A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…
Like wildflowers blooming in the cracks of city sidewalks, reflective practice celebrates the organic over the artificial. Inquiry-oriented teaching, rejecting logical-positivist methods, engages teachers in a cycle of thought and action based on professional experience. Teachers subjected to quality control pressures reduce their teaching to the…
Buck, Stefanie; Steffy, Christina
Libraries are continually changing to meet the needs of users; this includes implementing discovery tools, also referred to as web-scale discovery tools, to make searching library resources easier. Because these tools are so new, it is difficult to establish definitive best practices for teaching these tools; however, promising practices are…
Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others
Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…
Campbell-Whatley, Gloria; And Others
General educator-special educator collaboration is discussed. Advantages include professional exchange of ideas and sharing of resources; barriers include a feeling by staff of lack of ownership and lack of power in decision making, and the perception that goals are incompatible; promising practices include clarifying goals and developing…
A review of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectric, geothermal, and ocean thermal gradients); advanced technologies for fuel cells, cogeneration, breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion; and synthetic fuels from coal gasification or liquefaction shale oil, and tar sands explores US options for supplanting fossil fuels and developing the electric power necessary for economic growth. The DOE projects that renewables will contribute only 3% of power generated by the year 2000, while the advanced technologies will only make a significant contribution in the 21st century. Coal and nuclear energy are the major energy sources for the interim until promising alternatives prove to be practical. 17 references.
Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda
In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…
Garrett, Gerald; Nemes, Susanna; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstadt, Anne Helene; Hess, Lauren
This paper describes a research project sponsored and funded by the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Affairs (INL) on substance abuse and treatment in ten countries. The purpose of the study was to identify promising practices in drug treatment in Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. The steps taken to complete this…
Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren
In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…
Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.
In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…
Unger, Karen V.
Supported Education is a promising practice that helps people with mental illnesses who are interested in education and training return to school. Current research shows that Supported Education has demonstrated results. While more research is needed, Supported Education services show promise of becoming an evidence-based practice. Education…
Eldada, Louay A.
The demand in optical networking for photonic components that meet performance criteria as well as economic requirements has opened the door for novel technologies capable of high-yield low-cost manufacturing while delivering high performance and enabling unique functions. The most promising new technologies are based on integrated optics. Integration permits the parallel production of complex multi-function photonic circuits on a planar substrate. Polymeric materials are particularly attractive in integrated optics because of their ability to be processed rapidly, cost-effectively, and with high yields; because they enable power-efficient dynamic componentry through thermo-optic and electro-optic actuation; and because they allow to form compact optical circuits by offering large refractive index contrasts (index difference values between waveguide core and cladding). We compare the properties of optical polymers with those of other material systems utilized in integrated optics. We present an up-to-date snapshot of the global effort in optical polymer material development. We describe the criteria that optical polymers need to meet in order to be viable for commercial deployment. We review the state of the art in polymeric integrated optical components including switches, attenuators, filters, polarization controllers, modulators, lasers, amplifiers, and detectors. We further emphasize the practicality aspect by conveying which technologies have been productized successfully, which ones are ready for commercial introduction, and which ones are still under development in research laboratories.
Lees, L; Emmerson, K
A training needs analysis tool was developed to identify nurses' discharge training needs and to improve discharge practice. The tool includes 49 elements of discharge practice subdivided into four areas: corporate, operational, clinical and nurse-led discharge. The tool was disseminated to 15 wards on two hospital sites with assistance from the practice development team. Analysis of discharge training is important to assess discharge training needs and to identify staff who may assist with training.
Dunn, Rita, Ed.; Griggs, Shirley A., Ed.
Today, there is little deviation from the standard, business-as-usual practices in the world of education. This book challenges these stale practices and asks the important questions that can improve schools beyond the current state of mediocrity. Written for administrators, supervisors, teachers, parents--even politicians and corporate…
Hatch, Deryl K.; Crisp, Gloria; Wesley, Katherine
This chapter reviews multiple complementary and divergent descriptions of practices that have been identified as holding particular promise for high impact on college student success and offers a possible map of practices to illustrate key features and relationships.
Gibbs, Elizabeth H.; Perkins, Dollean A.; Repetto, Jeanne B.
Discusses results of a study that identified promising practices in both dropout prevention and transition programs for youth at risk in 67 Florida school districts. Practices related to timing (grade range), curriculum, setting, and partnerships are reviewed. (SLD)
Fleming, Elyse; And Others
The intent of the evaluation studies reported here was two-fold: (1) to determine the promising practices of three alternative schools in Greater Cleveland, and (2) to determine which of those practices identified as promising would be feasible for incorporation into the public schools. Each substudy includes an overview, a description of the…
The final chapter of the issue provides a synthesis of the first eight chapters, offers conclusions and recommendations, and considers future directions regarding practices and programs with promise for high impact at community colleges around the country.
National Coalition of Advocates for Students, Boston, MA.
This report highlights selected schools and their collaborative efforts in pulling educators, families, and communities together to support a particular school's success and the well-being of its immigrant students. The report documents promising practices, but also places these efforts in broader contexts, both practical and theoretical. These…
Linn-Benton Independent Education District, Albany, OR.
The guide presents strategies for the dissemination of promising vocational education practices into local school districts. The first of four chapters discusses five commonly encountered questions which arise when new practices are considered. For example, the question, "How can I identify worthwhile practices for my school?" is…
Report of methodologies gleaned from current agency practices identified by the NEPA Committee. These methodologies are concerning the interface of environmental justice considerations through NEPA processes.
Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich
Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.
Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.
Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…
Provenzano, Johanna Z., Ed.
A collection of promising instructional practices for teachers of limited-English-speaking primary grade students is organized as a series of lessons on planning, classroom management, teaching procedures, and evaluation in a variety of content areas. Examples of basic learning activities intended to serve as a framework for teacher…
Moeed, Azra; Easterbrook, Matthew
Internationally, conceptual and procedural understanding, understanding the Nature of Science, and scientific literacy are considered worthy goals of school science education in modern times. The empirical study presented here reports on promising teacher practices that in the students' views afford learning opportunities and support their science…
STUTZ, ROWAN C.
MEETING THE UNIQUE PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING QUALITY EDUCATION IN SMALL SCHOOLS CALLS FOR SPECIAL PROGRAMS. THE WESTERN STATES SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT HAS COMPILED 9 PROMISING PROGRAM PRACTICES WHICH CAPITALIZE UPON THE POTENTIAL STRENGTHS INHERENT IN SMALLNESS--INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN HIGH SCHOOL LANGUAGE ARTS, INDIVIDUALIZED ENGLISH IN A SMALL…
Ahn, Woo-Young; Busemeyer, Jerome R
Computational modeling and associated methods have greatly advanced our understanding of cognition and neurobiology underlying complex behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Yet, no computational methods have been successfully translated into clinical settings. This review discusses three major methodological and practical challenges (A. precise characterization of latent neurocognitive processes, B. developing optimal assays, C. developing large-scale longitudinal studies and generating predictions from multi-modal data) and potential promises and tools that have been developed in various fields including mathematical psychology, computational neuroscience, computer science, and statistics. We conclude by highlighting a strong need to communicate and collaborate across multiple disciplines.
Callahan, Carolyn M., Ed.; And Others
This monograph contains 11 papers describing model projects that address the identification of gifted students. An introduction by Carolyn M. Callahan and Carol A. Tomlinson identifies commonalities and themes in the promising practices highlighted in the papers. The papers include: (1) "Project STREAM: Support, Training and Resources for…
National Youth Employment Coalition, Washington, DC.
This document consists of descriptions of 43 effective youth employment initiatives that were identified by the Promising and Effective Practices Network (PEPNet), a project of the National Youth Employment Coalition (NYEC). The document begins with an explanation of the five broad categories of criteria used to select the programs (purpose and…
Unger, Karen V.
Within a system, change affects stakeholders differently. Consequently, when making changes in the mental health system, mental health agencies should expect varied reactions from staff, community members, consumers, and families. Since misunderstandings can stymie efforts to implement evidence-based and promising practices, it is important to…
Kooker, Barbara Molina; Shoultz, Jan; Codier, Estelle E
The National Center for Health Workforce Analysis projects that the shortage of registered nurses in the United States will double by 2010 and will nearly quadruple to 20% by 2015 (Bureau of Health Professionals Health Resources and Services Administration. . Projected supply, demand, and shortages of registered nurses, 2000-2020 [On-line]. Available: http:bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/rnprojects/report.htm). The purpose of this study was to use the conceptual framework of emotional intelligence to analyze nurses' stories about their practice to identify factors that could be related to improved nurse retention and patient/client outcomes. The stories reflected evidence of the competencies and domains of emotional intelligence and were related to nurse retention and improved outcomes. Nurses recognized their own strengths and limitations, displayed empathy and recognized client needs, nurtured relationships, used personal influence, and acted as change agents. Nurses were frustrated when organizational barriers conflicted with their knowledge/intuition about nursing practice, their communications were disregarded, or their attempts to create a shared vision and teamwork were ignored. Elements of professional nursing practice, such as autonomy, nurse satisfaction, respect, and the professional practice environment, were identified in the excerpts of the stories. The shortage of practicing nurses continues to be a national issue. The use of emotional intelligence concepts may provide fresh insights into ways to keep nurses engaged in practice and to improve nurse retention and patient/client outcomes.
Hirsh, Wendy; And Others
Case studies of 15 leading employers in the United Kingdom were conducted to examine their career development practices. Employees, line managers, executives, and human resources professionals in the finance, energy, high technology, manufacturing, service, and public service sectors were interviewed regarding the career development practices and…
Green, James; Chirichello, Michael; Mallory, Barbara; Melton, Teri; Lindahl, Ronald
Although researchers have succeeded in identifying knowledge and skills and personal traits and characteristics of effective leaders, they have not been nearly as successful in identifying or defining those elusive leadership qualities that fall into the affective domain--what the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)…
Ericksen, Charles A., Ed.; And Others
In 1973, the Rhode Island Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights initiated a comprehensive project to review equal employment opportunity (EEO) in State and selected local government bodies in Rhode Island. In its project, the Advisory Committee examined employment practices and affirmative action efforts to recruit, hire, and…
Lawrence, Sarah; Mears, Daniel P.; Dubin, Glenn; Travis, Jeremy
This study focused on employment-related programs in prison, exploring what the research literature tells about the effectiveness of prison-based education, vocational training, and prison industry on postrelease outcomes. Also studied was the state of practice of such programs and strategic opportunities for improving existing employment-related…
Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010
Black Hawk College (BHC) is a comprehensive community college serving all or part of nine counties and a population of approximately 224,510 residents in a mostly rural area of north-west Illinois. This practice was fully developed and implemented for the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative during the 2007-08 academic years. Heeding BHC's strategic…
Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010
As a pilot site selected to participate in Illinois' Shifting Gears (SG) initiative in 2007, Oakton Community College (OCC) partnered with Presbyterian Homes to develop a bridge course to prepare a cadre of their employed Certified Nurse Assistants (CNAs) to enter college-credit level prerequisite courses to a Practical Nursing program. Oakton…
National Institute on Out-of-School Time, 2009
A "Promising Practice" is a system, process, or activity in a program that works and leads to good results. It is something that would work in other programs, if only they were aware about it. "Promising Practices" capture some of the most innovative, creative and successful ways that programs serve youth. This publication…
Hilliard, A G
It is imperative that special education enable children with disabilities to achieve at high levels. Problems of equity and pedagogical validity have hindered our efforts thus far, and many children of minority cultures are far overrepresented in classrooms for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. Studies have shown the importance of culturally and linguistically inclusive programs and of heterogenous groupings, as well as more effective diagnostic, remedial, and assessment practices. This article discussed a model and basic principles for such techniques to ensure that the educational outcomes of all children are improved.
Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.
Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…
Burgess, Diana J; Beach, Mary Catherine; Saha, Somnath
Like the population at large, health care providers hold implicit racial and ethnic biases that may contribute to health care disparities. Little progress has been made in identifying and implementing effective strategies to address these normal but potentially harmful unconscious cognitive processes. We propose that meditation training designed to increase healthcare providers' mindfulness skills is a promising and potentially sustainable way to address this problem. Emerging evidence suggests that mindfulness practice can reduce the provider contribution to healthcare disparities through several mechanisms including: reducing the likelihood that implicit biases will be activated in the mind, increasing providers' awareness of and ability to control responses to implicit biases once activated, increasing self-compassion and compassion toward patients, and reducing internal sources of cognitive load (e.g., stress, burnout, and compassion fatigue). Mindfulness training may also have advantages over current approaches to addressing implicit bias because it focuses on the development of skills through practice, promotes a nonjudgmental approach, can circumvent resistance some providers feel when directly confronted with evidence of racism, and constitutes a holistic approach to promoting providers' well-being. We close with suggestions for how a mindfulness approach can be practically implemented and identify potential challenges and research gaps to be addressed.
McCarl, Robert, Ed.
Promising educational practices utilized in small high schools in the Northwestern United States, including Alaska, are described. Practices and programs reported include an educational enrichment program, multiple-class teaching, a nongraded minicourse curriculum, a phasing program for high school English, a media center retrieval system, a…
Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.
The Promising Practices Network (PPN) on Children, Families and Communities (www.promisingpractices.net) began as a partnership between four state-level organizations that help public and private organizations improve the well-being of children and families. The PPN website, archived in June 2014, featured summaries of programs and practices that…
Jonathan, Aguero-Valverde; Wu, Kun-Feng Ken; Donnell, Eric T
Many studies have proposed the use of a systemic approach to identify sites with promise (SWiPs). Proponents of the systemic approach to road safety management suggest that it is more effective in reducing crash frequency than the traditional hot spot approach. The systemic approach aims to identify SWiPs by crash type(s) and, therefore, effectively connects crashes to their corresponding countermeasures. Nevertheless, a major challenge to implementing this approach is the low precision of crash frequency models, which results from the systemic approach considering subsets (crash types) of total crashes leading to higher variability in modeling outcomes. This study responds to the need for more precise statistical output and proposes a multivariate spatial model for simultaneously modeling crash frequencies for different crash types. The multivariate spatial model not only induces a multivariate correlation structure between crash types at the same site, but also spatial correlation among adjacent sites to enhance model precision. This study utilized crash, traffic, and roadway inventory data on rural two-lane highways in Pennsylvania to construct and test the multivariate spatial model. Four models with and without the multivariate and spatial correlations were tested and compared. The results show that the model that considers both multivariate and spatial correlation has the best fit. Moreover, it was found that the multivariate correlation plays a stronger role than the spatial correlation when modeling crash frequencies in terms of different crash types.
Zoumenou, Virginie; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Coleman, Gayle; Malekian, Fatemeh; Zee, Julia M. K.; Fountain, Brent J.; Marsh, Akela
A webinar or web-seminar is a presentation, seminar, lecture, or workshop transmitted over the internet. This emerging technology is becoming increasingly popular due to its convenience and affordability. However, little research has been conducted on best practices for an interactive webinar that engages learners in a professional development or…
Rutledge, Stacey A.; Cannata, Marisa
The authors report on a yearlong investigation into similar schools that performed well and less well in the same district. They found that the higher-performing schools engaged in an intentional set of systemic practices that encourage Personalization for Academic and Social Learning (PASL) in one district and integrated structures of academic…
Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla
The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups.
Illicit drugs are used regularly by 14.5 million Americans. By identifying patients who abuse substances, the nurse will be better able to provide for the treatment interventions needed and omit ineffective treatment interventions. The patient will benefit by receiving timely and appropriate care. To identify substance abusers, the nurse must know effects of commonly abused drugs, their routes of administration, withdrawal signs, and the physical assessments that should be performed. The most common drugs abused are narcotics, depressants, antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, stimulants, hallucinogens, and marijuana.
Lang, Norma M
The author builds a case that the design and use of intelligent information systems in real-time practice holds the promise of simultaneously transforming practice and research. Requirements include the identification of actionable knowledge that can be embedded in clinical decision support and electronic documentation systems, the creation of clinical data repositories, and a data warehouse from which analyses can be conducted across multiple settings. An innovative project, the Knowledge-Based Nursing Initiative, is briefly described as illustrative of these requirements.
Jethwani, Monique M.; Memon, Nasir; Seo, Won; Richer, Ariel
Utilizing qualitative data gleaned from focus groups with adolescent girls participating in a cybersecurity summer program (N = 38, mean age = 16.3), this study examines the following research questions: (a) How do adolescent girls perceive the cybersecurity field?; and (b) What are the promising practices that engage girls in cybersecurity…
Mann, Sheilah, Ed.; Patrick, John J., Ed.
This collection of essays and references addresses the problem of the disengagement in public affairs and politics by U.S. youth and young adults. The collection brings together evidence of youth disengagement and reports on promising practices for civic education. Several chapters are devoted to research findings on the impact of service and…
Basterra, Maria del Rosario, Ed.
The chapters in this collection provide the reader with a unified and systemic framework in which issues of excellence and equity are presented and discussed. The publication is structured to address critical issues and promising practices for linguistically and culturally diverse students in the areas of instruction, assessment, and parent…
Michael, Robert, Ed.
Seven articles by educators with a variety of perspectives examine promising educational practices for use with children having emotional disturbances. Lee Bell offers strategies for using group activities in "All Together Now: Group Techniques for Teaching Students with Emotional Disturbances." Lyn Sarda and Rik Flynn discuss benefits…
Education Resource Strategies, 2013
Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…
Education Resource Strategies, 2013
Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…
Education Resource Strategies, 2013
Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…
Education Resource Strategies, 2013
Repetto, Jeanne B.; Pankaskie, Sara C.; De Palma-Hankins, Anne; Schwartz, Stuart E.; Perry, Laura
Using a Delphi approach, 10 experts identified 186 practices from the fields of transition and dropout prevention that would be effective with high-risk students, including those with mild disabilities. Rating these practices indicates that many prevention practices are important and feasible to implement. (SLD)
Powell, Allison; Watson, John; Staley, Patrick; Patrick, Susan; Horn, Michael; Fetzer, Leslie; Hibbard, Laura; Oglesby, Jonathan; Verma, Sue
In 2008, the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) produced a series of papers documenting promising practices identified throughout the field of K-12 online learning. Since then, we have witnessed a tremendous acceleration of transformative policy and practice driving personalized learning in the K-12 education space. State,…
Unger, Karen V.
This four-part workbook will help program leaders teach education specialists the principles, processes, and skills necessary to deliver effective Supported Education services. The workbook includes the following: (1) Basic elements and practice principles of Supported Education; (2) Knowledge and skills to help consumers make informed choices…
Nazha, Aziz; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Gore, Steven D.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous hematopoietic neoplasms that are driven by somatically acquired genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations. Accurate risk stratification is essential for delivery of risk-adaptive therapeutic interventions. The current prognostic tools sum the impact of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory parameters. Newer technologies with next-generation targeted deep sequencing and whole-genome and -exome sequencing have identified several recurrent mutations that play a vital role in the pathophysiology of MDS and the impact of these genetic changes on disease phenotype. Equally important, well-annotated databases of MDS patients with paired clinicopathologic and genetic data have enabled better understanding of the independent prognostic impact of several molecular mutations on important clinical endpoints such as overall survival and probability of leukemic progression. Cumulative evidence suggests that genomic data can also be used clinically to aid with the diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of response to specific therapies, and the development of novel and rationally targeted therapies. However, the optimal use of this mutational profiling remains a work in progress and currently there is no standard set of genes or techniques that are recommended for routine use in the clinic. In this review, we discuss the genomic revolution and its impact on our understanding of MDS biology and risk stratification. We also discuss the current role and the challenges of the application of genetic mutational data into daily clinical practice and how future research could help improve the prognostication precision and specific therapy selection for patients with MDS. Implications for Practice: Heterogeneity in clinical outcomes of MDS is partly related to interpatient variability of recurrent somatic mutations that drive disease phenotype and progression. Although clinical risk stratification tools have functioned well in prognostication
Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik
Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…
As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the implications of very large scale integrated (VLSI) technology. The first section reviews the development of educational technology, particularly microelectronics technology, from the 1950s to the present. The implications…
Taylor, Tim; Martin, Barbara N.; Hutchinson, Sandy; Jinks, Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership practices of principals identified as servant leaders. The conceptual framework used to access the leadership behaviours was the leadership practices advocated by Kouzes and Posner. Statistical analysis included a multivariate test to determine if the demographic variables were significantly…
Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol
Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…
Lippitt, Ronald O.; Fox, Robert S.
A survey of teaching practices and a face-to-face sharing institute were designed for an experiment to identify innovative practices, to legitimize the sharing of them, and to develop criteria for evaluating the relevance and importance of particular inventions. This experiment was part of a project involving a state organization of teachers and…
Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.
Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers' classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers' ability to improve student…
Brosnan, Caragh; Michael, Mike
This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group's work was held together through the 'promise of porosity'--that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of 'vivification'--in our case mediated by the Group Leader--in rendering 'alive' the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration.
Giri, Birendra Raj
This article highlights that in Nepal, the promise of education seems to have become a magnet of child bondedness. After some government intervention in 2000, the haliya and kamaiya bonded labour practices have become a socially stigmatising matter for adults, and a legal hurdle for kisan (landlord) employers, but the practices continue. Both parties to these bonded labour practices seem to have found the idea of education as a safe meeting point. While parents send their children to work with the hope of obtaining education for them, besides other material benefits, employers seek to pay as little as possible and will often not give sufficient time to their young workers to study. Though most children have little or no say during the contract, they, too, are initially attracted by the promise of education. Based on detailed fieldwork, this article explores to what extent the largely unfulfilled educational aspirations for Musahar and Tharu working children can be seen as a restrained form of empowerment or a continuing system of bonded labour in Nepal.
Zaina, S; Lund, G
In a clinical setting diagnosis, heritability, risk and outcome of human disease rely heavily on the use of markers present in specific tissues. In the past decade, the development of genome-wide, non-hypothesis driven methods to identify molecular markers associated with disease have led to the discovery of numerous genetic variations associated with specific human diseases, the majority of which map within non-coding regions of the genome. In parallel, whole-genome studies focused on the role of gene regulatory epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are providing a conceptual framework for understanding the functional significance of sequence variation in human disease. This review highlights selected recent development in epigenetics and discusses their implications with respect to the identification of functional or novel single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Austin, Michael J; Lemon, Kathy; Leer, Ericka
This review of promising practices for meeting the multiple needs of low-income families in poverty neighborhoods reveals four main themes: (1) The challenges facing low-income families living in poverty neighborhoods are not discrete-but are multidimensional; (2) Integrated family and neighborhood strengthening practices, such as the Making Connections (MC) Initiative (funded by the Annie E. Casey Foundation), and the Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ), represent innovative strategies to address the multifaceted issues facing low-income families living in poverty neighborhoods; (3) The organizational structure, challenges and successes of the MC and HCZ provide insight into the nature of integrated family and neighborhood approaches; (4) A framework for the design of an integrated family and neighborhood program includes a focus on internal organizational processes, neighborhood processes, and external processes. This framework can assist social service agencies in moving their services toward a more integrated family and neighborhood approach.
Pizzo, Lianna; Chilvers, Amanda
The authors address considerations and promising practices relating to assessment of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners. DMLs' unique culture(s), language(s), and learning needs must be considered when assessments of this population are being planned, conducted, and interpreted. The authors address theory and research on (a) general considerations for the overarching assessment process, (b) specific assessment approaches used to assess DMLs, and (c) assessment of language proficiency for diverse language learners. In addition, basic recommendations for the assessment of DMLs are made, including increased availability of assessments in various languages, use of multiple sources of individual and family data, assessment of all languages, and incorporation of a strong assessment component (that includes nondiscrimination practices) into teacher preparation programs.
Mattox, Teryn; Kilburn, M. Rebecca
With the growing and diverse use of the term "evidence-based practice" it can be difficult for policymakers, funders, program officers, and other professionals to separate the good evidence from the flawed. Furthermore, once good evidence has been identified, it can be difficult to know how to use it. This article discusses key issues to consider…
Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.
Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…
Andreatta, Pamela; Frankel, Jennifer; Boblick Smith, Sara; Bullough, Alexandra; Marzano, David
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an interdisciplinary team-training program in obstetric emergencies on identifying unsupportive institutional policies and systems-based practices. We implemented a qualitative study design with a purposive sample of interdisciplinary physicians, nurses, and ancillary allied health professionals from 4 specialties (n = 79) to conduct a 6-month, weekly simulation-based intervention for managing obstetric emergencies. Debriefing focused on identifying discrepancies between clinical practice and institutional policies. Our data yielded 5 categories of discrepancies between institutional or departmental policy and actual clinical practice. Specific institutional policies and system-based practices were recommended to health system administration for reevaluation. Simulation-based interdisciplinary team training can inform system-wide quality improvement objectives that could lead to increased patient safety.
Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.
The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.
Albert, Mathieu; Paradis, Elise; Kuper, Ayelet
This paper explores social scientists' and humanities (SSH) scholars' integration within the academic medical research environment. Three questions guided our investigation: Do SSH scholars adapt to the medical research environment? How do they navigate their career within a culture that may be inconsistent with their own? What strategies do they use to gain legitimacy? The study builds on three concepts: decoupling, doxa, and epistemic habitus. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with SSH scholars working in 11 faculties of medicine across Canada. Participants were selected through purposeful and snowball sampling. The data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. For most of our participants, moving into medicine has been a challenging experience, as their research practices and views of academic excellence collided with those of medicine. In order to achieve some level of legitimacy more than half of our participants altered their research practices. This resulted in a dissonance between their internalized appreciation of academic excellence and their new, altered, research practices. Only six participants experienced no form of challenge or dissonance after moving into medicine, while three decided to break with their social science and humanities past and make the medical research community their new home. We conclude that the work environment for SSH scholars in faculties of medicine does not deliver on the promise of inclusiveness made by calls for interdisciplinarity in Canadian health research.
This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group’s work was held together through the ‘promise of porosity’ – that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of ‘vivification’ – in our case mediated by the Group Leader – in rendering ‘alive’ the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:25362829
Montague, Terrence; Nemis-White, Joanna; Cochrane, Bonnie; Meisner, Janice; Trasler, Tessa
Patient health management (PHM) was launched as a promising paradigm to close care gaps, the inequities between usual and best care, for whole patient populations. PHM's core premise was that interventions of multidisciplinary, community-oriented partnerships that used repeated measurement and feedback of provider practices, clinical and economic outcomes and general communication of relevant health knowledge to all stakeholders would continuously make things better. This article reviews the evolution of PHM from its genesis in a series of casual hospital-based networks to its maturation in a province-wide, community-focused, clustered-lattice social network that facilitated the improved clinical and cost-efficient care and outcomes of whole patient populations. The factors underlying PHM's clinical and cost efficacy, specifically its patient-centric social networking structures and integral measurement and knowledge translation processes, offer continuing promise to optimally manage the care of our increasingly aged patient populations, with their high burden of chronic diseases and disproportionately large care gaps. In an era when patients are demanding and leading change, and governments are struggling fiscally, PHM's clinical efficacy and cost-efficiency are especially resonant. Things can be better.
This article presents an analysis of the reflective practice of mentors and student nurses who were interviewed as part of a personal skill improvement project. Colleagues and students were asked to provide feedback on their perceptions of how the author demonstrated the skill of identifying and managing underperformance in nursing students. Their narratives were examined with the intention of identifying areas for improving underperformance and how it could be managed in future. Key findings were the requirement for mentors to increase engagement with students, especially in terms of protected time, participatory learning, honest and open dialogue and the need for a commitment to building a supportive and effective mentor-student relationship. This article offers insight into how current mentors and students perceive the management of underperformance and raises awareness of related issues in an attempt to improve mentoring practice.
Collecting and analyzing various types of data are essential to identifying areas for improvement. Data collection and analysis are routinely performed in hospitals and are even required by some regulatory agencies. Realization of the full benefits, which may be achieved through collection and analysis of data, should be actively pursued to prevent a meaningless exercise in paperwork. Internal historical comparison of data may be helpful but does not achieve the ultimate goal of identifying external benchmarks in order to determine best practice. External benchmarks provide a means of comparison with similar facilities, allowing the identification of processes needing improvement. The specialty of ophthalmology presents unique practice situations that are not comparable with other specialties, making it imperative to benchmark against other facilities where quick surgical case time, efficient surgical turnover times, low infection rates, and cost containment are essential and standard operations. Important data to benchmark include efficiency data, financial data, and quality or patient outcome data. After identifying facilities that excel in certain aspects of performance, it is necessary to analyze how their procedures help them achieve these favorable results. Careful data collection and analysis lead to improved practice and patient care.
Morrison, Hali; Cawston-Grant, Brie; Menon, Geetha V.
Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) have recently emerged as potential successors to the highly practical, but sometimes inaccurate TG-43 formalism for brachytherapy treatment planning. So named for their capacity to more accurately calculate dose deposition in a patient using information from medical images, these approaches to solve the linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation include point kernel superposition, the discrete ordinates method, and Monte Carlo simulation. In this overview, we describe three MBDCAs that are commercially available at the present time, and identify guidance from professional societies and the broader peer-reviewed literature intended to facilitate their safe and appropriate use. We also highlight several important considerations to keep in mind when introducing an MBDCA into clinical practice, and look briefly at early applications reported in the literature and selected from our own ongoing work. The enhanced dose calculation accuracy offered by a MBDCA comes at the additional cost of modelling the geometry and material composition of the patient in treatment position (as determined from imaging), and the treatment applicator (as characterized by the vendor). The adequacy of these inputs and of the radiation source model, which needs to be assessed for each treatment site, treatment technique, and radiation source type, determines the accuracy of the resultant dose calculations. Although new challenges associated with their familiarization, commissioning, clinical implementation, and quality assurance exist, MBDCAs clearly afford an opportunity to improve brachytherapy practice, particularly for low-energy sources. PMID:28344608
Burns, Barbara J., Ed.; Goldman, Sybil K., Ed.
This is the fourth volume in a series of monographs from the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Service for Children and Their Families Program, which currently supports 41 comprehensive system of care sites to meet the needs of children with serious emotional disturbances (SED). This volume identifies the essential elements of wraparound…
Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Harris, G Keith; Klevorn, Claire M
It is now well documented that the diet has a significant impact on human health and well-being. However, the complete set of small molecule metabolites present in foods that make up the human diet and the role of food production systems in altering this food metabolome are still largely unknown. Metabolomic platforms that rely on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analytical technologies are being employed to study the impact of agricultural practices, processing, and storage on the global chemical composition of food; to identify novel bioactive compounds; and for authentication and region-of-origin classifications. This review provides an overview of the current terminology, analytical methods, and compounds associated with metabolomic studies, and provides insight into the application of metabolomics to generate new knowledge that enables us to produce, preserve, and distribute high-quality foods for health promotion.
Kuhlenschmidt, Sally; Kacer, Barbara
Technology and its uses have undergone significant change in the past several decades. Although the technology of 2010 has changed in ways unimaginable in 1960, the promise of technology today is similar to the promise of technology then. The achievement of student learning seems more likely to lie in the minds of the people who use the technology…
Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff
This research used the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine cognitive predictors of intentions to engage in healthy sleep behavior among a population of college students. In doing so, we identify promising message strategies to increase healthy sleep behavior during college. In Phase 1, members of a small sample of undergraduates (n = 31) were asked to describe their beliefs about expected outcomes, norms, and perceived behavioral control associated with sleep on an open-ended questionnaire. We analyzed these qualitative responses to create a closed-ended survey about sleep-related attitudes, perceived norms, control beliefs, behavioral intentions, and behavior. In Phase 2, a larger sample of undergraduate students (n = 365) completed the survey. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control were the strongest predictors of both intentions to engage in sleep behavior and self-reported sleep behavior. Control beliefs associated with time management and stress also had substantial room to change, suggesting their potential as message strategies to better promote healthy sleep behavior in college. We conclude with a broader discussion of the study's implications for message design and intervention.
Karukurichi, Kannan R.; Fei, Xiang; Swyka, Robert A.; Broussy, Sylvain; Shen, Weijun; Dey, Sangeeta; Roy, Sandip K.; Berkowitz, David B.
This study introduces new methods of screening for and tuning chiral space and in so doing identifies a promising set of chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis. The carbafructopyranosyl-1,2-diamine(s) and salens constructed therefrom are particularly compelling. It is shown that by removing the native anomeric effect in this ligand family, one can tune chiral ligand shape and improve chiral bias. This concept is demonstrated by a combination of (i) x-ray crystallographic structure determination, (ii) assessment of catalytic performance, and (iii) consideration of the anomeric effect and its underlying dipolar basis. The title ligands were identified by a new mini version of the in situ enzymatic screening (ISES) procedure through which catalyst-ligand combinations are screened in parallel, and information on relative rate and enantioselectivity is obtained in real time, without the need to quench reactions or draw aliquots. Mini-ISES brings the technique into the nanomole regime (200 to 350 nmol catalyst/20 μl organic volume) commensurate with emerging trends in reaction development/process chemistry. The best-performing β-d-carbafructopyranosyl-1,2-diamine–derived salen ligand discovered here outperforms the best known organometallic and enzymatic catalysts for the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of 3-phenylpropylene oxide, one of several substrates examined for which the ligand is “matched.” This ligand scaffold defines a new swath of chiral space, and anomeric effect tunability defines a new concept in shaping that chiral space. Both this ligand set and the anomeric shape-tuning concept are expected to find broad application, given the value of chiral 1,2-diamines and salens constructed from these in asymmetric catalysis. PMID:26501130
Gourgey, Hannah; Asiabanpour, Bahram; Fenimore, Carol
The following paper culminates a year of research conducted by researchers at E[superscript 3] Alliance and Texas State University and sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The following reports on promising practices observed and reported at Manor New Tech High School (MNTH), a Texas Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (T-STEM)…
Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen King
In this article, we provide commentary on the "state of play" of inclusive education in the United States. We focus on the promises and limitations of inter-related accountability- and market-driven policies and Response to Intervention (RTI) (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). We argue that these policies and practice have "hopscotched"…
Vaughan, Camille P; Fowler, Rachel; Goodman, Richard A; Graves, Taylor R; Flacker, Jonathan M; Johnson, Theodore M
Landmark articles from the peer-reviewed literature can be used to teach the fundamental principles of geriatric medicine. Three approaches were used in sequential combination to identify landmark articles as a resource for geriatricians and other healthcare practitioners. Candidate articles were identified first through a literature review and expert opinion survey of geriatric medicine faculty. Candidate articles in a winnowed list (n = 30) were then included in a bibliometric analysis that incorporated the journal impact factor and average monthly citation index. Finally, a consensus panel reviewed articles to assess each manuscript's clinical relevance. For each article, a final score was determined by averaging, with equal weight, the opinion survey, bibliometric analysis, and consensus panel review. This process ultimately resulted in the identification of 27 landmark articles. Overall, there was weak correlation between articles that the expert opinion survey and bibliometric analysis both rated highly. This process demonstrates a feasible method combining subjective and objective measures that can be used to identify landmark papers in geriatric medicine for the enhancement of geriatrics education and practice.
....ed.gov/college-completion/promising-strategies . In addition, the Department again invites... college programs, successful remediation programs, open educational resources (that is, resources that are... descriptions of the college completion obstacle addressed, including the dimensions of the problems...
Amdur, Robert J; Speers, Marjorie A
Radiation oncologists frequently engage in activities that involve the collection and analysis of data from medical records. Access to health information is an ethical issue because, if not done according to appropriate guidelines, it constitutes an invasion of privacy or breach in confidentiality. To protect patients for the social harm that may result from medical record review, our society has established laws and regulations that apply to projects that require medical record review. A major branch point in the guidelines for such projects is whether private information will be collected for research or nonresearch purposes. However, a problem with discussing privacy protection in terms of a research versus nonresearch model is that it is difficult to make this distinction for many kinds of projects. The purpose of this paper is to establish a practical guideline that can be used to decide if a project that involves analysis of private, identifiable medical information should be considered research from the regulatory standpoint.
Greenfield, Bruce H; Jensen, Gail M; Delany, Clare M; Mostrom, Elizabeth; Knab, Mary; Jampel, Ann
This perspective article provides a justification for and an overview of the use of narrative as a pedagogical tool for educators to help physical therapist students, residents, and clinicians develop skills of reflection and reflexivity in clinical practice. The use of narratives is a pedagogical approach that provides a reflective and interpretive framework for analyzing and making sense of texts, stories, and other experiences within learning environments. This article describes reflection as a well-established method to support critical analysis of clinical experiences; to assist in uncovering different perspectives of patients, families, and health care professionals involved in patient care; and to broaden the epistemological basis (ie, sources of knowledge) for clinical practice. The article begins by examining how phronetic (ie, practical and contextual) knowledge and ethical knowledge are used in physical therapy to contribute to evidence-based practice. Narrative is explored as a source of phronetic and ethical knowledge that is complementary but irreducible to traditional objective and empirical knowledge-the type of clinical knowledge that forms the basis of scientific training. The central premise is that writing narratives is a cognitive skill that should be learned and practiced to develop critical reflection for expert practice. The article weaves theory with practical application and strategies to foster narrative in education and practice. The final section of the article describes the authors' experiences with examples of integrating the tools of narrative into an educational program, into physical therapist residency programs, and into a clinical practice.
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2012
The federal "Promise Neighborhoods" program underscores the importance of all children and youth having "access to great schools and strong systems of family and community support that will prepare them to attain an excellent education and successfully transition to college and a career." From this perspective, this brief stresses the importance…
The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…
The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…
Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Chavkin, Allan
The issue of research dissemination via websites is part of the larger research utilization question, and the authors begin with a review of literature on the theory and best practices in dissemination. The second part of the study involves an exploratory examination of the websites and dissemination practices of 30 research centers focusing on…
Meister, Gail R.; Blitz, Cynthia L.
An auxiliary and potentially powerful source of practitioners' knowledge, skills, and dispositions can come from participation in research-practice partnerships. Research-practice partnerships link researchers, usually faculty at institutions of higher education, with practitioners working in schools, district central offices, county offices, or…
Mawhinney, Thomas C.
It is possible to define an organization's culture in terms of its dominant behavioral practices and their molar consequences, from the shop floor to the executive suite (Redmon & Mason, 2001). Dysfunctional and potentially deadly practices (for the organization as a whole) can be "latent." They often go undetected until their…
Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore
Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (E/BD) have been consistently experiencing dismal outcomes. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of outcomes for this population, examine school-based instructional and behavioral strategies, and discuss transition related practices intended to improve present and future…
Paul, Lisa A.; Hassija, Christina M.; Clapp, Joshua D.
Given the availability of empirically supported practices for addressing posttraumatic stress disorder and other forms of trauma-related distress, the development and implementation of new technology to deliver these treatments is exciting. Technological innovations in this literature aim to expand availability of empirically based intervention,…
This guide was developed to share successful Community Service Learning (CSL) instructional practices. It presents units that can be replicated and adapted for varying grade levels and curricular goals. The guide notes that as students use newly acquired academic knowledge and skills to address real issues in their communities, they often gain…
Berlin, Donna F., Ed.; White, Arthur L., Ed.
The chapters in this book reflect the work of science and mathematics educators who have worked for many years at the international level. As members of the International Consortium for Research in Science and Mathematics Education, their work provides readers with issues, models, practices, and research results that have applicability and…
Bang, Hee Jin
This study examines the homework practices of eight teachers working in a high school designed to serve newcomer immigrant students. Individual structured interviews were conducted in which teachers working in an innovative setting explained their purposes of assigning homework, their beliefs about factors affecting their students' homework…
Panero, Nell Scharff
This study is an analysis of the curriculum used to teach writing at one US high school in which outcomes for students were extremely strong. The study surfaces what was different in the approach used from what is typically understood and promoted as best practice in the teaching of writing. It does so in order to surface what elements of writing…
Social work relies heavily on its value base to guide practice; however, there are no conceptual models--on par with person-in-environment (PIE)--to describe how these values are implemented within an evidence-based approach. However, the philosophical foundation of empiricism and positivism that lends PIE its strength also brings with it inherent…
Goble, J. Scott
In his book, "What's So Important about Music Education?" (2010), Goble J. Scott argues from a foundation of C. S. Peirce's pragmatist philosophy that school music education that enables students to understand and engage with the musical practices (or "praxes") of different cultural communities in terms of their…
Ormel, Bart J. B.; Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.
This study portrays recent research-practice connections found in 18 design research reports focusing on the creation of instructional solutions. Solutions in different stages of development varied greatly in duration, ranging from one lesson to a whole year curriculum, spanned all levels of education, many subjects (science, math, language,…
Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010
As a pilot site selected to participate in Illinois' Shifting Gears (SG) initiative in 2007, Oakton Community College (OCC) partnered with Presbyterian Homes to develop a bridge course to prepare a cadre of their employed Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to enter college-credit prerequisite courses to a Practical Nursing program. Oakton…
Townsend, Stephanie M; Campbell, Rebecca
Community-based rape prevention programs have received little attention in the research literature. In this study qualitative methods were used to describe such programs and to assess the degree of homogeneity in their practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 10 community-based prevention programs in a single state. Findings suggest that two typologies exist: short programs and extended programs. Homogeneity across programs was common as most programs emphasized secondary and tertiary prevention and relied on short curricula that are implemented with mixed-gender groups of students. A comparison to practices found in the research literature indicate that they are mostly using the same practices and these practices have not been demonstrated to have sustained behavioral effects that would reduce the incidence of sexual violence. Implications for future practice are discussed.
The Irvine Paraprofessional Program (IPP) looks promising for serving elementary-school children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the general education classroom. This article describes the components of the IPP, preliminary research studies that support its efficacy, and the benefits of the model. The IPP is a 12-week intensive intervention that includes (a) direct intervention to children with ADHD by specially trained paraprofessionals, (b) teacher consultation by the school psychologist on the use of effective classroom management strategies, (c) school-based reinforcement, and (d) social skills training. Preliminary studies suggest that paraprofessionals can effect positive changes in children with ADHD that can be maintained by the teacher once the paraprofessional is removed from the classroom. The purpose of this article is to provide a description of the IPP as an effective model for serving children with ADHD in the general education classroom.
Peery, B.; Wilkerson, S.
Geospatial technology, including geographical information systems, global positioning systems, remote sensing and the analysis and interpretation of spatial data, is a rapidly growing industry in the United States and touches almost every discipline from business to the environment to health and sciences. The demand for a larger and more qualified geospatial workforce is simultaneously increasing. The GeoTEd project aims to meet this demand in Virginia and the surrounding region by 1) developing academic-to-workforce pathways, 2) providing professional development for educators, and 3) increasing student participation and impact. Since 2009, Magnolia Consulting has been evaluating the GeoTEd project, particularly its professional development work through the GeoTEd Institute. This presentation will provide a look into the challenges and successes of GeoTEd, and examine its impact on the geospatial academic pathways in the Virginia region. The presentation will highlight promising elements of this project that could serve as models for other endeavors.
De Grace, Alyssa; Clarke, Angela
To inform practitioners and researchers interested in the prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents, 9 principles of effective prevention programs (Nation et al., 2003) were described and examples of how these principles have been incorporated into existing teen dating violence prevention programs were provided. An investigation of current prevention practices for adolescent IPV resulted in one noteworthy program that has successfully incorporated all 9 principles of effective prevention programming-Safe Dates (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices [SAMHSA-NREPP], 2006). Although Safe Dates serves as a model teen dating violence prevention program, it may not be equally effective across contexts and diverse groups. Therefore, as researchers and practitioners continue to develop and refine programs to reduce adolescent IPV, the principles of effective prevention programs should serve as a guiding framework.
Howell, Gregory A.
Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.
Farris, Alton Brad; Cohen, Cynthia; Rogers, Thomas E; Smith, Geoffrey H
Whole slide imaging (WSI) offers a convenient, tractable platform for measuring features of routine and special-stain histology or in immunohistochemistry staining by using digital image analysis (IA). We now routinely use IA for quantitative and qualitative analysis of theranostic markers such as human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2/neu), estrogen and progesterone receptors, and Ki-67. Quantitative IA requires extensive validation, however, and may not always be the best approach, with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors being one example in which a semiautomated approach may be preferable for patient care. We find that IA has great utility for objective assessment of gastrointestinal tract dysplasia, microvessel density in hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic fibrosis and steatosis, renal fibrosis, and general quality analysis/quality control, although the applications of these to daily practice are still in development. Collaborations with bioinformatics specialists have explored novel applications to gliomas, including in silico approaches for mining histologic data and correlating with molecular and radiologic findings. We and many others are using WSI for rapid, remote-access slide reviews (telepathology), though technical factors currently limit its utility for routine, high-volume diagnostics. In our experience, the greatest current practical impact of WSI lies in facilitating long-term storage and retrieval of images while obviating the need to keep slides on site. Once the existing barriers of capital cost, validation, operator training, software design, and storage/back-up concerns are overcome, these technologies appear destined to be a cornerstone of precision medicine and personalized patient care, and to become a routine part of pathology practice.
Maroo, Anjli; O'Donnell, Christopher J
The detection, treatment, and follow-up of subclinical vascular disease are becoming clinically essential components of cardiovascular disease prevention in the elderly. Noninvasive measurements are available for different vascular beds, including carotid, coronary, aortic, and peripheral arterial circulation. Current interest in these measures is aimed at improving the accuracy of risk prediction for coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Indirect physical examination and imaging evaluations detect significant obstruction of flow in the peripheral arteries. Doppler measures of ankle-arm blood pressure index represent a simple, indirect test that has been shown to be predictive of incident cardiovascular disease independent of risk factors. Newer, high-resolution tests allow direct detection and quantitation of the burden of atherosclerosis and vascular disease within the arterial wall, independent of flow obstruction. Carotid intimal-medial thickness predicts incident coronary heart disease and stroke in the elderly, even after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Coronary calcium can be accurately detected by computed tomography and is a strong predictor of the incidence of coronary heart disease events. Evidence is accruing that coronary calcium screening will play a role in prevention in the elderly. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently under study as a promising modality for detection and quantification of aortic and carotid plaque. Ongoing studies will provide important information regarding the appropriate role of the many newer, high-resolution tests of subclinical atherosclerosis in disease prediction, treatment, and tracking of disease progression in the elderly.
Glover, Todd A., Ed.; Vaughn, Sharon, Ed.
As response to intervention (RTI) is adopted by increasing numbers of schools and districts, knowledge about "what works" continues to grow. This much-needed book analyzes the key components of RTI service delivery and identifies the characteristics of successful implementation. Critically reviewing the available research, leading authorities…
Farel, Anita M.; Meyer, Robert E.; Hicken, Margaret; Edmonds, Larry
This article proposes use of birth defects registries in facilitating early intervention. It reports results of a survey to identify state programs that are using, or planning to use, birth defects surveillance systems to identify and refer children and families for services. It provides four case examples and recommended steps to encourage use of…
Persky, Susan; McBride, Colleen M
Social and behavioral research needs to get started now if scientists are to direct genomic discoveries to address pressing public health problems. Advancing social and behavioral science will require innovative and rigorous communication methodologies that move researchers beyond reliance on traditional tools and their inherent limitations. One such emerging research tool is immersive virtual environment technology (virtual reality), a methodology that gives researchers the ability to maintain high experimental control and mundane realism of scenarios; portray and manipulate complex, abstract objects and concepts; and implement innovative implicit behavioral measurement. This report suggests the role that immersive virtual environment technology can play in furthering future research in genomics-related education, decision making, test intentions, behavior change, and health-care provider behaviors. Practical implementation and challenges are also discussed.
In 1997, Bogdanovic and Schwickardi reported that the elimination of hydrogen from solid NaAlH4 is markedly accelerated and rendered reversible under moderate conditions upon mixing the hydride with a few mole percent of selected transition metal complexes. We found that doping the hydride through an alternative, mechanical milling method leads to considerable improvements in the practical hydrogen cycling performance of the hydride. It now appears that a variation of the doped hydride could possibly be developed as a viable means for the onboard storage of hydrogen. However, no dopant precursors have been found that give a greater kinetic enhancement than those cataloged in Bogdanovic's original, 1995 patent. Similarly, only the sodium and mixed sodium, lithium salts of the alanates have been found undergo largely reversible dehydrogenation under moderate conditions upon doping. This lack of progress is surprising in view of the recent "gold rush" flurry of activity that has been direct towards the development of alanates as practical onboard hydrogen carriers. Clearly, these efforts have been handicapped by a lack of understanding of the nature and mechanism of action the dopants. We have therefore initiated efforts to elucidate the fundamental basis of the remarkable hydrogen storage properties of this material. Our efforts have pointed to a model of the material in which the dopants are substituted into the bulk hydride lattice. A detailed version of this model has emerged from our recent infra red, Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic studies as well as neutron diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering, and kinetic investigations of the doped hydride. The results of these studies will be presented and discussed in terms of their relationship to our "substitutional" model of the doped hydride.
Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar
The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.
Noble, Bram F.
