.90 was obtained for the instrument. The factor structure of the inventory was identified by undertaking a principal component analysis in a sample of 139 nursing students. Three factors were extracted with a total variance account of 42.03%. Reliability was demonstrated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.77 for the entire scale. Consistency of the instrument was established with test — retest reliability with an interval of 2 weeks (intra-cluster correlation = 0.94, P < 0.001). Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated no significant differences between the test — retest scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It seems a culturally sensitive instrument with a satisfactory level of validity and reliability has some implications for policy makers in nursing education. PMID:24403943

  10. [Social support status and related influential factors of patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lei, S; Ding, R J; Wang, L; Xia, K; Zhang, L J; Yao, D K; Hu, D Y

    2017-05-24

    Objectives: To investigate the social support status, related influential factors and the impact on one year outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), our data might be helpful to provide basis for making new treatment strategy aimed at improving social support for patients with ACS. Methods: From January 2013 to June 2014, a total of 778 hospitalized patients with ACS were enrolled in the study. All patients completed enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease patients social support inventory(ESSI), general anxiety disorder scale(GAD-7), patient health questionnaire(PHQ-9), short-form 12 health survey questionnaire(SF-12), sleep questionnaire and demographic questionnaire within 7 days after admission and at 6 months and one year post discharge. Multiple linear regressions were performed to analyze factors that influenced the social support. Results: The total score of social support was 17.08±3.61, 17.72±3.04, and 17.76±3.05 respectively in patients with ACS at baseline, 6 months and 12 months after discharge. Patients had a higher point of social support at 6 months (t=-2.69, P<0.01) and 12 months (t=-2.86, P<0.01) after discharge than at baseline. Multiple regression analysis for baseline data identified five significant predictors of low social support status: workers or farmers (t=2.82, P<0.01), low family monthly income (t=2.42, P<0.05), anxiety (t=-3.66, P<0.01), depression (t=-3.22, P<0.01) and low quality of life (t=4.38, P<0.01). Conclusions: Social support of patients with ACS is lower in China, and there are significant relationships between low social support and occupation, economic status, anxiety, depression, quality of life of ACS patients.

  11. The Practical Integration of Action Research into Building Climate Literacy and Partnership with Key Influentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been using an action research approach to build climate literacy and partnership with key influential (KI) leaders in the San Diego community. After identifying 6 key sectors that either (a) could reduce green house gas emissions and adapt to impacts, or (b) would be highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, we conducted 89 interviews with KIs from the San Diego region -- including elected officials, academics, laborers, and representatives from local businesses, non-profits, ethnic and cultural communities, faith-based groups, and special interest groups -- to assess their science knowledge and opinions about climate change and the impacts of climate change. Other questions asked were about KIs' personal efficacy, identity, values and engagement in pro-environmental behaviors related to climate change. The results of the interviews contributed to CEP's action research approach in two ways: 1) it provided critical data regarding which leaders wanted further engagement with CEP and what that engagement should entail (e.g., being a connector to other leaders, a spokesperson, or a participant in future educational activities), and 2) it provided key information about the extent to which "knowledge deficit" is related to use of climate change knowledge to inform engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. Practically, the results were used to create a database that is being used to inform the contact and education of KIs. We were able to show, consistent with previous research and identity theory, that liberal leaders were more likely than conservatives to believe in, feel concern for, and be knowledgeable about climate change. However, engagement in mitigation behaviors- specifically making decisions that would reduce electricity, gas, or water use- were similar for both groups. These results are being used to create resources and direct climate education activities going forward.

  12. Representation of developing countries in orthopaedic journals: a survey of four influential orthopaedic journals.

    PubMed

    Aluede, Edward E; Phillips, Jonathan; Bleyer, Jamie; Jergesen, Harry E; Coughlin, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The developing world contains more than ¾ of the world's population, and has the largest burden of musculoskeletal disease. Published studies provide crucial information that can influence healthcare policies. Presumably much information regarding burden in the developing world would arise from authors from developing countries. However, the extent of participation of authors from the developing world in widely read orthopaedic journals is unclear. We surveyed four influential English-language orthopaedic journals to document the contributions of authors from developing countries. We surveyed Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, and the American and British volumes of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, from May 2007 through May 2010. The country of origin of all authors was identified. We used the designations provided by the International Monetary Fund to define countries as either developed or developing. Two hundred sixty-five of 3964 publications (7%) included authors from developing countries. Ninety percent of these had authors from developing countries with industrialized and emerging-market economies. Publications from Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for only 0.4% of the 3964 articles reviewed and 5.6% of the 265 articles with developing world authorship. Countries with the least robust economies were least represented. Less than 1/3 of articles with authors from the developing world had coauthors from developed or other developing countries. Additional studies are needed to determine the reasons for the low representation noted and to establish strategies to increase the number of orthopaedic publications from parts of the world where the burden of musculoskeletal disease is the greatest.

