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  1. Identifying nursing interventions associated with the accuracy used nursing diagnoses for patients with liver cirrhosis 1

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Motta, Ana Paula Gobbo; da Silva, Patrícia Costa dos Santos; Gobbo, Ana Flora Fogaça; Atila, Elisabeth; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the nursing interventions associated with the most accurate and frequently used NANDA International, Inc. (NANDA-I) nursing diagnoses for patients with liver cirrhosis. Method: this is a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study. Results: a total of 12 nursing diagnoses were evaluated, seven of which showed high accuracy (IVC ≥ 0.8); 70 interventions were identified and 23 (32.86%) were common to more than one diagnosis. Conclusion: in general, nurses often perform nursing interventions suggested in the NIC for the seven highly accurate nursing diagnoses identified in this study to care patients with liver cirrhosis. Accurate and valid nursing diagnoses guide the selection of appropriate interventions that nurses can perform to enhance patient safety and thus improve patient health outcomes.

  2. Identifying the brain regions associated with acute spasticity in patients diagnosed with an ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Spasticity is a common impairment found in patients that have been diagnosed with a stroke. Little is known about the pathophysiology of spasticity at the level of the brain. This retrospective study was performed to identify an association between the area of the brain affected by an ischemic stroke and the presence of acute spasticity. Physical and occupational therapy assessments from all patients (n = 441) that had suffered a stroke and were admitted into a local hospital over a 4-year period were screened for inclusion in this study. Subjects that fit the inclusion criteria were grouped according to the presence (n = 42) or absence (n = 129) of acute spasticity by the Modified Ashworth Scale score given during the hospital admission assessment. Magnetic resonance images from 20 subjects in the spasticity group and 52 from the control group were then compared using lesion density plots and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. An association of acute spasticity with the gray matter regions of the insula, basal ganglia, and thalamus was found in this study. White matter tracts including the pontine crossing tract, corticospinal tract, internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule, and the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus were also found to be significantly associated with acute spasticity. This is the first study to describe an association between a region of the brain affected by an infarct and the presence of acute spasticity. Understanding the regions associated with acute spasticity will aid in understanding the pathophysiology of this musculoskeletal impairment at the level of the brain.

  3. Diagnosed, identified, current and complete depression among patients attending primary care in southern Catalonia: different aspects of the same concept.

    PubMed

    Montesó-Curto, Pilar; Ferré-Grau, Carme; Lleixà-Fortuño, Mar; Albacar-Riobóo, Nuria; Lejeune, Marylene

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the prevalence and the conceptualizations of depression detected by the healthcare system, identified by the patient or classified/identified in the validated Goldberg's questionnaire in a community. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of 317 patients. The different types of depression diagnosed, identified, current or total were stratified by age and gender groups. The difference in the conceptualization of depression from the medical or ordinary people point of view indicate that depression care requires the understanding of the lifestyle, beliefs, attitudes, family and social networks of the people the physicians and nurses care for. © 2014.

  4. Exome sequencing identifies CTSK mutations in patients originally diagnosed as intermediate osteopetrosis.

    PubMed

    Pangrazio, Alessandra; Puddu, Alessandro; Oppo, Manuela; Valentini, Maria; Zammataro, Luca; Vellodi, Ashok; Gener, Blanca; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Raza, Jamal; Atta, Irum; Vezzoni, Paolo; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Villa, Anna; Sobacchi, Cristina

    2014-02-01

    Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone density due to lack of resorption by the osteoclasts. Genetic studies have widely unraveled the molecular basis of the most severe forms, while cases of intermediate severity are more difficult to characterize, probably because of a large heterogeneity. Here, we describe the use of exome sequencing in the molecular diagnosis of 2 siblings initially thought to be affected by "intermediate osteopetrosis", which identified a homozygous mutation in the CTSK gene. Prompted by this finding, we tested by Sanger sequencing 25 additional patients addressed to us for recessive osteopetrosis and found CTSK mutations in 4 of them. In retrospect, their clinical and radiographic features were found to be compatible with, but not typical for, Pycnodysostosis. We sought to identify modifier genes that might have played a role in the clinical manifestation of the disease in these patients, but our results were not informative. In conclusion, we underline the difficulties of differential diagnosis in some patients whose clinical appearance does not fit the classical malignant or benign picture and recommend that CTSK gene be included in the molecular diagnosis of high bone density conditions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exome sequencing identifies CTSK mutations in patients originally diagnosed as intermediate osteopetrosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Pangrazio, Alessandra; Puddu, Alessandro; Oppo, Manuela; Valentini, Maria; Zammataro, Luca; Vellodi, Ashok; Gener, Blanca; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Raza, Jamal; Atta, Irum; Vezzoni, Paolo; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Villa, Anna; Sobacchi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone density due to lack of resorption by the osteoclasts. Genetic studies have widely unraveled the molecular basis of the most severe forms, while cases of intermediate severity are more difficult to characterize, probably because of a large heterogeneity. Here, we describe the use of exome sequencing in the molecular diagnosis of 2 siblings initially thought to be affected by “intermediate osteopetrosis”, which identified a homozygous mutation in the CTSK gene. Prompted by this finding, we tested by Sanger sequencing 25 additional patients addressed to us for recessive osteopetrosis and found CTSK mutations in 4 of them. In retrospect, their clinical and radiographic features were found to be compatible with, but not typical for, Pycnodysostosis. We sought to identify modifier genes that might have played a role in the clinical manifestation of the disease in these patients, but our results were not informative. In conclusion, we underline the difficulties of differential diagnosis in some patients whose clinical appearance does not fit the classical malignant or benign picture and recommend that CTSK gene be included in the molecular diagnosis of high bone density conditions. PMID:24269275

  6. Dynamic 18F-FET PET in newly diagnosed astrocytic low-grade glioma identifies high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Nathalie L; Suchorska, Bogdana; Wenter, Vera; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Zwergal, Andreas; Niyazi, Maximilian; Drexler, Mark; Bartenstein, Peter; Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Thon, Niklas; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; la Fougère, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Because the clinical course of low-grade gliomas in the individual adult patient varies considerably and is unpredictable, we investigated the prognostic value of dynamic (18)F-fluorethyltyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET in the early diagnosis of astrocytic low-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade II). Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed low-grade glioma and dynamic (18)F-FET PET before histopathologic assessment were retrospectively investigated. (18)F-FET PET analysis comprised a qualitative visual classification of lesions; assessment of the semiquantitative parameters maximal, mean, and total standardized uptake value as ratio to background and biologic tumor volume; and dynamic analysis of intratumoral (18)F-FET uptake over time (increasing vs. decreasing time-activity curves). The correlation between PET parameters and progression-free survival, overall survival, and time to malignant transformation was investigated. (18)F-FET uptake greater than the background level was found in 34 of 59 tumors. Dynamic (18)F-FET uptake analysis was available for 30 of these 34 patients. Increasing and decreasing time-activity curves were found in 18 and 12 patients, respectively. Neither the qualitative factor presence or absence of (18)F-FET uptake nor any of the semiquantitative uptake parameters significantly influenced clinical outcome. In contrast, decreasing time-activity curves in the kinetic analysis were highly prognostic for shorter progression-free survival and time to malignant transformation (P < 0.001). Absence of (18)F-FET uptake in newly diagnosed astrocytic low-grade glioma does not generally indicate an indolent disease course. Among the (18)F-FET-positive gliomas, decreasing time-activity curves in dynamic (18)F-FET PET constitute an unfavorable prognostic factor in astrocytic low-grade glioma and, by identifying high-risk patients, may ease treatment decisions.

  7. Cellular Proliferation by Multiplex Immunohistochemistry Identifies High-Risk Multiple Myeloma in Newly Diagnosed, Treatment-Naive Patients.

    PubMed

    Ely, Scott; Forsberg, Peter; Ouansafi, Ihsane; Rossi, Adriana; Modin, Alvin; Pearse, Roger; Pekle, Karen; Perry, Arthur; Coleman, Morton; Jayabalan, David; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Niesvizky, Ruben; Mark, Tomer M

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic options for multiple myeloma (MM) are growing, yet clinical outcomes remain heterogeneous. Cytogenetic analysis and disease staging are mainstays of risk stratification, but data suggest a complex interplay between numerous abnormalities. Myeloma cell proliferation is a metric shown to predict outcomes, but available methods are not feasible in clinical practice. Multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC), using multiple immunostains simultaneously, is universally available for clinical use. We tested mIHC as a method to calculate a plasma cell proliferation index (PCPI). By mIHC, marrow trephine core biopsy samples were costained for CD138, a plasma cell-specific marker, and Ki-67. Myeloma cells (CD138 + ) were counted as proliferating if coexpressing Ki-67. Retrospective analysis was performed on 151 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients divided into 2 groups on the basis of myeloma cell proliferation: low (PCPI ≤ 5%, n = 87), and high (PCPI > 5%, n = 64). Median overall survival (OS) was not reached versus 78.9 months (P = .0434) for the low versus high PCPI groups. Multivariate analysis showed that only high-risk cytogenetics (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02; P = .023), International Staging System (ISS) stage > I (HR = 2.30; P = .014), and PCPI > 5% (HR = 1.70; P = .041) had independent effects on OS. Twenty-three (36%) of the 64 patients with low-risk disease (ISS stage 1, without high-risk cytogenetics) were uniquely reidentified as high risk by PCPI. PCPI is a practical method that predicts OS in newly diagnosed myeloma and facilitates broader use of MM cell proliferation for risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying core nursing sensitive outcomes associated with the most frequently used North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International nursing diagnoses for patients with cerebrovascular disease in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Whyte, James; Kim, Youngae; Park, Sang Youn

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the core nursing sensitive outcomes according to the most frequently used five North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International for patients with cerebrovascular disease using the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A cross-sectional survey design was used. First, nursing problems were identified through 78 charts review, and then linkages between each of nursing problems and nursing sensitive outcomes were established and validated by an expert group for questionnaires. Second, 80 nurses working in the neurosurgical intensive care unit and neurosurgery departments of five Korean hospitals were asked to evaluate how important each outcome is and how often each outcome used to evaluate patient outcomes using 5-point Likert scale. Although there were some differences in the core outcomes identified for each of the nursing problem, consciousness, cognitive orientation, neurologic status and communication were considered the most critical nursing sensitive outcomes for patients suffering cerebrovascular disease. Core nursing sensitive outcomes of patients suffering cerebrovascular disease using NOC were identified to measure the effectiveness of nursing care. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Accuracy of nursing diagnoses for identifying domestic violence against children.

    PubMed

    Apostólico, Maíra Rosa; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Fornari, Lucimara Fabiana; Gessner, Rafaela

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identify nursing diagnoses involving a hypothetical situation of domestic violence against a child and the respective degrees of accuracy. Method An exploratory, evaluative, case study was conducted using a quantitative and qualitative approach, with data collected using an online instrument from 26 nurses working in the Municipal Health Network, between June and August 2010, in Curitiba, and also during the first half of 2014 in São Paulo. Both of these cities are in Brazil. Nursing diagnoses and interventions from the International Classification of Nursing Practices in Collective Health were provided, and accuracy was verified using the Nursing Diagnosis Accuracy Scale. Results Thirty-nine nursing diagnoses were identified, 27 of which were common to both cities. Of these, 15 were scored at the null level of accuracy, 11 at high accuracy and 1 at medium accuracy. Conclusion The difficulty the nurses had in defining diagnoses may be associated with the fact that nursing care generally focuses on clinical problems, and signs expressing situations of domestic violence against children go unnoticed. The results demonstrated the difficulty of participants in selecting the appropriate nursing diagnosis for the case in question.

  10. Newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rotman-Pikielny, P; Borodin, O; Zissin, R; Ness-Abramof, R; Levy, Y

    2008-11-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is often diagnosed in an outpatient setting. The most common symptoms include irritability, heat intolerance, palpitations and weakness. Sometimes, however, thyrotoxicosis is first diagnosed in the hospital setting. The prevalent symptoms in hospitalized patients with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis have not been fully characterized. To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with thyrotoxicosis newly diagnosed during hospitalization. A retrospective computer-based search was undertaken to detect patients that were hospitalized in our medical centre during 1999-2006, and discharged with thyrotoxicosis or thyroiditis as the primary diagnosis. Fifty-eight patients (36F/22M; mean age 52.1 +/- 17.5 years) were identified. Weakness, weight loss and palpitations were the most common manifestations (50, 40 and 35%, respectively) and were predominantly present in patients with hyperthyroidism. Sore throat was present in 41% of patients with thyroiditis. Sinus tachycardia and atrial fibrillation occurred in 65.5 and 15.5% of the patients, more common in those with hyperthyroidism. The diagnoses on discharge were Graves' disease, subacute thyroiditis and multinodular goiter in 39.7, 34.5 and 8.9%, respectively. Weakness, weight loss and palpitations were the main symptoms in patients diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis during hospitalization. Thyrotoxicosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when patients are admitted to the hospital with those symptoms.

  11. Profile of nursing diagnoses in patients with respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Alves dos Santos, Naftale; Frota Cavalcante, Tahissa; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; Bezerra Gomes, Emiliana; de Oliveira, Célida Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Identify the profile of nursing diagnoses in patients with respiratory disorders. A descriptive and cross-sectional study involving 38 patients with respiratory problems, of referral hospitals, in a city in northeastern Brazil, in the period from August to October, 2012. Data collection was performed using a form and diagnostic inference was made according with the Taxonomy II of NANDA I. The average age of the patients was 46 years and males predominated (60.5%). The most frequent nursing diagnoses were: Risk for infection (97.3%), Acute pain (68.4%), Poor knowledge (68.4%), Sedentary lifestyle (65.7%), Ineffective airway clearance (65.7%), Risk-prone health behavior (63.1%), Activity intolerance (52.6%) and Disturbed sleep pattern (33.3%). Evaluated patients exhibited an average of 8.6 nursing diagnoses (SD = 2.8). With respect to the defining characteristics and related factors the average per person was 7.2 and 9.3, respectively. In this group of patients the most frequent diagnoses were the domain activity/rest. Knowledge of nursing diagnoses profile presented by people with respiratory disorders is important, because it is part of the Nursing Process and nurses who take care of such patients should exercise them in their care practice. Knowledge of the mains nursing diagnosis presented by patients with respiratory disorders are important for the practice of nurses who care for these patients, because it allows the choice of responses to problems of their clientele.

  12. Conflict adaptation in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Elger; Ruitenberg, Marit; Boddewyn, Sarah; Oreel, Edith; de Schryver, Maarten; Morrens, Manuel; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive control impairments may contribute strongly to the overall cognitive deficits observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In the current study we explore a specific cognitive control function referred to as conflict adaptation. Previous studies on conflict adaptation in schizophrenia showed equivocal results, and, moreover, were plagued by confounded research designs. Here we assessed for the first time conflict adaptation in schizophrenia with a design that avoided the major confounds of feature integration and stimulus-response contingency learning. Sixteen patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and sixteen healthy, matched controls performed a vocal Stroop task to determine the congruency sequence effect - a marker of conflict adaptation. A reliable congruency sequence effect was observed for both healthy controls and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. These findings indicate that schizophrenia is not necessarily accompanied by impaired conflict adaptation. As schizophrenia has been related to abnormal functioning in core conflict adaptation areas such as anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, further research is required to better understand the precise impact of such abnormal brain functioning at the behavioral level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Audit of patients' awareness of ophthalmic diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Sudesh, S; Downes, S M; McDonnell, P J

    1993-09-01

    Providing information to patients about their medical condition and treatment options is important in medical management. To assess patients' knowledge of their ocular disease, prognosis, and treatment a questionnaire based survey was performed. 219 patients selected by random systematic sampling during six months from patients attending general ophthalmic clinics in Selly Oak Hospital, Birmingham, were questioned and 217 questionnaires were analysed. The findings showed that patients' knowledge of their diagnosis depended on their condition: patients with common conditions such as glaucoma and cataract had a better understanding of their condition, its treatment, and prognosis compared with patients with rarer conditions such as retinal detachment or patients with multiple diagnoses. In all, 152 patients (70%) wanted more information about their condition; 49 (23%) did not (although 12 (25%) had attempted to obtain information); and 16 (7%) were undecided. In view of the few patients with a precise understanding of their ophthalmic diagnosis and prognosis and the majority's wish for access to further information, that access needs improvement and different modes of disseminating the information should be implemented.

  14. Factors associated with no or delayed linkage to care in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients identified by emergency department-based rapid HIV screening programs in two urban EDs.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Richard E; Kelen, Gabor D; Harvey, Leah; Shahan, Judy B; Hairston, Heather; Burah, Avanthi; Moring-Parris, Daniel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to describe the proportions of successful linkage to care (LTC) and identify factors associated with LTC among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, from two urban emergency department (ED) rapid HIV screening programs. This was a retrospective analysis of programmatic data from two established urban ED rapid HIV screening programs between November 2005 and October 2009. Trained HIV program assistants interviewed all patients tested to gather risk behavior data using a structured data collection instrument. Reactive results were confirmed by Western blot testing. Patients were provided with scheduled appointments at HIV specialty clinics at the institutions where they tested positive within 30 days of their ED visit. "Successful" LTC was defined as attendance at the HIV outpatient clinic within 30 days after HIV diagnosis, in accordance with the ED National HIV Testing Consortium metric. "Any" LTC was defined as attendance at the outpatient HIV clinic within 1 year of initial HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with any LTC or successful LTC. Of the 15,640 tests administered, 108 (0.7%) were newly identified HIV-positive cases. Nearly half (47.2%) of the patients had been previously tested for HIV. Successful LTC occurred in 54% of cases; any LTC occurred in 83% of cases. In multivariate analysis, having public medical insurance and being self-pay were negatively associated with successful LTC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12 to 0.96; OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.89, respectively); being female and having previously tested for HIV was negatively associated with any LTC (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.93; OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.77, respectively). In spite of dedicated resources for arranging LTC in the ED HIV testing programs, nearly 50% of patients did not have successful LTC (i.e., LTC occurred at >30 days), although >80

  15. Accuracy in inference of nursing diagnoses in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Juliana de Melo Vellozo; Cavalcanti, Ana Carla Dantas; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; da Silva, Valéria Gonçalves; de Souza, Rosana Oliveira; Gonçalves, Ludmila Cuzatis

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common cause of hospitalization and requires accuracy in clinical judgment and appropriate nursing diagnoses. to determine the accuracy of nursing diagnoses of fatigue, intolerance to activity and decreased cardiac output in hospitalized HF patients. descriptive study applied to nurses with experience in NANDA-I and/or HF nursing diagnoses. Evaluation and accuracy were determined by calculating efficacy (E), false negative (FN), false positive (FP) and trend (T) measures. Nurses who showed acceptable inspection for two diagnoses were selected. the nursing diagnosis of fatigue was the most commonly mistaken diagnosis identified by the nursing evaluators. the search for improving diagnostic accuracy reaffirms the need for continuous and specific training to improve the diagnosis capability of nurses. the training allowed the exercise of clinical judgment and better accuracy of nurses.

  16. Hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Duggleby, Wendy; Ghosh, Sunita; Cooper, Dan; Dwernychuk, Lynne

    2013-11-01

    Hope is important to cancer patients as it helps them deal with their diagnosis. Little is known about hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Based on the Transcending Possibilities conceptual model of hope, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of hope with pain, energy, and psychological and demographic characteristics in newly diagnosed adult oncology outpatients. Data from 310 New Patient Assessment Forms from cancer outpatients' health records were collected. Health records from the first six months of 2009 were reviewed and data were collected on hope, energy, pain, depression, anxiety, feeling overwhelmed, and demographic variables. A generalized linear modeling approach was used to study the relationship of hope scores with these variables. Hypothesized variables and variables that were significant at the P = 0.01 level from the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate model, with hope scores as the dependent variable. Hope scores were significantly negatively related to age (P = 0.02). More specifically, oncology patients who were 65 years of age or older had significantly less hope than those under the age of 65 years (P = 0.01). Gender (P = 0.009) also was a significant factor, with men having higher hope scores than women. No other variables were significant. Older adults comprise the majority of persons in Canada with cancer. The lower hope scores found in this age group compared with their younger counterparts underscore the importance of further research. This study provides a foundation for future research in this important area for oncology patients. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient/Family Education for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Ahern, JoAnn; Barakat, Lamia P; Bhatia, Smita; Bingen, Kristin M; Bondurant, Patricia G; Cohn, Susan L; Dobrozsi, Sarah K; Haugen, Maureen; Herring, Ruth Anne; Hooke, Mary C; Martin, Melissa; Murphy, Kathryn; Newman, Amy R; Rodgers, Cheryl C; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Sullivan, Jeneane; Weiss, Marianne; Withycombe, Janice; Yasui, Lise; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    There is a paucity of data to support evidence-based practices in the provision of patient/family education in the context of a new childhood cancer diagnosis. Since the majority of children with cancer are treated on pediatric oncology clinical trials, lack of effective patient/family education has the potential to negatively affect both patient and clinical trial outcomes. The Children's Oncology Group Nursing Discipline convened an interprofessional expert panel from within and beyond pediatric oncology to review available and emerging evidence and develop expert consensus recommendations regarding harmonization of patient/family education practices for newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients across institutions. Five broad principles, with associated recommendations, were identified by the panel, including recognition that (1) in pediatric oncology, patient/family education is family-centered; (2) a diagnosis of childhood cancer is overwhelming and the family needs time to process the diagnosis and develop a plan for managing ongoing life demands before they can successfully learn to care for the child; (3) patient/family education should be an interprofessional endeavor with 3 key areas of focus: (a) diagnosis/treatment, (b) psychosocial coping, and (c) care of the child; (4) patient/family education should occur across the continuum of care; and (5) a supportive environment is necessary to optimize learning. Dissemination and implementation of these recommendations will set the stage for future studies that aim to develop evidence to inform best practices, and ultimately to establish the standard of care for effective patient/family education in pediatric oncology.

  18. Are patients referred to rehabilitation diagnosed accurately?

    PubMed

    Tederko, Piotr; Krasuski, Marek; Nyka, Izabella; Mycielski, Jerzy; Tarnacka, Beata

    2017-07-17

    An accurate diagnosis of the leading health condition and comorbidities is a prerequisite for safe and effective rehabilitation. The problem of diagnostic errors in physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has not been addressed sufficiently. The responsibility of a referring physician is to determine indications and contraindications for rehabilitation. To assess the rate of and risk factors for inaccurate referral diagnoses (RD) in patients referred to a rehabilitation facility. We hypothesized that inaccurate RD would be more common in patients 1) referred by non-PRM physicians; 2) waiting longer for the admission; 3) older patients. Retrospective observational study. 1000 randomly selected patients admitted between 2012 and 2016 to a day- rehabilitation center (DRC). University DRC specialized in musculoskeletal diseases. On admission all cases underwent clinical verification of RD. Inappropriateness regarding primary diagnoses and comorbidities were noted. Influence of several factors affecting probability of inaccurate RD was analyzed with multiple binary regression model applied to 6 categories of diseases. The rate of inaccurate RD was 25.2%. Higher frequency of inaccurate RD was noted among patients referred by non-PRM specialists (30.3% vs 17.3% in cases referred by PRM specialists). Application of logit regression showed highly significant influence of the specialty of a referring physician on the odds of inaccurate RD (joint Wald test ch2(6)=38.98, p- value=0.000), controlling for the influence of other variables. This may reflect a suboptimal knowledge of the rehabilitation process and a tendency to neglect of comorbidities by non-PRM specialists. The rate of inaccurate RD did not correlate with time between referral and admission (joint Wald test of all odds ratios equal to 1, chi2(6)=5.62, p-value=0.467), however, mean and median waiting times were relatively short (35.7 and 25 days respectively).A high risk of overlooked multimorbidity was

  19. Characteristics of High-Cost Patients Diagnosed with Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Shei, Amie; Rice, J Bradford; Kirson, Noam Y; Bodnar, Katharine; Enloe, Caroline J; Birnbaum, Howard G; Holly, Pamela; Ben-Joseph, Rami

    2015-10-01

    Prescription opioid abuse is associated with substantial economic burden, with estimates of incremental annual per-patient health care costs of diagnosed opioid abuse exceeding $10,000 in prior literature. A subset of patients diagnosed with opioid abuse has disproportionately high health care costs, but little is known about the characteristics of these patients.  To describe the characteristics of a subset of patients diagnosed with opioid abuse with disproportionately high health care costs to assist physicians and managed care organizations in targeting interventions at the costliest patients. This retrospective claims data analysis identified patients aged 12 to 64 years diagnosed with opioid abuse/dependence in the OptumHealth Reporting and Insights medical and pharmacy claims database, Quarter 1 (Q1) 1999-Q1 2012. Inclusion criteria required that patients had a diagnosis of opioid abuse during or after Q1 2006, no prior diagnoses of opioid abuse, and continuous non-HMO coverage over an 18-month study period. The study period comprised a 12-month observation period centered on the date of the first opioid abuse diagnosis (index date) and a 6-month baseline period immediately preceding the observation period. Patients in the top 20% of total health care costs in the observation period were classified as "high-cost patients," and the remaining patients were classified as "lower-cost patients." Patient characteristics, comorbidities, health care resource use, and health care costs were compared between high-cost patients and lower-cost patients using chi-square tests for dichotomous variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables. In addition, multivariate regression was used to assess the relationship between patient characteristics in the baseline period and total health care costs in the observation period among all patients diagnosed with opioid abuse.  9,291 patients diagnosed with opioid abuse met the inclusion criteria. The 20% of

  20. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  1. Patient navigation for underserved patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Raj, Aparna; Ko, Naomi; Battaglia, Tracy A; Chabner, Bruce A; Moy, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of breast cancer (BC). Patient navigator programs (PNPs) have been shown to improve rates of BC screening in underserved communities, but there is a dearth of evidence regarding their benefits after the actual diagnosis of BC. We retrospectively examined sociodemographic characteristics, disease characteristics, and concordance to quality measures (QMs) of BC care among women participating in a PNP that services disadvantaged minority communities in the greater Boston area. Of the 186 PNP patients diagnosed with BC in 2001-2011 in three neighborhood community health centers, treatment data was available for 158 (85%) and race and disease stage information was available for 149 (80%). Regarding stage, 25% were diagnosed with in situ cancer, 32% had stage 1, 25% had stage 2, 13% had stage 3, and 5% had stage 4 BC. Guideline-indicated care was received by 70 of 74 patients (95%) for the hormonal therapy QM, 15 of 17 (88%) patients for the chemotherapy QM, and 65 of 71 (92%) patients for the radiation QM, all similar to published concordance rates at elite National Comprehensive Cancer Network institutions. These findings suggest that PNPs may facilitate evidence-based quality care for vulnerable populations. Future research should prospectively analyze quality metrics to assess measures to improve the process and outcomes of patient navigation in diverse underserved settings, compared with control non-navigated populations.

  2. Identifying core NANDA-I nursing diagnoses, NIC interventions, NOC outcomes, and NNN linkages for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the core nursing diagnoses, interventions, outcomes, and linkages using standardized nursing terminologies for patients with heart failure (HF). For this study a retrospective descriptive design was used. The frequently used NANDA-I, NIC, NOC, and NNN linkages were identified through 272 inpatient records of patients discharged with HF in a midwestern community. The findings indicate that the top 10 NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC accounted for more than 50% of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. The most frequently used top 10 NNN linkages were identified for patients with HF. The identified core NANDA-I, NIC, NOC, and NNN linkages for HF from this study provide scope of practice of nurses working in HF clinics. © 2013 NANDA International, Inc.

  3. Psychosocial diagnoses occurring after patients present with fatigue.

    PubMed

    MacKean, Peter Reagh; Stewart, Moira; Maddocks, Heather L

    2016-08-01

    To discover the frequency of psychosocial and other diagnoses occurring at the end of a visit when patients present to their FPs with concerns about fatigue. Cross-sectional study of patient-FP encounters for fatigue. Ten FP practices in southwestern Ontario. A total of 259 encounters involving 167 patients presenting to their FPs between March 1, 2006, and June 30, 2010, with concerns about fatigue. The frequency of psychological and social diagnoses made at the end of visits, and whether diagnoses were made by FPs at the end of the visits versus whether the code for fatigue remained. The associations between patient age, sex, fatigue presenting with other symptoms, or the presence of previous chronic conditions and the outcomes was tested. Psychosocial diagnoses were made 23.9% of the time. Among psychosocial diagnoses made, depressive disorder and anxiety disorder or anxiety state were diagnosed more often in women (P = .048). Slightly less than 30% of the time, the cause of patients' fatigue remained undiagnosed at the end of the encounter. A diagnosis was made more often in men. Causes of fatigue frequently remain undiagnosed; however, when there is a diagnosis, psychosocial diagnoses are common. Therefore, it would be appropriate for FPs to screen for psychosocial issues when their patients present with fatigue, unless some other diagnosis is evident. Depression and anxiety could be considered particularly among female patients with fatigue. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  4. [Subclinical and established kidney disease in recently diagnosed hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Angel; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; Grandes, Gonzalo; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Castaño Sánchez, Yolanda; Rodríguez Sánchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2010-03-06

    To estimate renal disease in recently diagnosed hypertensive patients, and to identify factors related to renal disease. Cross-sectional study, with 425 hypertensive patients recently diagnosed in primary health care; renal disease was estimated with serum creatinine, albumin/creatinine index and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We analyzed cardiovascular risk factors (CRF), subclinical organ injury and cardiovascular disease following the criteria of the 2007 European Guide of Hypertension. Average age: 58,96 +/- 12,73 years old, 63,3% male. We found dyslipemia in 80%, abdominal obesity in 49% and metabolic syndrome in 36% patients. These patients showed increased serum creatinine 3,3%, a reduction in GFR 9,6%, hidden renal disease 6,4%, microalbuminuria 7,5% and nephropathy 2,4%. Hypertensive patients with renal disease (17,88%) were older, with higher systolic pressure, higher incidence of metabolic syndrome, abnormal carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-arm index, and presence of cardiovascular disease. Variables associated with renal disease were metabolic syndrome (odds ratio = 11,12) and ankle-arm index (odds ratio = 17,55). Variables related to creatinina were sex, ankle-arm index and metabolic syndrome; variables related to GFR were sex, age, ankle-arm index, metabolic syndrome and body mass index (BMI); variables related with albumin/creatinine index included diabetes mellitus. Renal disease is detected in about 2 out of 10 hypertensive patients, when, besides serum creatinina, we analyze albumin/creatinine index and GFR. Metabolic syndrome and ankle-arm index are the main variables associated with renal disease. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. [Psychosomatic approach to patients with headache: alternative or integrated diagnoses?].

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Giuseppina; Ruberto, Stefania; Firenze, Caterina; Quartesan, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Each person has an inseparable body-mind unity, with psychic factors that can also manifest themselves through changes in the functions of the body, and with changing somatic states that contribute to mental experience. This explains why somatic symptoms fall within psychiatry. When a patient complains about physical symptoms, it is essentially an integrated, multidisciplinary diagnosis which is used to identify the various factors (biological and psychological) which worsen the disorder, and a psychiatric dimensional approach is used to integrate the descriptive symptomatic diagnosis with the psychostructural diagnosis. The same symptoms, in fact, may underlie different psychological dynamics that direct the treatment and determine the prognosis, as explained in three clinical cases that we described. The literature on headaches reports a high rate of co-morbidity between migraines and psychiatric disorders, but doesn't take into account the fact that often the symptom of headache is part of the disorder, even when it presents on its own. In conclusion, a holistic approach is needed for the patient to be diagnosed as having a "psychiatric" form of headache. A medical examination of the illness leading to a diagnoses is essential, according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disease (ICHD-II). In clinical practice, we have integrated the descriptive diagnosis (ICHD-II mini-Plus) with the psychological (Diagnostic Criteria of Psychosomatic Research - DCPR) and psycho-structural (Kenberg's interview, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - MMPI) diagnoses. The clarification of the dynamics underlying the definition of symptoms and the role played by psychological factors has influenced the identification of therapeutic objectives and in the identification of the most appropriate strategies.

  6. An analysis of nursing diagnoses for patients undergoing procedures in a Brazilian interventional radiology suite.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Liza de Souza; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; da Silva Bastos Cerullo, Josinete Aparecida

    2010-05-01

    Innovations in minimally invasive surgery have led to more procedures being performed in the interventional radiology suite. It, therefore, is essential that nurses in radiology departments be competent to care for all types of patients. Use of nursing classification systems can improve care by providing standardized language for documentation. We conducted a project that involved 25 patients undergoing interventional radiology procedures between August and October 2006 in São Paulo, Brazil, to identify the most frequent North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) nursing diagnoses used and then compared the NANDA diagnoses to Perioperative Nursing Data Set diagnoses. The most frequent nursing diagnoses in the participants were anxiety, chronic pain, inefficient tissue perfusion-peripheral, deficient knowledge, and risk for falls. These results are similar to diagnoses that have been reported in outpatient centers. The NANDA and Perioperative Nursing Data Set diagnoses were found to be similar. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies RAI1 Mutation in a Morbidly Obese Child Diagnosed With ROHHAD Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Kristyn M.; Towne, Meghan C.; Brownstein, Catherine A.; James, Philip M.; Crowley, Laura; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Elsea, Sarah H.; Beggs, Alan H.; Picker, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Context: The current obesity epidemic is attributed to complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, a limited number of cases, especially those with early-onset severe obesity, are linked to single gene defects. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is one of the syndromes that presents with abrupt-onset extreme weight gain with an unknown genetic basis. Objective: To identify the underlying genetic etiology in a child with morbid early-onset obesity, hypoventilation, and autonomic and behavioral disturbances who was clinically diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome. Design/Setting/Intervention: The index patient was evaluated at an academic medical center. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proband and his parents. Genetic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. Results: We identified a novel de novo nonsense mutation, c.3265 C>T (p.R1089X), in the retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1) gene in the proband. Mutations in the RAI1 gene are known to cause Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). On further evaluation, his clinical features were not typical of either SMS or ROHHAD syndrome. Conclusions: This study identifies a de novo RAI1 mutation in a child with morbid obesity and a clinical diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome. Although extreme early-onset obesity, autonomic disturbances, and hypoventilation are present in ROHHAD, several of the clinical findings are consistent with SMS. This case highlights the challenges in the diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome and its potential overlap with SMS. We also propose RAI1 as a candidate gene for children with morbid obesity. PMID:25781356

  8. Whole exome sequencing identifies RAI1 mutation in a morbidly obese child diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thaker, Vidhu V; Esteves, Kristyn M; Towne, Meghan C; Brownstein, Catherine A; James, Philip M; Crowley, Laura; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Elsea, Sarah H; Beggs, Alan H; Picker, Jonathan; Agrawal, Pankaj B

    2015-05-01

    The current obesity epidemic is attributed to complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, a limited number of cases, especially those with early-onset severe obesity, are linked to single gene defects. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is one of the syndromes that presents with abrupt-onset extreme weight gain with an unknown genetic basis. To identify the underlying genetic etiology in a child with morbid early-onset obesity, hypoventilation, and autonomic and behavioral disturbances who was clinically diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome. Design/Setting/Intervention: The index patient was evaluated at an academic medical center. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proband and his parents. Genetic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. We identified a novel de novo nonsense mutation, c.3265 C>T (p.R1089X), in the retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1) gene in the proband. Mutations in the RAI1 gene are known to cause Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). On further evaluation, his clinical features were not typical of either SMS or ROHHAD syndrome. This study identifies a de novo RAI1 mutation in a child with morbid obesity and a clinical diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome. Although extreme early-onset obesity, autonomic disturbances, and hypoventilation are present in ROHHAD, several of the clinical findings are consistent with SMS. This case highlights the challenges in the diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome and its potential overlap with SMS. We also propose RAI1 as a candidate gene for children with morbid obesity.

  9. Exercise recommendations in patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brad; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate exercise recommendations in patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia. A retrospective chart review. A public university rheumatology clinic. Patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 122). Frequency and type of exercise recommendations. The mean (standard deviation) age of these patients with fibromyalgia was 45 ± 12 years; 91% were women. Exercise was recommended as part of the documented treatment plan in 47% of these patients (57/122); only 3 patients had a documented contraindication for exercise. Aquatic exercise was most frequently recommended (56% [32/57]), followed by combined aquatic-aerobic exercise (26% [15/57]), and, infrequently, aerobic exercise only (5% [3/57]); only 7% of these patients (4/57) were referred for physical therapy. The primary method of communication was verbal discussion (94% [54/57]). Although there is well-documented evidence that exercise is beneficial for patients with fibromyalgia, we found that less than half of patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia in our study were provided recommendations to initiate an exercise program as part of their treatment plan. Further investigation of these findings are warranted, including evaluation of other university and community rheumatology practices as well as that of other physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia. However, our findings indicate that there appears to be an opportunity to provide more specific and practical education regarding the implementation of an exercise regimen for patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia. Physiatrists may be particularly well suited to manage the exercise component of patients with fibromyalgia because of their specialized training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Maintenance Treatment With Antipsychotics for Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness and security of the antipsychotics available for the management of adult patients with schizophrenia in the maintenance phase. To develop recommendations of treatment for the maintenance phase of the disease. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. 18 studies were included to evaluate the effectiveness and / or safety of different antipsychotic drugs first and second generation. Overall, antipsychotics (AP) showed superiority over placebo in relapse rate over 12 months (RR 0.59 95% CI 0.42, 0.82) and hospitalization rate over 24 months of follow-up (RR 0.38 95% 0.27, 0.55); its use is associated with increased risk of treatment dropout (RR 0.53 95% CI 0.46, 0.61) and adverse events such as weight gain, dystonia, extrapyramidal symptoms and sedation. There was no difference in the outcome of re hospitalizations, comparisons on quality of life, negative symptoms or weight gain between AP first and second generation. Continuous or standard dose regimens appear to be superior to intermittent or low doses in reducing the risk of abandonment of treatment regimes. Adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia should receive maintenance treatment with antipsychotics. The medication of choice will depend on the management of the acute phase, the patient's tolerance to it and the presentation of adverse events. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge expectations of recently diagnosed patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pellinen, Tiina; Villberg, Jari; Raappana, Maarit; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Kettunen, Tarja

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the socio-demographic and disease-related symptoms and emotions and knowledge expectations of patients recently diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A further aim was to determine associations between selected demographic variables and patients' expected knowledge. Patient counselling and information provision are recommended for all patients with knee osteoarthritis. In healthcare centres, there is a good possibility to establish the knowledge expectations of patients with knee osteoarthritis during counselling. Recent empirical evidence indicates a lack of research on knowledge expectations among recently diagnosed patients with knee osteoarthritis. A quantitative, descriptive inquiry design was adopted. The data were collected from 252 recently diagnosed patients with knee osteoarthritis by a postal survey in 2013, using the Hospital Patient's Knowledge Expectations Scale as well as additional questions and statements. The data were analysed using multivariate linear regression. Most of the respondents were female pensioners who also had other chronic diseases. Approximately half of the participants had had counselling on osteoarthritis. Knowledge expectations concerning pain management were emphasized. From the empowering knowledge perspective, the highest knowledge expectations concerned bio-physiological dimensions of knowledge, followed by ethical and financial dimensions. Age, employment status, pain and emotions of concern and hope among women and tiredness or fatigue and vocational/higher education among men were associated with knowledge expectations. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have high knowledge expectations and there is a need to improve the counselling and care of pain and tiredness or fatigue symptoms. The development of the counselling of recently diagnosed patients with knee osteoarthritis also needs further research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Refractive errors in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yarbağ, Abdülhekim; Yazar, Hayrullah; Akdoğan, Mehmet; Pekgör, Ahmet; Kaleli, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder that involves the small blood vessels, often causing widespread damage to tissues, including the eyes' optic refractive error. In patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus who have unstable blood glucose levels, refraction may be incorrect. We aimed to investigate refraction in patients who were recently diagnosed with diabetes and treated at our centre. This prospective study was performed from February 2013 to January 2014. Patients were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus using laboratory biochemical tests and clinical examination. Venous fasting plasma glucose (fpg) levels were measured along with refractive errors. Two measurements were taken: initially and after four weeks. The last difference between the initial and end refractive measurements were evaluated. Our patients were 100 males and 30 females who had been newly diagnosed with type II DM. The refractive and fpg levels were measured twice in all patients. The average values of the initial measurements were as follows: fpg level, 415 mg/dl; average refractive value, +2.5 D (Dioptres). The average end of period measurements were fpg, 203 mg/dl; average refractive value, +0.75 D. There is a statistically significant difference between after four weeks measurements with initially measurements of fasting plasma glucose (fpg) levels (p<0.05) and there is a statistically significant relationship between changes in fpg changes with glasses ID (p<0.05) and the disappearance of blurred vision (to be greater than 50% success rate) were statistically significant (p<0.05). Also, were detected upon all these results the absence of any age and sex effects (p>0.05). Refractive error is affected in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus; therefore, plasma glucose levels should be considered in the selection of glasses.

  13. Patient educational technologies and their use by patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Baverstock, Richard J; Crump, R Trafford; Carlson, Kevin V

    2015-09-29

    Two urology practices in Calgary, Canada use patient educational technology (PET) as a core component of their clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine how patients interact with PET designed to inform them about their treatment options for clinically localized prostate cancer. A PET library was developed with 15 unique prostate-related educational modules relating to diagnosis, treatment options, and potential side effects. The PET collected data regarding its use, and those data were used to conduct a retrospective analysis. Descriptive analyses were conducted and comparisons made between patients' utilization of the PET library during first and subsequent access; Pearson's Chi-Square was used to test for statistical significance, where appropriate. Every patient (n = 394) diagnosed with localized prostate cancer was given access to the PET library using a unique identifier. Of those, 123 logged into the library and viewed at least one module and 94 patients logged into the library more than once. The average patient initially viewed modules pertaining to their diagnosis. Viewing behavior significantly changed in subsequent logins, moving towards modules pertaining to treatment options, decision making, and post-surgical information. As observed through the longitudinal utilization of the PET library, information technology offers clinicians an opportunity to provide an interactive platform to meet patients' dynamic educational needs. Understanding these needs will help inform the development of more useful PETs. The informational needs of patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer changed throughout the course of their diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with athletic pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anderson Luiz de; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; Pires, Osvaldo Guilherme Nunes; Falótico, Guilherme Guadagnini

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pubalgia in patients from a Sports Medicine Center. Data analysis from medical records of patients with athletic pubalgia attended to from January 2007 to January 2015. The diagnosis was made by an experienced hip surgeon, complemented with pelvic X-ray, abdominal wall ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis. Among 43 patients, 42 were men, with mean age of 33 years. As for sports, 25 (58.1%) athletes were soccer players and 13 (30.2%) were runners; 37.2% were professional athletes. Inguinal hernia was diagnosed in 20.9% of patients, showing the importance of its routine search in these patients. Treatment duration ranged from 1 to 12 months and 95.2% of the patients returned to sport. This study presented the epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with athletic pubalgia attended to in a reference medical center and demonstrated the prevalence of this lesion in male patients, soccer players and runners. It also disclosed a high success rate of the nonoperative treatment, and high rate of return to sport after treatment.

  15. [Microalbuminuria in pediatric patients diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cubillos C, María Paz; Del Salas, Paulina; Zambrano, Pedro O

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by the presence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney failure. It is the leading cause of acute kidney failure in children under 3 years of age. A variable number of patients develop proteinuria, hypertension, and chronic renal failure. To evaluate the renal involvement in pediatric patients diagnosed with HUS using the microalbumin/creatinine ratio. Descriptive concurrent cohort study that analyzed the presence of microalbuminuria in patients diagnosed with HUS between January 2001 and March 2012, who evolved without hypertension and normal renal function (clearance greater than 90ml/min using Schwartz formula). Demographic factors (age, sex), clinical presentation at time of diagnosis, use of antibiotics prior to admission, and need for renal replacement therapy were evaluated. Of the 24 patients studied, 54% were male. The mean age at diagnosis was two years. Peritoneal dialysis was required in 45%, and 33% developed persistent microalbuminuria. Antiproteinuric treatment was introduce in 4 patients, with good response. The mean follow-up was 6 years (range 6 months to 11 years). The serum creatinine returned to normal in all patients during follow up. The percentage of persistent microalbuminuria found in patients with a previous diagnosis of HUS was similar in our group to that described in the literature. Antiproteinuric treatment could delay kidney damage, but further multicenter prospective studies are necessary. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Consensus-validation study identifies relevant nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and health outcomes for people with traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Margaret; McGuire, Maria; Endozo, Nancy; McIntosh-Waddy, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    A consensus-validation study used action research methods to identify relevant nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and patient outcomes for a population of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in long-term care. In meetings totaling 159 hours to reach 100% consensus through group discussions, the three classifications of NANDA International's (NANDA-I's) approved nursing diagnoses, the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), and the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) were used as the basis for three nurses experienced in working with adults with TBI to select the elements of nursing care. Among almost 200 NANDA-I nursing diagnoses, 29 were identified as relevant for comprehensive nursing care of this population. Each nursing diagnosis was associated with 3-11 of the more than 500 NIC interventions and 1-13 of more than 300 NOC outcomes. The nurses became aware of the complexity and the need for critical thinking. The findings were used to refine the facility's nursing standards of care, which were to be combined with the interdisciplinary plan of care and included in future electronic health records.

  17. Missed diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department: variation by patient and facility characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moy, Ernest; Barrett, Marguerite; Coffey, Rosanna; Hines, Anika L; Newman-Toker, David E

    2015-02-01

    An estimated 1.2 million people in the US have an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) each year. An estimated 7% of AMI hospitalizations result in death. Most patients experiencing acute coronary symptoms, such as unstable angina, visit an emergency department (ED). Some patients hospitalized with AMI after a treat-and-release ED visit likely represent missed opportunities for correct diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the frequency of missed AMI or its precursors in the ED by examining use of EDs prior to hospitalization for AMI. We estimated the rate of probable missed diagnoses in EDs in the week before hospitalization for AMI and examined associated factors. We used Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases and State Emergency Department Databases for 2007 to evaluate missed diagnoses in 111,973 admitted patients aged 18 years and older. We identified missed diagnoses in the ED for 993 of 112,000 patients (0.9% of all AMI admissions). These patients had visited an ED with chest pain or cardiac conditions, were released, and were subsequently admitted for AMI within 7 days. Higher odds of having missed diagnoses were associated with being younger and of Black race. Hospital teaching status, availability of cardiac catheterization, high ED admission rates, high inpatient occupancy rates, and urban location were associated with lower odds of missed diagnoses. Administrative data provide robust information that may help EDs identify populations at risk of experiencing a missed diagnosis, address disparities, and reduce diagnostic errors.

  18. [Relationship between insight, violence and diagnoses in psychotic patients].

    PubMed

    Lera Calatayud, Guillem; Herrero Sebastián, Neus; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo; González Piqueras, José Carlos; Sanjuán Arias, Julio; Leal Cercós, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Lack of insight is a common clinical problem in psichiatric patients, but few times has been properly studied until recently. Patients with good insight tend to show a better treatment adherence with a better prognosis and swow less hostility. This study aims to investigate whether there is a relationship between the hostility degree and insight or not and to anlalyze if there are insight quantitative differences between the patients regarding their diagnoses. 168 psychotic patients were studied (including 86 patients with schizophrenia and 43 with bipolar disorder). PANNS P7 (hostility) item and G14 (poor impulse control) were analized in order to assess patients' violence and G12 in order to assess insight. All these data was correlated. It was also analyzed the PANSS results of schizophrenic vs bipolar patients regarding insight and hostility separately looking for a more homogenic pull of patients. Patients with greater hostility showed a worse impulse control and poorer insight than the rest. Schizophrenic patients showed a greater hostility and lower insight than bipolar patients. Lack of insight may lead to a greater hostility and worse impulse control. Therapeutic interventions adressed to improve insight could indirectly lower hostility and gain a better impulse control for psychotic patients. Copyright © 2010 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Using fuzzy data mining to diagnose patients' degrees of melancholia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Kuo, Wen-Lin

    2011-06-01

    The common treatments of melancholia are psychotherapy and taking medicines. The psychotherapy treatment which this study focuses on is limited by time and location. It is easier for psychiatrists to grasp information from clinical manifestation but it is difficult for psychiatrists to collect information from patients' daily conversations or emotion. To design a system which psychiatrists enable to capture patients' daily symptoms will show great help in the treatment. This study proposes to use fuzzy data mining algorithm to find association rules among keywords segmented from patients' daily voice/text messages to assist psychiatrists extract useful information before outpatient service. Patients of melancholia can use devices such as mobile phones or computers to record their own emotion anytime and anywhere and then uploading the recorded files to the back-end server for further analysis. The analytical results can be used for psychiatrists to diagnose patients' degrees of melancholia. Experimental results will be given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  20. Capturing Key NANDA-I Nursing Diagnoses From Actual Clinical Data for Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Tucker, Denise A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify key nursing diagnoses with related factors and signs/symptoms using NANDA-I for patients with heart failure (HF). A retrospective descriptive design was used to address the research questions. Data were obtained from the records of patients discharged for 1 year with the medical diagnoses of HF from a Midwestern community hospital. A total of 272 inpatient records were analyzed to describe the frequency and percentage of NANDA-I diagnosis with related factors and signs/symptoms. The top 10 NANDA-I diagnoses associated with related factors and signs/symptoms were identified. Further research related to standardized nursing terminologies such as NANDA-I using large clinical databases from health information systems is needed to support evidence-based nursing diagnosis decision making. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  1. Nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Euzeli da Silva; Santos, Iraci Dos; Lanzillotti, Regina Serrão; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-08-15

    identify nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis. a quantitative and descriptive research, carried out in three institutions located in Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using the Client Assessment Protocol in Dermatology during a nursing consultation. Simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. 14 subjects participated in the study, nine with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus two and three of bullous pemphigoid. The age ranged between 27 and 82 years, predominantly females (11). 14 nursing diagnoses were discussed and identified from a clinical rationale in all study participants, representing the most common human responses in this sample. The application of the Assessment Protocol in Dermatology facilitated the comprehensive assessment, in addition to providing the identification of diagnostics according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. the nursing diagnoses presented confirm the necessity of interdisciplinary work during the care for this clientele. For better description of the phenomena related to the client in question, it is suggested the inclusion of two risk factors related in three diagnoses of this taxonomy. It is worth noting the contribution of the findings for the care, education and research in nursing in dermatology. identificar diagnósticos de enfermagem em clientes com dermatoses imunobolhosas. pesquisa quantitativa e descritiva, realizada em três instituições localizadas no Rio de Janeiro e no Mato Grosso do Sul-Brasil, aplicando o Protocolo de Avaliação do Cliente em Dermatologia, durante consulta de enfermagem. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva simples para análise dos dados. participaram do estudo 14 sujeitos, nove com diagnóstico médico de pênfigo vulgar, dois de foliáceo e três de penfigoide bolhoso. A idade variou entre 27 e 82 anos, predominando 11 pessoas do sexo feminino. Foram discutidos 14 diagnósticos de enfermagem

  2. The comparison of the performance of two screening strategies identifying newly-diagnosed HIV during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Boer, Kees; Smit, Colette; van der Flier, Michiel; de Wolf, Frank

    2011-10-01

    In the Netherlands, a non-selective opt-out instead of a selective opt-in antenatal HIV screening strategy was implemented in 2004. In case of infection, screening was followed by prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). We compared the performance of the two strategies in terms of detection of new cases of HIV and vertical transmission. HIV-infected pregnant women were identified retrospectively from the Dutch HIV cohort ATHENA January 2000 to January 2008. Apart from demographic, virological and immunological data, the date of HIV infection in relation to the index pregnancy was established. Separately, all infants diagnosed with HIV born following implementation of the screening program were identified by a questionnaire via the paediatric HIV centres. 162/481 (33.7%) HIV-positive pregnant women were diagnosed with HIV before 2004 and 172/214 (80.3%) after January 2004. Multivariate analysis showed an 8-fold (95% confidence interval 5.47-11.87) increase in the odds of HIV detection during pregnancy after the national introduction of the opt-out strategy. Still, three children born during a 5-year period after July 2004 were infected due to de novo infection in pregnancy. Implementation of a nation-wide screening strategy based upon non-selective opt-out screening followed by effective PMTCT appeared to detect more HIV-infected women for the first time in pregnancy and to reduce vertical transmission of HIV substantially. Nonetheless, still few children are infected because of maternal infection after the first trimester. We propose the introduction of partner screening on HIV as part of the antenatal screening strategy.

  3. Visual System Involvement in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Alessandro; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Milardi, Demetrio; Mormina, Enricomaria; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa; Marino, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Anastasi, Giuseppe Pio; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Aragona, Pasquale; Quartarone, Angelo; Gaeta, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To assess intracranial visual system changes of newly diagnosed Parkinson disease in drug-naïve patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease and 20 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging) was performed with a 3-T MR imager. White matter changes were assessed by exploring a white matter diffusion profile by means of diffusion-tensor imaging-based parameters and constrained spherical deconvolution-based connectivity analysis and by means of white matter voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Alterations in occipital gray matter were investigated by means of gray matter VBM. Morphologic analysis of the optic chiasm was based on manual measurement of regions of interest. Statistical testing included analysis of variance, t tests, and permutation tests. Results In the patients with Parkinson disease, significant alterations were found in optic radiation connectivity distribution, with decreased lateral geniculate nucleus V2 density (F, -8.28; P < .05), a significant increase in optic radiation mean diffusivity (F, 7.5; P = .014), and a significant reduction in white matter concentration. VBM analysis also showed a significant reduction in visual cortical volumes (P < .05). Moreover, the chiasmatic area and volume were significantly reduced (P < .05). Conclusion The findings show that visual system alterations can be detected in early stages of Parkinson disease and that the entire intracranial visual system can be involved. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Ultrasound Accuracy in Diagnosing Appendicitis in Obese Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Love, Bryan E; Camelo, Monica; Nouri, Sarvenaz; Kriger, Diego; Ludi, Daniel; Nguyen, Henry

    2017-10-01

    The use of ultrasound to diagnose appendicitis in pediatric patients has been growing with the improvement of ultrasound technology and operator skills, but its utility in the increasingly obese pediatric population has not been thoroughly investigated. A retrospective review of all pediatric (≤18 years old) patients with appendicitis who were admitted at a single hospital from 2014 to 2016 was conducted. Patients were stratified into body mass index (BMI) percentile categories based on the centers for disease control guidelines. Comparisons were then made. There were 231 patients with an average BMI percentile of 72.6; 99 (42.9%) who had an ultrasound, of which 54 (54.5%) were positive for acute appendicitis, whereas 43 (43.4%) were nondiagnostic. In patients who had a nondiagnostic ultrasound, 37 had a CT demonstrating acute appendicitis. These were compared with 123 patients who had CT alone demonstrating acute appendicitis. The CT-only group was older (12 vs 9, P < 0.005), tended to be male (78 (63%) vs 15 (41%), P = 0.019), had fewer operations performed (81 (66%) vs 30 (81%), P = 0.048) but had no significant difference in BMI percentile (75.8 vs 71.7, P = 0.465). Ultrasound had a 100 per cent positive predictive value in obese and overweight children. Ultrasound is a reliable study in obese and overweight pediatric patients with acute appendicitis.

  5. Using an Educational Electronic Documentation System to Help Nursing Students Accurately Identify Nursing Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pobocik, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology and electronic medical records in healthcare has exponentially increased. This quantitative research project used a pretest/posttest design, and reviewed how an educational electronic documentation system helped nursing students to identify the accurate related to statement of the nursing diagnosis for the patient in the case…

  6. [Clinical profile of patients diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus].

    PubMed

    Represas Carrera, Francisco Jesús; Carrera García, Álvaro; Clavería Fontán, Ana

    2018-03-09

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that represent an important problem of public health. The objective of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, anthropometric, metabolic control, comorbidity and cardiovascular risk characteristics of patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 in the health area of Vigo. Retrospective observational descriptive study. Between March and September 2016, it did telephone interview and an audit of electronic medical records to 195 patients ≥ 18 years old from the health area of Vigo diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. It selected by random sampling with replacement. It evaluated the cardiovascular risk using the method "United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study", the metabolic control with the recommendations of the "American Diabetes Association" 2016, and the comorbidity using the Charlson index. It performed a descriptive and bivariate analysis with R statistical package. The glycemic control was adequate (HbA1c less than 7.0%) in the 61.03% of the patients. The 58.46% had a blood pressure under 140/90mmHg, 52.82% had a total cholesterol under 185mg/dl and 66.15% had a triglyceride level under 150mg/dl. The 49.74% presented a high comorbidity (Charlson larger or the same as 3 points). The risk of suffering and/or dying of heart disease was 37.81%, and 23.50% of suffering and/or dying of a stroke in the next 10 years. Most diabetic patients of the health area of Vigo have a good control of their disease but they present a high index of comorbidity and high cardiovascular risk.

  7. Assessing the economic burden of Alzheimer's disease patients first diagnosed by specialists.

    PubMed

    Kirson, Noam Y; Desai, Urvi; Ristovska, Ljubica; Cummings, Alice Kate G; Birnbaum, Howard G; Ye, Wenyu; Andrews, J Scott; Ball, Daniel; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin

    2016-07-11

    It is not known if there is a differential impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis and outcomes if/when patients are diagnosed with cognitive decline by specialists versus non-specialists. This study examined the cost trajectories of Medicare beneficiaries initially diagnosed by specialists compared to similar patients who received their diagnosis in primary care settings. Patients with ≥2 claims for AD were selected from de-identified administrative claims data for US Medicare beneficiaries (5 % random sample). The earliest observed diagnosis of cognitive decline served as the index date. Patients were required to have continuous Medicare coverage for ≥12 months pre-index (baseline) and ≥12 months following the first AD diagnosis, allowing for up to 3 years from index to AD diagnosis. Time from index date to AD diagnosis was compared between those diagnosed by specialists (i.e., neurologist, psychiatrist, or geriatrician) versus non-specialists using Kaplan-Meier analyses with log-rank tests. Patient demographics, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) during baseline, and annual all-cause medical costs (reimbursed by Medicare) in baseline and follow-up periods were compared across propensity-score matched cohorts. Patients first diagnosed with cognitive decline by specialists (n = 2593) were younger (78.8 versus 80.8 years old), more likely to be male (40 % versus 34 %), and had higher CCI scores and higher medical costs at baseline than those diagnosed by non-specialists (n = 13,961). However, patients diagnosed by specialists had a significantly shorter time to AD diagnosis, both before and after matching (mean [after matching]: 3.5 versus 4.6 months, p < 0.0001). In addition, patients diagnosed by specialists had significantly lower average total all-cause medical costs in the first 12 months after their index date, a finding that persisted after matching ($19,824 versus $25,863, p < 0.0001). Total per-patient annual medical costs

  8. Treatment choices and outcomes of patients with manometrically diagnosed achalasia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, J C; Finley, C; Hanna, W C; Miller, L; Ferri, L; Urbach, D R; Darling, G E

    2016-07-01

    This prospective population-based study was designed to evaluate treatment choices in patients with new manometrically diagnosed achalasia and their outcomes. Patients referred to the esophageal function laboratory were enrolled after a new manometric diagnosis of achalasia. Patients completed an initial achalasia symptom score validated questionnaire on their symptom severity, duration, treatment pre-diagnosis and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form (SF-36) survey. Treatment decisions were made by the referring physician and the patient. Follow-up questionnaires were completed every 3 months for 1 year. Patients who chose not to undergo treatment at 1-year follow-up completed another questionnaire after 5 years. Between January 2004 and January 2005, 83 of 124 eligible patients were enrolled. Heller myotomy was performed on 31 patients, three patients received botulinum toxin injections, and 25 patients received 29 pneumatic balloon dilatations. Twenty-four patients chose to receive no treatment. Following treatment, patients treated with surgery, dilatation and botulinum toxin had an average improvement in achalasia symptom score of 23 +/- 12.2, 17 +/- 10.9, and 9 +/- 14, respectively. Patients receiving no treatment had worsening symptoms with a symptom score change of -3.5 +/- 11.4. Surgery and dilatation resulted in significant improvement (P < 0.01) relative to no treatment. In univariate logistic regression, symptom severity score (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 1.08), sphincter tone (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.09), difficulty swallowing liquids (OR 3.21, 95% 1.15 to 8.99), waking from sleep (OR 2.75, 95% 1.00 to 7.61), and weight loss (OR 5.99, 95% CI 1.93 to 18.58) were all significant in predicting that patients would select treatment. In the multivariate analysis, older age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.09) and weight loss (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.02 to 15.2) were statistically significant for undergoing treatment. At 5 years

  9. High pressure vaginography to diagnose vaginal ureteral ectopia in patients with continuous urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Jack M; Shekarriz, Bijan; Upadhyay, Jyoti

    2013-02-01

    Continuous urinary incontinence in female patients can be a diagnostic dilemma if traditional imaging fails to identify a source. Vaginography has been used to diagnose vaginal ectopic ureters in the past with mixed results. Institutional review board approval was obtained for a retrospective review. Five teenage females with continuous incontinence and prior negative imaging work ups underwent high pressure vaginography. Their findings and treatment outcomes are reviewed. A vaginal ectopic ureter was diagnosed in each of the five patients at a mean age 15.8 years. Each had undergone prior magnetic resonance urography that was non-diagnostic. Four of the five were managed surgically with resolution of their incontinence. One was lost to follow up. High pressure vaginogram should be considered during the work up of female patients with continuous urinary incontinence, especially when other imaging modalities fail to identify an etiology.

  10. Controversies in Poland Syndrome: Alternative Diagnoses in Patients With Congenital Pectoral Muscle Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baas, Martijn; Burger, Elise B; Sneiders, Dimitri; Galjaard, Robert-Jan H; Hovius, Steven E R; van Nieuwenhoven, Christianne A

    2018-02-01

    Poland syndrome was first described as a deficiency of the pectoral muscle with ipsilateral symbrachydactyly. Currently, numerous case reports describe variations of Poland syndrome in which pectoral muscle deficiency is often used as the only defining criterion. However, more syndromes can present with pectoral muscle deficiency. The aim of this review is to illustrate the diversity of the phenotypic spectrum of Poland syndrome and to create more awareness for alternative diagnoses in pectoral muscle deficiency. A systematic literature search was performed. Articles containing phenotypical descriptions of Poland syndrome were included. Data extraction included number of patients, sex, familial occurrence, and the definition of Poland syndrome used. In addition, hand deformities, thoracic deformities, and other deformities in each patient were recorded. Alternative syndrome diagnoses were identified in patients with a combination of hand, thorax, and other deformities. One hundred-and-thirty-six articles were included, describing 627 patients. Ten different definitions of Poland syndrome were utilized. In 58% of the cases, an upper extremity deformity was found and 43% of the cases had an associated deformity. Classic Poland syndrome was seen in 29%. Fifty-seven percent of the patients with a pectoral malformation, a hand malformation, and another deformity had at least 1feature that matched an alternative syndrome. Pectoral muscle hypoplasia is not distinctive for Poland syndrome alone but is also present in syndromes with other associated anomalies with a recognized genetic cause. Therefore, in patients with an atypical phenotype, we recommend considering other diagnoses and/or syndromes before diagnosing a patient with Poland syndrome. This can prevent diagnostic and prognostic errors. Differentiating Poland syndrome from the alternative diagnoses has serious consequences for the patient and their family in terms of inheritance and possible related anomalies

  11. Diagnosing perforated appendicitis in pediatric patients: a new model.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Veerle A B; Euser, Sjoerd M; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; de Korte, Niels; Sanders, Dave G M; de Winter, Derek; Vergroesen, Diederik; van Groningen, Krijn; de Winter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Studies have investigated sensitivity and specificity of symptoms and tests for diagnosing appendicitis in children. Less is known with regard to the predictive value of these symptoms and tests with respect to the severity of appendicitis. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of patient's characteristics and tests for discriminating between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis in children. Pediatric patients who underwent an appendectomy at Spaarne Hospital Hoofddorp, the Netherlands, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013, were included. Baseline patient's characteristics, history, physical examination, laboratory data and results of ultrasounds were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of perforation. In total, 375 patients were included in this study of which 97 children (25.9%) had significant signs of perforation. Univariate analysis showed that age, duration of complaints, temperature, vomiting, CRP, WBC, different findings on ultrasound and the diameter of the appendix were good predictors of a perforated appendicitis. The final multivariate prediction model included temperature, CRP, clearly visible appendix and free fluids on ultrasound and diameter of the appendix and resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91 showing sensitivity and specificity of respectively 85.2% and 81.2%. This prediction model can be used for identification of 'high-risk' children for a perforated appendicitis and might be helpful to prevent complications and longer hospitalization by bringing these children to theater earlier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptualizations of illness among relatives of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Villares, Cecília C; Redko, Cristina P; Mari, Jair J

    2017-06-01

    Family concepts of a relative's illness are an important part of the coping process and reveal the cultural construction of the experience of illness. As part of a qualitative study conducted in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Psychiatry, Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP, 14 relatives of eight outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were interviewed and invited to talk freely about their ideas and feelings concerning their relative's problem. Qualitative analysis was used to identify categories of illness representations. Three main categories were discussed, including Problema de Nervoso, Problema na Cabeça and Problema Espiritual (Problem of the Nerves, Problem in the Head and Spiritual Problem). The authors present evidence of these categories as cultural constructions, and discuss the relevance of popular notions of illness to the understanding of the course and outcome of schizophrenia, and the planning of culturally meaningful interventions.