Has strategic environmental assessment (SEA) finally reached a point of maturity in Canada? Or, is it still stumbling to find its place in the impact assessment family? Strategic environmental assessment has been ongoing in Canada for a number of years, both formally and informally, and under a variety of labels and institutional models. The result is a system of SEA that is diverse, founded on a range of principles and frameworks, and not well understood. This paper provides a critical review of Canadian SEA systems and practices. To accomplish this objective, a manageable and diverse set of past and recent SEA and SEA-like frameworks and applications are described and critically analyzed based on a set of input, process, and output evaluation criteria. Results suggest considerable variability in SEA experience and value added. This is due in large part to the institutional and methodological pluralism of SEA, the boundaries of which are not well defined. Under the federal system, since the formalization of SEA, many applications have been disappointing in light of broader SEA good-practice principles and criteria. Indeed, some of the better examples of SEA have neither carried the SEA name tag nor occurred under formal SEA requirements. Further, many of the same challenges to project-based impact assessment also plague the development and value added of SEA. Of particular concern is the systematic separation of SEA from downstream decision inputs and assessment activities. As Canada commences review of its federal SEA Directive in preparation for the next generation of SEA, this paper reflects on what it has achieved in the prior.
Guerry, Anne D.; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C.; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J.; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W.; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar
The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539
Lawrence, K. S.
The study summarized in this research to practice brief, "Creating data-driven instructional systems in school: The new instructional leadership," Halverson, R., Grigg, J., Pritchett, R., & Thomas, C. (2015), "Journal of School Leadership," 25. 447-481, investigated whether student outcome improvements were linked to the…
Militello, Matthew; Carey, John; Dimmitt, Carey; Lee, Vivian; Schweid, Jason
The National Center for School Counseling Outcome Research (CSCOR) at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst studied exemplary practices of 18 high schools that received recognition for college preparation and placement in 2004 and 2005. Through interviews with key personnel at each of the high schools, the researchers generated a set of ten…
McLean, Bryan S.; Bell, Kayce C.; Dunnum, Jonathan L.; Abrahamson, Bethany; Colella, Jocelyn P.; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Weber, Jessica A.; Jones, Amanda K.; Salazar-Miralles, Fernando; Cook, Joseph A.
Specimens and associated data in natural history collections (NHCs) foster substantial scientific progress. In this paper, we explore recent contributions of NHCs to the study of systematics and biogeography, genomics, morphology, stable isotope ecology, and parasites and pathogens of mammals. To begin to assess the magnitude and scope of these contributions, we analyzed publications in the Journal of Mammalogy over the last decade, as well as recent research supported by a single university mammal collection (Museum of Southwestern Biology, Division of Mammals). Using these datasets, we also identify weak links that may be hindering the development of crucial NHC infrastructure. Maintaining the vitality and growth of this foundation of mammalogy depends on broader engagement and support from across the scientific community and is both an ethical and scientific imperative given the rapidly changing environmental conditions on our planet. PMID:26989266
McLean, Bryan S; Bell, Kayce C; Dunnum, Jonathan L; Abrahamson, Bethany; Colella, Jocelyn P; Deardorff, Eleanor R; Weber, Jessica A; Jones, Amanda K; Salazar-Miralles, Fernando; Cook, Joseph A
Specimens and associated data in natural history collections (NHCs) foster substantial scientific progress. In this paper, we explore recent contributions of NHCs to the study of systematics and biogeography, genomics, morphology, stable isotope ecology, and parasites and pathogens of mammals. To begin to assess the magnitude and scope of these contributions, we analyzed publications in the Journal of Mammalogy over the last decade, as well as recent research supported by a single university mammal collection (Museum of Southwestern Biology, Division of Mammals). Using these datasets, we also identify weak links that may be hindering the development of crucial NHC infrastructure. Maintaining the vitality and growth of this foundation of mammalogy depends on broader engagement and support from across the scientific community and is both an ethical and scientific imperative given the rapidly changing environmental conditions on our planet.
Shen, Wei; Kong, Chuixing; Xue, Ying; Liu, Yiqi; Cai, Menghao; Zhang, Yuanxing; Jiang, Tianyi; Zhou, Xiangshan
As one of the most commonly used eukaryotic recombinant protein expression systems, P. pastoris relies heavily on the AOX1 promoter (PAOX1), which is strongly induced by methanol but strictly repressed by glycerol and glucose. However, the complicated signaling pathways involved in PAOX1 regulation when supplemented with different carbon sources are poorly understood. Here we constructed a kinase deletion library in P. pastoris and identified 27 mutants which showed peculiar phenotypes in cell growth or PAOX1 regulation. We analyzed both annotations and possible functions of these 27 targets, and then focused on the MAP kinase Hog1. In order to locate its potential downstream components, we performed the phosphoproteome analysis on glycerol cultured WT and Δhog1 strains and identified 157 differentially phosphorylated proteins. Our results identified important kinases involved in P. pastoris cell growth and PAOX1 regulation, which could serve as valuable targets for further mechanistic studies. PMID:27936065
Xu, Jie; Wu, Xing; Zhou, Wei-hua; Liu, An-wen; Wu, Jian-bing; Deng, Jin-yun; Yue, Cai-feng; Yang, Shao-bing; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zhong-yu; Liu, Quentin
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) acquires an unfavorable prognosis, emerging as a major challenge for the treatment of breast cancer. In the present study, 122 TNBC patients were subjected to analysis of Aurora-A (Aur-A) expression and survival prognosis. We found that Aur-A high expression was positively associated with initial clinical stage (P = 0.025), the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P = 0.001), and the recurrence rate of TNBC patients (P<0.001). In TNBC patients with Aur-A high expression, the risk of distant recurrence peaked at the first 3 years and declined rapidly thereafter, whereas patients with Aur-A low expression showed a relatively constant risk of recurrence during the entire follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that overexpression of Aur-A predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.002) and progression-free survival (P = 0.012) in TNBC. Furthermore, overexpression of Aur-A, associated with high Ki-67, predicted an inferior prognosis compared with low expression of both Aur-A and Ki-67. Importantly, we further found that Aur-A was overexpressed in TNBC cells, and inhibition of this kinase inhibited cell proliferation and prevented cell migration in TNBC. Our findings demonstrated that Aur-A was a potential therapeutic target for TNBC and inhibition of Aur-A kinase was a promising regimen for TNBC cancer therapy.
Workforce Strategy Center, Brooklyn, NY.
Focus of this guide is a project to identify best practices and programs in preparing foster care youth for career opportunities and economic self-sufficiency. Foster care program context is described as an economy characterized by jobs clustering into two categories (high wage positions with a continuing career pathway and low wage entry-level…
Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv
Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle.
Salmon, Richard B; Sanderson, Mark I; Walters, Barbara A; Kennedy, Karen; Flores, Robert C; Muney, Alan M
Cigna's Collaborative Accountable Care initiative provides financial incentives to physician groups and integrated delivery systems to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patients in commercial open-access benefit plans. Registered nurses who serve as care coordinators employed by participating practices are a central feature of the initiative. They use patient-specific reports and practice performance reports provided by Cigna to improve care coordination, identify and close care gaps, and address other opportunities for quality improvement. We report interim quality and cost results for three geographically and structurally diverse provider practices in Arizona, New Hampshire, and Texas. Although not statistically significant, these early results revealed favorable trends in total medical costs and quality of care, suggesting that a shared-savings accountable care model and collaborative support from the payer can enable practices to take meaningful steps toward full accountability for care quality and efficiency.
Nguyen, Van Kinh; Klawonn, Frank; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.
Mathematical modelling approaches have granted a significant contribution to life sciences and beyond to understand experimental results. However, incomplete and inadequate assessments in parameter estimation practices hamper the parameter reliability, and consequently the insights that ultimately could arise from a mathematical model. To keep the diligent works in modelling biological systems from being mistrusted, potential sources of error must be acknowledged. Employing a popular mathematical model in viral infection research, existing means and practices in parameter estimation are exemplified. Numerical results show that poor experimental data is a main source that can lead to erroneous parameter estimates despite the use of innovative parameter estimation algorithms. Arbitrary choices of initial conditions as well as data asynchrony distort the parameter estimates but are often overlooked in modelling studies. This work stresses the existence of several sources of error buried in reports of modelling biological systems, voicing the need for assessing the sources of error, consolidating efforts in solving the immediate difficulties, and possibly reconsidering the use of mathematical modelling to quantify experimental data. PMID:28036339
Educational Services to Handicapped Students with Limited English Proficiency: State of the Art and Future Directions. Statewide Status Study, Promising Practices, and Resource Directory. Technical Report[s]. Multicultural Education Series #1-3.
Cegelka, Patricia Thomas; Rodriguez, Ana Maria
The study was designed to develop an information base on education services to handicapped children and youth in California who are also limited in English proficiency (LEP) and to identify promising practices in their education. The first of three documents collected here is a report of the statewide questionnaire survey of a random sample of 145…
Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv
Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810
Evans, Elizabeth; Anglin, M. Douglas; Urada, Darren; Yang, Joy
Operative for nearly a decade, California's voter-initiated Proposition 36 program offers many offenders community-based substance abuse treatment in lieu of likely incarceration. Research has documented program successes and plans for replication have proliferated, yet very little is known about how the Proposition 36 program works or practices for achieving optimal program outcomes. In this article, we identify policies and practices that key stakeholders perceive to be most responsible for the successful delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment to offenders under Proposition 36. Data was collected via focus groups conducted with 59 county stakeholders in six high-performing counties during 2009. Discussion was informed by seven empirical indicators of program performance and outcomes and was focused on identifying and describing elements contributing to success. Program success was primarily attributed to four strategies, those that: (1) fostered program engagement, monitored participant progress, and sustained cooperation among participants; (2) cultivated buy-in among key stakeholders; (3) capitalized on the role of the court and the judge; and (4) created a setting which promoted a high-quality treatment system, utilization of existing resources, and broad financial and political support for the program. Goals and practices for implementing each strategy are discussed. Findings provide a “promising practices” resource for Proposition 36 program evaluation and improvement and inform the design and study of other similar types of collaborative justice treatment efforts. PMID:20965568
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.
This document contains 85 articles taken from previously published issues of the "CTS Communication Network Update," a publication about the career and technology studies (CTS) program of career education designed for Alberta, Canada, high school juniors and seniors. Following an introductory section and a section on general CTS, the…
Cho, Nancy L.; Lin, Chi-Iou; Du, Jinyan; Whang, Edward E.; Ito, Hiromichi; Moore, Francis D.; Ruan, Daniel T.
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinome profiling is a novel technique for identifying activated kinases in human cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Src activity is increased in invasive thyroid cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Src activity decreased proliferation and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further investigation of Src targeted therapies in thyroid cancer is warranted. -- Abstract: Background: Novel therapies are needed for the treatment of invasive thyroid cancers. Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases plays an important role in thyroid oncogenesis. Because current targeted therapies are biased toward a small subset of tyrosine kinases, we conducted a study to reveal novel therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer using a bead-based, high-throughput system. Methods: Thyroid tumors and matched normal tissues were harvested from twenty-six patients in the operating room. Protein lysates were analyzed using the Luminex immunosandwich, a bead-based kinase phosphorylation assay. Data was analyzed using GenePattern 3.0 software and clustered according to histology, demographic factors, and tumor status regarding capsular invasion, size, lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroidal extension. Survival and invasion assays were performed to determine the effect of Src inhibition in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells. Results: Tyrosine kinome profiling demonstrated upregulation of nine tyrosine kinases in tumors relative to matched normal thyroid tissue: EGFR, PTK6, BTK, HCK, ABL1, TNK1, GRB2, ERK, and SRC. Supervised clustering of well-differentiated tumors by histology, gender, age, or size did not reveal significant differences in tyrosine kinase activity. However, supervised clustering by the presence of invasive disease showed increased Src activity in invasive tumors relative to non-invasive tumors (60% v. 0%, p < 0.05). In vitro, we found that Src inhibition in PTC cells decreased cell invasion and proliferation
Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S
While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of
Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S
While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of
Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Isbell, Matthew G; Atwood, Robin Dochen; Ray, Tara C
The growing population of nonnative English speakers in the United States challenges program planners to offer services that will effectively reach limited English proficiency (LEP) audiences. This article presents findings from evaluation research conducted with the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to identify best practices and areas of concern for working with LEP clients. Data were collected through online surveys of 338 WIC teaching staff in 2010 and 65 WIC local agency directors in 2011 as part of an implementation evaluation of client-centered nutrition education. Data identified current practices, facilitating factors, and challenges in working with LEP clients. Facilitating factors included cultural competency, material and translation resources, linguistic competency, professional development opportunities, and rapport with clients. Challenges cited included linguistic challenges, lack of cultural competencies, issues related to the client-staff interaction, and insufficient time, materials, and staffing. Best practices inferred from the data relate to developing linguistic standards for bilingual staff, considerations for translating written materials, interpretation services, cultural competency, and staff training. Findings may help inform the development of this and other linguistically and culturally appropriate health promotion programs.
Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan
Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…
Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses
Background The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Results Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 –0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 – 2.98). Conclusion Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods
Brennan, Laura; Castro, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C; Claus, Julie; Orleans, C Tracy
The childhood obesity epidemic has stimulated the emergence of many policy and environmental strategies to increase healthy eating and active living, with relatively few research recommendations identifying the most effective and generalizable strategies. Yet, local, state, and national decision makers have an urgent need to take action, particularly with respect to lower-income and racial and ethnic populations at greatest risk. With the surge of promising and emerging policy and environmental strategies, this review provides a framework, criteria, and process modeled from existing expert classification systems to assess the strength of evidence for these strategies. Likewise, this review highlights evidence gaps and ways to increase the types and amount of evidence available to inform policy and environmental strategies. These priorities include documenting independent and interdependent effects, determining applicability to different populations and settings, assessing implementation fidelity and feasibility, identifying cumulative benefits and costs, ascertaining impacts on health equity, and tracking sustainability.
Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel
With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used…
Ribeiro, Ana Sofia; Paredes, Joana
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (also known as EMT) is a fundamental mechanism occurring during embryonic development and tissue differentiation, being also crucial for cancer progression. Actually, the EMT program contributes to the dissemination of cancer cells from solid tumors and to the formation of micro-metastasis that subsequently develop into clinically detectable metastases. Besides being a process that is defined by the progressive loss of epithelial cell characteristics and the acquisition of mesenchymal features, EMT has also been implicated in therapy resistance, immune escape, and maintenance of cancer stem cell properties, such as self-renewal capacity. However, the majority of the studies usually neglect the progressive alterations occurring during intermediate EMT states, which imply a range of phenotypic cellular heterogeneity that can potentially generate more metastable and plastic tumor cells. In fact, few studies have tried to identify these transitory states, partly due to the current lack of a detailed understanding of EMT, as well as of reliable readouts for its progression. Herein, a brief review of evidences is presented, showing that P-cadherin expression, which has been already identified as a breast cancer stem cell marker and invasive promoter, is probably able to identify an intermediate EMT state associated with a metastable phenotype. This hypothesis is based on our own work, as well as on the results described by others, which suggest the use of P-cadherin as a promising EMT marker, clearly functioning as an important clinical prognostic factor and putative therapeutic target in breast carcinogenesis.
Simpson, Guadalupe H.
The current interest in using data-driven decision-making in schools has focused on how best to use student achievement data to meet the demands of current accountability requirements. The purpose of this study was to investigate promising practices specific to school leaders' use of data-driven decision-making for school improvement at two…
Reddy, Sandeep; Herring, Sally; Gray, Allison
Clinical Practice Guidelines are widely used to inform and improve the quality and consistency of clinical practice. Developing and publishing Clinical Practice Guidelines is a complex task involving multiple components. Electronic Content Management Systems are increasingly employed to make this task more manageable. The Content Management System market offers a variety of options for publishing content on the Internet. However, there are limited products that comprehensively address the requirements of publishing Clinical Practice Guidelines. The authors are involved in publishing guidelines for remote clinical practitioners in Australia and present their perspective about identifying an appropriate Content Management System. Several elements essential to addressing their unique editing needs are defined in this article. Unfortunately, customisation is very expensive and laborious: few Content Management System providers can comprehensively meet the needs of Clinical Practice Guidelines publishing. Being pragmatic about the level of functionality a product can offer to support publication is essential.
In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.
Henthorne, B H; Henthorne, T L
Physicians practice in a constantly changing environment, exacerbating the need for strategic marketing planning. The evolution of marketing planning within the medical industry parallels that of other industries in some respects, yet, in most instances it has not reached the level of sophistication necessary to be an effective tool. There are distinct barriers that impinge upon the marketing planning process within medical practices. Identifying and removing those barriers can facilitate the implementation of strategic marketing planning within medical practices, thereby contributing to their future viability in the market.
De Lisle, Jerome
Continuous Assessment (CA) systems are externally directed, curriculum-based assessment schemes used for both summative and formative purposes within classrooms. CA has been implemented as national policy in several postcolonial developing countries and is believed to hold great promise for improving education outcomes. This theory-driven…
di Cagno, Massimiliano; Styskala, Jakub; Hlaváč, Jan; Brandl, Martin; Bauer-Brandl, Annette; Skalko-Basnet, Natasa
Four new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity could be solubilized using liposomes as vehicle to an extent that allows their in vitro and in vivo testing without use of toxic solvent(s). A screening method to identify the maximum incorporation capacity of hydrophobic drugs within liposomes was successfully applied. The compounds and lipid(s) were dissolved in methanol, and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation. The film was resuspended with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the dispersion was sonicated to reduce vesicle size. Ultracentrifugation was used to separate liposome-associated drug from free (i.e., precipitated) drug, and the amount of drug incorporated within the liposomes was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. All four compounds were found to be significantly incorporated within soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) liposomes, resulting in a 200-500-fold increase in apparent solubility. Drug-to-lipid ratios in the range of 2-5 μg/mg were obtained. Interestingly, the four quinolinone derivatives have shown different association tendencies with liposomes, probably due to the physicochemical properties of the different group bonded in position 2 of the quinolinone ring. None of the alternative lipids/lipid blends tested incorporated as much drug as SPC. Photon correlation spectroscopy analyses indicated that use of ultrasounds produced an efficient reduction in liposome size. The present approach appears suitable for incorporation capacity studies of any lipophilic drug in liposomes.
This paper explores the methodological and epistemological implications of the relationships between R&D, policy and practice. The proposals towards "evidence-based policy and practice" are analysed with respect to this triangle from three angles: (1) meaning; (2) production; and (3) use of evidence. A comprehensive model of the…
Jansorn, Natalie Rodriguez, Ed.; Salinas, Karen Clark, Ed.
This publication highlights 93 exemplary practices of school, family, and community partnerships selected from members of the National Network of Partnerships Schools at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. Network member sites represent 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces. The publication highlights six types of practices: parenting (e.g., parent…
Many cancers are understood to be the product of multiple somatic mutations or other rate-limiting events. Multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models are a class of continuous-time Markov chain models that capture the multi-hit initiation–promotion–malignant-conversion hypothesis of carcinogenesis. These models have been used broadly to investigate the epidemiology of many cancers, assess the impact of carcinogen exposures on cancer risk, and evaluate the potential impact of cancer prevention and control strategies on cancer rates. Structural identifiability (the analysis of the maximum parametric information available for a model given perfectly measured data) of certain MSCE models has been previously investigated. However, structural identifiability is a theoretical property and does not address the limitations of real data. In this study, we use pancreatic cancer as a case study to examine the practical identifiability of the two-, three-, and four-stage clonal expansion models given age-specific cancer incidence data using a numerical profile-likelihood approach. We demonstrate that, in the case of the three- and four-stage models, several parameters that are theoretically structurally identifiable, are, in practice, unidentifiable. This result means that key parameters such as the intermediate cell mutation rates are not individually identifiable from the data and that estimation of those parameters, even if structurally identifiable, will not be stable. We also show that products of these practically unidentifiable parameters are practically identifiable, and, based on this, we propose new reparameterizations of the model hazards that resolve the parameter estimation problems. Our results highlight the importance of identifiability to the interpretation of model parameter estimates. PMID:28288156
Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie
The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and
Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.
Recent research has confirmed both the importance of teachers in producing student achievement growth and in the variability across teachers in the ability to do that. Such findings raise the stakes on our ability to identify effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures…
Phosphorus losses from agriculture have been identified as a primary contributor to harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. The objectives of this presentation will be to provide estimates of cropping systems management and other conservation practices that can be used to minimize P losses from this land...
Hu, Kaiji; Lee, Cathy; Qiu, Dexin; Fotovati, Abbas; Davies, Alastair; Abu-Ali, Samah; Wai, Daniel; Lawlor, Elizabeth R; Triche, Timothy J; Pallen, Catherine J; Dunn, Sandra E
Rhabdomyosarcoma, consisting of alveolar (aRMS) and embryonal (eRMS) subtypes, is the most common type of sarcoma in children. Currently, there are no targeted drug therapies available for rhabdomyosarcoma. In searching for new molecular therapeutic targets, we carried out genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screens targeting human phosphatases (n = 206) and kinases (n = 691) initially against an aRMS cell line, RH30. Sixteen phosphatases and 50 kinases were identified based on growth inhibition after 72 hours. Inhibiting polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) had the most remarkable impact on growth inhibition (approximately 80%) and apoptosis on all three rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines tested, namely, RH30, CW9019 (aRMS), and RD (eRMS), whereas there was no effect on normal muscle cells. The loss of PLK1 expression and subsequent growth inhibition correlated with decreased p-CDC25C and Cyclin B1. Increased expression of WEE 1 was also noted. The induction of apoptosis after PLK1 silencing was confirmed by increased p-H2AX, propidium iodide uptake, and chromatin condensation, as well as caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Pediatric Ewing's sarcoma (TC-32), neuroblastoma (IMR32 and KCNR), and glioblastoma (SF188) models were also highly sensitive to PLK1 inhibition. Finally, based on cDNA microarray analyses, PLK1 mRNA was overexpressed (>1.5 fold) in 10 of 10 rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and in 47% and 51% of primary aRMS (17 of 36 samples) and eRMS (21 of 41 samples) tumors, respectively, compared with normal muscles. Similarly, pediatric Ewing's sarcoma, neuroblastoma, and osteosarcoma tumors expressed high PLK1. We conclude that PLK1 could be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of a wide range of pediatric solid tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma.
Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Fadnes, Lars Thore; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Wamani, Henry; Tumwine, James K.; Norheim, Ole Frithjof
Background Undernutrition is highly prevalent among infants in Uganda. Optimal infant feeding practices may improve nutritional status, health, and survival among children. Objective Our study evaluates the socioeconomic distribution of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and growth outcomes among infants included in a trial, which promoted EBF by peer counselors in Uganda. Design Twenty-four clusters comprising one to two communities in Uganda were randomized into intervention and control arms, including 765 mother-infant pairs (PROMISE-EBF trial, 200608, ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00397150). Intervention clusters received the promotion of EBF by peer counselors in addition to standard care. Breastfeeding and growth outcomes were compared according to wealth quintiles and intervention/control arms. Socioeconomic inequality in breastfeeding and growth outcomes were measured using the concentration index 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. We used the decomposition of the concentration index to identify factors contributing to growth inequality at 24 weeks. Results EBF was significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group at 24 weeks postpartum, concentration index −0.060. The control group showed a concentration of breastfeeding among the richest part of the population, although not statistically significant. Stunting, wasting, and underweight were similarly significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group and the total population at 24 weeks, but showing non-significant concentrations for the control group. Conclusion This study shows that EBF can be successfully promoted among the poor. In addition, socioeconomic inequality in growth outcomes starts early in infancy, but the breastfeeding intervention was not strong enough to counteract this influence. PMID:27473676
Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Fadnes, Lars Thore; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Wamani, Henry; Tumwine, James K; Norheim, Ole Frithjof
Background Undernutrition is highly prevalent among infants in Uganda. Optimal infant feeding practices may improve nutritional status, health, and survival among children. Objective Our study evaluates the socioeconomic distribution of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and growth outcomes among infants included in a trial, which promoted EBF by peer counselors in Uganda. Design Twenty-four clusters comprising one to two communities in Uganda were randomized into intervention and control arms, including 765 mother-infant pairs (PROMISE-EBF trial, 200608, ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00397150). Intervention clusters received the promotion of EBF by peer counselors in addition to standard care. Breastfeeding and growth outcomes were compared according to wealth quintiles and intervention/control arms. Socioeconomic inequality in breastfeeding and growth outcomes were measured using the concentration index 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. We used the decomposition of the concentration index to identify factors contributing to growth inequality at 24 weeks. Results EBF was significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group at 24 weeks postpartum, concentration index -0.060. The control group showed a concentration of breastfeeding among the richest part of the population, although not statistically significant. Stunting, wasting, and underweight were similarly significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group and the total population at 24 weeks, but showing non-significant concentrations for the control group. Conclusion This study shows that EBF can be successfully promoted among the poor. In addition, socioeconomic inequality in growth outcomes starts early in infancy, but the breastfeeding intervention was not strong enough to counteract this influence.