  13. Spatial-temporal eco-environmental vulnerability assessment and its influential factors based on Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, N. K.; Liou, Y. A.; Ming-Hsu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Regional land use/land cover (LULC) changes lead to various changes in ecological processes and, in turn, alter regional micro-climate. To understand eco-environmental responses to LULC changes, eco-environmental evaluation is thus required with aims to identify vulnerable regions and influential factors, so that practical measures for environmental protection and management may be proposed. The Thua Thien - Hue Province has been experiencing urbanization at a rapid rate in both population and physical size. The urban land, agricultural land, and aquaculture activities have been invasively into natural space and caused eco-environment deterioration by land desertification, soil erosion, shrinking forest resources,…etc. In this study, an assessment framework that is composed by 11 variables with 9 of them constructed from Landsat time series is proposed to serve as basis to examine eco-environmental vulnerability in the Thua Thien - Hue Province in years 1989, 2003, and 2014. An eco-environmental vulnerability map is assorted into six vulnerability levels consisting of potential, slight, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy vulnerabilities. Result shows that there is an increasing trend in eco-environmental vulnerability in general with expected evolving distributions in heavy and very heavy vulnerability levels, which mainly lying on developed land, bare land, semi bare land, agricultural land, and poor and recovery forests. In contrast, there is a significant decline in potential vulnerability level. The contributing factors of an upward trend in medium, heavy, and very heavy levels include: (i) a large natural forest converted to plantation forest and agriculture land; and (ii) significant expansion of developed land leading to difference in thermal signatures in urban areas as compared with those of the surrounding areas. It is concluded that anthropogenic processes with transformation on LULC has amplified the vulnerability of eco-environment in the study

  14. Fatigue of Chinese railway employees and its influential factors: Structural equation modelling.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Liuxing; Chang, Jing; Ma, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Fatigue is an identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in transport operations. Regarding the railway sector, incident logs and simulation studies show that employee fatigue leads to lack of alertness, impaired performance, and occurrence of incidents. China has one of the largest rail systems in the world, and Chinese railway employees work under high fatigue risks; therefore, it is important to assess their fatigue level and find the major factors leading to fatigue. We designed a questionnaire that uses Multidimensional Fatigue Instrument (MFI-20), NASA-TLX and subjective rating of work overtime feelings to assess employee fatigue. The contribution of each influential factor of fatigue was analysed using structural equation modelling. In total, 297 employees from the rail maintenance department and 227 employees from the locomotive department returned valid responses. The average scores and standard deviations for the five subscales of MFI-20, namely General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Reduced Activity, Reduced Motivation, and Mental Fatigue, were 2.9 (0.8), 2.8 (0.8), 2.5 (0.8), 2.5 (0.7), and 2.4 (0.8) among the rail maintenance employees and 3.5 (0.8), 3.5 (0.7), 3.3 (0.7), 3.0 (0.6), and 3.1 (0.7), respectively, among the locomotive employees. The fatigue of the locomotive employees was influenced by feelings related to working overtime (standardized r = 0.22) and workload (standardized r = 0.27). The work overtime control and physical working environment significantly influenced subjective feelings (standardized r = -0.25 and 0.47, respectively), while improper work/rest rhythms and an adverse physical working environment significantly increased the workload (standardized r = 0.48 and 0.33, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Job Satisfaction and its Influential Factors in Dental Academic Members in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Seraj, B; Ghadimi, S; Mirzaee, M; Ahmadi, R; Bashizadeh, H; Ashofteh-Yazdi, K; SahebJamee, M; Kharazi, MJ; Jahanmehr, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Assessment of job satisfaction of the faculty members and its underlying factors may increase career fulfillment and raise the educational and research productivity, leading to higher quality of dental services at the community level, ultimately improving public oral health status. Aim: This study assessed job satisfaction and its influential factors in dental academic members in Tehran. Subjects and Methods: The job satisfaction level of 203 faculty members was assessed using a Likert scale questionnaire from 0 to 4, with 4 representing very satisfied and 0 not at all satisfied. The analysis of variance was used to compare the responses among dental faculty members of three different universities. The impact of age, gender, academic rank, employment status and the date of employment on the overall faculty job satisfaction was identified by multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The mean professional satisfaction score among faculty members was 1.5 (0.5) out of four. Among the studied underlying factors, only the date of employment was seen to have a statistically significant impact on the faculties’ overall job satisfaction (P= 0.05). There was no difference in job compensation observed between the three dental faculties. Dissatisfying aspects of the academic work included educational and research policies, monetary strategies, quality of leadership and administration, promotion and tenure policies, job security, educational environment, equipments, and facilities. The only satisfying factor was the interaction between faculty colleagues and students. Conclusion: Faculty members of Tehran Dental Schools are dissatisfied with their work environments in Tehran Dental Schools. Issues such as salary and remuneration, facilities, equipments, promotion and tenure policies are strongly believed to account for the dissatisfaction. PMID:24761236

  16. Job satisfaction and its influential factors in dental academic members in tehran, iran.

    PubMed

    Seraj, B; Ghadimi, S; Mirzaee, M; Ahmadi, R; Bashizadeh, H; Ashofteh-Yazdi, K; Sahebjamee, M; Kharazi, Mj; Jahanmehr, M