  13. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Eleci Vaz; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Sarmento, Muriel Bossle; Guazzelli, Pedro Arends; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa; Guerra, Vinicius André; Seligman, Renato; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods : This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results : On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions : Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients. PMID:26982039

  14. Acute admissions to medical departments in Denmark: diagnoses and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vest-Hansen, Betina; Riis, Anders Hammerich; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2014-09-01

    Despite extensive research on individual diseases, population-based knowledge about reasons for acute medical admissions remains limited. Our aim was to examine primary diagnoses, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, age, and gender among patients admitted acutely to medical departments in Denmark. In this population-based observational study, 264,265 acute medical patients admitted during 2010 were identified in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP), covering all hospitals in Denmark. Reasons for acute admissions were assessed by primary diagnoses, grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. Additionally, the CCI score, age and gender were presented according to each diagnostic group. Two-thirds of the patients had one of the four following reasons for admission: cardiovascular diseases (19.3%), non-specific Z-diagnoses ("Factors influencing health status and contact with health services") (16.9%), infectious diseases (15.5%), and non-specific R-diagnoses ("Symptoms and abnormal findings, not elsewhere classified") (11.8%). In total, 45% of the patients had a CCI score of one or more and there was a considerable overlap between the patients' chronic diseases and the reason for admission. The median age of the study population was 64 years (IQR 47-77 years), ranging from 46 years (IQR 27-66) for injury and poisoning to 74 years (IQR 60-83) for hematological diseases. Gender representation varied considerably within the diagnostic groups, for example with male predominance in mental disorders (59.0%) and female predominance in diseases of the musculoskeletal system (57.8%). Our study identifies that acute medical patients often present with non-specific symptoms or complications related to their chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalent Signs and Symptoms in Patients with Skin Cancer and Nursing Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Isabel Neves Duarte; Azevedo Macena, Monica Suela de; Conceicao Dias, Maria Isabel Fernandes da; Almeida Medeiros, Ana Beatriz de; Lima, Cyndi Fernandes de; Carvalho Lira, Ana Luisa Brandao de

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer has a remarkable importance given the high incidence in the population. In Brazil, it is estimated that there were 98,420 new cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer among men and 83,710 new cases among women in 2014. To verify signs and symptoms present in patients with skin neoplasms according to the literature and relate them to the nursing diagnoses of NANDA International. Integrative literature review carried out from March to May 2015 in the databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS, National Library of Medicine and Nattional Institutes of Health, Latin American and Caribbean Sciences of Health and Web of Science. The descriptors used were: 'Signs and Symptoms' and 'Skin Neoplasms'. Sixteen articles were identified as the final sample. After review, the signs and symptoms of skin cancer identified in the literature were related to the defining characteristics present in NANDA International, with the aim to trace possible nursing diagnoses. The most prevalent signs and symptoms were: asymmetric and well circumscribed nodules with irregular borders; speckles with modified color aspect; ulcerations; blisters; pain; itching; and bleeding. The principal nursing diagnoses outlined were: risk for impaired skin integrity; impaired skin integrity; acute pain; risk of shock; and impaired comfort. The identification of signs and symptoms present in patients with skin cancer and the relationships of these with the nursing diagnoses of NANDA International provide a basis for qualified and systematized nursing care to this clientele.

  16. Indicators of distress in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Merluzzi, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of cancer can present individuals with a multitude of stressors at various points in that trajectory. Psychosocial distress may appear early in the diagnostic process and have negative effects on compliance with treatment and subsequent quality of life. Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine early-phase predictors of distress before any medical treatment. Method. Consistent with the goals of the study, 123 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (20 to 74 years old) completed multiple indicators of knowledge about breast cancer management and treatment, attitudes toward cancer, social support, coping efficacy, and distress. Results. SEM analysis confirmed the hypothesized model. Age was negatively associated with the patient’s knowledge (β = − 0.22), which, in turn, was positively associated with both attitudes toward breast cancer (β = 0.39) and coping self-efficacy (β = 0.36). Self-efficacy was then directly related to psychological distress (β = − 0.68). Conclusions. These findings establish indicators of distress in patients early in the cancer trajectory. From a practical perspective, our results have implications for screening for distress and for the development of early interventions that may be followed by healthcare professionals to reduce psychological distress. PMID:26244115

  17. [Hematological Evaluation and Monitoring in Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Ávila, Mauricio J; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Arenas González, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    To guide the clinician in taking decisions on the best strategies for assessing and monitoring the risk of blood disorders in adults diagnosed with schizophrenia in pharmacological treatment. A clinical practice guideline was developed following the guidelines of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection to collect evidence and grade recommendations. De novoliterature researchwas performed. With the use of antipsychotics there isriskofreducción in the leukocyte count and the risk of agranulocytosis,the later associated with the use of clozapine, although it is a rare event(0.8%) can be fatal; this effect occurs most frequently in the first twelve weeks of treatment and the risk is maintained aroundthe first year of it. The recommendations were considered strongin all hematologic related monitoring.A blood count should be taken at the start of pharmacological treatment. If the patient is started on clozapine one shouldbe taken weekly during the first three months, monthly until completing one year and every six months thereafter. If there is a decrease in white blood cell count the patient should be monitored regularly, stopping if is a less than 3,500 cells/mm(3) and consider referral if is less than 2,000 cells/mm(3). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Parotid Incidentaloma Identified by Positron Emission/Computed Tomography: When to Consider Diagnoses Other than Warthin Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Carolina; Fernandez, Alejandro; Garcia, Jacinto; Lopez, Montserrat; León, Xavier; Quer, Miquel; Lop, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Parotid gland incidentalomas (PGIs) are unexpected hypermetabolic foci in the parotid region that can be found when scanning with whole-body positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT). These deposits are most commonly due to benign lesions such as Warthin tumor. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PGIs identified in PET/CT scans and to assess the role of smoking in their etiology. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all PET/CT scans performed at our center in search of PGIs and identified smoking status and standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in each case. We also analyzed the database of parotidectomies performed in our department in the previous 10 years and focused on the pathologic diagnosis and the presence or absence of smoking in each case. Results Sixteen cases of PGIs were found in 4,250 PET/CT scans, accounting for 0.4%. The average SUVmax was 6.5 (range 2.8 to 16). Cytology was performed in five patients; it was benign in four cases and inconclusive in one case. Thirteen patients had a history of smoking. Of the parotidectomies performed in our center with a diagnosis of Warthin tumor, we identified a history of smoking in 93.8% of those patients. Conclusions The prevalence of PGIs on PET/CT was similar to that reported by other authors. Warthin tumor is frequently diagnosed among PGIs on PET/CT, and it has a strong relationship with smoking. We suggest that a diagnosis other than Warthin tumor should be considered for PGIs in nonsmokers. PMID:25992164

  19. Parotid incidentaloma identified by positron emission/computed tomography: when to consider diagnoses other than warthin tumor.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Carolina; Fernandez, Alejandro; Garcia, Jacinto; Lopez, Montserrat; León, Xavier; Quer, Miquel; Lop, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Introduction Parotid gland incidentalomas (PGIs) are unexpected hypermetabolic foci in the parotid region that can be found when scanning with whole-body positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT). These deposits are most commonly due to benign lesions such as Warthin tumor. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PGIs identified in PET/CT scans and to assess the role of smoking in their etiology. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all PET/CT scans performed at our center in search of PGIs and identified smoking status and standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in each case. We also analyzed the database of parotidectomies performed in our department in the previous 10 years and focused on the pathologic diagnosis and the presence or absence of smoking in each case. Results Sixteen cases of PGIs were found in 4,250 PET/CT scans, accounting for 0.4%. The average SUVmax was 6.5 (range 2.8 to 16). Cytology was performed in five patients; it was benign in four cases and inconclusive in one case. Thirteen patients had a history of smoking. Of the parotidectomies performed in our center with a diagnosis of Warthin tumor, we identified a history of smoking in 93.8% of those patients. Conclusions The prevalence of PGIs on PET/CT was similar to that reported by other authors. Warthin tumor is frequently diagnosed among PGIs on PET/CT, and it has a strong relationship with smoking. We suggest that a diagnosis other than Warthin tumor should be considered for PGIs in nonsmokers.

  20. Competing mortality in patients diagnosed with bladder cancer: evidence of undertreatment in the elderly and female patients.

    PubMed

    Noon, A P; Albertsen, P C; Thomas, F; Rosario, D J; Catto, J W F

    2013-04-16

    Bladder cancer (BC) predominantly affects the elderly and is often the cause of death among patients with muscle-invasive disease. Clinicians lack quantitative estimates of competing mortality risks when considering treatments for BC. Our aim was to determine the bladder cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rate and other-cause mortality (OCM) rate for patients with newly diagnosed BC. Patients (n=3281) identified from a population-based cancer registry diagnosed between 1994 and 2009. Median follow-up was 48.15 months (IQ range 18.1-98.7). Competing risk analysis was performed within patient groups and outcomes compared using Gray's test. At 5 years after diagnosis, 1246 (40%) patients were dead: 617 (19%) from BC and 629 (19%) from other causes. The 5-year BC mortality rate varied between 1 and 59%, and OCM rate between 6 and 90%, depending primarily on the tumour type and patient age. Cancer-specific mortality was highest in the oldest patient groups. Few elderly patients received radical treatment for invasive cancer (52% vs 12% for patients <60 vs >80 years, respectively). Female patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive BC had worse CSM than equivalent males (Gray's P<0.01). Bladder CSM is highest among the elderly. Female patients with high-risk tumours are more likely to die of their disease compared with male patients. Clinicians should consider offering more aggressive treatment interventions among older patients.

  1. Storytelling by Adults Diagnosed with Terminal Illness: Narrative Identifying through Dialogical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogical qualitative research study was to gain insight into the process of storytelling with adults diagnosed with terminal illness as a way of making meaning of their experiences and lives. The study was informed by the conceptual frameworks of story, storytelling, and story listening which are grounded in the theory of…

  2. Diagnosing the problem: using a tool to identify pre-registration nursing students' mathematical ability.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Sharon; Murphy, Fiona; Lake, Richard; Jenkins, Lynne; Cavanna, Annlouise; Tait, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Mathematical ability is a skill nurses need to safely administer medicines and fluids to patients (Elliott, M., Joyce, J., 2005. Mapping drug calculation skills in an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Nurse Education in Practice 5, 225-229). However some nurses and nursing students lack mathematical proficiency (Hilton, D.E., 1999. Considering academic qualification in mathematics as an entry requirement for a diploma in nursing programme. Nurse Education Today 19, 543-547). A tool was devised to assess the mathematical abilities of nursing students. This was administered to 304 nursing students in one Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Wales, United Kingdom (UK) on entry to a pre-registration undergraduate nursing course. The students completed a diagnostic mathematics test comprising of 25 non-clinical General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) level multiple choice questions with a pass mark set at 72%. The key findings were that only 19% (n=53) of students passed the test. Students appeared to have difficulties with questions involving decimals, SI units, formulae and fractions. The key demographic variable that influenced test scores was previous mathematical qualifications on entry to the course. The tool proved useful in two ways. First, in identifying those students who needed extra tutorial support in mathematics. Second, in identifying those areas of mathematics that presented difficulties for students. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decision-Making Capacity for Chemotherapy and Associated Factors in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Asao; Kondo, Kyoko; Takei, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Ohe, Yuichiro; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess decision-making capacity in patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer, clinical factors associated with impaired capacity, and physicians' perceptions of patients' decision-making capacity. We recruited 122 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. One hundred fourteen completed the assessment. All patients were receiving a combination of treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or targeted therapy). Decision-making capacity was assessed using the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment. Cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, and frailty were also evaluated. Physicians' perceptions were compared with the ascertainments. Twenty-seven (24%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 16-31) patients were judged to have incapacity. Clinical teams had difficulty in judging six (22.2%) patients for incapacity. Logistic regression identified frailty (odds ratio, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.13-10.8) and cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 5.45; 95% CI, 1.26-23.6) as the factors associated with decision-making incapacity. Brain metastasis, emphysema, and depression were not associated with decision-making incapacity. A substantial proportion of patients diagnosed with lung cancer show impairments in their capacity to make a medical decision. Assessment of cognitive impairment and frailty may provide appropriate decision-making frameworks to act in the best interest of patients. Decision-making capacity is the cornerstone of clinical practice. A substantial proportion of patients with cancer show impairments in their capacity to make a medical decision. Assessment of cognitive impairment and frailty may provide appropriate decision-making frameworks to act in the best interest of patients. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  4. EIF2AK4 Mutations in Patients Diagnosed With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Best, D Hunter; Sumner, Kelli L; Smith, Benjamin P; Damjanovich-Colmenares, Kristy; Nakayama, Ikue; Brown, Lynette M; Ha, Youna; Paul, Eleri; Morris, Ashley; Jama, Mohamed A; Dodson, Mark W; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Elliott, C Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Differentiating pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is important clinically. Mutations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) cause heritable PVOD and PCH, whereas mutations in other genes cause HPAH. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pathogenic EIF2AK4 mutations in patients diagnosed clinically with IPAH or HPAH. Sanger sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis were performed to detect mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) gene in 81 patients diagnosed at 30 North American medical centers with IPAH (n = 72) or HPAH (n = 9). BMPR2 mutation-negative patients (n = 67) were sequenced for mutations in four other genes (ACVRL1, ENG, CAV1, and KCNK3) known to cause HPAH. Patients negative for mutations in all known PAH genes (n = 66) were then sequenced for mutations in EIF2AK4. We assessed the pathogenicity of EIF2AK4 mutations and reviewed clinical characteristics of patients with pathogenic EIF2AK4 mutations. Pathogenic BMPR2 mutations were identified in 8 of 72 (11.1%) patients with IPAH and 6 of 9 (66.7%) patients with HPAH. A novel homozygous EIF2AK4 mutation (c.257+4A>C) was identified in 1 of 9 (11.1%) patients diagnosed with HPAH. The novel EIF2AK4 mutation (c.257+4A>C) was homozygous in two sisters with severe pulmonary hypertension. None of the 72 patients with IPAH had biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations. Pathogenic biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations are rarely identified in patients diagnosed with HPAH. Identification of pathogenic biallelic EIF2AK4 mutations can aid clinicians in differentiating HPAH from heritable PVOD or PCH. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antihypertensive medication prescription patterns and time trends for newly-diagnosed uncomplicated hypertension patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pang-Hsiang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-06-18

    Knowledge of existing prescription patterns in the treatment of newly-diagnosed hypertension can provide useful information for improving clinical practice in this field. The aims of this study are to determine the prescription patterns and time trends for antihypertensive medication in newly-diagnosed cases of uncomplicated hypertension in Taiwan and to compare these with current clinical guidelines. A total of 6,536 newly-diagnosed patients with uncomplicated hypertension, aged >/=30 years, were identified from the representative 200,000-person sample in the computerized reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. These patients were followed from 1998 to 2004 with all diagnoses, prescription data and medication charges being retrieved for subsequent analysis. Prescription patterns varied by age, gender and clinical facilities, with mono-therapies being found to be dominant in the first year, albeit declining over time. Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers were the most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drugs, either alone or in combinations. Although least expensive, the prescription rates of diuretics were low, at 8.3% for mono-therapies and 19.9% overall. The prescription rate for angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) was elevated considerably over time. After controlling for other related factors by multiple logistic regression analysis, ARBs were found to be prescribed mainly by medical centers or regional hospitals. These findings indicate the existence of a gap between current clinical practice and the desired goal of cost-effectiveness in antihypertensive treatment in Taiwan, which should be corrected.

  6. Method and system for the diagnosis of disease using retinal image content and an archive of diagnosed human patient data

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Kenneth W; Karnowski, Thomas P; Chaum, Edward

    2013-08-06

    A method for diagnosing diseases having retinal manifestations including retinal pathologies includes the steps of providing a CBIR system including an archive of stored digital retinal photography images and diagnosed patient data corresponding to the retinal photography images, the stored images each indexed in a CBIR database using a plurality of feature vectors, the feature vectors corresponding to distinct descriptive characteristics of the stored images. A query image of the retina of a patient is obtained. Using image processing, regions or structures in the query image are identified. The regions or structures are then described using the plurality of feature vectors. At least one relevant stored image from the archive based on similarity to the regions or structures is retrieved, and an eye disease or a disease having retinal manifestations in the patient is diagnosed based on the diagnosed patient data associated with the relevant stored image(s).

  7. The characteristics of patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease diagnosed by bronchial lavage culture compared to those diagnosed by sputum culture.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Koichi; Naka, Megumi; Shuto, Saki; Harada, Yuka; Ikegami, Yumiko

    2017-09-01

    The utility of bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) disease has been reported; however, which patients require bronchoscopy remains unclear. Our objective was to identify the characteristics of the patients in whom bronchoscopy is needed for the diagnosis of MAC disease. Fifty-four patients with pulmonary MAC disease were divided into two groups according to established diagnostic criteria: 39 patients were diagnosed by sputum culture and 15 patients were diagnosed by bronchial lavage culture. We analysed the differences in demographic and clinical characteristics as well as microbiological and radiological data between the two groups. There were no significant differences in age, sex, smoking status, MAC species, underlying diseases, or steroid use. Significantly more patients diagnosed by sputum culture than bronchial lavage culture had a positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli (79.5% vs. 0.0%, respectively; p < 0.001) and any symptoms (75.3% vs. 46.2%, respectively; p = 0.0059). No significant differences were found in the prevalence of each computed tomography finding, including nodules, air-space disease, bronchiectasis, and cavities. However, more patients diagnosed by sputum culture than bronchial lavage culture had abnormalities in the left upper division (48.7% vs. 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.017) and higher numbers of affected lobes (4.3 ± 1.4 vs. 3.3 ± 1.6, respectively; p = 0.034). If patients suspected of having pulmonary MAC disease have a negative sputum smear, no symptoms, no abnormal findings in the left upper division, or fewer affected lobes on computed tomography, bronchoscopy might be needed for the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid Multiplex PCR Assay To Identify Respiratory Viral Pathogens: Moving Forward Diagnosing The Common Cold

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sarah M; Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Agee, Willie; Barnhill, Jason; Hsue, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) can be a serious burden to the healthcare system. The majority of URIs are viral in etiology, but definitive diagnosis can prove difficult due to frequently overlapping clinical presentations of viral and bacterial infections, and the variable sensitivity, and lengthy turn-around time of viral culture. We tested new automated nested multiplex PCR technology, the FilmArray® system, in the TAMC department of clinical investigations, to determine the feasibility of replacing the standard viral culture with a rapid turn-around system. We conducted a feasibility study using a single-blinded comparison study, comparing PCR results with archived viral culture results from a convenience sample of cryopreserved archived nasopharyngeal swabs from acutely ill ED patients who presented with complaints of URI symptoms. A total of 61 archived samples were processed. Viral culture had previously identified 31 positive specimens from these samples. The automated nested multiplex PCR detected 38 positive samples. In total, PCR was 94.5% concordant with the previously positive viral culture results. However, PCR was only 63.4% concordant with the negative viral culture results, owing to PCR detection of 11 additional viral pathogens not recovered on viral culture. The average time to process a sample was 75 minutes. We determined that an automated nested multiplex PCR is a feasible alternative to viral culture in an acute clinical setting. We were able to detect at least 94.5% as many viral pathogens as viral culture is able to identify, with a faster turn-around time. PMID:24052914

  9. Gender differences in diagnosing antisocial personality disorder in methadone patients.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M J; Alterman, A I; Cacciola, J S; Snider, E C

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate gender differences in the prevalence rates, short-term reliability, and internal consistency of the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder for DSM-III-R, DSM-III, and Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC). A total of 37 men and 57 women methadone patients were diagnosed according to DSM-III-R, DSM-III, and RDC antisocial personality disorder criteria. The diagnostic rates, reliability, and internal consistency were lower for women than for men in all systems. DSM-III criteria resulted in the highest reliability for women, but for men, the DSM-III criteria were the least reliable. Examination of endorsement rates of individual antisocial personality disorder criteria revealed several significant gender differences on the majority of childhood criteria and on several adult criteria. Item-total correlations revealed that for women, the violent and aggressive childhood criteria in DSM-III-R that had not been included in DSM-III or RDC had a negative or no correlation to the assessment of antisocial personality disorder for women. The change in DSM-III-R from DSM-III childhood criteria appears to have resulted in a decrease in internal consistency and rates of antisocial personality disorder for women, but not for men. The results of this investigation indicate that the psychometric properties of the current antisocial personality disorder scales are weak for women, compared with men. To assess antisocial personality disorder in women it may be necessary to revise current, or develop new, diagnostic criteria.

  10. Screening high-risk patients and assisting in diagnosing anxiety in primary care: the Patient Health Questionnaire evaluated

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Questionnaires may help in detecting and diagnosing anxiety disorders in primary care. However, since utility of these questionnaires in target populations is rarely studied, the Patient Health Questionnaire anxiety modules (PHQ) were evaluated for use as: a) a screener in high-risk patients, and/or b) a case finder for general practitioners (GPs) to assist in diagnosing anxiety disorders. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 43 primary care practices in the Netherlands. The added value of the PHQ was assessed in two samples: 1) 170 patients at risk of anxiety disorders (or developing them) according to their electronic medical records (high-risk sample); 2) 141 patients identified as a possible ‘anxiety case’ by a GP (GP-identified sample). All patients completed the PHQ and were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric interview to classify DSM-IV anxiety disorders. Psychometric properties were calculated, and a logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of the PHQ. Results Using only the screening questions of the PHQ, the area under the curve was 83% in the high-risk sample. In GP-identified patients the official algorithm showed the best characteristics with an area under the curve of 77%. Positive screening questions significantly increased the odds of an anxiety disorder diagnosis in high-risk patients (odds ratio = 23.4; 95% confidence interval 6.9 to 78.8) as did a positive algorithm in GP-identified patients (odds ratio = 13.9; 95% confidence interval 3.8 to 50.6). Conclusions The PHQ screening questions can be used to screen for anxiety disorders in high-risk primary care patients. In GP-identified patients, the benefit of the PHQ is less evident. PMID:23865984

  11. Identifying seizure clusters in patients with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, R. B.; LeValley, A. J.; Hall, C. B.; Shinnar, S.

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians often encounter patients whose neurologic attacks appear to cluster. In a daily diary study, the authors explored whether clustering is a true phenomenon in epilepsy and can be identified in the clinical setting. Nearly half the subjects experienced at least one episode of three or more seizures in 24 hours; 20% also met a statistical clustering criterion. Utilizing the clinical definition of clustering should identify all seizure clusterers, and false positives can be determined with diary data. PMID:16247068

  12. The spectrum of rheumatic in-patient diagnoses at a pediatric hospital in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Migowa, Angela; Colmegna, Inés; Hitchon, Carol; Were, Eugene; Ng'ang'a, Evelyn; Ngwiri, Thomas; Wachira, John; Bernatsky, Sasha; Scuccimarri, Rosie

    2017-01-14

    Pediatric rheumatic diseases are chronic illnesses that can cause considerable disease burden to children and their families. There is limited epidemiologic data on these diseases in East Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the spectrum of pediatric rheumatic diagnoses in an in-patient setting and determine the accuracy of ICD-10 codes in identifying these conditions. Medical records from Gertrude's Children's Hospital in Kenya were reviewed for patients diagnosed with "diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue" as per ICD-10 diagnostic codes assigned at discharge between January and December 2011. Cases were classified as "rheumatic" or "non-rheumatic". Accuracy of the assigned ICD-10 code was ascertained. Death records were reviewed. Longitudinal follow-up of "rheumatic" cases was done by chart review up to March 2014. Twenty six patients were classified as having a "rheumatic" condition accounting for 0.32% of patients admitted. Of these, 11 (42.3%) had an acute inflammatory arthropathy, 6 (23.1%) had septic arthritis, 4 (15.4%) had Kawasaki disease, 2 (7.7%) had pyomyositis, and there was one case each of septic bursitis, rheumatic fever, and a non-specific soft tissue disorder. No cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were identified. One case of systemic lupus erythematosus was documented by death records. The agreement between the treating physician's discharge diagnosis and medical records ICD-10 code assignment was good (Kappa: 0.769). On follow-up, one child had recurrent knee swelling that was suspicious for JIA. Pediatric rheumatic conditions represented 0.32% of admissions at a pediatric hospital in Kenya. Acute inflammatory arthropathies, septic arthritis and Kawasaki disease were the most frequent in-patient rheumatic diagnoses. Chronic pediatric rheumatic diseases were rare amongst this in-patient population. Despite limitations associated with the use of administrative diagnostic codes, they can be a first step in

  13. Dry Eye Disease in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tiskaoglu, Nesime Setge; Yazıcı, Alper; Karlıdere, Tunay; Sari, Esin; Oguz, Elif Yilmaz; Musaoglu, Musa; Aslan, Seyda; Samet Ermiş, Sıtkı

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric conditions and not just the treatments themselves might be involved in the pathophysiology of dry eye disease (DED). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between depression and DED using objective and subjective tests in patients with newly diagnosed depressive disorder who were not using any medication which may help us to determine the sole effect of depression on dry eye. Thirty-six patients from the psychiatry clinic with a new diagnosis of depressive disorder and 32 controls were included in the study. All met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for depression. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure depression severity and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Stai1, Stai2) for concomitant anxiety symptoms. The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Visual Functioning Questionnaires (VFQ25) were completed and used to confirm diagnosis of DED in conjunction with the tear break up time (TBUT), ocular surface vital dye staining, and Schirmer's test. The comparison of depressive and control groups revealed significantly lower Schirmer (20.3 ± 9.9 vs. 25.7 ± 9.3 mm) and TBUT (7.8 ± 5.7 vs. 12.5 ± 7.8 s) scores with a consistently higher Oxford score (1.8 ± 3.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4) in the depressive group. Although the parameters were affected in the depressive group, this did not influence OSDI (86.1 ± 13.6 vs. 86.6 ± 13.3) and VFQ25 (30.8 ± 21.6 vs. 38.5 ± 29.1) scores. In both groups, the three psychological test scores (Stai1-2 and BDI) were correlated to each other but none of these tests were correlated to OSDI, VRQL, Schirmer, TBUT, and Oxford staining scores. Our study shows a definite association between depression and DED. We feel that it is important that psychiatrists take this into account especially while prescribing antidepressants which may aggravate dry eye signs.

  14. The Distress Thermometer for screening for severe fatigue in newly diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, H J G; Gielissen, M F M; de Lugt, M; Kleijer, E F W; de Roos, W K; Balk, E; Verhagen, C A H H V M; Knoop, H

    2017-05-01

    Internationally, the Distress Thermometer and associated Problem List are increasingly used in oncology as screening tools for psychological distress. Cancer-related fatigue is common but often overlooked in clinical practice. We examined if severe fatigue in cancer patients can be identified with the fatigue item of the Problem List. Newly diagnosed breast (N = 334) and colorectal (N = 179) cancer patients were screened for severe fatigue, which was defined as having a positive score on the fatigue item of the Problem List. The Fatigue Severity subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength was used as gold standard measure for severe fatigue. In total, 78% of breast cancer patients and 81% of colorectal cancer patients were correctly identified with the fatigue item. The sensitivity was 89% in breast cancer patients and 91% in colorectal cancer patients. The specificity was 75% in breast cancer patients and 77% in colorectal cancer patients. The positive predictive value was 53% in breast cancer patients and 64% in colorectal cancer patients, whereas the negative predictive value was 95% in both tumor types. The fatigue item of the Problem List performs satisfactorily as a quick screening tool for severe fatigue. However, a positive screen should be followed up with a more thorough assessment of fatigue, ie, a questionnaire with a validated cutoff point. Given time pressure of clinicians, this already implemented and brief screening tool may prevent severe fatigue from going undetected in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A retrospective study of nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and interventions for patients with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Escalada-Hernández, Paula; Muñoz-Hermoso, Paula; González-Fraile, Eduardo; Santos, Borja; González-Vargas, José Alonso; Feria-Raposo, Isabel; Girón-García, José Luis; García-Manso, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the most frequent NANDA-I nursing diagnoses, NOC outcomes, and NIC interventions used in nursing care plans in relation to psychiatric diagnosis. Although numerous studies have described the most prevalent NANDA-I, NIC and NOC labels in association with medical diagnosis in different specialties, only few connect these with psychiatric diagnoses. This multicentric cross-sectional study was developed in Spain. Data were collected retrospectively from the electronic records of 690 psychiatric or psychogeriatric patients in long and medium-term units and, psychogeriatric day-care centres. The most common nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes were identified for patients with schizophrenia, organic mental disorders, mental retardation, affective disorders, disorders of adult personality and behavior, mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders. Results suggest that NANDA-I, NIC and NOC labels combined with psychiatric diagnosis offer a complete description of the patients' actual condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patients with chronic dizziness following traumatic head injury typically have multiple diagnoses involving combined peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Q; Roberts, R E; Ahmad, H; Lobo, R; Patel, M; Ham, T; Sharp, D J; Seemungal, B M

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesised that chronic vestibular symptoms (CVS) of imbalance and dizziness post-traumatic head injury (THI) may relate to: (i) the occurrence of multiple simultaneous vestibular diagnoses including both peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction in individual patients increasing the chance of missed diagnoses and suboptimal treatment; (ii) an impaired response to vestibular rehabilitation since the central mechanisms that mediate rehabilitation related brain plasticity may themselves be disrupted. We report the results of a retrospective analysis of both the comprehensive clinical and vestibular laboratory testing of 20 consecutive THI patients with prominent and persisting vestibular symptoms still present at least 6months post THI. Individual THI patients typically had multiple vestibular diagnoses and unique to this group of vestibular patients, often displayed both peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction. Despite expert neuro-otological management, at two years 20% of patients still had persisting vestibular symptoms. In summary, chronic vestibular dysfunction in THI could relate to: (i) the presence of multiple vestibular diagnoses, increasing the risk of 'missed' vestibular diagnoses leading to persisting symptoms; (ii) the impact of brain trauma which may impair brain plasticity mediated repair mechanisms. Apart from alerting physicians to the potential for multiple vestibular diagnoses in THI, future work to identify the specific deficits in brain function mediating poor recovery from post-THI vestibular dysfunction could provide the rationale for developing new therapy for head injury patients whose vestibular symptoms are resistant to treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Diagnosing XLP1 in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Meazza, Raffaella; Tuberosa, Claudia; Cetica, Valentina; Falco, Michela; Parolini, Silvia; Grieve, Sam; Griffiths, Gillian M; Sieni, Elena; Marcenaro, Stefania; Micalizzi, Concetta; Montin, Davide; Fagioli, Franca; Moretta, Alessandro; Mingari, Maria C; Moretta, Lorenzo; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Bottino, Cristina; Aricò, Maurizio; Pende, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening, heterogeneous, hyperinflammmatory disorder. Prompt identification of inherited forms resulting from mutation in genes involved in cellular cytotoxicity can be crucial. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease 1 (XLP1), due to mutations in SH2D1A (Xq25) encoding signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein (SAP), may present with HLH. Defective SAP induces paradoxical inhibitory function of the 2B4 coreceptor and impaired natural killer (NK) (and T) cell response against EBV-infected cells. To characterize a cohort of patients with HLH and XLP1 for SAP expression and 2B4 function in lymphocytes, proposing a rapid diagnostic screening to direct mutation analysis. We set up rapid assays for 2B4 function (degranulation or (51)Cr-release) to be combined with intracellular SAP expression in peripheral blood NK cells. We studied 12 patients with confirmed mutation in SH2D1A and some family members. The combined phenotypic/functional assays allowed efficient and complete diagnostic evaluation of all patients with XLP1, thus directing mutation analysis and treatment. Nine cases were SAP(-), 2 expressed SAP with mean relative fluorescence intensity values below the range of healthy controls (SAP(dull)), and 1, carrying the R55L mutation, was SAP(+). NK cells from all patients showed inhibitory 2B4 function and defective killing of B-EBV cells. Carriers with SH2D1A mutations abolishing SAP expression and low percentage of SAP(+) cells showed neutral 2B4 function at the polyclonal NK cell level. Three novel SH2D1A mutations have been identified. Study of SAP expression is specific but may have insufficient sensitivity for screening XLP1 as a single tool. Combination with 2B4 functional assay allows identification of all cases. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional differences in the incidence of tuberculosis among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo Ram; Kang, Young Ae; Heo, Eun Young; Koo, Bo Kyung; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2018-04-01

    There are regional differences in the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Although these differences might be explained by regional differences in the risk factors of TB, whether such risk factors are actually associated with the regional differences in the TB burden remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the risk factors of and regional differences in TB incidence. A cohort study applying nationwide claims database in Republic of Korea included patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in 2009. The main outcome was the incidence of TB defined based on the diagnostic codes combined with anti-tuberculosis treatment repeated within 90 days. Sixteen regions were categorized into 3 groups according to the age- and sex-standardized TB incidence rates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for risk factors was performed to identify the determinants of the regional differences in TB incidence. Among 331 601 participants newly diagnosed with type 2 DM and with no history of previous TB, 1216 TB cases were observed. The regional TB incidence rates ranged between 2.3 and 5.9/1000 patients. Multivariate analyses did not identify any determinants of regional differences in the TB incidence among the various risk factors, including age, sex, health care utilization, co-morbidities, medication and treatment and complications of DM. Similarly, temperature, humidity and latent TB infection rate also did not affect the results. Although substantial regional differences in the TB incidence rate were observed among patients with newly diagnosed DM, no determinants of regional difference were identified among the risk factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients with burning mouth syndrome and atypical odontalgia referred from psychiatric to dental facilities

    PubMed Central

    Takenoshita, Miho; Sato, Tomoko; Kato, Yuichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Sato, Yusuke; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Toyofuku, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and atypical odontalgia (AO) are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as “somatoform disorder”. From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. Objective To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. Study design Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients’ medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. Results The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders) in AO patients was significantly higher than in BMS patients. BMS patients were more frequently given a F3 classification (mood/affective disorders). However, 50.8% of BMS patients and 33.3% of AO patients had no specific psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusion Although BMS and AO are both chronic pain disorders occurring in the absence of any organic cause, the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with BMS and AO differ

  20. Early detection of hospitalized patients with previously diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea using computer decision support alerts.

    PubMed

    Evans, R Scott; Flint, Vrena B; Cloward, Tom V; Beninati, William; Lloyd, James F; Megwalu, Kimberly; Simpson, Kathy J; Alsharit, Ahmed M; Balls, Shayna B; Farney, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a worldwide problem affecting 2-14% of the general population and most patients remain undiagnosed. OSA patients are at elevated risk for hypoxemia, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiorespiratory arrest, hypoxic encephalopathy, stroke and death during hospitalization. Clinical screening questionnaires are used to identify hospitalized patients with OSA; especially before surgery. However, current screening questionnaires miss a significant number of patients and require more definitive testing before specific therapy can be started. Moreover, many patients are admitted to the hospital with a previous diagnosis of OSA that is not reported. Thus, many patients with OSA do not receive appropriate therapy during hospitalization due to the lack of information from previous inpatient and outpatient encounters. Large enterprise data warehouses provide the ability to monitor patient encounters over wide geographical areas. This study found that previously diagnosed OSA is highly prevalent and undertreated in hospitalized patients and the use of early computer alerts by respiratory therapists resulted in significantly more OSA patients receiving appropriate medical care (P < 0.002) which resulted in significantly fewer experiencing hypoxemia (P < 0.006). The impact was greater for non-surgery patients compared to surgery patients.

  1. The measurable cost of complications for outpatient cosmetic surgery in patients with mental health diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunishka M; Fox, Justin P; Johnson, R Michael

    2014-02-01

    Mental health conditions, including psychiatric and substance abuse diagnoses, have been associated with poor postoperative outcomes, but no studies have quantified the relationship to date. The authors examine the association between mental health conditions and immediate postoperative outcomes as defined by further hospital-based acute care within 30 days of surgery. California State Ambulatory Surgery, Inpatient, and Emergency Department Databases were used to identify all adult patients undergoing outpatient cosmetic plastic surgery between January 2007 and October 2011. Patients were subgrouped by the presence of mental health or substance abuse conditions. Primary outcome was the need for hospital-based acute care (admission or emergency department visit) within 30 days after surgery. Multivariable logistic regression models compared outcomes between groups. Of 116,597 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 3.9% and 1.4% had either a psychiatric or substance abuse diagnosis, respectively. Adjusting for medical comorbidities, patients with psychiatric disorders more frequently required hospital-based acute care within 30 days postoperatively than those without mental illness diagnoses (11.1% vs 3.6%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.78 [95% confidence interval, 1.59-1.99]). This was true both for hospital admissions (3.5% vs 1.1%; AOR, 1.61 [1.32-1.95]) and emergency department visits (8.8% vs 2.7%; AOR, 1.88 [1.66-2.14]). The most common acute diagnoses were surgical in nature, including postoperative infection, hemorrhage, and hematoma; the median hospital admission charge was $35 637. Similar findings were noted among patients with a substance abuse diagnosis. Mental health conditions are independently associated with the need for more frequent hospital-based acute care following surgery, thus contributing to added costs of care. A patient's mental health should be preoperatively assessed and appropriately addressed before proceeding with any elective procedure

  2. POLD1 Germline Mutations in Patients Initially Diagnosed with Werner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lessel, Davor; Hisama, Fuki M.; Szakszon, Katalin; Saha, Bidisha; Sanjuanelo, Alexander Barrios; Salbert, Bonnie A.; Steele, Pamela D.; Baldwin, Jennifer; Brown, W. Ted; Piussan, Charles; Plauchu, Henri; Szilvássy, Judit; Horkay, Edit; Hoögel, Josef; Martin, George M.; Herr, Alan J.; Oshima, Junko; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Segmental progeroid syndromes are rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by signs of premature aging affecting more than one tissue or organ. A prototypic example is the Werner syndrome (WS), caused by biallelic germline mutations in the Werner helicase gene (WRN). While heterozygous lamin A/C (LMNA) mutations are found in a few nonclassical cases of WS, another 10%–15% of patients initially diagnosed with WS do not have mutations in WRN or LMNA. Germline POLD1 mutations were recently reported in five patients with another segmental progeroid disorder: mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features syndrome. Here, we describe eight additional patients with heterozygous POLD1 mutations, thereby substantially expanding the characterization of this new example of segmental progeroid disorders. First, we identified POLD1 mutations in patients initially diagnosed with WS. Second, we describe POLD1 mutation carriers without clinically relevant hearing impairment or mandibular underdevelopment, both previously thought to represent obligate diagnostic features. These patients also exhibit a lower incidence of metabolic abnormalities and joint contractures. Third, we document postnatal short stature and premature greying/loss of hair in POLD1 mutation carriers. We conclude that POLD1 germline mutations can result in a variably expressed and probably underdiagnosed segmental progeroid syndrome. PMID:26172944

  3. Diagnoses during follow-up of patients presenting with fatigue in primary care.

    PubMed

    Nijrolder, Iris; van der Windt, Daniëlle; de Vries, Henk; van der Horst, Henriëtte

    2009-11-10

    Little is known about the distribution of diagnoses that account for fatigue in patients in primary care. We evaluated the diagnoses established within 1 year after presentation with fatigue in primary care that were possibly associated with the fatigue. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study with 1-year follow-up. We included adult patients who presented with a new episode of fatigue between June 2004 and January 2006. We extracted data on diagnoses during the follow-up period from the patients' medical records as well as data on pre-existing chronic diseases. Of the 571 patients for whom diagnostic data were available, 268 (46.9%) had received one or more diagnoses that could be associated with fatigue. The diagnoses were diverse and mostly included symptom diagnoses, with main categories being musculoskeletal (19.4%) and psychological problems (16.5%). Clear somatic pathology was diagnosed in 47 (8.2%) of the patients. Most diagnoses were not made during the consultation when fatigue was presented. Only a minority of patients were diagnosed with serious pathology. Half of the patients did not receive any diagnosis that could explain their fatigue. Nevertheless, because of the wide range of conditions and symptoms that may explain or co-occur with the fatigue, fatigue is a complex problem that deserves attention not only as a symptom of underlying specific disease.

  4. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis in patients diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a prospective case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morell, Ferran; Villar, Ana; Montero, María-Ángeles; Muñoz, Xavier; Colby, Thomas V; Pipvath, Sudhakar; Cruz, María-Jesús; Raghu, Ganesh

    2013-11-01

    The clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be indistinguishable; the need to eliminate occult environmental factors known to cause pulmonary fibrosis in patients suspected to have IPF during diagnostic evaluation is evident. We aimed to investigate occult, putative causes in the environments of patients diagnosed with IPF using tests beyond those conventionally used. In this case-cohort study, 60 consecutive patients diagnosed with IPF on the basis of the 2000 American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) criteria were prospectively followed up every 4 months for 6 years between Jan 1, 2004, and Dec 31, 2009. At each visit a uniformly applied questionnaire was administered to these 60 patients to identify occult antigen exposure known to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Patients underwent specific IgG determination, bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial challenge testing with suspected antigens, and re-review of histopathological features in existing and subsequently obtained surgical lung biopsy samples and from lung explants. Specimens obtained from suspected sources from the patient's environment were subjected to cultures in microbiology laboratory. These clinical data and discussions among pulmonologists and radiologists familiar with IPF were used to confirm the diagnosis in accordance with 2011 ATS, ERS, Japanese Respiratory Society, and Latin American Thoracic Association guidelines; 46 of the 60 patients had IPF according to the 2011 guidelines, and our analyses in this study were focused on these 46 patients. 20 of the 46 (43%, 95% CI 29-58) patients with IPF according to 2011 guidelines had a subsequent diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: nine patients had positive bronchial challenge testing (eight of whom were also IgG positive and six of these patients also had surgical lung biopsy showing a pattern consistent with chronic hypersensitivity

  5. Osteosarcopenic Obesity Syndrome: What Is It and How Can It Be Identified and Diagnosed?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conditions related to body composition and aging, such as osteopenic obesity, sarcopenia/sarcopenic obesity, and the newly termed osteosarcopenic obesity (triad of bone muscle and adipose tissue impairment), are beginning to gain recognition. However there is still a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria for these conditions. Little is known about the long-term impact of these combined conditions of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity in older adults. Many may go undiagnosed and progress untreated. Therefore, the objective of this research is to create diagnostic criteria for osteosarcopenic obesity in older women. The proposed diagnostic criteria are based on two types of assessments: physical, via body composition measurements, and functional, via physical performance measures. Body composition measurements such as T-scores for bone mineral density, appendicular lean mass for sarcopenia, and percent body fat could all be obtained via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical performance tests: handgrip strength, one-leg stance, walking speed, and sit-to-stand could be assessed with minimal equipment. A score could then be obtained to measure functional decline in the older adult. For diagnosing osteosarcopenic obesity and other conditions related to bone loss and muscle loss combined with obesity, a combination of measures may more adequately improve the assessment process. PMID:27667996

  6. The Effect of Race in Patients with Achalasia Diagnosed With High-Resolution Esophageal Manometry.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Victor; Rosenblatt, Elizabeth; Gandhi, Kunjal Komal; Dhalla, Sameer; Nandwani, Monica C; Stein, Ellen M; Clarke, John O

    2018-02-01

    The advent of the Chicago Classification for esophageal motility disorders allowed for clinically reproducible subgrouping of patients with achalasia based on manometric phenotype. However, there are limited data with regards to racial variation using high-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM). The aim of our study was to evaluate the racial differences in patients with achalasia diagnosed with HREM using the Chicago Classification. We evaluated the clinical presentation, treatment decisions and outcomes between blacks and non-blacks with achalasia to identify potential racial disparities. We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients referred for HREM at a single tertiary referral center from June 2008 through October 2012. All patients diagnosed with achalasia on HREM according to the Chicago Classification were included. Demographic, clinical and manometric data were abstracted. All studies interpreted before the Chicago Classification was in widespread use were reanalyzed. Race was defined as black or non-black. Patients who had missing data were excluded. Proportions were compared using chi-squared analysis and means were compared using the Student's t-test. A total of 1,268 patients underwent HREM during the study period, and 105 (8.3%) were manometrically diagnosed with achalasia (53% female, mean age: 53.8 ± 17.0 years) and also met the aforementioned inclusion and exclusion criteria. A higher percentage of women presented with achalasia in blacks as compared to whites or other races (P < 0.001). Non-blacks were more likely to present with reflux than blacks (P = 0.01), while blacks were more likely to be treated on the inpatient service than non-blacks (P < 0.001). There were no other significant differences noted in clinical presentation, treatment decisions and treatment outcomes among blacks and non-blacks. Our study highlights possible racial differences between blacks and non-blacks, including a higher proportion of black women

  7. Diagnosing observed characteristics of the wet season across Africa to identify deficiencies in climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, C.; Black, E.; Allan, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    The seasonality of rainfall over Africa plays a key role in determining socio-economic impacts for agricultural stakeholders, influences energy supply from hydropower, affects the length of the malaria transmission season and impacts surface water supplies. Hence, failure or delays of these rains can lead to significant socio-economic impacts. Diagnosing and interpreting interannual variability and long-term trends in seasonality, and analysing the physical driving mechanisms, requires a robust definition of African precipitation seasonality, applicable to both observational datasets and model simulations. Here we present a methodology for objectively determining the onset and cessation of multiple wet seasons across the whole of Africa. Compatibility with known physical drivers of African rainfall, consistency with indigenous methods, and generally strong agreement between satellite-based rainfall data sets confirm that the method is capturing the correct seasonal progression of African rainfall. Application of this method to observational datasets reveals that over East Africa cessation of the short rains is 5 days earlier in La Nina years, and the failure of the rains and subsequent humanitarian disaster is associated with shorter as well as weaker rainy seasons over this region. The method is used to examine the representation of the seasonality of African precipitation in CMIP5 model simulations. Overall, atmosphere-only and fully coupled CMIP5 historical simulations represent essential aspects of the seasonal cycle; patterns of seasonal progression of the rainy season are captured, for the most part mean model onset/ cessation dates agree with mean observational dates to within 18 days. However, unlike the atmosphere-only simulations, the coupled simulations do not capture the biannual regime over the southern West African coastline, linked to errors in Gulf of Guinea Sea Surface Temperature. Application to both observational and climate model datasets, and

  8. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Dynamometry is increasingly used as an objective measurement of muscle strength in neurological diseases. No study has applied dynamometry in untreated newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 21 MG patients before and after initial anti-myasthenic treatment. Isometric strength was compared with MG evaluation scales. Muscle strength was reduced for knee extensors and shoulder abductors but normal for ankle extensors. Isometric muscle strength did not correlate significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%; range -1.8-49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG evaluation scales. This supports the use of dynamometry in MG patients, especially for evaluation of the effect of anti-myasthenic treatment. Muscle Nerve 54: 709-714, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Antihypertensive medication prescription patterns and time trends for newly-diagnosed uncomplicated hypertension patients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pang-Hsiang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of existing prescription patterns in the treatment of newly-diagnosed hypertension can provide useful information for improving clinical practice in this field. The aims of this study are to determine the prescription patterns and time trends for antihypertensive medication in newly-diagnosed cases of uncomplicated hypertension in Taiwan and to compare these with current clinical guidelines. Methods A total of 6,536 newly-diagnosed patients with uncomplicated hypertension, aged ≥30 years, were identified from the representative 200,000-person sample in the computerized reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. These patients were followed from 1998 to 2004 with all diagnoses, prescription data and medication charges being retrieved for subsequent analysis. Results Prescription patterns varied by age, gender and clinical facilities, with mono-therapies being found to be dominant in the first year, albeit declining over time. Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers were the most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drugs, either alone or in combinations. Although least expensive, the prescription rates of diuretics were low, at 8.3% for mono-therapies and 19.9% overall. The prescription rate for angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) was elevated considerably over time. After controlling for other related factors by multiple logistic regression analysis, ARBs were found to be prescribed mainly by medical centers or regional hospitals. Conclusion These findings indicate the existence of a gap between current clinical practice and the desired goal of cost-effectiveness in antihypertensive treatment in Taiwan, which should be corrected. PMID:18559115

  10. Linagliptin plus metformin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and marked hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stuart A; Caballero, A Enrique; Del Prato, Stefano; Gallwitz, Baptist; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane; Bailes, Zelie; Thiemann, Sandra; Patel, Sanjay; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; von Eynatten, Maximilian

    2016-11-01

    Few studies of oral glucose-lowering drugs exist in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with marked hyperglycemia, and insulin is often proposed as initial treatment. We evaluated the oral initial combination of metformin and linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in this population. We performed a pre-specified subgroup analysis of a randomized study in which newly diagnosed T2D patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.5%-12.0% received linagliptin/metformin or linagliptin monotherapy. Subgroups of baseline HbA1c, age, body-mass index (BMI), renal function, race, and ethnicity were evaluated, with efficacy measured by HbA1c change from baseline after 24 weeks. HbA1c reductions from baseline (mean 9.7%) at week 24 in the overall population were an adjusted mean -2.81% ± 0.12% with linagliptin/metformin (n = 132) and -2.02% ± 0.13% with linagliptin (n = 113); treatment difference -0.79% (95% CI -1.13 to -0.46, P < 0.0001). In patients with baseline HbA1c ≥9.5%, HbA1c reduction was -3.37% with linagliptin/metformin (n = 76) and -2.53% with linagliptin (n = 61); difference -0.84% (95% CI -1.32 to -0.35). In those with baseline HbA1c <9.5%, HbA1c reduction was -2.08% with linagliptin/metformin (n = 56) and -1.39% with linagliptin (n = 52); difference -0.69% (95% CI -1.23 to -0.15). Changes in HbA1c and treatment differences between the linagliptin/metformin and linagliptin groups were of similar magnitudes to the overall population across patient subgroups based on age, BMI, renal function, and race. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 8.8% and 5.7% of linagliptin/metformin and linagliptin patients, respectively; no severe hypoglycemia occurred. Linagliptin/metformin combination in newly diagnosed T2D patients with marked hyperglycemia was well tolerated and elicited substantial improvements in glycemic control regardless of baseline HbA1c, age, BMI, renal function, or race. Thus, newly diagnosed, markedly

  11. Preoperative psychological distress, coping and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Predictive value of stroke discharge diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Register.

    PubMed

    Lühdorf, Pernille; Overvad, Kim; Schmidt, Erik B; Johnsen, Søren P; Bach, Flemming W

    2017-08-01

    To determine the positive predictive values for stroke discharge diagnoses, including subarachnoidal haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral infarction in the Danish National Patient Register. Participants in the Danish cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health with a stroke discharge diagnosis in the National Patient Register between 1993 and 2009 were identified and their medical records were retrieved for validation of the diagnoses. A total of 3326 records of possible cases of stroke were reviewed. The overall positive predictive value for stroke was 69.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 67.8-70.9%). The predictive values differed according to hospital characteristics, with the highest predictive value of 87.8% (95% CI 85.5-90.1%) found in departments of neurology and the lowest predictive value of 43.0% (95% CI 37.6-48.5%) found in outpatient clinics. The overall stroke diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Register had a limited predictive value. We therefore recommend the critical use of non-validated register data for research on stroke. The possibility of optimising the predictive values based on more advanced algorithms should be considered.

  13. Integrative analysis of multi-omics data for identifying multi-markers for diagnosing pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background microRNA (miRNA) expression plays an influential role in cancer classification and malignancy, and miRNAs are feasible as alternative diagnostic markers for pancreatic cancer, a highly aggressive neoplasm with silent early symptoms, high metastatic potential, and resistance to conventional therapies. Methods In this study, we evaluated the benefits of multi-omics data analysis by integrating miRNA and mRNA expression data in pancreatic cancer. Using support vector machine (SVM) modelling and leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV), we evaluated the diagnostic performance of single- or multi-markers based on miRNA and mRNA expression profiles from 104 PDAC tissues and 17 benign pancreatic tissues. For selecting even more reliable and robust markers, we performed validation by independent datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data depositories. For validation, miRNA activity was estimated by miRNA-target gene interaction and mRNA expression datasets in pancreatic cancer. Results Using a comprehensive identification approach, we successfully identified 705 multi-markers having powerful diagnostic performance for PDAC. In addition, these marker candidates annotated with cancer pathways using gene ontology analysis. Conclusions Our prediction models have strong potential for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26328610

  14. Identifying Medical Diagnoses and Treatable Diseases by Image-Based Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Kermany, Daniel S; Goldbaum, Michael; Cai, Wenjia; Valentim, Carolina C S; Liang, Huiying; Baxter, Sally L; McKeown, Alex; Yang, Ge; Wu, Xiaokang; Yan, Fangbing; Dong, Justin; Prasadha, Made K; Pei, Jacqueline; Ting, Magdalene Y L; Zhu, Jie; Li, Christina; Hewett, Sierra; Dong, Jason; Ziyar, Ian; Shi, Alexander; Zhang, Runze; Zheng, Lianghong; Hou, Rui; Shi, William; Fu, Xin; Duan, Yaou; Huu, Viet A N; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Edward D; Zhang, Charlotte L; Li, Oulan; Wang, Xiaobo; Singer, Michael A; Sun, Xiaodong; Xu, Jie; Tafreshi, Ali; Lewis, M Anthony; Xia, Huimin; Zhang, Kang

    2018-02-22

    The implementation of clinical-decision support algorithms for medical imaging faces challenges with reliability and interpretability. Here, we establish a diagnostic tool based on a deep-learning framework for the screening of patients with common treatable blinding retinal diseases. Our framework utilizes transfer learning, which trains a neural network with a fraction of the data of conventional approaches. Applying this approach to a dataset of optical coherence tomography images, we demonstrate performance comparable to that of human experts in classifying age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. We also provide a more transparent and interpretable diagnosis by highlighting the regions recognized by the neural network. We further demonstrate the general applicability of our AI system for diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia using chest X-ray images. This tool may ultimately aid in expediting the diagnosis and referral of these treatable conditions, thereby facilitating earlier treatment, resulting in improved clinical outcomes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting early cognitive decline in newly-diagnosed Parkinson's patients: A practical model.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Olivia; Fernandez, Hubert H; Floden, Darlene P

    2018-06-19

    To create a multivariable model to predict early cognitive decline among de novo patients with Parkinson's disease, using brief, inexpensive assessments that are easily incorporated into clinical flow. Data for 351 drug-naïve patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Baseline demographic, disease history, motor, and non-motor features were considered as candidate predictors. Best subsets selection was used to determine the multivariable baseline symptom profile that most accurately predicted individual cognitive decline within three years. Eleven per cent of the sample experienced cognitive decline. The final logistic regression model predicting decline included five baseline variables: verbal memory retention, right-sided bradykinesia, years of education, subjective report of cognitive impairment, and REM behavior disorder. Model discrimination was good (optimism-adjusted concordance index = .749). The associated nomogram provides a tool to determine individual patient risk of meaningful cognitive change in the early stages of the disease. Through the consideration of easily-implemented or routinely-gathered assessments, we have identified a multidimensional baseline profile and created a convenient, inexpensive tool to predict cognitive decline in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease. The use of this tool would generate prediction at the individual level, allowing clinicians to tailor medical management for each patient and identify at-risk patients for clinical trials aimed at disease modifying therapies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Randomized trial of proactive rapid genetic counseling versus usual care for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Marc D; Peshkin, Beth N; Isaacs, Claudine; Willey, Shawna; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Nusbaum, Rachel; Hooker, Gillian; O'Neill, Suzanne; Jandorf, Lina; Kelly, Scott P; Heinzmann, Jessica; Zidell, Aliza; Khoury, Katia

    2018-08-01

    Breast cancer patients who carry BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutations may consider bilateral mastectomy. Having bilateral mastectomy at the time of diagnosis not only reduces risk of a contralateral breast cancer, but can eliminate the need for radiation therapy and yield improved reconstruction options. However, most patients do not receive genetic counseling or testing at the time of their diagnosis. In this trial, we tested proactive rapid genetic counseling and testing (RGCT) in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in order to facilitate pre-surgical genetic counseling and testing. We recruited newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at increased risk for carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation. Of 379 eligible patients who completed a baseline survey, 330 agreed to randomization in a 2:1 ratio to RGCT (n = 220) versus UC (n = 108). Primary outcomes were genetic counseling and testing uptake and breast cancer surgical decisions. RGCT led to higher overall (83.8% vs. 54.6%; p < 0.0001) and pre-surgical (57.8% vs. 38.7%; p = 0.001) genetic counseling uptake compared to UC. Despite higher rates of genetic counseling, RGCT did not differ from UC in overall (54.1% vs. 49.1%, p > 0.10) or pre-surgical (30.6% vs. 27.4%, p > 0.10) receipt of genetic test results nor did they differ in uptake of bilateral mastectomy (26.6% vs. 21.8%, p > 0.10). Although RGCT yielded increased genetic counseling participation, this did not result in increased rates of pre-surgical genetic testing or impact surgical decisions. These data suggest that those patients most likely to opt for genetic testing at the time of diagnosis are being effectively identified by their surgeons.

  17. Developing a complex intervention for the outpatient management of incidentally diagnosed pulmonary embolism in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Palmer, June; Bozas, George; Stephens, Andrew; Johnson, Miriam; Avery, Ged; O'Toole, Lorcan; Maraveyas, Anthony

    2013-06-27

    Most patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) spend 5-7 days in hospital even though only 4.5% will develop serious complications during this time. In particular, the group of patients with incidentally diagnosed PE (i-PE) includes many patients with low risk features potentially ideal for outpatient management; however the evidence for their optimal management is lacking hence relative practices may vary considerably. We describe the development process, components, links and function of a nurse-led service for the management of patients with i-PE, developed in accordance to the UK Medical Research Council complex intervention guidance. Phase 0 (Theoretical underpinning): The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) was selected for patient risk assessment and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline for the management of PE in cancer patients (2007) was selected as quality measure. Historical registry and audit data from our centre regarding i-PE incidence and management for the period between 2006 and 2009 illustrating the then current practices were reviewed. Phase 1 (Modelling): Modelling of the pathway included the following: a) Identification of training needs, planning and implementation of training schemes and development of transferable competencies and training materials. b) Mapping patient pathways and flow and c) Production of key documentation and Standard Operating Procedures for the delivery of the service. Phase 2 (Implementation and testing of the intervention): During the initial 12 months of implementation, remedial action was taken to address identified deficiencies regarding patient referral to the pathway, compliance with treatment protocol, patient follow up, selection challenges from the use of PESI in cancer patients and challenges regarding the "first-pass" identification of i-PE. We have developed and piloted a complex intervention to manage cancer patients with incidental PE in an outpatient setting. Adherence to evidence

  18. Developing a complex intervention for the outpatient management of incidentally diagnosed pulmonary embolism in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) spend 5–7 days in hospital even though only 4.5% will develop serious complications during this time. In particular, the group of patients with incidentally diagnosed PE (i-PE) includes many patients with low risk features potentially ideal for outpatient management; however the evidence for their optimal management is lacking hence relative practices may vary considerably. We describe the development process, components, links and function of a nurse-led service for the management of patients with i-PE, developed in accordance to the UK Medical Research Council complex intervention guidance. Methods Phase 0 (Theoretical underpinning): The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) was selected for patient risk assessment and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline for the management of PE in cancer patients (2007) was selected as quality measure. Historical registry and audit data from our centre regarding i-PE incidence and management for the period between 2006 and 2009 illustrating the then current practices were reviewed. Phase 1 (Modelling): Modelling of the pathway included the following: a) Identification of training needs, planning and implementation of training schemes and development of transferable competencies and training materials. b) Mapping patient pathways and flow and c) Production of key documentation and Standard Operating Procedures for the delivery of the service. Results Phase 2 (Implementation and testing of the intervention): During the initial 12 months of implementation, remedial action was taken to address identified deficiencies regarding patient referral to the pathway, compliance with treatment protocol, patient follow up, selection challenges from the use of PESI in cancer patients and challenges regarding the “first-pass” identification of i-PE. Conclusion We have developed and piloted a complex intervention to manage cancer patients with incidental PE

  19. Nursing Diagnoses and Caring for Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Fran

    1990-01-01

    This continuing education article is designed to teach nurses to describe sickle cell anemia, identify complications, specify signs and symptoms, and describe nursing interventions. It concludes with a multiple-choice test. (SK)

  20. Randomized controlled trial of patient navigation for newly diagnosed cancer patients: effects on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hendren, Samantha; Griggs, Jennifer J; Epstein, Ronald; Humiston, Sharon; Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Winters, Paul; Sanders, Mechelle; Loader, Starlene; Fiscella, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    Patient navigation is a promising intervention to ameliorate cancer health disparities. This study objective was to measure patient navigation effects on cancer-specific quality of life (QOL) among patients with newly diagnosed cancer. A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation was conducted in Rochester, NY. Patients with breast cancer and colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to receive a patient navigation intervention or usual care. QOL was measured at baseline and four subsequent time points, using the validated Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-B, FACT-C) instruments. Among 319 randomized patients (165 patient navigation, 154 control), median age was 57 years and 32.5% were from minority race/ethnicity groups. Patient navigation and control groups were comparable on baseline factors, except home ownership versus renting (more home ownership among controls, P = 0.05) and race (more whites among controls, P = 0.05). Total and subscale FACT scores did not differ between groups when analyzed as a change from baseline to 3 months, or at various time points. The emotional well-being subscale change from baseline approached significance (better change among patient navigation group, P = 0.05). Time trends of QOL measures did not differ significantly between groups. Adjustment for baseline patient factors did not reveal a benefit of patient navigation on QOL. In this randomized trial of patient navigation, there was no statistically significant effect on disease-specific QOL. These results suggest that patient navigation may not affect QOL during cancer treatment, that social/medical support are adequate in this study's setting, or that the trial failed to target patients likely to experience QOL benefit from patient navigation. 2012 AACR

  1. Identifying individuals with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care electronic medical records: a retrospective chart abstraction study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theresa M; Tu, Karen; Wing, Laura L; Gershon, Andrea S

    2017-05-15

    Little is known about using electronic medical records to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to improve quality of care. Our objective was to develop electronic medical record algorithms that can accurately identify patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. A retrospective chart abstraction study was conducted on data from the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD ® ) housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Abstracted charts provided the reference standard based on available physician-diagnoses, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific medications, smoking history and pulmonary function testing. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease electronic medical record algorithms using combinations of terminology in the cumulative patient profile (CPP; problem list/past medical history), physician billing codes (chronic bronchitis/emphysema/other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and prescriptions, were tested against the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) were calculated. There were 364 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identified in a 5889 randomly sampled cohort aged ≥ 35 years (prevalence = 6.2%). The electronic medical record algorithm consisting of ≥ 3 physician billing codes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease per year; documentation in the CPP; tiotropium prescription; or ipratropium (or its formulations) prescription and a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease billing code had sensitivity of 76.9% (95% CI:72.2-81.2), specificity of 99.7% (99.5-99.8), PPV of 93.6% (90.3-96.1), and NPV of 98.5% (98.1-98.8). Electronic medical record algorithms can accurately identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care records. They can be used to enable further studies in practice patterns and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management in primary care. NOVEL

  2. Agreement between diagnoses reached by clinical examination and available reference standards: a prospective study of 216 patients with lumbopelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Laslett, Mark; McDonald, Barry; Tropp, Hans; Aprill, Charles N; Öberg, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    Background The tissue origin of low back pain (LBP) or referred lower extremity symptoms (LES) may be identified in about 70% of cases using advanced imaging, discography and facet or sacroiliac joint blocks. These techniques are invasive and availability varies. A clinical examination is non-invasive and widely available but its validity is questioned. Diagnostic studies usually examine single tests in relation to single reference standards, yet in clinical practice, clinicians use multiple tests and select from a range of possible diagnoses. There is a need for studies that evaluate the diagnostic performance of clinical diagnoses against available reference standards. Methods We compared blinded clinical diagnoses with diagnoses based on available reference standards for known causes of LBP or LES such as discography, facet, sacroiliac or hip joint blocks, epidurals injections, advanced imaging studies or any combination of these tests. A prospective, blinded validity design was employed. Physiotherapists examined consecutive patients with chronic lumbopelvic pain and/or referred LES scheduled to receive the reference standard examinations. When diagnoses were in complete agreement regardless of complexity, "exact" agreement was recorded. When the clinical diagnosis was included within the reference standard diagnoses, "clinical agreement" was recorded. The proportional chance criterion (PCC) statistic was used to estimate agreement on multiple diagnostic possibilities because it accounts for the prevalence of individual categories in the sample. The kappa statistic was used to estimate agreement on six pathoanatomic diagnoses. Results In a sample of chronic LBP patients (n = 216) with high levels of disability and distress, 67% received a patho-anatomic diagnosis based on available reference standards, and 10% had more than one tissue origin of pain identified. For 27 diagnostic categories and combinations, chance clinical agreement (PCC) was estimated at 13

  3. Inpatient hospital burden of hepatitis C-diagnosed patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Scott A; Innes, Hamish A; Aspinall, Esther J; Hayes, Peter C; Alavi, Maryam; Valerio, Heather; Goldberg, David J; Hutchinson, Sharon J

    2017-12-30

    To describe the burden on inpatient hospital resources over time from patients diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and who have reached the decompensated stage of cirrhosis (DC), as existing estimates of hospital stay in these patients are limited. A retrospective longitudinal dataset was formed via record-linkage between the national HCV diagnosis database and inpatient/daycase hospitalisation and death registers in Scotland. The study population consisted of HCV-diagnosed patients with a first DC admission in 1996-2013, with follow-up available until 31 May 2014. We investigated and quantified the mean cumulative length of hospital stay, distributions over discharge diagnosis categories, and trends in admission rates. Among our study population (n = 1543), we identified 10 179 admissions with any diagnosis post-first DC admission. Between 1996 and 2013 there was a 16-fold rise in annual total admissions (from 112 to 1791) and an 11-fold rise in hospital stay (719-8045). When restricting minimum possible follow-up to 2 years, DC patients (n = 1312) had an overall admission rate of 7.3 per person-year, and spent on average 43 days (26 days during first 6 months) in hospital; for all liver-related, liver-related other than HCC/DC, and non-liver related only admissions, this was 39, 14, and 5 days respectively. HCV-infected DC patients impose a considerable inpatient hospital burden, mostly from DC- and other liver-related admissions, but also from admissions associated with non-liver comorbidities. Estimates will be useful for monitoring the impact of prevention and treatment, and for computing the cost-effectiveness of new therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Primary aldosteronism among newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in a Swedish primary care area.