Gregory, Anne; Clawson, Kathleen; Davis, Alycia; Gerewitz, Jennifer
Restorative approaches to school discipline are increasingly being implemented throughout the United States in an attempt to reduce reliance on suspension and eradicate the racial discipline gap. Yet, little is known about the experience of students in classrooms utilizing restorative practices (RP). This study draws on student surveys (N = 412)…
Moran, Mary Jane
Excerpts from case studies of two preservice teaching teams exemplify a new approach for merging research and practice within an introductory early childhood methods course. Through participation in cycles of collaborative action research focused on the joint task of implementing long-term projects, preservice teachers evidenced change in the ways…
Schul, James E.
Cooperative learning has long been at the disposal of school teachers. However, it is often misunderstood by some teachers as just another form of collaborative group work. This article revisits cooperative learning, including a sampling of its popular variations, with practical approaches toward effectively integrating it into classroom…
Kaufman, Julia H.; Thompson, Lindsey E.; Opfer, V. Darleen
The impetus for this report is new evidence that state department of education work to align instruction with standards may make a difference for teachers' practices and understanding about their state standards. Using data from the RAND American Teacher Panel, the authors found that Louisiana teachers were more likely than other teachers to…
Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Makowski, David; Moeys, Julien; Justes, Eric; Barriuso, Enrique; Mamy, Laure
STICS-MACRO is a process-based model simulating the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant system as a function of agricultural practices and pedoclimatic conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of crop management practices on water and pesticide flows in contrasted environmental conditions. We used the Morris screening sensitivity analysis method to identify the most influential cropping practices. Crop residues management and tillage practices were shown to have strong effects on water percolation and pesticide leaching. In particular, the amount of organic residues added to soil was found to be the most influential input. The presence of a mulch could increase soil water content so water percolation and pesticide leaching. Conventional tillage was also found to decrease pesticide leaching, compared to no-till, which is consistent with many field observations. The effects of the soil, crop and climate conditions tested in this work were less important than those of cropping practices. STICS-MACRO allows an ex ante evaluation of cropping systems and agricultural practices, and of the related pesticides environmental impacts.
Background Teaching of medication prescribing is a specific challenge in general practice curriculum. The aim of this study was to identify and rank the competencies required for prescribing medication for general practice residents in France. Methods Qualitative consensus study using the nominal group technique. We invited different stakeholders of the general practice curriculum and medication use in primary care to a series of meetings. The nominal group technique allowed for the quick development of a list of consensual and ranked answers to the following question: “At the end of their general practice curriculum, in terms of medication prescribing, what should residents be able to do?”. Results Four meetings were held that involved a total of 31 participants, enabling the creation of a final list of 29 ranked items, grouped in 4 domains. The four domains identified were ‘pharmacology’, ‘regulatory standards’, ‘therapeutics’, and ‘communication (both with patients and healthcare professionals)’. Overall, the five items the most highly valued across the four meetings were: ‘write a legible and understandable prescription’, ‘identify specific populations’, ‘prescribe the doses and durations following the indication’, ‘explain a lack of medication prescription to the patient’, ‘decline inappropriate medication request’. The ‘communication skills’ domain was the domain with the highest number of items (10 items), and with the most highly-valued items. Conclusion The study results suggest a need for developing general practice residents’ communication skills regarding medication prescribing. PMID:25084813
Beehler, Gregory P; Funderburk, Jennifer S; King, Paul R; Wade, Michael; Possemato, Kyle
Primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI) is growing in popularity. To determine program success, it is essential to know if PC-MHI services are being delivered as intended. The investigation examines responses to the Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) to explore PC-MHI provider practice patterns. Latent class analysis was used to identify clusters of PC-MHI providers based on their self-report of adherence on the PPAQ. Analysis revealed five provider clusters with varying levels of adherence to PC-MHI model components. Across clusters, adherence was typically lowest in relation to collaboration with other primary care staff. Clusters also differed significantly in regard to provider educational background and psychotherapy approach, level of clinic integration, and previous PC-MHI training. The PPAQ can be used to identify PC-MHI provider practice patterns that have relevance for future clinical effectiveness studies, development of provider training, and quality improvement initiatives.
National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, IL.
The 13 articles in this report fall into four categories: programs for the culturally disadvantaged, teaching composition, curriculum revision, and detailed classroom practices. Mildred A. Dawson outlines compensatory programs used in Sacramento, California, to prevent drop-outs; Lois Grose concentrates on the pattern-practice method of teaching…
Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel
With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.
Lee, Wai Ling; Jia, Jie; Bao, Yani
Excessive lead has been found in drinking water in Hong Kong in tests carried out in 2015. Investigations have identified that the problem in public rental housing estates was caused by the problematic solders used in the plumbing, and recommendations on enhancing the quality control system and strengthening the relevant water quality standards have been proposed. The cause for the same problem happening in other premises where soldering has not been adopted for water pipe connections is left unidentified. Considering the unidentified cause and the recommendations made, this study aims to identify the gaps in practice followed in Hong Kong for safeguarding the water quality of new installations. A holistic review of governing ordinances and regulations, products and materials used and the testing and commissioning requirements adopted in Hong Kong and elsewhere in the world were conducted. Based on international practices and parametric analysis, it was found that there are gaps in practices followed in Hong Kong, which are directly and indirectly leading to the lead-in-water crisis. Recommendations for improvement in the quality control system, and the water quality standards including the allowable lead content and leaching limit for products and materials and the testing and commissioning requirements on plumbing installations have been made. The review and the identified gaps would become useful reference for countries in strengthening their relevant water quality standards. PMID:27706062
Lee, Wai Ling; Jia, Jie; Bao, Yani
Excessive lead has been found in drinking water in Hong Kong in tests carried out in 2015. Investigations have identified that the problem in public rental housing estates was caused by the problematic solders used in the plumbing, and recommendations on enhancing the quality control system and strengthening the relevant water quality standards have been proposed. The cause for the same problem happening in other premises where soldering has not been adopted for water pipe connections is left unidentified. Considering the unidentified cause and the recommendations made, this study aims to identify the gaps in practice followed in Hong Kong for safeguarding the water quality of new installations. A holistic review of governing ordinances and regulations, products and materials used and the testing and commissioning requirements adopted in Hong Kong and elsewhere in the world were conducted. Based on international practices and parametric analysis, it was found that there are gaps in practices followed in Hong Kong, which are directly and indirectly leading to the lead-in-water crisis. Recommendations for improvement in the quality control system, and the water quality standards including the allowable lead content and leaching limit for products and materials and the testing and commissioning requirements on plumbing installations have been made. The review and the identified gaps would become useful reference for countries in strengthening their relevant water quality standards.
This monograph addresses issues and problems related to identification of and programming for gifted/talented children of preschool, kindergarten, and primary age. Barriers to early identification and programming are identified. A rationale for early identification and programming is presented, followed by administrative options including…
Heinrichs, Guido; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard
Herpotrichiellaceous black yeasts and relatives comprise severe pathogens flanked by nonpathogenic environmental siblings. Reliable identification by conventional methods is notoriously difficult. Molecular identification is hampered by the sequence variability in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain caused by difficult-to-sequence homopolymeric regions and by poor taxonomic attribution of sequences deposited in GenBank. Here, we present a potential solution using short barcode identifiers (27 to 50 bp) based on ITS2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which allows unambiguous definition of species-specific fragments. Starting from proven sequences of ex-type and authentic strains, we were able to describe 103 identifiers. Multiple BLAST searches of these proposed barcode identifiers in GenBank revealed uniqueness for 100 taxonomic entities, whereas the three remaining identifiers each matched with two entities, but the species of these identifiers could easily be discriminated by differences in the remaining ITS regions. Using the proposed barcode identifiers, a 4.1-fold increase of 100% matches in GenBank was achieved in comparison to the classical approach using the complete ITS sequences. The proposed barcode identifiers will be made accessible for the diagnostic laboratory in a permanently updated online database, thereby providing a highly practical, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of clinically important black yeasts and relatives.
Boulton, F; Roberts, D J
The centenary of the start of the First World War has stirred considerable interest in the political, social, military and human factors of the time and how they interacted to produce and sustain the material and human destruction in the 4 years of the war and beyond. Medical practice may appear distant and static and perhaps seems to have been somewhat ineffectual in the face of so much trauma and in the light of the enormous advances in medicine and surgery over the last century. However, this is an illusion of time and of course medical, surgical and psychiatric knowledge and procedures were developing rapidly at the time and the war years accelerated implementation of many important advances. Transfusion practice lay at the heart of resuscitation, and although direct transfusion from donor to recipient was still used, Geoffrey Keynes from Britain, Oswald Robertson from America and his namesake Lawrence Bruce Robertson from Canada, developed methods for indirect transfusion from donor to recipient by storing blood in bottles and also blood-banking that laid the foundation of modern transfusion medicine. This review explores the historical setting behind the development of blood transfusion up to the start of the First World War and on how they progressed during the war and afterwards. A fresh look may renew interest in how a novel medical speciality responded to the needs of war and of post-war society.
Brcic, Vanessa; Eberdt, Caroline; Kaczorowski, Janusz
Objective. The goal of this pilot study was to develop and field-test questions for use as a poverty case-finding tool to assist primary care providers in identifying poverty in clinical practice. Methods. 156 questionnaires were completed by a convenience sample of urban and rural primary care patients presenting to four family practices in British Columbia, Canada. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses compared questionnaire responses with low-income cut-off (LICO) levels calculated for each respondent. Results. 35% of respondents were below the “poverty line” (LICO). The question “Do you (ever) have difficulty making ends meet at the end of the month?” was identified as a good predictor of poverty (sensitivity 98%; specificity 60%; OR 32.3, 95% CI 5.4–191.5). Multivariate analysis identified a 3-item case-finding tool including 2 additional questions about food and housing security (sensitivity 64.3%; specificity 94.4%; OR 30.2, 95% CI 10.3–88.1). 85% of below-LICO respondents felt that poverty screening was important and 67% felt comfortable speaking to their family physician about poverty. Conclusions. Asking patients directly about poverty may help identify patients with increased needs in primary care. PMID:22312547
Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle
Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided
Shi, Xuan; Xue, Bowei; Xierali, Imam M.
In response to the widespread concern about the adequacy, distribution, and disparity of access to a health care workforce, the correct identification of physicians’ practice locations is critical to access public health services. In prior literature, little effort has been made to detect and resolve the uncertainty about whether the address provided by a physician in the survey is a practice address or a home address. This paper introduces how to identify the uncertainty in a physician’s practice location through spatial analytics, text mining, and visual examination. While land use and zoning code, embedded within the parcel datasets, help to differentiate resident areas from other types, spatial analytics may have certain limitations in matching and comparing physician and parcel datasets with different uncertainty issues, which may lead to unforeseen results. Handling and matching the string components between physicians’ addresses and the addresses of the parcels could identify the spatial uncertainty and instability to derive a more reasonable relationship between different datasets. Visual analytics and examination further help to clarify the undetectable patterns. This research will have a broader impact over federal and state initiatives and policies to address both insufficiency and maldistribution of a health care workforce to improve the accessibility to public health services. PMID:27657100
Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J
To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps.
Powers, Christina M; Mills, Karmann A; Morris, Stephanie A; Klaessig, Fred; Gaheen, Sharon; Lewinski, Nastassja
Summary There is a critical opportunity in the field of nanoscience to compare and integrate information across diverse fields of study through informatics (i.e., nanoinformatics). This paper is one in a series of articles on the data curation process in nanoinformatics (nanocuration). Other articles in this series discuss key aspects of nanocuration (temporal metadata, data completeness, database integration), while the focus of this article is on the nanocuration workflow, or the process of identifying, inputting, and reviewing nanomaterial data in a data repository. In particular, the article discusses: 1) the rationale and importance of a defined workflow in nanocuration, 2) the influence of organizational goals or purpose on the workflow, 3) established workflow practices in other fields, 4) current workflow practices in nanocuration, 5) key challenges for workflows in emerging fields like nanomaterials, 6) examples to make these challenges more tangible, and 7) recommendations to address the identified challenges. Throughout the article, there is an emphasis on illustrating key concepts and current practices in the field. Data on current practices in the field are from a group of stakeholders active in nanocuration. In general, the development of workflows for nanocuration is nascent, with few individuals formally trained in data curation or utilizing available nanocuration resources (e.g., ISA-TAB-Nano). Additional emphasis on the potential benefits of cultivating nanomaterial data via nanocuration processes (e.g., capability to analyze data from across research groups) and providing nanocuration resources (e.g., training) will likely prove crucial for the wider application of nanocuration workflows in the scientific community. PMID:26425437
Goodman, Lisa A; Banyard, Victoria; Woulfe, Julie; Ash, Sarah; Mattern, Grace
Despite powerful evidence that informal social support contributes to survivors' safety and well-being, mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs have not developed comprehensive models for helping isolated survivors re-engage with these networks. Although many advocates use network-oriented strategies informally, they often do so without resources, funding, or training. This qualitative focus group study explored advocates' use and perceptions of network-oriented strategies. Advocates working in a range of DV programs across one state described the importance of network-oriented work and articulated its five dimensions, including helping survivors build their capacity to form healthy relationships, identify helpful and harmful network members, re-engage with existing networks, develop new relationships, and respond more effectively to network members.
Conradi, Lisa; Agosti, Jen; Tullberg, Erika; Richardson, Lisa; Langan, Heather; Ko, Susan; Wilson, Charles
This paper will provide information on a recent Breakthrough Series Collaborative (BSC) conducted by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network on Using Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Practice to Improve Foster Care Placement Stability. Information on this particular BSC will be provided, followed by initial findings gathered from an evaluation of…
Yellow Bird, Michael J.; Chenault, Venida
The mission of social work is to help people meet their basic needs and enhance their well-being. Through a strong empowerment orientation, the profession can aid people vulnerable to oppression as a result of racism, discrimination, and poverty. Social work can be a powerful force in advancing the practice of Indigenous education. Social workers…
Pant, Sanjay; Lombardi, Damiano
A new approach for assessing parameter identifiability of dynamical systems in a Bayesian setting is presented. The concept of Shannon entropy is employed to measure the inherent uncertainty in the parameters. The expected reduction in this uncertainty is seen as the amount of information one expects to gain about the parameters due to the availability of noisy measurements of the dynamical system. Such expected information gain is interpreted in terms of the variance of a hypothetical measurement device that can measure the parameters directly, and is related to practical identifiability of the parameters. If the individual parameters are unidentifiable, correlation between parameter combinations is assessed through conditional mutual information to determine which sets of parameters can be identified together. The information theoretic quantities of entropy and information are evaluated numerically through a combination of Monte Carlo and k-nearest neighbour methods in a non-parametric fashion. Unlike many methods to evaluate identifiability proposed in the literature, the proposed approach takes the measurement-noise into account and is not restricted to any particular noise-structure. Whilst computationally intensive for large dynamical systems, it is easily parallelisable and is non-intrusive as it does not necessitate re-writing of the numerical solvers of the dynamical system. The application of such an approach is presented for a variety of dynamical systems--ranging from systems governed by ordinary differential equations to partial differential equations--and, where possible, validated against results previously published in the literature.
Selker, John; Selker, Frank; Huff, Julie; Short, Russ; Edwards, Deborah; Nicholson, Peter; Chin, Arthur
Identifying or ruling out groundwater discharges into sediment and surface waters is often critical for evaluating impacts and for planning remedial actions. Information about subsurface structure and groundwater can be helpful, but imperfect information, heterogeneous materials, and the likelihood of preferential pathways make it difficult to locate seeps without direct seep monitoring. We present the practical application of a method that uses fiber optic temperature measurement to provide high-resolution, sensitive, and dynamic monitoring of seepage from sediments over large areas: distributed temperature sensing to identify groundwater discharge (DTSID). First, we introduce a stochastic Monte Carlo method for designing DTSID installation based on site characteristics and the required probability of detecting particular size seeps. We then present practical methods for analysing DTSID results to prioritize locations for further investigation used at three industrial locations. Summer conditions generally presented greater difficulty in the method due to stronger environmentally-driven temperature fluctuations and thermal stratification of surface water. Tidal fluctuations were shown to be helpful in seepage detection at some locations by creating a dynamic temperature pattern that likely reflects changing seepage with varying water levels. At locations with suitable conditions for the application of DTSID, it can provide unique information regarding likely seep locations, enhancing an integrated site investigation.
Rode, Julian; Wittmer, Heidi; Emerton, Lucy; Schröter-Schlaack, Christoph
Economic instruments that promise "win-win" solutions for both biodiversity conservation and human livelihoods have become increasingly popular over recent years. There however remains a gap in terms of practical and policy-relevant guidance about appropriate approaches that take into account the local needs and the specific cultural, legal, and ecological context in which such instruments are being developed and applied. This paper presents a step-by-step framework that helps conservation and development planners and practitioners to identify economic instruments that can promote pro-conservation behaviour in a specific setting. The concept of 'ecosystem service opportunities' builds on, and brings together, general economic principles and an ecosystem services perspective. The framework was designed to also address a number of concerns regarding economic approaches in order to help practitioners recognise the potentials and limits of economic approaches to nature conservation. The framework is illustrated by its application within the realm of a biodiversity conservation project in Thailand.
Guralnick, Robert; Conlin, Tom; Deck, John; Stucky, Brian J; Cellinese, Nico
The biodiversity informatics community has discussed aspirations and approaches for assigning globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to biocollections for nearly a decade. During that time, and despite misgivings, the de facto standard identifier has become the "Darwin Core Triplet", which is a concatenation of values for institution code, collection code, and catalog number associated with biocollections material. Our aim is not to rehash the challenging discussions regarding which GUID system in theory best supports the biodiversity informatics use case of discovering and linking digital data across the Internet, but how well we can link those data together at this moment, utilizing the current identifier schemes that have already been deployed. We gathered Darwin Core Triplets from a subset of VertNet records, along with vertebrate records from GenBank and the Barcode of Life Data System, in order to determine how Darwin Core Triplets are deployed "in the wild". We asked if those triplets follow the recommended structure and whether they provide an easy and unambiguous means to track from specimen records to genetic sequence records. We show that Darwin Core Triplets are often riddled with semantic and syntactic errors when deployed and curated in practice, despite specifications about how to construct them. Our results strongly suggest that Darwin Core Triplets that have not been carefully curated are not currently serving a useful role for relinking data. We briefly consider needed next steps to overcome current limitations.
Guralnick, Robert; Conlin, Tom; Deck, John; Stucky, Brian J.; Cellinese, Nico
The biodiversity informatics community has discussed aspirations and approaches for assigning globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to biocollections for nearly a decade. During that time, and despite misgivings, the de facto standard identifier has become the “Darwin Core Triplet”, which is a concatenation of values for institution code, collection code, and catalog number associated with biocollections material. Our aim is not to rehash the challenging discussions regarding which GUID system in theory best supports the biodiversity informatics use case of discovering and linking digital data across the Internet, but how well we can link those data together at this moment, utilizing the current identifier schemes that have already been deployed. We gathered Darwin Core Triplets from a subset of VertNet records, along with vertebrate records from GenBank and the Barcode of Life Data System, in order to determine how Darwin Core Triplets are deployed “in the wild”. We asked if those triplets follow the recommended structure and whether they provide an easy and unambiguous means to track from specimen records to genetic sequence records. We show that Darwin Core Triplets are often riddled with semantic and syntactic errors when deployed and curated in practice, despite specifications about how to construct them. Our results strongly suggest that Darwin Core Triplets that have not been carefully curated are not currently serving a useful role for relinking data. We briefly consider needed next steps to overcome current limitations. PMID:25470125
Binkley, Russell; Scales, Roya; Unruh, Lori; Holt, Janice; Nichols, Janet
university/school partnership. These teachers were selected from a group of 65 teachers who had participated in the online mentoring program. In this program of two time periods lasting two months each,…
Latchem, Colin, Ed.; And Others
This book describes developments in interactive multimedia (IMM) in the early 1990s. Its aim is to provide educators, students, trainers, librarians, managers, and practitioners with an overview, not only of the directions and uses of the technology, but also of the research foundations and educational and contextual issues that need to be…
Mun, Mi Suk
The development of students' critical thinking abilities is one of the greatest challenges facing contemporary nursing educators. Nursing educators should know about what kind of contents or situations need critical thinking. The research was undertaken to identify the critical thinking contexts that nursing students confront in psychiatric clinical practices. Students were asked to document their everyday experience. The narratives were analysed and interpreted from the philosophical notion of hermeneutics. Four themes emerged as critical thinking contexts: anxiety, conflict, hyper-awareness, dilemmas. Writing narratives appear to provide opportunities for reflection in addition to facilitating critical thinking and communicative skills in students. Also, for the instructor, students' clinical narratives could provide insight to understand how students are thinking and to share student's personal difficulties.
Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Woolford, Susan J; Gurney, James G
We formally evaluated waist circumference (WC) percentile cutoffs for predicting insulin resistance (IR) and whether different cutoffs should be used for adolescents of different race/ethnicities. Analysis was performed for 1575 adolescents aged 12-18 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Adolescents were classified as having IR if they had a homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance level, a validated measure of IR, of >4.39, and WC percentile was classified according to previously published universal (all races combined) and race/ethnicity-specific WC percentile cutoffs. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting IR were constructed comparing the race/ethnicity-specific vs. universal WC percentile cutoffs, and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Comparing universal with race/ethnicity-specific WC percentiles, there were no significant differences in AUC for Black, Mexican-American, or White adolescents. Because race/ethnicity-specific thresholds did not discriminate better than universal WC thresholds, universal WC thresholds may be used effectively to identify adolescents with IR in primary care practices. A WC > or =75th or > or =90th percentile for all race/ethnicities combined would be appropriate to apply in clinical practice for identification of adolescents with IR, a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes.
Background Diffusion is a key component of many biological processes such as chemotaxis, developmental differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. Since recently, the spatial gradients caused by diffusion can be assessed in-vitro and in-vivo using microscopy based imaging techniques. The resulting time-series of two dimensional, high-resolutions images in combination with mechanistic models enable the quantitative analysis of the underlying mechanisms. However, such a model-based analysis is still challenging due to measurement noise and sparse observations, which result in uncertainties of the model parameters. Methods We introduce a likelihood function for image-based measurements with log-normal distributed noise. Based upon this likelihood function we formulate the maximum likelihood estimation problem, which is solved using PDE-constrained optimization methods. To assess the uncertainty and practical identifiability of the parameters we introduce profile likelihoods for diffusion processes. Results and conclusion As proof of concept, we model certain aspects of the guidance of dendritic cells towards lymphatic vessels, an example for haptotaxis. Using a realistic set of artificial measurement data, we estimate the five kinetic parameters of this model and compute profile likelihoods. Our novel approach for the estimation of model parameters from image data as well as the proposed identifiability analysis approach is widely applicable to diffusion processes. The profile likelihood based method provides more rigorous uncertainty bounds in contrast to local approximation methods. PMID:24267545
Regional Resource Center Program, 2014
One component of the recently required State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) for State Departments of Education calls for the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This report provides six steps to guide the process of selecting evidence based practices (EBP): (1) Begin with the End in Mind--Determine Targeted Outcomes;…
Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette; Bjerrum, Lars; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Olesen, Frede; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Timm, Helle; Timmermann, Connie; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Objective The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP–patient encounter. Design A qualitative methodology with semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. Setting General practice setting in Denmark. Subjects Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Results Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. Conclusion GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers. As a way to enhance a practice culture in which GPs pay more explicit attention to the patients’ multidimensional concerns, opportunities for professional development could be offered (courses or seminars) that focus on mutual sharing of existential reflections, ideas and communication competencies. Key pointsAlthough integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs’ understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP–patient encounter.The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions having no explicit reference to spiritual or religious aspects.The integration of the existential dimension is delimited to patient cases where life
Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko
Despite the strong interests among practitioners, there is a knowledge gap with regard to online communities of practice. This study examines knowledge sharing among critical-care and advanced-practice nurses, who are engaged in a longstanding online community of practice. Data were collected about members' online knowledge contribution as well as…
McLeod, Bryce D; Sutherland, Kevin S; Martinez, Ruben G; Conroy, Maureen A; Snyder, Patricia A; Southam-Gerow, Michael A
Educators are increasingly being encouraged to implement evidence-based interventions and practices to address the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of young children who exhibit problem behavior in early childhood settings. Given the nature of social-emotional learning during the early childhood years and the lack of a common set of core evidence-based practices within the early childhood literature, selection of instructional practices that foster positive social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes for children in early childhood settings can be difficult. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a study designed to identify common practice elements found in comprehensive intervention models (i.e., manualized interventions that include a number of components) or discrete practices (i.e., a specific behavior or action) designed to target social, emotional, and behavioral learning of young children who exhibit problem behavior. We conducted a systematic review of early childhood classroom interventions that had been evaluated in randomized group designs, quasi-experimental designs, and single-case experimental designs. A total of 49 published articles were identified, and an iterative process was used to identify common practice elements. The practice elements were subsequently reviewed by experts in social-emotional and behavioral interventions for young children. Twenty-four practice elements were identified and classified into content (the goal or general principle that guides a practice element) and delivery (the way in which a teacher provides instruction to the child) categories. We discuss implications that the identification of these practice elements found in the early childhood literature has for efforts to implement models and practices.