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of job satisfaction of the faculty members and its underlying factors may increase career fulfillment and raise the educational and research productivity, leading to higher quality of dental services at the community level, ultimately improving public oral health status. This study assessed job satisfaction and its influential factors in dental academic members in Tehran. The job satisfaction level of 203 faculty members was assessed using a Likert scale questionnaire from 0 to 4, with 4 representing very satisfied and 0 not at all satisfied. The analysis of variance was used to compare the responses among dental faculty members of three different universities. The impact of age, gender, academic rank, employment status and the date of employment on the overall faculty job satisfaction was identified by multiple linear regression analysis. The mean professional satisfaction score among faculty members was 1.5 (0.5) out of four. Among the studied underlying factors, only the date of employment was seen to have a statistically significant impact on the faculties' overall job satisfaction (P= 0.05). There was no difference in job compensation observed between the three dental faculties. Dissatisfying aspects of the academic work included educational and research policies, monetary strategies, quality of leadership and administration, promotion and tenure policies, job security, educational environment, equipments, and facilities. The only satisfying factor was the interaction between faculty colleagues and students. Faculty members of Tehran Dental Schools are dissatisfied with their work environments in Tehran Dental Schools. Issues such as salary and remuneration, facilities, equipments, promotion and tenure policies are strongly believed to account for the dissatisfaction.

  17. A Review of Foreign Researches on Influential Factors Affecting Students' Engagement in English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Chun-hong

    2010-01-01

    Students' active engagement constitutes the core of the process of learning and teaching in the student-oriented classroom. The paper centers on a review of foreign researches on influential factors affecting students' engagement in English classroom. It is expected to figure out the relevant factors in order to promote students' active engagement.

  18. Establishing Influential Decision Making Factors for University Library Opening Hours: An Exploratory UK Regional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenwood, Clare; Stephens, Derek; Walton, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Many factors and pressures affect decisions made in UK university libraries on opening hours especially 24/7. This article reports on a project to examine the decision-making process, influential factors, and stakeholders. A workshop for senior library managers in the East Midlands was held to gather data and share experiences. From analysis of…

  19. Rural influentials' perceptions of tourism and its potential for economic development: a qualitative study

    Treesearch

    Steven W. Burr

    1995-01-01

    Rural residents' perceptions of tourism and its associated impacts are likely to be important in planning, development, marketing, and operation of existing and future tourism projects. This study examines rural influentials' perceptions of tourism as a tool for economic revitalization in Pennsylvania's rural counties, its present impact, and its...

  20. Characteristics of Academically-Influential Children: Achievement Motivation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2016-01-01

    The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…

  1. Establishing Influential Decision Making Factors for University Library Opening Hours: An Exploratory UK Regional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenwood, Clare; Stephens, Derek; Walton, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Many factors and pressures affect decisions made in UK university libraries on opening hours especially 24/7. This article reports on a project to examine the decision-making process, influential factors, and stakeholders. A workshop for senior library managers in the East Midlands was held to gather data and share experiences. From analysis of…

  2. Characteristics of Academically-Influential Children: Achievement Motivation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2016-01-01

    The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…

  3. Overview of Selection Process for Most Influential Paper of the 1970's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy S.; Moser, Kelsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Slides are for a presentation at the AIAA AFM conference invited session titled, 'AFM Most Influential Papers of the 1970's'. The slides describe the selection process used by the members of the technical committee to select the finalists and winning paper. The slides refer to technical papers published in the past, but have no technical data contained within them.

  4. Description of five novel HLA-B alleles, B*07:184, B*41:27, B*42:19, B*50:32 and B*57:63, identified in Brazilian individuals.

    PubMed

    Fabreti-Oliveira, R A; Santos, M A; Oliveira, C K F; Vale, E M G; Vilela, B; Nascimento, E

    2014-06-01

    Five novel HLA-B alleles were identified by HLA-SBT typing in seven unrelated Brazilian individuals. The new alleles discovered include HLA-B*07:184, B*41:27, B*42:19, B*50:32 and B*57:63 and were officially named by the World Health Organization (WHO) Nomenclature Committee. All new HLA-B alleles had nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution polymorphisms when compared to their most closely related HLA-B allele. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pooled association genome scanning for alcohol dependence using 104,268 SNPs: Validation and use to identify alcoholism vulnerability loci in unrelated individuals from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Catherine; Drgon, Tomas; Liu, Qing-Rong; Walther, Donna; Edenberg, Howard; Rice, John; Foroud, Tatiana; Uhl, George R

    2013-01-01

    Association genome scanning can identify markers for the allelic variants that contribute to vulnerability to complex disorders, including alcohol dependence. To improve the power and feasibility of this approach, we report validation of “100k” microarray-based allelic frequency assessments in pooled DNA samples. We then use this approach with unrelated alcohol dependent vs control individuals sampled from pedigrees collected by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Allele frequency differences between alcohol-dependent and control individuals are assessed in quadruplicate at 104,268 autosomal SNPs in pooled samples. One hundred eighty eight SNPs provide 1) the largest allele frequency differences between dependent vs control individuals, 2) t values ≥ 3 for these differences and 3) clustering, so that 51 relatively small chromosomal regions contain at least three SNPs that satisfy criteria 1 and 2 above (Monte Carlo p=0.00034). These positive SNP clusters nominate interesting genes whose products are implicated in cellular signaling, gene regulation, development, “cell adhesion” and Mendelian disorders. The results converge with linkage and association results for alcohol and other addictive phenotypes. The data support polygenic contributions to vulnerability to alcohol dependence These SNPs provide new tools to aid the understanding, prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:16894614