    PubMed

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Isaksson, Anders; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in primary care using the aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR), and to assess clinical and biochemical characteristics in patients with high and normal ARR. Patient survey study. A total of 200 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension from six primary health care centres in Sweden were included. ARR was calculated from serum aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations. The cut-off level for ARR was 65. Patients with an increased ARR were considered for confirmatory testing with the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), followed by adrenal computed tomographic radiology (CT) and adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Of 200 patients, 36 patients had an ARR > 65. Of these 36 patients, 11 patients had an incomplete aldosterone inhibition during FST. Three patients were diagnosed with an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and eight with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BHA). Except for moderately lower level of P-K in patients with an ARR > 65 and in patients with PA, there were no biochemical or clinical differences found among hypertensive patients with PA compared with patients without PA. Eleven of 200 evaluated patients (5.5%) were considered to have PA. The diagnosis of PA should therefore be considered in newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects and screening for the diagnosis is warranted.

  5. Primary aldosteronism among newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in a Swedish primary care area

    PubMed Central

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Isaksson, Anders; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in primary care using the aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR), and to assess clinical and biochemical characteristics in patients with high and normal ARR. Design Patient survey study. Setting and subjects A total of 200 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension from six primary health care centres in Sweden were included. Main outcome measures ARR was calculated from serum aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations. The cut-off level for ARR was 65. Patients with an increased ARR were considered for confirmatory testing with the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), followed by adrenal computed tomographic radiology (CT) and adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Results Of 200 patients, 36 patients had an ARR > 65. Of these 36 patients, 11 patients had an incomplete aldosterone inhibition during FST. Three patients were diagnosed with an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and eight with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BHA). Except for moderately lower level of P-K in patients with an ARR > 65 and in patients with PA, there were no biochemical or clinical differences found among hypertensive patients with PA compared with patients without PA. Conclusion Eleven of 200 evaluated patients (5.5%) were considered to have PA. The diagnosis of PA should therefore be considered in newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects and screening for the diagnosis is warranted. PMID:21323498

  6. Predictors of pain medication selection among patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Luke; Wu, Ning; Chen, Shih-Yin; Nagar, Saurabh; Fraser, Kimberly; Bernauer, Mark J; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Zhao, Yang

    2012-04-01

    Several pharmacologic therapies have been recommended for managing fibromyalgia. However, the factors associated with each treatment initiation have not been well established. This study assessed factors that were associated with the use of duloxetine vs. other pain medications among patients with fibromyalgia. Administrative claims from a large, U.S. commercially insured population were analyzed using a retrospective cohort design. Patients with fibromyalgia who were 18 to 64 years old and initiated duloxetine vs. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), venlafaxine, gabapentin, pregabalin, tramadol, or nontramadol opioids between January 1, 2007 and December 12, 2008 were selected. Treatment initiation was defined as no access to the same medication over the previous 90 days, with the most recent initiation date as the index date. All patients selected had at least one fibromyalgia diagnosis (ICD-9-CM: 729.1) in the 12 months prior to initiation of each study medication. Multiple logistic regression models were estimated to assess the predictors of initiating duloxetine vs. each of the other medications. The study included 117,305 patients with fibromyalgia (48 years of age on average; 76% women) who initiated duloxetine (n = 5,827), SSRIs (n = 8,620), TCAs (n = 5,424), venlafaxine (n = 2,038), gabapentin (n = 5,733), pregabalin (n = 11,152), tramadol (n = 7,312), or nontramadol opioids (n = 71,199). Common fibromyalgia-related comorbidities were low back pain (31% to 49%), osteoarthritis (14% to 21%), and sleep disturbance (10% to 15%). Controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics, patients who received pregabalin in the prior 12-month period were more likely to initiate duloxetine. Patients from other treatment cohorts, except for those in the pregabalin and nontramadol opioid cohorts, were more likely to re-initiate the same prior medication than to begin treatment with duloxetine. Other predictors of

  7. Comparison of Acarbose and Metformin on Albumin Excretion in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qingrong; Xu, Yuan; Yang, Ning; Gao, Xia; Liu, Jia; Yang, Wenying; Wang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Increased urinary albumin excretion in diabetes not only signals nephropathy but also serves as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. The data of MARCH (Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as the initial Hypoglycaemic treatment) trial demonstrated that acarbose and metformin were similarly efficacious at lowering blood glucose and blood pressure, as well as improving insulin sensitivity in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of acarbose and metformin therapy on albumin excretion in MARCH study. Baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) of 762 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was measured. Included patients were randomized to receive either acarbose or metformin and followed for 48 weeks. In addition to change in ACR, the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were also assessed. Elevated ACR levels (≥30 mg/g) were present at baseline in 21.9% of all participants. A significant decline in urine ACR was observed in both the acarbose and metformin groups at week 24 and 48 (all P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with elevated ACRs was also reduced in both treatment groups at week 24 and 48 compared with baseline values (all P < 0.05). The change in urine ACR at week 48 was significantly greater in patients prescribed acarbose than in those prescribed metformin (P = 0.01). Both acarbose and metformin significantly decreased the frequency of MetS at week 24 and 48 (both P < 0.05). Neither treatment affected eGFR. In sum, both acarbose and metformin decreased urine ACR levels and reduced the frequency of elevated ACR and MetS in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus without affecting eGFR. After 48 weeks’ intervention, acarbose therapy resulted in a greater reduction in urine ACR compared with metformin. PMID:27057866

  8. Factors associated with severe dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Castro, Mónica; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Andreu, Jose Luis; Martínez Taboada, Víctor; Olivé, Alejandro; Rosas, Jose

    2018-06-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands and other organs, resulting in dry eye, dry mouth and extraglandular systemic findings. To explore the association of severe or very severe dry eye with extraocular involvement in patients diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome. SJOGRENSER registry is a multicenter cross-sectional study of pSS patients. For the construction of our main variable, severe/very severe dry eye, we used those variables that represented a degree 3-4 of severity according to the 2007 Dry Eye Workshop classification. First, bivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the effect of each independent variable on severe/very severe dry eye. Secondly, multivariate analysis using regression model was used to establish the independent effect of patient characteristics. Four hundred and thirty-seven patients were included in SJOGRENSER registry; 94% of the patients complained of dry eye and 16% developed corneal ulcer. Schirmer's test was pathological in 92% of the patients; 378 patients presented severe/very severe dry eye. Inflammatory articular involvement was significantly more frequent in patients with severe/very severe dry eye than in those without severe/very severe dry eye (82.5 vs 69.5%, p = 0,028). Inflammatory joint involvement was associated with severe/very severe dry eye in the multivariate analysis, OR 2.079 (95% CI 1.096-3.941). Severe or very severe dry eye is associated with the presence of inflammatory joint involvement in patients with pSS. These results suggest that a directed anamnesis including systemic comorbidities, such as the presence of inflammatory joint involvement or dry mouth in patients with dry eye, would be useful to suspect a pSS.

  9. Hope, emotion regulation, and psychosocial well-being in patients newly diagnosed with cancer.

    PubMed

    Peh, Chao Xu; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-05-01

    Patients newly diagnosed with cancer are often confronted with feelings of uncertainty and life threat. A significant proportion may report impairments in psychosocial well-being. Previous studies examining protective psychological factors such as hope and emotion regulation (ER) have yet to investigate these processes concurrently within a common self-regulation framework and/or focus on newly diagnosed patients. The present study aimed to examine how hope and ER may relate to psychosocial outcomes of patients newly diagnosed with cancer. The present study used a cross-sectional design with self-report questionnaires. Participants were newly diagnosed patients (N = 101) recruited from three cancer therapy clinics in a hospital. Patients completed measures of hope, ER (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), and psychosocial well-being (life satisfaction and negative affectivity). Findings showed that (1) hope and reappraisal, but not suppression, were associated with well-being and (2) the interaction between hope and reappraisal was associated with well-being; reappraisal was not associated with well-being in high hope patients, while high reappraisal was associated with better well-being in low hope patients. Individual differences in hope and reappraisal appeared to be associated with psychosocial outcomes in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Hopeful thinking appeared to benefit patients' psychosocial well-being. In addition, an interaction effect between hope and reappraisal suggested that reappraisal as an ER strategy may be particularly adaptive for patients with low hope.

  10. Improving patient care. The cognitive psychology of missed diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Redelmeier, Donald A

    2005-01-18

    Cognitive psychology is the science that examines how people reason, formulate judgments, and make decisions. This case involves a patient given a diagnosis of pharyngitis, whose ultimate diagnosis of osteomyelitis was missed through a series of cognitive shortcuts. These errors include the availability heuristic (in which people judge likelihood by how easily examples spring to mind), the anchoring heuristic (in which people stick with initial impressions), framing effects (in which people make different decisions depending on how information is presented), blind obedience (in which people stop thinking when confronted with authority), and premature closure (in which several alternatives are not pursued). Rather than trying to completely eliminate cognitive shortcuts (which often serve clinicians well), becoming aware of common errors might lead to sustained improvement in patient care.

  11. Systematic Review of Decision Aids for Newly Diagnosed Patients with Prostate Cancer Making Treatment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Adsul, Prajakta; Wray, Ricardo; Spradling, Kyle; Darwish, Oussama; Weaver, Nancy; Siddiqui, Sameer

    2015-11-01

    Despite established evidence for using patient decision aids, use with newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer remains limited partly due to variability in aid characteristics. We systematically reviewed decision aids for newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer. Published peer reviewed journal articles, unpublished literature on the Internet and the Ottawa decision aids web repository were searched to identify decision aids designed for patients with prostate cancer facing treatment decisions. A total of 14 aids were included in study. Supplementary materials on aid development and published studies evaluating the aids were also included. We studied aids designed to help patients make specific choices among options and outcomes relevant to health status that were specific to prostate cancer treatment and in English only. Aids were reviewed for IPDAS (International Patient Decision Aid Standards) and additional standards deemed relevant to prostate cancer treatment decisions. They were also reviewed for novel criteria on the potential for implementation. Acceptable interrater reliability was achieved at Krippendorff α = 0.82. Eight of the 14 decision aids (57.1%) were developed in the United States, 6 (42.8%) were print based, 5 (35.7%) were web or print based and only 4 (28.5%) had been updated since 2013. Ten aids (71.4%) were targeted to prostate cancer stage. All discussed radiation and surgery, 10 (71.4%) discussed active surveillance and/or watchful waiting and 8 (57.1%) discussed hormonal therapy. Of the aids 64.2% presented balanced perspectives on treatment benefits and risks, and/or outcome probabilities associated with each option. Ten aids (71.4%) presented value clarification prompts for patients and steps to make treatment decisions. No aid was tested with physicians and only 4 (28.6%) were tested with patients. Nine aids (64.2%) provided details on data appraisal and 4 (28.6%) commented on the quality of evidence used. Seven of the 8

  12. Identifying organizational cultures that promote patient safety.

    PubMed

    Singer, Sara J; Falwell, Alyson; Gaba, David M; Meterko, Mark; Rosen, Amy; Hartmann, Christine W; Baker, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Safety climate refers to shared perceptions of what an organization is like with regard to safety, whereas safety culture refers to employees' fundamental ideology and orientation and explains why safety is pursued in the manner exhibited within a particular organization. Although research has sought to identify opportunities for improving safety outcomes by studying patterns of variation in safety climate, few empirical studies have examined the impact of organizational characteristics such as culture on hospital safety climate. This study explored how aspects of general organizational culture relate to hospital patient safety climate. In a stratified sample of 92 U.S. hospitals, we sampled 100% of senior managers and physicians and 10% of other hospital workers. The Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations and the Zammuto and Krakower organizational culture surveys measured safety climate and group, entrepreneurial, hierarchical, and production orientation of hospitals' culture, respectively. We administered safety climate surveys to 18,361 personnel and organizational culture surveys to a 5,894 random subsample between March 2004 and May 2005. Secondary data came from the 2004 American Hospital Association Annual Hospital Survey and Dun & Bradstreet. Hierarchical linear regressions assessed relationships between organizational culture and safety climate measures. Aspects of general organizational culture were strongly related to safety climate. A higher level of group culture correlated with a higher level of safety climate, but more hierarchical culture was associated with lower safety climate. Aspects of organizational culture accounted for more than threefold improvement in measures of model fit compared with models with controls alone. A mix of culture types, emphasizing group culture, seemed optimal for safety climate. Safety climate and organizational culture are positively related. Results support strategies that promote group orientation and

  13. Jejunal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy in patients with post-liver transplant portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bass, Lee M; Kim, Stanley; Superina, Riccardo; Mohammad, Saeed

    2017-02-01

    Portal hypertension secondary to portal vein obstruction following liver transplant occurs in 5%-10% of children. Jejunal varices are uncommon in this group. We present a case series of children with significant GI blood loss, negative upper endoscopy, and jejunal varices detected by CE. Case series of patients who had CE for chronic GI blood loss following liver transplantation. Three patients who had their initial transplants at a median age of 7 months were identified at our institution presenting at a median age of 8 years (range 7-16 years) with a median Hgb of 2.8 g/dL (range 1.8-6.8 g/dL). Upper endoscopy was negative for significant esophageal varices, gastric varices, and bleeding portal gastropathy in all three children. All three patients had significant jejunal varices noted on CE in mid-jejunum. Jejunal varices were described as large prominent bluish vessels underneath visualized mucosa, one with evidence of recent bleeding. The results led to venoplasty of the portal vein in two patients and a decompressive shunt in one patient with resolution of GI bleed and anemia. CE is useful to diagnose intestinal varices in children with portal hypertension and GI bleeding following liver transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Challenges in the management of patients with maple syrup urine disease diagnosed by newborn screening in a developing country.

    PubMed

    De Castro-Hamoy, Leniza G; Chiong, Mary Anne D; Estrada, Sylvia C; Cordero, Cynthia P

    2017-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. MSUD has been reported to be the most common inborn error of metabolism in the Philippines. We described all patients with maple syrup urine disease patients diagnosed through newborn screening during its first 2 years of implementation and the challenges encountered during their medical management. There were 24 patients diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease for the 2-year period. All patients needed hospital admission. The most common complication during hospital admission was infection, needing intravenous antibiotics which were given to 21 of the patients. Out of the 24 diagnosed, 16 patients are alive, while eight have died. Several neurologic and non-neurologic complications have been observed during the follow-up of the patients. The common challenges of MSUD management in a low-resource setting identified in this study were late diagnosis, lack of access to metabolic specialists and medical supplies, nosocomial septicemia, and protein deficiency. Aside from early properly timed collection, improvement in other logistical concerns will also help in earlier diagnosis. Mechanisms of transfer of critically ill patients must be improved. Hospitals in difficult-to-reach areas must be equipped to handle critical metabolic cases when transfers are not possible. Newborn screening has been proven to improve outcome in patients with MSUD but the success of the program in preventing disability is also dependent on improvements in other aspects of healthcare.

  15. Dually diagnosed patients' benefits of mutual-help groups and the role of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C; McKellar, John; Zemore, Sarah; Moos, Rudolf H

    2013-02-01

    There is debate about whether dually diagnosed patients benefit from mutual-help groups (MHGs), partly because social anxiety may make participation problematic. We examined dually diagnosed patients' participation in MHGs and outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months post-treatment, and the extent to which social anxiety was associated with participation. We also examined whether MHG participation and social anxiety were related to outcomes, and whether social anxiety moderated associations between participation and outcomes. We found high rates of MHG participation. Among patients who attended at least one meeting, outcomes were positive. Social anxiety was not associated with levels of MHG participation, but more participation was associated with better outcomes. When social anxiety moderated associations between MHG participation and outcomes, patients with more social anxiety benefited more from participation. Treated dually diagnosed patients participate in, and benefit from, MHGs, and participation and benefits are comparable, or even strengthened, among more socially-anxious patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. How are the ancient cystic fibrosis patients? Cystic fibrosis diagnosed over 60 years-old.

    PubMed

    Prados, C; Lerín, M; Cabanillas, J J; Gómez-Carrera, L; Álvarez-Sala, R

    2017-01-01

    To specify the prevalence of patients diagnosed with CF at age of ≥60 year-old and to analyze their characteristics. Observational study of CF patients which were diagnosed at age ≥60 year-old. The analyzed variables were: age, sex, nationality, lung function parameters, conditions present at diagnosis, microbiological characteristics and genetic findings. eight patients were included. 7 patients were female (87.5%) with a mean age of 70.6 years (median 71.5 years, range 60-78 years). The most important findings were: sweat test >60 mEq/l; heterozygotes F508del; bronchiectasis in CT; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (50%) in sputum. The most patients presented a normal or mild obstructive lung function. CF must also be considered a disease diagnosed in adulthood, incorporating the sweat test within the usual techniques of differential diagnosis in patients with different diseases associated with CF, because genetic counselling is esencial.

  17. An exploratory study of cognitive load in diagnosing patient conditions.

    PubMed

    Workman, Michael; Lesser, Michael F; Kim, Joonmin

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the ways in which information is presented to physicians will improve their ability to respond in a timely and accurate manner to acute care needs. The forms of the presentation compared traditional textual, chart and graph representations with equivalent symbolic language representations. To test this objective, our investigation involved two studies of interpreting patient conditions using two forms of information representation. The first assessed the level of cognitive effort (the outcome variable is known as cognitive load), and the second assessed the time and accuracy outcome variables. Our investigation consisted of two studies, the first study involved 3rd and 4th year medical students, and the second study involved three board certified physicians who worked in an intensive care unit of a metropolitan hospital. The first study utilized an all-within-subject design with repeated measures, where pretests were utilized as control covariate for prior learning and individual differences. The second study utilized a random sampling of records analyzed by two physicians and qualitatively evaluated by board-certified intensivists. The first study indicated that the cognitive load to interpret the symbolic representation was less than those presented in the more traditional textual, chart and graphic form. The second study suggests that experienced physicians may react in a more timely fashion with at least the same accuracy when the symbolic language was used than with traditional charts and graphs. The ways in which information is presented to physicians may affect the quality of acute care, such as in intensive, critical and emergency care units. When information can be presented in symbolic form, it may be cognitively processed more efficiently than when it is presented in the usual textual and chart form, potentially lowering errors in diagnosis and increasing the responsiveness to patient conditions.

  18. Determinants of sexual dysfunction among clinically diagnosed diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that can result in various medical, psychological and sexual dysfunctions (SD) if not properly managed. SD in men is a common under-appreciated complication of diabetes. This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of SD among diabetic patients in Tema, Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Method Sexual functioning was determined in 300 consecutive diabetic men (age range: 18-82 years) visiting the diabetic clinic of Tema General Hospital with the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaire, between November, 2010 and March, 2011. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the level of glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum testosterone were assessed. All the men had a steady heterosexual relationship for at least 2 years before enrolment in the study. Results Out the 300 participants contacted, the response rate was 91.3% after 20 declined participation and 6 incomplete data were excluded All the respondents had at least basic education, 97.4% were married, 65.3% were known hypertensive, 3.3% smoked cigarettes, 27% took alcoholic beverages and 32.8% did some form of exercise. The 69.3% SD rate observed in this study appears to be related to infrequency (79.2%), non-sensuality (74.5%), dissatisfaction with sexual acts (71.9%), non-communication (70.8%) and impotence (67.9%). Other areas of sexual function, including premature ejaculation (56.6%) and avoidance (42.7%) were also substantially affected. However, severe SD was seen in only 4.7% of the studied population. The perceived "adequate", "desirable", "too short" and "too long intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) are 5-10, 5-10, 1-2 and 15-30 minutes respectively. Testosterone correlates negatively with glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c), FBS, perceived desirable, too short IELT, and weight as well as waist circumference. Conclusion SD rate from this study is high but similar to

  19. Evolution of maple syrup urine disease in patients diagnosed by newborn screening versus late diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Couce, M L; Ramos, F; Bueno, M A; Díaz, J; Meavilla, S; Bóveda, M D; Fernández-Marmiesse, A; García-Cazorla, A

    2015-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder for which the newborn screening (NBS) is possible but it has not been yet implemented for most Spanish regions. In the present study, we assess the clinical features and outcome of 14 MSUD Spanish patients with similar treatment protocol diagnosed either by NBS or by clinical symptoms. Eight patients were detected by NBS, four classic and four moderate MSUD. The average age at detection was 4.6 days, the mean plasmatic concentration of leucine at diagnosis was 1807 μM; the average number of days with leucine >1000 μM was 0.7 (0-4) and the mean number of total hospitalizations was 1.6 (0-5). Mean follow-up time was 70 months. They had good evolution: all remain asymptomatic, but 2 patients have attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Six patients with late diagnosis of classic MSUD were followed during 41 months. All presented with acute encephalopathy during the first month of life, mean leucine levels of 2355 μM, mean number of days with leucine >1000 μM of 6.6 (1-13) and mean number of total hospitalizations of 5.3 (4-7). Only two patients have a psychomotor development index in the lower limit (80 and 83). For all patients a good genotype-phenotype correlation was found and four novel mutations were identified: p.A311H, p.T84S, p.T397L, pL398P. Our study support that NBS improves prognosis of MSUD patients. But early diagnosis and an aggressive treatment together with a close monitoring of leucine levels improve neurological evolution in MSUD patients, even for those not detected by NBS. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patient Portal Use and Blood Pressure Control in Newly Diagnosed Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Manard, William; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Salas, Joanne; Schneider, F David

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence that patient portal use improves disease management is inconclusive. Randomized controlled trials have found no benefit of Web-based patient-provider communication for blood pressure (BP) control, but patients from these studies were not selected for uncontrolled hypertension, nor did measures of portal use occur in a real-world setting, as captured in the electronic medical record. This study determined whether patient portal use by patients with treated, incident hypertension was associated with achieving BP control. Between 2008 to 2010, 1571 patients with an incident hypertension diagnosis, ages 21 to >89 years, were identified from an academic medical center primary care patient data registry. Cox proportional hazard models were computed to estimate the association between portal use and incident BP control during follow-up (2011-2015), before and after adjusting for covariates. Covariates included sociodemographics, smoking, obesity and other physical and mental health comorbidities, and volume of health care utilization. After adjusting for age, portal users were more likely than nonusers to achieve BP control (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45). After adjustment for sociodemographics, portal use was no longer associated with BP control (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16). Patient sociodemographic factors, including race, sex, and socioeconomic status, account for the observation that portal use leads to BP control among persons with newly diagnosed hypertension. Further research is warranted to determine whether there are benefits of portal use for other chronic conditions. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  1. Adherence to secondary antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with rheumatic heart disease diagnosed through screening in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Daniel; Mataika, Reapi L; Kado, Joseph H; Ah Kee, Maureen; Donath, Susan; Parks, Tom; Steer, Andrew C

    2016-12-01

    Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) can detect subclinical cases; however, adequate adherence to secondary antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is required to alter disease outcomes. We aimed to investigate the adherence to SAP among young people with RHD diagnosed through echocardiographic screening in Fiji and to investigate factors associated with adherence. Patients diagnosed with RHD through echocardiographic screening in Fiji from 2006 to 2014 were included. Dates of benzathine penicillin G injections were collected from 76 health clinics nationally from December 2011 to December 2014. Adherence was measured using the proportion of days covered (PDC). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify characteristics associated with any adherence (≥1 injection received) and adequate adherence (PDC ≥0.80). Of 494 patients, 268 (54%) were female and the median age was 14 years. Overall, 203 (41%) had no injections recorded and just 33 (7%) had adequate adherence. Multivariate logistic regression showed increasing age (OR 0.93 per year, 95% CI 0.87-0.99) and time since diagnosis ≥1.5 years (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37-0.79) to be inversely associated with any adherence. Non-iTaukei ethnicity (OR 2.58, 95%CI 1.04-6.33) and urban residence (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.54-7.36) were associated with adequate adherence, whereas time since diagnosis ≥1.5 years (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.17-0.83) was inversely associated with adequate adherence. Adherence to SAP after screening in Fiji is currently inadequate for individual patient protection or population disease control. Secondary prevention should be strengthened before further screening can be justified. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Psychotropic prescription patterns among patients diagnosed with depressive disorder based on claims database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yoshie; Hinotsu, Shiro; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Kawakami, Koji

    2013-08-01

    Clinical guidelines recommend monotherapy with antidepressants for the treatment of major depression. This study examined prescription patterns with regard to both duration and type of treatment used among patients with newly diagnosed non-psychotic major depression based on a claims database from health insurance societies between 2008 and 2011 in Japan. A retrospective cohort (N = 600,000) followed up for 4 years was used to identify patients (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed non-psychotic major depression. The prescription patterns and polypharmacy were examined. Four different types of pharmaceutical drugs were defined as possible psychotropic agents for major depression: (1) first- and/or second-generation antidepressants; (2) benzodiazepines; (3) sulpiride; and (4) antipsychotics. The data were analyzed by an intent-to-treat approach at months 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 from the date of diagnosis. A total of 7,338 patients (3,684 males and 3,654 females, mean age 36.8 ± 10.9 years) with newly diagnosed non-psychotic major depression were identified. The median duration of treatment was 122 days. The proportion of patients in the cohort prescribed at least one type of defined psychotropic agents was 75.6 % (month 0), 47.3 % (month 1), 36.0 % (month 3), 26.8 % (month 6), and 17.4 % (month 12). The proportion of patients in the cohort prescribed at least one first- and/or second-generation antidepressant was 50.2 % (month 0), 34.9 % (month 1), 27.5 % (month 3), 20.3 % (month 6), and 12.5 % (month 12). The proportion of patients receiving at least one benzodiazepine was 58.0 % (month 0), 36.7 % (month 1), 27.1 % (month 3), 20.0 % (month 6), and 12.0 % (month 12). The proportion of patients receiving an antidepressant as monotherapy was only 12.0 % (month 0), 7.8 % (month 1), 6.5 % (month 3), 4.8 % (month 6), and 2.9 % (month 12), whereas the proportion of patients treated with a benzodiazepine alone was 13.5 % (month 0), 6.9 % (month 1), 4.6 % (month 3), 3

  3. Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosing chronic Q fever in patients with central vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, J C J P; Wever, P C; Vlake, A W; Renders, N H M; van Petersen, A S; Hilbink, M; de Jager-Leclercq, M G L; Moll, F L; Koning, O H J; Hoekstra, C J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the value of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in diagnosing chronic Q fever in patients with central vascular disease and the added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnostic combination strategy as described in the Dutch consensus guideline for diagnosing chronic Q fever. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed in patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm or aorto-iliac reconstruction and chronic Q fever, diagnosed by serology and positive PCR for Coxiella burnetii DNA in blood and/or tissue (PCR-positive study group). Patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm or aorto-iliac reconstruction without clinical and serological findings indicating Q fever infection served as a control group. Patients with a serological profile of chronic Q fever and a negative PCR in blood were included in additional analyses (PCR-negative study group). Thirteen patients were evaluated in the PCR-positive study group and 22 patients in the control group. 18F-FDG PET/CT indicated vascular infection in 6/13 patients in the PCR-positive study group and 2/22 patients in the control group. 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated a sensitivity of 46% (95% CI: 23-71%), specificity of 91% (95% CI: 71-99%), positive predictive value of 75% (95% CI:41-93%) and negative predictive value of 74% (95% CI: 55-87%). In the PCR-negative study group, 18F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 10/20 patients (50%). The combination of 18F-FDG PET/CT, as an imaging tool for identifying a focus of infection, and Q fever serology is a valid diagnostic strategy for diagnosing chronic Q fever in patients with central vascular disease.

  4. Epidemiological Profile of Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Patients in Northern Paris: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Senard, Olivia; Burdet, Charles; Visseaux, Benoit; Charpentier, Charlotte; Le Gac, Sylvie; Julia, Zélie; Lariven, Sylvie; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Yeni, Patrick; Joly, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    In attempt to identify the factors associated with delayed diagnosis during HIV infection, we studied retrospectively the epidemiological profile of HIV-infected patients diagnosed between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 and followed in our clinical center in Paris. Data were compared to those obtained at the same site during the year 2003. One hundred eighty-six patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 49 (26%) had a CD4 count <200/mm 3 at diagnosis. Compared to subjects with CD4 count ≥200/mm 3 , advanced patients were older, had a higher plasma viral load, had more often an AIDS-defining event at the time of HIV diagnosis (45% vs. 3%), had been infected more often through heterosexual contact (69% vs. 44%), had less frequently past HIV testing (23% vs. 63%), and tended to live in less favorable conditions. A higher proportion of these patients initiated antiretroviral therapy in the 3 months following diagnosis (93.9% vs. 48.1%). Compared to data obtained in 161 patients in 2003, the proportions of advanced patients were similar between the two periods (26% vs. 22%). There was a significant increase from year 2003 to the 2012-2013 period in the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) (50% vs. 27%) and in the percentage of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B (48% vs. 27%) and with positive syphilis serology (22% vs. 8%). Our data show that (1) HIV screening should be extended to populations with the following characteristics: older age, heterosexuality, and low socioeconomic level, and (2) HIV transmission continues to progress in MSM, arguing for the value of preexposure prophylaxis.

  5. Delusional infestation is typically comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses: review of 54 patients receiving psychiatric evaluation at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hylwa, Sara A; Foster, Ashley A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Delusional infestation, which encompasses both delusions of parasitosis and delusions of infestation with inanimate objects (sometimes called Morgellons disease), has been said to represent a distinct and encapsulated delusion, that is, a stand-alone diagnosis. Anecdotally, we have observed that patients with delusional infestation often have one or more psychiatric comorbid conditions and that delusional infestation should not be regarded as a stand-alone diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patients with delusional infestation have psychiatric comorbid conditions. We therefore identified patients who had been formally evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry during their visit to Mayo Clinic. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed the cases of all patients with delusional infestation seen from 2001 through 2007 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and who underwent psychiatric evaluation. The diagnoses resulting from psychiatric evaluation were analyzed. During the 7-year study period, 109 patients seen for delusional infestation at Mayo Clinic were referred to the Department of Psychiatry, 54 (50%) of whom actually followed through with psychiatric consultation. Of these 54 patients, 40 (74%) received additional active psychiatric diagnoses; 14 patients (26%) had delusional infestation alone. Abnormal personality traits were rarely documented. Most patients with delusional infestation have multiple coexisting or underlying psychiatric disorders. Therefore, evaluation by a psychiatrist, when possible, is advised for all patients with delusional infestation. Copyright © 2012 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New medical diagnoses and length of stay of acutely unwell older patients: Implications for funding models.

    PubMed

    Basic, David; Khoo, Angela

    2015-09-01

    To examine the relationship between newly made medical diagnoses and length of stay (LOS) of acutely unwell older patients. Consecutive patients admitted under the care of four geriatricians were randomly allocated to a model development sample (n = 937) or a model validation sample (n = 855). Cox regression was used to model LOS. Variables considered for inclusion in the development model were established risk factors for LOS and univariate predictors from our dataset. Variables selected in the development sample were tested in the validation sample. A median of five new medical diagnoses were made during a median LOS of 10 days. New diagnoses predicted an increased LOS (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.88-0.92). Other significant predictors of increased LOS in both samples were malnutrition and frailty. Identification of new medical diagnoses may have implications for Diagnosis Related Groups-based funding models and may improve the care of older people. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  7. Lived Experience among Patients Newly Diagnosed with Lung Adenocarcinoma Stage IV within One Year.

    PubMed

    Shih, Whei-Mei Jean; Hsu, Hsiu-Chin; Jiang, Ru-Shang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    lung cancer (LC) is the fifth of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. LC is in first place for cancer-related mortality for both males and females in Taiwan. It is one of the most difficult cancers to treat and is often diagnosed at a late stage. Patients with stage IV are often unprepared for the diagnosis. To explore lived experience among patients newly diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma stage IV within one year. Twelve participants were recruited in this study. Content analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: (1) emotional roller coaster, (2) trying to find out causes, (3) adjusting my lifestyle, and (4) cancer fighter. This study provides new insight into the experiences of lung cancer patients y with newly diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma stage 4. These results will inform future supportive care service development and intervention research for patients with advanced stage cancer.

  8. Perspectives of newly diagnosed advanced cancer patients receiving dignity therapy during cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dose, Ann Marie; Rhudy, Lori M

    2018-01-01

    Dignity therapy is a psychosocial intervention that has been used primarily at the end of life to improve quality of life and other patient outcomes, but many individuals are unable to complete it due to health decline and death. The purpose of this study was to identify what individuals with advanced pancreatic or lung cancer with limited life expectancy, undergoing active cancer treatment describe during the dignity therapy intervention as important to them when not immediately facing end of life. Twenty patients undergoing chemotherapy for advanced cancer participated in a dignity therapy intervention study. Initial interviews were analyzed using descriptive content analysis. Family provided the overall context and background for emerging themes of defining events, accomplishments, and God's plan, which led to lessons learned, and resulted in messages of hope. Interviews were often autobiographical in nature and contained much reminiscence, consistent with dignity therapy's intent. Few participants spoke about their cancer diagnoses during the interview. This study adds unique insight into the use of dignity therapy for those still receiving active cancer treatment, different from work by others in which it was offered only at end of life. As part of supportive care, clinicians need to validate the importance of family to those with advanced cancer and to provide opportunities for patients to share what they have learned throughout life and to impart messages of hope to those closest to them.

  9. Characteristics and Outcome of Patients Diagnosed With HIV at Older Age.

    PubMed

    Asher, Ilan; Guri, Keren Mahlab; Elbirt, Daniel; Bezalel, Shira Rosenberg; Maldarelli, Frank; Mor, Orna; Grossman, Zehava; Sthoeger, Zev M

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the clinical, virological, and immunological status at presentation as well as the outcome of patients diagnosed with HIV above the age of 50. A retrospective study of 418 patients newly diagnosed with HIV in 1 Israeli center, between the years 2004 and 2013. Patients with new HIV diagnosis ≥ 50 years of age defined as "older' and < 50 defined as "younger.' Patients were evaluated every 1 to 3 months (mean follow-up 53 ± 33 months). Patients with < 2 CD4/viral-load measurements or with < 1 year of follow-up were excluded. Time of HIV infection was estimated by HIV sequence ambiguity assay. Ambiguity index ≤ 0.43 indicated recent (≤ 1 year) HIV infection. Eighty nine (21%) patients were diagnosed with HIV at an older age. Those older patients presented with significant lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral-load compared with the younger patients. At the end of the study, the older patients had higher mortality rate (21% vs 3.5%; P < 0.001) and lower CD4 cell counts (381 ± 228 vs 483 ± 26 cells/μL; P < 0.001) compared with the younger patients. This difference was also observed between older and younger patients with similar CD4 cell counts and viral load at the time of HIV diagnosis and among patients with a recent (≤ 1 year) HIV infection. One-fifth of HIV patients are diagnosed at older age (≥ 50 years). Those older patients have less favorable outcome compared with the younger patients. This point to the need of educational and screening programs within older populations and for a closer follow-up of older HIV patients.

  10. Characteristics and Outcome of Patients Diagnosed With HIV at Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Ilan; Guri, Keren Mahlab; Elbirt, Daniel; Bezalel, Shira Rosenberg; Maldarelli, Frank; Mor, Orna; Grossman, Zehava; Sthoeger, Zev M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To characterize the clinical, virological, and immunological status at presentation as well as the outcome of patients diagnosed with HIV above the age of 50. A retrospective study of 418 patients newly diagnosed with HIV in 1 Israeli center, between the years 2004 and 2013. Patients with new HIV diagnosis ≥50 years of age defined as “older" and <50 defined as “younger." Patients were evaluated every 1 to 3 months (mean follow-up 53 ± 33 months). Patients with <2 CD4/viral-load measurements or with <1 year of follow-up were excluded. Time of HIV infection was estimated by HIV sequence ambiguity assay. Ambiguity index ≤0.43 indicated recent (≤1 year) HIV infection. Eighty nine (21%) patients were diagnosed with HIV at an older age. Those older patients presented with significant lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral-load compared with the younger patients. At the end of the study, the older patients had higher mortality rate (21% vs 3.5%; P < 0.001) and lower CD4 cell counts (381 ± 228 vs 483 ± 261cells/μL; P < 0.001) compared with the younger patients. This difference was also observed between older and younger patients with similar CD4 cell counts and viral load at the time of HIV diagnosis and among patients with a recent (≤1 year) HIV infection. One-fifth of HIV patients are diagnosed at older age (≥50 years). Those older patients have less favorable outcome compared with the younger patients. This point to the need of educational and screening programs within older populations and for a closer follow-up of older HIV patients. PMID:26735534

  11. Time-to-Seizure Modeling of Lacosamide Used in Monotherapy in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lindauer, Andreas; Laveille, Christian; Stockis, Armel

    2017-11-01

    To quantify the relationship between exposure to lacosamide monotherapy and seizure probability, and to simulate the effect of changing the dose regimen. Structural time-to-event models for dropouts (not because of a lack of efficacy) and seizures were developed using data from 883 adult patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy and experiencing focal or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, participating in a trial (SP0993; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01243177) comparing the efficacy of lacosamide and carbamazepine controlled-release monotherapy. Lacosamide dropout and seizure models were used for simulating the effect of changing the initial target dose on seizure freedom. Repeated time-to-seizure data were described by a Weibull distribution with parameters estimated separately for the first and subsequent seizures. Daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve was related linearly to the log-hazard. Disease severity, expressed as the number of seizures during the 3 months before the trial (baseline), was a strong predictor of seizure probability: patients with 7-50 seizures at baseline had a 2.6-fold (90% confidence interval 2.01-3.31) higher risk of seizures compared with the reference two to six seizures. Simulations suggested that a 400-mg/day, rather than a 200-mg/day initial target dose for patients with seven or more seizures at baseline could potentially result in an additional 8% of seizure-free patients for 6 months at the last evaluated dose level. Patients receiving lacosamide had a slightly lower dropout risk compared with those receiving carbamazepine. Baseline disease severity was the most important predictor of seizure probability. Simulations suggest that an initial target dose >200 mg/day could potentially benefit patients with greater disease severity.

  12. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and syndromes in a large cohort of newly diagnosed, untreated patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Musicco, Massimo; Padovani, Alesandro; Rozzini, Luca; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Canonico, Vincenzo; Trequattrini, Alberto; Pettenati, Carla; Caltagirone, Carlo; Palmer, Katie

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Treatment for both AD and psychiatric disturbances may affect the clinical observed pattern and comorbidity. The authors aimed to identify whether particular neuropsychiatric syndromes occur in untreated patients with AD, establish the severity of syndromes, and investigate the relationship between specific neuropsychiatric syndromes and AD disease severity. Cross-sectional, multicenter, clinical study. A total of 1,015 newly diagnosed, untreated outpatients with AD from five Italian memory clinics were consecutively enrolled in the study from January 2003 to December 2005. All patients underwent thorough examination by clinical neurologists/geriatricians, including neuropsychiatric symptom evaluation with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Factor analysis revealed five distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes: the apathetic syndrome (as unique syndrome) was the most frequent, followed by affective syndrome (anxiety and depression), psychomotor (agitation, irritability, and aberrant motor behavior), psychotic (delusions and hallucinations), and manic (disinhibition and euphoria) syndromes. More than three quarters of patients with AD presented with one or more of the syndromes (N = 790, 77.8%), and more than half exhibited clinically significant severity of symptoms (N = 603, 59.4%). With the exception of the affective one, all syndromes showed an increased occurrence with increasing severity of dementia. The authors' study supports the use of a syndrome approach for neuropsychiatric evaluation in patients with AD. Individual neuropsychiatric symptoms can be reclassified into five distinct psychiatric syndromes. Clinicians should incorporate a thorough psychiatric and neurologic examination of patients with AD and consider therapeutic strategies that focus on psychiatric syndromes, rather than specific individual symptoms.

  13. Comparison between direct and indirect methods to diagnose malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk in haemodialisys patients.

    PubMed

    Balbino, K P; Epifânio, A P S; Ribeiro, S M R; da Silva, L D M; Gouvea, M G; Hermsdorff, H H M

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) by comparing nutritional risk scores with biochemical, anthropometric and body composition variables. Eighty-five individuals [65.9% male, mean (SD) age 62 (14) years] participated in a cross-sectional study. Global Objective Assessment (GOA) and Modified Global Subjective Assessment (mGSA) scores, as well as biochemical, anthropometric and body composition data, were collected using standardised procedures. The prevalence of malnutrition ranged from 20.0% (% body fat by electrical bioimpedance) to 95.3% (by GOA), depending on the indicator or score used. According to the waist circumference, 61.2% of the individuals presented abdominal obesity and visceral adipose tissue was excessive in 20% of them. Malnutrition diagnosis by GOA showed the relationship between the anthropometric and body composition indicators, as assessed by the extent that the ratings of risk nutritional/mild malnutrition and mainly moderate malnutrition were accompanied by a significant decrease in nutritional status and body composition variables. However, with respect to categories of mGSA, no statistically significant differences were observed for nutritional status and body composition variables. In the receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, mGSA and GOA were good indicators for diagnosing malnutrition because both achieved an AUC > 0.5. mGSA and GOA were more sensitive with respect to identifying individuals at nutritional risk compared to the isolated anthropometric indicators, thus indicating their utility in diagnostic malnutrition. However, individuals at high nutritional risk also presented cardiometabolic risk, as diagnosed mainly by central fat indicators, suggesting the application of both malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk markers in HD patients. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Impact of nonadherence on complication risks and healthcare costs in patients newly-diagnosed with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhisa; Mizobe, Miki

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between nonadherence to diabetes treatment and the occurrence of diabetes complications. Our study retrospectively identified adherence and nonadherence to diabetes treatment in patients during the first year of observation after new diagnoses of type 2 diabetes enrolled in commercial database from 52 health insurers in Japan. Participants were insurance enrollees with type 2 diabetes who received healthcare between 2005 and 2013, and who could be tracked for more than 12months from the initiation of diabetes treatment. We compared the occurrence of diabetes-related complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic arterial occlusion) and all-cause healthcare expenditure during the second to eighth years. We identified 1784 nonadherent patients and 9547 adherent patients. Cox proportional hazard models showed that the occurrence of microvascular complications was significantly higher in the nonadherent group: the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy were 2.04 (1.57-2.66), 1.91 (1.35-2.72), and 1.83 (1.02-3.27), respectively. However, no significant differences were observed between the adherent and nonadherent groups for the macrovascular complications (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic arterial occlusion). In addition, the nonadherent group had a significantly higher cumulative healthcare expenditure than the adherent group during the second-to-fifth-year period (p=0.029) and the second-to-sixth-year period (p=0.009) after treatment initiation. Nonadherence in the first year of diabetes may increase the incidence of complications and result in higher expenditures for patients and payers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Are housestaff identifying malnourished hospitalized medicine patients?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael A; Duerksen, Donald R; Rahman, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Clinical nutrition and nutritional assessment are often a neglected component of medical school curriculums despite the high prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study found that medical housestaff performed nutritional assessments in only 4% of admitted patients despite a high rate of malnutrition (57%). Survey results show housestaff lack knowledge in the area of malnutrition. Medical schools and training programs must place greater emphasis of providing qualified physician nutrition specialists to implement effective nutrition instruction.

  16. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies a homozygous nonsense mutation in ABHD12, the gene underlying PHARC, in a family clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, Tobias; Slim, Rima; Mansour, Ahmad; Nauck, Markus; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Decker, Christian; Dafinger, Claudia; Ebermann, Inga; Bergmann, Carsten; Bolz, Hanno Jörn

    2012-09-02

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3). Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract). After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis.

  17. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies a homozygous nonsense mutation in ABHD12, the gene underlying PHARC, in a family clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3). Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. Methods Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Results Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. Conclusion Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract). After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis. PMID:22938382

  18. Physical and emotional well-being and support in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patient-caregiver dyads.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Katherine R; Zapka, Jane; Armeson, Kent E; Shirai, Keisuke; Buchanan, Amy; Day, Terry A; Alberg, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physical and emotional well-being and social support in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer (HNC) patients and caregivers and identify sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors associated with compromised well-being in patients and caregivers. Newly diagnosed HNC patients and their primary caregivers (N = 72 dyads) completed questionnaires before treatment assessing physical and mental well-being, depression, cancer worry, and open-ended support questions. Patients reported worse physical well-being than caregivers (p < 0.05) but similar levels of mental well-being. Caregivers reported providing emotional and instrumental support most frequently with an emphasis on nutrition and assistance with speech, appearance, and addictions. Both patients and their caregivers reported suboptimal mental well-being and depression. Smoking was associated with compromised well-being in patients, caregivers, and dyads. Compromised well-being in patients and their caregivers was more likely when patients were younger, had worse symptoms, and smoked/consumed alcohol (p < 0.05). While patients face more physical strain than caregivers, both equally confront emotional challenges. Results highlight risk factors for compromised well-being in both patients and their caregivers that should be assessed at diagnosis to guide identification of needed dyadic-focused supportive care resources.

  19. Computed tomography diagnosed cachexia and sarcopenia in 725 oncology patients: is nutritional screening capturing hidden malnutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Ní Bhuachalla, Éadaoin B.; Daly, Louise E.; Power, Derek G.; Cushen, Samantha J.; MacEneaney, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Nutrition screening on admission to hospital is mandated in many countries, but to date, there is no consensus on which tool is optimal in the oncology setting. Wasting conditions such as cancer cachexia (CC) and sarcopenia are common in cancer patients and negatively impact on outcomes; however, they are often masked by excessive adiposity. This study aimed to inform the application of screening in cancer populations by investigating whether commonly used nutritional screening tools are adequately capturing nutritionally vulnerable patients, including those with abnormal body composition phenotypes (CC, sarcopenia, and myosteatosis). Methods A prospective study of ambulatory oncology outpatients presenting for chemotherapy was performed. A detailed survey incorporating clinical, nutritional, biochemical, and quality of life data was administered. Participants were screened for malnutrition using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI). Computed tomography (CT) assessment of body composition was performed to diagnose CC, sarcopenia, and myosteatosis according to consensus criteria. Results A total of 725 patients (60% male, median age 64 years) with solid tumours participated (45% metastatic disease). The majority were overweight/obese (57%). However, 67% were losing weight, and CT analysis revealed CC in 42%, sarcopenia in 41%, and myosteatosis in 46%. Among patients with CT‐identified CC, the MUST, MST, and NRI tools categorized 27%, 35%, and 7% of them as ‘low nutritional risk’, respectively. The percentage of patients with CT‐identified sarcopenia and myosteatosis that were categorised as ‘low nutritional risk’ by MUST, MST and NRI were 55%, 61%, and 14% and 52%, 50%, and 11%, respectively. Among these tools, the NRI was most sensitive, with scores <97.5 detecting 85.8%, 88.6%, and 92.9% of sarcopenia, myosteatosis, and CC cases, respectively

  20. [Prenatal cerebrovascular accidents diagnosed in the early infant stage: a series of 10 patients].

    PubMed

    Pina-Jover, María; Martinez-Del Villar, María; Lillo-Laguna, Lucía; Jadraque-Rodriguez, Rocío; Martinez-Pastor, Pedro; Jover-Cerda, Jenaro; Gomez-Gosalvez, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. A foetal or prenatal cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is defined as an ischaemic, thrombotic or arterial or venous haemorrhagic event that occurs between the 14th week of gestation and the onset of labour. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We report a retrospective study of a series of 10 patients suffering from a, presumably foetal, stroke that went unnoticed during the pregnancy and was diagnosed in the early infant stage. The symptoms and the age at which they were identified are highlighted. RESULTS. None of the 10 patients studied presented any relevant events in the mothers' medical history, but there were four threats of a preterm birth that were solved using the usual means and without the occurrence of any alterations that later affected the foetus. The studies that led to the diagnosis were carried out between the sixth and ninth months of life, and the reason for visiting was reported by the family as being a lower degree of mobility on one side of the body with respect to the other. Two patients presented thrombophilia. With a mean follow-up time of six years, all the patients have an associated infantile cerebral palsy, a third of them have epilepsy and 75% have learning difficulties or intellectual disability. CONCLUSIONS. When CVA are not detected in the prenatal period, it is important in primary care to look for and detect the warning signs of the psychomotor development of the infant at an early stage in order to begin a study of the case and to undertake rehabilitation as early as possible.

  1. Psychiatric diagnoses and psychoactive medication use among nonsurgical critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Hannah; Christiansen, Christian F; Johansen, Martin B; Olsen, Morten; Ali, Naeem; Angus, Derek C; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-03-19

    The relationship between critical illness and psychiatric illness is unclear. To assess psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. Population-based cohort study in Denmark of critically ill patients in 2006-2008 with follow-up through 2009, and 2 matched comparison cohorts from hospitalized patients and from the general population. Critical illness defined as intensive care unit admission with mechanical ventilation. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) of psychiatrist-diagnosed psychiatric illnesses and prescriptions for psychoactive medications in the 5 years before critical illness. For patients with no psychiatric history, quarterly cumulative incidence (risk) and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for diagnoses and medications in the following year, using Cox regression. Among 24,179 critically ill patients, 6.2% had 1 or more psychiatric diagnoses in the prior 5 years vs 5.4% for hospitalized patients (adjusted PR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.22-1.42; P<.001) and 2.4% for the general population (adjusted PR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.41-2.73; P<.001). Five-year preadmission psychoactive prescription rates were similar to hospitalized patients: 48.7% vs 48.8% (adjusted PR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99; P<.001) but were higher than the general population (33.2%; adjusted PR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.38-1.42; P<.001). Among the 9912 critical illness survivors with no psychiatric history, the absolute risk of new psychiatric diagnoses was low but higher than hospitalized patients: 0.5% vs 0.2% over the first 3 months (adjusted HR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.96-5.99; P <.001), and the general population cohort (0.02%; adjusted HR, 21.77; 95% CI, 9.23-51.36; P<.001). Risk of new psychoactive medication prescriptions was also increased in the first 3 months: 12.7% vs 5.0% for the hospital cohort (adjusted HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 2.19-2.74; P<.001) and 0.7% for the general population (adjusted HR, 21.09; 95% CI, 17.92-24.82; P<.001). These differences had largely resolved by 9 to 12

  2. Identifying and Coordinating Care for Complex Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Robert S.; Gidengil, Courtney A.; Predmore, Zachary; Schneider, Eric C.; Sorace, James; Hornstein, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, a relatively small proportion of complex patients---defined as having multiple comorbidities, high risk for poor outcomes, and high cost---incur most of the nation's health care costs. Improved care coordination and management of complex patients could reduce costs while increasing quality of care. However, care coordination efforts face multiple challenges, such as segmenting populations of complex patients to better match their needs with the design of specific interventions, understanding how to reduce spending, and integrating care coordination programs into providers' care delivery processes. Innovative uses of analytics and health information technology (HIT) may address these challenges. Rudin and colleagues at RAND completed a literature review and held discussions with subject matter experts, reaching the conclusion that analytics and HIT are being used in innovative ways to coordinate care for complex patients but that the capabilities are limited, evidence of their effectiveness is lacking, and challenges are substantial, and important foundational work is still needed. PMID:28845354

  3. The pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma in the patients diagnosed with breast cancer from Balochistan.

    PubMed

    Baloch, A H; Khosa, A N; Bangulzai, N; Sadia, H; Ahmed, M; Khan, F; Jan, M; Tareen, M; Kakar, M H; Shuja, J; Naseeb, H K; Ahmad, J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common type of breast cancer accounting for 5%-15% of all the breast cancer cases. The present study was performed on 171 breast cancer patients from Balochistan registered in CENAR (Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy), Quetta. Written consent was obtained from the patients. The history of the disease was taken from the patients, and the patients' enrollment files were retrieved. Of the 171 patients, 5 (2.96%) were diagnosed with ILC with tumor Grade II, and stage of the cancer reported was Grade III in all the 5 patients affected with ILC. ILC is the second most common type of breast cancer diagnosed with comparatively lower grade but almost reported infiltrating.

  4. Evaluation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in newly diagnosed patients receiving borte- zomib-based therapy for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Jing; Xia, Jun; Cheng, Feng; Mao, Jingjue; Zhu, Jianwei; Guo, Hongfeng

    2018-01-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at diagnosis has been identified as an independent prognostic marker in several malignancies. Recently, a few studies have reported that an elevated pretreatment NLR is associated with poor survival among multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, the role of NLR at diagnosis in patients with MM treated with regimens containing bortezomib has been less explored. We aimed to investigate the relationships between NLR and overall survival (OS) in newly diagnosed patients receiving bortezomib-based therapy for MM. A total of 76 newly diagnosed patients with MM treated with bortezomib-based regimes were analyzed retrospectively. NLR was calculated from whole blood counts prior to therapy and subsequently correlated with OS. Complete remission (CR) was seen in 39.2% of patients with NLR < 2.95 compared to 20% in the group with NLR ⩾ 2.95 (P= 0.094). NLR was lower in CR patients in comparison to Non-CR subjects (P= 0.044). Patients with a NLR ⩾ 2.95 experienced inferior median survival compared to those with NLR < 2.95 (4-year OS rates were 30.9% and 64.8%, respectively, P= 0.029). In multivariate analysis, only elevated LDH and IgA MM were factors predicting inferior OS. Elevated NLR was associated with poor OS in MM patients receiving induction therapy with bortezomib-based regimens, but it was not an independent prognostic factor in this patient cohort.

  5. Characterization of the Humoral Immune Response against Gnathostoma binucleatum in Patients Clinically Diagnosed with Gnathostomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano-Zaragoza, José Francisco; Durán-Avelar, Ma de Jesús; Messina-Robles, Maud; Vibanco-Pérez, Norberto

    2012-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is an emerging systemic parasitic disease acquired by consuming raw or uncooked fresh-water fish infected with the advanced third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp. This disease is endemic to the Pacific region of Mexico, and one of its etiologic agents has been identified as Gnathostoma binucleatum. We characterized the humoral immune response of patients clinically diagnosed with gnathostomiasis by detecting total IgM, IgE, and IgG class and subclasses against a crude extract of the parasite by Western blotting. Our results do not show differences in the antigens recognized by IgM and IgE. However, we found that the specific humoral immune response is caused mainly by IgG, specifically IgG4. We found that 43%, 65.2%, 54.1%, and 26.3% of the patients recognize the 37-kD, 33-kD, 31-kD, and 24-kDa antigens, suggesting that the 33-kD antigen is the immunodominant antigen of G. binucleatum. PMID:22665606

  6. Iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with newly diagnosed high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kraal, Kathelijne Cjm; van Dalen, Elvira C; Tytgat, Godelieve Am; Van Eck-Smit, Berthe Lf

    2017-04-21

    Patients with newly diagnosed high-risk (HR) neuroblastoma (NBL) still have a poor outcome, despite multi-modality intensive therapy. This poor outcome necessitates the search for new therapies, such as treatment with 131 I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-MIBG). To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of 131 I-MIBG therapy in patients with newly diagnosed HR NBL. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (PubMed) (1945 to 25 April 2016) and Embase (Ovid) (1980 to 25 April 2016). In addition, we handsearched reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. We also assessed the conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology, Advances in Neuroblastoma Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology; all from 2010 up to and including 2015. We scanned the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register (www.isrctn.com) and the National Institutes of Health Register for ongoing trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 13 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), non-randomised single-arm trials with historical controls and cohort studies examining the efficacy of 131 I-MIBG therapy in 10 or more patients with newly diagnosed HR NBL. Two review authors independently performed the study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We identified two eligible cohort studies including 60 children with newly diagnosed HR NBL. All studies had methodological limitations, with regard to both internal (risk of bias) and external validity. As the studies were not comparable with regard to prognostic factors and treatment (and often used different outcome definitions), pooling of results was not possible. In one study, the objective response rate (ORR) was 73% after surgery; the median overall survival was 15 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 7 to 23

  7. MGMT inactivation and clinical response in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Rachel; Burger, Peter; Soudry, Ethan; Tyler, Betty; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon; Olivi, Alessandro; Gallia, Gary L; Sidransky, David; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ye, Xiaobu; Brem, Henry

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status and clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who were treated with Gliadel wafers (Eisai, Tokyo, Japan). MGMT promoter methylation has been associated with increased survival among patients with GBM who are treated with various alkylating agents. MGMT promoter methylation, in DNA from 122 of 160 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, was determined by a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The MGMT promoter was methylated in 40 (32.7%) of 122 patients. The median OS was 13.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0-14.5) and RFS was 9.4 months (95% CI 7.8-10.2). After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance score, extent of resection, temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), the newly diagnosed GBM patients with MGMT methylation had a 15% reduced mortality risk, compared to patients with unmethylated MGMT (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.56-1.31; p=0.46). The patients aged over 70 years with MGMT methylation had a significantly longer median OS of 13.5 months, compared to 7.6 months in patients with unmethylated MGMT (p=0.027). A significant difference was also found in older patients, with a median RFS of 13.1 versus 7.6 months for methylated and unmethylated MGMT groups, respectively (p=0.01). Methylation of the MGMT promoter in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, RT and TMZ, was associated with significantly improved OS compared to the unmethylated population. In elderly patients, methylation of the MGMT promoter was associated with significantly better OS and RFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physician reasons for nonpharmacologic treatment of hyperglycemia in older patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Marrett, Elizabeth; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Kanitscheider, Claudia; Davies, Michael J; Radican, Larry; Feinglos, Mark N

    2012-11-01

    To identify reasons why primary care physicians (PCPs) do not treat older patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with antihyperglycemic agents following diagnosis. US PCPs were surveyed via the internet regarding their reasons for not treating patients aged >65 years diagnosed with T2DM and had not yet initiated antihyperglycemic therapy for ≥6 months after diagnosis. PCPs were requested to provide relevant clinical information for untreated older patients and select applicable reasons for not initiating treatment from a list of 35 possibilities, grouped into five categories. A total of 508 PCPs completed the online survey and provided complete clinical data for 770 patients. The reasons provided by the first-ranked physician for not initiating antihyperglycemic therapy were related to diet and exercise (57.5%); mild hyperglycemia (23.8%); patient's concerns (13.4%); concerns about antihyperglycemic agents (3.0%); and comorbidities and polypharmacy (2.3%). The "diet and exercise" category was the most common first-ranked non-treatment reason, regardless of recent hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) stratum. Reasons within the "patient's concerns," "concerns related to antihyperglycemic agents," and "comorbidities and polypharmacy" categories tended to be selected more often as first-ranked reasons by physicians for patients with higher HbA(1c) values. Of the 158 patients whose physicians planned to initiate antihyperglycemic therapy within the next month, 54.4% already had a most recent HbA(1c) value above their physician-stated threshold for treatment initiation. In the PCPs studied, there was a tendency to select appropriate reasons for non-treatment with antihyperglycemic agents given their patients' glycemic status. However, there was inertia related to the initiation of pharmacological therapy in some older patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. Important factors included physicians' perceptions of "mild" hyperglycemia and the HbA(1c) threshold

  9. Comparison of diabetes patients with “demyelinating” diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy to those diagnosed with CIDP

    PubMed Central

    Dunnigan, Samantha K; Ebadi, Hamid; Breiner, Ari; Katzberg, Hans D; Lovblom, Leif E; Perkins, Bruce A; Bril, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously identified a subset of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) patients with probable demyelination related to poor glycemic control. We aimed to determine whether the clinical characteristics and electrodiagnostic classification of nerve injury in diabetes patients with “demyelinating” DSP (D-DSP) differed from those diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) (CIDP + diabetes mellitus [DM]). Methods D-DSP (56) and CIDP + DM (67) subjects underwent clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCS), and were compared using analysis of variance, contingency tables, and Kruskal–Wallis analyses. Results Of the 123 subjects with a mean age of 60.5 ± 15.6 years and mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 8.2 ± 2.2%, 54% had CIDP + DM and 46% had D-DSP. CIDP + DM subjects were older (P = 0.0003), had shorter duration of diabetes (P = 0.005), and more severe neuropathy as indicated by Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (TCNS) (P = 0.003), deep tendon reflexes (P = 0.02), and vibration perception thresholds (VPT) (P = 0.01, P = 0.02). The mean HbA1c value for D-DSP subjects (8.9 ± 2.3%) was higher than in CIDP + DM subjects (7.7 ± 2.0%, P = 0.02). Conclusions The clinical phenotype and electrophysiological profile of CIDP + DM patients is marked by more severe neuropathy and better glycemic control than in patients with D-DSP. These findings indicate that these two conditions – despite similarities in their electrophysiological pattern of demyelination – likely differ in etiology. PMID:24363969

  10. Identifying Deteriorating Patients Through Multidisciplinary Team Training.

    PubMed

    Merriel, Abi; van der Nelson, Helen; Merriel, Sam; Bennett, Joanne; Donald, Fiona; Draycott, Timothy; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2016-11-01

    Multidisciplinary training has improved maternity outcomes when the training has been well attended, regular, in house, used high-fidelity simulators, and integrated teamwork training. If these principles were used in other settings, better clinical care may result. This before-after study sought to establish whether a short multidisciplinary training intervention can improve recognition of the deteriorating patient using an aggregated physiological parameter scoring system (Early Warning Score [EWS]). Nursing, medical, and allied nursing staff participated in an hour-long training session, using real-life scenarios with simple tools and structured debriefing. After training, staff were more likely to calculate EWS scores correctly (68.02% vs 55.12%; risk ratio [RR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.44), and observations were more likely to be performed at the correct frequency (78.57% vs 68.09%; RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.09-1.32). Multidisciplinary training, according to core principles, can lead to more accurate identification of deteriorating patients, with implications for subsequent care and outcome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Association of plasma homovanillic acid with behavioral symptoms in patients diagnosed with dementia: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Sweet, R A; Pollock, B G; Mulsant, B H; Rosen, J; Lo, K H; Yao, J K; Henteleff, R A; Mazumdar, S

    1997-12-01

    Neuroleptic treatment of psychotic symptoms or agitated behavior in elderly patients diagnosed with dementia is associated with reduced efficacy and increased rates of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism in comparison to younger patients with schizophrenia. We report the first study to examine the relationship between an in vivo measure of dopaminergic function, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), and ratings of psychosis, agitation, and parkinsonism before and after neuroleptic treatment in dementia patients. Pretreatment pHVA was significantly correlated with parkinsonian rigidity, with a trend observed with agitation and hostility. Though mean pHVA did not change during perphenazine treatment, intraindividual change in pHVA at day 15 was correlated with improvement in hostility, with a similar trend for improvement in agitation. These preliminary findings are consistent with reports associating dopaminergic function with agitated, but not psychotic, symptoms in patients diagnosed with dementia, and with a reduced responsivity of dopaminergic systems to neuroleptic treatment in these patients.