Delmont, Tom O; Eren, A Murat
High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today's microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes.
Delmont, Tom O.
High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today’s microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes. PMID:27069789
Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W
The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.
Ronald R. McDowell; Khashayar Aminian; Katharine L. Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Ed. Hohn; Douglas G. Patchen
The Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) project, a two-year study sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), had three primary objectives: (1) the identification of problems, problematic issues, potential solutions and preferred practices related to oil production; (2) the creation of an Appalachian Regional Council to oversee and continue this investigation beyond the end of the project; and (3) the dissemination of investigative results to the widest possible audience, primarily by means of an interactive website. Investigation and identification of oil production problems and preferred management practices began with a Problem Identification Workshop in January of 2002. Three general issues were selected by participants for discussion: Data Management; Reservoir Engineering; and Drilling Practices. At the same meeting, the concept of the creation of an oversight organization to evaluate and disseminated preferred management practices (PMP's) after the end of the project was put forth and volunteers were solicited. In-depth interviews were arranged with oil producers to gain more insight into problems and potential solutions. Project members encountered considerable reticence on the part of interviewees when it came to revealing company-specific production problems or company-specific solutions. This was the case even though interviewees were assured that all responses would be held in confidence. Nevertheless, the following production issues were identified and ranked in order of decreasing importance: Water production including brine disposal; Management of production and business data; Oil field power costs; Paraffin accumulation; Production practices including cementing. An number of secondary issues were also noted: Problems associated with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Waterflooding; Reservoir characterization; Employee availability, training, and safety; and Sale and Purchase problems. One item was mentioned both in
Wong, Ken S; Ryan, David P; Liu, Barbara A
Older adults are vulnerable to hospital-associated complications such as falls, pressure ulcers, functional decline, and delirium, which can contribute to prolonged hospital stay, readmission, and nursing home placement. These vulnerabilities are exacerbated when the hospital's practices, services, and physical environment are not sufficiently mindful of the complex, multidimensional needs of frail individuals. Several frameworks have emerged to help hospitals examine how organization-wide processes can be customized to avoid these complications. This article describes the application of one such framework-the Senior-Friendly Hospital (SFH) framework adopted in Ontario, Canada-which comprises five interrelated domains: organizational support, processes of care, emotional and behavioral environment, ethics in clinical care and research, and physical environment. This framework provided the blueprint for a self-assessment of all 155 adult hospitals across the province of Ontario. The system-wide analysis identified practice gaps and promising practices within each domain of the SFH framework. Taken together, these results informed 12 recommendations to support hospitals at all stages of development in becoming friendly to older adults. Priorities for system-wide action were identified, encouraging hospitals to implement or further develop their processes to better address hospital-acquired delirium and functional decline. These recommendations led to collaborative action across the province, including the development of an online toolkit and the identification of accountability indicators to support hospitals in quality improvement focusing on senior-friendly care.
The "Framework for K-12 Science Education" details ambitious goals for students' learning of science content and practices. However, this document provides science teachers little guidance about instructional practices that are central to helping students achieve these goals. Research indicates that a teacher's instructional…
Test, David W.; Kemp-Inman, Amy; Diegelmann, Karen; Hitt, Sara Beth; Bethune, Lauren
The use of evidence-based practices has become a focus in education since the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act reauthorization of 2004 required using practices based on scientific research to improve student outcomes. Although many teachers may not have the time or expertise to evaluate the…
Teasley, Martell; Gourdine, Ruby; Canfield, James
This study presents descriptive findings from self-reported qualitative and quantitative data on barriers and facilitators to culturally competent school social work practice. The study highlights the need for the development of evaluative methods for the purpose of examining how elements within the practice environment affect school social work…
Patterson, Sue; Freshwater, Kathleen; Goulter, Nicole; Ewing, Julie; Leamon, Boyd; Choudhary, Anand; Moudgil, Vikas; Emmerson, Brett
Aims and method To describe and explain psychiatrists' responses to metabolic abnormalities identified during screening. We carried out an audit of clinical records to assess rates of monitoring and follow-up practice. Semi-structured interviews with 36 psychiatrists followed by descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Metabolic abnormalities were identified in 76% of eligible patients screened. Follow-up, recorded for 59%, was variable but more likely with four or more abnormalities. Psychiatrists endorse guidelines but ambivalence about responsibility, professional norms, resource constraints and skills deficits as well as patient factors influences practice. Therapeutic optimism and desire to be a ‘good doctor’ supported comprehensive follow-up. Clinical implications Psychiatrists are willing to attend to physical healthcare, and obstacles to recommended practice are surmountable. Psychiatrists seek consensus among stakeholders about responsibilities and a systemic approach addressing the social determinants of health inequities. Understanding patients' expectations is critical to promoting best practice. PMID:27752343
El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Zolaly, Mohammed; Almaramhy, Hamdi H; Ayat, Mongi; Donki, Jagadish G
3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a promising effective anticancer drug against many different tumors in children and adults. 3BP exhibited strong anticancer effects in both preclinical and human studies e.g. energy depletion, oxidative stress, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastatic effects, targeting cancer stem cells and antagonizing the Warburg effect. There is no report about 3BP metabolism to guide researchers and oncologists to improve clinical practice and prevent drug resistance. In this article, we provide evidences that 3BP is metabolized through glutathione (GSH) conjugation as a novel report where 3BP was confirmed to be attached to GSH followed by permanent loss of pharmacological effects in a picture similar to cisplatin. Both cisplatin and 3BP are alkylating agents. Reported decrease in endogenous cellular GSH content upon 3BP treatment was confirmed to be due to the formation of 3BP-GSH complex i.e. GSH consumption for conjugation with 3BP. Cancer cells having high endogenous GSH exhibit resistance to 3BP while 3BP sensitive cells acquire resistance upon adding exogenous GSH. Being a thiol blocker, 3BP may attack thiol groups in tissues and serum proteins e.g. albumin and GSH. That may decrease 3BP-induced anticancer effects and the functions of those proteins. We proved here that 3BP metabolism is different from metabolism of hydroxypyruvate that results from metabolism of D-serine using D-amino acid oxidase. Clinically, 3BP administration should be monitored during albumin infusion and protein therapy where GSH should be added to emergency medications. GSH exerts many physiological effects and is safe for human administration both orally and intravenously. Based on that, reported GSH-induced inhibition of 3BP effects makes 3BP effects reversible, easily monitored and easily controlled. This confers a superiority of 3BP over many anticancer agents.
Farrar, Cynthia Hamen
In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to
Noteworthy Practices are exceptional ways of accomplishing a performance objective or some aspect of it. Other DOE facilities are encouraged to adopt these practices when they are applicable to their operation. Noteworthy Practices included in this report have been drawn from the first 31 Tiger Team Assessments at DOE sites. This report includes all noteworthy practices listed in an earlier tabulation (June 1990) which the Secretary of the US Department of Energy distributed for information on July 31, 1990. This earlier tabulation included noteworthy practices from the first thirteen Tiger Team Assessments. A brief key-word title has been assigned to each Noteworthy Practice. This title provides a brief description of each Noteworthy Practice. The reader may peruse these titles in the table of contents to identify Noteworthy Practices that may be applicable to their site, facility, or operations. A flexible-disk copy of this compilation is also available in ASCII format on personal-computer, DOS-formatted disks from the Office of Special Projects in the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health at the Headquarters of the US Department of Energy. The ASCII file may be used in combination with word processing software for more detailed word and text-string searches.
Galvanin, Federico; Ballan, Carlo C; Barolo, Massimiliano; Bezzo, Fabrizio
The use of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models is a common and widespread practice in the preliminary stages of drug development. However, PK-PD models may be affected by structural identifiability issues intrinsically related to their mathematical formulation. A preliminary structural identifiability analysis is usually carried out to check if the set of model parameters can be uniquely determined from experimental observations under the ideal assumptions of noise-free data and no model uncertainty. However, even for structurally identifiable models, real-life experimental conditions and model uncertainty may strongly affect the practical possibility to estimate the model parameters in a statistically sound way. A systematic procedure coupling the numerical assessment of structural identifiability with advanced model-based design of experiments formulations is presented in this paper. The objective is to propose a general approach to design experiments in an optimal way, detecting a proper set of experimental settings that ensure the practical identifiability of PK-PD models. Two simulated case studies based on in vitro bacterial growth and killing models are presented to demonstrate the applicability and generality of the methodology to tackle model identifiability issues effectively, through the design of feasible and highly informative experiments.
Worrell, Frank C.; Erwin, Jesse O.
As school psychologists move from dichotomous categorizations of students as "gifted" or "nongifted" toward a more comprehensive approach to identification, their task becomes increasingly complex. In the present article, the authors outline practices at the planning, programming, and data collection stages of the identification process in hopes…
Bailey, Judy; Taylor, Merilyn
Learning to teach is a complex matter, and many different models of pre-service teacher education have been used to support novice teachers' preparation for the classroom. More recently there have been calls for a focus on core high-leverage teaching practices and for novice teachers to engage in representations, decompositions, and approximations…
Getzel, Elizabeth Evans
Research on the transition of students with disabilities and their post-school outcomes continues to move the field of special education in the direction of evidence-based practices. As special education professionals work to better recognize the impact of instructional and environmental characteristics to prepare youth for their transition, so…
Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom
Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…
Reeve, Charlie L.; Blacksmith, Nikki
Factor analysis is arguably one of the most important tools in the science of mental abilities. While many studies have been conducted to make recommendations regarding "best practices" concerning its use, it is unknown the degree to which contemporary ability researchers abide by those standards. The current study sought to evaluate the typical…
Wong, Emily M. L.; Li, Sandy S. C.; Choi, Tat-heung; Lee, Tsz-ngong
This paper draws on the literature of transformational leadership and learning organisation with a concern to foster innovative changes in classroom practices. Based on the understanding that effective use of ICT has to be construed in the pedagogical and organisational context, this study focuses on the impact of the relevant contextual factors…
The objective was to generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-yea...
Tillage management practices have direct impact on water holding capacity, evaporation, carbon sequestration, and water quality. This study examines the feasibility of two statistical learning algorithms, such as Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), for cla...
Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Harrison, Robert; Ann Draughon, F
Adults aged 60 years and older are more likely than younger adults to experience complications, hospitalization, and death because of food-borne infections. Recognizing this risk, we conducted a nationally representative survey (n = 1,140) to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as the demographic characteristics of older adults with risky food handling practices. The survey was conducted using a Web-enabled panel. We found that although older adults consider themselves to be knowledgeable about food safety, many are not following recommended food safety practices. Areas for improvement include the following: reheating deli meats to steaming hot, not eating store-bought deli salads, cooking eggs properly, monitoring refrigerator temperature using a thermometer, using a food thermometer to check doneness of meat/poultry/egg dishes, and storing leftovers properly. The survey results also suggest that food safety education targeting older adults is needed and that such initiatives should emphasize practices to prevent listeriosis, a potentially fatal illness among older adults. Our findings suggest that, in particular, men, individuals with higher incomes, and college-educated individuals would benefit from food safety education.
Hunnicutt, Adrienne D.
This study was designed to examine teaching practices at Fuller Theological Seminary's graduate psychology program, using secondary analysis of existing data. Lee, Shields, and Oh (2008) collected data from approximately 300 students who evaluated the helpfulness of 18 different instructional methodologies used at Fuller, and answered questions…
Trunk diseases poses a serious threat to winegrape growers. Despite high prevalence and substantial consequences, growers routinely wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, or application of pruning wound protectant) until symptomatic vines appear (~10 yea...
WATZLAF, VALERIE J.M.; DEALMEIDA, DILHARI R.; ZHOU, LEMING; HARTMAN, LINDA M.
Healthcare professionals engaged in telehealth are faced with complex US federal regulations (e.g., HIPAA/HITECH) and could benefit from the guidance provided by best practices in Privacy and Security (P&S). This article describes a systematic review protocol to address this need. The protocol described herein uses the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). The PRISMA-P contains 17 items that are considered essential, as well as minimum components to include in systematic reviews. PICOS (participants, interventions, comparisons, outcome(s) and study design of the systematic review) are also relevant to the development of best practices in P&S in telehealth systems. A systematic process can best determine what information should be included and how this information should be retrieved, condensed, analyzed, organized, and disseminated. PMID:27563383
Bandiera, Glen; Abrahams, Caroline; Ruetalo, Mariela; Hanson, Mark D; Nickell, Leslie; Spadafora, Salvatore
Medical education institutions have a social mandate to produce a diverse physician workforce that meets the public's needs. Recent reports have framed the admission process outcome of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education (UGME and PGME) programs as a key determinant of the collective contributions graduating cohorts will make to society, creating a sense of urgency around the issue of who gets accepted. The need for evidence-informed residency application and selection processes is growing because of the increasing size and diversity of the applicant pool and the need for equity, fairness, social accountability, and health human resource planning. The selection literature, however, is dominated by a UGME focus and emphasizes determination of desirable qualities of future physicians and selection instrument reliability and validity. Gaps remain regarding PGME selection, particularly the creation of specialty-specific selection criteria, suitable outcome measures, and reliable selection systems.In this Perspective, the authors describe the University of Toronto's centralized approach to defining system-level best practices for residency application and selection. Over the 2012-2013 academic year, the Best Practices in Application and Selection working group reviewed relevant literature and reports, consulted content experts, surveyed local practices, and conducted iterative stakeholder consultations on draft recommendations. Strong agreement arose around the resulting 13 principles and 24 best practices, which had either empirical support or face validity. These recommendations, which are shared in this article, have been adopted by the university's PGME advisory committee and will inform a national initiative to improve trainees' transition from UGME to PGME in Canada.
Tuncer, Necibe; Gulbudak, Hayriye; Cannataro, Vincent L; Martcheva, Maia
In this article, we discuss the structural and practical identifiability of a nested immuno-epidemiological model of arbovirus diseases, where host-vector transmission rate, host recovery, and disease-induced death rates are governed by the within-host immune system. We incorporate the newest ideas and the most up-to-date features of numerical methods to fit multi-scale models to multi-scale data. For an immunological model, we use Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) time-series data obtained from livestock under laboratory experiments, and for an epidemiological model we incorporate a human compartment to the nested model and use the number of human RVFV cases reported by the CDC during the 2006-2007 Kenya outbreak. We show that the immunological model is not structurally identifiable for the measurements of time-series viremia concentrations in the host. Thus, we study the non-dimensionalized and scaled versions of the immunological model and prove that both are structurally globally identifiable. After fixing estimated parameter values for the immunological model derived from the scaled model, we develop a numerical method to fit observable RVFV epidemiological data to the nested model for the remaining parameter values of the multi-scale system. For the given (CDC) data set, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that only three parameters of the epidemiological model are practically identifiable when the immune model parameters are fixed. Alternatively, we fit the multi-scale data to the multi-scale model simultaneously. Monte Carlo simulations for the simultaneous fitting suggest that the parameters of the immunological model and the parameters of the immuno-epidemiological model are practically identifiable. We suggest that analytic approaches for studying the structural identifiability of nested models are a necessity, so that identifiable parameter combinations can be derived to reparameterize the nested model to obtain an identifiable one. This is a crucial step in
Kawamoto, Kensaku; Houlihan, Caitlin A; Balas, E Andrew; Lobach, David F
Objective To identify features of clinical decision support systems critical for improving clinical practice. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Literature searches via Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to 2003; and searches of reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. Study selection Studies had to evaluate the ability of decision support systems to improve clinical practice. Data extraction Studies were assessed for statistically and clinically significant improvement in clinical practice and for the presence of 15 decision support system features whose importance had been repeatedly suggested in the literature. Results Seventy studies were included. Decision support systems significantly improved clinical practice in 68% of trials. Univariate analyses revealed that, for five of the system features, interventions possessing the feature were significantly more likely to improve clinical practice than interventions lacking the feature. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified four features as independent predictors of improved clinical practice: automatic provision of decision support as part of clinician workflow (P < 0.00001), provision of recommendations rather than just assessments (P = 0.0187), provision of decision support at the time and location of decision making (P = 0.0263), and computer based decision support (P = 0.0294). Of 32 systems possessing all four features, 30 (94%) significantly improved clinical practice. Furthermore, direct experimental justification was found for providing periodic performance feedback, sharing recommendations with patients, and requesting documentation of reasons for not following recommendations. Conclusions Several features were closely correlated with decision support systems' ability to improve patient care significantly. Clinicians and other stakeholders should implement clinical decision support systems that incorporate these
Wolery, Mark; Brashers, Margaret Sigalove; Neitzel, Jennifer C.
This article explains how educators can use the ecological congruence assessment process for identifying functional goals for young children with disabilities. Process steps include: teacher collects information about functioning in usual classroom activities, routines, and transitions; summarizes the collected information; and shares the…
Thomson, Margareta Maria; Nietfeld, John L.
In a mixed-methods study, the authors investigate teacher typologies of elementary teachers (N = 132) in the United States based on their reformed science teaching beliefs. Additionally, the identified teacher typologies were compared with respect to their science content knowledge, self-efficacy and epistemic beliefs. Results revealed three…
Arango, Jaime; Chuck, Tina; Ellenberg, Susan S; Foltz, Bridget; Gorman, Colleen; Hinrichs, Heidi; McHale, Susan; Merchant, Kunal; Seltzer, Jonathan; Shapley, Stephanie; Wild, Gretchen
Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses, and reporting of clinical trials. The goal of GCP is to ensure the protection of the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of clinical trial participants and to ensure the credibility and accuracy of data and reported results. In the United States, trial sponsors generally require investigators to complete GCP training prior to participating in each clinical trial to foster GCP and as a method to meet regulatory expectations (ie, sponsor's responsibility to select qualified investigators per 21 CFR 312.50 and 312.53(a) for drugs and biologics and 21 CFR 812.40 and 812.43(a) for medical devices). This training requirement is often extended to investigative site staff, as deemed relevant by the sponsor, institution, or investigator. Those who participate in multiple clinical trials are often required by sponsors to complete repeated GCP training, which is unnecessarily burdensome. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative convened a multidisciplinary project team involving partners from academia, industry, other researchers and research staff, and government to develop recommendations for streamlining current GCP training practices. Recommendations drafted by the project team, including the minimum key training elements, frequency, format, and evidence of training completion, were presented to a broad group of experts to foster discussion of the current issues and to seek consensus on proposed solutions.
Pavel, Marilena D.; Masarati, Pierangelo; Gennaretti, Massimo; Jump, Michael; Zaichik, Larisa; Dang-Vu, Binh; Lu, Linghai; Yilmaz, Deniz; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Ionita, Achim; Serafini, Jacopo
Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desirable practices to be used during the design process for unmasking A/RPC phenomena. These practices are stemming from the European Commission project ARISTOTEL Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection (2010-2013) and are mainly related to aerodynamic and structural modelling of the aircraft/rotorcraft, pilot modelling and A/RPC prediction criteria. The paper proposes new methodologies for precluding adverse A/RPCs events taking into account the aeroelasticity of the structure and pilot biodynamic interaction. It is demonstrated that high-frequency accelerations due to structural elasticity cause negative effects on pilot control, since they lead to involuntary body and limb-manipulator system displacements and interfere with pilot's deliberate control activity (biodynamic interaction) and, finally, worsen handling quality ratings.
Chen, Alice A.; Tan, Lei; Suraj, Vaishali; Pera, Renee Reijo; Shen, Shehua
“Time-lapse markers,” which are defined by time-lapse imaging and correlated with clinical outcomes, may provide embryologists with new opportunities for improving embryo selection. This article provides an overview of noninvasive biomarkers defined by time-lapse imaging studies. In addition to comprehensively reviewing the discovery of each time-lapse marker, it focuses on the criteria necessary for their successful integration into clinical practice, including  statistical and biological significance,  validation through prospective clinical studies, and  development of reliable technology to measure and quantify the time-lapse marker. Because manual analysis of time-lapse images is labor intensive and limits the practical use of the image data in the clinic, automated image analysis software platforms may contribute substantially to improvements in embryo selection accuracy. Ultimately, time-lapse markers that are based on a foundation of basic research, validated through prospective clinical studies, and enabled by a reliable quantification technology may improve IVF success rates, encourage broader adoption of single-embryo transfer, and reduce the risks associated with multiple gestation pregnancies. PMID:23499001
Uetsuhara, Masahiko; Hanada, Toshiya
Identifying spacecraft breakup events is an essential issue for better understanding of the current orbital debris environment. This paper proposes an observation planning approach to identify an orbital anomaly, which appears as a significant discontinuity in archived orbital history, as a spacecraft breakup. The proposed approach is applicable to orbital anomalies in the geostationary region. The proposed approach selects a spacecraft that experienced an orbital anomaly, and then predicts trajectories of possible fragments of the spacecraft at an observation epoch. This paper theoretically demonstrates that observation planning for the possible fragments can be conducted. To do this, long-term behaviors of the possible fragments are evaluated. It is concluded that intersections of their trajectories will converge into several corresponding regions in the celestial sphere even if the breakup epoch is not specified and it has uncertainty of the order of several weeks.
Objective. A review was conducted to determine implementation strategies, utilities, score interpretation, and limitations of the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcome Assessment (PCOA) examination. Methods. Articles were identified through the PubMed and American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases using the following terms: “Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment,” “pharmacy comprehensive examination,” and “curricular assessment.” Studies containing information regarding implementation, utility, and predictive values for US student pharmacists, curricula, and/or PGY1/PGY2 residents were included. Publications from the Academic Medicine Journal, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (ACCP) were included for background information and comparison of predictive utilities of comprehensive examinations in medicine. Results. Ten PCOA and nine residency-related publications were identified. Based on published information, the PCOA may be best used as an additional tool to identify knowledge gaps for third-year student pharmacists. Conclusion. Administering the PCOA to students after they have completed their didactic coursework may yield scores that reflect student knowledge. Predictive utility regarding the North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) and potential applications is limited, and more research is required to determine ways to use the PCOA. PMID:28179712
Sharma, Shivani; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Chilcot, Joseph; Wellsted, David; Farrington, Ken
Depression is a prevalent burden for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and one that is under-recognized and consequently under-treated. Although several studies have explored the association between depression symptoms, treatment adherence and outcomes in Euro-American patient groups, quantitative and qualitative exploration of these issues in patients from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds has been lacking. This review discusses the methodological issues associated with measuring depression in patients of South Asian origin who have a 3- to 5-fold greater risk of developing ESRD. There is a need to advance research into the development of accurate screening practices for this patient group, with an emphasis on studies utilizing rigorous approaches to evaluating the use of both emic (culture-specific) and etic (universal or culture-general) screening instruments. PMID:22470400
Plint, Simon; Patterson, Fiona
The UK national recruitment process into general practice training has been developed over several years, with incremental introduction of stages which have been piloted and validated. Previously independent processes, which encouraged multiple applications and produced inconsistent outcomes, have been replaced by a robust national process which has high reliability and predictive validity, and is perceived to be fair by candidates and allocates applicants equitably across the country. Best selection practice involves a job analysis which identifies required competencies, then designs reliable assessment methods to measure them, and over the long term ensures that the process has predictive validity against future performance. The general practitioner recruitment process introduced machine markable short listing assessments for the first time in the UK postgraduate recruitment context, and also adopted selection centre workplace simulations. The key success factors have been identified as corporate commitment to the goal of a national process, with gradual convergence maintaining locus of control rather than the imposition of change without perceived legitimate authority.
Papadakis, Sophia; Tulloch, Heather E.; Gharib, Marie; Pipe, Andrew L.