  6. The influential child: How children affect their environment and influence their own risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Davidov, Maayan; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Serbin, Lisa A; Moss, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Views regarding children's influence on their environment and their own development have undergone considerable changes over the years. Following Bell's (1968) seminal paper, the notion of children's influence and the view of socialization as a bidirectional process have gradually gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research implementing this theoretical advancement has lagged behind. This Special Section compiles a collection of new empirical works addressing multiple forms of influential child processes, with special attention to their consequences for children's and others' positive functioning, risk and resilience. By addressing a wide variety of child influences, this Special Section seeks to advance integration of influential child processes into myriad future studies on development and psychopathology and to promote the translation of such work into preventive interventions.

  7. Extreme-phenotype genome-wide association study (XP-GWAS): a method for identifying trait-associated variants by sequencing pools of individuals selected from a diversity panel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinliang; Jiang, Haiying; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Yu, Jianming; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

    2015-11-01

    Although approaches for performing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are well developed, conventional GWAS requires high-density genotyping of large numbers of individuals from a diversity panel. Here we report a method for performing GWAS that does not require genotyping of large numbers of individuals. Instead XP-GWAS (extreme-phenotype GWAS) relies on genotyping pools of individuals from a diversity panel that have extreme phenotypes. This analysis measures allele frequencies in the extreme pools, enabling discovery of associations between genetic variants and traits of interest. This method was evaluated in maize (Zea mays) using the well-characterized kernel row number trait, which was selected to enable comparisons between the results of XP-GWAS and conventional GWAS. An exome-sequencing strategy was used to focus sequencing resources on genes and their flanking regions. A total of 0.94 million variants were identified and served as evaluation markers; comparisons among pools showed that 145 of these variants were statistically associated with the kernel row number phenotype. These trait-associated variants were significantly enriched in regions identified by conventional GWAS. XP-GWAS was able to resolve several linked QTL and detect trait-associated variants within a single gene under a QTL peak. XP-GWAS is expected to be particularly valuable for detecting genes or alleles responsible for quantitative variation in species for which extensive genotyping resources are not available, such as wild progenitors of crops, orphan crops, and other poorly characterized species such as those of ecological interest.

  8. What Otaku consumers care about: The factors influential to online purchase intention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Che-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Chinese customers and those in the rest of world share the same two principal concerns about e-commerce: inadequate information from website and inadequate legal protection for Internet purchases. This study shows that trust, information adequacy and Otakus' characteristics have a significant effect on online purchase intention. Moreover, Otakus' characteristics demonstrate an interference effect on purchasing intention online for the influential factors: information provision and trust in the website.

  9. Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518

  10. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  11. HLA-DQ tetramers identify epitope-specific T cells in peripheral blood of herpes simplex virus type 2-infected individuals: direct detection of immunodominant antigen-responsive cells.

    PubMed

    Kwok, W W; Liu, A W; Novak, E J; Gebe, J A; Ettinger, R A; Nepom, G T; Reymond, S N; Koelle, D M

    2000-04-15

    Ag-specific CD4+ T cells are present in peripheral blood in low frequency, where they undergo recruitment and expansion during immune responses and in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune diseases. MHC tetramers, which constitute a labeled MHC-peptide ligand suitable for binding to the Ag-specific receptor on T cells, provide a novel approach for the detection and characterization of such rare cells. In this study, we utilized this technology to identify HLA DQ-restricted Ag-specific T cells in the peripheral blood of human subjects and to identify immunodominant epitopes associated with viral infection. Peptides representing potential epitope regions of the VP16 protein from HSV-2 were loaded onto recombinant DQ0602 molecules to generate a panel of Ag-specific DQ0602 tetramers. VP16 Ag-specific DQ-restricted T cells were identified and expanded from the peripheral blood of HSV-2-infected individuals, representing two predominant epitope specificities. Although the VP16 369-380 peptide has a lower binding affinity for DQ0602 molecules than the VP16 33-52 peptide, T cells that recognized the VP16 369-380 peptide occurred at a much higher frequency than those that were specific for the VP16 33-52 peptide.