  12. Accuracy of the hypospadias diagnoses and surgical treatment registrations in the Danish National Patient Register

    PubMed Central

    Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard; Jønsson, Anne Aggerholm; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn; Thorup, Jorgen; Olsen, L Henning; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Danish National Health registers provide a valuable data source that offers unique opportunities for observational research, including studies on the congenital anomaly hypospadias. The accuracy of the diagnosis and surgical treatment registration of hypospadias in the Danish National Patient Register (DNPR) remains unknown. Patients and methods We randomly sampled 500 patients diagnosed with hypospadias in the DNPR from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2012. Among these, 384 patients were also registered with surgical treatment for hypospadias. Medical records were collected and reviewed independently by two investigators. Any classification disagreements were resolved by consensus. Using the medical records as the gold standard, we estimated positive predictive values (PPVs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the hypospadias diagnoses and surgical treatment registrations overall, as well as for the clinical subtypes. Results We were able to retrieve medical records for 463 (92.6%) patients with hypospadias diagnoses and for 329 (85.7%) patients registered with surgical treatment. Presence of hypospadias was confirmed in 450 of 463 patients, yielding an overall PPV (95% CI) of 97.6% (95.8%–98.7%). For subtypes of hypospadias, the PPVs ranged between 37.5% and 72.7%. For surgical treatment of hypospadias, the overall PPV was 99.7% (97.9%–99.9%). Conclusion The validity of the registration of hypospadias diagnoses as well as surgical treatment for hypospadias in the DNPR is overall very high. For the specific subtypes of hypospadias diagnoses codes and the specific surgical treatment codes, the PPVs are lower and cautious use is warranted. However, the DNPR remains a valuable tool for future observational research on hypospadias. PMID:29042817

  13. Association Between Nursing Diagnoses and Socioeconomic/Clinical Characteristics of Patients on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Cecília Maria Farias de Queiroz; de Sá, Jéssica Dantas; de Paiva, Maria das Graças Mariano Nunes; Lira, Ana Luisa Brandão de Carvalho; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Enders, Bertha Cruz

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the association between nursing diagnoses and socioeconomic/clinical characteristics of patients on hemodialysis. Cross-sectional study conducted by means of interview and physical examination of 178 patients consecutively selected. Nursing diagnoses within the NANDA-I domains of health promotion, nutrition, activity/rest, perception/cognition, sexuality, safety/protection, and comfort presented statistically significant association with the socioeconomic/clinical data of age, education, sex, marital status, and duration of the chronic renal disease and hemodialysis. The nursing diagnoses in this population may be influenced by the socioeconomic/clinical data. The results suggest an opportunity for improved nursing intervention in this community. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  14. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Tobias; Baldessarini, Ross J; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Information on basic demographic and clinical characteristics of schizoaffective disorder is sparse and subject to sampling bias and low diagnostic reliability. In the present study we aimed to: (i) estimate the demographic and clinical descriptors in schizoaffective disorder patients and (ii) compare the findings with those with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To minimize sampling bias and low reliability, we systematically reviewed studies that simultaneously compared schizoaffective, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder patients. We estimated demographic, clinical, and psychometric characteristics based on weighted pooling, and compared disorders by meta-analysis. We also estimated whether schizoaffective disorder is closer to schizophrenia or to bipolar disorder. We identified 50 studies that included 18312 patients. Most characteristics of the 2684 schizoaffective disorder patients fell between those of 4814 diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 10814 with schizophrenia. However, the schizoaffective group had the highest proportion of women (52%), had the youngest age at illness onset (23.3 ± 3.8 years), and had the highest standardized ratings of psychosis and depression. Differences in pooled parameters between schizoaffective versus schizophrenia and versus bipolar disorder subjects were similar. Values for patients with schizoaffective disorders mostly were intermediate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the majority of studies showed schizoaffective patients to be more like schizophrenia than bipolar disorder patients in seven out of nine demographic and clinical categories as well as in five out of eight psychometric measures. These results remained similar when we restricted the analyses to studies with psychotic bipolar disorder patients only or to studies using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IIIR and DSM-IV only. The present study provided estimates of important characteristics of schizoaffective

  15. Drug treatment in patients with newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures/epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Linnéa; Wettermark, Björn; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze drug treatment in patients with newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures/epilepsy in a population-based cohort in Stockholm, Sweden. Clinical data from the Stockholm Incidence Registry of Epilepsy was cross-linked with drug dispensing data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register to analyze drug treatment in patients diagnosed with unprovoked seizures between 2006 and 2008. Specific questions addressed were the use of other medications at seizures onset, the proportion of patients initiated on different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) within one year after inclusion, and the extent of switching between different AEDs during the first year. In total 367 patients were included. More than 50% had other medications prescribed at date of first seizure. All together, 262 patients received an AED within one year and 257 patients (98%) were initiated on monotherapy. One year after first prescription, 147 patients (56%) remained on the initially prescribed AED and 48 patients (18%) had switched to another AED. Among the remaining patients, 29 (11%) had died and 38 patients (15%) had discontinued AED treatment. A majority of all patients with epilepsy receive treatment within one year. Many patients use other medications and several of them are related to known comorbidities and can also be involved in drug-drug interactions. Nevertheless, most patients remained on the same AED at the end of the first year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel GATA3 nonsense mutation in a newly diagnosed adult patient of hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nanba, Kazutaka; Usui, Takeshi; Nakamura, Michikazu; Toyota, Yuko; Hirota, Keisho; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Nakao, Kanako; Yuno, Akiko; Tagami, Tetsuya; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Shimatsu, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a GATA3 gene mutation. Here we report a novel mutation of GATA3 in a patient diagnosed with HDR syndrome at the age of 58 with extensive intracranial calcification. A 58-year-old Japanese man showed severe hypocalcemia and marked calcification in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, deep white matter, and gray-white junction on computed tomography (CT). The serum intact parathyroid hormone level was relatively low against low serum calcium concentration. The patient had been diagnosed with bilateral sensorineural deafness in childhood and had a family history of hearing disorders. Imaging studies revealed no renal anomalies. The patient was diagnosed with HDR syndrome, and genetic testing was performed. Genetic analysis of GATA3 showed a novel nonsense mutation at codon 198 (S198X) in exon 3. The S198X mutation leads to a loss of two zinc finger deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding domains and is considered to be responsible for HDR syndrome. We identified a novel nonsense mutation of GATA3 in an adult patient with HDR syndrome who showed extensive intracranial calcification.

  17. Characteristics of newly diagnosed COPD patients treated with triple inhaled therapy by general practitioners: a real world Italian study.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Santus, Pierachille; Terraneo, Silvia; Peruzzi, Elena; Muscianisi, Elisa; Ripellino, Claudio; Pegoraro, Valeria

    2017-09-07

    Factors predicting prescriptions of triple therapy were investigated in a large group of general practitioners in Italy. In the population treated by identified general practitioners, a cohort of newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was extracted from IMS Health Longitudinal Database during the period 2010-2013. From the diagnosis, 1-year follow-up was evaluated. Thirty-two thousand forty-six newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were evaluated (57.7% male, mean age 67 years). During 2 years prior to diagnosis less than 13% of patients were requested with a pulmonology evaluation and less than 5% with a spirometry; 65.1% cases were prescribed with a respiratory drug, which in 9.6% of cases was inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β 2 -agonist fixed-dose combination. Two thousand and twenty eight patients (6.3% of the newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients) were treated with triple therapy during the first year of follow-up, whose 858 (42.3%) starting immediately, and 762 (37.6%) following an initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β 2 -agonist fixed-dose combination. Being older, being requested with pulmonologist evaluation or spirometry, being prescribed with a inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β 2 -agonist fixed-dose combination at diagnosis resulted independent predictors of triple therapy use. ENSURING CORRECT PRESCRIPTIONS FOR EARLY-STAGE DISEASE: An improved education program for doctors promoting correct use of medication for chronic lung disease is needed in Italy. Current guidelines state that inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) should be reserved for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it appears that doctors do not always follow this advice. Fabiano Di Marco, at San Paolo Hospital-Università degli Studi di Milano, and co-workers analyzed data from 32,046 COPD patients newly-diagnosed by family doctors in Italy between 2010 and

  18. High Rate of Alternative Diagnoses in Patients Referred for Presumed Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melissa; Olefson, Sidney; Machan, Jason T.; Kelly, Colleen R.

    2015-01-01

    Goals We evaluated a cohort of patients referred to our center for presumed recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) to determine final diagnoses and outcomes. Background As rates of CDI have increased, more patients are diagnosed with recurrent CDI and other sequelae of the infection. Distinguishing symptomatic patients with CDI from those who are colonized with an alternative etiology of diarrheal symptoms may be challenging. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 117 patients referred to our center for recurrent CDI between January 2013 and June 2014. Data collected included demographics, referring provider, previous anti-CDI treatment, and significant medical conditions. Additionally we gathered data on atypical features of CDI and investigations obtained to investigate etiology of symptoms. Outcomes included rates of alternative diagnoses and the accuracy of CDI diagnosis by referral source. Results The mean age was 61 years and 70% were female. 29 patients (25%) were determined to have a non-CDI diagnosis. Most common alternative diagnoses included irritable bowel syndrome (18 patients: 62%) and inflammatory bowel disease (3:10 %). Age was inversely correlated with rate of non-CDI diagnosis (p=0.016). Of the remaining 88 (75%) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CDI, 25 (28%) received medical therapy alone and 63 (72%) underwent fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Conclusion Among patients referred to our center for recurrent CDI, a considerable percentage did not have CDI, but rather an alternative diagnosis, most commonly IBS. The rate of alternative diagnosis correlated inversely with age. Providers should consider other etiologies of diarrhea in patients presenting with features atypical of recurrent CDI. PMID:26565971

  19. A phase 1 trial of ABT-510 concurrent with standard chemoradiation for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Nabors, Louis B; Fiveash, John B; Markert, James M; Kekan, Manasi S; Gillespie, George Y; Huang, Zhi; Johnson, Martin J; Meleth, Sreelatha; Kuo, Huichien; Gladson, Candece L; Fathallah-Shaykh, Hassan M

    2010-03-01

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose of ABT-510, a thrombospondin-1 mimetic drug with antiangiogenic properties, when used concurrently with temozolomide and radiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Phase 1 dose-escalation clinical trial. Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients A total of 23 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically verified glioblastoma enrolled between April 2005 and January 2007. Four cohorts of 3 patients each received subcutaneous ABT-510 injection at doses of 20, 50, 100, or 200 mg/d. The maximum cohort was expanded to 14 patients to obtain additional safety and gene expression data. The treatment plan included 10 weeks of induction phase (temozolomide and radiotherapy with ABT-510 for 6 weeks plus ABT-510 monotherapy for 4 weeks) followed by a maintenance phase of ABT-510 and monthly temozolomide. Patients were monitored with brain magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory testing for dose-limiting toxicities, defined as grades 3 or 4 nonhematological toxicities and grade 4 hematological toxicities. Therapy was discontinued if 14 maintenance cycles were completed, disease progression occurred, or if the patient requested withdrawal. Disease progression, survival statistics, and gene expression arrays were analyzed. There were no grade 3 or 4 dose-limiting toxicity events that appeared related to ABT-510 for the dose range of 20 to 200 mg/d. A maximum tolerated dose was not defined. Most adverse events were mild, and injection-site reactions. The median time to tumor progression was 45.9 weeks, and the median overall survival time was 64.4 weeks. Gene expression analysis using TaqMan low-density arrays identified angiogenic genes that were differentially expressed in the brains of controls compared with patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, and identified FGF-1 and TIE-1 as being downregulated in patients who had better clinical outcomes. ABT-510, at subcutaneous doses up to

  20. Nursing diagnoses in patients having mechanical ventilation support in a respiratory intensive care unit in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Şebnem Çinar; Eşer, Ismet; Güler, Elem Kocaçal; Khorshid, Leyla

    2011-10-01

    This research was carried out to find out the nursing diagnoses in patients who have mechanical ventilation support in a respiratory intensive care unit. The study was conducted with 51 evaluations of critically ill adult patients who underwent invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation therapy in 2008. Data collection was based on Gordon's 11 Functional Health Patterns, and nursing diagnoses were determined according to North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International (NANDA-I) Taxonomy II. The nursing diagnoses were determined by two researchers separately. The consistency between the nursing diagnoses defined by the two researchers was evaluated by using Cohen's kappa (κ). Forty men (78.4%) and 11 women (21.6%) whose mean ages were 70.19 (SD = 8.96) years were included in the study. Nineteen subgroups of nursing diagnoses about safety/protection domain, and 15 subgroups about activity/rest domain were seen at different rates in the patients. There was a statistically significant difference between mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy or endotracheal tube and decreased cardiac output (d.f. = 1, χ(2) = 4.760, P = 0.029). The relationship between the length of time under mechanical ventilation and impaired physical mobility was considerably significant (d.f. = 3, χ(2) = 24.459, P = 0.000). It was found out that there was a high degree of agreement (96.8%) between the nursing diagnoses defined by the two researchers separately (κ = 0.936, SE = 0.08). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Obstetric outcomes of recurrent pregnancy loss patients diagnosed wıth inherited thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, C; Yoldemir, T; Karadağ, S D; İnan, C; Dolgun, Z N; Aslanova, L

    2017-08-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined by two or more failed pregnancies. The relation between RPL and inherited thrombophilia requires anticoagulant therapy during pregnancy. However the obstetric outcomes have not been well defined in these RPL patients diagnosed with inherited thrombophilia, who have been given anticoagulant therapy. To investigate the obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with RPL who are given low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and low-dose aspirin due to diagnosis of inherited thrombophilia. A hundred and eight RPL women were diagnosed with inherited thrombophilia, and 98 women were diagnosed with unexplained RPL. The patients with inherited thrombophilia were given LMWH and low-dose aspirin. Unexplained RPL patients were not given any medicine. The obstetric outcomes of participants were noted. In thrombophilic group, the live-birth levels were significantly higher [90 (83%) vs 67 (68%) p < 0.05], and the miscarriage levels were significantly lower than that in the control group [14 (13%) vs 27 (28%) p < 0.01]. The number of patients with preeclampsia was significantly higher in the thrombophilic group [16 (15%) vs 6 (6%) p < 0.05]. The number of preterm births was significantly higher than that of the controls [25 (23%) vs 10 (10%) p < 0.05]. The median gestation age of delivery was 35 weeks for thrombophilic patients and 38 weeks for controls (p < 0.05). The RPL patients diagnosed with inherited thrombophilia and who were given LMWH with low-dose aspirin had higher live-birth rates and lower miscarriage rates than those in the unexplained RPL patients. Increased risk of preeclampsia is seen in RPL patients with inherited thrombophilia despite thrombophilia prophylaxis.

  2. High prevalence of cachexia in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dijkstra, Gerard; Bijzet, Johan; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2017-03-01

    In patients with cancer, weight loss can be related to simple starvation, disturbed metabolism, or both. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), weight loss often is attributed to simple starvation because the obvious oral symptoms are known to hinder dietary intake. In this population, cachexia remains a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of cachexia and precachexia in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed HNC were asked to participate in the prospective cohort study, from which only baseline data were used in the analyses. Measurements were performed 1 wk before cancer treatment, that is, cachexia status by Fearon's cancer-specific framework, dietary intake, muscle mass, muscle strength, and biochemical markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, hemoglobin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were assessed. Data of 26 patients were included in the analyses (59% participation rate). Forty-two percent of the patients (n = 12) were classified as cachectic and 15% (n = 4) as precachectic. Muscle mass depletion was significantly more frequent in cachectic patients (67%) than in noncachectic patients (14%; P = 0.014). No differences in inflammatory markers were observed between cachectic and noncachectic patients. This exploratory study suggested a high prevalence of cachexia (42%) in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Although a large study is needed to further elucidate the role of cachexia in patients with HNC, the data presented here suggest that cachexia is a common problem in this patient population, which has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PET/CT in a Patient Diagnosed With Dandy-Walker Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jose R; Garcia, Lucia; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Moreno, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare congenital posterior fossa malformation characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and enlargement of the posterior fossa. We present a 52-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor and submitted to 18F-FDG PET/CT as a staging procedure. The patient was previously diagnosed with DWS in brain CT scan. PET/CT images revealed an ametabolic large cyst in the posterior fossa and hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis. The case is presented with the aim to show the appearance of this syndrome on PET/CT study.

  4. Frequency of temporomandibular disorders diagnoses based on RDC/TMD in a Polish patient population.

    PubMed

    Osiewicz, Magdalena A; Lobbezoo, Frank; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Loster, Jolanta E; Manfredini, Daniele

    2017-08-09

    To assess the frequency and age distribution of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses among Polish patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred sixty-three (n = 163) consecutive adult patients seeking TMD treatment were assessed based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) guidelines. Descriptive statistics on the frequency of diagnoses and mean age of the diagnostic groups was performed. Frequency of muscle disorders, disc displacements, and other joint disorders was 56.9, 48.9, and 31%, respectively. Disc displacement was the most common diagnosis in younger patients. Severe somatization and depression were shown in 11.9 and 15.8% of patients, respectively. Only 10.5% of the patients showed severe pain-related impairment. Females tended to have higher psychosocial scores than males. The frequency of Axis I TMD diagnoses in Polish patients is similar to other populations, whereas Axis II findings slightly differ from previous reports from other countries.

  5. Psychiatric diagnoses, medication and risk for disability pension in multiple sclerosis patients; a population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Philip; Alexanderson, Kristina; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Hillert, Jan; Jokinen, Jussi; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Tinghög, Petter

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is common among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The majority of MS patients of working ages are on disability pension. The aims of this study were to chart the prevalences of psychiatric diagnoses and medications among MS patients of working ages, and to investigate their association with the risk for future disability pension. This nationwide, population-based prospective cohort study includes 10,750 MS patients and 5,553,141 non-MS individuals who in 2005 were aged 17-64 years. Psychiatric diagnoses and medications were identified using nationwide registers. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated adjusting for socio-demographics. Furthermore, a survival analysis with five-year follow-up was performed among the 4,571 MS patients not on disability pension in 2005, with psychiatric diagnoses and medication as risk factors, and disability pension as the outcome. Among MS patients, 35% had been prescribed psychiatric medication compared to 10% of non-MS individuals, adjusted OR 3.72 (95% CI 3.57 to 3.88). Ten percent of MS patients had received a psychiatric diagnosis, compared to 5.7% of non-MS individuals, OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.94). Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), were the most commonly prescribed drugs (17%) among MS patients, while depression (4.8%) was the most common psychiatric diagnosis. In the survival analysis, MS patients with any psychiatric diagnosis had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.83 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.18) for disability pension compared to other MS patients. MS patients with any psychiatric drug prescription had a HR for disability pension of 2.09 (95% CI 1.84 to 2.33). Psychiatric diagnoses and medications are common among MS patients and adversely affect risk for disability pension. This highlights the importance of correct diagnosis and management of psychiatric comorbidity, in a clinical as well as in a societal perspective.

  6. A systematic review of clinical outcomes for patients diagnosed with skin cancer spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Sankey, Eric W; Liu, Ann; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Lo, Sheng-Fu L; Fisher, Charles G; Clarke, Michelle J; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Surgical procedures and/or adjuvant therapies are effective modalities for the treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. However, clinical results specific to the skin cancer spinal metastasis cohort are generally lacking. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for treatments, clinical outcomes, and survival following the diagnosis of a skin cancer spinal metastasis and evaluate prognostic factors in the context of spinal skin cancer metastases stratified by tumor subtype. METHODS The authors performed a literature review using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science to identify articles since 1950 that reported survival, clinical outcomes, and/or prognostic factors for the skin cancer patient population with spinal metastases. The methodological quality of reviews was assessed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) tool. RESULTS Sixty-five studies met the preset criteria and were included in the analysis. Of these studies, a total of 25, 40, 25, and 12 studies included patients who underwent some form of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or observation alone, respectively. Sixty-three of the 65 included studies were retrospective in nature (Class of Evidence [CoE] IV), and the 2 prospective studies were CoE II. Based on the studies analyzed, the median overall survival for a patient with a spinal metastasis from a primary skin malignancy is 4.0 months; survival by tumor subtype is 12.5 months for patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 4.0 months for those with melanoma, 4.0 months for those with squamous cell carcinoma, 3.0 months for those with pilomatrix carcinoma, and 1.5 months for those with Merkel cell carcinoma (p < 0.0001). The overall percentage of known continued disease progression after spine metastasis diagnosis was 40.1% (n = 244/608, range 25.0%-88.9%), the rate of known recurrence of the primary skin cancer lesion was 3.5% (n = 21/608, range 0

  7. Hyperthyrotropinemia in newly diagnosed cystic fibrosis patients with pancreatic insufficiency reversed by enzyme therapy.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Aris; Katelaris, Anni; Noni, Maria; Karakonstantakis, Theodore; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Doudounakis, Stavros

    2018-05-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) commonly present with an elevated TSH concentration, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism. Its relation to concomitant pancreatic insufficiency and its natural course upon initiation of enzyme replacement have not been adequately studied. Herein, we investigated the thyroid function in newly diagnosed infants with CF and monitored the course of thyroid function response to pancreatic enzyme substitution treatment. Fourteen, newly diagnosed infants with CF and pancreatic insufficiency, were followed every 6-8 weeks for 6 months ensuing onset of pancreatic enzyme substitution therapy. All infants had normal TSH values on neonatal screening. Ten out of 14 (71%) had hyperthyrotropinemia and normal freeT4 values at presentation. No patient received thyroxine. Upon follow-up, after 6 months, TSH values normalized in 90% of infants with CF and hyperthyrotropinemia. Serum selenium levels were negatively correlated with TSH levels. Mild TSH elevation is a frequent finding in newly diagnosed cystic fibrosis patients with pancreatic insufficiency during infancy. TSH elevation resolves in most cases after initiation of enzyme substitution and improvement of nutritional status without any substitutive therapy with thyroxine. What is Known: • Newly diagnosed infants with cystic fibrosis often present with a state of hyperthyrotropinemia suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism. What is New: • Pancreatic enzyme substitution and improvement of nutrition restores normal TSH levels without the need of thyroxine therapy.

  8. The Influence of Race on Overall Survival in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    DeDeugd, Casey; Miyake, Makito; Palacios, Diego Aguilar; Rosser, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have reported significant lower incidence yet greater risk of death from bladder cancer (BCa) in African-Americans compared with Caucasians. In this study, the overall survival amongst African-Americans and Caucasians with BCa within the state of Florida is evaluated. The Florida Cancer Data System and the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration data sets were linked on the basis of unique identifiers, which identified 28,786 patients (27,811 Caucasian and 975 African-Americans) with newly diagnosed BCa from January 1994-December 2009. Data in the database included race/ethnicity, age, smoking history, insurance status, treatment, tumor grade, tumor stage, and overall survival. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare variables between African-Americans and Caucasians. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method while univariate effects were tested by the log-rank test, and multivariate effects were tested by Cox proportional-hazard regression model. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Higher clinical stage bladder tumors including T3/4 disease (14.5 % vs. 8.0 %, p < 0.001), lymph node involvement (7.3 % vs. 3.4 %, p < 0.001), and metastatic disease (5.3 % vs. 1.7 %, p < 0.001), as well as higher grade disease (60.2 % vs. 48 %, p < 0.001) were more commonly reported in African-Americans than in Caucasians with newly diagnosed BCa. African-Americans tended to be treated with more aggressive therapies (e.g., radical cystectomy). After adjusting for all covariates, African-Americans actually had more favorable outcomes as related to overall survival (HR = 0.35, 95 % CI, 0.12-0.98, p = 0.045). Though African-Americans initially present with more aggressive BCa, African-Americans actually have an improved overall survival compared with Caucasians. Though contrary to previous reports, our results may signify a more complex relationship between race and BCa outcomes

  9. Co-morbidity and clinically significant interactions between antiepileptic drugs and other drugs in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Emmi; Virta, Lauri J; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Keränen, Tapani

    2017-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the frequency of potential pharmacokinetic drug-to-drug interactions in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We also investigated co-morbid conditions associated with epilepsy. From the register of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) we identified community-dwelling patients aged 65 or above with newly diagnosed epilepsy and in whom use of the first individual antiepileptic drug (AED) began in 2000-2013 (n=529). Furthermore, register data of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used for assessing potential interactions in a nationwide cohort of elderly subjects with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We extracted all patients aged 65 or above who had received special reimbursement for the cost of AEDs prescribed on account of epilepsy in 2012 where their first AED was recorded in 2011-2012 as monotherapy (n=1081). Clinically relevant drug interactions (of class C or D) at the time of starting of the first AED, as assessed via the SFINX-PHARAO database, were analysed. Hypertension (67%), dyslipidemia (45%), and ischaemic stroke (32%) were the most common co-morbid conditions in the hospital cohort of patients. In these patients, excessive polypharmacy (more than 10 concomitant drugs) was identified in 27% of cases. Of the patients started on carbamazepine, 52 subjects (32%) had one class-C or class-D drug interaction and 51 (31%) had two or more C- or D-class interactions. Only 2% of the subjects started on valproate exhibited a class-C interaction. None of the subjects using oxcarbazepine displayed class-C or class-D interactions. Patients with 3-5 (OR 4.22; p=0.05) or over six (OR 8.86; p=0.003) other drugs were more likely to have C- or D-class interaction. The most common drugs with potential interactions with carbamazepine were dihydropyridine calcium-blockers, statins, warfarin, and psychotropic drugs. Elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy are at high risk of clinically relevant pharmacokinetic

  10. Trends in PET Scan Usage for Imaging of Patients Diagnosed With Nonmetastatic Urologic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Adejoro, Oluwakayode; Alishahi, Amin; Soubra, Ayman; Konety, Badrinath

    2016-02-01

    The precise utility of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning for urologic cancers is not well defined. We examined the trends of usage in a population-based data set. PET scans were performed in 3.60% of patients with bladder cancer, 1.09% of those with prostate cancer, and 5.32% of those with renal cell carcinoma. This selective usage might be driven by reimbursement constraints or identification of appropriate medical indications. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is increasingly being used for imaging a variety of cancers, including urologic cancers. The precise utility of PET scanning for bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not yet well known. We examined the trends in PET scan usage for 3 cancers using a large population-based data set. We analyzed all individuals identified with a diagnosis of nonmetastatic bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and RCC from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data set for 2004 to 2009 with follow-up data available to 2010. Logistic regression analysis and χ(2) and trend tests were performed to determine the predictors of performing PET scanning. Separate models were run for each of the cancer diagnoses. All analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.3, and P < .05 was considered significant. We identified 20,865, 70,414, and 7007 patients with a diagnosis of bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and RCC, respectively, from 2004 to 2009. PET scans had been performed for 3.60% of patients with bladder cancer, 1.09% of those with prostate cancer, and 5.32% of those with RCC. On regression analysis, a more recent year of diagnosis, younger age, and high stage or grade were predictors of PET scan usage for patients with bladder cancer and RCC. A higher Gleason score and higher D'Amico risk group predicted imaging with prostate cancer. The usage of PET scanning for bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and RCC is increasing but still very selective. The selective use might be

  11. Nursing diagnoses in patients with cerebral vascular accident: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Carolina Maria Araújo Chagas Costa; Silva, Aurilene Lima da; Guerra, Débora Rodrigues; Barbosa, Islene Victor; Bezerra, Karine de Castro; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista

    2016-01-01

    to verify the nursing diagnoses in patients affected by CVAs. this is an integrative review of the literature. The search was conducted on LILACS, Scielo, Medline, CINAHL, and Scopus databases between February and March 2015, using the following keywords: "Enfermagem", "Acidente Vascular Cerebral", "Diagnóstico de Enfermagem"; and "Nursing", "Stroke", and "Nursing Diagnosis". we found 9 articles published between 2009 and 2015; most of them were Brazilian, cross-sectional, and exploratory, with a level of evidence of 6. The evidence from the publications was classified as: "Evaluation and validation of specific nursing diagnoses for subjects affected by CVAs" and "Application of the nursing process on subjects affected by CVAs". we noticed the publications focused on nursing diagnoses related to motor disorders, such as risk of falls and impaired physical mobility. Domains regarding safety/protection (domain 11) and sleep/resting (domain 4) were present in most evaluated publications.

  12. Utilization of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hospice at the end of life for patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jinhai; Du, Xianglin L; Lairson, David R; Chan, Wenyaw; Jiang, Jing; Buchholz, Thomas A; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh

    2015-06-01

    To examine the patterns of utilization of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and hospice at the end-of-life care for patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma. We identified 816 Medicare beneficiaries toward who were 65 years of age or older, with pathologically confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007. We evaluated trends and associations between sociodemographic and health service characteristics and the use of hospice care, chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. We found increasing use of surgery for patients with metastatic melanoma from 13% in 2000 to 30% in 2007 (P=0.03 for trend), and no significant fluctuation in the use of chemotherapy (P=0.43) or radiation therapy (P=0.46). Older patients were less likely to receive radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The use of hospice care increased from 61% in 2000 to 79% in 2007 (P=0.07 for trend). Enrollment in short-term (1 to 3 d) hospice care use increased, whereas long-term hospice care (≥4 d) remained stable. Patients living in the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) northeast and south regions were less likely to undergo surgery. Patients enrolled in long-term hospice care used significantly less chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. Surgery and hospice care use increased over the years of this study, whereas the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy remained consistent for patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma.

  13. (1, 3)-β-D-glucan assay for diagnosing invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, Elie; Guigue, Nicolas; Darmon, Michael; Mokart, Djamel; Lemiale, Virginie; Kouatchet, Achille; Mayaux, Julien; Vincent, François; Nyunga, Martine; Bruneel, Fabrice; Rabbat, Antoine; Bretagne, Stéphane; Lebert, Christine; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Benoit, Dominique; Pene, Frédéric

    2016-04-19

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are life-threatening complications of hematological malignancies that must be diagnosed early to allow effective treatment. Few data are available on the performance of serum (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BG) assays for diagnosing IFI in patients with hematological malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In this study, 737 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies admitted to 17 ICUs routinely underwent a BG assay at ICU admission. IFIs were diagnosed using standard criteria applied by three independent specialists. Among the 737 patients, 439 (60%) required mechanical ventilation and 273 (37%) died before hospital discharge. Factors known to alter BG concentrations were identified in most patients. IFIs were documented in 78 (10.6%) patients (invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, n = 54; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, n = 13; candidemia, n = 13; and fusarium infections, n = 3). BG concentrations (pg/mL) were higher in patients with than without IFI (144 (77-510) vs. 50 (30-125), < 0.0001). With 80 pg/mL as the cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, specificity 65%, and area-under-the-curve 0.74 (0.68-0.79). Assuming a prevalence of 10%, the negative and positive predictive values were 94% and 21%. By multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with BG > 80 pg/mL were IFI, admission SOFA score, autologous bone-marrow or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, and microbiologically documented bacterial infection. In conclusion, in unselected critically ill hematology patients with factors known to affect serum BG, this biomarker showed only moderate diagnostic performance and rarely detected IFI. However, the negative predictive value was high. Studies are needed to assess whether a negative BG test indicates that antifungal de-escalation is safe.

  14. (1, 3)-β-D-glucan assay for diagnosing invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Elie; Guigue, Nicolas; Darmon, Michael; Mokart, Djamel; Lemiale, Virginie; Kouatchet, Achille; Mayaux, Julien; Vincent, François; Nyunga, Martine; Bruneel, Fabrice; Rabbat, Antoine; Bretagne, Stéphane; Lebert, Christine; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Benoit, Dominique; Pene, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are life-threatening complications of hematological malignancies that must be diagnosed early to allow effective treatment. Few data are available on the performance of serum (1–3)-β-D-glucan (BG) assays for diagnosing IFI in patients with hematological malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In this study, 737 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies admitted to 17 ICUs routinely underwent a BG assay at ICU admission. IFIs were diagnosed using standard criteria applied by three independent specialists. Among the 737 patients, 439 (60%) required mechanical ventilation and 273 (37%) died before hospital discharge. Factors known to alter BG concentrations were identified in most patients. IFIs were documented in 78 (10.6%) patients (invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, n = 54; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, n = 13; candidemia, n = 13; and fusarium infections, n = 3). BG concentrations (pg/mL) were higher in patients with than without IFI (144 (77–510) vs. 50 (30–125), < 0.0001). With 80 pg/mL as the cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, specificity 65%, and area-under-the-curve 0.74 (0.68–0.79). Assuming a prevalence of 10%, the negative and positive predictive values were 94% and 21%. By multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with BG > 80 pg/mL were IFI, admission SOFA score, autologous bone-marrow or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, and microbiologically documented bacterial infection. In conclusion, in unselected critically ill hematology patients with factors known to affect serum BG, this biomarker showed only moderate diagnostic performance and rarely detected IFI. However, the negative predictive value was high. Studies are needed to assess whether a negative BG test indicates that antifungal de-escalation is safe. PMID:26910891

  15. Increased survival and decreased recurrence in colorectal cancer patients diagnosed in a screening programme.

    PubMed

    Mengual-Ballester, Mónica; Pellicer-Franco, Enrique; Valero-Navarro, Graciela; Soria-Aledo, Victoriano; García-Marín, José Andrés; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2016-08-01

    Population-based screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) allow an early diagnosis, even before the onset of symptoms, but there are few studies and none in Spain on the influence they have on patient survival. The aim of the present study is to show that patients receiving surgery for CRC following diagnosis via a screening programme have a higher survival and disease-free survival rate than those diagnosed in the symptomatic stage. Prospective study of all the patients undergoing programmed surgery for CRC at the JM Morales Meseguer Hospital in Murcia (Spain) between 2004 and 2010. The patients were divided into two groups: (a) those diagnosed through screening (125 cases); and (b) those diagnosed in the symptomatic stage (565 cases). Survival and disease-free survival were analysed and compared for both groups using the Mantel method. The screen-detected CRC patients show a higher rate of survival (86.3% versus 72.1% at 5 years, p<0.05) and a lower rate of tumour recurrence (73.4% versus 88.3% at 5 years, p<0.05). Population-based screening for CRC is an effective strategic measure for reducing mortality specific to this neoplasia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The benefits of a comprehensive rehabilitation program in patients diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia

    PubMed Central

    Rogoveanu, OC; Tuțescu, NC; Kamal, D; Alexandru, DO; Kamal, C; Streba, CT; Trăistaru, MR

    2016-01-01

    Spastic quadriplegia has as an etiopathogenic substrate, a non-progressive brain lesion; however, the clinical manifestations of the disease evolve over time. Children diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia show a variety of symptoms in different areas: sensorimotor, emotional, cognitive, and social. The purpose of this study was to assess the functional status in patients diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia, who followed a complex medical rehabilitation program, during a year, and highlight the importance of using physical and kinetic techniques in improving their status. A total of 10 children diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia were included in the study and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and manual ability classification system (MACS) were used to evaluate the functionality status of each patient. Every patient was evaluated initially (T1), after six months of program (T2), and after they completed the study. All the children were originally monitored daily, for 5 days per week for a period of one month, then two times a week for a year. A statistically significant difference regarding the modification of the GMFCS and MACS stage was found, which occurred between the first and the third evaluation. The inverse correlation of the statistical significance between the ages of patients and the decrease in GMFCS or MACS stage was highlighted; the younger the patient, the more the scale decreased. A direct link between the gross motor function and the manual ability was noticed. Applying a complex rehabilitation program has proven efficient by improving both the gross motor functionality and the manual ability. PMID:27974931

  17. The benefits of a comprehensive rehabilitation program in patients diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Rogoveanu, O C; Tuțescu, N C; Kamal, D; Alexandru, D O; Kamal, C; Streba, C T; Trăistaru, M R

    2016-01-01

    Spastic quadriplegia has as an etiopathogenic substrate, a non-progressive brain lesion; however, the clinical manifestations of the disease evolve over time. Children diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia show a variety of symptoms in different areas: sensorimotor, emotional, cognitive, and social. The purpose of this study was to assess the functional status in patients diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia, who followed a complex medical rehabilitation program, during a year, and highlight the importance of using physical and kinetic techniques in improving their status. A total of 10 children diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia were included in the study and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and manual ability classification system (MACS) were used to evaluate the functionality status of each patient. Every patient was evaluated initially (T1), after six months of program (T2), and after they completed the study. All the children were originally monitored daily, for 5 days per week for a period of one month, then two times a week for a year. A statistically significant difference regarding the modification of the GMFCS and MACS stage was found, which occurred between the first and the third evaluation. The inverse correlation of the statistical significance between the ages of patients and the decrease in GMFCS or MACS stage was highlighted; the younger the patient, the more the scale decreased. A direct link between the gross motor function and the manual ability was noticed. Applying a complex rehabilitation program has proven efficient by improving both the gross motor functionality and the manual ability.

  18. Incidence and outcome of acquired aplastic anemia: real-world data from patients diagnosed in Sweden from 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Vaht, Krista; Göransson, Magnus; Carlson, Kristina; Isaksson, Cecilia; Lenhoff, Stig; Sandstedt, Anna; Uggla, Bertil; Winiarski, Jacek; Ljungman, Per; Brune, Mats; Andersson, Per-Ola

    2017-01-01

    A plastic anemia is a rare life-threatening disease. However, since the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the outcome has improved considerably, and the 5-year survival is reported to be 70–80% in selected patient cohorts. Yet, contemporary population-based data on incidence and survival are lacking. We performed a national retrospective study to determine the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with aplastic anemia diagnosed in Sweden from 2000–2011. Patients were included via the National Patient Registry, and diagnosed according to the Camitta criteria. In total, 257 confirmed cases were identified, with an overall incidence of 2.35 (95% CI: 2.06–2.64) cases per million inhabitants per year. Median age was 60 years (range: 2–92), and median follow up was 76 (0–193) months. Primary treatments included immunosuppressive therapy (63%), allogenic stem cell transplantation (10%), or single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy (27%). The 5-year survival was 90.7% in patients aged 0–18 years, 90.5% in patients aged 19–39 years, 70.7% in patients aged 40–59 years, and 38.1% in patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analysis showed that age (both 40–59 and ≥60 age groups), very severe aplastic anemia and single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy were independent risk factors for inferior survival. In conclusion, younger aplastic anemia patients experience a very good long-term survival, while that of patients ≥60 years in particular remains poor. Apparently, the challenge today is to improve the management of older aplastic anemia patients, and prospective studies to address this medical need are warranted. PMID:28751565

  19. Incidence and outcome of acquired aplastic anemia: real-world data from patients diagnosed in Sweden from 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Vaht, Krista; Göransson, Magnus; Carlson, Kristina; Isaksson, Cecilia; Lenhoff, Stig; Sandstedt, Anna; Uggla, Bertil; Winiarski, Jacek; Ljungman, Per; Brune, Mats; Andersson, Per-Ola

    2017-10-01

    A plastic anemia is a rare life-threatening disease. However, since the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the outcome has improved considerably, and the 5-year survival is reported to be 70-80% in selected patient cohorts. Yet, contemporary population-based data on incidence and survival are lacking. We performed a national retrospective study to determine the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with aplastic anemia diagnosed in Sweden from 2000-2011. Patients were included via the National Patient Registry, and diagnosed according to the Camitta criteria. In total, 257 confirmed cases were identified, with an overall incidence of 2.35 (95% CI: 2.06-2.64) cases per million inhabitants per year. Median age was 60 years (range: 2-92), and median follow up was 76 (0-193) months. Primary treatments included immunosuppressive therapy (63%), allogenic stem cell transplantation (10%), or single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy (27%). The 5-year survival was 90.7% in patients aged 0-18 years, 90.5% in patients aged 19-39 years, 70.7% in patients aged 40-59 years, and 38.1% in patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analysis showed that age (both 40-59 and ≥60 age groups), very severe aplastic anemia and single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy were independent risk factors for inferior survival. In conclusion, younger aplastic anemia patients experience a very good long-term survival, while that of patients ≥60 years in particular remains poor. Apparently, the challenge today is to improve the management of older aplastic anemia patients, and prospective studies to address this medical need are warranted. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The higher prevalence of Asperger Syndrome (AS) and other autism spectrum conditions in males has been known for many years. However, recent multiplex immunoassay profiling studies have shown that males and females with AS have distinct proteomic changes in serum. Methods Here, we analysed sera from adults diagnosed with AS (males = 14, females = 16) and controls (males = 13, females = 16) not on medication at the time of sample collection, using a combination of multiplex immunoassay and shotgun label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MSE). The main objective was to identify sex-specific serum protein changes associated with AS. Results Multiplex immunoassay profiling led to identification of 16 proteins that were significantly altered in AS individuals in a sex-specific manner. Three of these proteins were altered in females (ADIPO, IgA, APOA1), seven were changed in males (BMP6, CTGF, ICAM1, IL-12p70, IL-16, TF, TNF-alpha) and six were changed in both sexes but in opposite directions (CHGA, EPO, IL-3, TENA, PAP, SHBG). Shotgun LC-MSE profiling led to identification of 13 serum proteins which had significant sex-specific changes in the AS group and, of these, 12 were altered in females (APOC2, APOE, ARMC3, CLC4K, FETUB, GLCE, MRRP1, PTPA, RN149, TLE1, TRIPB, ZC3HE) and one protein was altered in males (RGPD4). The free androgen index in females with AS showed an increased ratio of 1.63 compared to controls. Conclusion Taken together, the serum multiplex immunoassay and shotgun LC-MSE profiling results indicate that adult females with AS had alterations in proteins involved mostly in lipid transport and metabolism pathways, while adult males with AS showed changes predominantly in inflammation signalling. These results provide further evidence that the search for biomarkers or novel drug targets in AS may require stratification into male and female subgroups, and could lead to the development of novel targeted treatment

  1. Nursing Diagnoses of hospitalized patients with heart failure: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Juliana de Melo Vellozo; Flores, Paula Vanessa Peclat; Figueiredo, Lyvia da Silva; Arruda, Cristina Silva; Cassiano, Keila Mara; Vieira, Gláucia Cristina Andrade; Guerra, Thais de Rezende Bessa; Silva, Vanessa Alves da; Cavalcanti, Ana Carla Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Identifying Nursing Diagnoses of fatigue, activity intolerance and decreased cardiac output in hospitalized patients with heart failure and verifying the association between the defining characteristics and the Nursing Diagnoses. A longitudinal and prospective study that followed hospitalized patients with heart failure for three weeks. The data collected through interviews and physical examinations were sent to expert nurses for diagnostic inference. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out. Of the 72 patients, 68.0% were male and presented the nursing diagnosis of decreased cardiac output (62.5%) in the first week, reducing to 52.8% and 38% in the second and third weeks, respectively. Fatigue only appeared in one patient. Activity intolerance was the diagnosis that had the greatest discrepancy among the experts. Decreased cardiac output was associated to the defining characteristics: dyspnea, edema, jugular venous distension and reduced ejection fraction during all three weeks of evaluation. Decreased cardiac output was more prevalent in hospitalized patients with heart failure, and the associated defining characteristics were determining factors for this nursing diagnosis. Identificar os diagnósticos de enfermagem fadiga, intolerância à atividade e débito cardíaco diminuído em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca hospitalizados e verificar a associação entre as características definidoras e os diagnósticos de enfermagem. Estudo longitudinal e prospectivo que acompanhou pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca hospitalizados por três semanas. Os dados coletados por entrevista e exame físico foram encaminhados a enfermeiros peritos para inferência diagnóstica. Realizou-se análise estatística descritiva e inferencial. Dos 72 pacientes, 68,0% eram do sexo masculino e apresentaram o diagnóstico de enfermagem débito cardíaco diminuído (62,5%) na primeira semana, reduzindo para 52,8% e 38% na segunda e terceira semana

  2. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  3. Presence of the p.L456V polymorphism in Cuban patients clinically diagnosed with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Clark-Feoktistova, Y; Ruenes-Domech, C; García-Bacallao, E F; Roblejo-Balbuena, H; Feoktistova, L; Clark-Feoktistova, I; Jay-Herrera, O; Collazo-Mesa, T

    2018-06-10

    Wilson's disease is characterized by the accumulation of copper in different organs, mainly affecting the liver, brain, and cornea, and is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. More than 120 polymorphisms in the ATP7B gene have been reported in the medical literature. The aim of the present study was to identify the conformational changes in the exon 3 region of the ATP7B gene and detect the p.L456V polymorphism in Cuban patients clinically diagnosed with Wilson's disease. A descriptive study was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Genética Médica and the Instituto Nacional de Gastroenterología within the time frame of 2007-2012 and included 105 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Wilson's disease. DNA extraction was performed through the salting-out method and the fragment of interest was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction technique. The conformational shift changes in the exon 3 region and the presence of the p.L456V polymorphism were identified through the Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism analysis. The so-called b and c conformational shift changes, corresponding to the p.L456V polymorphism in the heterozygous and homozygous states, respectively, were identified. The allelic frequency of the p.L456V polymorphism in the 105 Cuban patients that had a clinical diagnosis of Wilson's disease was 41% and liver-related symptoms were the most frequent in the patients with that polymorphism. The p.L456V polymorphism was identified in 64 Cuban patients clinically diagnosed with Wilson's disease, making future molecular study through indirect methods possible. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Accuracy of Acoustic Analysis Measurements in the Evaluation of Patients With Different Laryngeal Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Batista Simões, Layssa; Delfino da Silva, Jocélio; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; da Nóbrega E Ugulino, Ana Celiane; Oliveira Costa Silva, Priscila; Jefferson Dias Vieira, Vinícius

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the accuracy of acoustic measures in discriminating between patients with different laryngeal diagnoses. The study design is descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrospective. A total of 279 female patients participated in the research. Acoustic measures of the mean and standard deviation (SD) values of the fundamental frequency (F 0 ), jitter, shimmer, and glottal to noise excitation (GNE) were extracted from the emission of the vowel /ε/. Isolated acoustic measures do not demonstrate adequate performance in discriminating patients with and without laryngeal alteration. The combination of GNE, SD of the F 0 , jitter, and shimmer improved the ability to classify patients with and without laryngeal alteration. In isolation, the SD of the F 0 , shimmer, and GNE presented acceptable performance in discriminating individuals with different laryngeal diagnoses. The combination of acoustic measurements caused discrete improvement in performance of the classifier to discriminate healthy larynx vs vocal polyp (SD of the F 0 , shimmer, and GNE), healthy larynx vs unilateral vocal fold paralysis (SD of the F 0 and jitter), healthy larynx vs vocal nodules (SD of the F 0 and jitter), healthy larynx vs sulcus vocalis (SD of the F 0 and shimmer), and healthy larynx vs voice disorder due to gastroesophageal reflux (F 0 mean, jitter, and shimmer). Isolated acoustic measures do not demonstrate adequate performance in discriminating patients with and without laryngeal alteration, although they present acceptable performance in classifying different laryngeal diagnoses. Combined acoustic measures present an acceptable capacity to discriminate between the presence and the absence of laryngeal alteration and to differentiate several laryngeal diagnoses. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Prevalence and factors associated with renal disease among patients with newly diagnoses of HIV in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Ekat, M H; Courpotin, C; Diafouka, M; Akolbout, M; Mahambou-Nsonde, D; Bitsindou, P R; Nzounza, P; Simon, B

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of kidney disease in patients newly diagnosed as HIV-positive in Brazzaville and to identify the associated risk factors. Descriptive and analytical study of patients diagnosed with HIV infection at the Ambulatory Treatment Center in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2010. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation (MDRD-GFR), and kidney disease was defined by an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). We conducted a univariate and then a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the factors associated with kidney disease in this population. The study included 562 patients newly identified as HIV-infected, 66.13% of whom were women. Their median age was 38.84 years interquartile range (IQR): 33.18-46.23) and their median body mass index (BMI) 20.31 kg/m(2) (IQR: 17.97-22.89). Their median CD4 count was 192 cells/mm(3) (IQR: 81-350), and 70.8% were at WHO stage III/IV. Finally, the median MDRD-GFR was 95.59 (IQR: 78.76-114.92) mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 8.5% had a GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), that is, moderate impairment of kidney function. The only factor associated with kidney disease in the multivariate analysis was a BMI less than 18.5 kg/m(2) (adjusted odds ratio: 2.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.25-5.15, p = 0.01). The prevalence of kidney disease in patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Brazzaville is relatively high. The only factor associated with it in the multivariate analysis was a BMI less than 18.5 kg/m(2).

  6. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Are Chronic Inflammatory Diseases Responsible for Cognitive Decline?

    PubMed

    Lavielle, Pilar; Talavera, Juan O; Reynoso, Nancy; González, Marissa; Gómez-Díaz, Rita A; Cruz, Miguel; Vázquez, Felipe; Wacher, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) among patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (RDD) and to identify any relationships between CI and RDD comorbidities. One thousand seven hundred twelve patients with RDD participated in a cross-sectional study. The patients' sociodemographic and clinical data were registered. The sample population had an average age of 51 ± 11 years, and 63.26% of the patients were female. CI was diagnosed in 38 patients (2.2%) and was more common among both females (2.8% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.063) and the elderly (0% at an age ≤ 30 years vs. 10.4% at an age > 70 years, p = 0.0001). Rheumatoid arthritis (present in 15.8% vs. absent in 2.1%) and asthma (13% vs. 2.1%) correlated significantly with CI based on the results of our logistic regression analysis. Age, female gender, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma are risk factors for CI in the setting of RDD.

  7. Attrition from HIV Testing to Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation among Patients Newly Diagnosed with HIV in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    NOEL, Edva; ESPERANCE, Morgan; MCLAUGHLIN, Megan; BERTRAND, Rachel; DEVIEUX, Jessy; SEVERE, Patrice; MARCELIN, Abdias; NICOTERA, Janet; DELCHER, Chris; GRISWOLD, Mark; MEREDITH, Genevive; PAPE, Jean William; KOENIG, Serena P

    2013-01-01

    Objective We report rates and risk factors for attrition in the first cohort of patients followed through all stages from HIV testing to ART initiation. Design Cohort study of all patients diagnosed with HIV between January and June, 2009. Methods We calculated the proportion of patients who completed CD4 cell counts and initiated ART or remained in pre-ART care during two years of follow-up, and assessed predictors of attrition. Results Of 1,427 patients newly diagnosed with HIV, 680 (48%) either initiated ART or were retained in pre-ART care for the subsequent two years. One thousand eighty-three patients (76%) received a CD4 cell count and 973 (90%) returned for result; 297 (31%) had CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μl and of these, 256 (86%) initiated ART. Among 429 patients with CD4 > 350 cells/μl, 215 (50%) started ART or were retained in pre-ART care. Active TB was associated with lower odds of attrition prior to CD4 cell count (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03–0.25) but also higher odds of attrition prior to ART initiation (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.29–4.71). Lower annual income (≤ $US125) was associated with higher odds of attrition prior to CD4 cell count (OR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.25–2.19), and prior to ART initiation among those with CD4 cell count > 350 cells/μl (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.20–2.52). After tracking patients through a national database, the retention rate increased to only 57%. Conclusion Fewer than half of patients newly diagnosed with HIV initiate ART or remain in pre-ART care for two years in a clinic providing comprehensive services. Additional efforts to improve retention in pre-ART are critically needed. PMID:23254154

  8. The first Japanese patient with mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features and lipodystrophy diagnosed via POLD1 mutation detection

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Asami; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Yokota, Ichiro; Kotani, Yumiko; Shimada, Aki; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takahashi, Rizu; Goji, Aya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kagami, Shoji; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features and lipodystrophy (MDPL) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous POLD1 mutations. To date, 13 patients affected by POLD1 mutation-caused MDPL have been described. We report a clinically undiagnosed 11-year-old male who noted joint contractures at 6 years of age. Targeted exome sequencing identified a known POLD1 mutation [NM_002691.3:c.1812_1814del, p.(Ser605del)] that diagnosed him as the first Japanese/East Asian MDPL case. PMID:28791128

  9. The first Japanese patient with mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features and lipodystrophy diagnosed via POLD1 mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Okada, Asami; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Yokota, Ichiro; Kotani, Yumiko; Shimada, Aki; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takahashi, Rizu; Goji, Aya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kagami, Shoji; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features and lipodystrophy (MDPL) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous POLD1 mutations. To date, 13 patients affected by POLD1 mutation-caused MDPL have been described. We report a clinically undiagnosed 11-year-old male who noted joint contractures at 6 years of age. Targeted exome sequencing identified a known POLD1 mutation [NM_002691.3:c.1812_1814del, p.(Ser605del)] that diagnosed him as the first Japanese/East Asian MDPL case.

  10. Cognitive predictors of understanding treatment decisions in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Meneses, Karen; Duff, Kevin; Fiveash, John B; Marson, Daniel C; Triebel, Kristen L

    2015-06-15

    Medical decision-making capacity is a higher-order functional skill that refers to a patient's ability to make informed, sound decisions related to care and treatment. In a medical context, understanding is the most cognitively demanding consent standard and refers to a patient's ability to comprehend information to the extent that informed decisions can be made. The association between reasoning and cognition was examined using data from 41 patients with diagnosed brain metastasis. All diagnoses were made by a board-certified radiation oncologist and were verified histologically. In total, 41 demographically matched, cognitively healthy controls were also included to aid in classifying patients with brain metastasis according to reasoning status (ie, intact or impaired). Results indicate that measures of simple attention, verbal fluency, verbal memory, processing speed, and executive functioning were all associated with understanding, and that verbal memory and phonemic fluency were the primary cognitive predictors. Using these two primary predictors, equations can be constructed to predict the ability to understand treatment decisions in patients with brain metastasis. Although preliminary, these data demonstrate how cognitive measures can estimate understanding as it relates to medical decision-making capacities in these patients. Clinically, these findings suggest that poor verbal memory and expressive language function could serve as "red flags" for reduced consent capacity in this patient population, thus signaling that a more comprehensive medical decision-making capacity evaluation is warranted. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  11. Psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life and emotional wellbeing for recently diagnosed cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Galway, Karen; Black, Amanda; Cantwell, Marie; Cardwell, Chris R; Mills, Moyra; Donnelly, Michael

    2012-11-14

    A cancer diagnosis may lead to significant psychological distress in up to 75% of cases. There is a lack of clarity about the most effective ways to address this psychological distress. To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life (QoL) and general psychological distress in the 12-month phase following an initial cancer diagnosis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO up to January 2011. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of included studies. Electronic searches were carried out across all primary sources of peer-reviewed publications using detailed criteria. No language restrictions were imposed. Randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions involving interpersonal dialogue between a 'trained helper' and individual newly diagnosed cancer patients were selected. Only trials measuring QoL and general psychological distress were included. Trials involving a combination of pharmacological therapy and interpersonal dialogue were excluded, as were trials involving couples, family members or group formats. Trial data were examined and selected by two authors in pairs with mediation from a third author where required. Where possible, outcome data were extracted for combining in a meta-analyses. Continuous outcomes were compared using standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals, using a random-effects model. The primary outcome, QoL, was examined in subgroups by outcome measurement, cancer site, theoretical basis for intervention, mode of delivery and discipline of trained helper. The secondary outcome, general psychological distress (including anxiety and depression), was examined according to specified outcome measures. A total of 3309 records were identified, examined and the trials subjected to selection criteria; 30 trials were included in

  12. Treatment of older adult patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis: improved but not optimal.

    PubMed

    Schmajuk, Gabriela; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Katz, Jeffrey N; Weinblatt, Michael E; Setoguchi, Soko; Avorn, Jerry; Levin, Raisa; Solomon, Daniel H

    2007-08-15

    The National Committee on Quality Assurance has determined that all patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) should be treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Our objective was to determine the rate and predictors of DMARD use in a cohort of elderly patients with RA. We analyzed health care utilization data for 5,864 Medicare beneficiaries with RA who also participated in a state-run pharmaceutical benefit program in Pennsylvania. Patients with RA were defined as those with at least 3 diagnoses of RA (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 714.xx) at least 1 week apart who were enrolled in these programs for at least 12 months during 1995-2004. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess predictors of synthetic or biologic DMARD use in the 12 months after cohort entry. Thirty percent of patients filled a DMARD prescription during 12 months of followup. Frequency of DMARD use increased steadily over time: 24% received DMARDs in 1996 compared with 43% in 2003 (P for trend <0.001). Of patients with at least 1 rheumatologist visit, 41% received a DMARD in 1996 compared with 70% in 2003 (P < 0.001). After the introduction of biologic DMARDs in 1998, 6% of all patients with RA received a biologic, including 12% who saw a rheumatologist. Patients ages 75-84 were 52% less likely to receive DMARDs (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 46-58%) and patients ages >or=85 were 74% less likely (95% CI 69-79%) compared with patients ages 65-74. In this cohort of patients in the community with full prescription drug coverage, most patients diagnosed with RA did not receive a DMARD during the 12 months after cohort entry. Older patients and those not seeing a rheumatologist were less likely to receive a DMARD and may provide a target for quality improvement interventions.

  13. [Prevalence of performing and prescribing physical exercise in patients diagnosed with anxiety and depression].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Martínez, Bibiana; Olaya Velázquez, Inés; Gómez Castro, María José

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical exercise practice in patients diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression. Cross-sectional, observational study. Sabugo and la Magdalena primary care centers in Avilés. Patients aged 18 to 75 years diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression, consumers of psychoactive drugs in the three months previous to the realization of the study. We selected 376 patients by simple random sampling stratified by health center, making them a telephone survey. Age, sex, physical exercise realization, type and duration of exercise, diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression, exercise prescription, prescriber health personnel and use of psychotropic medication. 294 participants (78.19% of selected) with a mean age of 55.33 years (55.32±12.53 SD) and 78.2% were female. 60.9% were diagnosed with anxiety, 59.5% with depression and 20.4% both diagnoses. 62.9% used antidepressants, benzodiazepines 76.9% and 39.79% both treatments. 58.5% (95%CI: 52.70-64.31) performed exercise of which 44.77% did it 3-5 times/week. The mean duration was 1.24h each time (95%CI: 0.53-1.96). The physical exercise was prescribed to the 59.18% (95%CI: 53.39-64.97); 90.23% by the family physician, 63.22% primary care nurse, 17.24% psychiatrist and 5.17% psychologist. The adherence to the prescription was 59.77% (95%CI: 52.20-67.34). The percentage of anxious and/or depressed patients who practiced exercise is similar to the general population but should be higher. The exercise prescription by health personnel is insufficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Michael; Krüger, Stefan; Schulze-Olden, Susanne; Keszei, András; Storre, Jan Hendrik; Woehrle, Holger; Arzt, Michael; Müller, Tobias

    2018-05-16

    There are currently no data on the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with newly-diagnosed lung cancer. This might be of interest given that SDB is associated with increased cancer incidence and mortality. Furthermore, intermittent hypoxia has been linked with tumor growth and progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of SDB in patients with newly-diagnosed lung cancer. Patients with newly-diagnosed lung cancer from three centers in Germany were screened for SDB using a two-channel screening system (ApneaLink™). SDB was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index of > 5/h, and was classified as mild if the AHI was 5-15/h whereas an AHI ≥15/h was classified as severe SDB. The presence of SDB-related symptoms was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A total of 100 patients were included. The overall prevalence of SDB was 49%; 32 patients (32%) had mild SDB with a median AHI of 7.7/h (quartile [Q1 5.4/h, Q3 10.4/h]) and a median oxygen desaturation index of 8.5 [Q1 4.2/h; Q3 13.4/h] and seventeen patients (17%) had moderate to severe SDB with a median AHI of 25.2 [Q1 18/h, Q3 45.5/h] and a median oxygen desaturation index of 20.6/h [Q1 9.6/h, Q3 36.6/h]. Patients with moderate to severe SDB had mild daytime sleepiness (ESS score 8.24 ± 3.96 vs. 5.74 ± 3.53 in those without SDB vs. 6.22 ± 2.72 in those with mild SDB; p = 0.0343). The PSQI did not differ significantly between the three groups (p = 0.1137). This study showed a high prevalence of SDB in patients with newly-diagnosed lung cancer. In these patients SDB was associated with intermittent hypoxia and increased daytime sleepiness. Additional research is needed to determine whether SDB influences prognosis and morbidity in patients with lung cancer. NCT02270853 (ClinicalTrials.gov), date of registration: 14th October 2014.

  15. Clinical Correlates of Apathy in Patients Recently Diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease: The ANIMO Study

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Esther; Benito-León, Julián; Coronell, Carlos; Armesto, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about apathy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We determined the clinical correlates of apathy in a large representative sample of patients recently diagnosed with PD (ANIMO study). Methods PD patients, diagnosed within 2 years of inclusion, were recruited in 102 outpatient clinics situated in 82 populations throughout Spain. Apathy was quantified using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS). Clinical comparisons and correlations were performed using nonparametric tests. Regression analyses were used to test the association of clinical variables with apathy. Results We recruited 557 PD patients (60.3% men) with a mean age of 68.8 ± 9.7 years, and UPDRS motor score of 21.1 ± 10.8. Apathy only was diagnosed in 186 (33.4%), and apathy and depression in 215 patients (38.6%). Patients with higher comorbidity (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.01−1.20, p = 0.001), motor impairment (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03−1.10, p < 0.0001), and lower education (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.21−;3.85, p = 0.009) had higher odds of having apathy, in contrast to patients living in a rural environment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.32–0.85, p = 0.01), and left predominant PD motor laterality (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.88, p = 0.01). LARS scores were significantly correlated with UPDRS motor scores (rs = 0.44, p < 0.001), predominantly with axial score (rs = 0.43, p < 0.001). Conclusions In PD, apathy is a very common and disabling nonmotor symptom separable from depression. Patients living in a rural environment, with lower comorbidity and motor impairment, higher education background, and left predominant PD motor laterality are at lower risk of suffering from apathy. PMID:22236943

  16. Associations among medication regimen complexity, medical specialty, and medication possession ratio in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chen-Pei; Yeh, Jih-I; Wen, Shu-Hui; Lee, Tony Jer-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the associations among the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI), medical specialty, and medication possession ratio (MPR) in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. Data from 19,859 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were collected from 2,000,000 random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All study participants were followed for 1 year after the first diagnosis of hypertension. MPR was defined as total days of antihypertensive drugs supplied/365 days. MRCI was calculated on the basis of the type of dosage forms, dosing frequency, and additional directions for use of antihypertensive drugs. Patients were further restricted to those who visited the same medical specialty to examine specialty-specific variations in the MRCI and MPR. The mean MPR was 54.83%, and the sample sizes for the low-, medium-, and high-MPR groups were 9806 (49.38%), 4619 (23.26%), and 5434 (27.36%), respectively. More than 50% of the patients visited the same medical specialty during the 1-year follow-up. The mean MRCI was 3.64; the cardiology specialty had the highest MRCI, and the family medicine specialty had the lowest. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that MRCI was negatively associated with MPR (β = −7.75, P ≤ .01) whether or not the patients visited the same medical specialty. For the patients who visited the same medical specialty, those treated by endocrinology and metabolism specialists had a significantly higher MPR (β = 9.87, P ≤ .01) than that of those treated by family medicine specialists. MRCI and medical specialty were both significantly associated with the MPR of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. PMID:29137042

  17. Efficacy of low to moderate doses of oxcarbazepine in adult patients with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xue-Mei; Chen, Jia-Ni; An, Dong-Mei; Hao, Nan-Ya; Hong, Zhen; Hao, Xiao-Ting; Rao, Ping; Zhou, Dong

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of low dose of oxcarbazepine (OXC) in adult patients with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy in an actual clinical setting. The associated factors influencing the poor control of seizures were also evaluated. The epilepsy database (2010-2014) from the Epilepsy Clinic of West China Hospital was retrospectively reviewed. A total of 102 adult patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated partial epilepsy initially treated with OXC were included, and divided into good response group (64) and poor response group (38) according to whether they were seizure-free for at least 12 months. There were 27 (26.5%) patients becoming seizure-free with OXC 600 mg/day monotherapy. The remaining 75 patients had doses of either increasing OXC to 900 mg/day (n = 59) or the addition of another antiepileptic drug (AED) (n = 16), with another 20 (19.6%) and six (5.9%) patients becoming seizure-free, respectively (P = 0.788). In addition, two (2.0%) and nine (8.8%) patients became seizure-free with OXC > 900 mg/day monotherapy and OXC ≥ 900 mg/day combination therapy, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the time from onset of epilepsy to treatment initiation is significantly associated with seizure control (P = 0.02). Our results indicated that OXC at low to moderate doses is effective for the treatment of Chinese adult patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated partial epilepsy, and a longer time interval from the onset of epilepsy to the start of treatment significantly predicts poor seizure control. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Syphilis epidemics: a descriptive study of patients diagnosed in a tertiary hospital between 2011 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Fustà, Xavier; Fuertes, Irene; Lugo-Colón, Rossie; Blanco, José Luís; Baras, Núria; Alsina-Gibert, Mercè

    2017-12-20

    In the last decade, the incidence of syphilis has increased in our health area. Our objective is to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with syphilis at our centre and their relationship with HIV. The clinical and epidemiological variables of patients diagnosed with syphilis in a third-level hospital over a period of 4.5 years, as well as their HIV status, were analysed through a descriptive study. There was a significant increase in the incidence of syphilis in the period 2011-2015. We included 220 patients, 98% men (94% MSM). 62% were HIV+ and 89% came in early/infectious stages of the disease. 7% were concomitantly diagnosed with HIV. There was a high number of sexual partners and frequent use of drugs associated with sexual activity (46%). The incidence of syphilis has increased in our centre in the last 2 years. The most affected group is MSM, with high HIV prevalence and risk behaviours for STI acquisition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Model for Predicting Incident Moderate to Severe Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nabeel; Patel, Dhruvan; Shah, Yash; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency are common complications of ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to develop and internally validate a prediction model for the incidence of moderate to severe anemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in newly diagnosed patients with UC. Multivariable logistic regression was performed among a nationwide cohort of patients who were newly diagnosed with UC in the VA health-care system. Model development was performed in a random two-third of the total cohort and then validated in the remaining one-third of the cohort. As candidate predictors, we examined routinely available data at the time of UC diagnosis including demographics, medications, laboratory results, and endoscopy findings. A total of 789 patients met the inclusion criteria. For the outcome of moderate to severe anemia, age, albumin level and mild anemia at UC diagnosis were predictors selected for the model. The AUC for this model was 0.69 (95% CI 0.64-0.74). For the outcome of moderate to severe anemia with evidence of iron deficiency, the predictors included African-American ethnicity, mild anemia, age, and albumin level at UC diagnosis. The AUC was 0.76, (95% CI 0.69-0.82). Calibration was consistently good in all models (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit p > 0.05). The models performed similarly in the internal validation cohort. We developed and internally validated a prognostic model for predicting the risk of moderate to severe anemia and IDA among newly diagnosed patients with UC. This will help identify patients at high risk of these complications, who could benefit from surveillance and preventive measures.

  20. [Radionuclide bone scan in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Clinical aspects and cost analysis].