Background: The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of tobacco use and describe the characteristics of tobacco users identified in primary care practices. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 49 primary care practices in the province of Ontario. Consecutive patients were screened for smoking status at the time of their clinic appointment. Patients reporting current tobacco use completed a survey, which documented sociodemographic and smoking-related characteristics. Multilevel modelling was used to examine predictors of readiness to quit smoking and the presence of anxiety and/or depression. Results: A total of 56 592 patients were screened, and 5245 tobacco users participated in the survey. Prevalence of tobacco use was 18.2% and varied significantly across practices (range 12.4%-36.1%). Of the respondents, 46.3% reported current anxiety and/or depression, and 61.3% reported smoking within the first 30 minutes of waking. A total of 41.1% of respondents reported they were ready to quit smoking in the next 6 months, and 30.1% reported readiness to quit in the next 30 days. Readiness to quit was positively associated with higher self-efficacy, male sex, presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and more years of tobacco use. The presence of anxiety and/or depression was associated with lower cessation self-efficacy and time to first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking, but did not predict readiness to quit. Interpretation: Tobacco users identified in primary care practices reported high rates of nicotine dependence and anxiety and/or depression, but also high rates of readiness to quit. Study findings support the need to tailor interventions to address the needs of tobacco users identified in primary care settings. PMID:27280113
Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.
In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through
Leclère, Quentin; Ablitzer, Frédéric; Pézerat, Charles
The paper aims to combine two objectives of the Force Analysis Technique (FAT): vibration source identification and material characterization from the same set of measurement. Initially, the FAT was developed for external load location and identification. It consists in injecting measured vibration displacements in the discretized equation of motion. Two developments exist: FAT and CFAT (Corrected Force Analysis Technique) where two finite difference schemes are used. Recently, the FAT was adapted for the identification of elastic and damping properties in a structure. The principal interests are that the identification is local and allows mapping of material characteristics, the identification can be made at all frequencies, especially in medium and high frequency domains. The paper recalls the development of FAT and CFAT on beams and plates and how it can be possible to extract material characteristics in areas where no external loads are applied. Experimental validations are shown on an aluminum plate with arbitrary boundary conditions, excited by a point force and where a piece of foam is glued on a sub-surface of the plate. Contactless measurements were made using a scanning laser vibrometer. The results of FAT and CFAT are compared and discussed for material property identifications in the regions with and without foam. The excitation force identification is finally made by using the identified material properties. CFAT gives excellent results comparable to a direct measurement obtained by a piezoelectric sensor. The relevance of the corrected scheme is then underlined for both source identification and material characterization from the same measurements.
Zhang, Liangcai; Yuan, Ying
Drug combination therapy has become the mainstream approach to cancer treatment. One fundamental feature that makes combination trials different from single-agent trials is the existence of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) contour, that is, multiple MTDs. As a result, unlike single-agent phase I trials, which aim to find a single MTD, it is often of interest to find the MTD contour for combination trials. We propose a new dose-finding design, the waterfall design, to find the MTD contour for drug combination trials. Taking the divide-and-conquer strategy, the waterfall design divides the task of finding the MTD contour into a sequence of one-dimensional dose-finding processes, known as subtrials. The subtrials are conducted sequentially in a certain order, such that the results of each subtrial will be used to inform the design of subsequent subtrials. Such information borrowing allows the waterfall design to explore the two-dimensional dose space efficiently using a limited sample size and decreases the chance of overdosing and underdosing patients. To accommodate the consideration that doses on the MTD contour may have very different efficacy or synergistic effects because of drug-drug interaction, we further extend our approach to a phase I/II design with the goal of finding the MTD with the highest efficacy. Simulation studies show that the waterfall design is safer and has higher probability of identifying the true MTD contour than some existing designs. The R package "BOIN" to implement the waterfall design is freely available from CRAN. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.
Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L
Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.
Kotiv, B N; Maĭstrenko, N A
In modern conditions of local wars and armed conflicts, the basic principle of medical care is to reduce injuries stages of medical evacuation, aimed at accelerating the provision of specialized surgical care. In this regard, significantly increases the need for the development and implementation of new high-tech methods that can improve quality of care, both on the battlefield and on the stages of specialized surgical care. A promising direction is the introduction into clinical practice: minimally invasive technologies, the concept of hybrid navigation surgery, operations with the use of laser technology and robotics, advanced and extremely extensive interventions to cancer patients; technology reduces blood loss, use of cell therapy, transplantation techniques, the development of the concept of organ transplantation, lost in combat trauma, the creation of artificial organs and tissues, the creation of personal protective equipment, integrated with a system of combat, etc.
Kohler, Paula D.; Hood, Lisa K.
This directory profiles 20 programs that promote post-school outcomes for students with disabilities through inclusive school-to-work systems. Three criteria were used to select the programs: (1) the nomination featured a program or practices that provide transition- or school-to-work-related services or instruction to students with disabilities,…
The promise, potential, and problems associated with school-university partnerships interested in better preparing teachers for the challenges they face teaching in today's schools rest in educators' ability to actualize transformative practices within partnership contexts. To date, most partnerships have focused on less complex forms of…
Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.
Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size <1 acre) in Asia and Africa. Along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and tens of thousands of farming families, we have worked actively in five states in India and two provinces in Vietnam for the last five years to understand how sustainable and climate smart farming practices can be monitored at small-holder farms. Here, any approach to monitor farming must begin by accounting for the tremendous management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and
Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development. PMID:22762776
O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P.; Xuan, Zhemin; Schirmer, Mario; Hoehn, Eduard; Vogt, Tobias
When applying a stormwater infiltration pond best management practice (BMP) for protecting the quality of underlying groundwater, a common constituent of concern is nitrate. Two stormwater infiltration ponds, the SO and HT ponds, in central Florida, USA, were monitored. A temporal succession of biogeochemical processes was identified beneath the SO pond, including oxygen reduction, denitrification, manganese and iron reduction, and methanogenesis. In contrast, aerobic conditions persisted beneath the HT pond, resulting in nitrate leaching into groundwater. Biogeochemical differences likely are related to soil textural and hydraulic properties that control surface/subsurface oxygen exchange. A new infiltration BMP was developed and a full-scale application was implemented for the HT pond. Preliminary results indicate reductions in nitrate concentration exceeding 50% in soil water and shallow groundwater beneath the HT pond.
Background Behçet’s Disease (BD) is characterized by a relapsing-remitting course, with symptoms of varying severity across almost all organ systems. There is a diverse array of therapeutic options with no universally accepted treatment regime, and it is thus important that clinical practice is evidence-based. We reviewed all currently available literature describing management of BD, and investigated whether evidence-based practice is possible for all disease manifestations, and assessed the range of therapeutic options tested. Methods We conducted an internet search of all literature describing management of BD up to August 2013, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. We recorded treatment options investigated and disease manifestations reported as primary and secondary study outcomes. Quality of data was assessed according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) hierarchy of evidence. Results Whilst there is much literature describing treatment of ocular and mucocutaneous disease, there is little to guide management of rheumatoid, cardiovascular and neurological disease. This broadly reflects the prevalence of disease manifestations of BD, but not the severity. Biologic therapies are the most commonly investigated intervention. The proportion of SIGN-1 graded studies is declining, and there are no SIGN-1 graded studies investigating neurological or gastrointestinal manifestations of BD. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate trends in published literature for management of BD over time. It identifies neurological, cardiovascular and gastro-intestinal disease as particular areas of unmet need and suggests that overall quality of evidence is declining. Future research should be designed to address these areas of insufficiency to facilitate evidence-based practice in BD. PMID:24475935
Bonetti, Debbie; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Glidewell, Liz; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Clarkson, Jan E; Walker, Anne
enabled the creation of a methodology that can be replicated for identifying factors predictive of clinical behaviour and for the design and choice of interventions to modify practice as new evidence emerges.
Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.
This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…
Hoover, F. A.; Bowling, L. C.; Prokopy, L. S.
Urban stormwater is an on-going management concern in municipalities of all sizes. In both combined or separated sewer systems, pollutants from stormwater runoff enter the natural waterway system during heavy rain events. Urban flooding during frequent and more intense storms are also a growing concern. Therefore, stormwater best-management practices (BMPs) are being implemented in efforts to reduce and manage stormwater pollution and overflow. The majority of BMP water quality studies focus on the small-scale, individual effects of the BMP, and the change in water quality directly from the runoff of these infrastructures. At the watershed scale, it is difficult to establish statistically whether or not these BMPs are making a difference in water quality, given that watershed scale monitoring is often costly and time consuming, relying on significant sources of funds, which a city may not have. Hence, there is a need to quantify the level of sampling needed to detect the water quality impact of BMPs at the watershed scale. In this study, a power analysis was performed on data from an urban watershed in Lafayette, Indiana, to determine the frequency of sampling required to detect a significant change in water quality measurements. Using the R platform, results indicate that detecting a significant change in watershed level water quality would require hundreds of weekly measurements, even when improvement is present. The second part of this study investigates whether the difficulty in demonstrating water quality change represents a barrier to adoption of stormwater BMPs. Semi-structured interviews of community residents and organizations in Chicago, IL are being used to investigate residents understanding of water quality and best management practices and identify their attitudes and perceptions towards stormwater BMPs. Second round interviews will examine how information on uncertainty in water quality improvements influences their BMP attitudes and perceptions.
Dudley, Michael R.
An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.
Background Clinical practice guidelines have been developed to assist healthcare practitioners in clinical decision making. Publication of clinical practice guidelines does not automatically lead to their uptake and barrier identification has been recognized as an important step in implementation planning. This study aimed at developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch COPD guideline for physical therapists and its recommended measurement instruments. Methods An overall questionnaire, based on two existing questionnaires, was constructed to identify barriers and facilitators for implementing the COPD guideline. The construct of the questionnaire was assessed in a cross-sectional study among 246 chest physical therapists. Factor analysis was conducted to explore underlying dimensions. Psychometric properties were analyzed using Cronbach’s alpha. Barriers and facilitators were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results Some 139 physical therapists (57%) responded. Factor analysis revealed 4-factor and 5-factor solutions with an explained variance of 36% and 39% respectively. Cronbach’s alpha of the overall questionnaire was 0.90, and varied from 0.66 to 0.92 for the different factors. Underlying domains of the 5-factor solution were characterized as: attitude towards using measurement instruments, knowledge and skills of the physical therapist, applicability of the COPD guideline, required investment of time & money, and patient characteristics. Physical therapists showed a positive attitude toward using the COPD guideline. Main barriers for implementation were required time investment and financial constraints. Conclusions The construct of the questionnaire revealed relevant underlying domains for the identification of barriers and facilitators for implementing the COPD guideline. The questionnaire allowed for tailoring to the target group and may be used across health care professionals as basis for in-depth analysis
Human use of the landscape for crop production can degrade ecosystem services. A number of agricultural conservation practices are touted as mitigating these impacts. Many of these practices are encouraged by incentive programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program administere...
Castro, Eida M.; Jiménez, Julio C.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; García, Myra; Colón, Yesenia; Ramos, Axel; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Nazario, Cruz María
Objective The objectives of this study were to identify cancer-related health care services and to explore the presence of inter-organizational interactions among clinical and support oncology services in southern Puerto Rico. Methods From January through July of 2010, a survey was completed by 54 health care organizations offering clinical, supportive, or both services to cancer patients/survivors (CPS) in southern PR. Survey data were compiled and descriptive analyses performed using the software Statistical Package for a Social Science (SPSS), version 18.0. Results The distribution of the primary services provided by the participating organizations was the following: 26 had clinical services, 16 had support services, and 12 offered a combination of clinical and support services. Only 24% of the surveyed organizations offered their services exclusively to patients diagnosed with cancer. In terms of referral practices, 61% of the responses were for medical specialists, 43% were for mental health services, and 37% were referrals for primary care services. The most common reason for interacting (n = 27) was to provide a given patient both an referral and information. Conclusion Findings suggest gaps in both the availability of oncology services and the delivery of integrated health care. Lack of communication among clinical and support organizations (for cancer patients, specifically) could negatively impact the quality of the services that they offer. Further network analysis studies are needed to confirm these gaps. Until systemic, structural changes occur, more efforts are needed to facilitate communication and collaboration among these kinds of organization. PMID:25249352
Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta
This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…
Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…
Lewis, Jill, Ed.; Moorman, Gary, Ed.
This comprehensive resource explores how adolescence and academic achievement are defined within today's political context, examines the in-school potential of teens' out-of-school immersion in digital technologies and popular culture, and shows teachers how to embed comprehension strategies into classroom instruction. The book contains innovative…
Salerno, Anne; Fink, Mary
This report contains profiles of 18 innovative and successful parent involvement programs for migrant families. The programs were selected based on recommendations from State Directors of Migrant Education and migrant educators and on a search of the ERIC database. Each profile includes sponsoring institution or agency, program format, program…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Program Planning and Development.
The California State Department of Education and 33 California school districts contributed articles to this compendium focusing on the assessment of educational needs. It is noted that a crucial stage in the development of effective programs for pupils, as well as for requesting State and Federal funds, is the assessment of educational needs. A…
Mason, Pamela A., Ed.; Schumm, Jeanne Shay, Ed.
This collection of research-based articles is framed around the International Reading Association's 10 "literacy rights" of every child, outlining what children need to become competent readers and writers. Under Right 1--Children have a right to appropriate early reading instruction based on their individual needs--are the following…
Zinth, Jennifer; Goetz, Tami
Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has captured the attention of state policymakers who are concerned about equitable access to high-quality educational experiences and preparing and inspiring students to pursue STEM careers. Yet in many states, STEM policymaking efforts have not achieved their intended return on investment…
Hines, S. Maxwell, Ed.
As a relatively new area of investigation, the study of multicultural education as it relates to science teaching and learning has spawned numerous interpretations by researchers and authors worldwide. The contributors of this international volume--among them are science teacher educators, science teachers, scientists, researchers, program…
Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn
Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…
Hilton, Alan, Ed.; Ringlaben, Ravic, Ed.
Twenty-six papers on the education of students with developmental disabilities are divided into 7 sections on: (1) definition and placement; (2) assessment and curriculum; (3) instructional strategies; (4) individual needs; (5) systematic and data-based instruction and management; (6) family involvement and community attitudes; and (7) appropriate…
Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.
THE EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER EARLY ADMISSION TO SCHOOL CAN OVERCOME BARRIERS TO LEARNING WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SEEM TO IMPOSE. A DEPRIVED CHILD OFTEN DOES NOT RECEIVE ATTENTION, AFFECTION, OR GUIDANCE WITHIN HIS HOME. THE YOUNG CHILD SHOULD BE HELPED TO DEVELOP A WHOLESOME SELF-CONCEPT, TO ACQUIRE THE DRIVE TO…
Santangelo, Tanya; Novosel, Leslie C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Gapsis, Meredith
To optimize students' learning outcomes, educators are increasingly expected to use instructional practices shown to be effective by credible research. To help make this possible, organizations and scholars are producing resources that summarize research related to various instructional practices. However, as the collection of resources grows in…
When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.
Le Jeunne, Claire; Billon, Nathalie; Dandon, Anne; Berdaï, Driss; Adgibi, Yolande; Bergmann, Jean-François; Bordet, Régis; Carpentier, Anne; Cohn, Emmanuelle; Courcier, Soizic; Girault, Danièle; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Liard, François; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Simon, Tabassome; Vernotte, Christine; Westerloppe, Jérémie
Following the Mediator crisis and the passage of the Health and Safety Law of December 2011, off-label prescriptions are a real concern shared by all those involved in healthcare system. Off-label, in the strictest sense of the term, is defined as all prescriptions that do not correspond to the summary of product characteristics (SPC), particularly those that fail to comply with the indications and dosage regimens defined by the marketing authorization (MA) for clear safety reasons. There are various rasons for off-label prescriptions, both conscious and unconscious. They are intended to respond to unmet medical needs, the needs of poorly studied populations or not studied at all in trials, but in relation to whom it is reasonable to extrapolate that MA would be given (common-sense prescriptions) and, additionally, to urgent public health needs (such as baclofen, pregnant women, and HIV drugs). All these prescriptions would deserve to be studied for a potential MA. However, there are off-label prescriptions that need to be restricted or even penalized in the case of compassionate prescriptions or unjustified prescriptions or prescriptions not based on any scientific grounds. Off-label prescriptions are not easy to track down because if the prescriber has to write "off-label" on his prescription, then clearly, in practice, he will only do so in exceptional cases. Neither the pharmacists who dispense the drug nor the Social Security that reimburses it, have access to the diagnosis (or targeted indication). Thus, in order to identify the off-label prescription, we must be able to cross reference the available databases (such as pharmacovigilance database, medicalized information system program [programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information, PMSI], hospital drug formularies, general sample of beneficiaries [échantillon généraliste de bénéficiaires, EGB] or national inter-regional Health Insurance Information System [système national d
Maynes, Nancy; Hatt, Blaine E.
Cochrane-Smith and Power identify trends in teacher education programs with some relating to heightened teacher accountability for students' learning. In this paper we provide a model that identifies characteristics believed to be critical elements related to a teacher's conceptual focus shifting from an emphasis on their teaching to their…
Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…
Brown, Corina E.
This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…
Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Cameto, Renee; Test, David W.; Morningstar, Mary E.
This position paper describes the Division of Career Development and Transition's stance and recommendations for identifying and promoting secondary transition evidence-based practices and predictors of postschool success for students with disabilities. Recommendations for experimental research, correlational research, and secondary analysis of…
Allen, Michael; Ferrier, Suzanne; Sargeant, Joan; Loney, Elaine; Bethune, Graeme; Murphy, Gerard
Caring for patients with dementia is complex and demanding. Since family physicians (FPs) provide much of this care, we examined their practices, learning needs, and barriers to care concerning Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. We surveyed 392 (approximately 50%) Nova Scotia FPs and conducted focus groups and interviews with: FPs; staff of…
This literature review examines 12 current works dealing with converting basic research on adult learning, adult development, adult education, instructional methods, and learning theory to practical application in the training of trainers. Focus of the review is on translating principles from scientific language to language more suitable to…
Trunk diseases pose a serious threat to winegrape production. Despite the high likelihood of infection and the substantial yield losses from not managing trunk diseases, many practitioners routinely wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, application of p...
Blume, Christiana S.
A Biographical Data Inventory (BDI) and a standard final evaluation form were developed and administered to practicing medical technologists and senior year medical technology students at a State university. A correlation of .68 between scores reinforced findings of other studies, suggesting that BDI's are useful in advisement and selection of…
Bishop, Robert C.
This study is one of five thematic dissertations investigating the leadership practices of principals leading successful schools serving ELA learners. Schools selected for participation in this study had (a) an open enrollment policy, (b) at least 40% of total enrollment consists of ELL students, (c) has earned a School Performance Framework (SPF)…
Higa, Darrel H; Crepaz, Nicole; Mullins, Mary M
A systematic review was conducted to identify best practices for increasing linkage, retention and re-engagement in HIV care (LRC) for persons living with HIV (PLWH). Our search strategy consisted of automated searches of electronic databases and hand searches of journals, reference lists and listservs. We developed two sets of criteria: evidence-based to identify evidence-based interventions (EBIs) tested with a comparison group and evidence-informed to identify evidence-informed interventions (EIs) tested with a one-group design. Eligible interventions included being published between 1996 and 2014, U.S.-based studies with a comparison or one-group designs with pre-post data, international randomized controlled trials, and having objective measures of LRC-relevant outcomes. We identified 10 best practices: 5 EBIs and 5 EIs. None focused on re-engagement. Providers and prevention planners can use the review findings to identify best practices suitable for their clinics, agencies, or communities to increase engagement in care for PLWH, ultimately leading to viral suppression.
Kalles, Susan; Ryan, Thomas G.
Herein we identify and address promising practices, essential theories, and related cautions within service-learning. The argument that service-learning is an organized community service which is connected to curriculum in an effort to deepen learning around content was scrutinized and endorsed. We envisioned service-learning as more than a joint…
Ritchotte, Jennifer A.; Suhr, Diana; Alfurayh, Naif F.; Graefe, Amy K.
High achieving students or "bright children" are often denied access to gifted services because they do not meet "gifted" criteria. Although psychosocial factors play an integral role in academic success, and can be useful in providing a clearer picture of student need, they are seldom considered in the decision to identify a…
Atkinson, Mark J; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Kaufman, Julie; Bhaidani, Shamsu
Objectives This proof of concept (POC) study was designed to evaluate the use of an Internet-based bulletin board technology to aid parallel cross-cultural development of thematic content for a new set of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs). Methods The POC study, conducted in Germany and the United States, utilized Internet Focus Groups (IFGs) to assure the validity of new PRO items across the two cultures – all items were designed to assess the impact of excess facial oil on individuals' lives. The on-line IFG activities were modeled after traditional face-to-face focus groups and organized by a common 'Topic' Guide designed with input from thought leaders in dermatology and health outcomes research. The two sets of IFGs were professionally moderated in the native language of each country. IFG moderators coded the thematic content of transcripts, and a frequency analysis of code endorsement was used to identify areas of content similarity and difference between the two countries. Based on this information, draft PRO items were designed and a majority (80%) of the original participants returned to rate the relative importance of the newly designed questions. Findings The use of parallel cross-cultural content analysis of IFG transcripts permitted identification of the major content themes in each country as well as exploration of the possible reasons for any observed differences between the countries. Results from coded frequency counts and transcript reviews informed the design and wording of the test questions for the future PRO instrument(s). Subsequent ratings of item importance also deepened our understanding of potential areas of cross-cultural difference, differences that would be explored over the course of future validation studies involving these PROs. Conclusion The use of IFGs for cross-cultural content development received positive reviews from participants and was found to be both cost and time effective. The novel thematic coding methodology
Roach, Dennis Patrick; Smith, Bryce; Neidigk, Stephen
The goal is to create a systematic method and structure to compile, organize, and summarize SHM related data to identify the level of maturity and rate of evolution and have a quick and ongoing evaluation of the current state of SHM among research institutions and industry. Hundreds of technical publication and conference proceedings were read and analyzed to compile the database. Microsoft Excel was used to create a useable interface that could be filtered to compare any of the entered data fields.
Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce
This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century.
Aquaculture is the culture of aquatic organisms, which includes fish, mollusks, crustaceans, algae and plants. People have been involved in different forms of aquaculture for thousands of years, with early documented evidence dating back as far as 500 BC in China (Ling 1977). Today, the practice of ...
McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I
We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest.
The most likely cause of complaint with prosthodontics is a denture that in some way fails to be accepted. A denture that does not perform as the patient expects can give rise to great disappointment and anger. The problem is that acceptance of a denture is not just a technical issue. Success depends on the individual's ability to tolerate and adapt to the denture. It is therefore essential to make the right assessment for the patient from the outset. This includes discovering the patient's priorities and establishing realistic expectations. With the aim of assisting the dental profession in identifying and avoiding medico-legal risks in removable dentures, this article sets out a systematic, diagnostic and collaborative approach to complete and partial denture assessment and treatment.
Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.
The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic
Blaschke, Sarahg; O'Callaghan, Clare C; Schofield, Penelope
Introduction Opportunities to engage with nature have shown relevance in experiences of health and recovery of patients with cancer and are attracting interest in cancer care practice and design. Such healthcare innovations can widen the horizon of possible supportive care solutions but require deliberate and rigorous investigation to ensure responsible action is taken and wastage avoided. This protocol outlines a study designed to solicit knowledge from relevant experts drawn from a range of healthcare practitioners, management representatives, designers and researchers to explore levels of opinion consensus for determining opportunities for, and barriers to, providing helpful nature engagement in cancer care settings. Methods and analysis A 4-round modified electronic Delphi methodology will be used to conduct a structured, iterative feedback process for querying and synthesising expert opinion. Round 1 administers an open-ended questionnaire to a panel of selected, relevant experts who will consider the own recommendations of patients with cancer for nature engagement (drawn from a preceding investigation) before contributing salient issues (items) with relevance to the topic. Round 2 circulates anonymised summaries of responses back to the experts who verify and, if they wish, reconsider their own responses. Rounds 3 and 4 determine and rank experts' top 10 items using a 10-point Likert-type scale. Descriptive statistics (median and mean scores) will be calculated to indicate the items' relative importance. Levels of consensus will be explored with consensus defined as 75% agreement. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the Institution's Human Research Ethics Committee (blinded for review). It is anticipated that the results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented in a variety of forums. PMID:28274965
Zoback, M. D.; Alt, R. C., II; Walsh, F. R.; Walters, R. J.