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Elite Neutralizers: Individuals with Broad and Potent Neutralizing Activity Identified by Using a High-Throughput Neutralization Assay together with an Analytical Selection Algorithm▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Simek, Melissa D.; Rida, Wasima; Priddy, Frances H.; Pung, Pham; Carrow, Emily; Laufer, Dagna S.; Lehrman, Jennifer K.; Boaz, Mark; Tarragona-Fiol, Tony; Miiro, George; Birungi, Josephine; Pozniak, Anton; McPhee, Dale A.; Manigart, Olivier; Karita, Etienne; Inwoley, André; Jaoko, Walter; DeHovitz, Jack; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Paris, Robert; Walker, Laura M.; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Fast, Patricia E.; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a rapid and efficient system to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals with broad and potent HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibody responses is an important step toward the discovery of critical neutralization targets for rational AIDS vaccine design. In this study, samples from HIV-1-infected volunteers from diverse epidemiological regions were screened for neutralization responses using pseudovirus panels composed of clades A, B, C, and D and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Initially, 463 serum and plasma samples from Australia, Rwanda, Uganda, the United Kingdom, and Zambia were screened to explore neutralization patterns and selection ranking algorithms. Samples were identified that neutralized representative isolates from at least four clade/CRF groups with titers above prespecified thresholds and ranked based on a weighted average of their log-transformed neutralization titers. Linear regression methods selected a five-pseudovirus subset, representing clades A, B, and C and one CRF01_AE, that could identify top-ranking samples with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) neutralization titers of ≥100 to multiple isolates within at least four clade groups. This reduced panel was then used to screen 1,234 new samples from the Ivory Coast, Kenya, South Africa, Thailand, and the United States, and 1% were identified as elite neutralizers. Elite activity is defined as the ability to neutralize, on average, more than one pseudovirus at an IC50 titer of 300 within a clade group and across at least four clade groups. These elite neutralizers provide promising starting material for the isolation of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to assist in HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:19439467

  13. The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program: Increasing Diversity in the Ocean and Environmental Sciences in One Influential Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jearld, A.

    2011-12-01

    To increase diversity in one influential science community, a consortium of public and private institutions created the Woods Hole Partnership Education Program, or PEP, in 2008. Participating institutions are the Marine Biological Laboratory, Northeast Fisheries Science Center of NOAA's Fisheries Service, Sea Education Association, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Woods Hole Research Center, and University of Maryland Eastern Shore. Aimed at college juniors and seniors with some course work in marine and/or environmental sciences, PEP is a four-week course and a six-to-eight-week individual research project under the guidance of a research mentor. Forty-six students have participated to date. Investigators from the science institutions serve as course faculty and research mentors. We listened to experts regarding critical mass, mentoring, adequate support, network recruitment, and then built a program based on those features. Three years in we have a program that works and that has its own model for choosing applicants and for matching with mentors. We continue fine-tuning our match process, enhancing mentoring skills, preparing our students for a variety of lab cultures, and setting expectations high while remaining supportive. Our challenges now are to keep at it, using leverage instead of capacity to make a difference. Collaboration, not competition, is key since a rising tide floats all boats.

  14. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and pharmacogenetics of raltegravir in HIV-positive and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Arab-Alameddine, Mona; Fayet-Mello, Aurélie; Lubomirov, Rubin; Neely, Michael; di Iulio, Julia; Owen, Andrew; Boffito, Marta; Cavassini, Matthias; Günthard, Huldrych F; Rentsch, Katharina; Buclin, Thierry; Aouri, Manel; Telenti, Amalio; Decosterd, Laurent Arthur; Rotger, Margalida; Csajka, Chantal

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize raltegravir (RAL) population pharmacokinetics in HIV-positive (HIV(+)) and healthy individuals, identify influential factors, and search for new candidate genes involved in UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glucuronidation. The pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with NONMEM. Genetic association analysis was performed with PLINK using the relative bioavailability as the phenotype. Simulations were performed to compare once- and twice-daily regimens. A 2-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described the data. Atazanavir, gender, and bilirubin levels influenced RAL relative bioavailability, which was 30% lower in HIV(+) than in healthy individuals. UGT1A9*3 was the only genetic variant possibly influencing RAL pharmacokinetics. The majority of RAL pharmacokinetic variability remains unexplained by genetic and nongenetic factors. Owing to the very large variability, trough drug levels might be very low under the standard dosing regimen, raising the question of a potential relevance of therapeutic drug monitoring of RAL in some situations.

  15. [Effect of aluminum exposure on cognitive function in electrolytic workers and its influential factors].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-ting; Liang, Rui-feng; Jia, Zhi-jian; Wang, Hao; Song, Wen-fei; Li, Qiu-ying; Niu, Qiao

    2013-02-01

    To clarify the effect of aluminum exposure on the cognitive function in electrolytic workers and the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among them by prevalence survey, and to investigate its influential factors. Sixty-six retired workers from the electrolysis workshop of an electrolytic aluminum plant were selected as an aluminum exposure group, while 70 retired workers from a flour mill in the same region were selected as a control group. MCI patients were screened out by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); the blood aluminum level was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry; multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the influential factors for MMSE scores and the correlation between blood aluminum level and MCI prevalence. The aluminum exposure group showed a significantly higher blood aluminum level than the control group (25.18 ± 2.65 µg/L vs 9.97 ± 2.83 µg/L, P < 0.01). The total MMSE score of the aluminum exposure group (26.13 ± 2.57) was significantly lower than that of the control group (27.89 ± 1.91) (P < 0.05), particularly the scores on time and place orientation, short-term memory, calculation ability, and language skill (P < 0.05). The detection rate of MCI was significantly higher in the aluminum exposure group (18.2%) than in the control group (5.7%) (P < 0.01). The main influential factors for MMSE scores were gender, age, education level, and blood aluminum level. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the MCI prevalence was significantly correlated with blood aluminum level in the study population (OR = 1.168, P < 0.01). Long-term exposure to aluminum can cause cognitive disorders in electrolytic workers and may be one of the risk factors for MCI. Advanced age, male, low education level, and high blood aluminum level may be high-risk factors for cognitive impairment.