    PubMed

    Klatte, T; Klatte, D; Böhm, M; Allhoff, E P

    2006-10-01

    The indication for a radionuclide bone scan in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated prostate cancer remains controversial. In this retrospective study we examined 406 patients who had received a staging bone scan irrespective of their PSA serum level and histology. We evaluated different guidelines and recommendations with respect to their usefulness. The costs were calculated according to EBM and GOA. We evaluated the classification systems of bone metastases according to Soloway, Crawford, and Rigaud. The bone scan was positive in 41 (10%) of 406 patients. The EAU guidelines turned out to be useful with respect to both clinical value and cost efficiency. The Rigaud classification of bone metastases predicted outcome better than the Soloway or Crawford classification. The EAU guidelines from 2005 are a useful tool to decide whether to perform a bone scan in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated prostate cancer. A bone scan should be performed if PSA levels exceed 20 ng/ml in patients with a G1/G2 histology, and in patients with G3 histology and locally advanced disease irrespective of PSA level. Bone scan metastases should be classified according to Rigaud.

  1. Short-term results of physiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed degenerative cervical spine disease.

    PubMed

    Hey, H W; Lau, P H; Hee, H T

    2012-03-01

    Degenerative cervical spine diseases are common, and physiotherapy is widely used as an initial form of treatment. We aimed to analyse the effects of the initial sessions of physiotherapy for patients who were newly diagnosed with degenerative cervical spine disorders. A prospective series of 30 patients with newly diagnosed degenerative cervical spine disease were referred to our department and followed up for the initial two sessions of physiotherapy. The patients were assessed after each session. Outcome parameters studied included pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS), neck range of movements and activities of daily living (ADL). Our study subjects comprised mainly females (60%) in their fifties (46.7%) who worked as clerks or secretaries (53.3%). There was an improvement in the patients' pain score (VAS) from a median of 8 to 4 after two visits to the physiotherapists. Slight improvement in the neck range of movements was also observed. Marked improvement was seen in ADL, especially in the ability to carry heavy objects. Physiotherapy is an effective initial option for patients with newly presented degenerative cervical spine disease. The results of this study can be used to advise patients on the short-term benefits of physiotherapy.

  2. Psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates of life satisfaction among patients diagnosed with cancer in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al Abeiat, Dana D; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim N; Ghannam, Bushra M; Hanouneh, Salah I

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is a worldwide disease, and the psychosocial concerns are nearly universal among patients with cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychosocial correlates of life satisfaction among patients diagnosed with cancer in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey using 92 patients diagnosed with cancer used to collect data in regard to life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, coping, and perceived social support. In general, about 50% of patients reported high level of life satisfaction and 50% of the patients reported moderate levels of ability to effectively cope with life situations. Moreover, 78% of patients reported that they had depressive symptoms and 45.3% of them reported that they had moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms had significant and negative correlation with life satisfaction (r = -0.50, p < 0.001), and stress had weak nonsignificant correlation with life satisfaction (r = 0.05, p > 0.05). On the other hand, social support from others has positive and significant correlation with life satisfaction (r = 0.32, p < 0.01). Marital status, times of admission, perceived social support from others, and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of life satisfaction. Health professionals need to integrate their medical care with psychosocial intervention early at admission and during follow-up care, so early detection of psychological disturbances will help to implement effective treatment plans.

  3. Psychosocial predictors of suicidal ideation in patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Amer, Nuha Remon Yacoub; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M

    2014-11-01

    Suicide ideation (SI) is considered a major psychiatric emergency in patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses. Suicide ideation is a multifaceted issue that involves bio- psychosocial and cultural factors that interfere with patients' abilities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychosocial predictors of SI among Jordanian patients with chronic illnesses. A cross-sectional design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 480 patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The mean score of suicide ideation was 4.07 (SD  =  1.7) and almost 20% (n  =  85) of the participants found to be suicidal, the majority were suffering from moderate to severe depressive symptoms and low levels of life satisfaction. Also, the analysis showed that the patients had a high level of optimism and moderate perception of social support from family, friends, and significant other. Type of illness has a significant relation to the 'seriousness' component of SI (p  =  0.023). Depression (β  =  0.345, p<0.001) was a significant risk factor for 'thought' component of SI, and optimism (β  =  -0.008, p<0.05) a significant protective factor against the thought component of SI. Patients with chronic illnesses suffer serious psychological disturbances and are in need of psychological care, and periodic psychological screening to maintain their psychological wellbeing.

  4. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  5. [Clinico-instrumental methods of diagnosing aseptic femur head necrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Tsurko, V V; Ivanova, M M; Sysoev, V F; Pushkova, O V; Badokina, G I

    1988-01-01

    Clinical, x-ray and scintigraphic investigations were performed in 34 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): 24 patients with SLE complicated by osteonecrosis of the head of the femur (the 1st group) and 10 patients with SLE without clinicoroentgenological signs of aseptic necrosis (the 2nd group). Analysis of the results of scintigraphic investigation showed that the coefficient of radionuclide absorption in the SLE patients with suspected osteonecrosis (stage I) as compared to the controls and patients with stage II osteonecrosis of the head of the femur turned out to be significantly discernible (p less than 0.001). Thus, an early stage of osteonecrosis of the head of the femur can be reliably diagnosed by scintigraphy. Quantitative scintigraphy can be effectively used for dynamic observation and objectification of applied therapy.

  6. Celiac disease diagnosed after uncomplicated pregnancy in a patient with history of bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Milisavljević, Nemanja; Cvetković, Mirjana; Nikolić, Goran; Filipović, Branka; Milinić, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    The association between celiac disease and eating disorders has been very rarely reported. This is the first report on celiac disease associated with bulimia in this part of Europe. An adult female patient with history of bulimia and one uncomplicated pregnancy was admitted to the Gastroenterology Department, due to long lasting dyspeptic symptoms, constipation, major weight loss and fatigue. After positive serological screening, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed with histopathology examination of duodenal biopsy specimen. Complicated interactions between celiac disease and bulimia can make them difficult to diagnose and treat. It is important to consider the presence of celiac disease in patients with bulimia and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  7. Diagnoses, Intervention Strategies, and Rates of Functional Improvement in Integrated Behavioral Health Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Ana J.; Gregus, Samantha J.; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compared with more traditional mental health care, integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) offers greater access to services and earlier identification and intervention of behavioral and mental health difficulties. The current study examined demographic, diagnostic, and intervention factors that predict positive changes for IBHC patients. Method Participants were 1,150 consecutive patients (mean age = 30.10 years, 66.6% female, 60.1% Hispanic, 47.9% uninsured) seen for IBHC services at 2 primary care clinics over a 34-month period. Patients presented with depressive (23.2%), anxiety (18.6%), adjustment (11.3%), and childhood externalizing (7.6%) disorders, with 25.7% of patients receiving no diagnosis. Results The most commonly delivered interventions included behavioral activation (26.1%), behavioral medicine-specific consultation (14.6%), relaxation training (10.3%), and parent-management training (8.5%). There was high concordance between diagnoses and evidence-based intervention selection. We used latent growth curve modeling to explore predictors of baseline global assessment of functioning (GAF) and improvements in GAF across sessions, utilizing data from a subset of 117 patients who attended at least 3 behavioral health visits. Hispanic ethnicity and being insured predicted higher baseline GAF, while patients with an anxiety disorder had lower baseline GAF than patients with other diagnoses. Controlling for primary diagnosis, patients receiving behavioral activation or exposure therapy improved at faster rates than patients receiving other interventions. Demographic variables did not relate to rates of improvement. Conclusion Results suggest even brief IBHC interventions can be focused, targeting specific patient concerns with evidence-based treatment components. PMID:25774786

  8. Community-based MDR-TB care project improves treatment initiation in patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Wai, Pyae Phyo; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Thein, Saw; Si Thu, Aung; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Aye, Nyein Nyein; Phyo, Aye Mon; Maung, Htet Myet Win; Soe, Kyaw Thu; Aung, Si Thu

    2018-01-01

    The Union in collaboration with national TB programme (NTP) started the community-based MDR-TB care (CBMDR-TBC) project in 33 townships of upper Myanmar to improve treatment initiation and treatment adherence. Patients with MDR-TB diagnosed/registered under NTP received support through the project staff, in addition to the routine domiciliary care provided by NTP staff. Each township had a project nurse exclusively for MDR-TB and 30 USD per month (max. for 4 months) were provided to the patient as a pre-treatment support. To assess whether CBMDR-TBC project's support improved treatment initiation. In this cohort study (involving record review) of all diagnosed MDR-TB between January 2015 and June 2016 in project townships, CBMDR-TBC status was categorized as "receiving support" if date of project initiation in patient's township was before the date of diagnosis and "not receiving support", if otherwise. Cox proportional hazards regression (censored on 31 Dec 2016) was done to identify predictors of treatment initiation. Of 456 patients, 57% initiated treatment: 64% and 56% among patients "receiving support (n = 208)" and "not receiving support (n = 228)" respectively (CBMDR-TBC status was not known in 20 (4%) patients due to missing diagnosis dates). Among those initiated on treatment (n = 261), median (IQR) time to initiate treatment was 38 (20, 76) days: 31 (18, 50) among patients "receiving support" and 50 (26,101) among patients "not receiving support". After adjusting other potential confounders (age, sex, region, HIV, past history of TB treatment), patients "receiving support" had 80% higher chance of initiating treatment [aHR (0.95 CI): 1.8 (1.3, 2.3)] when compared to patients "not receiving support". In addition, age 15-54 years, previous history of TB and being HIV negative were independent predictors of treatment initiation. Receiving support under CBMDR-TBC project improved treatment initiation: it not only improved the proportion initiated but also

  9. The Effectiveness of Predict-Observe-Explain Tasks in Diagnosing Students' Understanding of Science and in Identifying Their Levels of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chong-Wah; Treagust, David F.

    This study involves action research to explore the effectiveness of the Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) technique in diagnosing students' understanding of science and identifying their levels of achievement. A multidimensional interpretive framework is used to interpret students' understanding of science. The research methodology incorporated…

  10. Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in Sweden 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Annika; Björkman, Per; Bratt, Göran; Ekvall, Håkan; Gisslén, Magnus; Sönnerborg, Anders; Mild, Mattias; Albert, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is a clinical and epidemiological problem because it may contribute to failure of antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of TDR varies geographically, and its prevalence in Sweden during the last decade has not been reported. Plasma samples from 1,463 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2003 and 2010, representing 44% of all patients diagnosed in Sweden during this period, were analyzed using the WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of TDR. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used to determine genetic subtype and to investigate the relatedness of the sequences. Eighty-two patients showed evidence of TDR, representing a prevalence of 5.6% (95% CI: 4.5%-6.9%) without any significant time trends or differences between patients infected in Sweden or abroad. Multivariable logistic regression showed that TDR was positively associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and subtype B infection and negatively associated with CD4 cell counts. Among patients with TDR, 54 (68%) had single resistance mutations, whereas five patients had multi-drug resistant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses identified nine significantly supported clusters involving 29 of the patients with TDR, including 23 of 42 (55%) of the patients with TDR acquired in Sweden. One cluster contained 18 viruses with a M41L resistance mutation, which had spread among MSM in Stockholm over a period of at least 16 years (1994-2010). Another cluster, which contained the five multidrug resistant viruses, also involved MSM from Stockholm. The prevalence of TDR in Sweden 2003-2010 was lower than in many other European countries. TDR was concentrated among MSM, where clustering of TDR strains was observed, which highlights the need for continued and improved measures for targeted interventions.

  11. Low Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Patients Newly Diagnosed with HIV-1 Infection in Sweden 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Annika; Björkman, Per; Bratt, Göran; Ekvall, Håkan; Gisslén, Magnus; Sönnerborg, Anders; Mild, Mattias; Albert, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is a clinical and epidemiological problem because it may contribute to failure of antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of TDR varies geographically, and its prevalence in Sweden during the last decade has not been reported. Plasma samples from 1,463 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2003 and 2010, representing 44% of all patients diagnosed in Sweden during this period, were analyzed using the WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of TDR. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used to determine genetic subtype and to investigate the relatedness of the sequences. Eighty-two patients showed evidence of TDR, representing a prevalence of 5.6% (95% CI: 4.5%–6.9%) without any significant time trends or differences between patients infected in Sweden or abroad. Multivariable logistic regression showed that TDR was positively associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and subtype B infection and negatively associated with CD4 cell counts. Among patients with TDR, 54 (68%) had single resistance mutations, whereas five patients had multi-drug resistant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses identified nine significantly supported clusters involving 29 of the patients with TDR, including 23 of 42 (55%) of the patients with TDR acquired in Sweden. One cluster contained 18 viruses with a M41L resistance mutation, which had spread among MSM in Stockholm over a period of at least 16 years (1994–2010). Another cluster, which contained the five multidrug resistant viruses, also involved MSM from Stockholm. The prevalence of TDR in Sweden 2003–2010 was lower than in many other European countries. TDR was concentrated among MSM, where clustering of TDR strains was observed, which highlights the need for continued and improved measures for targeted interventions. PMID:22448246

  12. A Pilot Safety Study of Lenalidomide and Radiotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Drappatz, Jan; Division of Cancer Neurology, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Wong, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide, an analogue of thalidomide with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties and a more favorable toxicity profile, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when given concurrently with radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM received radiotherapy concurrently with lenalidomide given for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period and continued lenalidomide until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation occurred in groups of 6. Determination of the MTD was based on toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was toxicity. Results: Twenty-threemore » patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were treated and evaluable for both toxicity and tumor response and 2 were evaluable for toxicity only. Common toxicities included venous thromboembolic disease, fatigue, and nausea. Dose-limiting toxicities were eosinophilic pneumonitis and transaminase elevations. The MTD for lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg/m{sup 2}/d. Conclusion: The recommended dose for lenalidomide with radiotherapy is 15 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 4 patients, and prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered.« less

  13. Allelic distribution of human leucocyte antigen in historical and recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Giuseppina; Cosentini, Elena; Zanzi, Delia; Sanna, Veronica; Terrazzano, Giuseppe; Matarese, Giuseppe; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Perna, Francesco; Zappacosta, Serafino

    2004-03-01

    This study addresses the analysis of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele distribution in 54 historical and in 68 recently diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients. The historical cohort was characterized by the presence of large fibrocavernous lesions effectively treated with therapeutic pneumothorax during the period 1950-55. Patients and healthy controls enrolled in the study were from the Campania region of southern Italy. No significant association between HLA alleles and TB in the population of recently diagnosed TB patients was observed. On the contrary, among the historical TB patients there was a strong association with an increased frequency of the HLA-DR4 allele alone and/or in the presence of the HLA-B14 allele (P = 0.000004; Pc = 0.0008), as well as with a decreased frequency of the HLA-A2+,-B14-,DR4- allele association (P = 0.00005; Pc = 0.01). In order to exclude any interference from age-related factors, these results were confirmed by comparing the historical cohort of TB patients with an age-matched healthy control population of the same ethnic origin (P = 0.00004; Pc = 0.008; and P = 0.0001; and Pc = 0.02, respectively).

  14. Accuracy of alpha amylase in diagnosing microaspiration in intubated critically-ill patients.

    PubMed

    Dewavrin, Florent; Zerimech, Farid; Boyer, Alexandre; Maboudou, Patrice; Balduyck, Malika; Duhamel, Alain; Nseir, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Amylase concentration in respiratory secretions was reported to be a potentially useful marker for aspiration and pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine accuracy of α-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration in critically ill patients. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data collected in a medical ICU. All patients requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h, and included in a previous randomized controlled trial were eligible for this study, provided that at least one tracheal aspirate was available for α-amylase measurement. As part of the initial trial, pepsin was quantitatively measured in all tracheal aspirates during a 48-h period. All tracheal aspirates were frozen, allowing subsequent measurement of α-amylase for the purpose of the current study. Microaspiration was defined as the presence of at least one positive tracheal aspirate for pepsin (>200 ng.mL-1). Abundant microaspiration was defined as the presence of pepsin at significant level in >74% of tracheal aspirates. Amylase was measured in 1055 tracheal aspirates, collected from 109 patients. Using mean α-amylase level per patient, accuracy of α-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration was moderate (area under the receiver operator curve 0.72±0.05 [95%CI 0.61-0.83], for an α-amylase value of 1685 UI.L-1). However, when α-amylase levels, coming from all samples, were taken into account, area under the receiver operator curve was 0.56±0.05 [0.53-0.60]. Mean α-amylase level, and percentage of tracheal aspirates positive for α-amylase were significantly higher in patients with microaspiration, and in patients with abundant microaspiration compared with those with no microaspiration; and similar in patients with microaspiration compared with those with abundant microaspiration. α-amylase and pepsin were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.305, p = 0.001). Accuracy of mean α-amylase in diagnosing microaspiration is moderate. Further, when all α-amylase levels

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder among recently diagnosed patients with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olley, B O; Zeier, M D; Seedat, S; Stein, D J

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder in recently diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients in South Africa. One hundred and forty-nine (44 male, 105 female) recently diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients (mean duration since diagnosis = 5.8 months, SD = 4.1) were evaluated. Subjects were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Carver Brief COPE coping scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale. In addition, previous exposures to trauma and past risk behaviours were assessed. Twenty-two patients (14.8%) met criteria for PTSD. Current psychiatric conditions more likely to be associated with PTSD included major depressive disorder (29% in PTSD patients versus 7% in non-PTSD patients, p = 0.004), suicidality (54% versus 11%, p = 0.001) and social anxiety disorder (40% versus 13%, p = 0.04). Further patients with PTSD reported significantly more work impairment and demonstrated a trend towards higher usage of alcohol as a means of coping. Discriminant function analysis indicated that female gender and a history of sexual violation in the past year were significantly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD. Patients whose PTSD was a direct result of an HIV/AIDS diagnosis (8/22) did not differ from other patients with PTSD on demographic or clinical features. In the South African context, PTSD is not an uncommon disorder in patients with HIV/AIDS. In some cases, PTSD is secondary to the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS but in most cases it is seen after other traumas, with sexual violation and intimate partner violence in women being particularly important.

  16. A primary intestinal lymphangiectasia patient diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and confirmed at surgery: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Fang, You-Hong; Zhang, Bing-Ling; Wu, Jia-Guo; Chen, Chun-Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilated lymphatic vessles in the intestinal wall and small bowel mesentery which induce loss of protein and lymphocytes into bowel lumen. Because it most often occurs in the intestine and cannot be detected by upper gastroendoscopy or colonoscopy, and the value of common image examinations such as X-ray and computerized tomography (CT) are limited, the diagnosis of IL is difficult, usually needing the help of surgery. Capsule endoscopy is useful in diagnosing intestinal diseases, such as IL. We here report a case of IL in a female patient who was admitted for the complaint of recurrent edema accompanied with diarrhea and abdominal pain over the last twenty years, and aggravated ten days ago. She was diagnosed by M2A capsule endoscopy as a primary IL and confirmed by surgical and pathological examination. PMID:17465517

  17. A primary intestinal lymphangiectasia patient diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and confirmed at surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fang, You-Hong; Zhang, Bing-Ling; Wu, Jia-Guo; Chen, Chun-Xiao

    2007-04-21

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilated lymphatic vessles in the intestinal wall and small bowel mesentery which induce loss of protein and lymphocytes into bowel lumen. Because it most often occurs in the intestine and cannot be detected by upper gastroendoscopy or colonoscopy, and the value of common image examinations such as X-ray and computerized tomography (CT) are limited, the diagnosis of IL is difficult, usually needing the help of surgery. Capsule endoscopy is useful in diagnosing intestinal diseases, such as IL. We here report a case of IL in a female patient who was admitted for the complaint of recurrent edema accompanied with diarrhea and abdominal pain over the last twenty years, and aggravated ten days ago. She was diagnosed by M2A capsule endoscopy as a primary IL and confirmed by surgical and pathological examination.

  18. [Consensus on nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes for home care of patients with heart failure].

    PubMed

    Azzolin, Karina; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; Ruschel, Karen Brasil; Mussi, Cláudia Motta; de Lucena, Amália Fátima; Rabelo, Eneida Rejane

    2012-12-01

    This was a consensus study with six cardiology nurses with the objective of selecting nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions described by NANDA International (NANDA-I), Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC), for home care of patients with heart failure (HF). Eight nursing diagnoses (NDs) were pre-selected and a consensus was achieved in three stages, during which interventions/activities and outcomes/indicators of each NDs were validated and those considered valid obtained 70% to 100% consensus. From the eight pre-selected NDs, two were excluded due to the lack of consensus on appropriate interventions for the clinical home care scenario. Eleven interventions were selected from a total of 96 pre-selected ones and seven outcomes were validated out of 71. The practice of consensus among expert nurses provides assistance to the qualifications of the care process and deepens the knowledge about the use of tazonomies in nursing clinical practice.

  19. Prostate cancer incidence and newly diagnosed patient profile in Spain in 2010.

    PubMed

    Cózar, José M; Miñana, Bernardino; Gómez-Veiga, Francisco; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Villavicencio, Humberto; Cantalapiedra, Arancha; Pedrosa, Emilio

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Prostate cancer (PCa) accounts for 12% of newly diagnosed cases of cancer in Europe. It is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumours in the developed world. Since the introduction of prostate specific antigen as a test for early detection of PCa, the rate of diagnosis has increased significantly and specific mortality has reduced in most western countries. Most of the data on the incidence of PCa are obtained from population-based cancer registries which frequently do not cover the whole population. This first national hospital-based PCa registry aims not only to estimate the incidence of the disease but to ascertain the clinical profile of newly diagnosed PCa patients, a useful tool for evaluating the impact of the disease and its socio-health management. • To estimate the 2010 incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in Spain. • To describe the clinical profile of newly diagnosed cases using a nationwide hospital-based registry. • This was a national epidemiological observational study in 25 public hospitals with a specific reference population according to the National Health System. • Sociodemographic and clinical variables of all newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed PCa cases were collected in 2010, in the area of influence of each centre. Cases diagnosed in private practice were not collected (estimated nearly 10% in Spain). • Data monitoring was external to guarantee quality and homogeneity. • The age-standardized PCa incidence was determined based on the age distribution of the European standard population. • In all, 4087 new cases of PCa were diagnosed for a reference population of 4933940 men (21.8% of the Spanish male population). • The estimated age-standardized PCa incidence was 70.75 cases per 100000 men. • Mean age at diagnosis was 69 years; 11.6% of patients presented with tumour-related symptoms and 39.5% with LUTS. Median PSA was 8 ng/mL. Gleason score was ≤ 6 in

  20. Experiences of family of patient with newly diagnosed advanced terminal stage hepatocellular cancer.

    PubMed

    Shih, Whei-Mei Jean; Hsiao, Ping-Ju; Chen, Min-Li; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide due to its generally poor prognosis. Caregiver burden for liver cancer cases is higher than with other cancer and needs especial attention. To explore the experiences of families of patients with newly diagnosed advanced terminal stage hepatocellular cancer by interview. Nine participants were recruited in this study. Content analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: blaming oneself, disrupting the pace of life, searching all possible regimens, and not letting go. This study provides new insight into the needs and support of family members especially when they are facing loved ones with newly diagnosed advanced terminal stage HCC. These results will inform future supportive care service development and intervention research aimed at providing assistance in reducing unmet supportive care needs and psychological distress of these family members.

  1. Community-based MDR-TB care project improves treatment initiation in patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Thein, Saw; Si Thu, Aung; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Aye, Nyein Nyein; Phyo, Aye Mon; Maung, Htet Myet Win; Soe, Kyaw Thu; Aung, Si Thu

    2018-01-01

    Background The Union in collaboration with national TB programme (NTP) started the community-based MDR-TB care (CBMDR-TBC) project in 33 townships of upper Myanmar to improve treatment initiation and treatment adherence. Patients with MDR-TB diagnosed/registered under NTP received support through the project staff, in addition to the routine domiciliary care provided by NTP staff. Each township had a project nurse exclusively for MDR-TB and 30 USD per month (max. for 4 months) were provided to the patient as a pre-treatment support. Objectives To assess whether CBMDR-TBC project’s support improved treatment initiation. Methods In this cohort study (involving record review) of all diagnosed MDR-TB between January 2015 and June 2016 in project townships, CBMDR-TBC status was categorized as “receiving support” if date of project initiation in patient’s township was before the date of diagnosis and “not receiving support”, if otherwise. Cox proportional hazards regression (censored on 31 Dec 2016) was done to identify predictors of treatment initiation. Results Of 456 patients, 57% initiated treatment: 64% and 56% among patients “receiving support (n = 208)” and “not receiving support (n = 228)” respectively (CBMDR-TBC status was not known in 20 (4%) patients due to missing diagnosis dates). Among those initiated on treatment (n = 261), median (IQR) time to initiate treatment was 38 (20, 76) days: 31 (18, 50) among patients “receiving support” and 50 (26,101) among patients “not receiving support”. After adjusting other potential confounders (age, sex, region, HIV, past history of TB treatment), patients “receiving support” had 80% higher chance of initiating treatment [aHR (0.95 CI): 1.8 (1.3, 2.3)] when compared to patients “not receiving support”. In addition, age 15–54 years, previous history of TB and being HIV negative were independent predictors of treatment initiation. Conclusion Receiving support under CBMDR-TBC project

  2. Poverty, comorbidity, and survival of colorectal cancer patients diagnosed in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Polednak, A P

    2001-08-01

    Studies have reported reduced survival rates for colorectal cancer patients in lower socioeconomic status categories, but this finding could be due (at least in part) to higher comorbidity. This study involved 1,219 patients diagnosed with invasive colorectal cancer in 1992 who were reported to the population-based Connecticut Tumor Registry and followed to their death or through the end of 1997. Risk of death was elevated for patients living in census tracts in the highest quintile for poverty rate, independent of comorbidity (as recorded in a hospital discharge database), age, and stage at diagnosis. Patients living in census tracts with a poverty rate of 20 percent or higher had the highest risk of death. The explanation for these findings requires further study, in order to reduce socioeconomic status disparities in survival rates.

  3. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  4. Medical visits, antihypertensive prescriptions and medication adherence among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyoseon; Kim, Hyeongsu; Lee, Kunsei; Lee, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hye Mi; Shin, Soon Ae; Kim, Vitna

    2017-03-17

    The objective of this study was to assess the antihypertensive medication adherence in patients who were newly diagnosed with hypertension in Korea. Study subjects were diagnosed with hypertension for the first time by the General Health Screening in 2012 and were 65,919. As indices, visiting rate to medical institution, the antihypertensive prescription rate, medication possession ratio and the rate of appropriate medication adherence were used. The qualification data, the General Health Screening data and the health insurance claims data were used. Visiting rate to medical institution within one-year was 42.3%. Gender, age, family history of hypertension, smoking status, drinking frequency, insurance type, BMI, hypertension status, blood glucose level and LDL-cholesterol level were significant variables for visiting a medical institution. Of the study subjects who visited a medical institution, the antihypertensive prescription rate was 89.1%. Medication possession ratio was 70.9% and the rate of appropriate medication adherence was 60.6%. Age, family history of hypertension, smoking status, BMI level, hypertension level, blood glucose level, status, and LDL-cholesterol level were significant variables for the antihypertensive prescription and gender, age, family history of hypertension, smoking status, BMI, hypertension status, and the time of the first visit to a medical institution were significant variables for appropriate medication adherence. This study showed that the antihypertensive medication adherence in patients who were newly diagnosed with hypertension was not relatively high in Korea. National Health Insurance Service should support an environment in which medical institutions and those diagnosed with hypertension can fulfill their roles.

  5. Mutation screening of patients with Alzheimer disease identifies APP locus duplication in a Swedish patient

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Missense mutations in three different genes encoding amyloid-β precursor protein, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 are recognized to cause familial early-onset Alzheimer disease. Also duplications of the amyloid precursor protein gene have been shown to cause the disease. At the Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden, patients are referred for mutation screening for the identification of nucleotide variations and for determining copy-number of the APP locus. Methods We combined the method of microsatellite marker genotyping with a quantitative real-time PCR analysis to detect duplications in patients with Alzheimer disease. Results In 22 DNA samples from individuals diagnosed with clinical Alzheimer disease, we identified one patient carrying a duplication on chromosome 21 which included the APP locus. Further mapping of the chromosomal region by array-comparative genome hybridization showed that the duplication spanned a maximal region of 1.09 Mb. Conclusions This is the first report of an APP duplication in a Swedish Alzheimer patient and describes the use of quantitative real-time PCR as a tool for determining copy-number of the APP locus. PMID:22044463

  6. Mutation screening of patients with Alzheimer disease identifies APP locus duplication in a Swedish patient.

    PubMed

    Thonberg, Håkan; Fallström, Marie; Björkström, Jenny; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Nennesmo, Inger; Graff, Caroline

    2011-11-01

    Missense mutations in three different genes encoding amyloid-β precursor protein, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 are recognized to cause familial early-onset Alzheimer disease. Also duplications of the amyloid precursor protein gene have been shown to cause the disease. At the Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden, patients are referred for mutation screening for the identification of nucleotide variations and for determining copy-number of the APP locus. We combined the method of microsatellite marker genotyping with a quantitative real-time PCR analysis to detect duplications in patients with Alzheimer disease. In 22 DNA samples from individuals diagnosed with clinical Alzheimer disease, we identified one patient carrying a duplication on chromosome 21 which included the APP locus. Further mapping of the chromosomal region by array-comparative genome hybridization showed that the duplication spanned a maximal region of 1.09 Mb. This is the first report of an APP duplication in a Swedish Alzheimer patient and describes the use of quantitative real-time PCR as a tool for determining copy-number of the APP locus.

  7. Long-term clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with severe digital ischemia.

    PubMed

    Keo, Hong H; Umer, Melika; Baumgartner, Iris; Willenberg, Torsten; Gretener, Silvia B

    2011-02-18

    To investigate the aetiology and long-term clinical outcomes of patients diagnosed with digital ischemia. Data of 36 consecutive patients presenting with digital ischemia were collected in July 2000 to June 2001 from a vascular referral centre. Demographic data, aetiology, medication and treatment were abstracted from the medical records. Clinical outcomes were assessed at 5 year follow-up including ulcer healing, digital amputation and mortality. Of the 36 patients, 69.4% were male and the mean age was 55±14 years. In 15 patients (41.7%) a systemic disease was present and of those 53.3% was due to connective tissue disease. Twelve patients (33.3%) had hypothenar hammer syndrome and in 8 patients (22.2%) no apparent cause was found. Whereas 13 patients (36.1%) presented with rest pain or trophic lesions at baseline, no patients presented with these symptoms at follow-up. At follow-up, 18 (62.1%) patients had symptoms on provocation and 5 patients (4 patients with systemic disease and 1 with no apparent cause) had died. Digital amputation was performed in one patient at initial presentation and no digital amputation was performed at follow-up. No ulcer reoccurred and no workers' insurance compensation was applied. Of those with hypothenar hammer syndrome, 80.0% had symptoms on provocation at follow-up. Among patients with digital ischemia, systemic disease and hypothenar hammer syndrome were the most frequent aetiologies. In patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome the clinical outcome was remarkably benign, although symptoms may persist with provocation, whereas patients with systemic disease have a high mortality rate.

  8. Dyspnea and Panic Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jennifer A.; Kosiba, Jesse D.; Traeger, Lara; Greer, Joseph A.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Pirl, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Context Among patients with lung cancer, dyspnea is associated with psychological distress, fatigue, and poor coping. Respiratory symptoms are also a common trigger for panic attacks in the general population. Minimal research has addressed the prevalence of panic disorder or the association of dyspnea with risk of panic disorder in lung cancer. Objectives We explored the frequency of panic disorder symptoms and the association of dyspnea with risk of panic disorder symptoms among patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods During 2006–2010, consecutive patients presenting for initial consultation at a thoracic oncology clinic completed a survey of current symptoms, including dyspnea and panic disorder symptoms. We evaluated the frequency of panic disorder symptoms. Logistic regression was used to test the association of dyspnea with risk of panic disorder symptoms, adjusting for age, gender, disease stage, performance status, and major depression symptoms. Results Among 624 patients (M age=63.7 [SD=12.1]; 52.6% female), 48.1% reported that breathing was at least somewhat difficult and 11.2% endorsed panic disorder symptoms. Dyspnea was independently associated with higher risk of panic disorder symptoms (OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.11–4.31, P=0.02). Younger age and major depression symptoms also were associated with higher risk (P’s<0.01). Conclusion Almost half of patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC reported dyspnea, and patients with dyspnea were over twice as likely to endorse panic disorder symptoms relative to patients without dyspnea. Results highlight the need to differentiate panic disorder symptoms among patients who report dyspnea, particularly those who are younger or experiencing major depression symptoms. PMID:24766738

  9. Impact of opioid use on health care utilization and survival in patients with newly diagnosed stage IV malignancies.

    PubMed

    Zylla, Dylan; Steele, Grant; Shapiro, Alice; Richter, Sara; Gupta, Pankaj

    2018-07-01

    Patients with advanced cancers frequently experience pain. Opioids are commonly prescribed to treat cancer-related pain, but their use might be associated with undesirable consequences including adverse effects and tumor progression, resulting in increased heath care utilization and shorter survival. We examined these possibilities in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with ten common advanced malignancies. We identified 1386 newly diagnosed patients with stage IV non-hematologic malignancies from 2005 to 2013 and ascertained opioid utilization within 90 days of starting anti-cancer treatment using electronic medical record and tumor registry data. Opioid utilization was stratified into low opioid (LO; < 5 mg oral morphine equivalents (OME)/day) and high opioid (HO; ≥ 5 mg OME/day). Health care utilization included tallies of emergency room, urgent care, and inpatient visits. The association of opioid use, tumor type prognosis, age, and gender with overall survival was analyzed in univariate and multivariate models. HO use patients (n = 624) had greater health care utilization compared to LO use patients (n = 762; p < 0.05). HO use patients also had shorter survival (median survival, 5.5 vs 12.4 months; p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, HO use remained associated with shorter overall survival (HR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6; p < 0.0001) after adjusting for age, gender, and prognostic group. In advanced cancer patients, HO use is associated with greater health care utilization and shorter survival. Prospective studies using opioid-sparing approaches are indicated, to confirm these retrospective findings and to evaluate if these undesirable effects associated with opioid use can be mitigated.

  10. Diabetes Mellitus among Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients in Tribal Odisha: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Manjareeka, Magna; Palo, Subrata Kumar; Swain, Subhashisa; Pati, Sandipana; Pati, Sanghamitra

    2016-10-01

    The association between Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Tuberculosis (TB) poses a strong public health challenge. Tribal ethnics possess a different propensity towards infectious and haematological diseases which may influence the inter-relationship of DM and TB and thus merit separate attention. To investigate the prevalence of diabetes in newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients of tribal ethnicity in Odisha. A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 9 months at four designated TB microscopic centres in a tribal district (Malkangiri) of Odisha. A total of 110 tribal adults newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB were examined for Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) level. Diagnosis of DM and Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) were based on cut-off value of FBS recommended by the WHO. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 22.0. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG are found to be 13.9% and 8.9%, respectively. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the mean ages of the TB only (45.9 years) and TB-DM co-morbidity patients (53.8 years). No significant association was found between gender and diabetes. Clinical characteristics of TB were similar in TB and TB-DM co-morbidity patients. The prevalence of high FBS was found to be higher in newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients of tribal ethnicity thus indicating the need for intensified bidirectional screening. Further studies should be undertaken towards the risk profiling of diabetes and other lifestyle diseases in this population.

  11. The Frequency of Enterobius Vermicularis Infections in Patients Diagnosed With Acute Appendicitis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Bilal, Muhammad; Anis, Khurram; Khan, Ali Mahmood; Fatima, Kaneez; Ahmed, Iqbal; Khatri, Ali Mohammad; Shafiq-ur-Rehman

    2015-02-24

    The main aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Enterobius vermicularis infections and other unique histopathological findings in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan over a time period of 9 years from 2005 to 2013. The recorded demographic and histopathological data for the 2956 appendectomies performed during this time frame were extracted using a structured template form. Negative and incidental appendectomies were excluded from the study. Out of the 2956 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis, 84 (2.8%) patients had Enterobius vermicularis infections. Malignancy (n=2, 0.1%) and infection with Ascaris (n=1, 0.1%) was found very rarely among the patients.Eggs in lumen (n=22, 0.7%), mucinous cystadenoma (n=28, 1.0%), mucocele (n=11, 0.4%), lymphoma (n=9, 0.3%), obstruction in lumen (n=17, 0.6%) and purulent exudate (n=37, 1.3%) were also seldom seen in the histopathological reports. Enterobius vermicularis manifestation is a rare overall but a leading parasitic cause of appendicitis. Steps such as early diagnosis and regular de worming may help eradicate the need for surgeries.

  12. The Frequency of Enterobius Vermicularis Infections in Patients Diagnosed With Acute Appendicitis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Bilal, Muhammad; Anis, Khurram; Khan, Ali Mahmood; Fatima, Kaneez; Ahmed, Iqbal; Khatri, Ali Mohammad; Shafiq-ur-Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Enterobius Vermicularis infections and other unique histopathological findings in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Materials: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan over a time period of 9 years from 2005 to 2013. The recorded demographic and histopathological data for the 2956 appendectomies performed during this time frame were extracted using a structured template form. Negative and incidental appendectomies were excluded from the study. Results: Out of the 2956 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis, 84 (2.8%) patients had Enterobius Vermicularis infections. Malignancy (n=2, 0.1%) and infection with Ascaris (n=1, 0.1%) was found very rarely among the patients. Eggs in lumen (n=22, 0.7%), mucinous cystadenoma (n=28, 1.0%), mucocele (n=11, 0.4%), lymphoma (n=9, 0.3%), obstruction in lumen (n=17, 0.6%) and purulent exudate (n=37, 1.3%) were also seldom seen in the histopathological reports. Conclusion: Enterobius Vermicularis manifestation is a rare overall but a leading parasitic cause of appendicitis. Steps such as early diagnosis and regular de worming may help eradicate the need for surgeries. PMID:26156929

  13. Do depressed newly diagnosed cancer patients differentially benefit from nurse navigation?

    PubMed

    Ludman, Evette J; McCorkle, Ruth; Bowles, Erin Aiello; Rutter, Carolyn M; Chubak, Jessica; Tuzzio, Leah; Jones, Salene; Reid, Robert J; Penfold, Robert; Wagner, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether the effects of a nurse navigator intervention for cancer vary with baseline depressive symptoms. Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a nurse navigation intervention for patients newly diagnosed with lung, breast or colorectal cancer (N=251). This exploratory analysis used linear regression models to estimate the effect of a nurse navigator intervention on patient experience of care. Models estimated differential effects by including interactions between randomization group and baseline depressive symptoms. Baseline scores on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) were categorized into 3 groups: no depression (PHQ=0-4, N=138), mild symptoms of depression (PHQ=5-9, N=76) and moderate to severe symptoms (PHQ=10 or greater, N=34). Patient experience outcomes were measured by subscales of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and subscales from an adaptation of the Picker Institute's patient experience survey at 4-month follow-up. With the exception of the PACIC subscale of delivery system/practice design, interaction terms between randomization group and PHQ-9 scores were not statistically significant. The intervention was broadly useful; we found that it was equally beneficial for both depressed patients and patients who were not significantly depressed in the first 4 months postdiagnosis. However, because of the small sample size, we cannot conclude with certainty that patients with depressive symptoms did not differentially benefit from the intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying patients with depression who require a change in treatment and implementing that change.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, George I

    2016-02-01

    Creating an effective treatment regimen for patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) can be a challenge for clinicians. With each treatment trial, only 20% to 30% of patients achieve remission, and many of those who do reach remission experience residual symptoms. Patients with treatment-resistant depression or with residual symptoms are candidates for a change in treatment. Other patients requiring treatment changes are those who experience intolerable adverse effects and those who experience an illness recurrence. Because early detection can lead to improved outcomes, clinicians must be vigilant about assessing patients to identify when one or more of these situations occur. Clinicians must also communicate effectively with their patients to ensure that they understand the treatment strategies, goals, and potential adverse effects; have realistic expectations of treatment; and express their treatment preferences. Timely and appropriate treatment adjustment is necessary to help patients with MDD achieve recovery. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Innate Cellular Immunity in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients and During Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Edem, Victory Fabian; Arinola, Ganiyu Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte migration (LM) and intracellular killing aspects of the innate immune response play important roles in protection against and containment and cure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and thus may be exploited as immunotherapeutic targets to improve the management and treatment outcomes of patients with tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess LM and mediators of intracellular killing in patients with TB at the time of diagnosis and during anti-TB chemotherapy and compare them with apparently healthy controls. We recruited 24 patients who were newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 20 apparently healthy individuals. Blood was drawn from patients with TB at the time of diagnosis, and after 2, 4, and 6 months of anti-TB chemotherapy and control. In vitro percentage LM (%LM) upon stimulation with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, percentage nitroblue tetrazolium (%NBT) reduction, plasma concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in both groups. Percentage NBT was significantly reduced in patients with TB at 2 months of anti-TB chemotherapy compared with patients at diagnosis and in healthy controls, whereas %LM was significantly increased in patients at 4 months of anti-TB chemotherapy compared with patients at diagnosis and controls. Mean plasma H2O2 and NO were significantly reduced in patients at diagnosis and throughout the period of anti-TB chemotherapy compared with the control group. Significant decreases were demonstrated in mean plasma H2O2 and NO in patients at 2 and 4 months of anti-TB chemotherapy, respectively, compared with patients at diagnosis. There was significant positive correlation between %NBT with plasma H2O2 and NO, but %LM was negatively correlated with plasma H2O2 in this group. The intracellular killing aspect of innate cellular immunity is deficient in patients with TB, especially 2 to 4 months after commencement of treatment. Therefore, measures (eg, arginine supplementation

  16. Multiple myeloma can be accurately diagnosed in acute kidney injury patients using a rapid serum free light chain test.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Campbell, John P; Yadav, Punit; Griffin, Ann E; Shemar, Meena; Pinney, Jennifer H; Drayson, Mark T

    2017-07-20

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Whether serum free light chain (sFLC) measurements can distinguish between myeloma and other causes of AKI requires confirmation to guide early treatment. A rapid and portable sFLC test (Seralite®) is newly available and could reduce delays in obtaining sFLC results and accelerate diagnosis in patients with unexplained AKI. This study evaluated the accuracy of Seralite® to identify MM as the cause of AKI. sFLCs were retrospectively analysed in patients with AKI stage 3 as per KDIGO criteria (i.e. serum creatinine ≥354 μmol/L or those on dialysis treatment) (n = 99); 45/99 patients had a confirmed MM diagnosis. The Seralite® κ:λ FLC ratio accurately diagnosed all MM patients in the presence of AKI: a range of 0.14-2.02 returned 100% sensitivity and specificity for identifying all non-myeloma related AKI patients. The sFLC difference (dFLC) also demonstrated high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%): an optimal cut-off of 399 mg/L distinguished between myeloma and non-myeloma AKI patients. We propose a pathway of patient screening and stratification in unexplained AKI for use of Seralite® in clinical practice, with a κ:λ ratio range of 0.14-2.02 and dFLC 400 mg/L as decision points. Seralite® accurately differentiates between AKI due to MM and AKI due to other causes in patients considered at risk of myeloma. This rapid test can sensitively screen for MM in patients with AKI and help inform early treatment intervention.

  17. Severity profiles in patients diagnosed of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miñana, B; Rodríguez-Antolín, A; Prieto, M; Pedrosa, E

    2013-10-01

    To analyse the severity profiles and progression criteria in patients diagnosed of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in urology clinics in Spain. A multicentre observational epidemiological study conducted in Spain between May-November 2008. A representative sample of 392 urologist gathered socio-demographic, clinical and patient-centered data from three consecutive patients with new diagnostic of BPH in urology clinics. A total of 1.115 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 65.7 years old. Mean time from the onset of symptoms to diagnostic was 18,8 months. Mean IPSS score was 17.2. 63 patients (5,7%) had mild symptoms; 670 (60,1%) had moderate symptoms with a mean IPSS score of 14.6 and 382 (34.3%) had severe symptoms with a mean IPSS score of 23.7. Mean PSA was 2.6 ng/ml and ultrasound measured prostatic volume was 49.2cc. A total of 713 (63,9%) patients met progression criteria (PSA >1.5 ng/ml and volume>30 cc). Symptoms severity was directly correlated with age, prostatic volume, PSA, presence of progression criteria and time from the onset of symptoms and inversely correlated with urine flow rate (P<.001). Progression criteria was directly correlated with age, symptoms severity and inversely with urine flow rate (P<.01). More than 90% of patients diagnosed of BPH in urology clinics in Spain had moderate to severe symptoms. Two thirds met progression criteria that correlate with age and severity of symptoms. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Anxiety, Depression, and Health-Related QOL in Patients Diagnosed with PAH or CTEPH.

    PubMed

    Pfeuffer, Elena; Krannich, Holger; Halank, Michael; Wilkens, Heinrike; Kolb, Philipp; Jany, Berthold; Held, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are life-threatening diseases with a high burden of symptoms. Although depression, anxiety, and reduced health related quality of life (HRQOL) have also been reported, a comparative analysis which explores these traits and their underlying factors was lacking. A retrospective analysis of depression, anxiety, and health related QOL was conducted using a Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) as well as the SF-36 HRQOL questionnaire. Results from these tools were compared with haemodynamic and functional parameters in 70 PAH and 23 CTEPH outpatients from a German tertiary care center specializing in pulmonary hypertension. Although HRQOL was reduced in both cohorts of patients, individuals diagnosed with CTEPH scored lower in nearly all SF-36 parameters. Significance was noted in both "mental health" (p = 0.01) and "mental component summary score" (MCS) (p = 0.02). Depression was also more frequent in patients with CTEPH (56%) than in patients with PAH (30%), (p = 0.03). Overall, depression and anxiety correlated with most SF-36 scales in both PAH and CTEPH. In CTEPH, depression also correlated with the Borg Dyspnea Scale (r = 0.44, p = 0.01). These patients also had significantly lower pCO 2 levels than the PAH cohort reflecting more severe ventilation/perfusion mismatch. All other haemodynamic and functional parameters did not differ across the groups. While both cohorts of patients suffer from a reduced HRQOL as well as depression and anxiety, decreases in mental health parameters are more pronounced in the CTEPH cohort. This suggests a strong effort to improve early detection, especially in dyspneic patients with classical risk factors for CTEPH and PAH and argues for mental illness interventions alongside routine clinical care provided to patients diagnosed with PAH or CTEPH.

  19. Spirometer-controlled cine magnetic resonance imaging used to diagnose tracheobronchomalacia in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Wielopolski, Piotr; Manniesing, Rashindra; Lever, Sandra; de Bruijne, Marleen; Morana, Giovanni; Muzzio, Pier Carlo; Lequin, Maarten H; Tiddens, Harm A W M

    2014-01-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is defined as an excessive collapse of the intrathoracic trachea. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosing TBM; however it has major disadvantages, such as general anaesthesia. Cine computed tomography (CT) is a noninvasive alternative used to diagnose TBM, but its use in children is restricted by ionising radiation. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of spirometer-controlled cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an alternative to cine-CT in a retrospective study. 12 children with a mean age (range) of 12 years (7-17 years), suspected of having TBM, underwent cine-MRI. Static scans were acquired at end-inspiration and expiration covering the thorax using a three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo sequence. Three-dimensional dynamic scans were performed covering only the central airways. TBM was defined as a decrease of the trachea or bronchi diameter >50% at end-expiration in the static and dynamic scans. The success rate of the cine-MRI protocol was 92%. Cine-MRI was compared with bronchoscopy or chest CT in seven subjects. TBM was diagnosed by cine-MRI in seven (58%) out of 12 children and was confirmed by bronchoscopy or CT. In four patients, cine-MRI demonstrated tracheal narrowing that was not present in the static scans. Spirometer controlled cine-MRI is a promising technique to assess TBM in children and has the potential to replace bronchoscopy.

  20. Histologic verification of leukemia, myelodysplasia, and multiple myeloma diagnoses in patients in Ukraine, 1987-1998.

    PubMed

    Dyagil, Irina; Adam, Mircea; Beebe, Gilbert W; Burch, J David; Gaidukova, Svetlana N; Gluzman, Daniel; Gudzenko, Natalia; Klimenko, Victor; Peterson, LoAnn; Reiss, Robert F; Finch, Stuart C

    2002-07-01

    In preparation for a possible large epidemiological study of radiation-related leukemia in Chernobyl clean-up workers of Ukraine, histologic evaluation of 62 cases of leukemia and related disorders was conducted by a panel of expert hematologists and hematopathologists from the United States, France, and Ukraine. All cases were randomly selected from a surrogate population of men in the general population of 6 regions of Ukraine who were between the ages of 20 and 60 years in 1986 and were reported to have developed leukemia, myelodysplasia, or multiple myeloma between the years 1987 and 1998. The hematologists and hematopathologists on the panel were in agreement with one another and with the previously reported diagnoses and classifications of about 90% of the cases of acute and chronic leukemia in the study. These results suggest that strong reliance can be placed on the clinical diagnoses of acute and chronic forms of leukemia and multiple myeloma that have occurred in Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers providing that the diagnoses are supported by records of the patients having had adequate histologic bone marrow studies. The number of cases in this study with the diagnosis of myelodysplasia, however, was too small to draw firm conclusions.

  1. The Subjective Experience of Patients Diagnosed with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Laura; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Brugallé, Elodie; Boute, Odile; Frénois, Frédéric; Defrance, Lydie; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Petit, Florence; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the context and psychological impact for patients diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 patients affected by HHT, and the transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results of this study allowed us to propose a new hypothesis to explain the delay in diagnosis: the trivialization of symptoms associated with HHT. Moreover, the results showed that a genetic diagnosis of HHT results in emotional shock, uncertainty about the future, and worry about one's children in parents who are confronted with the dilemma of facing the reality of the diagnosis or delaying dealing with the diagnosis until disease onset. Family and personal perceptions of the disease influenced not only the delay in diagnosis but also the emotional and behavioral reactions of patients following a genetic diagnosis.

  2. Incidence of breast cancer in patients with pure flat epithelial atypia diagnosed at core-needle biopsy of the breast.

    PubMed

    Khoumais, Nuha A; Scaranelo, Anabel M; Moshonov, Hadas; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Miller, Naomi; McCready, David R; Youngson, Bruce J; Crystal, Pavel; Done, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    to determine the frequency of malignancy in subsequent breast excisions following core-needle biopsy (CNB) diagnosis of pure flat epithelial atypia (pFEA) and to evaluate the imaging features of the associated tumors. Retrospective review of 8,996 image-guided CNB (2002-2010) identified 115 cases of FEA not associated with other atypia. Patients with history of breast cancer or radiation therapy were excluded. One hundred four cases (women) with pFEA (mean age 51 years, range 29-77 years) were reviewed. Stereotactic CNB was performed in 79 (76%) cases and ultrasound (US)-guided CNB in 25 (24%) cases. In 99 cases 14G needles were used, and 10G vacuum-assisted devices were used in 5 cases. Ninety-four patients had subsequent excision. Ten patients declined excision, and imaging follow-up (mean of 36 months) is available. The upgrade rate of pFEA was defined as the number of patients diagnosed with invasive carcinoma (IC) or carcinoma in situ (CIS) divided by the total number of patients. 10 of 104 (9.6%) patients were diagnosed with cancer: 9 presented as calcifications (89% fine pleomorphic and amorphous) and 1 case as a mammographically occult mass. The size of calcifications was not statistically significant (P=0.358). Five cases had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and five cases had IC (ductal and lobular) presenting as amorphous and pleomorphic calcifications. The upgrade rate of pFEA in our series was 9.6%. The presence of 4.8% of invasive cancers is substantial and warrants continuing management with surgical excision in all cases.

  3. Young patients with suspected uncomplicated renal colic are unlikely to have dangerous alternative diagnoses or need emergent intervention.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth M; Poronsky, Kye E; Elia, Tala R; Budhram, Gavin R; Garb, Jane L; Mader, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    In the United States there is debate regarding the appropriate first test for new-onset renal colic, with non-contrast helical computed tomography (CT) receiving the highest ratings from both Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the American Urological Association. This is based not only on its accuracy for the diagnosis of renal colic, but also its ability to diagnose other surgical emergencies, which have been thought to occur in 10-15% of patients with suspected renal colic, based on previous studies. In younger patients, it may be reasonable to attempt to avoid immediate CT if concern for dangerous alternative diagnosis is low, based on the risks of radiation from CTs, and particularly in light of evidence that patients with renal colic have a very high likelihood of having multiple CTs in their lifetimes. The objective is to determine the proportion of patients with a dangerous alternative diagnosis in adult patients age 50 and under presenting with uncomplicated (non-infected) suspected renal colic, and also to determine what proportion of these patients undergo emergent urologic intervention. Retrospective chart review of 12 months of patients age 18-50 presenting with "flank pain," excluding patients with end stage renal disease, urinary tract infection, pregnancy and trauma. Dangerous alternative diagnosis was determined by CT. Two hundred and ninety-one patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred and fifteen patients had renal protocol CTs, and zero alternative emergent or urgent diagnoses were identified (one-sided 95% CI [0-2.7%]). Of the 291 encounters, there were 7 urologic procedures performed upon first admission (2.4%, 95% CI [1.0-4.9%]). The prevalence of kidney stone by final diagnosis was 58.8%. This small sample suggests that in younger patients with uncomplicated renal colic, the benefit of immediate CT for suspected renal colic should be questioned. Further studies are needed to determine which patients benefit from immediate CT

  4. Profiling the erythrocyte membrane proteome isolated from patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Bruno M; Charro, Nuno; Blonder, Josip; Lopes, Carlos; Azevedo, Pilar; Bugalho de Almeida, António; Chan, King C; Prieto, DaRue A; Issaq, Haleem; Veenstra, Timothy D; Penque, Deborah

    2012-12-05

    Structural and metabolic alterations in erythrocytes play an important role in the pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Whether these dysfunctions are related to the modulation of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients diagnosed with COPD remains to be determined. Herein, a comparative proteomic profiling of the erythrocyte membrane fraction isolated from peripheral blood of smokers diagnosed with COPD and smokers with no COPD was performed using differential (16)O/(18)O stable isotope labeling. A total of 219 proteins were quantified as being significantly differentially expressed within the erythrocyte membrane proteomes of smokers with COPD and healthy smokers. Functional pathway analysis showed that the most enriched biofunctions were related to cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development, immune response, oxidative stress and cytoskeleton. Chorein (VPS13A), a cytoskeleton related protein whose defects had been associated with the presence of cell membrane deformation of circulating erythrocytes was found to be down-regulated in the membrane fraction of erythrocytes obtained from COPD patients. Methemoglobin reductase (CYB5R3) was also found to be underexpressed in these cells, suggesting that COPD patients may be at higher risk for developing methemoglobinemia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Education and employment levels among Jamaican patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Bertilee; Curtis-Downes, Desdemona; Gibson, Roger C

    2013-05-01

    Comparisons between persons with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia are not well researched in the Caribbean. To compare the educational and occupational attainments in Jamaicans diagnosed with these two disorders. Data on diagnosis, educational level, type of employment and other basic socio-demographic variables were collected from Jamaican hospital patients who were newly diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests, as well as binary logistic regression, were used to explore how these characteristics varied according to diagnosis. Statistical significance was taken at p < .05. Schizophrenia was associated with significantly lower educational attainment than bipolar disorder (p = .022 for educational level attained; p = .026 for completion of secondary school). The majority (87.1%) of the 93 patients included in the analysis had no specific marketable job skills. However, the proportion of persons with bipolar disorder who had such skills was three times the corresponding proportion of persons with schizophrenia. The low educational achievement among persons with schizophrenia makes education a potentially important area for interventions targeted at this group. Because gross deficiencies in job skills were common to both patient groups, improvement in job skill levels is an important goal for persons with either of these disorders.

  6. Do comorbid fibromyalgia diagnoses change after a functional restoration program in patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders?

    PubMed

    Hartzell, Meredith M; Neblett, Randy; Perez, Yoheli; Brede, Emily; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    A retrospective study of prospectively collected data. To determine whether comorbid fibromyalgia, identified in patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMDs), resolves with a functional restoration program (FRP). Fibromyalgia involves widespread bodily pain and tenderness to palpation. In recent studies, 23% to 41% of patients with CDOMDs entering an FRP had comorbid fibromyalgia, compared with population averages of 2% to 5%. Few studies have examined whether fibromyalgia diagnoses resolve with any treatment, and none have investigated diagnosis responsiveness to an FRP. A consecutive cohort of patients with CDOMDs (82% with spinal disorders and all reporting chronic spinal pain) and comorbid fibromyalgia (N = 117) completed an FRP, which included quantitatively directed exercise progression and multimodal disability management. Diagnosis responsiveness, evaluated at discharge, created 2 groups: those who retained fibromyalgia and those who did not. These groups were compared with chronic regional lumbar pain only patients (LO group, n = 87), lacking widespread pain and fibromyalgia. Of the patients with comorbid fibromyalgia, 59% (n = 69) retained the fibromyalgia diagnosis (RFM group) and 41% (n = 48) lost the fibromyalgia diagnosis (LFM group) at discharge. Although all 3 groups reported decreased pain intensity, disability, and depressive symptoms from admission to discharge, RFM patients reported higher symptom levels than the LFM and LO groups at discharge. The LFM and LO groups were statistically similar. At 1-year follow-up, LO patients demonstrated higher work retention than both fibromyalgia groups (P < 0.03). Despite a significant comorbid fibromyalgia prevalence in a cohort of patients with CDOMDs entering an FRP, 41% of patients with an initial fibromyalgia diagnosis no longer met diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia at discharge and were indistinguishable from LO patients on pain, disability, and depression symptoms

  7. Brain metastases in patients diagnosed with a solid primary cancer during childhood: experience from a single referral cancer center.

    PubMed

    Suki, Dima; Khoury Abdulla, Rami; Ding, Minming; Khatua, Soumen; Sawaya, Raymond

    2014-10-01

    Metastasis to the brain is frequent in adult cancer patients but rare among children. Advances in primary tumor treatment and the associated prolonged survival are said to have increased the frequency of brain metastasis in children. The authors present a series of cases of brain metastases in children diagnosed with a solid primary cancer, evaluate brain metastasis trends, and describe tumor type, patterns of occurrence, and prognosis. Patients with brain metastases whose primary cancer was diagnosed during childhood were identified in the 1990-2012 Tumor Registry at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. A review of their hospital records provided demographic data, history, and clinical data, including primary cancer sites, number and location of brain metastases, sites of extracranial metastases, treatments, and outcomes. Fifty-four pediatric patients (1.4%) had a brain metastasis from a solid primary tumor. Sarcomas were the most common (54%), followed by melanoma (15%). The patients' median ages at diagnosis of the primary cancer and the brain metastasis were 11.37 years and 15.03 years, respectively. The primary cancer was localized at diagnosis in 48% of patients and disseminated regionally in only 14%. The primary tumor and brain metastasis presented synchronously in 15% of patients, and other extracranial metastases were present when the primary cancer was diagnosed. The remaining patients were diagnosed with brain metastasis after initiation of primary cancer treatment, with a median presentation interval of 17 months after primary cancer diagnosis (range 2-77 months). At the time of diagnosis, the brain metastasis was the first site of systemic metastasis in only 4 (8%) of the 51 patients for whom data were available. Up to 70% of patients had lung metastases when brain metastases were found. Symptoms led to the brain metastasis diagnosis in 65% of cases. Brain metastases were single in 60% of cases and multiple in 35%; 6% had only

  8. Managing hypophosphatemia in critically ill patients: a report on an under-diagnosed electrolyte anomaly.

    PubMed

    Shajahan, A; Ajith Kumar, J; Gireesh Kumar, K P; Sreekrishnan, T P; Jismy, K

    2015-06-01

    Correction of acute hypophosphatemia leaves no long-term complications, but failure to recognize and treat an acute situation can be fatal. A 65-year-old female presented to the Emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, multiple episodes of watery stools and vomiting for 3 days. On the 3rd day, she developed abdominal distension and breathlessness and was referred to this hospital for further management and finally diagnosed with hypophosphatemia. As hypophosphatemia is often underestimated, this case report emphasizes the importance of correcting hypophosphatemia in all critically ill patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Portable Sleep Monitoring for Diagnosing Sleep Apnea in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Aurora, R Nisha; Patil, Susheel P; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2018-04-21

    Sleep apnea is an underdiagnosed condition in patients with heart failure. Efficient identification of sleep apnea is needed, as treatment may improve heart failure-related outcomes. Currently, use of portable sleep monitoring in hospitalized patients and those at risk for central sleep apnea is discouraged. This study examined whether portable sleep monitoring with respiratory polygraphy can accurately diagnose sleep apnea in patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure. Hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure underwent concurrent respiratory polygraphy and polysomnography. Both recordings were scored for obstructive and central disordered breathing events in a blinded fashion, using standard criteria, and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was determined. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine the concordance among the overall, obstructive, and central AHI values derived by respiratory polygraphy and polysomnography. The sample consisted of 53 patients (47% women) with a mean age of 59.0 years. The correlation coefficient for the overall AHI from the two diagnostic methods was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.96). The average difference in AHI between the two methods was 3.6 events/h. Analyses of the central and obstructive AHI values showed strong concordance between the two methods, with correlation coefficients of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-0.99) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95), respectively. Complete agreement in the classification of sleep apnea severity between the two methods was seen in 89% of the sample. Portable sleep monitoring can accurately diagnose sleep apnea in hospitalized patients with heart failure and may promote early initiation of treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Expectations of wheelchair-dependency in recently diagnosed patients with multiple sclerosis and their partners.

    PubMed

    Janssens, A C J W; de Boer, J B; van Doorn, P A; van ver Ploeg, H M; van ver Meché, F G A; Passchier, J; Hintzen, R Q

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present paper was to quantify expectations of wheelchair-dependency in patients recently diagnosed with MS (n = 101) and their partners (n = 78). Expectations focused on the risk and seriousness of becoming wheelchair-dependent in 2 years, 10 years or lifetime. Expectations were compared with natural history data, compared between patients and their partners, and related to clinical characteristics. Our results show that patients overestimated their 2-year and 10-year risks of wheelchair-dependency, but underestimated their lifetime risks. A large number of patients were uncertain about their 2-year risk, even those with no or only minimal disability [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) <3.0]. One-third of the patients perceived the 10-year and lifetime risk to be 50%, which, as they explained in the interviews, reflected their uncertainty: they did not know what to expect - it might happen or not. Patients with more functional limitations had higher perceptions of risk, but lower perceptions of seriousness. Concordance in perceived risk and seriousness between patients and partners was moderate. The overestimation of the short-term risks and the substantial differences in expectations within couples warrant further research on the impact of expectations on their treatment decisions and psychological well-being.

  11. Asperger Syndrome: a frequent comorbidity in first diagnosed adult ADHD patients?

    PubMed

    Roy, Mandy; Ohlmeier, Martin D; Osterhagen, Lasse; Prox-Vagedes, Vanessa; Dillo, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Because adult ADHD is often accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities, the diagnostic process should include a thorough investigation for comorbid disorders. Asperger-Syndrome is rarely reported in adult ADHD and commonly little attention is paid to this possible comorbidity. We investigated 53 adult ADHD-patients which visited our out patient clinic for first ADHD-diagnosis (17 females, 36 males; range of age: 18-56 years) for the frequency of a comorbid Asperger-Syndrome. Diagnosis of this autism-spectrum disorder was confirmed by applying the appropriate DSM-IV-criteria. Additionally we tested the power of the two screening-instruments "Autism-spectrum quotient" (AQ) and "Empathy quotient" (EQ) by Baron-Cohen for screening Asperger-Syndrome in adult ADHD. Eight ADHD-patients were diagnosed with a comorbid Asperger-Syndrome (15.1%). The difference in AQ- and EQ-scores between pure ADHD-patients and comorbid patients was analysed, showing significantly higher scores in AQ and significant lower scores in EQ in comorbid patients. Results show that the frequency of Asperger-Syndrome seems to be substantially increased in adult ADHD (versus the prevalence of 0.06% in the general population), indicating that investigators of adult ADHD should also be attentive to autism-spectrum disorders. Especially the AQ seems to be a potential screening instrument for Asperger-Syndrome in adult ADHD-patients.