It is well known that throughout the central and eastern U.S. there has been a marked increase in seismicity since 2009, at least some of which appears to increased wastewater injection. No area has seen a greater increase in seismicity than Oklahoma. In this paper, we utilize newly available information on in situ stress orientation and relative magnitudes, the distribution of high volume injection wells and knowledge of the intervals used for waste water disposal to identify the factors potentially contributing to the occurrence of triggered seismicity. While there are a number of sites where in situ stress data has been successfully used to identify potentially active faults, we are investigating whether this methodology can be implemented throughout a state utilizing the types of information frequently available in areas of oil and gas development. As an initial test of this concept, we have been compiling stress orientation data from wells throughout Oklahoma provided by private industry. Over fifty new high quality data points, principally drilling-induced tensile fractures observed in image logs, result in a greatly improved understanding of the stress field in much of the state. A relatively uniform ENE direction of maximum compressive stress is observed, although stress orientations (and possibly relative stress magnitudes) differ in the southern and southwestern parts of the state. The proposed methodology can be tested in the area of the NE-trending fault that produced the M 5+ earthquakes in the Prague, OK sequence in 2011, and the Meers fault in southwestern OK, that produced a M~7 reverse faulting earthquake about 1100 years ago. This methodology can also be used to essentially rule out slip on other major faults in the area, such as the ~N-S trending Nemaha fault system. Additional factors leading to the occurrence of relatively large triggered earthquakes in Oklahoma are 1) the overall increase in injection volumes throughout the state in recent
Levin, Donna; Cadigan, Rebecca Orfaly; Biddinger, Paul D; Condon, Suzanne; Koh, Howard K
Although widespread support favors prospective planning for altered standards of care during mass casualty events, the literature includes few, if any, accounts of groups that have formally addressed the overarching policy considerations at the state level. We describe the planning process undertaken by public health officials in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, along with community and academic partners, to explore the issues surrounding altered standards of care in the event of pandemic influenza. Throughout 2006, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health and the Harvard School of Public Health Center for Public Health Preparedness jointly convened a working group comprising ethicists, lawyers, clinicians, and local and state public health officials to consider issues such as allocation of antiviral medications, prioritization of critical care, and state seizure of private assets. Community stakeholders were also engaged in the process through facilitated discussion of case scenarios focused on these and other issues. The objective of this initiative was to establish a framework and some fundamental principles that would subsequently guide the process of establishing specific altered standards of care protocols. The group collectively identified 4 goals and 7 principles to guide the equitable allocation of limited resources and establishment of altered standards of care protocols. Reviewing and analyzing this process to date may serve as a resource for other states.
Maynard, J. A.; Marshall, P. A.; Johnson, J. E.; Harman, S.
Climate change is now considered the greatest long-term threat to coral reefs, with some future change inevitable despite mitigation efforts. Managers must therefore focus on supporting the natural resilience of reefs, requiring that resilient reefs and reef regions be identified. We develop a framework for assessing resilience and trial it by applying the framework to target management responses to climate change on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The framework generates a resilience score for a site based on the evaluation of 19 differentially weighted indicators known or thought to confer resilience to coral reefs. Scores are summed, and sites within a region are ranked in terms of (1) their resilience relative to the other sites being assessed, and (2) the extent to which managers can influence their resilience. The framework was applied to 31 sites in Keppel Bay of the southern Great Barrier Reef, which has a long history of disturbance and recovery. Resilience and ‘management influence potential’ were both found to vary widely in Keppel Bay, informing site selection for the staged implementation of resilience-based management strategies. The assessment framework represents a step towards making the concept of resilience operational to reef managers and conservationists. Also, it is customisable, easy to teach and implement and effective in building support among local communities and stakeholders for management responses to climate change.
Popova, Elena A; Protas, Aleksandra V; Trifonov, Rostislav E
Tetrazole cycle is a promising pharmacophore fragment frequently used in the development of novel drugs. This moiety is a stable, practically non-metabolized bioisosteric analog of carboxylic, cis-amide, and other functional groups. Over recent 10-15 years, various isomeric forms of tetrazole (NH-unsubstituted, 1H-1-substituted, and 2H-2-substituted tetrazoles) have been successfully used in the design of promising anticancer drugs. Coordination compounds of transition metals containing tetrazoles as ligands, semisynthetic tetrazolyl derivatives of natural compounds (biogenic acids, peptides, steroids, combretastatin, etc.), 5-oxo and 5-thiotetrazoles, and some other related compounds have been recognized as promising antineoplastic agents. This review presents a comprehensive analysis of modern approaches to synthesis of these tetrazole derivatives as well as their biological (anticancer) properties. The most promising structure types of tetrazoles to be used as anticancer agents have been picked out.
Newton, Michael J
We have developed an extraordinary capability to capture and transmit digital ocular imaging, enabling remote interpretation of every aspect of the eye. The issues regarding telemedicine were primarily technical and procedural when this journal first reviewed the topic in 1999. Fourteen years later, telemedicine presents strikingly different challenges-legal, ethical, and professional. Some "tele-ophthalmology" applications have now become a reliable part of daily practice. Although it offers improved health care at lower cost to more people, telemedicine could also radically transform the traditional doctor-patient interaction.
Saint-Lary, Olivier; Boisnault, Philippe; Naiditch, Michel; Szidon, Philippe; Duhot, Didier; Bourgueil, Yann; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie
Context From one country to another, the pay-for-performance mechanisms differ on one significant point: the identification of target populations, that is, populations which serve as a basis for calculating the indicators. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus medication-based identification of populations of patients with diabetes and hypertension over the age of 50 (for men) or 60 (for women), and any consequences this may have on the calculation of P4P indicators. Methods A comparative, retrospective, observational study was carried out with clinical and prescription data from a panel of general practitioners (GPs), the Observatory of General Medicine (OMG) for the year 2007. Two indicators regarding the prescription for statins and aspirin in these populations were calculated. Results We analyzed data from 21.690 patients collected by 61 GPs via electronic medical files. Following the clinical-based approach, 2.278 patients were diabetic, 8,271 had hypertension and 1.539 had both against respectively 1.730, 8.511 and 1.304 following the medication-based approach (% agreement = 96%, kappa = 0.69). The main reasons for these differences were: forgetting to code the morbidities in the clinical approach, not taking into account the population of patients who were given life style and diet rules only or taking into account patients for whom morbidities other than hypertension could justify the use of antihypertensive drugs in the medication-based approach. The mean (confidence interval) per doctor was 33.7% (31.5–35.9) for statin indicator and 38.4% (35.4–41.4) for aspirin indicator when the target populations were identified on the basis of clinical criteria whereas they were 37.9% (36.3–39.4) and 43.8% (41.4–46.3) on the basis of treatment criteria. Conclusion The two approaches yield very “similar” scores but these scores cover different realities and offer food for thought on the possible usage of these indicators in the
This supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social includes 10 original contributions, and also six current themes, all of them related to childhood obesity. It is the result of an institutional program that it has been identified as Redes de Investigación Institucional, and it has been promoted and developed by the Coordinación de Investigación of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.
America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007
The second "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief examines the association between a family's income and the presence of the Five Promises in their child's life. The report documents the Promise gap that exists between children in low-income families and those in higher income families. Although parents in low-income families are typically…
Ambrosy, Andrew P; Mentz, Robert J; Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Greene, Stephen J; Severance, Harry W
Although the prognosis of ambulatory heart failure (HF) has improved dramatically there have been few advances in the management of acute HF (AHF). Despite regional differences in patient characteristics, background therapy, and event rates, AHF clinical trial enrollment has transitioned from North America and Western Europe to Eastern Europe, South America, and Asia-Pacific where regulatory burden and cost of conducting research may be less prohibitive. It is unclear if the results of clinical trials conducted outside of North America are generalizable to US patient populations. This article uses AHF as a paradigm and identifies barriers and practical solutions to successfully conducting site-based research in North America.
An Analysis of the Literature to Identify Staff Development Requirements for Practical Nursing Instructors. Vocational-Technical Education Research Report. Health Occupations, Monograph No. 10, Vol. 16, No. 4.
Moore, Susan C.; Hole, F. Marvin
A review of the literature on continuing education was done to identify the literature related to practical nursing instructors, analyze the literature to see how it affects the practical nursing instructor, and make recommendations for a long-term plan of staff development for practical nursing instructors in Pennsylvania. The literature revealed…
smaller coefficient for ln (length) in Equation 3 for trained individuals indicated a slower rate of improvement for that population. The association was...length-ESRM equation for trained individuals both suggest a slower rate of improvement for trained individuals. The smaller average response of...This review was the only one that based ES on the difference in the Resistance Meta-Analysis 41 improvements produced by two training
Athanases, Steven Z.; Achinstein, Betty; Curry, Marnie Willis; Ogawa, Rodney T.
Background/Context: Literatures on college-going cultures offer patterns and lists of practices that promote schoolwide attention to college-going for nondominant youth, often with organization-level analyses of policies and procedures. Other literature identifies promising practices and challenges to conventional instruction, often examining…
Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...
Gottfredson, Denise C.
In response to growing public concern over declining educational quality and discipline problems in today's schools, this paper reviews research on the causes of school disruption and student misbehavior, identifies promising ameliorative strategies, and examines specific research-practitioner collaborations that have successfully reduced school…
Genes in which germline mutations confer high or moderate increased risks of cancer are called cancer predisposition genes (CPG). Over 100 CPGs have been identified providing important scientific insights in many areas, particularly mechanisms of cancer causation. Moreover, clinical utilisation of CPGs has had substantial impact in diagnosis, optimised management and prevention of cancer. The recent transformative advances in DNA sequencing bring the promise of many more CPG discoveries and greater, broader clinical applications. However, there is also considerable potential for incorrect inferences and inappropriate clinical applications. Realising the promise of cancer predisposition genes for science and medicine will thus require careful navigation. PMID:24429628
Ringwalt, Christopher; Schiro, Sharon; Shanahan, Meghan; Proescholdbell, Scott; Meder, Harold; Austin, Anna; Sachdeva, Nidhi
The misuse, abuse and diversion of controlled substances have reached epidemic proportion in the United States. Contributing to this problem are providers who over-prescribe these substances. Using one state's prescription drug monitoring program, we describe a series of metrics we developed to identify providers manifesting unusual and uncustomary prescribing practices. We then present the results of a preliminary effort to assess the concurrent validity of these algorithms, using death records from the state's vital records database pertaining to providers who wrote prescriptions to patients who then died of a medication or drug overdose within 30 days. Metrics manifesting the strongest concurrent validity with providers identified from these records related to those who co-prescribed benzodiazepines (e.g., valium) and high levels of opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone), as well as those who wrote temporally overlapping prescriptions. We conclude with a discussion of a variety of uses to which these metrics may be put, as well as problems and opportunities related to their use.
Snyder, Patricia A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Fox, Lise
In active implementation science frameworks, coaching has been described as an important competency "driver" to ensure evidence-based practices are implemented as intended. Empirical evidence also has identified coaching as a promising job-embedded professional development strategy to support implementation of quality teaching practices.…
Busby, John; Schroeder, Knut; Woltersdorf, Wolfram; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hay, Alastair; Hollingworth, William
Background Laboratory tests are extensively used for diagnosis and monitoring in UK primary care. Test usage by GPs, and associated costs, have grown substantially in recent years. Aim This study aimed to quantify temporal growth and geographic variation in utilisation of laboratory tests. Design and setting Retrospective cohort study using data from general practices in the UK. Method Data from the General Practice Research Database, including patient demographics, clinical details, and laboratory test results, were used to estimate rates of change in utilisation between 2005 and 2009, and identify tests with greatest inter-regional variation, by fitting random-effects Poisson regression models. The study also investigated indications for test requests, using diagnoses and symptoms recorded in the 2 weeks before each test. Results Around 660 000 tests were recorded in 230 000 person-years of follow-up. Test use increased by 24.2%, from 23 872 to 29 644 tests per 10 000 person-years, between 2005 and 2009. Tests with the largest increases were faecal occult blood (121%) and C-reactive protein (86%). There was substantial geographic variation in test utilisation; GPs in some regions requested tests such as plasma viscosity and cardiac enzymes at a rate more than three times the national average. Conclusion Increases in the use of laboratory tests have substantial resource implications. Rapid increases in particular tests may be supported by evidence-based guidelines, but these are often vague about who should be tested, how often, and for how long. Substantial regional variation in test use may reflect uncertainty about diagnostic accuracy and appropriate indications for the laboratory test. There is a need for further research on the diagnostic accuracy, therapeutic impact, and effect on patient health outcomes of the most rapidly increasing and geographically variable tests. PMID:23540482
Hassan, Osama Ahmed; Affognon, Hippolyte; Rocklöv, Joacim; Mburu, Peter; Sang, Rosemary; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF. Although the 2007 RVF outbreak in Sudan had negatively affected the participants’ food availability and livestock income, the participants did not fully understand how to identify RVF symptoms and risk factors for both humans and livestock. For example, the participants mistakenly believed that avoiding livestock that had suffered spontaneous abortions was the least important risk factor for RVF. Although the majority noticed an increase in mosquito population during the 2007 RVF outbreak, few used impregnated bed nets as preventive measures. The community was reluctant to notify the authorities about RVF suspicion in livestock, a sentinel for human RVF infection. Almost all the respondents stressed that they would not receive any compensation for their dead livestock if they notified the authorities. In addition, the participants believed that controlling RVF outbreaks was mainly the responsibility of human health authorities rather than veterinary authorities. The majority of the participants were aware that RVF could spread from one region to another within the country. Participants received most their information about RVF from social networks and the mass media, rather than the health system or veterinarians. Because the perceived role of the community in controlling RVF was fragmented, the probability of RVF spread increased. PMID:28207905
Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.
Edelmuth, Rodrigo C L; Nitsche, Michael A; Battistella, Linamara; Fregni, Felipe
Interest in techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been growing exponentially in the last decade. Recent studies have shown that some of these techniques induce significant neurophysiological and clinical effects. Although recent results are promising, there are several techniques that have been abandoned despite positive initial results. In this study, we performed a systematic review to identify NIBS methods with promising preliminary clinical results that were not fully developed and adopted into clinical practice, and discuss its clinical, research and device characteristics. We identified five devices (transmeatal cochlear laser stimulation, transcranial micropolarization, transcranial electrostimulation, cranial electric stimulation and stimulation with weak electromagnetic fields) and compared them with two established NIBS devices (transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation) and with well-known drugs used in neuropsychiatry (pramipexole and escitalopram) in order to understand the reasons why they failed to reach clinical practice and further steps of research development. Finally, we also discuss novel NIBS devices that have recently showed promising results: brain ultrasound and transcranial high-frequency random noise stimulation. Our results show that some of the reasons for the failure of NIBS devices with promising clinical findings are the difficulty to disseminate results, lack of controlled studies, duration of research development, mixed results and lack of standardization.
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P < 0.05 set as the level of statistical significance. Results Of the participants (n = 470), 12.1% (n = 57) were exposed to psychological IPV in the previous year (46 women and 11 men). They expressed more complaints regarding sexual and reproductive (p = 0.011), and psychological and behavioural status (p <0.001), in the year prior to the survey. Unemployment or working part-time, a college degree, an intimate relationship of six years or more and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship, increased the odds of psychological IPV exposure in the sample, explaining 41% of the variance. In females, unemployment and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship explained 43% of the variance. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological IPV above 10% during the past year
Snow, Michael P.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Reising, John M.; Hopper, Darrel G.
The active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) has become the preferred flight instrument technology in avionics multifunction display applications. Current bubble canopy fighter cockpit applications involve sizes up to 7.8 X 7.8 in. active display. Dual use avionics versions of AMLCD technology are now as large as 6.7 X 6.7 in. active display area in the ARINC D sized color multifunction display (MFD). This is the standard instrument in all new Boeing transport aircraft and is being retrofitted into the C-17A. A special design of the ARINC D instrument is used in the Space Shuttle cockpit upgrade. Larger sizes of AMLCD were desired when decisions were made in the early 1990s for the F-22. Commercial AMLCD technology has now produced monitors at 1280 X 1024 resolution (1.3 megapixels) in sizes of 16 to 21 in. diagonal. Each of these larger AMLCDs has more information carrying capacity than the entire F-22A cockpit instrument panel shipset, comprising six separate smaller AMLCDs (1.2 megapixels total). The larger AMLCDs are being integrated into airborne mission crewstations for use in dim ambient lighting conditions. It is now time to identify and address the technology challenges of upgrading these larger AMLCDs for sunlight readable application and of developing concepts for their integration into advanced bubble canopy fighter cockpits. The overall goals are to significantly increase the informational carrying capacity to bring both sensor and information fusion into the cockpit and, thereby, to enable a significant increase in warfighter situational awareness and effectiveness. A research cockpit was built using specialized versions of the IBM 16.1 in and two smaller 10 in. AMLCDs to examine human factors and display design issues associated with these next-generation AMLCD cockpit displays. This cockpit was later upgraded to allow greater reconfigurability and flexibility in the display hardware used to conduct part- task mission simulations. The objective
Persson, Roland S.
Without a doubt the authors' proposal of viewing gifted education in systemic terms is a promising one. In fact, it is most refreshing to read something eclectic like this with an aim to synthesize a field of research and practice which for too long has lacked consensus in both practice and theory. The author agrees with them that a mechanistic…
Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.
The Washington Promise Scholarship program was established to encourage excellent academic performance and to reward low- and middle-income students who demonstrate meritorious achievement in high school by providing them a 2-year scholarship. An evaluation was conducted to study the program and its impact on college attendance and student…
Technology has promised trainers so much--from the ability to train distant learners to new ways of keeping young employees engaged. But has it delivered? In this article, several trainers consider whether their investment in training technology has been worth it.
Legters, Nettie; Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James
Promising solutions to the failings of traditional comprehensive high schools were reviewed to identify basic principles and strategies for improving high schools nationwide. Selected research studies, policy documents, and promising high school programs were reviewed. The review revealed the following principles for helping high schools better…
Henman, Lita Jo; Corrigan, Robert; Carrico, Ruth; Suh, Kathryn N
The Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc (CBIC) is a voluntary autonomous multidisciplinary board that provides direction and administers the certification process for professionals who are responsible for the infection prevention and control program in a health care facility. The CBIC performs a practice analysis approximately every 4-5 years. The practice analysis is an integral part of the certification examination development process and serves as the backbone of the test content outline. In 2013, the CBIC determined that a practice analysis was required and contracted with Prometric to facilitate the process. The practice analysis was carried out in 2014 by a diverse group of subject matter experts from the United States and Canada. The practice analysis results showed a significant change in the number of tasks and associated knowledge required for the competent practice of infection prevention. As authorized by the CBIC, the test committee is currently reclassifying the bank of examination questions as required and is writing and reviewing questions based on the updated test specifications and content outline. The new content outline will be reflected in examinations that are taken beginning in July 2015. This iterative process of assessing and updating the certification examination ensures not only a valid competency tool but a true reflection of current practices.
Background Multimorbidity is increasingly prevalent but, aside from epidemiological work, the impact on associated provision of healthcare and/or education is little understood. For example, it is unclear how or why healthcare interventions meet (or do not meet) people’s multiple needs. Professionals working in primary care training sites must reconcile two goals: provision of appropriate individualised healthcare and provision of constructive workplace-based learning for future professionals. Given that professionals, learners and patients may have differing priorities and conceptualisations of success and failure in the absence of cure, achievement of both goals depends on social and cultural mechanisms. This review aims to make sense of how healthcare delivery for, and education about, multimorbidity can be concurrently delivered in primary care through identification of relevant theoretical frameworks. Methods/design Realist synthesis identifies and makes sense of variable outcomes caused by interaction between mechanisms and contexts. This review will produce a synthesis of social science, education and primary care literature. Our objective is to understand interactivity between models of workplace-based education and models of patient-centred/integrated care with a focus on perceptions of 'success’ and 'failure’ in multimorbidity. We intend to build a conceptual map and a realist programme theory, populated with evidence from the literature, as the first step towards answering our review question: what is known about how and why concurrent health service delivery and professional medical education interact together to generate outcomes valued by professionals, learners and patients for patients with multimorbidity in primary care? To answer this we are focusing on relationship-based negotiation of needs-based learning and needs-based care as our primary outcome of interest. In this protocol we outline our search strategy and proposed methods of
Brown, Michael F; Brown, Alexander A
Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers.
Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin
In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.
Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin
In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.
Richman, Barbara T.
The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), the nation's warehouse for ocean data, often hears complaints from its users that requests for data from recent oceanographic cruises cannot be filled. The complaint highlights both sides of the data traffic problem that besets NODC: Researchers delay sending their data to the center, and NODC has had difficulties in processing some data, especially when changes in the computer systems are made or when data is submitted in incomplete form. Plans within NODC promise to minimize the data processing problems with eventual direct communication from desktop to data base.
van Romburgh, Henriëtte; van der Merwe, Nico
This study aims to determine the skills shortages in first-year trainee accountants entering practice in South Africa and to recommend ways to address and overcome those shortages. Questionnaires were administered to registered audit firms in Gauteng Province to gather the perceptions of senior trainees, managers and partners on the skills…
Since its establishment in 2003, the Japan Council on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD-J) has paid close attention to informal learning processes in community-based efforts to promote local sustainable development. ESD-J carried out two projects to collect information on and visualise community-based ESD practice: the…
Mitton-Kukner, Jennifer; Orr, Anne Murray
In this paper we describe four ways secondary pre-service teachers appeared to be developing assessment practices during field experience, after taking a content area literacy course. This paper arises from a multi-year study exploring pre-service and beginning content area teachers' use of literacy strategies in teaching mathematics, science, and…
Hyland, Theresa Ann
Current concerns about academic plagiarism in student writing assume qualitative and quantitative differences in the writing of students for whom English is a first language (EL1) and English is a second language (EL2), but lack precision in measuring those differences. I examined the citation practices of EL1 and EL2 students in a timed writing…
Robert Goodwin-Jones opens his discussion with the thought "If you want to attract attention to a new online course, the foolproof strategy today is to label it a MOOC, a massive open online course." The hype surrounding MOOCs has resulted in substantial interest--from the general public to university presidents--in online learning, as…
McLaughlin, Margaret J.
This digest contains three articles which consider ways to enhance the effectiveness of special education programs. The first article offers guidelines for more fully including special education in the school community, in the context of broader educational reform and restructuring efforts. First the need for reform is addressed. Next, indicators…
The United States does more than just talk; it invests a lot of money in public education. While students are the major focus of concern, teachers are a mainstay in the enterprise. In 2002, the U.S. invested $192 billion in teacher pay and benefits. More than 50% of all dollars allocated by the government for education is paid in salaries for…
National Academies Press, 2016
U.S. strength in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has formed the basis of innovations, technologies, and industries that have spurred the nation's economic growth throughout the last 150 years. Universities are essential to the creation and transfer of new knowledge that drives innovation. This knowledge moves…
Blanco, Cheryl D.
Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…
Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...
MacAdam, Phyllis A.; Fuller, Elisabeth
This issue of Kaleidoscope, which focuses on projects involving innovative educational change funded under ESEA Title III, describes 60 programs in both elementary and secondary schools in Massachusetts. The projects cover a wide range of educational interests including: curriculum development, environmental education, individualized instruction,…
Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Vallone, Donna; Post, Samantha; Nielsen, Wendy
Brands are marketing tools that create mental representations in the minds of consumers about products, services, and organizations. Brands create schema that help consumers decide whether to initiate or continue use of a product or service. Health branding determines behavioral choice by building consumer relationships and identification with health behaviors and their benefits. Health branding can be measured by the associations individuals form with health behaviors. In 2008, Evans and colleagues systematically reviewed the literature on health brands, reported on branded health messages and campaigns worldwide, and examined specific branding strategies in multiple subject areas. This paper extends that review. We replicated the comprehensive online literature search strategy from 2008. We screened a total of 311 articles and included 130 for full-text review. This included both articles from the 2008 review and new articles. After excluding those new articles that did not meet full-text inclusion criteria, we reviewed 69 in total. Of these, 32 were new articles since the 2008 review. Branded health campaigns cover most major domains of public health and appear worldwide. Since 2008, we observed improvement in evaluation, application of theory, and description of campaign strategies in published work. We recommend enhanced education of public health practitioners and researchers on the use and evaluation of branding.
Hicks, Susan A.; Lekies, Kristi S.; Cochran, Mon
In response to recent state legislation, school districts in New York developed plans for universal prekindergarten (UPK) programs for the 1998-1999 academic year. Based on an analysis of the first year prekindergarten program plans for 63 upstate New York districts (with follow-up information on 29 districts) and 32 New York City districts, this…
Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Learning and Teaching Resources Branch.
This document contains profiles of 130 successful programs and partnerships in Career and Technology Studies (CTS) in Alberta, Canada. Following an introduction to the CTS program and its implementation, the profiles are organized into 23 sections that follow the strands of the program. The sections cover the following topics: CTS general;…
Quality of higher education is a very important sector for the growth and development of human resource which can take responsibility for social, economic and scientific development of the Indian country. To achieve the outcome of enhanced quality at all levels of education, Government of India has been focusing its attention on quality and…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Compensatory Education.