  16. In Silico Prediction of Peptides Binding to Multiple HLA-DR Molecules Accurately Identifies Immunodominant Epitopes from gp43 of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Frequently Recognized in Primary Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Responses from Sensitized Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Leo Kei; Yoshida, Márcia; Sidney, John; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Hammer, Jurgen; Juliano, Luiz; Sette, Alessandro; Kalil, Jorge; Travassos, Luiz Rodolpho; Cunha-Neto, Edecio

    2003-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks limiting the use of synthetic peptide vaccines in genetically distinct populations is the fact that different epitopes are recognized by T cells from individuals displaying distinct major histocompatibility complex molecules. Immunization of mice with peptide (181-195) from the immunodominant 43 kDa glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (gp43), the causative agent of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), conferred protection against infectious challenge by the fungus. To identify immunodominant and potentially protective human T-cell epitopes in gp43, we used the TEPITOPE algorithm to select peptide sequences that would most likely bind multiple HLA-DR molecules and tested their recognition by T cells from sensitized individuals. The 5 most promiscuous peptides were selected from the gp43 sequence and the actual promiscuity of HLA binding was assessed by direct binding assays to 9 prevalent HLA-DR molecules. Synthetic peptides were tested in proliferation assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from PCM patients after chemotherapy and healthy controls. PBMC from 14 of 19 patients recognized at least one of the promiscuous peptides, whereas none of the healthy controls recognized the gp43 promiscuous peptides. Peptide gp43(180-194) was recognized by 53% of patients, whereas the other promiscuous gp43 peptides were recognized by 32% to 47% of patients. The frequency of peptide binding and peptide recognition correlated with the promiscuity of HLA-DR binding, as determined by TEPITOPE analysis. In silico prediction of promiscuous epitopes led to the identification of naturally immunodominant epitopes recognized by PBMC from a significant proportion of a genetically heterogeneous patient population exposed to P. brasiliensis. The combination of several such epitopes may increase the frequency of positive responses and allow the immunization of genetically distinct populations. PMID:15208742

  17. Malnutrition Identified by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Consensus Criteria and Other Bedside Tools Is Highly Prevalent in a Sample of Individuals Undergoing Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mulasi, Urvashi; Vock, David M; Kuchnia, Adam J; Jha, Gautam; Fujioka, Naomi; Rudrapatna, Venkatesh; Patel, Manish R; Teigen, Levi; Earthman, Carrie P

    2016-10-07

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Academy/ASPEN) Consensus malnutrition definition, we estimated malnutrition prevalence in a sample of individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC) and compared it with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). We also investigated the utility of the 50-kHz phase angle (PA) and 200-kHz/5-kHz impedance ratio (IR) to identify malnutrition. Nineteen individuals (18 males, 1 female) scheduled to undergo chemoradiotherapy were seen at 5 time points during and up to 3 months after treatment completion. Multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, PG-SGA, nutrition-focused physical examination, anthropometry, dietary intake, and handgrip strength data were collected. Using the Consensus, 67% were found to be malnourished before treatment initiation; these criteria diagnosed malnutrition with overall good sensitivity (94%) and moderate specificity (43%) compared with PG-SGA. Over all pooled observations, "malnourished" (by Consensus but not PG-SGA category) had a lower mean PA (5.2 vs 5.9; P = .03) and higher IR (0.82 vs 0.79; P = .03) than "well-nourished" categorizations, although the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear. PA and IR were correlated with higher PG-SGA score (r = -0.35, r = 0.36; P < .01) and handgrip strength (r = 0.48, r = -0.47; P < .01). The Academy/ASPEN Consensus and the PG-SGA were in good agreement. It is unclear whether PA and IR can be used as surrogate markers of nutrition status or muscle loss. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. Do Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Infer Traits from Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Rajani; Mitchell, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Traits and mental states are considered to be inter-related parts of theory of mind. Attribution research demonstrates the influential role played by traits in social cognition. However, there has been little investigation into how individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) understand traits. Method: The ability of individuals…

  19. Accelerating the Mining of Influential Nodes in Complex Networks through Community Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Sathanur, Arun V.; Nandi, Apurba

    2016-05-31

    Computing the set of influential nodes with a given size to ensure maximal spread of influence on a complex network is a challenging problem impacting multiple applications. A rigorous approach to influence maximization involves utilization of optimization routines that comes with a high computational cost. In this work, we propose to exploit the existence of communities in complex networks to accelerate the mining of influential seeds. We provide intuitive reasoning to explain why our approach should be able to provide speedups without significantly degrading the extent of the spread of influence when compared to the case of influence maximization without using the community information. Additionally, we have parallelized the complete workflow by leveraging an existing parallel implementation of the Louvain community detection algorithm. We then conduct a series of experiments on a dataset with three representative graphs to first verify our implementation and then demonstrate the speedups. Our method achieves speedups ranging from 3x - 28x for graphs with small number of communities while nearly matching or even exceeding the activation performance on the entire graph. Complexity analysis reveals that dramatic speedups are possible for larger graphs that contain a correspondingly larger number of communities. In addition to the speedups obtained from the utilization of the community structure, scalability results show up to 6.3x speedup on 20 cores relative to the baseline run on 2 cores. Finally, current limitations of the approach are outlined along with the planned next steps.