  12. New Breast Cancer Recursive Partitioning Analysis Prognostic Index in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Niwinska, Anna, E-mail: alphaonetau@poczta.onet.pl; Murawska, Magdalena

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to present a new breast cancer recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) prognostic index for patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases as a guide in clinical decision making. Methods and Materials: A prospectively collected group of 441 consecutive patients with breast cancer and brain metastases treated between the years 2003 and 2009 was assessed. Prognostic factors significant for univariate analysis were included into RPA. Results: Three prognostic classes of a new breast cancer RPA prognostic index were selected. The median survival of patients within prognostic Classes I, II, and III was 29, 9, and 2.4more » months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Class I included patients with one or two brain metastases, without extracranial disease or with controlled extracranial disease, and with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) of 100. Class III included patients with multiple brain metastases with KPS of {<=}60. Class II included all other cases. Conclusions: The breast cancer RPA prognostic index is an easy and valuable tool for use in clinical practice. It can select patients who require aggressive treatment and those in whom whole-brain radiotherapy or symptomatic therapy is the most reasonable option. An individual approach is required for patients from prognostic Class II.« less

  13. Presentation, management, and outcome of newly diagnosed glioblastoma in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shota; Meyer, Fredric B; Buckner, Jan C; Uhm, Joon H; Yan, Elizabeth S; Parney, Ian F

    2013-04-01

    Optimum management for elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide (TMZ) era is not well defined. The object of this study was to clarify outcomes in this population. The authors retrospectively reviewed 105 consecutive cases involving elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) with newly diagnosed GBM who were treated at the Mayo Clinic between 2003 and 2008. The patients' median age was 74 years (range 66-87 years), and the median Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score was 80 (range 40-90). Half of the patients underwent biopsy and half underwent resection. Patients with deep-seated lesions (19 patients [18%]) or multifocal lesions (34 patients [32%]) were more likely to have biopsy than resection (p = 0.0001 and 0.0009, respectively). New persistent neurological deficits developed in 7 patients (6.7%). Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in 6 patients (5.7%), all of whom underwent biopsy. Complete follow-up data regarding adjuvant treatment was available in 84 patients. Forty-one (49%) were treated with chemotherapy (mostly TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), and 23 (27%) with RT alone. Nineteen (23%) received only palliative care after surgery (more common with biopsy, p = 0.03). Chemotherapy complications occurred in 28.6% (Grade 3 or 4 hematological complications in 11.9%). The median values for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 3.5 and 5.5 months. In a multivariate analysis, younger age (p = 0.03, risk ratio [RR] 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.89), single lesion (p = 0.02, RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.89), resection (p = 0.04, RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.94), and adjuvant treatment (p = 0.0001, RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11-0.49) were associated with better OS. Only adjuvant treatment was significantly associated with prolonged PFS (p = 0.0007, RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.13-0.57). With combined therapy with resection, RT, and chemotherapy, the median PFS and OS were 8 and 12.5 months, respectively. The prognosis for GBM worsens with increasing

  14. Contribution of laboratory methods in diagnosing clinically suspected ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Cinara C B; Meira, Cristina S; Ferreira, Ana I C; Frederico, Fábio B; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Almeida, Gildásio C; Mattos, Luiz C; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L

    2011-07-01

    This prospective study evaluated the value of laboratorial diagnosis in ocular toxoplasmosis analyzing peripheral blood samples from a group of Brazilian patients by immunologic and molecular methods. We analyzed blood samples from 184 immunocompetent patients with ocular disorders divided into 2 groups: Group I, composed of samples from 49 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis diagnosed by clinical features; Group II, samples from 135 patients with other ocular diseases. Samples were assayed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (cnPCR), real-time PCR (qPCR) for Toxoplasma gondii, indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IF), avidity test (crude tachyzoite lysate as antigen), and excreted-secreted tachyzoite proteins as antigen (ESA-ELISA). cnPCR and qPCR profiles were concordant in all samples. Positive PCR was shown in 40.8% of group I patients. The majority of the positive blood samples (75%) were taken from patients with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis scars, and the others (25%), from patients with retinal exudative lesions. Despite that 86 of the 135 patients from Group II had asymptomatic toxoplasmosis, all DNA blood samples had negative PCR. Concordant results were shown in the data obtained by serologic methods. Around 24% of the patients with ocular toxoplasmosis had high antibody titers determined by ESA-ELISA and IF. Anti-ESA antibodies are shown principally in patients with active infection. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of tachyzoites in the blood of patients with chronic infection, supporting the idea of recurrent disease. Circulating parasites in blood of immunocompetent individuals may be associated with the reactivation of the ocular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Independent Specialty Medical Advocate Model of Patient Navigation and Intermediate Health Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Cobran, Ewan K; Merino, Yesenia; Roach, Beth; Bigelow, Sharon M; Godley, Paul A

    2017-10-01

    Navigation programs are generally characterized as providing patient-centered support and guidance intended to help patients and family members overcome barriers such as timely diagnosis resolution, patient satisfaction, coping with primary and adjuvant treatment, management of side effects, and patient engagement in the healthcare process. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the Independent Specialty Medical Advocate (ISMA) model of patient navigation and intermediate patient health outcomes for newly diagnosed cancer patients. A pre-post intervention study was conducted in 26 newly diagnosed cancer patients recruited from a national partnership between the LIVE STRONG Cancer Navigation Service Program and the NavigateCancer Foundation between April 2013 and December 2015. Participants received a 1-hour initial telephone consultation, and then a navigation care plan was developed for the 6-week study period. A paired t test was conducted to assess changes in intermediate health outcomes at baseline and 6 weeks after study intervention. The majority of study participants were males (62%), married (50%), and Caucasian (69%). Overall, there was a statistically significant reduction in anxiety at 6 weeks postintervention (mean, 2.48; SD, 0.62; P <.05) compared with baseline (mean, 2.92; SD, 0.82) and in depression at 6 weeks postintervention (mean, 2.00; SD, 0.81; P <.05) compared with baseline (mean, 2.45; SD, 0.19). The ISMA model of patient navigation appears to be associated with significant reduction in anxiety and depression. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ISMA model of patient navigation on long-term patient outcomes.

  16. Effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Moon Yeon; Choi, Yoon Mi; Song, Mi Kyoung

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients. Thirty-eight newly diagnosed epileptic patients were assessed using standard language tests. Data were collected before and after beginning topiramate during which time a monotherapy treatment regimen was maintained. Language tests included the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, a Korean version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. We used language tests in the Korean version because all the patients were spoken Korean exclusively in their families. All the language parameters of Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities worsened after initiation of topiramate (determine cause, 13.2 ± 4.8 to 11.2 ± 4.3; problem solving, 14.8 ± 6.0 to 12.8 ± 5.0; predicting, 9.8 ± 3.6 to 8.8 ± 4.6). Patients given topiramate exhibited a shortened mean length of utterance in words during response (determine cause, 4.8 ± 0.9 to 4.3 ± 0.7; making inference, 4.5 ± 0.8 to 4.1 ± 1.1; predicting, 5.2 ± 1.0 to 4.7 ± 0.6; P < 0.05), provided ambiguous answers during the testing, exhibited difficulty in selecting appropriate words, took more time to provide answers, and used incorrect grammar. However, there were no statistically significant changes in the receptive language of patients after taking topiramate (95.4 ± 20.4 to 100.8 ± 19.1). Our data suggest that topiramate may have negative effects on problem-solving abilities in children. We recommend performing language tests should be considered in children being treated with topiramate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term outcomes in patients diagnosed with bile-acid diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Simeng; Sanders, David S; Gleeson, Joseph T; Osborne, Christopher; Messham, Louise; Kurien, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Bile-acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a recognized cause of chronic diarrhoea; however, its detection remains suboptimal. Currently, there is a paucity of follow-up studies evaluating BAD. This work evaluates the natural history of BAD by examining individuals diagnosed with BAD [7 days of Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) retention<10%] and determining the use of and response to bile-acid sequestrants (BAS). Of the 515 patients, 40% (207/515) who underwent an SeHCAT test at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals (2001-2012) for chronic diarrhoea had BAD. Of the 207 (51%) patients, 107 were diagnosed between 2001 and 2009. In accordance with the guidelines, all of these patients were commenced on BAS. In March 2013, these individuals were reassessed either in the clinic or over the telephone as part of a local service evaluation project. Comparisons were made of both pretreatment and post-treatment variables using a Wilcoxon rank test. Of the 107 patients, 54% (58/107) were followed up, with a median time since diagnosis of 6 years. Among them, 38% were still using BAS at follow-up, with 28% using alternative antidiarrhoeals. The median stool frequency decreased from seven stools per day to three (P=0.0008) in those using BAS. The 34% of patients not receiving treatment had no change in their daily bowel frequency. The main reason for discontinuing treatment was poor tolerability of the BAS (colestyramine/colestipol). Our findings indicate that BAD is a chronic condition that best improves with BAS. Consideration should be given to therapeutic options that have a better tolerability profile.

  18. Clinical validity of biochemical and molecular analysis in diagnosing Leigh syndrome: a study of 106 Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Erika; Shimura, Masaru; Fushimi, Takuya; Tajika, Makiko; Ichimoto, Keiko; Matsunaga, Ayako; Tsuruoka, Tomoko; Ishige, Mika; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Yamazaki, Taro; Mori, Masato; Kohda, Masakazu; Kishita, Yoshihito; Okazaki, Yasushi; Takahashi, Shori; Ohtake, Akira; Murayama, Kei

    2017-09-01

    Leigh syndrome (LS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of infancy and early childhood. It is clinically diagnosed by typical manifestations and characteristic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Unravelling mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) dysfunction behind LS is essential for deeper understanding of the disease, which may lead to the development of new therapies and cure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical validity of various diagnostic tools in confirming MRC disorder in LS and Leigh-like syndrome (LL). The results of enzyme assays, molecular analysis, and cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurements were examined. Of 106 patients, 41 were biochemically and genetically verified, and 34 had reduced MRC activity but no causative mutations. Seven patients with normal MRC complex activities had mutations in the MT-ATP6 gene. Five further patients with normal activity in MRC were identified with causative mutations. Conversely, 12 out of 60 enzyme assays performed for genetically verified patients returned normal results. No biochemical or genetic background was confirmed for 19 patients. OCR was reduced in ten out of 19 patients with negative enzyme assay results. Inconsistent enzyme assay results between fibroblast and skeletal muscle biopsy samples were observed in 33% of 37 simultaneously analyzed cases. These data suggest that highest diagnostic rate is reached using a combined enzymatic and genetic approach, analyzing more than one type of biological materials where suitable. Microscale oxygraphy detected MRC impairment in 50% cases with no defect in MRC complex activities.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of Frontal Assessment Battery in newly diagnosed and untreated obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Ladera, Valentina; Sargento, Paulo; Perea, Victoria; Faria, Miguel; Garcia, Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    Executive dysfunction (ED) is often observed in subjects diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but their assessment requires facilities that are not always available. We aim to evaluate the extent to which Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) discriminates ED in newly diagnosed, untreated, and without-comorbidity OSA patients. Sixty subjects participated in the study. Of these, 40 (31 males and 9 females) were newly diagnosed for OSA through full-night polysomnography (apnea/hypopnea index; M = 39.01, SD = 27.16), untreated, with a mean age of 54.50 years (SD = 8.90), while the remaining 20 (15 males and 5 females) had no symptoms of OSA (M = 51.60 years, SD = 10.70). The instruments used were the following: Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea Risk, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, and FAB. The group with OSA exhibited significantly lower values in the FAB global score (p = 0.003) and in Conceptualization (p = 0.001) and Mental Flexibility (p = 0.009) subtests. ROC analysis showed adequate discriminative capacity for the FAB global score (AUC = 0.74) and for Conceptualization (AUC = 0.75) and Mental Flexibility (AUC = 0.70) scores. The FAB is a short and no-time-consuming tool that can be used to investigate the presence of ED in untreated OSA patients with no comorbidities, providing clinicians with a simple and effective way of detecting the presence of this dysfunction and allowing a more informed decision for the need of a full neuropsychological assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Urine flow acceleration is superior to Qmax in diagnosing BOO in patients with BPH.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian-guo; Cui, Lin-gang; Li, Yi-dong; Shang, Xiao-ping; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Rui-li; Meng, Qing-jun; Zhang, Sheng-jun

    2013-08-01

    We performed a retrospective, case-control study to evaluate whether the urine flow acceleration (UFA, mL/s(2)) is superior to maximum uroflow (Qmax, mL/s) in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, a total of 50 men with BPH (age: 58±12.5 years) and 50 controls (age: 59±13.0 years) were included. A pressure-flow study was used to determine the presence of BOO according to the recommendations of Incontinence Control Society (ICS). The results showed that the UFA and Qmax in BPH group were much lower than those in the control group [(2.05±0.85) vs. (4.60±1.25) mL/s(2) and (8.50±1.05) vs. (13.00±3.35) mL/s] (P<0.001). According to the criteria (UFA<2.05 mL/s(2), Qmax<10 mL/s), the sensitivity and specificity of UFA vs. Qmax in diagnosing BOO were 88%, 75% vs. 81%, 63%. UFA vs. Omax, when compared with the results of P-Q chart (the kappa values in corresponding analysis), was 0.55 vs. 0.35. The prostate volume, post void residual and detrusor pressure at Qmax between the two groups were 28.6±9.8 vs. 24.2±7.6 mL, 60.4±1.4 vs. 21.3±2.5 mL and 56.6±8.3 vs. 21.7±6.1 cmH2O, respectively (P<0.05). It was concluded that the UFA is a useful urodynamic parameter, and is superior to Qmax in diagnosing BOO in patients with BPH.

  1. Integration of data mining classification techniques and ensemble learning to identify risk factors and diagnose ovarian cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Jen; Lu, Chi-Jie; Chang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Gin-Den; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second leading cause of deaths among gynecologic cancers in the world. Approximately 90% of women with ovarian cancer reported having symptoms long before a diagnosis was made. Literature shows that recurrence should be predicted with regard to their personal risk factors and the clinical symptoms of this devastating cancer. In this study, ensemble learning and five data mining approaches, including support vector machine (SVM), C5.0, extreme learning machine (ELM), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and random forest (RF), were integrated to rank the importance of risk factors and diagnose the recurrence of ovarian cancer. The medical records and pathologic status were extracted from the Chung Shan Medical University Hospital Tumor Registry. Experimental results illustrated that the integrated C5.0 model is a superior approach in predicting the recurrence of ovarian cancer. Moreover, the classification accuracies of C5.0, ELM, MARS, RF, and SVM indeed increased after using the selected important risk factors as predictors. Our findings suggest that The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), Pathologic M, Age, and Pathologic T were the four most critical risk factors for ovarian cancer recurrence. In summary, the above information can support the important influence of personality and clinical symptom representations on all phases of guide interventions, with the complexities of multiple symptoms associated with ovarian cancer in all phases of the recurrent trajectory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PERSONALITY TRAITS, ANGER AND PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER.

    PubMed

    Honorato, Noemi Peres; Abumusse, Luciene Vaccaro de Morais; Coqueiro, Daniel Pereira; Citero, Vanessa de Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual's personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas ), Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF. Multiple regression was performed to verify if quality of life was related to stable characteristics of the subject's personality (anger trait, temperament and character) after controlling to the transient emotional aspects (anger state, psychiatric symptoms). The quality of life psychological health score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and reward dependence temperament and quality of life environment score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and lower in presence of harm avoidance temperament. The psychological well-being and the adaptive needs to the environment that favoring a better quality of life were reinforced mainly by the self-directedness character; which means that patients more autonomous cope better with the disease. On the other hand, the harm avoidance temperament (meaning the patient has fear of aversive situations) impaired the adaptive capacity to deal with the changes of the day-to-day imposed by the disease. Understanding these personality traits is important to the health professionals drive the patient to more successful treatment.

  3. Predicting treatment failure, death and drug resistance using a computed risk score among newly diagnosed TB patients in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, B E; Garcia-Viveros, M; Ramirez-Oropesa, H; Rahbar, M H; Restrepo, B I

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use. Modified risk scores were developed with strong predictability for treatment failure and death (c-statistic 0·65 and 0·70, respectively), and moderate predictability for drug resistance (c-statistic 0·57). Among TB patients with diabetes, risk scores showed moderate predictability for death (c-statistic 0·68). Our findings suggest that in the clinical setting, the use of our risk scores for TB treatment failure or death will help identify these individuals for tailored management to prevent these adverse events. In contrast, the available variables in the TB surveillance dataset are not robust predictors of drug resistance, indicating the need for prompt testing at time of diagnosis.

  4. Semiconductor Whole Exome Sequencing for the Identification of Genetic Variants in Colombian Patients Clinically Diagnosed with Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Mariana; Arenas, Alvaro; Cabrera, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac channelopathy characterized by a prolongation of QT interval and the risk of syncope, cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death. Genetic diagnosis of LQTS is critical in medical practice as results can guide adequate management of patients and distinguish phenocopies such as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). However, extensive screening of large genomic regions is required in order to reliably identify genetic causes. Semiconductor whole exome sequencing (WES) is a promising approach for the identification of variants in the coding regions of most human genes. DNA samples from 21 Colombian patients clinically diagnosed with LQTS were enriched for coding regions using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subjected to WES using a semiconductor sequencer. Semiconductor WES showed mean coverage of 93.6 % for all coding regions relevant to LQTS at >10× depth with high intra- and inter-assay depth heterogeneity. Fifteen variants were detected in 12 patients in genes associated with LQTS. Three variants were identified in three patients in genes associated with CPVT. Co-segregation analysis was performed when possible. All variants were analyzed with two pathogenicity prediction algorithms. The overall prevalence of LQTS and CPVT variants in our cohort was 71.4 %. All LQTS variants previously identified through commercial genetic testing were identified. Standardized WES assays can be easily implemented, often at a lower cost than sequencing panels. Our results show that WES can identify LQTS-causing mutations and permits differential diagnosis of related conditions in a real-world clinical setting. However, high heterogeneity in sequencing depth and low coverage in the most relevant genes is expected to be associated with reduced analytical sensitivity.

  5. Healthy Behaviour Change and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients - ADDITION-Cambridge Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Long, Gráinne H; Cooper, Andrew J M; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether improvements in health behaviours are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Population-based prospective cohort study of 867 newly diagnosed diabetes patients aged between 40 and 69 years from the treatment phase of the ADDITION-Cambridge study. As the results for all analyses were similar by trial arm, data were pooled and results presented for the whole cohort. Participants were identified via population-based stepwise screening between 2002 and 2006 and underwent assessment of physical activity (EPAQ questionnaire), diet (plasma vitamin C and self-report), and alcohol consumption (self-report) at baseline and one year. A composite primary CVD outcome was examined, comprised of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke and revascularisation. RESULTS After a mean (SD) follow-up of 5.1 (1.1) years, 6% of the cohort experienced a CVD event (12.2/1000-person years; 95% CI 9.3 to 15.9). CVD risk was inversely related to the number of positive health behaviours changed in the year following diabetes diagnosis. The relative risk (95% CI) for primary CVD event in individuals who did not change any health behavior compared to those who adopted three/four healthy behaviors was 4.17 (1.02 to 17.09), adjusting for age, sex, study group, social class occupation and prescription of cardio-protective medication (ptrend = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS Cardiovascular disease risk was inversely associated with the number of healthy behaviour changes adopted in the year following diagnosis of diabetes. Interventions that promote early achievement of these goals in newly diagnosed patients could help reduce the burden of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24658389

  6. Treatment and survival in a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Mooney, Margaret M; Clegg, Limin X; Harlan, Linda C

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the extent of use of specific therapies in clinical practice, and their relationship to therapies validated in clinical trials. METHODS: The US National Cancer Institutes’ Patterns of Care study was used to examine therapies and survival of patients diagnosed in 2001 with histologically-confirmed gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1356). The study re-abstracted data and verified therapy with treating physicians for a population-based stratified random sample. RESULTS: Approximately 62% of patients had stomach adenocarcinoma (SAC), while 22% had gastric-cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and 16% lower esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Stage IV/unstaged esophageal cancer patients were most likely and stage I-III stomach cancer patients least likely to receive chemotherapy as all or part of their therapy; gastric-cardia patients received chemotherapy at a rate between these two. In multivariable analysis by anatomic site, patients 70 years and older were significantly less likely than younger patients to receive chemotherapy alone or chemoradiation for all three anatomic sites. Among esophageal and stomach cancer patients, receipt of chemotherapy was associated with lower mortality; but no association was found among gastric-cardia patients. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the relatively low use of clinical trials-validated anti-cancer therapies in community practice. Use of chemotherapy-based treatment was associated with lower mortality, dependent on anatomic site. Findings suggest that physicians treat lower esophageal and SAC as two distinct entities, while gastric-cardia patients receive a mix of the treatment strategies employed for the two other sites. PMID:18506920

  7. Long-term vocational adjustment of cancer patients diagnosed during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tebbi, C K; Bromberg, C; Piedmonte, M

    1989-01-01

    Long-term vocational achievements of 40 survivors of cancer diagnosed during adolescence were examined and compared with 40 healthy sex-matched and age-matched controls. Patients' ages at diagnosis ranged from 13 to 19 years (mean, 16.15). Study subjects had survived cancer for over 5 years and were on no cancer therapy. Assessment measures included the Rand General Well-Being Scale, the Rand Functional Limitations and Physical Abilities Batteries, and a semistructured interview. The relation of physical disability and limitations caused by cancer to patients' achievements also was evaluated. Although cancer patients, on the average, were more concerned about their health and reported lower general spirits than controls, no differences were found between control and study groups with regard to overall general well-being. More cancer patients than controls reported that their health limited their ability to engage in vigorous activities. A greater functional deficit was found among unemployed than employed cancer patients. Employers and co-workers often were aware of the patient's diagnosis (85% and 67%, respectively). Cancer patients reported disease-related discrimination in hiring (7.4%), induction into the military (66.7%), and obtaining health, life, and disability insurance (31.5%). There was no significant relationship between health status and employment. Nevertheless, cancer patients had a higher average income than controls. Sixty-four percent of patients believed that changes in certain physical features of the workplace were necessary to facilitate readjustment to the job. Despite the disabilities experienced by cancer patients and generally negative public attitudes, long-term survivors have a good outlook on life and are competitive members of the workplace and society.

  8. Gender differences in disease activity and clinical features in newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Grajales, C; González, L A; Alarcón, G S; Acosta-Reyes, J

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare disease activity and clinical features at diagnosis in male and female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This was a cross-sectional study in which every male patient (n = 40) was matched with three female patients of the same age (±5 years) and racial/ethnic group; disease activity as per the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and disease manifestations at the time of diagnosis were compared. Alopecia and anti-Ro antibodies were more frequent in female patients. No statistically significant difference in any other disease characteristics was found. However, male gender was associated with a risk of severe disease activity at the time of diagnosis (as determined by SLEDAI ≥12 score) independent of age, racial/ethnic group, anti-Ro positivity or time to criteria accrual (OR: 3.11 95% CI, 1.09-8.92; p = 0.035). In newly diagnosed SLE patients, male gender is associated with higher disease activity despite the fact that male and female patients seem to experience similar overall disease manifestations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p < 0.001, for all) and hs-CRP (p = 0.005) were higher in morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05, for all). Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p < 0.001), aortic distensibility (β= -0.384, p < 0.001) and day-night SBP difference (β = 0.229, p < 0.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. We found independent relationship between morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.

  10. Can dialysis patients be accurately identified using healthcare claims data?

    PubMed

    Taneja, Charu; Berger, Ariel; Inglese, Gary W; Lamerato, Lois; Sloand, James A; Wolff, Greg G; Sheehan, Michael; Oster, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    While health insurance claims data are often used to estimate the costs of renal replacement therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the accuracy of methods used to identify patients receiving dialysis - especially peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) - in these data is unknown. The study population consisted of all persons aged 18 - 63 years in a large US integrated health plan with ESRD and dialysis-related billing codes (i.e., diagnosis, procedures) on healthcare encounters between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008. Using billing codes for all healthcare encounters within 30 days of each patient's first dialysis-related claim ("index encounter"), we attempted to designate each study subject as either a "PD patient" or "HD patient." Using alternative windows of ± 30 days, ± 90 days, and ± 180 days around the index encounter, we reviewed patients' medical records to determine the dialysis modality actually received. We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) for each dialysis-related billing code, using information in patients' medical records as the "gold standard." We identified a total of 233 patients with evidence of ESRD and receipt of dialysis in healthcare claims data. Based on examination of billing codes, 43 and 173 study subjects were designated PD patients and HD patients, respectively (14 patients had evidence of PD and HD, and modality could not be ascertained for 31 patients). The PPV of codes used to identify PD patients was low based on a ± 30-day medical record review window (34.9%), and increased with use of ± 90-day and ± 180-day windows (both 67.4%). The PPV for codes used to identify HD patients was uniformly high - 86.7% based on ± 30-day review, 90.8% based on ± 90-day review, and 93.1% based on ± 180-day review. While HD patients could be accurately identified using billing codes in healthcare claims data, case identification was much more problematic for patients receiving PD. Copyright

  11. Does Quitting Smoking Make a Difference Among Newly Diagnosed Head and Neck Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Ghanem, Tamer; Spector, Matthew E.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Lipkus, Isaac M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To determine if smoking after a cancer diagnosis makes a difference in mortality among newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients. Methods: Longitudinal data were collected from newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients with a median follow-up time of 1627 days (N = 590). Mortality was censored at 8 years or September 1, 2011, whichever came first. Based on smoking status, all patients were categorized into four groups: continuing smokers, quitters, former smokers, or never-smokers. A broad range of covariates were included in the analyses. Kaplan–Meier curves, bivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were constructed. Results: Eight-year overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality were 40.5% (239/590) and 25.4% (150/590), respectively. Smoking status after a cancer diagnosis predicted overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality. Compared to never-smokers, continuing smokers had the highest hazard ratio (HR) of dying from all causes (HR = 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.48–4.98). Those who smoked at diagnosis, but quit and did not relapse—quitters—had an improved hazard ratio of dying (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.29–4.36) and former smokers at diagnosis with no relapse after diagnosis—former smokers—had the lowest hazard ratio of dying from all causes (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.12–2.56). Similarly, quitters had a slightly higher hazard ratio of dying from cancer-specific reasons (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.13–5.01) than never-smokers, which was similar to current smokers (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 0.96–4.47), followed by former smokers (HR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.00–2.89). Conclusions: Compared to never-smokers, continuing smokers have the highest HR of overall mortality followed by quitters and former smokers, which indicates that smoking cessation, even after a cancer diagnosis, may improve overall mortality among newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients. Health care providers should consider incorporating

  12. Case Reports of Acupuncturists and Massage Therapists at Mayo Clinic: New Allies in Expediting Patient Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Molly J; Hauschulz, Jennifer L; Do, Alex; Dreyer, Niki E; Bauer, Brent A

    Acupuncturists and massage therapists practicing within hospital and clinic settings is a relatively new, but growing phenomenon. Many clinical trials have documented the therapeutic roles these professionals can play in caring for patients. However, to our knowledge, little emphasis has been placed on their ability to aid in the diagnostic process. We report here our experience with these providers playing a critical role in contributing novel diagnostic information, both in the outpatient and inpatient settings. These observations suggest that acupuncturists and massage therapists can play a strategic role in helping achieve timely diagnoses for many patients. Strategies on how to incorporate these professionals into the care flow in the clinic and hospital are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chest CT scans are frequently abnormal in asymptomatic patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vallipuram, Janaki; Dhalla, Sidika; Bell, Chaim M; Dresser, Linda; Han, Heekyung; Husain, Shahid; Minden, Mark D; Paul, Narinder S; So, Miranda; Steinberg, Marilyn; Vallipuram, Mayuran; Wong, Gary; Morris, Andrew M

    2017-04-01

    Chest computed tomography (CT) findings of nodules, ground glass opacities, and consolidations are often interpreted as representing invasive fungal infection in individuals with febrile neutropenia. We assessed whether these CT findings were present in asymptomatic individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at low risk of invasive fungal disease. A retrospective study of consecutive asymptomatic adult patients with newly diagnosed AML over a 2-year period was performed at a tertiary care oncology center. Radiology reports of baseline chest CTs were reviewed. Of 145 CT scans, the majority (88%) had pulmonary abnormalities. Many (70%) had one or both of unspecified opacities (52%) and nodules (49%). Ground glass opacities (18%) and consolidations (12%) occurred less frequently. Radiologists suggested pneumonia as a possible diagnosis in 32% (n = 47) of scans. Chest CT may result in over-diagnosis of invasive fungal disease in individuals with febrile neutropenia if interpreted without correlation to the patients' clinical status.

  14. Infused Therapy and Survival in Older Patients Diagnosed with Metastatic Breast Cancer who Received Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Robert I; Lalla, Deepa; Herbert, Robert J; Doan, Justin F; Brammer, Melissa G; Danese, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data (2000-2006) to describe treatment and survival in women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who received trastuzumab. There were 610 patients with a mean age of 74 years. Overall, 32% received trastuzumab alone and 47% received trastuzumab plus a taxane. In multivariate analysis, trastuzumab plus chemotherapy was associated with a lower adjusted cancer mortality rate (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.39-0.74; p < .001) than trastuzumab alone among patients who received trastuzumab as part of first-line therapy. Adding chemotherapy to first-line trastuzumab for metastatic breast cancer is associated with improved cancer survival. PMID:21929325

  15. Population-based assessment of racial/ethnic differences in utilization of radical cystectomy for patients diagnosed with bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen B; Huo, Jinhai; Kosarek, Christopher D; Chamie, Karim; Rogers, Selwyn O; Williams, Michele A; Giordano, Sharon H; Kim, Simon P; Kamat, Ashish M

    2017-07-01

    Radical cystectomy is a surgical treatment for recurrent non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer; however, many patients may not receive this treatment. A total of 27,578 patients diagnosed with clinical stage I-IV bladder cancer from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry database. We used multivariable regression analyses to identify factors predicting the use of radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze survival outcomes. A total of 1,693 (6.1%) patients with bladder cancer underwent radical cystectomy. Most patients (92.4%) who underwent radical cystectomy also underwent pelvic lymph node dissection. When compared with white patients, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to undergo a radical cystectomy [odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.96, p = 0.019]. Moreover, recent year of surgery 2013 versus 2007 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.90-2.83, p < 0.001), greater percentage of college education ≥36.3 versus <21.3% (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.44, p = 0.013), Midwest versus West (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.94, p < 0.001), and more advanced clinical stage III versus I (OR 29.1, 95% CI 23.9-35.3, p < 0.001) were associated with increased use of radical cystectomy. Overall survival was improved for patients who underwent radical cystectomy compared with those who did not undergo a radical cystectomy (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, p = 0.008). There is significant underutilization of radical cystectomy in patients across all age groups diagnosed with bladder cancer, especially among older, non-Hispanic black patients.

  16. Comparison of Acarbose and Metformin on Albumin Excretion in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingrong; Xu, Yuan; Yang, Ning; Gao, Xia; Liu, Jia; Yang, Wenying; Wang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion in diabetes not only signals nephropathy but also serves as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. The data of MARCH (Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as the initial Hypoglycaemic treatment) trial demonstrated that acarbose and metformin were similarly efficacious at lowering blood glucose and blood pressure, as well as improving insulin sensitivity in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of acarbose and metformin therapy on albumin excretion in MARCH study.Baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) of 762 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was measured. Included patients were randomized to receive either acarbose or metformin and followed for 48 weeks. In addition to change in ACR, the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were also assessed.Elevated ACR levels (≥30 mg/g) were present at baseline in 21.9% of all participants. A significant decline in urine ACR was observed in both the acarbose and metformin groups at week 24 and 48 (all P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with elevated ACRs was also reduced in both treatment groups at week 24 and 48 compared with baseline values (all P < 0.05). The change in urine ACR at week 48 was significantly greater in patients prescribed acarbose than in those prescribed metformin (P = 0.01). Both acarbose and metformin significantly decreased the frequency of MetS at week 24 and 48 (both P < 0.05). Neither treatment affected eGFR.In sum, both acarbose and metformin decreased urine ACR levels and reduced the frequency of elevated ACR and MetS in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus without affecting eGFR. After 48 weeks' intervention, acarbose therapy resulted in a greater reduction in urine ACR compared with metformin.

  17. Beta-blockers may reduce intrusive thoughts in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Monica E; Fagundes, Christopher P; Alfano, Catherine M; Povoski, Stephen P; Agnese, Doreen M; Arnold, Mark W; Farrar, William B; Yee, Lisa D; Carson, William E; Schmidt, Carl R; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2013-08-01

    A cancer diagnosis provokes significant levels of emotional distress, with intrusive thoughts being the most common manifestation among breast cancer survivors. Cancer-related intrusive thoughts can take the form of emotional memories, flashbacks, nightmares, and intrusive images. Emotional arousal after a severe life stressor prolongs adrenergic activation, which in turn may increase risk for post-traumatic symptomatology. However, antihypertensive beta-blockers block adrenergic activation and are known to reduce traumatic memories and related psychological distress. Thus, the current study examined the association between beta-blocker use and the severity of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and related symptoms following a cancer diagnosis. The 174 breast and 36 female colorectal cancer patients who had recently undergone diagnostic screening or biopsy included 39 beta-blocker users and 171 non-users. Prior to any cancer treatment including surgery, participants completed questionnaires that included the Impact of Events Scale and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Analyses controlled for age, education, cancer stage, cancer type, days since diagnosis, marital status, depression, and comorbidities. Although the high rates of cancer-related distress in this sample were similar to those of other studies with recently diagnosed patients, beta-blocker users endorsed 32% fewer cancer-related intrusive thoughts than non-users. Recently diagnosed cancer patients using beta-blockers reported less cancer-related psychological distress. These results suggest that beta-blocker use may benefit cancer patients' psychological adjustment following diagnosis, and provide a promising direction for future investigations on the pharmacological benefits of beta-blockers for cancer-related distress. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prehospital triage of patients diagnosed with perforated peptic ulcer or peptic ulcer bleeding: an observational study of patients calling 1-1-2.

    PubMed

    Bonnesen, Kasper; Friesgaard, Kristian D; Boetker, Morten T; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2018-04-05

    Triage systems are used in emergency medical services to systematically prioritize prehospital resources according to individual patient conditions. Previous studies have shown cases of preventable deaths in emergency medical services even when triage systems are used, indicating a potential undertriage among some conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the triage level among patients diagnosed with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) or peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). In a three-year period in Central Denmark Region, all patients hospitalized within 24 h after a 1-1-2 emergency call and who subsequently received either a PPU or a PUB (hereinafter combined and referred to as PPU/PUB) or a First Hour Quintet (FHQ: respiratory failure, stroke, trauma, cardiac chest pain, and cardiac arrest) diagnosis were investigated. A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of receiving the highest and lowest prehospital response level. Also, a linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risk of 30-day mortality. Of 8658 evaluated patients, 263 were diagnosed with PPU/PUB. After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB were less likely to receive ambulance transportation compared to patients diagnosed with stroke, RR = 1.41 (CI: 1.28-1.56); trauma, RR = 1.28 (CI: 1.15-1.42); cardiac chest pain, RR = 1.47 (CI: 1.33-1.62); and cardiac arrest, RR = 1.44 (CI: 1.31-1.42). Among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB, 6.5% (CI: 3.3-9.7) did not receive ambulance transportation. The proportion of patients not receiving ambulance transportation was higher among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB compared to patients diagnosed with an FHQ diagnosis. The 30-day mortality rate among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB was 7.8% (CI: 4.2-11.1). This was lower than the 30-day mortality rate among patients diagnosed with respiratory failure (P = 0.010), stroke (P = 0.001), and cardiac arrest (P

  19. A French multicenter study of over 700 patients with 22q11 deletions diagnosed using FISH or aCGH.

    PubMed

    Poirsier, Céline; Besseau-Ayasse, Justine; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Toutain, Jérôme; Missirian, Chantal; Le Caignec, Cédric; Bazin, Anne; de Blois, Marie Christine; Kuentz, Paul; Catty, Marie; Choiset, Agnès; Plessis, Ghislaine; Basinko, Audrey; Letard, Pascaline; Flori, Elisabeth; Jimenez, Mélanie; Valduga, Mylène; Landais, Emilie; Lallaoui, Hakima; Cartault, François; Lespinasse, James; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Callier, Patrick; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Portnoi, Marie-France; Busa, Tiffany; Receveur, Aline; Amblard, Florence; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Prieur, Fabienne; Le Meur, Nathalie; Pipiras, Eva; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Vialard, François; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition's true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect.

  20. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and osteoma cutis in a patient previously diagnosed as COPS syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Rij, M C; Grijsen, M L; Appelman-Dijkstra, N M; Hansson, K B M; Ruivenkamp, C A L; Mulder, K; van Doorn, R; Oranje, A P; Kant, S G

    2017-02-01

    We present a patient with poikiloderma, severe osteoporosis and a mild intellectual disability. At the age of 9 years, this patient was proposed to suffer from a novel disease entity designated as calcinosis cutis, osteoma cutis, poikiloderma and skeletal abnormalities (COPS) syndrome. At the age of 35, he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Recently, biallelic pathogenic variants in the RECQL4 gene were detected (c.1048_1049delAG and c.1391-1G>A), confirming a diagnosis of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS). In the brother of this patient, who had a milder phenotype, a similar diagnosis was made. We conclude that COPS syndrome never existed as a separate syndrome entity. Instead, osteoma cutis may be regarded as a novel feature of RTS, whereas mild intellectual disability and lymphoma may be underreported parts of the phenotype. What is new: • Osteoma cutis was not a known feature in Rothmund-Thomson patients. • Intellectual disability may be considered a rare feature in RTS; more study is needed. What is known: • RTS is a well-described syndrome caused by mutations in the RECQL4 gene. • Patients with RTS frequently show chromosomal abnormalities like, e.g. mosaic trisomy 8.

  1. A CLINICAL STUDY OF 276 PATIENTS DIAGNOSED AS SUFFERING FROM HYSTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Deepa; Subramanian, K.; Devaky, M. N.; Verghese, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY A clinical study of 276 patients diagnosed as Hysteria in the Department of Psychiatry, Unit-2, Christian Medical College, Vellore, during the period of 1970—1974 is described. This group of 276 patients formed 10.81% of the total new consultations during this period. 61.2% of these were females. The peak age of onset was 10-20 years. The majority were married. 75% of them had conversion symptoms, 20.3% had dissociative states, and 4.7% had both features. 52.5% showed possible precipitating factors. 66.0% h i d features of extraversion in their personality make up. 14.1% showed evidence of parental deprivation. There was over-representation of the early born. Somatic symptoms (aches and pains) was the most common mode of presentation. The other common clinical manifestations were fainting attacks, “fits”, vomiting, involuntary movements and paralysis of limbs. The immediate follow up showed that 11 patients recovered, 120 improved, 3 were unchanged and 1 patient became worse. Only 93 patients could be contacted for the final follow up. Among these, 28 recovered completely; 50 were improved; 2 became worse and 2 died. It is emphasized that Hysteria continues to remain a clinical entity. PMID:22058441

  2. Atypical anorexia nervosa is not related to brain structural changes in newly diagnosed adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Gaia; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Swenne, Ingemar; Zhukovsky, Christina; Salonen-Ros, Helena; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Gaudio, Santino; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2018-01-01

    Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have many features overlapping with AN in terms of genetic risk, age of onset, psychopathology and prognosis of outcome, although the weight loss may not be a core factor. While brain structural alterations have been reported in AN, there are currently no data regarding atypical AN patients. We investigated brain structure through a voxel-based morphometry analysis in 22 adolescent females newly-diagnosed with atypical AN, and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). ED-related psychopathology, impulsiveness and obsessive-compulsive traits were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Obsessive-compulsive Inventory Revised (OCI-R), respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Patients and HC differed significantly on BMI (p < .002), EDE-Q total score (p < .000) and OCI-R total score (p < .000). No differences could be detected in grey matter (GM) regional volume between groups. The ED-related cognitions in atypical AN patients would suggest that atypical AN and AN could be part of the same spectrum of restrictive-ED. However, contrary to previous reports in AN, our atypical AN patients did not show any GM volume reduction. The different degree of weight loss might play a role in determining such discrepancy. Alternatively, the preservation of GM volume might indeed differentiate atypical AN from AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of additional pituitary hormone deficiencies in pediatric patients originally diagnosed with isolated growth hormone deficiency due to organic causes.

    PubMed

    Child, Christopher J; Blum, Werner F; Deal, Cheri; Zimmermann, Alan G; Quigley, Charmian A; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cutler, Gordon B; Rosenfeld, Ron G

    2016-05-01

    To determine characteristics of children initially diagnosed with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) of organic aetiology, who later developed multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Data were analysed for 716 growth hormone-treated children with organic IGHD, who were growth hormone-naïve at baseline in the multinational, observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study. Development of MPHD was ascertained from investigator-provided diagnoses, adverse events and concomitant medications. Analyses were performed for all patients and separately for those who developed MPHD within 4.5 years or had >3.5 years follow-up and continued to have IGHD (4-year cohort). MPHD developed in 71/716 (9.9%) children overall, and in 60/290 (20.7%) in the 4-year cohort. The most frequent additional deficiencies were thyroid-stimulating hormone (47 patients) and gonadotropins (23 patients). Compared with those who remained with IGHD, children who developed MPHD had more severe GHD at study entry, significantly lower baseline insulin-like growth factor1, peak stimulated growth hormone, and more frequent diagnosis of intracranial tumour or mutation of gene(s) controlling hypothalamic-pituitary development and/or function. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified female gender, longer follow-up, higher baseline age and lower peak stimulated growth hormone as predictors of MPHD development. MPHD is more likely to develop in patients with severe organic IGHD, especially those with history of intracranial tumour or mutation of gene(s) controlling hypothalamic-pituitary development and/or function. Older baseline age, female gender and longer follow-up duration were also associated with higher incidence of MPHD. Long-term monitoring of pituitary function is recommended, irrespective of the aetiology of GHD. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Frequent development of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in patients initially diagnosed as isolated growth hormone deficiency: a long term follow-up of patients from a single center.

    PubMed

    Otto, Aline P; França, Marcela M; Correa, Fernanda A; Costalonga, Everlayny F; Leite, Claudia C; Mendonca, Berenice B; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Carvalho, Luciani R S; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2015-08-01

    Children initially diagnosed with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) have a variable rate to progress to combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) during follow-up. To evaluate the development of CPHD in a group of childhood-onset IGHD followed at a single tertiary center over a long period of time. We retrospectively analyzed data from 83 patients initially diagnosed as IGHD with a mean follow-up of 15.2 years. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the temporal progression and to identify risk factors to development of CPHD over time. From 83 patients initially with IGHD, 37 (45%) developed CPHD after a median time of follow up of 5.4 years (range from 1.2 to 21 years). LH and FSH deficiencies were the most common pituitary hormone (38%) deficiencies developed followed by TSH (31%), ACTH (12%) and ADH deficiency (5%). ADH deficiency (3.1 ± 1 years from GHD diagnosis) presented earlier and ACTH deficiency (9.3 ± 3.5 years) presented later during follow up compared to LH/FSH (8.3 ± 4 years) and TSH (7.5 ± 5.6 years) deficiencies. In a Cox regression model, pituitary stalk abnormalities was the strongest risk factor for the development of CPHD (hazard ratio of 3.28; p = 0.002). Our study indicated a high frequency of development of CPHD in patients initially diagnosed as IGHD at childhood. Half of our patients with IGHD developed the second hormone deficiency after 5 years of diagnosis, reinforcing the need for lifelong monitoring of pituitary function in these patients.

  5. Uncommon EGFR mutations in cytological specimens of 1,874 newly diagnosed Indonesian lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Syahruddin, Elisna; Wulandari, Laksmi; Sri Muktiati, Nunuk; Rima, Ana; Soeroso, Noni; Ermayanti, Sabrina; Levi, Michael; Hidajat, Heriawaty; Widjajahakim, Grace; Utomo, Ahmad Rusdan Handoyo

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the distribution of individual epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation subtypes found in routine cytological specimens. Patients and methods A retrospective audit was performed on EGFR testing results of 1,874 consecutive cytological samples of newly diagnosed or treatment-naïve Indonesian lung cancer patients (years 2015–2016). Testing was performed by ISO15189 accredited central laboratory. Results Overall test failure rate was 5.1%, with the highest failure (7.1%) observed in pleural effusion and lowest (1.6%) in needle aspiration samples. EGFR mutation frequency was 44.4%. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitive common EGFR mutations (ins/dels exon 19, L858R) and uncommon mutations (G719X, T790M, L861Q) contributed 57.1% and 29%, respectively. Approximately 13.9% of mutation-positive patients carried a mixture of common and uncommon mutations. Women had higher EGFR mutation rate (52.9%) vs men (39.1%; p<0.05). In contrast, uncommon mutations conferring either TKI responsive (G719X, L861Q) or TKI resistance (T790M, exon 20 insertions) were consistently more frequent in men than in women (67.3% vs 32.7% or 69.4% vs 30.6%; p<0.05). Up to 10% EGFR mutation–positive patients had baseline single mutation T790M, exon 20 insertion, or in coexistence with TKI-sensitive mutations. Up to 9% patients had complex or multiple EGFR mutations, whereby 48.7% patients harbored TKI-resistant mutations. One patient presented third-generation TKI-resistant mutation L792F simultaneously with T790M. Conclusion Routine diagnostic cytological techniques yielded similar success rate to detect EGFR mutations. Uncommon EGFR mutations were frequent events in Indonesian lung cancer patients. PMID:29615847

  6. Does Kinesiotaping improve pain and functionality in patients with newly diagnosed lateral epicondylitis?

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Leyla; Yuce, Deniz; Erbilici, Arzu; Baltaci, Gul

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the short-term effects of kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) along with physiotherapy on pain, functionality, and grip strength in patients with newly diagnosed lateral epicondylitis undergoing rehabilitation. Forty-five voluntary patients (mean age 48 years) were randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in all groups received physiotherapy consisting of a cold pack and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation five times per week for a total of 15 sessions and a home exercise programme including stretching and eccentric strength exercises. In the second group, patients received kinesiotaping 5 days a week for 3 weeks. In the third group, ESWT was applied three times for 3 weeks. Patients were assessed by visual analogue scale for pain intensity, pain-free grip strength using a hand dynamometer, Cyriax Resisted Muscle Test, and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Scale. All measurements were collected at baseline and after treatment. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the patients in all groups at baseline. Intra-group analysis revealed that pain intensity decreased, whereas maximum grip strength and functionality increased in all groups at the end of the treatment (p < 0.05). Inter-group analysis revealed that the kinesiotaping group yielded better results in decreasing pain intensity than the other groups (p < 0.05). The kinesiotaping group (p < 0.001) and ESWT group (p = 0.002) yielded better results in improving functionality than the physiotherapy group. There were significant differences in recovering pain-free grip strength in the kinesiotaping group (p < 0.05). Kinesiotaping was found to be effective for decreasing pain intensity, recovering grip strength, and improving functionality in patients with lateral epicondylitis undergoing rehabilitation. Therapeutic study, Level II.

  7. Cirrhosis is Under-recognized in Patients Subsequently Diagnosed with Hepatocellular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Megan; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Sada, Yvonne; Mittal, Sahil; Ying, Jun; Duan, Zhigang; Richardson, Peter; Davila, Jessica A.; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2015-01-01

    Background Most clinical practice guidelines recommend screening for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. However, patients with compensated cirrhosis are often asymptomatic and may remain unrecognized for years. Aims To determine the extent to which cirrhosis is unrecognized in a US Veteran population with HCC and to evaluate the association between lack of cirrhosis recognition and stage of HCC at diagnosis. Methods We reviewed the electronic medical records of a random sample of HCC cases diagnosed in the national Veterans Affairs system between 2005 and 2011. We conducted multivariable analyses adjusting for patients’ demographics, comorbidity, etiology of underlying disease, and healthcare utilization including HCC surveillance. Results Of 1201 patients with HCC and cirrhosis, 24.6% had unrecognized cirrhosis prior to HCC diagnosis. Older patients (>65yr, odds ratio [OR] 2.32), African Americans (OR 1.93), patients with alcoholic or NAFLD liver disease (OR 1.69 and 4.77 respectively), HIV (OR 3.02), and fewer comorbidities (Deyo 0 vs. 3, OR 2.42) had significantly higher odds of having unrecognized cirrhosis than comparison groups. Furthermore, patients with unrecognized cirrhosis were 6.5 times more likely to have advanced stage HCC at diagnosis. The effect of cirrhosis recognition on HCC stage remained significant after adjusting for pre-specified covariates (OR 3.37). Conclusions In one fourth of patients, cirrhosis was unrecognized prior to HCC diagnosis, and this group was significantly more likely to have advanced stage HCC. These findings emphasize the importance of timely evaluation for cirrhosis in at-risk populations as a critical step to improving outcomes for HCC patients. PMID:26784271

  8. European Myeloma Network recommendations on the evaluation and treatment of newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Monika; Terpos, Evangelos; Kleber, Martina; Gay, Francesca; Wäsch, Ralph; Morgan, Gareth; Cavo, Michele; van de Donk, Niels; Beilhack, Andreas; Bruno, Benedetto; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Hajek, Roman; Driessen, Christoph; Ludwig, Heinz; Beksac, Meral; Boccadoro, Mario; Straka, Christian; Brighen, Sara; Gramatzki, Martin; Larocca, Alessandra; Lokhorst, Henk; Magarotto, Valeria; Morabito, Fortunato; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Einsele, Hermann; Sonneveld, Pieter; Palumbo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma management has undergone profound changes in the past thanks to advances in our understanding of the disease biology and improvements in treatment and supportive care approaches. This article presents recommendations of the European Myeloma Network for newly diagnosed patients based on the GRADE system for level of evidence. All patients with symptomatic disease should undergo risk stratification to classify patients for International Staging System stage (level of evidence: 1A) and for cytogenetically defined high- versus standard-risk groups (2B). Novel-agent-based induction and up-front autologous stem cell transplantation in medically fit patients remains the standard of care (1A). Induction therapy should include a triple combination of bortezomib, with either adriamycin or thalidomide and dexamethasone (1A), or with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (2B). Currently, allogeneic stem cell transplantation may be considered for young patients with high-risk disease and preferably in the context of a clinical trial (2B). Thalidomide (1B) or lenalidomide (1A) maintenance increases progression-free survival and possibly overall survival (2B). Bortezomib-based regimens are a valuable consolidation option, especially for patients who failed excellent response after autologous stem cell transplantation (2A). Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone or melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide are the standards of care for transplant-ineligible patients (1A). Melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide with lenalidomide maintenance increases progression-free survival, but overall survival data are needed. New data from the phase III study (MM-020/IFM 07-01) of lenalidomide-low-dose dexamethasone reached its primary end point of a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival as compared to melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide and provides further evidence for the efficacy of lenalidomide-low-dose dexamethasone in transplant-ineligible patients (2B). PMID:24497560

  9. Prognostic factors for survival in 676 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Graziella; Falcone, Chiara; Boiardi, Amerigo; Broggi, Giovanni; Bruzzone, Maria G; Caldiroli, Dario; Farina, Rita; Farinotti, Mariangela; Fariselli, Laura; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Giombini, Sergio; Pollo, Bianca; Savoiardo, Mario; Solero, Carlo L; Valsecchi, Maria G

    2008-02-01

    Reliable data on large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma are needed because such studies differ importantly from trials that have a strong bias toward the recruitment of younger patients with a higher performance status. We analyzed the outcome of 676 patients with histologically confirmed newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were treated consecutively at a single institution over a 7-year period (1997-2003) with follow-up to April 30, 2006. Survival probabilities were 57% at 1 year, 16% at 2 years, and 7% at 3 years. Progression-free survival was 15% at 1 year. Prolongation of survival was significantly associated with surgery in patients with a good performance status, whatever the patient's age, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.55 (p < 0.001) or a 45% relative decrease in the risk of death. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved survival, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.61 (p = 0.001) and 0.89 (p = 0.04), respectively, regardless of age, performance status, or residual tumor volume. Recurrence occurred in 99% of patients throughout the follow-up. Reoperation was performed in one-fourth of these patients but was not effective, whether performed within 9 months (hazard ratio, 0.86; p = 0.256) or after 9 months (hazard ratio, 0.98; p = 0.860) of initial surgery, whereas second-line chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) or with temozolomide improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.77; p = 0.008). Surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in all patients with glioblastoma, and these treatments should not be withheld because of increasing age alone. The benefit of second surgery at recurrence is uncertain, and new trials are needed to assess its effectiveness. Chemotherapy with PCV or temozolomide seems to be a reasonable option at tumor recurrence.

  10. [The use of galactomannan detection in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis in hemato-oncological patients].

    PubMed

    Rácil, Z; Kocmanová, I; Wagnerová, B; Winterová, J; Lengerová, M; Moulis, M; Mayer, J

    2008-01-01

    PREMISES AND OBJECTIVES: Timely diagnosis is of critical importance for the prognosis of invasive aspergilosis (IA) patients. Over recent years, IA detection of galactomannan using the ELISA method has assumed growing importance. The objective of the study was to analyse the usability of the method in current clinical practice of a hemato-oncological ward. From May 2003 to October 2006, blood samples were taken from patients at IA risk to detect galactomannan (GM) in serum using the ELISA method. The patients who underwent the tests were classified by the probability of IA presence on the basis of the results of conventional diagnostic methods and section findings. A total of 11,360 serum samples from 911 adult patients were tested for GM presence. IA (probable/proven) was diagnosed in 42 (4.6%) of them. The rates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of galactomannan detection for IA diagnosis in our ward were, respectively, 95.2%, 90.0%, 31.5% and 99.7%. The principal causes of the limited positive predictive value of the test were the high percentage of false-positive test results (mainly caused by concomitant administration of some penicillin antibiotics or Plasma-Lyte infusion solution), as well as the fact that a large percentage of patients we examined fell within the group of patients with hematological malignity with a very low prevalence of IA. GM detection in serum is associated with high sensitivity and excellent negative predictive value in IA diagnosis in hemato-oncological patients. Knowledge and elimination of possible causes of false-positive results as well as focusing the screening on patients at greatest risk of infection are necessary for an even better exploitation of the test.

  11. Identity Management Systems in Healthcare: The Issue of Patient Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soenens, Els

    According to a recent recommendation of the European Commission, now is the time for Europe to enhance interoperability in eHealth. Although interoperability of patient identifiers seems promising for matters of patient mobility, patient empowerment and effective access to care, we see that today there is indeed a considerable lack of interoperability in the field of patient identification. Looking from a socio-technical rather than a merely technical point of view, one can understand the fact that the development and implementation of an identity management system in a specific healthcare context is influenced by particular social practices, affected by socio-economical history and the political climate and regulated by specific data protection legislations. Consequently, the process of making patient identification in Europe more interoperable is a development beyond semantic and syntactic levels. In this paper, we gives some examples of today’s patient identifier systems in Europe, discuss the issue of interoperability of (unique) patient identifiers from a socio-technical point of view and try not to ignore the ‘privacy side’ of the story.

  12. Beta-blockers May Reduce Intrusive Thoughts in Newly Diagnosed Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Monica E.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Povoski, Stephen P.; Agnese, Doreen M.; Arnold, Mark W.; Farrar, William B.; Yee, Lisa D.; Carson, William E.; Schmidt, Carl R.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A cancer diagnosis provokes significant levels of emotional distress, with intrusive thoughts being the most common manifestation among breast cancer survivors. Cancer-related intrusive thoughts can take the form of emotional memories, flashbacks, nightmares, and intrusive images. Emotional arousal after a severe life stressor prolongs adrenergic activation, which in turn may increase risk for posttraumatic symptomatology. However, antihypertensive beta-blockers block adrenergic activation and are known to reduce traumatic memories and related psychological distress. Thus, the current study examined the association between beta-blocker use and the severity of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and related symptoms following a cancer diagnosis. Methods The 174 breast and 36 female colorectal cancer patients who had recently undergone diagnostic screening or biopsy included 39 beta-blocker users and 171 non-users. Prior to any cancer treatment including surgery, participants completed questionnaires that included the Impact of Events Scale (IES) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Analyses controlled for age, education, cancer stage, cancer type, days since diagnosis, marital status, depression, and comorbidities. Results Although the high rates of cancer-related distress in this sample were similar to those of other studies with recently diagnosed patients, beta-blocker users endorsed 32% fewer cancer-related intrusive thoughts than non-users. Conclusions Recently diagnosed cancer patients using beta-blockers reported less cancer-related psychological distress. These results suggest that beta-blocker use may benefit cancer patients’ psychological adjustment following diagnosis, and provide a promising direction for future investigations on the pharmacological benefits of beta-blockers for cancer-related distress. PMID:23255459

  13. Morbidity and medicine prescriptions in a nationwide Danish population of patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hass Rubin, Katrine; Nybo, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Andersen, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of other diseases is not clarified. We aimed to investigate morbidity and medicine prescriptions in PCOS. A National Register-based study. Patients with PCOS (PCOS Denmark and an embedded cohort; PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH)) and one control population. Premenopausal women with PCOS underwent clinical and biochemical examination (PCOS OUH, n=1217). PCOS Denmark (n=19 199) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. Three age-matched controls were included per patient (n=57 483). Diagnosis codes and filled prescriptions. The mean (range) age of the PCOS Denmark group and controls was 30.6 (12-60) years. Patients in PCOS Denmark had higher Charlson index, higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension than controls. PCOS was associated with a two times increased risk of stroke and thrombosis, whereas the risk of other cardiovascular diseases was not increased. Thyroid disease, asthma, migraine, and depression were more prevalent in PCOS Denmark vs controls, whereas fractures were rarer. Infertility was increased in patients compared with controls, but the mean number of births was higher in PCOS. Medicine prescriptions within all diagnosis areas were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in controls.In PCOS OUH, polycystic ovaries (PCO) and irregular menses were associated with a more adverse metabolic risk profile, but individual Rotterdam criteria were not associated with cardiometabolic diagnoses. Cardiometabolic and psychiatric morbidity were significantly increased in a Danish population with PCOS. Medical diseases are frequent also in young patients with PCOS. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Concurrent radiotherapy: fotemustine combination for newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients, a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Beauchesne, Patrick D; Taillandier, L; Bernier, V; Carnin, C

    2009-06-01

    Fotemustine is a nitrosourea compound used for the treatment of malignant gliomas, especially in France. Recently, an EORTC-NCIC study has shown that a concomitant combination of radiotherapy plus temozolomide (an oral cytotoxic drug) improved survival in glioblastoma patients. We set out to test a concurrent combination of radiotherapy and fotemustine for newly malignant gliomas. A prospective single-center phase II study opened for accrual in September 2004. Patients over 18 years of age able to give informed consent and with histologically proven, newly diagnosed supratentorial malignant gliomas were eligible. All patients were treated by a standard cranial irradiation (conformal irradiation, tumor bulk plus a margin of 2.5 cm) and concomitant daily administration of 10 mg/m(2) of fotemustine (5 days per week, 6 weeks, 1 h 30 min before radiation therapy). Adjuvant chemotherapy, fotemustine, was administered at tumor progression as standard and classic regimen. Twenty-two patients were enrolled, 16 men and 6 women, median age 56 years (range 32-74), median Karnofsky performance status 70 (range 60-90). Histology included 16 glioblastomas, 3 anaplastic astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 1 mixed glioma. Eight patients underwent surgery (three total resections). Fourteen patients had a stereotactic biopsy. The concurrent radiotherapy-fotemustine combination was well tolerated: toxicity was mild and three hematologic toxicities grade 3-4 were observed. Median survival from the initial diagnosis was 9.9 months, two patients are currently alive. Median survival was 11 months for surgery and 9 months for stereotactic biopsy. Concomitant radiotherapy-fotemustine combination is safe and well tolerated. Overall survival of over 10 months for the whole population compares favorably with other reports.

  15. Uncommon EGFR mutations in cytological specimens of 1,874 newly diagnosed Indonesian lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Syahruddin, Elisna; Wulandari, Laksmi; Sri Muktiati, Nunuk; Rima, Ana; Soeroso, Noni; Ermayanti, Sabrina; Levi, Michael; Hidajat, Heriawaty; Widjajahakim, Grace; Utomo, Ahmad Rusdan Handoyo

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the distribution of individual epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutation subtypes found in routine cytological specimens. A retrospective audit was performed on EGFR testing results of 1,874 consecutive cytological samples of newly diagnosed or treatment-naïve Indonesian lung cancer patients (years 2015-2016). Testing was performed by ISO15189 accredited central laboratory. Overall test failure rate was 5.1%, with the highest failure (7.1%) observed in pleural effusion and lowest (1.6%) in needle aspiration samples. EGFR mutation frequency was 44.4%. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitive common EGFR mutations (ins/dels exon 19, L858R) and uncommon mutations (G719X, T790M, L861Q) contributed 57.1% and 29%, respectively. Approximately 13.9% of mutation-positive patients carried a mixture of common and uncommon mutations. Women had higher EGFR mutation rate (52.9%) vs men (39.1%; p <0.05). In contrast, uncommon mutations conferring either TKI responsive (G719X, L861Q) or TKI resistance (T790M, exon 20 insertions) were consistently more frequent in men than in women (67.3% vs 32.7% or 69.4% vs 30.6%; p <0.05). Up to 10% EGFR mutation-positive patients had baseline single mutation T790M, exon 20 insertion, or in coexistence with TKI-sensitive mutations. Up to 9% patients had complex or multiple EGFR mutations, whereby 48.7% patients harbored TKI-resistant mutations. One patient presented third-generation TKI-resistant mutation L792F simultaneously with T790M. Routine diagnostic cytological techniques yielded similar success rate to detect EGFR mutations. Uncommon EGFR mutations were frequent events in Indonesian lung cancer patients.

  16. Oncological patterns of care and outcome for 952 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma in 2004.

    PubMed

    Bauchet, Luc; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Rigau, Valérie; Fabbro, Michel; Chinot, Olivier; Pallusseau, Loreleï; Carnin, Charlotte; Lainé, Karl; Schlama, Aline; Thiebaut, Agnes; Patru, Maria Cristina; Bauchet, Fabienne; Lionnet, Martine; Wager, Michel; Faillot, Thierry; Taillandier, Luc; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Capelle, Laurent; Loiseau, Hugues; Frappaz, Didier; Campello, Chantal; Kerr, Christine; Duffau, Hugues; Reme-Saumon, Monique; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Henin, Dominique; Labrousse, François; Menei, Philippe; Honnorat, Jérome

    2010-07-01

    This report, an audit requested by the French government, describes oncological patterns of care, prognostic factors, and survival for patients with newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in France. The French Brain Tumor DataBase, which is a national multidisciplinary (neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, radiotherapists, neurooncologists, epidemiologists, and biostatisticians) network, prospectively collected initial data for the cases of GBM in 2004, and a specific data card was used to retrospectively collect data on the management and follow-up care of these patients between January 1, 2004, and December 1, 2006. We recorded 952 cases of GBM (male/female ratio 1.6, median age 63.9 years, mean preoperative Karnofsky performance status [KPS] 79). Surgery consisted of resection (RS; n = 541) and biopsy (n = 411); 180 patients did not have subsequent oncological treatment. After surgery, first-line treatment (n = 772) consisted of radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ) concomitant +/- adjuvant in 314 patients, RT alone in 236 patients, chemotherapy (CT) alone in 157 patients, and other treatment modalities in 65 patients. Median overall survival was 286 days (95% CI, 266-314) and was significantly affected by age, KPS, and tumor location. Median survival (days, 95% CI) associated with these main strategies, when analyzed by a surgical group, were as follows: RS + RT-TMZ((n=224)): 476 (441-506), biopsy + RT-TMZ((n=90)): 329 (301-413), RS + RT((n=147)): 363 (331-431), biopsy + RT((n=89)): 178 (153-237), RS + CT((n=61)): 245 (190-361), biopsy + CT((n=96)): 244 (198-280), and biopsy only((n=118)): 55 (46-71). This study illustrates the usefulness of a national brain tumor database. To our knowledge, this work is the largest report of recent GBM management in Europe.

  17. Prognostic factors for survival in 676 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Filippini, Graziella; Falcone, Chiara; Boiardi, Amerigo; Broggi, Giovanni; Bruzzone, Maria G.; Caldiroli, Dario; Farina, Rita; Farinotti, Mariangela; Fariselli, Laura; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Giombini, Sergio; Pollo, Bianca; Savoiardo, Mario; Solero, Carlo L.; Valsecchi, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable data on large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma are needed because such studies differ importantly from trials that have a strong bias toward the recruitment of younger patients with a higher performance status. We analyzed the outcome of 676 patients with histologically confirmed newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were treated consecutively at a single institution over a 7-year period (1997 – 2003) with follow-up to April 30, 2006. Survival probabilities were 57% at 1 year, 16% at 2 years, and 7% at 3 years. Progression-free survival was 15% at 1 year. Prolongation of survival was significantly associated with surgery in patients with a good performance status, whatever the patient’s age, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.55 (p < 0.001) or a 45% relative decrease in the risk of death. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved survival, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.61 (p = 0.001) and 0.89 (p = 0.04), respectively, regardless of age, performance status, or residual tumor volume. Recurrence occurred in 99% of patients throughout the follow-up. Reoperation was performed in one-fourth of these patients but was not effective, whether performed within 9 months (hazard ratio, 0.86; p = 0.256) or after 9 months (hazard ratio, 0.98; p = 0.860) of initial surgery, whereas second-line chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) or with temozolomide improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.77; p = 0.008). Surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in all patients with glioblastoma, and these treatments should not be withheld because of increasing age alone. The benefit of second surgery at recurrence is uncertain, and new trials are needed to assess its effectiveness. Chemotherapy with PCV or temozolomide seems to be a reasonable option at tumor recurrence. PMID:17993634

  18. Natural course of hypogonadism diagnosed during hospitalization in aged male patients.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, P; Prado, F; Muñoz, A; Guerrero, M T; Macías, M C; Ridruejo, E; Tajada, P; García-Arévalo, C; Díez, J J

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess short-term natural course of hypogonadism diagnosed during hospitalization for acute disease in aged male patients after discharge. A group of 43 hypogonadal males, aged 86.7±5.7 year, was studied. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T) and gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH, and luteinizing hormone, LH) were measured in every patient both at admission and one month after discharge. Mean serum T at entry was 115.4±48.0 ng/dl. Hypogonadism was hyper-, hypo-, and normogonadotropic in 20 (46.5%), 20 (46.5%), and 3 (7.0%) patients, respectively. One month after discharge serum T concentrations increased significantly (230.9±135.6 ng/dl, p<0.001). At this point, more than half of the patients (n=27, 62.8%) showed normal serum T concentrations. Both gonadotropins, FSH (p<0.001), and LH (p=0.04) also increased one month after discharge. Approximately, half of the patients (13, 48.1%) who normalized serum T concentrations also showed normal serum gonadotropin concentrations. Patients who normalized their serum T concentrations one month after discharge showed significantly higher baseline values of T (134.7±33.9 ng/dl) than those who persisted with hypogonadism (n=16, 32.7%; 82.8±51.6 ng/dl, p<0.001). Lastly, serum T was the only independent predictor for achieving eugonadal status (OR 1.030; CI 95%, 1.010-1.050; p<0.001). In conclusion, about 63% of aged patients hospitalized for acute illness with hypogonadism discovered during hospitalization spontaneously normalize their serum T concentrations one month after discharge. Serum gonadotropin concentrations also increased after discharge. Serum T levels at admission was an independent predictor for the normalization of serum T concentrations.