  20. The “Genetic Program”: Behind the Genesis of an Influential Metaphor

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, Alexandre E.

    2015-01-01

    The metaphor of the “genetic program,” indicating the genome as a set of instructions required to build a phenotype, has been very influential in biology despite various criticisms over the years. This metaphor, first published in 1961, is thought to have been invented independently in two different articles, one by Ernst Mayr and the other by François Jacob and Jacques Monod. Here, after a detailed analysis of what both parties meant by “genetic program,” I show, using unpublished archives, the strong resemblance between the ideas of Mayr and Monod and suggest that their idea of genetic program probably shares a common origin. I explore the possibility that the two men met before 1961 and also exchanged their ideas through common friends and colleagues in the field of molecular biology. Based on unpublished correspondence of Jacob and Monod, I highlight the important events that influenced the preparation of their influential paper, which introduced the concept of the genetic program. Finally, I suggest that the genetic program metaphor may have preceded both papers and that it was probably used informally before 1961. PMID:26170444

  1. [Analysis of influential factors for job burnout among managers in a joint venture in Guangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiu-hong; Jiang, Chao-qiang; Liu, Yi-min; Guo, Jing-yi; Lam, Tai Hing

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the influential factors for job burnout among the managerial staff in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer in Guangzhou, China. A total of 288 managers in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer were surveyed using the Occupational Stress Indicator, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Social Support Rating Scale. On the depersonalization dimension, the male managers had significantly higher scores than the female managers. The scores of emotion exhaustion and depersonalization of MBI showed significant differences among the managers with different levels of occupational stress. The path analysis showed that occupational stress, neuroticism, and psychoticism had negative effects on emotion exhaustion, while job satisfaction and utilization of social support had direct positive effects on emotion exhaustion. Occupational stress, psychoticism, and passive coping style had direct negative effects on depersonalization, while job satisfaction, objective support, and utilization of social support had positive effects on depersonalization. Job satisfaction and active coping style had positive effects on sense of personal accomplishment, while passive coping style had a negative effect on sense of personal accomplishment. Personality exerted its effect on social support through coping style and thus on job satisfaction and job burnout. Male managers have a greater propensity to depersonalization than their female counterparts. High occupational stress is a risk factor for job burnout. Personality, social support, and coping style are influential factors for job burnout.

  2. An evaluation of influential factors on landslide mobility during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, D. P.; Hamada, M.; He, C.

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake triggered a huge amount of landslides along the Longmenshan thrust belt zone in southwest China. It is essential to evaluate the effects of numerous influential factors on landslide mobility, as a result of having seriously endangered the lives and properties along travel path. Hence, the relations between equivalent coefficient of friction (μ = Hmax / Hmax) and other six parameters of 46 landslides, such as three topographical factors, landslide volume, horizontal peak ground acceleration (PHA) and rock type, have been qualitatively analyzed by means of simplified plots and regressions. The quantitative effectiveness of each factor on landslide mobility was revealed by multivariable analysis and it was found that slope height, rock type, slope transition angle and landslide volume were more influential than slope angle and seismic acceleration. The statistical significance tests and predictive results both demonstrated that the empirical-statistical model of landslide mobility yielded a satisfactory agreement between observations and predictions, therefore, the presented model could be practically applicable in similar geological conditions as Wenchuan earthquake affected area.

  3. Study on the Influential Factors of Heat Transfer of Ground Heat Exchanger with Orthogonal Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shunyu; Yang, Rui; Liu, Lamei; Zhou, Chuanhui; Shi, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Orthogonal test method could decrease experimental times and obtain better test effect. The Taguchi method, as well as mean value response and analysis of variance, were applied in this paper to study the influence of water flow velocity in pipe, diameter and water temperature of pipe inlet on heat transfer of ground heat exchanger. The optimum design parameters and the estimated values of heat flux per meter of well depth for single U-tubes are obtained. The analysis revealed that diameter is the most influential parameter for heat flux per meter of well depth in single U-tubes while water flow velocity within 0.3m/s to 0.5m/s. And water flow velocity and diameter are important influential parameters for heat flux per meter of well depth in single U-tubes while water flow velocity within 0.5m/s to 0.8m/s. Tubes with big diameters are superior to tubes with small diameters in the design of ground source heat exchanger with single U-tubes.

  4. Influential impacts of combined government policies for safe disposal of dead pigs on farmer behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiujuan; Qiu, Guangqian; Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Wang, Jianhua; Hu, Wuyang

    2017-02-01

    Improper disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers may have an adverse impact on the ecological environment and food safety. In this paper, disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in four main pig production provinces in China (Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei, and Hunan) was empirically investigated. Then, pig farmers' awareness and evaluation of current combined government policies for the safe disposal of dead pigs were analyzed. Furthermore, the influential effects of combined government policies on the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers were examined using Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL). Results indicated that the issue of disposal of dead pigs by farmers was very complex and was influenced by the combination of subsidy and compensation, facility and technology, and supervision and punishment policies. The findings also indicated that the different types of policies had different effects and interacted with each other. Among these three combinations, supervision and punishment policies were the most influential policies and facility and technology policies were in most urgent need to improve for regulating the current state of the disposal of dead pigs by farmers. These findings have implications for sustainable pig production.

  5. Health care reform: understanding individuals' attitudes and information sources.

    PubMed

    Shue, Carolyn K; McGeary, Kerry Anne; Reid, Ian; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Fan, Maoyong

    2014-01-01

    Since passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barrack Obama, little is known about state-level perceptions of residents on the ACA. Perceptions about the act could potentially affect implementation of the law to the fullest extent. This 3-year survey study explored attitudes about the ACA, the types of information sources that individuals rely on when creating those attitudes, and the predictors of these attitudes among state of Indiana residents. The respondents were split between favorable and unfavorable views of the ACA, yet the majority of respondents strongly supported individual components of the act. National TV news, websites, family members, and individuals' own reading of the ACA legislation were identified as the most influential information sources. After controlling for potential confounders, the respondent's political affiliation, age, sex, and obtaining ACA information from watching national television news were the most important predictors of attitudes about the ACA and its components. These results mirror national-level findings. Implications for implementing health care reform at the state-level are discussed.

  6. Health Care Reform: Understanding Individuals' Attitudes and Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Shue, Carolyn K.; McGeary, Kerry Anne; Reid, Ian; Fan, Maoyong

    2014-01-01

    Since passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barrack Obama, little is known about state-level perceptions of residents on the ACA. Perceptions about the act could potentially affect implementation of the law to the fullest extent. This 3-year survey study explored attitudes about the ACA, the types of information sources that individuals rely on when creating those attitudes, and the predictors of these attitudes among state of Indiana residents. The respondents were split between favorable and unfavorable views of the ACA, yet the majority of respondents strongly supported individual components of the act. National TV news, websites, family members, and individuals' own reading of the ACA legislation were identified as the most influential information sources. After controlling for potential confounders, the respondent's political affiliation, age, sex, and obtaining ACA information from watching national television news were the most important predictors of attitudes about the ACA and its components. These results mirror national-level findings. Implications for implementing health care reform at the state-level are discussed. PMID:25045705

  7. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tailored intensive liaison between primary and secondary care to identify individuals at risk of a first psychotic illness (the LEGs study): a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jesus; Jin, Huajie; Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Painter, Michelle; Shelley, Gill; Jackson, Erica; Crane, Carolyn; Graffy, Jonathan P; Croudace, Tim J; Byford, Sarah; Jones, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background General practitioners are usually the first health professionals to be contacted by people with early signs of psychosis. We aimed to assess whether increased liaison between primary and secondary care improves the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of detection of people with, or at high risk of developing, a first psychotic illness. Methods Our Liaison and Education in General Practices (LEGs) study was a cluster-randomised controlled trial of primary care practices (clusters) in Cambridgeshire and Peterborough, UK. Consenting practices were randomly allocated (1:1) to a 2 year low-intensity intervention (a postal campaign, consisting of biannual guidelines to help identify and refer individuals with early signs of psychosis) or a high-intensity intervention, which additionally included a specialist mental health professional who liaised with every practice and a theory-based educational package. Practices were not masked to group allocation. Practices that did not consent to be randomly assigned comprised a practice-as-usual (PAU) group. The primary outcome was number of referrals of patients at high risk of developing psychosis to the early intervention service per practice site. New referrals were assessed clinically and stratified into those who met criteria for high risk or first-episode psychotic illness (FEP; together: psychosis true positives), and those who did not fulfil such criteria for psychosis (false positives). Referrals from PAU practices were also analysed. We assessed cost-effectiveness with decision analytic modelling in terms of the incremental cost per additional true positive identified. The trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN70185866. Findings Between Dec 22, 2009, and Sept 7, 2010, 54 of 104 eligible practices provided consent and between Feb 16, 2010, and Feb 11, 2011, these practices were randomly allocated to interventions (28 to low intensity and 26 to high intensity); the remaining

  8. Identifying Hazards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The federal government has established a system of labeling hazardous materials to help identify the type of material and threat posed. Summaries of information on over 300 chemicals are maintained in the Envirofacts Master Chemical Integrator.

  9. Modelling of influential parameters on a continuous evaporation process by Doehlert shells

    PubMed Central

    Porte, Catherine; Havet, Jean-Louis; Daguet, David

    2003-01-01

    The modelling of the parameters that influence the continuous evaporation of an alcoholic extract was considered using Doehlert matrices. The wo