  19. Evidence of earlier thyroid dysfunction in newly diagnosed oral lichen planus patients: a hint for endocrinologists

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Dora; Tirone, Federico; Sciannameo, Veronica; Ricceri, Fulvio; Cabras, Marco; Gambino, Alessio; Conrotto, Davide; Salzano, Stefano; Carbone, Mario; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The association between oral lichen planus (OLP) and hypothyroidism has been debated with conflicting results: some authors detected a statistically significant association between these two, while others did not confirm it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid status in patients with newly diagnosed OLP to test the null hypothesis that thyroid disease is not associated with an increased incidence of oral lesions, with a prospective case-control approach. A total of 549 patients have been evaluated, of whom 355 were female. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. Patients suffering from thyroid diseases were associated with an almost 3-fold increased odds of having OLP (OR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.65–4.94), after adjusting this analysis for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and hepatitis C infection. It would be appropriate to further investigate the possible concomitance of OLP among patients with thyroid disorder; endocrinologists should be aware of this association, especially because OLP is considered a potentially malignant oral disorder. PMID:29101247

  20. Evidence of earlier thyroid dysfunction in newly diagnosed oral lichen planus patients: a hint for endocrinologists.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Karimi, Dora; Tirone, Federico; Sciannameo, Veronica; Ricceri, Fulvio; Cabras, Marco; Gambino, Alessio; Conrotto, Davide; Salzano, Stefano; Carbone, Mario; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    The association between oral lichen planus (OLP) and hypothyroidism has been debated with conflicting results: some authors detected a statistically significant association between these two, while others did not confirm it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid status in patients with newly diagnosed OLP to test the null hypothesis that thyroid disease is not associated with an increased incidence of oral lesions, with a prospective case-control approach. A total of 549 patients have been evaluated, of whom 355 were female. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. Patients suffering from thyroid diseases were associated with an almost 3-fold increased odds of having OLP (OR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.65-4.94), after adjusting this analysis for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and hepatitis C infection. It would be appropriate to further investigate the possible concomitance of OLP among patients with thyroid disorder; endocrinologists should be aware of this association, especially because OLP is considered a potentially malignant oral disorder. © 2017 The authors.

  1. Serum growth differentiation factor 15 levels in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Tarkun, Pinar; Birtas Atesoglu, Elif; Mehtap, Ozgur; Musul, Mahmut Mert; Hacihanefioglu, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological cancer associated with increased clonal malignant plasma cells. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF 15) is a protein that is highly expressed in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of patients with MM. This study investigated whether the clinical stage of the disease, treatment response and survival are affected by pretreatment serum GDF 15 levels. Serum GDF 15 levels were measured in 35 newly diagnosed MM patients and 27 healthy controls. The correlation between serum GDF 15 levels and various clinical and laboratory parameters was analyzed. The study demonstrated significantly higher levels of GDF 15 in MM patients. There was a negative correlation between GDF 15 levels, hemoglobin and albumin levels, and a positive correlation between GDF 15 levels, CRP, creatinine, β-2-microglobulin and stage. GDF 15 levels were lower in patients who could receive autologous stem cell transplantation compared to other groups, representing a statistically significant difference. However, in the survival analyses, GDF 15 level did not have an impact on survival. High serum levels of GDF 15 may indicate a poor treatment response. Our study supports the prognostic value of GDF 15 in MM. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Pain, Sleep Disturbance, and Quality of Life Among Palestinian Patients Diagnosed with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dreidi, Mu'taz M; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this descriptive study is to explore the relationships between pain, sleep disturbance, and quality of life among Palestinian patients diagnosed with cancer in the West Bank. A cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design was used to collect data from 184 patients with cancer. The quality of life questionnaire, visual analogue pain scale, and physical health status were used in data collection. The results showed that the mean score for pain was 5, the best functioning was for cognitive scale (M = 75, SD = 29), the worst symptoms experienced by patients was appetite loss (M = 47, SD = 35), a moderate global health status (M = 53, SD = 27), and the mean for sleep disturbance was 43 (SD = 35). Pain and sleep disturbance showed high negative correlations with functional scales of quality of life and positive with symptom scales. The findings showed that the co-occurrence of pain and sleep disturbance was negatively correlated with quality of life (QoL) and positively with symptom scales. The regression analysis revealed that pain and sleep disturbance accounted for a significant proportion of variance in the QoL (p < 0.001), and the highest proportion was in predicting global health status (41.9 %). The findings of this study give evidence about the importance of assessing pain and sleep quality among Palestinian patients with cancer.

  3. HIV screening among newly diagnosed TB patients: a cross sectional study in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Suzanne; Mejía, Fernando; Rojas, Marlene; Seas, Carlos; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Otero, Larissa

    2018-03-20

    Since 2006, the Peruvian National TB program (NTP) recommends voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for all tuberculosis (TB) patients. Responding to the differential burden of both diseases in Peru, TB is managed in peripheral health facilities while HIV is managed in referral centers. This study aims to determine the coverage of HIV screening among TB patients and the characteristics of persons not screened. From March 2010 to December 2011 we enrolled new smear-positive pulmonary TB adults in 34 health facilities in a district in Lima. NTP staff offered VCT to all TB patients. Patients with an HIV positive result were referred for confirmation tests and management. We interviewed patients to collect their demographic and clinical characteristics and registered if patients opted in or out of the screening. Of the 1295 enrolled TB patients, nine had a known HIV diagnosis. Of the remaining, 76.1% (979) were screened for HIV. Among the 23.9% (307) not screened, 38.4% (118) opted out of the screening. TB patients at one of the health care facilities of the higher areas of the district (OR = 3.38, CI 95% 2.17-5.28 for the highest area and OR = 2.82, CI 95% 1.78-4.49 for the high area) as well as those reporting illegal drug consumption (OR = 1.65, CI 95% 1.15-2.37) were more likely not to be screened. Twenty-four were HIV positive (1.9% of all patients 1295, or 2.4% of those screened). Of 15 patients diagnosed with HIV during the TB episode, ten were enrolled in an HIV program. The median time between the result of the HIV screening and the first consultation at the HIV program was 82 days (IQR, 32-414). The median time between the result of the HIV screening and antiretroviral initiation was 148.5 days (IQR 32-500). An acceptable proportion of TB patients were screened for HIV in Lima. Referral systems of HIV positive patients should be strengthened for timely ART initiation.

  4. Gait analysis of young male patients diagnosed with primary bladder neck obstruction.

    PubMed

    Zago, Matteo; Camerota, Tommaso Ciro; Pisu, Stefano; Ciprandi, Daniela; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) represents an inappropriate or inadequate relaxation of the bladder neck during micturition. Based on the observation of an increased rate of postural imbalances in male patients with PBNO, we hypothesized a possible role of an unbalanced biomechanics of the pelvis on urethral sphincters activity. Our aim was to identify kinematic imbalances, usually disregarded in PBNO patients, and which could eventually be involved in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Seven male adult patients (39.6±7.1years) were recruited; in all patients, PBNO was suspected at bladder diary and uroflowmetry, and was endoscopically confirmed with urethroscopy. Participants gait was recorded with a motion capture system (BTS Spa, Italy) to obtain three-dimensional joint angles and gait parameters. Multivariate statistics based on a Principal Component model allowed to assess the similarity of patients' gait patterns with respect to control subjects. The main finding is that patients with PBNO showed significant discordance in the observations at the ankle and pelvis level. Additionally, 6/7 patients demonstrated altered trunk positions compared to normal curves. We suggest that the identified postural imbalances could represent the cause for an anomalous activation of pelvic floor muscles (hypertonia). The consequent urinary sphincters hypercontraction may be responsible for the development of voiding dysfunction in male patients with no significant morphological alterations. Results reinforced the hypothesis of an etiopathogenetic role of postural imbalances on primary bladder neck obstruction in male patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global and Regional Brain Non-Gaussian Diffusion Changes in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Palomares, Jose; Kang, Daniel W; Park, Bumhee; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients show brain structural injury and functional deficits in autonomic, affective, and cognitive regulatory sites, as revealed by mean diffusivity (MD) and other imaging procedures. The time course and nature of gray and white matter injury can be revealed in more detail with mean kurtosis (MK) procedures, which can differentiate acute from chronic injury, and better show extent of damage over MD procedures. Our objective was to examine global and regional MK changes in newly diagnosed OSA, relative to control subjects. Two diffusion kurtosis image series were collected from 22 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA and 26 control subjects using a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. MK maps were generated, normalized to a common space, smoothed, and compared voxel-by-voxel between groups using analysis of covariance (covariates; age, sex). No age or sex differences appeared, but body mass index, sleep, neuropsychologic, and cognitive scores significantly differed between groups. MK values were significantly increased globally in OSA over controls, and in multiple localized sites, including the basal forebrain, extending to the hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, insular cortices, basal ganglia, limbic regions, cerebellar areas, parietal cortices, ventral temporal lobe, ventrolateral medulla, and midline pons. Multiple sites, including the insular cortices, ventrolateral medulla, and midline pons showed more injury over previously identified damage with MD procedures, with damage often lateralized. Global mean kurtosis values are significantly increased in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), suggesting acute tissue injury, and these changes are principally localized in critical sites mediating deficient functions in the condition. The mechanisms for injury likely include altered perfusion and hypoxemia-induced processes, leading to acute tissue changes in recently diagnosed OSA. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Urinary N-terminal fragment of titin is a marker to diagnose muscular dystrophy in patients with cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Kiko, Takatoyo; Sato, Takamasa; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2018-06-02

    The differential diagnosis of cardiomyopathy is important. It has been recently reported that urinary titin N (U-TN) is increased in patients with muscular dystrophy (MD), and is associated with muscular damage. We aimed to clarify whether U-TN is useful as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing MD from various cardiomyopathies [e.g. dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)]. We measured and compared the U-TN/creatinine ratio (U-TN/Cr; pmol/mg/dl) in 278 control subjects and 331 patients with various cardiomyopathies (DCM, n = 199; sarcoidosis, n = 18; HCM, n = 86; amyloidosis, n = 15; Fabry disease, n = 6; MD, n = 7). The U-TN/Cr was significantly higher in MD patients than in patients with various cardiomyopathies and the control subjects (P < 0.001). From the ROC analysis, the U-TN/Cr (with a cut-off value of 8.7) identified MD with 100% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98, P < 0.001). The AUC of the U-TN/Cr that was able to predict MD was superior to those of U-TN, creatinine kinase, B-type natriuretic peptide, and troponin I. Urinary Titin-N is a novel marker to diagnose MD. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Acquired angioedema – clinical characteristic of the patients diagnosed in 2012-2016 with acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency].

    PubMed

    Stobiecki, Marcin; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Obtułowicz, Krystyna

    Acquired angioedema is a rare disease caused by a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor with recurrent swelling symptoms. It may occur in the course of lymphoproliferative disorders or autoimmune diseases. Symptoms resemble hereditary angioedema, and the only differentiating features is negative family history, late onset of symptoms and accompanying lymphoproliferative disorder. The aim of the study was to analyze the cases of acquired angioedema. The retrospective analysis of 341 patients from the registry of patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency. Results: We identified 4 patients among 119 with HAE (3.57%) diagnosed in this same period of time 2012-2016 who fulfilled the criteria of acquired edema. In two cases the primary reason of angioedema was lymphoproliferive disease, in two monoclonal gammapathy of unknown reason. We analyzed also the results of laboratory tests C4, C1 inhibitor, C1q. In all cases the face was dominated localization. After the treatment of primary lymphoproliferive disease, in two cases, we observed total remission of angioedema. Only one patient with gammapathy require treatment with C1 inhibitor during the attacks. In these case we observed both plasma deriver, and recombinant C1 inhibitor were effective.

  8. Anticoagulation therapy and clinical outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed atrial fibrillation: Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Patrícia O; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Alexander, John H; Thomas, Laine; Alings, Marco; Flaker, Greg C; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Hanna, Michael; Horowitz, John D; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B; Lopes, Renato D

    2017-01-15

    Evidence supporting use of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) is based mainly on data from patients with permanent, persistent, or paroxysmal AF. Less is known about the risk following a new diagnosis of AF and the efficacy and safety of apixaban in these patients. Using data from ARISTOTLE, we assessed the relationship between timing of AF diagnosis and clinical outcomes and the efficacy and safety of apixaban versus warfarin in these patients. Recently diagnosed AF was defined as a new diagnosis of AF within 30days prior to enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between recently diagnosed AF and clinical outcomes. We also assessed the efficacy and safety of apixaban versus warfarin according to time since AF diagnosis. In ARISTOTLE, 1899 (10.5%) patients had recently diagnosed AF. After adjustment, patients with recently versus remotely diagnosed AF had a similar risk of stroke/systemic embolism (HR=1.07, 95% CI=0.80-1.42; p=0.67), but higher mortality was seen in patients with recently diagnosed AF (adjusted HR=1.21, 95% CI=1.02-1.43; p=0.03). The beneficial effects of apixaban, compared with warfarin, on clinical outcomes were consistent, irrespective of timing of AF diagnosis (all interaction p-values >0.12). Patients with recently diagnosed AF had a similar risk of stroke but higher mortality than patients with remotely diagnosed AF, suggesting that they are not at "low risk" and warrant stroke prevention strategies. The benefits of apixaban over warfarin were preserved, irrespective of timing of AF diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen T; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Keen, Phillip; McDonald, Ann; Middleton, Melanie; Woolley, Ian; Kelly, Mark; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural-regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007-2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007-2012 versus 1996-2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods.

  10. Identifying the Risk of Swallowing-Related Pulmonary Complications in Older Patients With Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Meals, Clifton; Roy, Siddharth; Medvedev, Gleb; Wallace, Matthew; Neviaser, Robert J; O'Brien, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To identify and potentially modify the risk of pulmonary complications in a group of older patients with hip fracture, the authors obtained speech and language pathology consultations for these patients. Then they performed a retrospective chart review of all patients 65 years and older who were admitted to their institution between June 2011 and July 2013 with acute hip fracture, were treated surgically, and had a speech and language pathology evaluation in the immediate perioperative period. The authors identified 52 patients who met the study criteria. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification system, at the time of surgery, 1 patient (2%) was classified as ASA I, 12 patients (23%) were ASA II, 26 (50%) were ASA III, and 12 (23%) were ASA IV. Based on a speech and language pathology evaluation, 22 patients (42%) were diagnosed with dysphagia. Statistical analysis showed that ASA III status and ASA IV status were meaningful predictors of dysphagia and that dysphagia itself was a strong risk factor for pulmonary aspiration, pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonitis. Evaluation by a speech and language pathologist, particularly of patients classified as ASA III or ASA IV, may be an efficient means of averting pulmonary morbidity that is common in older patients with hip fracture. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Blood pressure circadian rhythms and adverse outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients diagnosed with orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jing; Hou, Yuan-Ping; Wu, Jin-Ling; Fang, Xiang-Yang; Li, Sheng-Li; Liu, Miao-Bing; Sun, Qian-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Patients with diabetes frequently develop orthostatic hypotension (OH). The present study was designed to examine the relationship of blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythms and outcomes in diabetes with OH. In the present study, 173 inpatients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Patients were divided into an OH group and a non-OH group according to the BP changes detected in the supine and standing position. Then, 24-h ambulatory BP was monitored. Patients were followed up for an average of 45 ± 10 months post-discharge. Outcomes - death and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, including heart failure, myocardial infarction and stroke - were recorded. There were 61 patients (35.26%) in the OH group and 112 patients (64.74%) in the non-OH group. In the OH group, the night-time systolic BP and night-time diastolic BP were higher, the blood BP rhythms were predominantly of the riser type (67.21%). OH was as an independent marker of riser type circadian rhythm (adjusted odds ratio 4.532, 95% confidence interval 2.579-7.966). In the OH group, the incidence rates of mortality, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were increased significantly compared with those in the non-OH group (11.48 vs 2.68%, P = 0.014; 37.70 vs 8.93%, P < 0.01). In patients who had type 2 diabetes diagnosed with OH, the BP circadian rhythm usually showed riser patterns, and they had increased rates of mortality, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of Vitamin D Status in Newly Diagnosed Pemphigus Vulgaris Patients

    PubMed Central

    ZAREI, Mahnaz; JAVANBAKHT, Mohammad Hassan; CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Cheida; DANESHPAZHOOH, Maryam; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; DE-RAKHSHANIAN, Hoda; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disorder of the skin or mucosa. Since low vitamin D status has been linked to many immune disorders, we designed this study to compare the vitamin D status in PV patients with healthy controls. Methods In this case-control study, vitamin D status of 32 newly diagnosed PV patients was compared with 36 healthy control subjects. All patients were selected from the specialized dermatology departments of Razi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a 2-year period (2009–2010). The severity of the disease was estimated according to Harman’s scores. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured by Roche Elecsys System. Data were analyzed by independent t-test. Results Both groups were similar based on sex, age and body mass index. The mean duration of disease was 5.57±0.93 months. The mean oral and skin severities were 1.81±0.20 and 2.31±0.17 respectively, based on Harman’s scores. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower in PV patients compared to controls (-8.90; 95% CI, 2.29-15.51 and P = 0.009). There was a negative correlation between vitamin D level and the oral severity of disease (r = -0.39 and P = 0.02). Conclusion PV patients had significantly lower serum level of 25(OH)D compared to healthy subjects which might contribute to worsen the disease. These data indicate the importance of improving vitamin D level in pemphigus patients. PMID:26060722

  13. Early Implantation of Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Severe Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Bloom, Jason; Taylor, Andrew; Mariani, Justin

    2016-09-01

    Primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduce mortality in selected patients with severe systolic dysfunction. Current guidelines suggest a 3- to 6-month waiting period before implantation. We retrospectively studied 29 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) who underwent primary prevention ICD implantation within 6 months of diagnosis between January 2008 and April 2014. Cardiac MRI (CMR) evaluated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and regional fibrosis preimplant. The primary end point was "failure to qualify for an ICD at 12 months postimplant," either due to LVEF ≥ 35% or deterioration necessitating mechanical support or transplantation, without appropriate ICD therapy. Secondary end points were appropriate and inappropriate ICD therapy. Baseline mean age was 44.2 ± 14.8 years and median LVEF 16.4%. Median time from diagnosis to implant was 32 days. At 12 months, 17 patients (58.6%) no longer qualified for an ICD, mainly due to LVEF improvement. At follow-up (mean 32.0 ± 20.6 months), three patients received appropriate therapy (one for ventricular fibrillation). All three had CMR late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) preimplant. Cardiac resynchronization at implant predicted LVEF improvement. Early appropriate therapy, particularly for ventricular fibrillation, is infrequent for patients with very severe NICM who have ICDs implanted within 6 months of diagnosis. The majority of these patients would not qualify for an ICD at 12 months postinsertion. In the absence of a multimodality risk score, early ICD insertion should only be considered in selected cases (presence of LGE and NSVT). Wearable cardioverter defibrillators may have a role as a bridge to ICD decision. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Using the Physical Examination to Diagnose Patients with Acute Dizziness and Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Edlow, Jonathan A; Newman-Toker, David

    2016-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) patients who present with acute dizziness or vertigo can be challenging to diagnose. Roughly half have general medical disorders that are usually apparent from the context, associated symptoms, or initial laboratory tests. The rest include a mix of common inner ear disorders and uncommon neurologic ones, particularly vertebrobasilar strokes or posterior fossa mass lesions. In these latter cases, misdiagnosis can lead to serious adverse consequences for patients. Our aim was to assist emergency physicians to use the physical examination effectively to make a specific diagnosis in patients with acute dizziness or vertigo. Recent evidence indicates that the physical examination can help physicians accurately discriminate between benign inner ear conditions and dangerous central ones, enabling correct management of peripheral vestibular disease and avoiding dangerous misdiagnoses of central ones. Patients with the acute vestibular syndrome mostly have vestibular neuritis, but some have stroke. Data suggest that focused eye movement examinations, at least when performed by specialists, are more sensitive for detecting early stroke than brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with the triggered episodic vestibular syndrome mostly have benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), but some have posterior fossa mass lesions. Specific positional tests to provoke nystagmus can confirm a BPPV diagnosis at the bedside, enabling immediate curative therapy, or indicate the need for imaging. Emergency physicians can effectively use the physical examination to make a specific diagnosis in patients with acute dizziness or vertigo. They must understand the limitations of brain imaging. This may reduce misdiagnosis of serious central causes of dizziness, including posterior circulation stroke and posterior fossa mass lesions, and improve resource utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive dysfunction among newly diagnosed older patients with hematological malignancy: frequency, clinical indicators and predictors.

    PubMed

    Aiki, Sayo; Okuyama, Toru; Sugano, Koji; Kubota, Yosuke; Imai, Fuminobu; Nishioka, Masahiro; Ito, Yoshinori; Iida, Shinsuke; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Ishida, Takashi; Kusumoto, Shigeru; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-01-01

    Medical staff often overlook or underestimate the presence or severity of cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to clarify the frequency, clinical indicators and predictors of cognitive dysfunction among newly diagnosed older patients with hematologic malignancy receiving first-line chemotherapy. Patients aged 65 years or over with a primary diagnosis of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma were consecutively recruited. Cognitive dysfunction was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice: before starting chemotherapy (T1) and 1 month later (T2). Participants also underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment at T1. Potential clinical indicators that were associated with cognitive dysfunction were explored via cross-sectional analysis at T1. Predictors of cognitive dysfunction at T2 were also investigated among patients without cognitive dysfunction at T1. A total of 145 participants participated in the study; cognitive dysfunction at T1 was present in 20%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that lower educational attainment and poorer instrumental activities of daily living were significant clinical indicators of cognitive dysfunction. Among 99 patients who did not have cognitive dysfunction at T1 and underwent cognitive assessment at T2, 7% developed dysfunction. Subjective perception of difficulty remembering at T1 was the only factor which significantly predicted new-onset cognitive dysfunction at T2. The prevalence rate of cognitive dysfunction was non-negligible among older patients with hematologic malignancy before and immediately after initial chemotherapy. Attention to the clinical indicators and predictors found in this study may provide facilitate the identification of cognitive dysfunction in patients with cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Subclinical Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Newly Diagnosed Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gasiorowska, A; Talar-Wojnarowska, R; Kaczka, A; Borkowska, A; Czupryniak, L; Małecka-Panas, E

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that various cytokines may be important players in the development and progression of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC). We studied endothelial dysfunction and subclinical inflammation in patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic adenocarcinoma and CP. A total of 45 patients were included in the present investigation, 27 with CP and 18 with PC. In addition, the study included 13 age- and body weight-matched healthy subjects served as controls. In all subjects, plasma adiponectin, TNF-alfa, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), E-selectin, thrombomodulin, adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM, and endothelin-1 were assessed. PC and CP patients as compared with controls had significantly greater plasma adiponectin (13,292 and 12,227 vs 5408 ng/ml; p < 0.0003), TNF-alfa (22.1 and 23.1 vs 13 pg/ml; p < 0.0002), and IL-6 (6.6 and 7.3 vs 3.3 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). Moreover, there was significantly higher concentration of ICAM (931 and 492 vs 290 ng/ml; p < 0.005) and VCAM (1511 and 1080 vs 840 ng/ml; p < 0.01) in PC and CP patients. When PC and CP patients with and without diabetes were considered separately, there was no difference in adiponectin, cytokines, and parameters of endothelial dysfunction. In summary, our data indicate that patients with CP and PC express high levels of several cytokines compared with healthy individuals, especially adiponectin, TNF-α and IL-6. Serum TNF-α and ICAM concentrations coordinately increase in advanced CP. Furthermore, especially in PC subjects, elevated markers of endothelial dysfunction are present. This study provides additional evidence that changes in inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecules in PC and CP are not likely related to endocrine disorders.

  17. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-03-27

    Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of an unfavourable cardiometabolic risk profile. Finally, chronic hypercortisolism is known to impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aim to systematically investigate the neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities, as well as assess the HRQoL, in patients with previously diagnosed CD in a longitudinal fashion. In this longitudinal study, we will assess 20 patients with CD displaying biochemical control 24 months after recruitment in the initial cross-sectional study (n=80). This will be a mixed cohort including patients after surgical, after radiation therapy and/or under current medical treatment for CD. Primary outcomes include changes in mean urinary free cortisol and changes in specific pain patterns. Secondary/exploratory neuropsychiatric domains include depression, anxiety, personality, sleep, body image and quality of life. Secondary/exploratory cardiometabolic domains include anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and insulin resistance. Additional domains will be investigated if warranted by clinical indication. Safety assessment under medical therapy will include liver enzymes, ECG abnormalities and hyperglycaemia. Risk of damage from study-conditioned measures is very small and considered ethically justified. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry may call for detailed fracture risk assessment. However, the radiation dose is very small and only administered on clinical indication; therefore, it is considered ethically justified. This protocol

  18. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of an unfavourable cardiometabolic risk profile. Finally, chronic hypercortisolism is known to impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aim to systematically investigate the neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities, as well as assess the HRQoL, in patients with previously diagnosed CD in a longitudinal fashion. Methods and analysis In this longitudinal study, we will assess 20 patients with CD displaying biochemical control 24 months after recruitment in the initial cross-sectional study (n=80). This will be a mixed cohort including patients after surgical, after radiation therapy and/or under current medical treatment for CD. Primary outcomes include changes in mean urinary free cortisol and changes in specific pain patterns. Secondary/exploratory neuropsychiatric domains include depression, anxiety, personality, sleep, body image and quality of life. Secondary/exploratory cardiometabolic domains include anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and insulin resistance. Additional domains will be investigated if warranted by clinical indication. Safety assessment under medical therapy will include liver enzymes, ECG abnormalities and hyperglycaemia. Ethics and dissemination Risk of damage from study-conditioned measures is very small and considered ethically justified. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry may call for detailed fracture risk assessment. However, the radiation dose is very small and only administered on clinical indication

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentration in patients diagnosed with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    PubMed

    Czyzyk, Adam; Filipowicz, Dorota; Podfigurna, Agnieszka; Ptas, Paula; Piestrzynska, Malgorzata; Smolarczyk, Roman; Genazzani, Andrea R; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2017-05-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a cessation of function of ovaries in women younger than 40 years old. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in neuronal growth and metabolism. BDNF also has been shown to be important regulator of oocyte maturation. Recent data show that BDNF can be potentially involved in POI pathology. The aim of the study was to assess the BDNF plasma concentrations in patients diagnosed with idiopathic POI. 23 women diagnosed with POI (age 31 ± 7 years) and 18 (age 31 ± 3) controls were included to the study, matched according to age and body mass index. The BDNF concentrations were measured using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hormonal and metabolic parameters were measured in all individuals, in controls in late follicular phase. The POI group demonstrated lower mean plasma concentrations of BDNF (429.25 ± 65.52 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (479.75 ± 34.75 pg/ml, p = 0.0345). The BDNF plasma concentration correlated negatively (R = -0.79, p < 0.001) with number of months since last menstrual period. There was a positive correlation between BDNF and progesterone in controls. In conclusion, POI patients show significantly lower BDNF plasma concentration and it correlates with the duration of amenorrhea. This observation brings important potential insights to the pathology of POI.

  20. Quality of life in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients : The Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study.

    PubMed

    Janz, N K; Wren, P A; Lichter, P R; Musch, D C; Gillespie, B W; Guire, K E

    2001-05-01

    The Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) was designed to determine whether patients with newly diagnosed open-angle glaucoma are better treated initially by medicine or immediate filtering surgery. This paper describes the quality-of-life (QOL) measurement approach, instruments included, and the CIGTS participants' QOL findings at the time of diagnosis. Baseline results from a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Six hundred seven patients from 14 clinical centers were enrolled. Patients randomized to initial medication received a stepped medical regimen (n = 307). Those randomized to initial surgery underwent a trabeculectomy (n = 300). The baseline interview was conducted before treatment initiation. All baseline and posttreatment QOL assessments were conducted by telephone from a centralized interviewing center. The primary outcome measure described in this paper was QOL. The QOL instrument is multidimensional and incorporates both disease-specific and generic measures, including the Visual Activities Questionnaire, Sickness Impact Profile, and a Symptom and Health Problem CHECKLIST: The correlations between QOL measures and clinical outcomes were in the expected direction, but relatively weak. At initial diagnosis, difficulty with bright lights and with light and dark adaptation were the most frequently reported symptoms related to visual function, whereas visual distortion was the most bothersome. Approximately half of the patients reported at least some worry or concern about the possibility of blindness. Within the Visual Activities Questionnaire, higher scores on the Peripheral Vision subscale were associated with more field loss (P < 0.01). In regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics and nonocular comorbidities, increased visual field loss was significantly associated with higher dysfunction among five disease-specific QOL measures (P < 0.05). Newly diagnosed glaucoma patients reported experiencing some visual function

  1. Clinically Unsuspected Prion Disease Among Patients With Dementia Diagnoses in an Alzheimer's Disease Database.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Ryan A; Blase, J L; Mercaldo, N D; Harvey, A R; Schonberger, L B; Kukull, W A; Belay, E D

    2015-12-01

    Brain tissue analysis is necessary to confirm prion diseases. Clinically unsuspected cases may be identified through neuropathologic testing. National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Minimum and Neuropathologic Data Set for 1984 to 2005 were reviewed. Eligible patients had dementia, underwent autopsy, had available neuropathologic data, belonged to a currently funded Alzheimer's Disease Center (ADC), and were coded as having an Alzheimer's disease clinical diagnosis or a nonprion disease etiology. For the eligible patients with neuropathology indicating prion disease, further clinical information, collected from the reporting ADC, determined whether prion disease was considered before autopsy. Of 6000 eligible patients in the NACC database, 7 (0.12%) were clinically unsuspected but autopsy-confirmed prion disease cases. The proportion of patients with dementia with clinically unrecognized but autopsy-confirmed prion disease was small. Besides confirming clinically suspected cases, neuropathology is useful to identify unsuspected clinically atypical cases of prion disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Limitations of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Identifying Anxiety and Depression: Many Cases Are Undetected

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in Western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and depressive disorders using the SCID and the PHQ. Results Twenty-five women met SCID criteria for at least one anxiety disorder, 11 (44%) of whom the PHQ failed to identify. The PHQ was particularly limited in identifying individuals with anxiety disorders other than panic disorder. Seventeen women met SCID criteria for at least one major depressive disorder, 6 (35%) of whom the PHQ failed to identify. The PHQ was particularly limited in identifying depressed individuals with dysthymia. Conclusions Caution should be used when screening for anxiety and depression with the PHQ. Implications for improving diagnostic accuracy in social work practice are discussed. PMID:24465121

  3. The genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi, identified in scrub typhus patients in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hang L K; Pham, Hang T T; Nguyen, Tinh V; Hoang, Phuong Vm; Le, Mai T Q; Takemura, Taichiro; Hasebe, Futoshi; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Akio; Hotta, Kozue

    2017-03-01

    There are an estimated one million patients with scrub typhus in the Asia-Pacific region. There are few reports describing the incidence of scrub typhus in Vietnam. Blood samples collected from 63 patients clinically diagnosed as having scrub typhus from July 2015 to September 2016 were subjected to genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Of these patients, 42 (67%) tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi, and the most common genotype was identified to be Karp (55%). Other genotypes, TA763, Gilliam type in Japan variant, and Kato were also found in 17%, 17% and 12% of patients, respectively. To better understand the epidemiological landscape of scrub typhus in Vietnam, a countrywide study is needed. LC110330-LC110333, LC110336-LC110351 and LC214804-LC214825. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comparison of psychodrug prescription patterns in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and addiction.

    PubMed

    Barral, Diego; Barral, Fátima; Cruz, Nuria; Molina, Juan D; Sánchez, Victoria; Rosique, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    To describe if there are differences in the prescription of psychodrug at discharge between bipolar disorder patients with or without addiction. We review all the psychotropic drugs dispensed to inpatients of a brief hospitalization psychiatric unit diagnosed as having bipolar disorder at time of discharge. We recluted 225 patients over 18 years old on their last manic episode, between the year 2000 and 2010. We classify them according to the comorbid presence or not of a substance abuse or dependence disorder. Prevalence of addiction was 24%. We found no differences between groups in the number of psychotropic drugs prescribed at discharge. The prescription pattern of mood stabilizers and benzodiazepines was similar in both groups. We detect differences in the total daily dose of antipsychotic, expressed as risperidone equivalents (5.86 ± 4.62 mg in addictions group versus 4.67 ± 3.20 mg in control group, p=0.042) and in the total daily dose of biperideno (4.80 ± 1.78 mg in addictions group versus 3.20 ± 1.03 mg in the control group, p=0.044). Contrary to our expectations, both groups were similar in psychopharmacological prescription patterns at discharge. However, those patients with substance abuse disorder had higher doses of antipsychotics and higher dose biperiden at discharge.

  5. Diagnosing phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma in a patient presenting with critical illness: biochemistry versus imaging.

    PubMed

    Amar, Laurence; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2015-09-01

    Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are revealed by acute cardiovascular complications involving end-organ damage in up to 20% of cases, a presentation associated with particularly high risk for mortality. Among such cases, PPGLs should be considered in patients with unexplained left ventricular failure, multi-organ failure, hypertensive crises or shock. The diagnosis of PPGL commonly relies on measurements of metanephrines in plasma or urine. However, acute critical illness is usually associated with sympathoadrenal activation. Thus, levels of metanephrines in patients in an acute emergency or intensive care setting, whether treated or not with vasoactive drugs, usually cannot be used to reliably diagnose PPGL. Delays in provision of diagnostic test results, particularly when these require 24-h urine collections, may also be incompatible for any need for rapid decisions on patient management or therapeutic interventions. The acute emergency situation therefore represents one exception to the rule where imaging studies to search for a PPGL may be undertaken without biochemical evidence of a catecholamine-producing tumour. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of diet and nutritional status in patients aged 45+ with diagnosed, pharmacologically treated arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Reguła, Julita; Śmidowicz, Angelika; Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    Diet plays a significant role in the prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension. Appropriate diet makes it possible to maintain adequate body weight and improve biochemical blood parameters. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status of arterial hypertension patients in terms of their diet. The study involved 55 patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension aged 45-70 years. Diet was evaluated using a 24-hour 7-day diet recall interview. In the course of the diet recall interview arterial pressure was measured three times at regular times, after a 15-minute rest period, and the recorded values were averaged. Nutritional status was assessed based on anthropometric measurements (height, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference) and the resulting nutrition status indexes, i.e. BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist-hip ratio) as well as values of biochemical blood parameters. It was found that a considerable proportion of patients are overweight or obese, have an inappropriate lipid profile and elevated blood glucose levels. Daily food rations (DFR) were inappropriately balanced. Daily food rations were deficient in energy, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, PUFA and folates. It was found that inadequate diet was correlated with nutritional status, lipid profile parameters and arterial blood pressure.

  7. Open randomised prospective comparative multi-centre intervention study of patients with cystic fibrosis and early diagnosed diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus may be present in patients with cystic fibrosis starting in the second decade of life. The prevalence increases rapidly with increasing age. As life-expectancy increases in cystic fibrosis, cystic fibrosis related diabetes will be diagnosed more frequently in the future. Up to date, no data are available to answer the question if cystic fibrosis related diabetes should always initially be treated by insulin therapy. Missing data regarding oral antidiabetic treatment of newly diagnosed cystic fibrosis related diabetes are an important reason to recommend insulin treatment. Several centres report the successful management of cystic fibrosis related diabetes using oral anti-diabetic drugs at least for some years. Oral therapies would be less invasive for a patient group which is highly traumatized by a very demanding therapy. Based on an initiative of the German Mukoviszidosis-Foundation, the present study tries to answer the question, whether oral therapy with repaglinide is as effective as insulin therapy in cystic fibrosis patients with early diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design In all cystic fibrosis patients with an age of 10 years or older, an oral glucose tolerance test is recommended. The result of this test is classified according to the WHO cut off values. It is required to have two diabetes positive oral glucose tolerance tests for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. This study is a multi-national, multicentre, open labelled, randomized and prospective controlled parallel group’s trial, with 24 months treatment. The primary objective of this trial is to compare the glycaemic control of oral therapy with Repaglinide with insulin injections in patients with cystic fibrosis related diabetes after 2 years of treatment. The trial should include 74 subjects showing cystic fibrosis related diabetes newly diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test during annual screening for cystic fibrosis related diabetes. Patients are

  8. Systematic review of patient history and physical examination to diagnose chronic low back pain originating from the facet joints.

    PubMed

    Maas, E T; Juch, J N S; Ostelo, R W J G; Groeneweg, J G; Kallewaard, J W; Koes, B W; Verhagen, A P; Huygen, F J P M; van Tulder, M W

    2017-03-01

    Patient history and physical examination are frequently used procedures to diagnose chronic low back pain (CLBP) originating from the facet joints, although the diagnostic accuracy is controversial. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of patient history and/or physical examination to identify CLBP originating from the facet joints using diagnostic blocks as reference standard. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Collaboration database from inception until June 2016. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We calculated sensitivity and specificity values, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Twelve studies were included, in which 129 combinations of index tests and reference standards were presented. Most of these index tests have only been evaluated in single studies with a high risk of bias. Four studies evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Revel's criteria combination. Because of the clinical heterogeneity, results were not pooled. The published sensitivities ranged from 0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.29) to 1.00 (95% CI 0.75-1.00), and the specificities ranged from 0.66 (95% CI 0.46-0.82) to 0.91 (95% CI 0.83-0.96). Due to clinical heterogeneity, the evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of patient history and/or physical examination to identify facet joint pain is inconclusive. Patient history and physical examination cannot be used to limit the need of a diagnostic block. The validity of the diagnostic facet joint block should be studied, and high quality studies are required to confirm the results of single studies. Patient history and physical examination cannot be used to limit the need of a diagnostic block. The validity of the diagnostic facet joint block should be studied, and high quality studies are required to confirm the results of single studies. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  9. Risk Factors for Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Arthritis, Facial Palsy, Carditis, and Meningitis in Patients From High-Incidence States

    PubMed Central

    Kwit, Natalie A; Max, Ryan; Mead, Paul S

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinical features of Lyme disease (LD) range from localized skin lesions to serious disseminated disease. Information on risk factors for Lyme arthritis, facial palsy, carditis, and meningitis is limited but could facilitate disease recognition and elucidate pathophysiology. Methods Patients from high-incidence states treated for LD during 2005–2014 were identified in a nationwide insurance claims database using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for LD (088.81), antibiotic treatment history, and clinically compatible codiagnosis codes for LD manifestations. Results Among 88022 unique patients diagnosed with LD, 5122 (5.8%) patients with 5333 codiagnoses were identified: 2440 (2.8%) arthritis, 1853 (2.1%) facial palsy, 534 (0.6%) carditis, and 506 (0.6%) meningitis. Patients with disseminated LD had lower median age (35 vs 42 years) and higher male proportion (61% vs 50%) than nondisseminated LD. Greatest differential risks included arthritis in males aged 10–14 years (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0–4.2), facial palsy (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6–2.7) and carditis (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.6) in males aged 20–24 years, and meningitis in females aged 10–14 years (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.1–5.5) compared to the 55–59 year referent age group. Males aged 15–29 years had the highest risk for complete heart block, a potentially fatal condition. Conclusions The risk and manifestations of disseminated LD vary by age and sex. Provider education regarding at-risk populations and additional investigations into pathophysiology could enhance early case recognition and improve patient management. PMID:29326960

  10. Identifying patients with ischemic heart disease in an electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Ivers, Noah; Pylypenko, Bogdan; Tu, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Increasing utilization of electronic medical records (EMRs) presents an opportunity to efficiently measure quality indicators in primary care. Achieving this goal requires the development of accurate patient-disease registries. This study aimed to develop and validate an algorithm for identifying patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) within the EMR. An algorithm was developed to search the unstructured text within the medical history fields in the EMR for IHD-related terminology. This algorithm was applied to a 5% random sample of adult patient charts (n = 969) drawn from a convenience sample of 17 Ontario family physicians. The accuracy of the algorithm for identifying patients with IHD was compared to the results of 3 trained chart abstractors. The manual chart abstraction identified 87 patients with IHD in the random sample (prevalence = 8.98%). The accuracy of the algorithm for identifying patients with IHD was as follows: sensitivity = 72.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.8-81.5); specificity = 99.3% (95% CI: 98.5-99.8); positive predictive value = 91.3% (95% CI: 82.0-96.7); negative predictive value = 97.3 (95% CI: 96.1-98.3); and kappa = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.86). Patients with IHD can be accurately identified by applying a search algorithm for the medical history fields in the EMR of primary care providers who were not using standardized approaches to code diagnoses. The accuracy compares favorably to other methods for identifying patients with IHD. The results of this study may aid policy makers, researchers, and clinicians to develop registries and to examine quality indicators for IHD in primary care.

  11. The Impact of HbA1c Testing on Total Annual Healthcare Expenditures Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes also imposes a huge financial burden on the US economy. In 2009, the American Diabetes Association International Expert Committee recommended the use of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test as a uniform diagnostic measure to identify patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c is a convenient diagnostic test, it is also more expensive than older tests and could, therefore, have an impact on patients' healthcare expenditures. To determine if HbA1c testing has an impact on total annual healthcare expenditures among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to analyze the factors that are associated with the total healthcare expenditures among diabetic patients before and after HbA1c was implemented as a standard diagnostic factor. This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component 2009 and 2011 databases were used to form the study cohort of patients with diabetes. The total mean healthcare expenditures among patients with diabetes formed the dependent variable. A proxy variable representing a diagnosis of diabetes with and without the use of HbA1c testing in 2009 and in 2011, respectively, formed the main independent variable along with demographic factors, comorbidities, and healthcare services utilization in both years. A generalized linear regression was conducted to determine the association of HbA1c testing with total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures. The mean total healthcare expenditure decreased in 2011 compared with 2009. The HbA1c test did not show an association with the total healthcare expenditures versus earlier diabetes-related diagnostic factors. The total expenditures were associated with private insurance, the incidence of a previous heart attack, prescription drug refills, inpatient hospital stays, home care, hospital discharges, and visits to outpatient providers and physicians in both

  12. Risk of Vertebral Fracture in Patients Diagnosed with a Depressive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shyh-Chyang; Hu, Li-Yu; Huang, Min-Wei; Shen, Cheng-Che; Huang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chiao-Lin; Pan, Chih-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Additionally, we aimed to identify the potential risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with a depressive disorder. We studied patients listed in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were diagnosed with a depressive disorder by a psychiatrist. The comparison cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without a depressive disorder. The incidence rate and hazard ratios of subsequent vertebral fracture were evaluated. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the risk of vertebral fracture among patients with a depressive disorder. The total number of patients with and without a depressive disorder was 44,812. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) between these 2 cohorts indicated that depressive disorder patients had a higher risk of developing a subsequent vertebral fracture (IRR=1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.26-1.57, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the depressive disorder cohort showed a higher risk of vertebral fracture than the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.11-1.38, p<0.001). Being older than 50 years, having a lower monthly income, and having hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, autoimmune disease, or osteoporosis were considered predictive factors for vertebral fracture in patients with depressive disorders. Depressive disorders may increase the risk of a subsequent new-onset vertebral fracture.

  13. Risk of Vertebral Fracture in Patients Diagnosed with a Depressive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shyh-Chyang; Hu, Li-Yu; Huang, Min-Wei; Shen, Cheng-Che; Huang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chiao-Lin; Pan, Chih-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Additionally, we aimed to identify the potential risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with a depressive disorder. METHODS: We studied patients listed in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were diagnosed with a depressive disorder by a psychiatrist. The comparison cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without a depressive disorder. The incidence rate and hazard ratios of subsequent vertebral fracture were evaluated. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the risk of vertebral fracture among patients with a depressive disorder. RESULTS: The total number of patients with and without a depressive disorder was 44,812. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) between these 2 cohorts indicated that depressive disorder patients had a higher risk of developing a subsequent vertebral fracture (IRR=1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.26–1.57, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the depressive disorder cohort showed a higher risk of vertebral fracture than the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.11–1.38, p<0.001). Being older than 50 years, having a lower monthly income, and having hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, autoimmune disease, or osteoporosis were considered predictive factors for vertebral fracture in patients with depressive disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive disorders may increase the risk of a subsequent new-onset vertebral fracture. PMID:28226032

  14. Patient involvement in diagnosing cancer in primary care: a systematic review of current interventions.

    PubMed

    Heyhoe, Jane; Reynolds, Caroline; Dunning, Alice; Johnson, Olivia; Howat, Alex; Lawton, Rebecca

    2018-03-01

    Patients can play a role in achieving an earlier diagnosis of cancer by monitoring and re-appraising symptoms after initially presenting to primary care. It is not clear what interventions exist, or what the components of an intervention to engage patients at this diagnostic stage are. The review had two aims: 1) to identify interventions that involve patients, and 2) to establish key components for engaging patients in the diagnosis of cancer in primary care at the post-presentation stage. Empirical studies and non-empirical articles were identified searching Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase databases, relevant journals, and available key author publication lists. Abstracts and titles were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Qualitative synthesis of empirical research and current opinion from across all articles was used to select, organise, and interpret findings. No interventions were found. Sixteen articles provided suggestions for potential interventions and components important at the post-presentation stage. Factors contributing to patients not always being engaged in assisting with diagnosis, strategies to foster patient involvement, and moderators and benefits to patients and health services (proximal and distal outcomes) were captured in a logic model. There is an absence of interventions involving patients during the post-presentation stage of the diagnostic process. Limited literature was drawn upon to identify potential barriers and facilitators for engaging patients at this diagnostic stage, and to establish possible mechanisms of change and measurable outcomes. Findings can direct future research and the development of interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  15. Cluster Analysis to Identify Possible Subgroups in Tinnitus Patients.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, Minke J C; Free, Rolien H; Arnold, Rosemarie; de Kleine, Emile; Hofman, Rutger; van Dijk, J Marc C; van Dijk, Pim

    2017-01-01

    In tinnitus treatment, there is a tendency to shift from a "one size fits all" to a more individual, patient-tailored approach. Insight in the heterogeneity of the tinnitus spectrum might improve the management of tinnitus patients in terms of choice of treatment and identification of patients with severe mental distress. The goal of this study was to identify subgroups in a large group of tinnitus patients. Data were collected from patients with severe tinnitus complaints visiting our tertiary referral tinnitus care group at the University Medical Center Groningen. Patient-reported and physician-reported variables were collected during their visit to our clinic. Cluster analyses were used to characterize subgroups. For the selection of the right variables to enter in the cluster analysis, two approaches were used: (1) variable reduction with principle component analysis and (2) variable selection based on expert opinion. Various variables of 1,783 tinnitus patients were included in the analyses. Cluster analysis (1) included 976 patients and resulted in a four-cluster solution. The effect of external influences was the most discriminative between the groups, or clusters, of patients. The "silhouette measure" of the cluster outcome was low (0.2), indicating a "no substantial" cluster structure. Cluster analysis (2) included 761 patients and resulted in a three-cluster solution, comparable to the first analysis. Again, a "no substantial" cluster structure was found (0.2). Two cluster analyses on a large database of tinnitus patients revealed that clusters of patients are mostly formed by a different response of external influences on their disease. However, both cluster outcomes based on this dataset showed a poor stability, suggesting that our tinnitus population comprises a continuum rather than a number of clearly defined subgroups.

  16. A meta-analysis of inhibitory-control deficits in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Anna; Kuhlmann, Beatrice G; Bosnjak, Michael

    2018-05-10

    The authors conducted meta-analyses to determine the magnitude of performance impairments in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) compared with healthy aging (HA) controls on eight tasks commonly used to measure inhibitory control. Response time (RT) and error rates from a total of 64 studies were analyzed with random-effects models (overall effects) and mixed-effects models (moderator analyses). Large differences between AD patients and HA controls emerged in the basic inhibition conditions of many of the tasks with AD patients often performing slower, overall d = 1.17, 95% CI [0.88-1.45], and making more errors, d = 0.83 [0.63-1.03]. However, comparably large differences were also present in performance on many of the baseline control-conditions, d = 1.01 [0.83-1.19] for RTs and d = 0.44 [0.19-0.69] for error rates. A standardized derived inhibition score (i.e., control-condition score - inhibition-condition score) suggested no significant mean group difference for RTs, d = -0.07 [-0.22-0.08], and only a small difference for errors, d = 0.24 [-0.12-0.60]. Effects systematically varied across tasks and with AD severity. Although the error rate results suggest a specific deterioration of inhibitory-control abilities in AD, further processes beyond inhibitory control (e.g., a general reduction in processing speed and other, task-specific attentional processes) appear to contribute to AD patients' performance deficits observed on a variety of inhibitory-control tasks. Nonetheless, the inhibition conditions of many of these tasks well discriminate between AD patients and HA controls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Clinical application of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Michael S; Rouster, Susan D; Giannella, Ralph A; Sherman, Kenneth E

    2004-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients and is associated with significant morbidity and cost. The current diagnostic standard, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), has low sensitivity, leading to duplicate testing and empiric treatment. We sought to show the usefulness and potential cost effectiveness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of toxin B gene for diagnosis of C. difficile-induced diarrhea. A total of 148 stool samples from academic and community-based hospitals were sent for EIA testing and were evaluated prospectively for the presence of toxin B gene by PCR. Results were compared with EIA regarding sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Medical charts were reviewed to determine the following: (1) number of EIAs sent per admission, (2) number sent within a 24-hour time period, and (3) how caregivers practiced based on EIA results. The mean age of 130 patients was 55 years. EIA and PCR were positive in 6.8% and 13.6% of patients, respectively. EIA sensitivity was 40%, specificity was 98%, and positive and negative predictive values were 80% and 91%, respectively. The cost of the PCR was $22/sample. Empiric treatment for C. difficile was given unnecessarily in 42% of EIA-negative results. Thirty percent of patients had 3 or more EIAs sent during their hospital admission. Of patients with multiple samples sent, 57% had more than 1 sample sent in a 24-hour period. Many physicians do not conform to practice guidelines regarding recommended diagnosis and empiric treatment of C. difficile. Toxin B gene PCR represents a more sensitive and potentially cost-effective method to diagnose C. difficile-induced diarrhea than EIA and should be considered for use as an alternative diagnostic standard.

  18. Does Quitting Smoking Make a Difference Among Newly Diagnosed Head and Neck Cancer Patients?

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Hee; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Bradford, Carol R; Ghanem, Tamer; Spector, Matthew E; Wolf, Gregory T; Lipkus, Isaac M; Duffy, Sonia A

    2016-12-01

    To determine if smoking after a cancer diagnosis makes a difference in mortality among newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients. Longitudinal data were collected from newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients with a median follow-up time of 1627 days (N = 590). Mortality was censored at 8 years or September 1, 2011, whichever came first. Based on smoking status, all patients were categorized into four groups: continuing smokers, quitters, former smokers, or never-smokers. A broad range of covariates were included in the analyses. Kaplan-Meier curves, bivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were constructed. Eight-year overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality were 40.5% (239/590) and 25.4% (150/590), respectively. Smoking status after a cancer diagnosis predicted overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality. Compared to never-smokers, continuing smokers had the highest hazard ratio (HR) of dying from all causes (HR = 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.48-4.98). Those who smoked at diagnosis, but quit and did not relapse-quitters-had an improved hazard ratio of dying (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.29-4.36) and former smokers at diagnosis with no relapse after diagnosis-former smokers-had the lowest hazard ratio of dying from all causes (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.12-2.56). Similarly, quitters had a slightly higher hazard ratio of dying from cancer-specific reasons (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.13-5.01) than never-smokers, which was similar to current smokers (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 0.96-4.47), followed by former smokers (HR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.00-2.89). Compared to never-smokers, continuing smokers have the highest HR of overall mortality followed by quitters and former smokers, which indicates that smoking cessation, even after a cancer diagnosis, may improve overall mortality among newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients. Health care providers should consider incorporating smoking cessation interventions into standard cancer treatment to

  19. Accuracy of automatic syndromic classification of coded emergency department diagnoses in identifying mental health-related presentations for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Liljeqvist, Henning T G; Muscatello, David; Sara, Grant; Dinh, Michael; Lawrence, Glenda L

    2014-09-23

    Syndromic surveillance in emergency departments (EDs) may be used to deliver early warnings of increases in disease activity, to provide situational awareness during events of public health significance, to supplement other information on trends in acute disease and injury, and to support the development and monitoring of prevention or response strategies. Changes in mental health related ED presentations may be relevant to these goals, provided they can be identified accurately and efficiently. This study aimed to measure the accuracy of using diagnostic codes in electronic ED presentation records to identify mental health-related visits. We selected a random sample of 500 records from a total of 1,815,588 ED electronic presentation records from 59 NSW public hospitals during 2010. ED diagnoses were recorded using any of ICD-9, ICD-10 or SNOMED CT classifications. Three clinicians, blinded to the automatically generated syndromic grouping and each other's classification, reviewed the triage notes and classified each of the 500 visits as mental health-related or not. A "mental health problem presentation" for the purposes of this study was defined as any ED presentation where either a mental disorder or a mental health problem was the reason for the ED visit. The combined clinicians' assessment of the records was used as reference standard to measure the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the automatic classification of coded emergency department diagnoses. Agreement between the reference standard and the automated coded classification was estimated using the Kappa statistic. Agreement between clinician's classification and automated coded classification was substantial (Kappa = 0.73. 95% CI: 0.58 - 0.87). The automatic syndromic grouping of coded ED diagnoses for mental health-related visits was found to be moderately sensitive (68% 95% CI: 46%-84%) and highly specific at 99% (95% CI: 98%-99.7%) when compared with the

  20. Does endoscopy diagnose early gastrointestinal cancer in patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia?

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, N; Muraleedharan, V; Pandit, J; Green, J T; Crimmins, R; Swift, G L

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent guidelines from NICE have proposed that open access gastroscopy is largely limited to patients with “alarm” symptoms. Aims and methods This study reviewed the outcome of all our patients with verified oesophageal or gastric carcinoma who presented with uncomplicated dyspepsia to see if endoscopic investigation is warranted in this group. All patients with histologically verified upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers who presented over a period from 1998 to 2002 were identified. Their presenting symptoms, treatment, and outcome were analysed. Results 228 upper GI cancers (119 oesophageal, 109 gastric; mean age 72 years (29–99 years); 130 male, 82 female) were identified in 11 145 endoscopies performed. Only 14 patients (6.2%) presented without alarm symptoms; three patients were under 55 years of age and all had gastric carcinoma—one of these had chronic diarrhoea only. Eleven had dyspepsia or reflux symptoms only, and two were under surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus. Only five patients had a curative surgical resection and are still alive two—six years from diagnosis. A sixth patient had a curative operation but died of a cerebrovascular accident one year later. The remaining eight patients unfortunately had either metastatic disease or comorbidity, which precluded surgery. All of these died within two years of diagnosis, mean survival 10 months. Conclusion Only five patients with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms had resectable upper GI malignancies over a four year period. Limiting open access gastroscopy to those with alarm features only would “miss” a small number of patients who have curable upper GI malignancy. PMID:16397081

  1. Molecular epidemiological analysis of env and pol sequences in newly diagnosed HIV type 1-infected, untreated patients in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Mezei, Mária; Ay, Eva; Koroknai, Anita; Tóth, Renáta; Balázs, Andrea; Bakos, Agnes; Gyori, Zoltán; Bánáti, Ferenc; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Minárovits, János

    2011-11-01

    The aim of our study was to monitor the diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in Hungary and investigate the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors in newly diagnosed, drug-naive patients. A total of 30 HIV-1-infected patients without prior antiretroviral treatment diagnosed during the period 2008-2010 were included into this study. Viral subtypes and the presence of RT, PR resistance-associated mutations were established by sequencing. Classification of HIV-1 strains showed that 29 (96.6%) patients were infected with subtype B viruses and one patient (3.3%) with subtype A virus. The prevalence of HIV-1 strains with transmitted drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed individuals was 16.6% (5/30). This study showed that HIV-1 subtype B is still highly predominant in Hungary and documented a relatively high transmission rate of drug resistance in our country.

  2. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal behaviors in patients with psychiatric diagnoses: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Shaista; Kanwar, Amrit; Sim, Leslie A; Prokop, Larry J; Wang, Zhen; Benkhadra, Khalid; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-02-25

    Identifying patients with increased risk of suicidal behaviors is a constant challenge and concern for clinicians caring for patients with psychiatric conditions. We conducted a systematic review to assess the association between suicidal behaviors and sleep disturbances in psychiatric patients. A systematic literature search of Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycInfo, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus was conducted using earliest inclusive dates to 28 June 2013. Eligible studies were comparative observational studies that reported sleep disturbances in psychiatric patients and the outcome of interest (any type of suicidal behaviors). Pairs of reviewers extracted descriptive data, study quality, and outcomes. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled across studies using the random-effects model. Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to critically appraise study quality. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Compared to those without sleep disturbances, patients with psychiatric diagnoses and co-morbid sleep disturbances were significantly more likely to report suicidal behaviors (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.72, 2.30, P <0.001). The association was also demonstrated across several psychiatric conditions including depression (OR = 3.05, 95% CI 2.07, 4.48, P <0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (OR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.91, 3.43, P <0.001), panic disorder (OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.09, 9.45, P = 0.03), and schizophrenia (OR = 12.66, 95% CI 1.40, 114.44, P = 0.02). In subgroup analysis based on the type of sleep disorder, we also found suicidal behavior to be significantly associated with the presence of insomnia, parasomnias, and sleep-related breathing disorders, but not hypersomnias. This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that in patients with psychiatric diagnoses, sleep disturbances

  3. Depression or depressiveness in patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - pilot research.

    PubMed

    Dêbska, Ewa; Janas, Adam; Bañczyk, Wojciech; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata

    2011-09-01

    The target of this work is to consider if depressive symptoms intercurrent with patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) form a depression complex or whether they are physiological depression accompanying adolescence. We wished to observe the perception of these patients,of their functioning, both social and within their families and also looking for common point in the issues mentioned above trying to locate them within the course of the basic illness. We studied 19 patients suffering from eating disorders, and aged between 12 and 24 years old. 15 of them suffered from the restrictive form of AN and 4 suffered from BN. The control group consisted of 30 healthy girls in the same age interval. In the study authors used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Quebec Quality of Life Questionnaire. Comparison of a number of points acquired in the survey using Beck Depression Scale revealed statistic significance at the level p<0.001 which points to a more frequent occurrence of depression symptoms among persons with eating disorders comparing to control group. The survey using the Questionnaire for Social Quality showed no statistically significant differences between study and control groups (p>0.05). The authors observed a statistically significant increased frequency of suicidal thoughts in the study group compared to the controls. To diagnose depression, depressive symptoms presented by the patients must give the image of depression at the clinical level. The result of the Beck's scale needs to be confronted with the clinical picture. Depression in adolescence requires differentiation from depressiveness.

  4. Comorbidity and Suicidality in Patients Diagnosed with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia and Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Batinic, Borjanka; Opacic, Goran; Ignjatov, Tijana; Baldwin, David S

    2017-06-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and depression (both current and lifetime) is associated with greater chronicity and an increased risk of suicidality. We wished to ascertain which symptom clusters had the strongest association with suicidality. Our aims were (1) to examine the presence of current comorbidity and suicidality in patients diagnosed with panic disorder/agoraphobia (PD/A) and major depression (MD), and their relationship with duration of psychiatric treatment and frequency of hospital admission; and (2) to examine which coexisting symptoms were most strongly predictive of suicidality in sub-groups and the overall group. The study sample comprised 100 patients with PD/A and MD. The following assessment instruments were applied: the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and the Whiteley Index of Hypochondriasis. High rates of current comorbidity were seen in both groups. Patients with MD had significantly higher suicidality scores, but were also older, with a longer duration of psychiatric treatment and more frequent hospitalizations. In the overall group, psychiatric comorbidity was correlated with duration of psychiatric treatment and frequency of hospitalizations (with the exception of hypochondriasis which was not correlated with frequency of hospitalization). In both sub-groups and the overall group, suicidality was correlated with scores for all examined comorbidity (with the exception of hypochondriasis in the PD/A group): however, after multiple regression only obsessive-compulsive symptomatology predicted suicidality in all sub-groups and the overall group, as well as depression in the overall group. Depression supposed as dependent variable and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology as a mediator explained around 37% of the variance in suicidal ideation. Patients with PD/A or MD show high

  5. [Extrahepatic cancer in cirrhosis patients. A retrospective clinical study of 164 diagnosed cancers in 2060 cirrhosis patients].

    PubMed

    Remy, A J; Diaz, R; Blanc, P; Pageaux, G P; Larrey, D; Michel, H

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective study of 2060 inpatients with cirrhosis of the liver identified 164 patients with extrahepatic cancer, a 20-fold increase over the expected number. Gastrointestinal, ENT, pulmonary, and hematologic malignancies predominated. Extrahepatic cancers occur more often and at an earlier age in patients with cirrhosis of the liver than in the population at large.

  6. Prediction of outcome in newly diagnosed myeloma: a meta-analysis of the molecular profiles of 1905 trial patients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, V; Sherborne, A L; Walker, B A; Johnson, D C; Boyle, E M; Ellis, S; Begum, D B; Proszek, P Z; Jones, J R; Pawlyn, C; Savola, S; Jenner, M W; Drayson, M T; Owen, R G; Houlston, R S; Cairns, D A; Gregory, W M; Cook, G; Davies, F E; Jackson, G H; Morgan, G J; Kaiser, M F

    2018-01-01

    Robust establishment of survival in multiple myeloma (MM) and its relationship to recurrent genetic aberrations is required as outcomes are variable despite apparent similar staging. We assayed copy number alterations (CNA) and translocations in 1036 patients from the NCRI Myeloma XI trial and linked these to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival. Through a meta-anlysis of these data with data from MRC Myeloma IX trial, totalling 1905 newly diagnosed MM patients (NDMM), we confirm the association of t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), del(17p) and gain(1q21) with poor prognosis with hazard ratios (HRs) for OS of 1.60 (P=4.77 × 10−7), 1.74 (P=0.0005), 1.90 (P=0.0089), 2.10 (P=8.86 × 10−14) and 1.68 (P=2.18 × 10−14), respectively. Patients with ‘double-hit’ defined by co-occurrence of at least two adverse lesions have an especially poor prognosis with HRs for OS of 2.67 (P=8.13 × 10−27) for all patients and 3.19 (P=1.23 × 10−18) for intensively treated patients. Using comprehensive CNA and translocation profiling in Myeloma XI we also demonstrate a strong association between t(4;14) and BIRC2/BIRC3 deletion (P=8.7 × 10−15), including homozygous deletion. Finally, we define distinct sub-groups of hyperdiploid MM, with either gain(1q21) and CCND2 overexpression (P<0.0001) or gain(11q25) and CCND1 overexpression (P<0.0001). Profiling multiple genetic lesions can identify MM patients likely to relapse early allowing stratification of treatment. PMID:28584253

  7. Cryptococcosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients Clinically Confirmed and/or Diagnosed at Necropsy in a Teaching Hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Torres, Rafael; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; Ribeiro, Barbara de Melo; Silva, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade; Mora, Delio Jose; Paim, Kennio Ferreira; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis occurs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with poor compliance to antiretroviral therapy or unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus status who present severe immunosuppression at admission. Consequently, high mortality rates are observed due to disseminated fungal infection. This report presents clinical and postmortem data of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Retrospectively, medical and necropsy records of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis clinically confirmed and/or postmortem verified were reviewed. Clinical data were compared with those of patients presenting a good outcome to evaluate disseminated fungal infection and the agreement between clinical and postmortem diagnosis. At admission, most of the 45 patients with cryptococcal meningitis who died, presented more altered consciousness (P = 0.0047), intracranial increased pressure (P = 0.047), and severe malnutrition (P = 0.0006) than the survivors. Of 29 (64.4%) patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 23 died before week 2 on antifungal therapy, and the other six during the next 3 months. The remaining 16 (35.6%) cases had other diagnoses and died soon after. At necropsy, 31 (68.9%) presented disseminated infection involving two or more organs, whereas 14 (31.1%) cases had meningeal or pulmonary localized infection. The agreement of 64.4% between clinical and postmortem diagnosis was similar to some studies. However, other reports have shown figures ranging from 34% to 95%. Currently, a progressive worldwide decrease of autopsies is worrying because the role of postmortem examination is pivotal to verify or identify the death causes, which contributes to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis and medical training. PMID:27458037

  8. Cryptococcosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients Clinically Confirmed and/or Diagnosed at Necropsy in a Teaching Hospital in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rafael Garcia; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; Ribeiro, Barbara de Melo; Silva, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade; Mora, Delio Jose; Paim, Kennio Ferreira; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2016-10-05

    Cryptococcosis occurs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with poor compliance to antiretroviral therapy or unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus status who present severe immunosuppression at admission. Consequently, high mortality rates are observed due to disseminated fungal infection. This report presents clinical and postmortem data of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Retrospectively, medical and necropsy records of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis clinically confirmed and/or postmortem verified were reviewed. Clinical data were compared with those of patients presenting a good outcome to evaluate disseminated fungal infection and the agreement between clinical and postmortem diagnosis. At admission, most of the 45 patients with cryptococcal meningitis who died, presented more altered consciousness (P = 0.0047), intracranial increased pressure (P = 0.047), and severe malnutrition (P = 0.0006) than the survivors. Of 29 (64.4%) patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 23 died before week 2 on antifungal therapy, and the other six during the next 3 months. The remaining 16 (35.6%) cases had other diagnoses and died soon after. At necropsy, 31 (68.9%) presented disseminated infection involving two or more organs, whereas 14 (31.1%) cases had meningeal or pulmonary localized infection. The agreement of 64.4% between clinical and postmortem diagnosis was similar to some studies. However, other reports have shown figures ranging from 34% to 95%. Currently, a progressive worldwide decrease of autopsies is worrying because the role of postmortem examination is pivotal to verify or identify the death causes, which contributes to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis and medical training. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    He, Hongying; Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-09-01

    To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging.

  10. Telomere Length and Pulse Pressure in Newly Diagnosed, Antipsychotic-Naive Patients With Nonaffective Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Bernardo, Miguel; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Parellada, Eduard; Esmatjes, Enric; Conget, Ignacio; Nguyen, Linh; George, Varghese; Stöppler, Hubert; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies suggest that in addition to factors such as treatment side effects, suicide, and poor health habits, people with schizophrenia may have an increased risk of diabetes prior to antipsychotic treatment. Diabetes is associated with an increased pulse pressure (PP) and a shortened telomere. We tested the hypothesis that prior to antipsychotic treatment, schizophrenia and related disorders are associated with a shortened telomere, as well as an increased PP. Methods: Telomere content (which is highly correlated with telomere length) and PP were measured in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia and related disorders on first clinical contact and in matched control subjects. Both groups were also administered an oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Compared with control subjects, the patients with psychosis had decreased telomere content and an increased PP. As previously reported, they also had increased glucose concentrations at 2 hours. These differences could not be attributed to differences in age, ethnicity, smoking, gender, body mass index, neighborhood of residence, socioeconomic status, aerobic conditioning, or an increased cortisol concentration in the psychotic subjects. Discussion: These results suggest that prior to antipsychotic use, nonaffective psychosis is associated with reduced telomere content and increased PP, indices that have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes and hypertension. PMID:19279086

  11. Seizure semiology identifies patients with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Feddersen, Berend; Tezer, F Irsel; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2015-01-01

    Laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy is usually defined by EEG and imaging results. We investigated whether the analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena identifies bilateral independent temporal lobe seizure onset. We investigated the seizure semiology in 17 patients in whom invasive EEG-video-monitoring documented bilateral temporal seizure onset. The results were compared to 20 left and 20 right consecutive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who were seizure free after anterior temporal lobe resection. The seizure semiology was analyzed using the semiological seizure classification with particular emphasis on the sequence of seizure phenomena over time and lateralizing seizure phenomena. Statistical analysis included chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Bitemporal lobe epilepsy patients had more frequently different seizure semiology (100% vs. 40%; p<0.001) and significantly more often lateralizing seizure phenomena pointing to bilateral seizure onset compared to patients with unilateral TLE (67% vs. 11%; p<0.001). The sensitivity of identical vs. different seizure semiology for the identification of bilateral TLE was high (100%) with a specificity of 60%. Lateralizing seizure phenomena had a low sensitivity (59%) but a high specificity (89%). The combination of lateralizing seizure phenomena and different seizure semiology showed a high specificity (94%) but a low sensitivity (59%). The analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena adds important clinical information to identify patients with bilateral TLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Is there a simple, definitive, and cost-effective way to diagnose osteomyelitis in the pressure ulcer patient?

    PubMed

    Larson, David L; Gilstrap, Jarom; Simonelic, Kevin; Carrera, Guillermo F

    2011-02-01

    Despite advances in managing pressure ulcers, there is still no definitive way to diagnose bone infection (osteomyelitis) short of open biopsy. An effective, less invasive diagnostic method might result in cost savings and improved care; however, needle aspiration, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and bone scans have proven unsatisfactory in predicting osteomyelitis. The authors reviewed preoperative radiologic studies of stage IV pressure ulcer patients and their bone biopsy results to determine which radiologic studies are most diagnostic for osteomyelitis. Patients (n = 44) having surgical débridement of stage IV ulcers with open bone biopsy after prior radiographic imaging (plain films, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or nuclear bone scans) were included. Studies were interpreted by a single musculoskeletal radiologist blinded to information from the medical record and following standard radiologic criteria for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. The percentage of patients with biopsy-proven osteomyelitis identified with imaging was 50 percent using a computed tomography scan and 88 percent using a plain film of the bony area of involvement. The overall sensitivity of either radiologic study was 61 percent. The percentage of patients without osteomyelitis identified as not having the condition by imaging was 85 percent for the computed tomography scan and 32 percent for the plain film. Overall specificity of both studies was 69 percent. Preoperative radiologic studies for osteomyelitis in a pressure ulcer are far from definitive; however, if a radiologic study is used to make that diagnosis in a stage IV pressure ulcer, it would appear that a plain film would suffice.

  13. Overt diabetes mellitus among newly diagnosed Ugandan tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kibirige, Davis; Ssekitoleko, Richard; Mutebi, Edrisa; Worodria, William

    2013-03-05

    There is a documented increase of diabetes mellitus in Sub Saharan Africa, a region where tuberculosis is highly endemic. Currently, diabetes mellitus is one of the recognised risk factors of tuberculosis. No study has reported the magnitude of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Uganda, one of the countries with a high burden of tuberculosis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 260 consenting adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis admitted on the pulmonology wards of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital in Kampala, Uganda to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated clinical factors. Laboratory findings as well as the socio-demographic and clinical data collected using a validated questionnaire was obtained. Point of care random blood sugar (RBS) testing was performed on all the patients prior to initiation of anti tuberculosis treatment. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed if the RBS level was ≥ 200mg/dl in the presence of the classical symptoms of diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the admitted patients with tuberculosis was 8.5%. Only 5 (1.9%) patients with TB had a known diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at enrolment. Majority of the study participants with TB-DM co-infection had type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=20, 90.9%).At bivariate analysis, raised mean ALT concentrations of ≥80 U/L were associated with DM (OR-6.1, 95% CI 1.4-26.36, p=0.032) and paradoxically, HIV co-infection was protective of DM (OR-0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.79, P=0.016). The relationship between DM and HIV as well as that with ALT remained statistically significant at multivariate analysis (HIV: OR- 0.17 95%CI 0.06-0.51, p=0.002 and ALT: OR-11.42 95%CI 2.15-60.59, p=0.004). This study demonstrates that diabetes mellitus is common among hospitalized tuberculosis patients in Uganda. The significant clinical predictors associated with diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients were HIV co-infection and

  14. Program to Diagnose Probability of Aspiration Pneumonia in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Gisele; Zétola, Viviane; Lange, Marcos; Gomes, Guilherme; Nunes, Maria Cristina; Hirata, Gisela; Lagos-Guimarães, Hellen Nataly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, with a strong economic and social impact. Approximately 40% of patients show motor, language, and swallowing disorders after stroke. Objective To evaluate the use of software to infer the probability of pneumonia in patients with ischemic stroke. Methods Prospective and cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital from March 2010 to August 2012. After confirmation of ischemic stroke by computed axial tomography, a clinical and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was performed within 72 hours of onset of symptoms. All patients received speech therapy poststroke, and the data were subsequently analyzed by the software. The patients were given medical treatment and speech therapy for 3 months. Results The study examined 52 patients with a mean age of 62.05 ± 13.88 years, with 23 (44.2%) women. Of the 52 patients, only 3 (5.7%) had a probability of pneumonia between 80 and 100% as identified by the software. Of all patients, 32 (61.7%) had pneumonia probability between 0 and 19%, 5 (9.5%) between 20 and 49%, 3 (5.8%) between 50 and 79%, and 12 (23.0%) between 80 and 100%. Conclusion The computer program indicates the probability of patient having aspiration pneumonia after ischemic stroke. PMID:25992100

  15. Clinical and genetic predictors of weight gain in patients diagnosed with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S M; Sadim, M; Li, J; Yi, N; Agarwal, S; Mantzoros, C S; Kaklamani, V G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Post-diagnosis weight gain in breast cancer patients has been associated with increased cancer recurrence and mortality. Our study was designed to identify risk factors for this weight gain and create a predictive model to identify a high-risk population for targeted interventions. Methods: Chart review was conducted on 459 breast cancer patients from Northwestern Robert H. Lurie Cancer Centre to obtain weights and body mass indices (BMIs) over an 18-month period from diagnosis. We also recorded tumour characteristics, demographics, clinical factors, and treatment regimens. Blood samples were genotyped for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and adiponectin pathway genes (ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1). Results: In all, 56% of patients had >0.5 kg m–2 increase in BMI from diagnosis to 18 months, with average BMI and weight gain of 1.9 kg m–2 and 5.1 kg, respectively. Our best predictive model was a primarily SNP-based model incorporating all 14 FTO and adiponectin pathway SNPs studied, their epistatic interactions, and age and BMI at diagnosis, with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85 for 18-month weight gain. Conclusion: We created a powerful risk prediction model that can identify breast cancer patients at high risk for weight gain. PMID:23922112

  16. The cost-effectiveness of tumor-treating fields therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Arnoux, F; Lamure, M; Ducray, F; Aulagner, G; Honnorat, J; Armoiry, X

    2016-08-01

    There is strong concern about the costs associated with adding tumor-treating fields (TTF) therapy to standard first-line treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). Hence, we aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of TTF therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with GBM. We developed a 3-health-state Markov model. The perspective was that of the French Health Insurance, and the horizon was lifetime. We calculated the transition probabilities from the survival parameters reported in the EF-14 trial. The main outcome measure was incremental effectiveness expressed as life-years gained (LYG). Input costs were derived from the literature. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as cost/LYG. We used 1-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to evaluate the model uncertainty. In the base-case analysis, adding TTF therapy to standard of care resulted in increases of life expectancy of 4.08 months (0.34 LYG) and €185 476 per patient. The ICER was €549 909/LYG. The discounted ICER was €596 411/LYG. Parameters with the most influence on ICER were the cost of TTF therapy, followed equally by overall survival and progression-free survival in both arms. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed a 95% confidence interval of the ICER of €447 017/LYG to €745 805/LYG with 0% chance to be cost-effective at a threshold of €100 000/LYG. The ICER of TTF therapy at first-line treatment is far beyond conventional thresholds due to the prohibitive announced cost of the device. Strong price regulation by health authorities could make this technology more affordable and consequently accessible to patients. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Edie; Lonial, Sagar; Jakubowiak, Andrzej J.; Jagannath, Sundar; Raje, Noopur S.; Avigan, David E.; Xie, Wanling; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Schlossman, Robert L.; Mazumder, Amitabha; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Vesole, David H.; Joyce, Robin; Kaufman, Jonathan L.; Doss, Deborah; Warren, Diane L.; Lunde, Laura E.; Kaster, Sarah; DeLaney, Carol; Hideshima, Teru; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Knight, Robert; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2010-01-01

    This phase 1/2 study is the first prospective evaluation of lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone in front-line myeloma. Patients (N = 66) received 3-week cycles (n = 8) of bortezomib 1.0 or 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, 11), lenalidomide 15 to 25 mg (days 1-14), and dexamethasone 40 or 20 mg (days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12). Responding patients proceeded to maintenance or transplantation. Phase 2 dosing was determined to be bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2, lenalidomide 25 mg, and dexamethasone 20 mg. Most common toxicities included sensory neuropathy (80%) and fatigue (64%), with only 27%/2% and 32%/3% grade 2/3, respectively. In addition, 32% reported neuropathic pain (11%/3%, grade 2/3). Grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities included lymphopenia (14%), neutropenia (9%), and thrombocytopenia (6%). Thrombosis was rare (6% overall), and no treatment-related mortality was observed. Rate of partial response was 100% in both the phase 2 population and overall, with 74% and 67% each achieving very good partial response or better. Twenty-eight patients (42%) proceeded to undergo transplantation. With median follow-up of 21 months, estimated 18-month progression-free and overall survival for the combination treatment with/without transplantation were 75% and 97%, respectively. Lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone demonstrates favorable tolerability and is highly effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed myeloma. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00378105. PMID:20385792

  18. Utility of cervical spinal and abdominal computed tomography in diagnosing occult pneumothorax in patients with blunt trauma: Computed tomographic imaging protocol matters.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Haldun; Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Evman, Serdar; Akoglu, Tayfun; Denizbasi, Arzu; Guneysel, Ozlem; Onur, Ozge; Onur, Ender

    2012-10-01

    Small pneumothoraces (PXs), which are not initially recognized with a chest x-ray film and diagnosed by a thoracic computed tomography (CT), are described as occult PX (OCPX). The objective of this study was to evaluate cervival spine (C-spine) and abdominal CT (ACT) for diagnosing OCPX and overt PX (OVPX). All patients with blunt trauma who presented consecutively to the emergency department during a 26-months period were included. Among all the chest CTs (CCTs) (6,155 patients) conducted during that period, 254 scans were confirmed to have a true PX. The findings in their C-spine CT and ACT were compared with the findings in CCTs. Among these patients, 254 had a diagnosis of PX confirmed with CCT. OCPXs were identified on the chest computed tomographic scan of 128 patients (70.3%), whereas OVPXs were evident in 54 patients (29.7%). Computed tomographic imaging of the C-spine was performed in 74% of patients with OCPX and 66.7% of patients with OVPX trauma. Only 45 (35.2%) cases of OCPX and 42 (77.8%) cases of OVPX were detected by C-spine CT. ACT was performed in almost all patients, and 121 (95.3%) of 127 of these correctly identified an existing OCPX. Sensitivity of C-spine CT and ACT was 35.1% and 96.5%, respectively; specificity was 100% and 100%, respectively. Almost all OCPXs, regardless of intrathoracic location, could be detected by ACT or by combining C-spine and abdominal computed tomographic screening for patients. If the junction of the first and second vertebra is used as the caudad extent, C-spine CT does not have sufficient power to diagnose more than a third of the cases. Diagnostic study, level III.

  19. Medical Decision-Making Incapacity among Newly Diagnosed Older Patients with Hematological Malignancy Receiving First Line Chemotherapy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Patients and Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Koji; Okuyama, Toru; Iida, Shinsuke; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Ishida, Takashi; Kusumoto, Shigeru; Uchida, Megumi; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Yosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Decision-making capacity to provide informed consent regarding treatment is essential among cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of decision-making incapacity among newly diagnosed older patients with hematological malignancy receiving first-line chemotherapy, to examine factors associated with incapacity and assess physicians’ perceptions of patients’ decision-making incapacity. Methods Consecutive patients aged 65 years or over with a primary diagnosis of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma were recruited. Decision-making capacity was assessed using the Structured Interview for Competency and Incompetency Assessment Testing and Ranking Inventory-Revised (SICIATRI-R). Cognitive impairment, depressive condition and other possible associated factors were also evaluated. Results Among 139 eligible patients registered for this study, 114 completed the survey. Of these, 28 (25%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 17%-32%) were judged as having some extent of decision-making incompetency according to SICIATRI-R. Higher levels of cognitive impairment and increasing age were significantly associated with decision-making incapacity. Physicians experienced difficulty performing competency assessment (Cohen’s kappa -0.54). Conclusions Decision-making incapacity was found to be a common and under-recognized problem in older patients with cancer. Age and assessment of cognitive impairment may provide the opportunity to find patients that are at a high risk of showing decision-making incapacity. PMID:26296202

  20. Telemedicine to support coping resources in home-living patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Patients' experiences.

    PubMed

    Vatnøy, Torunn K; Thygesen, Elin; Dale, Bjørg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The way in which telemedicine contributes to promote coping and independence might be undervalued in the development of telemedicine solutions and the implementation of telemedicine interventions. This study explored how home-living patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experienced follow-up using telemedicine, and the extent to which the implemented technology was able to support and improve the patients' coping resources and independence. Methods A qualitative approach with individual semi-structured interviews was used. Ten patients diagnosed with COPD participated. The data were transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis method was used, including analyses of the manifest and latent content of the texts. Results The participants' positive attitude to handling and understanding the technology and the positive and negative feelings related to use the technology derived the theme: "The telemedicine solution is experienced as comprehensible and manageable and provides meaning in daily life". The importance of telemedicine services that provided trust and confidence, the intervention's impact on independence and self-management and the intervention's ability to support integrity and meaning in life, derived the theme: "The telemedicine intervention contributes to stress reduction caused by illness burden and facilitates living as normally as possible". Discussion The impact of a telemedicine intervention might be influenced by the experience of a technological solution that requires little effort to deal with, while it must also provide meaning in life. Furthermore, the telenurses' expertise and the intervention's flexibility, i.e. possibilities for individual adaption, might promote coping to facilitate living as normally as possible despite illness.

  1. Using read codes to identify patients with irritable bowel syndrome in general practice: a database study.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Elaine F; Grant, Laura; O'Brien, Sarah J; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Thompson, David G

    2013-12-02

    Estimates of the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) vary widely, and a large proportion of patients report having consulted their general practitioner (GP). In patients with new onset gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care it might be possible to predict those at risk of persistent symptoms. However, one of the difficulties is identifying patients within primary care. GPs use a variety of Read Codes to describe patients presenting with IBS. Furthermore, in a qualitative study, exploring GPs' attitudes and approaches to defining patients with IBS, GPs appeared reluctant to add the IBS Read Code to the patient record until more serious conditions were ruled out. Consequently, symptom codes such as 'abdominal pain', 'diarrhoea' or 'constipation' are used. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of recorded consultations for IBS and to explore the symptom profile of patients with IBS using data from the Salford Integrated Record (SIR). This was a database study using the SIR, a local patient sharing record system integrating primary, community and secondary care information. Records were obtained for a cohort of patients with gastrointestinal disorders from January 2002 to December 2011. Prevalence rates, symptom recording, medication prescribing and referral patterns were compared for three patient groups (IBS, abdominal pain (AP) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)). The prevalence of IBS (age standardised rate: 616 per year per 100,000 population) was much lower than expected compared with that reported in the literature. The majority of patients (69%) had no gastrointestinal symptoms recorded in the year prior to their IBS. However a proportion of these (22%) were likely to have been prescribed NICE guideline recommended medications for IBS in that year. The findings for AP and IBD were similar. Using Read Codes to identify patients with IBS may lead to a large underestimate of the community prevalence. The IBS diagnostic Read

  2. Prevalence, severity and factors associated with peripheral neuropathy among newly diagnosed diabetic patients attending Mulago hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kisozi, Twaha; Mutebi, Edris; Kisekka, Musubire; Lhatoo, Samden; Sajatovic, Martha; Kaddumukasa, Mark; Nakwagala, Fredrick Nelson; Katabira, Elly

    2017-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) among newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients in Mulago Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 248 newly diagnosed adult diabetic patients. Using the standard Neuropathy Symptom Score (NSS) and Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) criteria, we screened them for neuropathy. Data on the socio-demographics, age, duration of symptoms and history of diabetic ulcer were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. The majority of study patients (62.1%) were male. The overall prevalence of DPN was 29.4 %. Nearly sixteen percent had moderate neuropathy and only five percent had severe neuropathy. Age above 60 years was significantly associated with the presence of DPN; (OR 3.72; 95% CI 1.25 - 11.03; p=0.018). The history of ever having a foot ulcer was significantly associated with peripheral neuropathy (OR 2.59; 95% CI: 1.03 - 6.49, p = 0.042). DPN occurs in 1 in 4 of newly diagnosed diabetic patients in Mulago hospital. Two thirds of these patients had moderate to severe neuropathy. DPN was independently associated with increasing age. Early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, increased diabetes knowledge and regular blood sugar screenings would play an important role in identifying this problem.

  3. Amyloid associated with elastin-staining laminar aggregates in the lungs of patients diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Kang; Nagle, William A

    2002-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of conditions underlying respiratory distress, whether classified clinically as acute lung injury (ALI) or the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has hampered efforts to identify and more successfully treat these patients. Examination of postmortem lungs among cases clinically diagnosed as ARDS identified a cohort that showed a consistent morphology at the light and electron microscope levels, and featured pathognomonic structures which we termed elastin-staining laminar structures (ELS). Methods Postmortem tissues were stained using the Verhoeff-Van Gieson procedure for elastic fibers, and with Congo red for examination under a polarizing microscope. Similar samples were examined by transmission EM. Results The pathognomonic ELS presented as ordered molecular aggregates when stained using the Verhoeff-van Gieson technique for elastic fibers. In several postmortem lungs, the ELS also displayed apple-green birefringence after staining with Congo red, suggesting the presence of amyloid. Remarkably, most of the postmortem lungs with ELS exhibited no significant acute inflammatory cellular response such as neutrophilic reaction, and little evidence of widespread edema except for focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Conclusions Postmortem lungs that exhibit the ELS constitute a morphologically-identifiable subgroup of ARDS cases. The ordered nature of the ELS, as indicated by both elastin and amyloid stains, together with little morphological evidence of inflammation or edema, suggests that this cohort of ARDS may represent another form of conformational disease. If this hypothesis is confirmed, it will require a new approach in the diagnosis and treatment of patients who exhibit this form of acute lung injury. PMID:12377106

  4. A Tale of Three Cases: Examining Accuracy, Efficiency, and Process Differences in Diagnosing Virtual Patient Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doleck, Tenzin; Jarrell, Amanda; Poitras, Eric G.; Chaouachi, Maher; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is a central skill in diagnosing cases. However, diagnosing a clinical case poses several challenges that are inherent to solving multifaceted ill-structured problems. In particular, when solving such problems, the complexity stems from the existence of multiple paths to arriving at the correct solution (Lajoie, 2003). Moreover,…

  5. Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient Previously Diagnosed With Functional Abdominal Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    DiGiusto, Matthew; Suleman, M-Irfan

    2018-03-23

    Chronic abdominal pain is common in children and adolescents but challenging to diagnose, because practitioners may be concerned about missing serious occult disease. Abdominal wall pain is an often ignored etiology for chronic abdominal pain. Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome causes abdominal wall pain but is frequently overlooked. Correctly diagnosing patients with anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is important because nerve block interventions are highly successful in the remittance of pain. Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient who received a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain but experienced pain remittance after receiving a trigger-point injection and transverse abdominis plane block.

  6. AB036. Analysis of human mitochondrial genome mutations of Vietnamese patients tentatively diagnosed with encephalomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nghia, Phan Tuan; Thai, Trinh Hong; Hue, Truong Thi; Van Minh, Nguyen; Khanh, Phung Bao; Hiep, Tran Duc; Anh, Tran Kieu; Loan, Nguyen Thi Hong; Van, Nguyen Thi Hong; Anh, Pham Van; Hung, Cao Vu; Anh, Le Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Human mitochondrial genome consists of 16,569 bp, and replicates independently from the nuclear genome. Mutations in mitochondrial genome are usually causative factors of various metabolic disorders, especially those of encephalomyopathy. DNA analysis is the most reliable method for detection of mitochondrial genome mutations, and accordingly an excellent diagnostic tool for mitochondrial mutation-related diseases. In this study, 19 different mitochondrial genome mutations including A3243G, A3251G, T3271C and T3291C (MELAS); A8344G, T8356C and G8363A (MERRF); G3460A, G11778A and T14484C (LHON); T8993G/C and T9176G (Leigh); A1555G (deafness) and A4225G, G4298A, T10010C, T14727C, T14728C, T14709C (encephalomyopathy in general) were analyzed using PCR-RFLP in combination with DNA sequencing. In addition, a real-time PCR method using locked nucleic acid (LNA) Taqman probe was set up for heteroplasmy determination. Screening of 283 tentatively diagnosed encephalomyopathy patients revealed 7 cases of A3243G, 1 case of G11778A, 1 case of A1555G, 1 case of A4225G, 1 case G4298A, and 1 case of 6 bp (ACTCCT/CTCCTA) deletion. Using the LNA Taqman probe real-time PCR, the heteroplasmy of some point mutations was determined and the results support a potential relationship between heteroplasmy level and severity of the disease.

  7. A case of right-sided Bochdalek hernia incidentally diagnosed in a gastric cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Kuroda, Shinji; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Bochdalek hernia (BH) is generally congenital, presenting with respiratory distress. However, this pathology is rarely detected in adults. Some adult cases of BH present with symptoms attributed to the hernia, but incidental detection of BH is increasing among asymptomatic adults due to advances in imaging modalities. This report presents the management of incidental BH patients detected in the preoperative period of gastric cancer. An asymptomatic 76-year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer during follow-up after radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. Computed tomography (CT) was performed to exclude metastatic gastric cancer, incidentally detecting right-sided BH. We planned distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection for gastric cancer and simultaneous repair of BH using a laparoscopic approach. We performed laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer and investigated the right-sided BH to assess whether repair during surgery was warranted. Herniation of the liver into the right hemithorax was observed, but was followed-up without surgical repair because the right hepatic lobe was adherent to the remnant right anterior hemidiaphragm and covered the huge defect in the right hemidiaphragm. No intra- or postoperative pneumothorax was observed during pneumoperitoneum. Regardless of symptoms, repair of adult BH is generally recommended to prevent visceral incarceration. However, BH in asymptomatic adults appears to be more common than previously reported in the literature. Surgeons need to consider the management of incidental BH encountered during thoracic or abdominal surgery.

  8. Personality-related core beliefs in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia plus depression: A comparison with depressed and healthy control groups.

    PubMed

    Taymur, Ibrahim; Ozdel, Kadir; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Efe, Canan; Tulaci, Riza Gokcer; Kervancioglu, Aysegul

    2015-07-01

    Personality has an important role in understanding both fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and major depressive disorder (MDD). This study considers the question that specific personality features may characterize depressed FMS patients. To this end, 125 individuals were included in the study: 40 of them diagnosed with FMS+ MDD, 40 with MDD only and 45 healthy controls. Individual Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Personality Belief Questionnaire-Short Form (PBQ-SF) scores were compared between the three groups. The mean scores for each personality domain of the PBQ-SF were the highest in the MDD group and the lowest mean scores appeared in the control group. Dependent personality and obsessive-compulsive personality scores were higher in the MDD group (t = 2.510, P = 0.014 and t = 2.240, P = 0.028, respectively) in comparison with the FM+ MDD group. However, this difference disappeared when PBQ-SF scores were controlled for depression severity. Although some common personality features are evident in FMS patients, it seems that the differences identified are primarily related to depression symptom severity.

  9. The ability of computed tomography to diagnose placental abruption in the trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Tammy R; Berardoni, Nicole E; Manriquez, Maria; Gridley, Daniel; Vail, Sydney J; Pieri, Paola G; O'Neill; Pressman, Melissa A

    2013-01-01

    Fetal demise following trauma remains a devastating complication largely owing to placental injury and abruption. Our objective was to determine if abdominopelvic computed tomographic (CT) imaging can assess for placental abruption (PA) when obtained to exclude associated maternal injuries. Retrospective review of pregnant trauma patients of 20-week gestation or longer presenting to a trauma center during a 7-year period who underwent CT imaging as part of their initial evaluation. Radiographic images were reviewed by a radiologist for evidence of PA and classified based on percentage of visualized placental enhancement. Blinded to CT results, charts were reviewed by an obstetrician for clinical evidence of PA and classified as strongly positive, possibly positive, or no evidence. A total of 176 patients met inclusion criteria. CT imaging revealed evidence of PA in 61 patients (35%). As the percentage of placental enhancement decreased, patients were more likely to have strong clinical manifestations of PA, reaching statistical significance when enhancement was less than 50%. CT imaging evidence of PA was apparent in all patients who required delivery for nonassuring fetal heart tones. CT imaging evaluation of the placenta can accurately identify PA and therefore can help stratify patients at risk for fetal complications. The likelihood of requiring delivery increased as placental enhancement declined to less than 25%. Diagnostic study, level III.

  10. Prospective cohort study of cancer patients diagnosed with incidental venous thromboembolism on routine computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Carmen P; Gladish, Gregory W; Qiao, Wei; Zalpour, Ali; Assylbekova, Binara; Gao, Shuwei; Olejeme, Kelechi A; Richardson, Marsha N; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2017-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major complication of cancer with recent increasing reports of incidental VTE. The objectives are to estimate the prevalence of incidental VTE in cancer patients on staging CT scans, identify common symptoms, and determine VTE recurrence in a prospective study. One thousand ninety patients were studied. Adult cancer patients scheduled for outpatient staging CT scans were eligible. VTE cases were followed for 6 months. Fisher's exact test for group comparisons of categorical variables and generalized linear modeling to estimate the prevalence of incidental VTE was used. The mean age was 58 years (range 18-87 years); 50% were male. The prevalence of incidental VTE was 1.8% (CI 1.15-2.87%). Significant symptoms in patients with VTE included fatigue (p = 0.004), stress (p = 0.0195), depression (p = 0.019), poorer quality of life (p = 0.0194), and poorer physical well-being (p = 0.0007). All the patients with VTE had at least one comorbidity (p = 0.03). No patient had recurrence within 6 months. The prevalence of incidental VTE on staging CT scans is lower than previously reported. Symptoms were associated with VTE; however, further work is needed to understand whether these are clinically relevant. No VTE recurrences were noted following 6 months.

  11. Newly diagnosed and previously known diabetes mellitus and short-term outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wei, Chang; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Lisheng; Liang, Yan; Li, Jiandong; Yang, Yanmin

    2013-12-01

    The prognostic value of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the long-term outcomes of patients after myocardial infarction has been well established. The correlation between DM, including newly diagnosed DM, and short-term outcomes needs to be validated. A total of 5410 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with typical chest pain onset in the past 12 h were enrolled. Follow-ups were carried out on days 7 and 30 after hospital admission. According to 2013 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, the study population was stratified into the following three groups: no diabetes, newly diagnosed diabetes, and previously known diabetes. The primary outcomes of our study were mortality from all causes and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at days 7 and 30. Patients with previously known diabetes were older and had a higher incidence of previous history of cardiovascular disease compared with the other groups. The 7-day and 30-day mortality was similar between patients without DM and patients with newly diagnosed DM. For both groups, this was significantly lower than that in patients with DM. Similar results were observed for 7-day and 30-day MACE. Multivariable Cox regression analysis indicated that newly diagnosed diabetes did not correlate with 30-day MACE (hazard ratio, 0.901; 95% confidence interval, 0.759-1.069), but that previously known DM correlated with short-term MACE (hazard ratio, 1.211; 95% confidence interval, 1.009-1.453). Previously known DM, but not newly diagnosed DM, was an independent predictor for short-term MACE in patients with STEMI. To reduce the incidence of short-term MACE and the detrimental effects of stress hyperglycemia after STEMI, intensive insulin therapy should be provided to diabetic patients with STEMI.

  12. Cytokine Autoantibody Screening in the Swedish Addison Registry Identifies Patients With Undiagnosed APS1.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Daniel; Dalin, Frida; Eriksson, Gabriel Nordling; Landegren, Nils; Bianchi, Matteo; Hallgren, Åsa; Dahlqvist, Per; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Ekwall, Olov; Winqvist, Ola; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Rönnelid, Johan; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Husebye, Eystein S; Knappskog, Per Morten; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Bensing, Sophie; Kämpe, Olle

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a monogenic disorder that features autoimmune Addison disease as a major component. Although APS1 accounts for only a small fraction of all patients with Addison disease, early identification of these individuals is vital to prevent the potentially lethal complications of APS1. To determine whether available serological and genetic markers are valuable screening tools for the identification of APS1 among patients diagnosed with Addison disease. We systematically screened 677 patients with Addison disease enrolled in the Swedish Addison Registry for autoantibodies against interleukin-22 and interferon-α4. Autoantibody-positive patients were investigated for clinical manifestations of APS1, additional APS1-specific autoantibodies, and DNA sequence and copy number variations of AIRE. In total, 17 patients (2.5%) displayed autoantibodies against interleukin-22 and/or interferon-α4, of which nine were known APS1 cases. Four patients previously undiagnosed with APS1 fulfilled clinical, genetic, and serological criteria. Hence, we identified four patients with undiagnosed APS1 with this screening procedure. We propose that patients with Addison disease should be routinely screened for cytokine autoantibodies. Clinical or serological support for APS1 should warrant DNA sequencing and copy number analysis of AIRE to enable early diagnosis and prevention of lethal complications. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  13. Supporting Patient-Provider Collaboration to Identify Individual Triggers using Food and Symptom Journals

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jessica; Hoffswell, Jane; Chung, Chia-Fang; Fogarty, James; Munson, Sean; Zia, Jasmine

    2017-01-01

    Patient-generated data can allow patients and providers to collaboratively develop accurate diagnoses and actionable treatment plans. Unfortunately, patients and providers often lack effective support to make use of such data. We examine patient-provider collaboration to interpret patient-generated data. We focus on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic illness in which particular foods can exacerbate symptoms. IBS management often requires patient-provider collaboration using a patient’s food and symptom journal to identify the patient’s triggers. We contribute interactive visualizations to support exploration of such journals, as well as an examination of patient-provider collaboration in interpreting the journals. Drawing upon individual and collaborative interviews with patients and providers, we find that collaborative review helps improve data comprehension and build mutual trust. We also find a desire to use tools like our interactive visualizations within and beyond clinic appointments. We discuss these findings and present guidance for the design of future tools. PMID:28516172

  14. Function assertive community treatment (FACT) and psychiatric service use in patients diagnosed with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Drukker, M; van Os, J; Sytema, S; Driessen, G; Visser, E; Delespaul, P

    2011-09-01

    Previous work suggests that the Dutch variant of assertive community treatment (ACT), known as Function ACT (FACT), may be effective in increasing symptomatic remission rates when replacing a system of hospital-based care and separate community-based facilities. FACT guidelines propose a different pattern of psychiatric service consumption compared to traditional services, which should result in different costing parameters than care as usual (CAU). South-Limburg FACT patients, identified through the local psychiatric case register, were matched with patients from a non-FACT control region in the North of the Netherlands (NN). Matching was accomplished using propensity scoring including, among others, total and outpatient care consumption. Assessment, as an important ingredient of FACT, was the point of departure of the present analysis. FACT patients, compared to CAU, had five more outpatient contacts after the index date. Cost-effectiveness was difficult to assess. Implementation of FACT results in measurable changes in mental health care use.

  15. Patient preferences and treatment adherence among women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    daCosta DiBonaventura, Marco; Copher, Ronda; Basurto, Enrique; Faria, Claudio; Lorenzo, Rose

    2014-10-01

    Given the various profiles (eg, oral vs intravenous administration, risk of hot flashes vs fatigue) of treatment options (eg, endocrine therapy, chemotherapy) for metastatic breast cancer (mBC), how patients value these attributes of their medications has implications on making treatment decisions and on adherence. To understand how patients trade off medication side effects with improved effectiveness and/or quality of life, to provide estimates of nonadherence among women with mBC, and to quantify the association of medication nonadherence with health outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of 181 women diagnosed with mBC who were recruited from cancer-specific online panels (response rate, 7%). Treatment information, demographics, nonadherent behaviors, and quality of life assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) were collected in the survey, and each respondent completed a choice-based conjoint exercise to assess patient preferences. The patients' preferences were analyzed using hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models, and the association between the number of nonadherent behaviors and the health outcomes was analyzed using general linear models. The mean age of the patient sample was 52.2 years (standard deviation, ±9.1), with 93.9% of participants being non-Hispanic white. Results from the conjoint model indicated that effectiveness (overall survival) was of primary importance to patients, followed by side effects-notably alopecia, fatigue, neutropenia, motor neuropathy, and nausea/vomiting-and finally, dosing regimen. In all, 34.8% of survey respondents either discontinued their treatment or were nonadherent to their treatment regimen. Among those who have ever used oral chemotherapy (N = 95; 52.5%) and those currently using oral chemotherapy (N = 44; 24.3%), the number of nonadherent behaviors was significantly associated with a decrease in functional well-being (b [unstandardized regression

  16. Few differences in cytokines between patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Jannet; Eising, Stefanie; Hougaard, David Michael; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl; Skogstrand, Kristin; Simonsen, Lars Bjarke; Carstensen, Bendix; Nilsson, Anita; Lernmark, Åke; Pociot, Flemming; Johannesen, Jesper

    2012-11-01

    The cause of the worldwide increase in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is largely unknown. T cells are thought to play a role in disease progression. In contemporary research over the last decade, age- and gender-specific serum levels as well as changes of Th1 and Th2-related cytokines are not well described. From a population-based register of children diagnosed from 1997 to 2005 this study explores eight different cytokines at time of diagnosis. Only TGF-β and IL-18 showed higher levels in patients compared to siblings in an adjusted model (p<0.01); whereas the other seven cytokines were not significantly different. IL-1β, IL-18, IL-12, IL-10 and IL-4 were significantly higher among the youngest children and males had significantly lower levels of IL-10 and IL-12 but higher levels of TNF-α. During the nine-year study all of the cytokines increased except TGF-β, which showed a slight decrease over time. The cytokine levels tended to be highest during summer and were most pronounced for IL-1β and TNF-α. In conclusion, serum levels of known β-cell cytotoxic cytokines were indifferent in patients and siblings, while gender, age and season appear to exert some influence on the serum level and need to be explored further. The influence of time on systemic levels cannot be ignored and may reflect decay or environmental impact on the immune system. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Linseed oil increases HDL3 cholesterol and decreases blood pressure in patients diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna H; Gluza, Ewa; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Skoczyńska, Marta

    2018-04-24

    Linseed oil has cardio-protective effects. However, its antihypertensive action has not yet been well characterized. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of short-term dietary supplementation with linseed oil on blood pressure (BP) and lipid metabolism in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of linseed oil on nitric oxide pathway and selected serum trace metals. 150 volunteers: 43 men (49.9±11.5 years) and 107 women (53.2±10.3 years), diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia, were assessed prospectively for BP and lipids' levels, before and after lipid-lowering diet plus linseed oil supplementation at a dose of 15 ml daily for 4 weeks (study groups) or 4-weekly lipid-lowering diet (control group). The multivariate logistic regression analysis model was used to determine the effect of linseed oil on BP after adjustment for age, gender, height, body weight, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption. The supplementation with linseed oil significantly decreased LDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, and increased HDL- and HDL₃- cholesterol levels. Additionally, linseed oil decreased diastolic BP in men (CI:-6.0;-1.1, p<0.006), whereas in women, linseed oil reduced (p<0.001) systolic (-3,6 mmHg; CI:-5.8;-1.5), as well as diastolic BP (-4 mmHg; CI:-5.8;-2.1). Women with higher blood pressure displayed an increase in serum L-arginine level (p<0.01). In the logistic regression model oil consumption was associated with a decrease in mean BP (aOR 3.85, 95%CI 1.32-11.33). Our findings confirm the benefit of short-term linseed oil use in mild hypercholesterolemia, in particular in patients with increased blood pressure.

  18. A predictive model of inflammatory markers and patient-reported symptoms for cachexia in newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, David R; Morris, J; Xiao, L; Hassan, M; Vadhan, S; Overman, M; Javle, S; Shroff, R; Varadhachary, G; Wolff, R; Vence, L; Maitra, A; Cleeland, C; Wang, X S

    2017-06-01

    Cachexia is a frequent manifestation of pancreatic cancer, can limit a patient's ability to take chemotherapy, and is associated with shortened survival. We developed a model to predict the early onset of cachexia in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Patients with newly diagnosed, untreated metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic cancer were included. Serum cytokines were drawn prior to therapy. Patient symptoms were recorded using the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Our primary endpoint was either 10% weight loss or death within 60 days of the start of therapy. Twenty-seven of 89 patients met the primary endpoint (either having lost 10% of body weight or having died within 60 days of the start of treatment). In a univariate analysis, smoking, history symptoms of pain and difficulty swallowing, high levels of MK, CXCL-16, IL-6, TNF-a, and low IL-1b all correlated with this endpoint. We used recursive partition to fit a regression tree model, selecting four of 26 variables (CXCL-16, IL-1b, pain, swallowing difficulty) as important in predicting cachexia. From these, a model of two cytokines (CXCL-16 > 5.135 ng/ml and IL-1b < 0.08 ng/ml) demonstrated a better sensitivity and specificity for this outcome (0.70 and 0.86, respectively) than any individual cytokine or tumor marker. Cachexia is frequent in pancreatic cancer; one in three patients met our endpoint of 10% weight loss or death within 60 days. Inflammatory cytokines are better than conventional tumor markers at predicting this outcome. Recursive partitioning analysis suggests that a model of CXCL-16 and IL-1B may offer a better ability than individual cytokines to predict this outcome.

  19. Outcomes of Diagnostic Exome Sequencing in Patients With Diagnosed or Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mari; El-Khechen, Dima; Black, Mary Helen; Farwell Hagman, Kelly D; Tang, Sha; Powis, Zöe

    2017-05-01

    Exome sequencing has recently been proved to be a successful diagnostic method for complex neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing for autism spectrum disorders has not been extensively evaluated in large cohorts to date. We performed diagnostic exome sequencing in a cohort of 163 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (66.3%) or autistic features (33.7%). The diagnostic yield observed in patients in our cohort was 25.8% (42 of 163) for positive or likely positive findings in characterized disease genes, while a candidate genetic etiology was reported for an additional 3.3% (4 of 120) of patients. Among the positive findings in the patients with autism spectrum disorder or autistic features, 61.9% were the result of de novo mutations. Patients presenting with psychiatric conditions or ataxia or paraplegia in addition to autism spectrum disorder or autistic features were significantly more likely to receive positive results compared with patients without these clinical features (95.6% vs 27.1%, P < 0.0001; 83.3% vs 21.2%, P < 0.0001, respectively). The majority of the positive findings were in recently identified autism spectrum disorder genes, supporting the importance of diagnostic exome sequencing for patients with autism spectrum disorder or autistic features as the causative genes might evade traditional sequential or panel testing. These results suggest that diagnostic exome sequencing would be an efficient primary diagnostic method for patients with autism spectrum disorders or autistic features. Moreover, our data may aid clinicians to better determine which subset of patients with autism spectrum disorder with additional clinical features would benefit the most from diagnostic exome sequencing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patient/Family Education for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients: Consensus Recommendations from a Children’s Oncology Group Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Wendy; Ahern, JoAnn; Barakat, Lamia P.; Bhatia, Smita; Bingen, Kristin M.; Bondurant, Patricia G.; Cohn, Susan L.; Dobrozsi, Sarah K.; Haugen, Maureen; Herring, Ruth Anne; Hooke, Mary C.; Martin, Melissa; Murphy, Kathryn; Newman, Amy R.; Rodgers, Cheryl C.; Ruccione, Kathleen S.; Sullivan, Jeneane; Weiss, Marianne; Withycombe, Janice; Yasui, Lise; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data to support evidence-based practices in the provision of patient/family education in the context of a new childhood cancer diagnosis. Since the majority of children with cancer are treated on pediatric oncology clinical trials, lack of effective patient/family education has the potential to negatively affect both patient and clinical trial outcomes. The Children’s Oncology Group Nursing Discipline convened an interprofessional expert panel from within and beyond pediatric oncology to review available and emerging evidence and develop expert consensus recommendations regarding harmonization of patient/family education practices for newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients across institutions. Five broad principles, with associated recommendations, were identified by the panel, including recognition that (1) in pediatric oncology, patient/family education is family-centered; (2) a diagnosis of childhood cancer is overwhelming and the family needs time to process the diagnosis and develop a plan for managing ongoing life demands before they can successfully learn to care for the child; (3) patient/family education should be an interprofessional endeavor with 3 key areas of focus: (a) diagnosis/treatment, (b) psychosocial coping, and (c) care of the child; (4) patient/family education should occur across the continuum of care; and (5) a supportive environment is necessary to optimize learning. Dissemination and implementation of these recommendations will set the stage for future studies that aim to develop evidence to inform best practices, and ultimately to establish the standard of care for effective patient/family education in pediatric oncology. PMID:27385664

  1. Understanding the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in newly diagnosed adult patients in general practice: a UK database study

    PubMed Central

    Bushe, Christopher; Wilson, Bernard; Televantou, Foula; Belger, Mark; Watson, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been largely ignored in psychiatric and general practice guidance until recently. Adult ADHD has a high social and medical burden, but health care is not well described in the UK. The main study objective was to evaluate a primary care adult ADHD population in terms of prescribing and health care contact rates. Methods This was a retrospective observational study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Database from January 1, 2002 to July 31, 2011. Adult patients with an incident ADHD diagnosis or ADHD medication were identified as having been free of ADHD medication or diagnoses in the previous 2 years. Patients were followed for 12–24 months after diagnosis. Results Of the 663 patients with ADHD in the cohort, 54.1% were prescribed ADHD medication during the observation period. During the first 6 months, 34.2% of patients initiated methylphenidates and 14.0% atomoxetine. In total, 36.3% patients were referred to secondary care psychiatry during observation, with the remaining population (63.7%) never having a referral. Most of the referrals were before diagnosis in primary care. At the end of the observation period, 16.2% of patients were on antipsychotics, 17.3% hypnotics, and 34.8% antidepressants or anxiolytics; however, some patients appeared to be prescribed antipsychotic or antidepressant medications even if they did not have an observable diagnosis in their records. Health care contact rates (general practitioner or hospital) increased by 39.2% post-diagnosis (incidence rate ratio: 1.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 1.47), which may be related to the need for medication monitoring and titration. Conclusion This study has shown in primary care that there is relatively low use of ADHD medication, low referrals into secondary care, high rates of usage of psychiatric non-ADHD medications for different indications, and an increasing burden in terms of health care contacts in adult

  2. [Demographic and clinical characterizations of newly diagnosed patients with HIV/AIDS above fifty years of age].

    PubMed

    Asher, Ilan; Elbirt, Daniel; Mahlev-Guri, Keren; Rozenberg-Bezalet, Shira; Werner, Ben; Sthoeger, Zev

    2013-04-01

    Major changes happened in the last decade in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The disease is no longer limited to young age. Due to the effectiveness of HAART (Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy) as well as new diagnosis in older age groups, many patients in AIDS centers are above 50 years of age. To determine the prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients older than 50 years compared to younger newly diagnosed patients. Retrospective single center analysis of the demographics and clinical characterizations of 62 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients over 50 years of age. The average age at diagnosis of the whole cohort was 39+/-16 years. There was a gradual increase in the age at diagnosis over the years, as well as the percent of patients above the age of 50 diagnosed with the disease. In comparison to younger patients, in the older group there were more males compared to females and less patients who acquired the HIV/AIDS in unprotected homosexual sex. Furthermore, CD4 cells counts were lower and viral load leveLs were higher at diagnosis in the older group. Despite good adherence, patients above the age of 50 don't achieve adequate immunological response and many are left with significant immunodeficiency (CD4<200). The prevaLence of patients above the age of 50 Living with HIV/AIDS in Israel is rising. Programs aimed at prevention, education and screening for this unique group are mandatory. An AIDS center should adopt new programs and routines to cope with the increasing number of patients over the age of 50 Living with HIV/AIDS.

  3. Improving the Quality of Care for Patients Diagnosed With Glioma During the Perioperative Period

    PubMed Central

    Riblet, Natalie B.V.; Schlosser, Evelyn M.; Homa, Karen; Snide, Jennifer A.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Simmons, Nathan E.; Sargent, David H.; Mason, Linda P.; Cooney, Tobi J.; Kennedy, Nancy L.; Fadul, Camilo E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is agreement on the oncologic management of patients with glioma, few guidelines exist to standardize other aspects of care, including supportive care. Methods: A quality improvement (QI) project was chartered to improve the care provided to patients with glioma. A multidisciplinary team was convened and identified 10 best-practice measures. Using a plan-do-study-act framework, the team brainstormed and implemented various improvement interventions between June 2011 and October 2012. Statistical process control charts were used to evaluate progress. A dashboard of quality measures was generated to allow for ongoing measurement and reporting. Results: The retrospective assessment phase consisted of 43 patients with diagnosis of glioma. A manual medical record review for these patients showed that compliance with 10 best-practice measures ranged from 23% to 100%. Several factors contributed to less-than-ideal process performance, including poor communication among disciplines and lack of familiarity with the larger system of care. After implementing improvement interventions, performance was measured in 96 consecutive patients with glioma. The proportion of patients who met criteria for 10 practice measures significantly improved (pre-QI work, 63%; post-QI work, 85%; P = .003). The largest improvement was observed in the measure assessing for preoperative notification of the neuro-oncology program (pre-QI work, 39%; post-QI work, 97%; P < .001). Conclusion: QI principles were used by a multidisciplinary team to improve the quality of care for patients with glioma during the perioperative period. Leadership involvement, ongoing dialogue across departments, and reporting of system performance were important for sustaining process improvements. PMID:25294392

  4. Health care use and economic burden of patients with diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, C; Yoo, K H; Rhee, C K; Yoon, H K; Kim, Y S; Lee, S W; Oh, Y-M; Lee, S-D; Lee, J H; Kim, K-J; Kim, J-H; Park, Y B

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasing worldwide. However, little information is available concerning COPD-associated health care use and costs in Korea. To analyse 1) health care use, medical costs and medication use in 2009, and 2) changes in costs and medication use over 5 years (2006-2010). Using the database of the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, COPD patients were identified by searching on both ICD-10 codes and COPD medication. RESULTS A total of 192,496 COPD patients were identified in 2009. Total medical costs per person were US$2803 ± 3865; the average annual number of days of out-patient care and days of hospitalisation were respectively 40 ± 36 and 11 ± 33. Methylxanthine and systemic beta-agonists were the most frequently used drugs. However, the number of prescriptions for long-acting muscarinic antagonist increased rapidly. The total cost of COPD-related medications increased by 33.1% over 5 years. The present study provides new insight into health care use and the economic burden of COPD in Korea. Changing patterns of COPD-related medication use could help inform COPD management policies.

  5. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Richter syndrome) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL): a cohort study of newly diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sameer A; Rabe, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Zent, Clive S; Habermann, Thomas M; Ding, Wei; Leis, Jose F; Schwager, Susan M; Hanson, Curtis A; Macon, William R; Kay, Neil E; Slager, Susan L; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2013-09-01

    Nearly all information about patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) who develop diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [Richter syndrome (RS)] is derived from retrospective case series or patients treated on clinical trials. We used the Mayo Clinic CLL Database to identify patients with newly diagnosed CLL between January 2000 and July 2011. Individuals who developed biopsy-proven RS during follow-up were identified. After a median follow-up of 4 years, 37/1641 (2·3%) CLL patients developed RS. The rate of RS was approximately 0·5%/year. Risk of RS was associated with advanced Rai stage at diagnosis (P < 0·001), high-risk genetic abnormalitites on fluorescence in situ hybridization (P < 0·0001), unmutated IGHV (P = 0·003), and expression of ZAP70 (P = 0·02) and CD38 (P = 0·001). The rate of RS doubled in patients after treatment for CLL (1%/year). Stereotyped B-cell receptors (odds-ratio = 4·2; P = 0·01) but not IGHV4-39 family usage was associated with increased risk of RS. Treatment with combination of purine analogues and alkylating agents increased the risk of RS three-fold (odds-ratio = 3·26, P = 0·0003). Median survival after RS diagnosis was 2·1 years. The RS prognosis score stratified patients into three risk groups with median survivals of 0·5 years, 2·1 years and not reached. Both underlying characteristics of the CLL clone and subsequent CLL therapy influence the risk of RS. Survival after RS remains poor and new therapies are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Excess Mortality in Patients Diagnosed With Hypothyroidism: A Nationwide Cohort Study of Singletons and Twins

    PubMed Central

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0–30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41–1.65). Although the effect attenuated, hypothyroidism remained associated with increased mortality when evaluating subjects with a CS = 0 (HR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05–1.44). In twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid twin had excess mortality compared with the corresponding euthyroid cotwin (HR 1.40; 95% CI 0.95–2.05). However, after stratifying for zygosity, hypothyroidism was associated with excess mortality in dizygotic twin pairs (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.00–2.58), whereas the association attenuated in monozygotic pairs (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.55–2.05). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is associated with an excess mortality of around 50%, which to some degree is explained by comorbidity. In addition, the finding of an association between hypothyroidism and mortality within disease discordant dizygotic but not monozygotic twin pairs indicates that the association between hypothyroidism and mortality is also influenced by genetic confounding. PMID:23365121

  7. Assessment of algorithms to identify patients with thrombophilia following venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Delate, Thomas; Hsiao, Wendy; Kim, Benjamin; Witt, Daniel M; Meyer, Melissa R; Go, Alan S; Fang, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Routine testing for thrombophilia following venous thromboembolism (VTE) is controversial. The use of large datasets to study the clinical impact of thrombophilia testing on patterns of care and patient outcomes may enable more efficient analysis of this practice in a wide range of settings. We set out to examine how accurately algorithms using International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes and/or pharmacy data reflect laboratory-confirmed thrombophilia diagnoses. A random sample of adult Kaiser Permanente Colorado patients diagnosed with unprovoked VTE between 1/2004 and 12/2010 underwent medical record abstraction of thrombophilia test results. Algorithms using "ICD-9" (positive if a thrombophilia ICD-9 code was present), "Extended anticoagulation (AC)" (positive if AC therapy duration was >6 months), and "ICD-9 & Extended AC" (positive for both) criteria to identify possible thrombophilia cases were tested. Using positive thrombophilia laboratory results as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value of each algorithm were calculated, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In our cohort of 636 patients, sensitivities were low (<50%) for each algorithm. "ICD-9" yielded the highest PPV (41.5%, 95% CI 26.3-57.9%) and a high specificity (95.9%, 95% CI 94.0-97.4%). "Extended AC" had the highest sensitivity but lowest specificity, and "ICD-9 & Extended AC" had the highest specificity but lowest sensitivity. ICD-9 codes for thrombophilia are highly specific for laboratory-confirmed cases, but all algorithms had low sensitivities. Further development of methods to identify thrombophilia patients in large datasets is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward a patient-centered ambulatory after-visit summary: Identifying primary care patients' information needs.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Martina A; Moore, Joi L; Steege, Linsey M; Koopman, Richelle J; Belden, Jeffery L; Canfield, Shannon M; Kim, Min S

    2018-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the information needs of primary care patients as they review clinic visit notes to inform information that should be contained in an after-visit summary (AVS). We collected data from 15 patients with an acute illness and 14 patients with a chronic disease using semi-structured interviews. The acute patients reviewed seven major sections, and chronic patients reviewed eight major sections of a simulated, but realistic visit note to identify relevant information needs for their AVS. Patients in the acute illness group identified the Plan, Assessment and History of Present Illness the most as important note sections, while patients in the chronic care group identified Significant Lab Data, Plan, and Assessment the most as important note sections. This study was able to identify primary care patients' information needs after clinic visit. Primary care patients have information needs pertaining to diagnosis and treatment, which may be the reason why both patient groups identified Plan and Assessment as important note sections. Future research should also develop and assess an AVS based on the information gathered in this study and evaluate its usefulness among primary care patients. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of an after-visit summary that assists patients to fully understand their treatment plan, which may improve treatment adherence.

  9. Diagnostic utility of F waves in clinically diagnosed patients of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anand G; Gargate, Ashwini R

    2013-01-01

    Sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of median nerve measured across the carpal tunnel, difference between distal sensory latencies (DSLs) of median and ulnar nerves and difference between distal motor latencies (DMLs) of median and ulnar nerves are commonly used nerve conduction parameters for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). These are having high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Study of median nerve F-wave minimal latency (FWML) and difference between F-wave minimal latencies (FWMLs) of median and ulnar nerves have also been reported to be useful parameters for diagnosis of CTS. However, there is controversy regarding superiority of F-wave study for diagnosis of CTS. So the aim of present study was to compare sensitivity and specificity of median FWML and difference between FWMLs of median and ulnar nerves with that of above mentioned electrophysiological parameters and to find out which parameters are having more sensitivity and specificity, for early diagnosis of CTS. Median and ulnar nerves sensory and motor conduction, median and ulnar nerves F-wave studies were carried out bilaterally in 125 clinically diagnosed patients of carpal tunnel syndrome. These parameters were also studied in 45 age matched controls. Difference between DSLs of median and ulnar nerves, median SNCV and difference between DMLs of median and ulnar nerves were having highest sensitivity and specificity while median FWML and difference between FWMLs of median and ulnar nerves was having lowest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of CTS. So in conclusion F-wave study is not superior parameter for diagnosis of CTS.

  10. Web-based stress management for newly diagnosed cancer patients (STREAM-1): a randomized, wait-list controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Grossert, Astrid; Urech, Corinne; Alder, Judith; Gaab, Jens; Berger, Thomas; Hess, Viviane

    2016-11-03

    Being diagnosed with cancer causes major psychological distress, yet the majority of newly diagnosed cancer patients lack psychological support. Internet interventions overcome many barriers for seeking face-to-face support and allow for independence in time and place. We assess efficacy and feasibility of the first web-based stress management intervention (STREAM: STREss-Aktiv-Mindern) for newly diagnosed, German-speaking cancer patients. In a prospective, wait-list controlled trial 120 newly diagnosed cancer patients will be included within 12 weeks of starting anti-cancer treatment and randomized between an immediate (intervention group) or delayed (control group) 8-week, web-based intervention. The intervention consists of eight modules with weekly written feedback by a psychologist ("minimal-contact") based on well-established stress management manuals including downloadable audio-files and exercises. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy in terms of improvement in quality of life (FACT-F), as well as decrease in anxiety and depression (HADS), as compared to patients in the wait-list control group. A sample size of 120 patients allows demonstrating a clinically relevant difference of nine points in the FACT score after the intervention (T2) with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 and 80 % power. As this is the first online stress management intervention for German-speaking cancer patients, more descriptive outcomes are equally important to further refine the group of patients with the largest potential for benefit who then will be targeted more specifically in future trials. These descriptive endpoints include: patients' characteristics (type of cancer, type of treatment, socio-demographic factors), dropout rate and dropout reasons, adherence and satisfaction with the program. New technologies open new opportunities: minimal-contact psychological interventions are becoming standard of care in several psychological disorders, where their efficacy is often

  11. Therapeutic enhancement: nursing intervention category for patients diagnosed with Readiness for Therapeutic Regimen Management.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2008-04-01

    To present a new nursing intervention category called therapeutic enhancement. Fewer than half of North Americans follow their physician's recommendations for diet and exercise, even when such are crucial to their health or recovery. It is imperative that nurses consider new ways to promote healthy behaviours. Therapeutic enhancement is intended to provide such a fresh approach. Traditional intervention techniques focusing on education, contracts, social support and more frequent interaction with physicians appear not to be effective when used alone. Successful strategies have been multidisciplinary; and have included interventions by professional nurses who assist patients to understand their disease and the disease process and that helps them to develop disease-management and self-management skills. Therapeutic enhancement incorporates The Stages of Change Theory, Commitment to Health Theory, Motivational Interviewing techniques and instrumentation specifically designed for process evaluation of health-promoting interventions. This is a critical review of approaches that, heretofore, have not been synthesised in a single published article. Based on the commonly used Stages of Change model, therapeutic enhancement is useful for patients who are at the action stage of change. Using therapeutic enhancement as well as therapeutic strategies identified in Stages of Change Theory, such as contingency management, helping relationships, counterconditioning, stimulus control and Motivational Interviewing techniques, nursing professionals can significantly increase the chances of patients moving from action to the maintenance stage of change for a specific health behaviour. Using the nursing intervention category, therapeutic enhancement can increase caregivers' success in helping patients maintain healthy behaviours.

  12. Help-seeking behaviour in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients: assessing the role of perceived stigma.

    PubMed

    Rose, Shiho; Boyes, Allison; Kelly, Brian; Cox, Martine; Palazzi, Kerrin; Paul, Christine

    2018-05-26

    This study explored help-seeking behaviours, group identification and perceived legitimacy of discrimination, and its potential relationship with perceived lung cancer stigma. Consecutive consenting adults (n=274) with a primary diagnosis of lung cancer within the previous four months were recruited at 31 outpatient clinics in Australia. A self-report survey assessed help-seeking, group identification, perceived legitimacy of discrimination and perceived lung cancer stigma. Services providing assistance from health professionals (69.5%) and informational support (68.5%) was more frequently used than emotional-based support. Only a small proportion (2.6%) of participants were unlikely to seek help from anyone, with the most popular sources of help being the general practitioner (91.0%), and oncologist/treating clinician (81.3%). One-fifth (21.1%) indicated they identified with being a lung cancer patient, and most did not perceive discrimination against lung cancer patients. Higher perceived lung cancer stigma was significantly associated with greater perceived legitimacy of discrimination (p<0.001), but not help-seeking behaviours or group identification. The relationship between lung cancer stigma and perceived legitimacy of discrimination may guide initiatives to reduce stigma for patients. It is encouraging that perceived stigma did not appear to inhibit help-seeking behaviours. However further research in this emerging field is needed to investigate patterns of perceived stigma and help-seeking over time to identify how and when to offer support services most appropriate to the needs of lung cancer patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical profile of patients diagnosed with leptospirosis after a typhoon: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Myrna T; Roxas, Evalyn A; Ginete, Joanne Kathleene; Alejandria, Marissa M; Roman, Arthur Dessi E; Leyritana, Katerina T; Penamora, Mary Ann D; Pineda, Cristina C

    2013-11-01

    This study described the clinical features and complications of leptospirosis among patients seen at nine tertiary hospitals from September 28 to November 30, 2009 after a heavy rainfall typhoon. The clinical findings of the confirmed cases were compared with the previous clinical studies on seasonal leptospirosis in the Philippines. Risk factors for complicated disease were also identified. Confirmed cases were based on any of the following: positive leptospiral cultures of blood or urine, single high leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titer of 1:1,600, a fourfold rise in MAT, and/or seroconversion. Of 670 patients with possible leptospirosis, 591 were probable by the WHO criteria, 259 (44%) were confirmed. Diagnosis was confirmed by MAT 176 (68%), by culture 57 (22%), and by MAT and culture 26 (10%). The mean age of the confirmed cases was 38.9 years (SD 14.3). The majority were males (82%) and had a history of wading in floodwaters (98%). The majority of the patients presented with nonspecific signs, with fever as the most common (98.5%). Other findings were myalgia (78.1%), malaise (74.9%), conjunctival suffusion (59.3%), oliguria (56.6%), diarrhea (39%), and jaundice (38%). Most of the patients presented with a moderate-to-severe form of leptospirosis (83%). Complications identified were renal failure (82%), pulmonary hemorrhage (8%), meningitis (5%), and myocarditis (4%). Mortality rate was 5%, mostly due to pulmonary hemorrhage. This study emphasizes the importance of public awareness and high index of suspicion among clinicians of leptospirosis during the monsoon months when flooding is common. Early recognition and detection of the disease should decrease morbidity and mortality.

  14. Diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT: a clinical follow up study.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Tavares, Francisco; Zeidan, Nahla; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The [(123)I]ioflupane-a dopamine transporter radioligand-SPECT (DaT-SPECT) has proven to be useful in the differential diagnosis of tremor. Here, we investigate the diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT. Therefore, 30 patients with tremor and normal DaT-SPECT were followed up for 2 years. In 18 cases we were able to make a diagnosis. The residual 12 patients underwent a second DaT-SPECT, were then followed for additional 12 months and thereafter the diagnosis was reconsidered again. The final diagnoses included cases of essential tremor, dystonic tremor, multisystem atrophy, vascular parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, psychogenic parkinsonism, iatrogenic parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease. However, for 6 patients the diagnosis remained uncertain. Larger series are needed to better establish the relative frequency of the different conditions behind these cases.

  15. Frequency of the HFE C282Y and H63D mutations in Danish patients with clinical haemochromatosis initially diagnosed by phenotypic methods.

    PubMed

    Milman, Nils; Koefoed, Pernille; Pedersen, Palle; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Eiberg, Hans

    2003-12-01

    To assess the frequency of the C282Y and H63D mutations on the HFE gene in Danish patients with clinical hereditary haemochromatosis initially diagnosed by phenotypic methods. In the period 1950-1985, an epidemiological survey in Denmark identified 179 patients with clinical idiopathic haemochromatosis diagnosed by phenotypic methods (serum transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, liver biopsy and mobilisable body iron stores). In 32 unrelated patients, frozen blood samples were available for genetic analysis. In a subsequent series of 26 unrelated Danish patients, a phenotypic diagnosis of clinical idiopathic haemochromatosis was made before blood samples were taken for HFE genotyping. The total series consisted of 58 patients (40 men and 18 women) with a median age of 60 yrs (range 18-74). HFE genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Among the patients, 55 of 58 (94.8%) were C282Y/C282Y homozygous. One 63-year-old woman (1.7%) was compound C282Y/H63D heterozygous. Two women (3.4%), aged 42 and 43 yrs were negative for both the C282Y and the H63D mutation. In the Danish population, homozygosity for the C282Y mutation appears to be the prevailing cause of clinically overt genetic haemochromatosis. This finding has implications both for the evaluation of patients with iron overload disorders and for the strategy in future population screening surveys.

  16. Expansion of the E138A mutation in newly diagnosed HIV-infected