The 111th Street School is successfully educating black students K-6 in inner-city Los Angeles. The key to the program's success is a form of organization designed to functionally support an ungraded system of learning centers devoted to attainment of specific educational objectives. Two Directories, this for the classroom teacher and a separate…
Watson, John; Gemin, Butch
Researchers studying socialization in online learning note that definitions are quite broad, suggesting that "Socialization is about people being able to mingle and establish connections on one or more levels. They speak[with] one another; share ideas and information and confirm the connections made through an agreed upon means." More broadly,…
Hughes, Carolyn; Stenhjem, Pamela H.; Newkirk, Reginald
The transition from high school to adult life is an exciting time for many young people. Youth from high poverty backgrounds, however, are considered at-risk for a host of unfavorable outcomes including academic failure, school dropout, drug abuse, unemployment and incarceration. These adolescents are more likely than their more affluent peers to…
Worrell, Frank C.
In 1982, the UC Berkeley Gifted Program took in its first cohort. The initial group consisted of 282 middle and high school students. As was the case with many programs for gifted youths, admission to the program was based on students' SAT scores, and urban students were underrepresented. In this article, the author discusses how the program has…
Bhatt, Monica P.; Behrstock, Ellen
This policy analysis explains the need for a system approach to educator talent management. The report analyzes how state policies in the Midwest support the development of effective teachers and leaders throughout their career. The report focuses on state policies in teacher preparation including certification and licensure, recruitment and…
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009
In response to the demands of the changing economy and the business community's need for better-educated, more highly skilled workers, the U.S. Department of Education, through the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), developed the State Scholars Initiative (SSI), which encourages students to take a rigorous course of study in high…
Risinger, C. Frederick
This article presents several teachers and school Web sites that offer teaching strategies in using the Internet to teach social sciences. These Web sites include: (1) Mrs. Cori Culp's Website (www.bv229.k12.ks.us/bvw_culp); (2) Mr. Williams's 5th Grade(teachers.santee.k12.ca.us/cwilliams/index.htm); (3) Ms. Stewart's Classroom Page…
Gil, Libia S.; Woodruff, Darren W.
In this article, the authors describe a Southern California school district's application of response to intervention for all students to bring about successful academic outcomes. Chula Vista Elementary School District's strong commitment to addressing all students' needs using response to intervention, with particular attention to English…
Bragg, Debra; Oertle, Kathleen Marie; Kim, Sujung; Kirby, Catherine; Taylor, Jason; Harmon, Tim; Liss, Loralea
To enhance state-level adult education and employment policy, in 2007 the Joyce Foundation began the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative to assist six states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin) to integrate adult education, workforce development and postsecondary education policies and improve job opportunities for low-skilled…
In Western society, Christian Churches historically have been, and contemporarily are, involved with people perceived with disability. While they may practise biblical ethical imperatives such as care, compassion, mercy, support, welfare and charity, Churches have, paradoxically, only minimally offered cohesive or explicit moral notions for the 'inclusion' of people with disability in communities. Importantly, Churches have paid little attention to the historical construction of 'exclusion'. This paper proposes that matrices of patriarchal theology and patriarchal ethics continue to sustain structural positions of societal exclusion for people with disability because of implicit assumptions and values in the matrices about difference and different bodies. By examining a conjunction between feminism and disability around the issue of embodiment, the paper contends that 'inclusion' needs to be explored through the formation and embracing of matrices of feminist theology and feminist ethics.
Jones, Betty, Comp.
This document is a compilation of 90 successful interdisciplinary projects and activities and integrated academic and vocational curriculum ideas implemented in Florida during the past 3 years. The activities and projects have been submitted by teachers and have not been officially evaluated or reviewed. Each description provides this information:…
Farrie, Danielle; Johnson, Monete; Lecker, Wendy; Luhm, Theresa
In the landmark school funding litigation, "Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State" ("CFE"), the highest Court in New York recognized that reasonable class sizes are an essential element of a constitutional "sound basic education." In response to the rulings in the case, in 2007, the Legislature adopted a law mandating…
Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V
We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students' values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers.
Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V.
We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students’ values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers. PMID:27856547
Khurana, Rajneet K; Kaur, Ranjot; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Kamalinder K; Singh, Bhupinder
Of late, several biologically active antioxidants from natural products have been investigated by the researchers in order to combat the root cause of carcinogenesis, in other words, oxidative stress. Mangiferin, a therapeutically active C-glucosylated xanthone, is extracted from pulp, peel, seed, bark and leaf of Mangifera indica. These polyphenols of mangiferin exhibit antioxidant properties and tend to decrease the oxygen-free radicals, thereby reducing the DNA damage. Indeed, its capability to modulate several key inflammatory pathways undoubtedly helps in stalling the progression of carcinogenesis. The current review article emphasizes an updated account on the patents published on the chemopreventive action of mangiferin, apoptosis induction made on various cancer cells, along with proposed antioxidative activities and patent mapping of other important therapeutic properties. Considering it as promising polyphenol, this paper would also summarize the diverse molecular targets of mangiferin.
Ogas, Talysa; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M
Although resveratrol can modulate multiple stages of carcinogenesis, by most common standards it is not a good drug candidate. Resveratrol lacks potency, high efficacy, and target specificity; it is rapidly metabolized and serum concentrations are low. Using resveratrol as a scaffold, we produced over 100 derivatives, some of which have target specificity in the nanomolar range. Aromatase inhibition was enhanced over 6000-fold by using 1,3-thiazole as the central ring of resveratrol. Optimizing the substitution pattern of the two phenyl rings and the central heterocyclic linker led to selective QR1 induction with a CD value of 87 nM. Several derivatives have been selected for evaluation of synergistic effects. Preliminary results with pairs of compounds are promising and further experiments, in a constant multidrug manner, will allow us to create polygonograms for larger combinations of derivatives. The objective is to develop a highly efficacious cocktail of derivatives based on the structure of resveratrol.
Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir
We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264
Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.
The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126
Baumgartner, Thomas; Fischbacher, Urs; Feierabend, Anja; Lutz, Kai; Fehr, Ernst
Promises are one of the oldest human-specific psychological mechanisms fostering cooperation and trust. Here, we study the neural underpinnings of promise keeping and promise breaking. Subjects first make a promise decision (promise stage), then they anticipate whether the promise affects the interaction partner's decision (anticipation stage) and are subsequently free to keep or break the promise (decision stage). Findings revealed that the breaking of the promise is associated with increased activation in the DLPFC, ACC, and amygdala, suggesting that the dishonest act involves an emotional conflict due to the suppression of the honest response. Moreover, the breach of the promise can be predicted by a perfidious brain activity pattern (anterior insula, ACC, inferior frontal gyrus) during the promise and anticipation stage, indicating that brain measurements may reveal malevolent intentions before dishonest or deceitful acts are actually committed.
Burr, Elizabeth; Haas, Eric; Ferriere, Karen
While the literature on learning disabilities and on second-language acquisition is relatively extensive within the field of education, less is known about the specific characteristics and representation of English learner students with learning disabilities. Because there are no definitive resources and processes for identifying and determining…
Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Meyers, Kathleen
Effectively identifying and responding to the psychosocial problems and recidivism risk of arrested youths remain critical needs in the field. Centralized intake facilities, such as juvenile assessment centers (JACs), can play a key role in this process. As part of a U.S. National Demonstration Project, the Miami-Dade JAC, serving a…
Normand, Julien; Blin, Jean-Louis; Jouaux, Aude
Early detection of Pacific oyster spat infected with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) could prevent introduction of OsHV-1-infected individuals into farming areas or onshore rearing facilities, thus reducing the risk of infection of naïve oysters in such production systems. Experiments were conducted on several hundred oyster spat provided by producers in order to examine whether early rearing practices could be considered as potential risk factors for (1) OsHV-1 infection as detected by molecular methods and (2) spat mortality experimentally induced through thermal challenge. Spat groups collected on oyster beds and hatchery spat reared in growout areas during summer exhibited higher viral DNA contamination and mortalities during the trial than spat kept in onshore rearing facilities. Quantification of viral DNA before and during the trial showed that infection prevalence and intensity changed over time and revealed latent infection initially unsuspected in 3 of 10 groups. Thermal challenge induced a clear increase in the probability of detecting infected individuals, particularly for groups exhibiting significant prevalence of OsHV-1-contaminated spat prior to the challenge. The use of detection methods are discussed in relation to early rearing practices and disease control strategies.
Nugent, William R
Meta-analysis is becoming a principal tool for research synthesis and for the identification and justification of evidence based practices. A fundamental assumption in meta-analysis is that effect sizes based upon different measures are comparable. Recent work has challenged this assumption in the case of the standardized mean difference. In this article it is shown that population universe (true) score level correlation effect sizes, for the relationship between two constructs A and B, based upon different measures will be comparable only if construct validity invariance holds across the measures used to make inferences to A and the measures used to make inferences to B. The results of a simulation study are also reported which show that the results of a meta-analysis may be significantly and adversely affected by violations of construct validity invariance. Finally, it is concluded that the theoretical results obtained in this article, and the results of the simulation study, combine to suggest that the role of meta-analysis in the synthesis of social work research, and in the identification of evidence based practices, be de-emphasized until important questions about the sensitivity of meta-analysis to violations of construct validity invariance are answered.
Ralston, Henry J., III; And Others
Reports the findings of the Working Group on Capturing the Promise of Medical Research, which addressed questions concerning the direction of biomedical research, academia-industry relations, and the integration of scientific developments in medical education and practice. A dominant theme emerged: the central importance of an environment of…
Byrnes, Ronald S.
Highlights promising practices in global education (the tendency of global educators to emphasize interdisciplinary concepts, to model inquisitiveness and skepticism, and to stress participatory learning). The promising practices are examined in the context of classroom life at the Shoreline Foreign Language/International Studies magnet school (a…
Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors’ actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with industrial actors with the aim of uncovering their ethical stances towards responsible development of nanotechnology. The data shows that standard repertoires of justification of nanotechnological development were used. Thus, the industrial actors fell back on their position and associated responsibilities. Such responses reinforce a division of moral labour in which industrial actors and scientists can focus on the progress of science and technology, while other actors, such as NGOs, are expected to take care of broader considerations, such as ethical and social issues. PMID:20835398
Wheelwright, Steven C.; Clarke, Darral G.
Discusses a survey of forecast preparers and users in 127 major companies in an attempt to assess underlying problems and identify areas for improvement. Concludes that forecasting responsibilities and tasks must be better defined and that forecast preparers and users must become better informed about one another's roles. (Author/JG)
Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Drake, Christopher; Markwald, Roger R
Organ printing or biomedical application of rapid prototyping, also defined as additive layer-by-layer biomanufacturing, is an emerging transforming technology that has potential for surpassing traditional solid scaffold-based tissue engineering. Organ printing has certain advantages: it is an automated approach that offers a pathway for scalable reproducible mass production of tissue engineered products; it allows a precised simultaneous 3D positioning of several cell types; it enables creation tissue with a high level of cell density; it can solve the problem of vascularization in thick tissue constructs; finally, organ printing can be done in situ. The ultimate goal of organ-printing technology is to fabricate 3D vascularized functional living human organs suitable for clinical implantation. The main practical outcomes of organ-printing technology are industrial scalable robotic biofabrication of complex human tissues and organs, automated tissue-based in vitro assays for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery and drug toxicity, and complex in vitro models of human diseases. This article describes conceptual framework and recent developments in organ-printing technology, outlines main technological barriers and challenges, and presents potential future practical applications.
Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.
Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.
Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita
Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called 'Mental Health Gap'. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store-forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community.
Wallerstein, Robert S
Although Freud had aspirations of a university structure for psychoanalytic education the sociopolitical structure of the Austro-Hungarian empire precluded this, and psychoanalysis developed by default in the central European heartland within a part-time, private-practice educational structure. With its rapid spread in the post-World-War-II United States, and its ready penetration of American academic psychiatry, a counter educational structure arose in some quarters: the department-of-psychiatry-affiliated institute within the medical school. This article outlines beyond these other, more ambitious, academic vistas (the David Shakow model, the Anna Freud model, the Menninger Foundation, Emory University (USA), AP de BA (Argentina)); conceptions even closer to the ideal (idealized) goal of full-time placement within the university, with strong links to medicine, to the behavioral sciences and to the humanities. The putative advantages of such a structure are presented.
Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter
Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders.
Teti, Michelle; Bowleg, Lisa; Rubinstein, Susan; Lloyd, Linda; Berhane, Zek; Gold, Marla
Nonheterosexually identified (NHI) women may be present, but not accounted for, in HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention interventions. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the sexual risk behaviors and intervention needs of NHI women in Protect and Respect, a safer sex intervention for HIV-positive women. Study participants (n=32) were predominantly Black, low income, and between 28 and 51 years old. Although NHI participants were more likely than heterosexual participants (p < .05) to report obtaining their income from sex work, hustling, or selling drugs; and having a higher median number of male sex partners, qualitative analyses revealed that the intervention often neglected NHI women's experiences and unique safer sex needs. Heterosexist HIV and STI prevention programs may hinder NHI women's ability to protect themselves and their partners from reinfection and infection respectively. We discuss the implications of our research for future HIV/AIDS and STI research, services and interventions for NHI women.
The federal government has established a system of labeling hazardous materials to help identify the type of material and threat posed. Summaries of information on over 300 chemicals are maintained in the Envirofacts Master Chemical Integrator.
This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…
Gidday, Jeffrey M.
A transient, ischemia-resistant phenotype known as “ischemic tolerance” can be established in brain in a rapid or delayed fashion by a preceding noninjurious “preconditioning” stimulus. Initial preclinical studies of this phenomenon relied primarily on brief periods of ischemia or hypoxia as preconditioning stimuli, but it was later realized that many other stressors, including pharmacologic ones, are also effective. This review highlights the surprisingly wide variety of drugs now known to promote ischemic tolerance, documented and to some extent mechanistically characterized in preclinical animal models of stroke. Although considerably more experimentation is needed to thoroughly validate the ability of any currently identified preconditioning agent to protect ischemic brain, the fact that some of these drugs are already clinically approved for other indications implies that the growing enthusiasm for translational success in the field of pharmacologic preconditioning may be well justified. PMID:21197121
Grayson, Richard; Kay, Paul; Foulger, Miles
Diffuse pollution poses a threat to water quality and results in the need for treatment for potable water supplies which can prove costly. Within the Yorkshire region, UK, nitrates, pesticides and water colour present particular treatment problems. Catchment management techniques offer an alternative to 'end of pipe' solutions and allow resources to be targeted to the most polluting areas. This project has attempted to identify such areas using GIS based modelling approaches in catchments where water quality data were available. As no model exists to predict water colour a model was created using an MCE method which is capable of predicting colour concentrations at the catchment scale. CatchIS was used to predict pesticide and nitrate N concentrations and was found to be generally capable of reliably predicting nitrate N loads at the catchment scale. The pesticides results did not match the historic data possibly due to problems with the historic pesticide data and temporal and spatially variability in pesticide usage. The use of these models can be extended to predict water quality problems in catchments where water quality data are unavailable and highlight areas of concern.
What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.
Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid K; Andersen, Astrid J; Bogaard, Amy; Christensen, Bent T
The shortage of plant-available nutrients probably constrained prehistoric cereal cropping but there is very little direct evidence relating to the history of ancient manuring. It has been shown that the long-term addition of animal manure elevates the δ(15)N value of soil and of modern crops grown on the soil. We have examined the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of soil and of the grain and straw fractions of three ancient cereal types grown in unmanured, PK amended and cattle manured plots of the Askov long-term field experiment. Manure increased biomass yields and the δ(15)N values of soil and of grain and straw fractions of the ancient cereal types; differences in δ(15)N between unmanured and PK treatments were insignificant. The offset in straw and grain δ(15)N due to manure averaged 7.9 and 8.8 ‰, respectively, while the soil offset was 1.9 ‰. The soil and biomass δ(13)C values were not affected by nutrient amendments. Grain weights differed among cereal types but increased in the order: unmanured, PK, and animal manure. The grain and straw total-N concentration was generally not affected by manure addition. Our study suggests that long-term application of manure to permanently cultivated sites would have provided a substantial positive effect on cereals grown in early agriculture and will have left a significant N isotopic imprint on soil, grains and straw. We suggest that the use of animal manure can be identified by the (15)N abundance in remains of ancient cereals (e.g. charred grains) from archaeological sites and by growing test plants on freshly exposed palaeosols.
Tyagi, Ashish; Nagpal, Nitin; Sidhu, D. S.; Singh, Amandeep; Tyagi, Anjali
Background: Estimation of the outcome is paramount in disease stratification and subsequent management in severely ill surgical patients. Risk scoring helps us quantify the prospects of adverse outcome in a patient. Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (P-POSSUM) the world over has proved itself as a worthy scoring system and the present study was done to evaluate the feasibility of P-POSSUM as a risk scoring system as a tool in efficacious prediction of mortality and morbidity in our demographic profile. Materials and Methods: Validity of P-POSSUM was assessed prospectively in fifty major general surgeries performed at our hospital from May 2011 to October 2012. Data were collected to obtain P-POSSUM score, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: Majority (72%) of patients was male and mean age was 40.24 ± 18.6 years. Seventy-eight percentage procedures were emergency laparotomies commonly performed for perforation peritonitis. Mean physiological score was 17.56 ± 7.6, and operative score was 17.76 ± 4.5 (total score = 35.3 ± 10.4). The ratio of observed to expected mortality rate was 0.86 and morbidity rate was 0.78. Discussion: P-POSSUM accurately predicted both mortality and morbidity in patients who underwent major surgical procedures in our setup. Thus, it helped us in identifying patients who required preferential attention and aggressive management. Widespread application of this tool can result in better distribution of care among high-risk surgical patients. PMID:28250670
Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin
The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.
Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin
The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology. PMID:28392994
Colwell, Rita R
Genetic engineering has produced pharmaceuticals, disease-resistant plants, cloned animals and research and industrial products. While the comparably mature field of medical biotechnology now reveals its true potential, marine biotechnology is still in the realm of the future. As we explore the earth for new sources of natural chemicals, we now search the waters. Myriad organisms, most unknown to us, live there. Many produce compounds that can be commercialized, or the organisms themselves may be commercialized, through genetic engineering methods. For decades, scientists studied the ocean depths searching for unique molecules and organisms. But not until the early 1980s was there a synthesis uniting marine natural products, ecology, aquaculture and bioremediation research under the heading of marine biotechnology. As harvesting enough products from marine sources to produce sufficient amounts, even for study, is nearly impossible, we need to use genomics techniques to identify biologically active compounds. As we damage our oceanic ecosystems through pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing methods, opportunities to learn more about marine organisms and their commercial potential may be limited. Although governments and intergovernmental agencies are committed to funding and expanding oceanic research, more funding is needed to discover and study the ocean's vast, unplumbed resources.
At the heart of the effort to enact and scale up successful school reforms is the need for more robust links between research and practice. One promising approach is design development, a methodology widely used in other fields and only recently adapted to education, which offers a disciplined process for identifying practical problems, assessing…
Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. E...
Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. Examples of...
Mazzeo, Christopher; Fleischman, Steve; Heppen, Jessica; Jahangir, Theresa
Improving the nation's high schools--particularly those that are low-performing--involves challenges that are far easier to catalog than to surmount. In this chapter, the authors identify a handful of promising approaches that can help to achieve the goal that all students will graduate from high school well-prepared for further learning,…
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. It usually arises based on a background of chronic liver diseases, defined as the hypercarcinogenic state. The current treatment options for HCC ranging from locoregional treatments to chemotherapies, including sorafenib, effectively regulate the limited sizes and numbers of the nodules. However, these treatments remain unsatisfactory because they have insufficient antitumor effects on the large and numerous nodules associated with HCC and because of a high recurrence rate in the surrounding inflamed liver. To develop novel and promising therapies with higher antitumor effects, recent progress in identifying molecular targets and developing immunological procedures for HCC are reviewed. The molecular targets discussed include the intracellular signaling pathways of protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin and RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase, Wnt/β-catenin and glutamine synthetase, insulin-like growth factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, nuclear factor-κB and telomerase reverse transcriptase, and c-MET. Immunological studies have focused mainly on target identification, T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, natural killer T cells, and vaccine development.
Falasca, Marco; Casari, Ilaria
Chemoprevention is the use of chemical compounds to interfere with the early precancerous stages of carcinogenesis and thereby reverse tumor formation. Many chemopreventive agents, either natural or synthetic, have been identified. Some of the most promising compounds are found in vegetables and fruits. There are numerous mechanisms of action by which these components can intervene in the prevention of cancer, although they have not been fully elucidated. It is worth to note that some foods contain different bioactive compounds. Therefore the possibility exists that combinations of compounds, naturally occurring in those foods, may have a cumulative or even synergistic effect. Nuts are very rich in different bioactive compounds whose anti-cancer properties have already been described. Epidemiologic studies have already suggested that nuts consumption may be potentially beneficial in the incidence of other diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes. Although the results are not conclusive, recent studies show possible cancer protective effects of nuts. This review will focus on the laboratory and clinical evidence of nuts chemopreventive and therapeutic properties.
Demaria, Sandra; Pikarsky, Eli; Karin, Michael; Coussens, Lisa M.; Chen, Yen-Ching; El-Omar, Emad M.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Dubinett, Steven M.; Mao, Jenny T.; Szabo, Eva; Krieg, Arthur; Weiner, George J.; Fox, Bernard A.; Coukos, George; Wang, Ena; Abraham, Robert T.; Carbone, Michele; Lotze, Michael T.
Cancers often arise as the end stage of inflammation in adults, but not in children. As such there is a complex interplay between host immune cells during neoplastic development, with both an ability to promote cancer as well as limit or eliminate it, most often complicit with the host. In humans, defining inflammation and the presence of inflammatory cells within or surrounding the tumor is a critical aspect of modern pathology. Groups defining staging for neoplasms are strongly encouraged to assess and incorporate measures of the presence of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis as well as the nature and quality of the immune infiltrate. Both environmental as well as genetic factors enhance the risk of cigarette smoking, H. pylori, hepatitis B/C, human papilloma virus, solar irradiation, asbestos, pancreatitis, or other causes of chronic inflammation. Identifying suitable genetic polymorphisms in cytokines, cytokine receptors, and Toll-like receptors among other immune response genes is also seen as high value as genomic sequencing becomes less expensive. Animal models which incorporate and assess not only the genetic anlagen but also the inflammatory cells and the presence of microbial pathogen [PAMPs] and damage associated molecular pattern molecules [DAMPs] are necessary. Identifying micro-RNAs involved in regulating the response to damage or injury are seen as highly promising. Although no therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat cancers based on insights into inflammatory pathways are currently approved for the common epithelial malignancies, there remains substantial interest in agents targeting COX2 or PPARγ, ethyl pyruvate, as well as steroids and several novel agents on the horizon. PMID:20386472
Zempolich, B. A.
The progress being made in effective systems design implementation for digital equipment for aircraft avionics sytems is assayed. The history of digital systems integration in avionics hardware is traced from use of 16-transistor chips to emerging 100,000 gate chips, and attention is given to architectural considerations for future hardware. Design considerations include top-down or bottom-up architecture, distributed microprocessor and computer resources, integrated components or data fusion, etc. Systems decomposition practices in design permit separate design of flight safety systems, redundancy, fault tolerance, and identifying components that feature different technologies. Present flight control systems sport a MBTF of 1,000,000 hr when separate controls are installed for each flight system.
Spitzweg, Christine; Morris, John C; Bible, Keith C
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland, occurring either sporadically or alternatively in a hereditary form based on germline RET mutations in approximately one-third of cases. Historically, patients with advanced, metastasized MTC have had a poor prognosis, partly due to limited response to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the past decade, however, considerable progress has been made in identifying key genetic alterations and dysregulated signaling pathways paving the way for the evaluation of a series of multitargeted kinase inhibitors that have started to meaningfully impact clinical practice. Two drugs, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are now approved in the US and EU for use in advanced, progressive MTC, with additional targeted agents also showing promise or awaiting results from clinical trials. However, the potential for toxicities with significant reduction in quality of life and lack of curative outcomes has to be carefully weighed against potential for benefit. Despite significant PFS prolongation observed in randomized clinical trials, most patients even with metastatic disease enjoy indolent courses with slow progression observed over years, wherein watchful waiting is still the preferred strategy. As advanced, progressive MTC is a rare and complex disease, a multidisciplinary approach centered in specialized centers providing interdisciplinary expertise in the individualization of available therapeutic options is preferred. In this review, we summarize current concepts of the molecular pathogenesis of advanced MTC and discuss results from clinical trials of targeted agents and also cytotoxic chemotherapy in the context of clinical implications and future perspectives.
Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo
The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality...
... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality...
Sull, Donald N; Spinosa, Charles
Critical initiatives stall for a variety of reasons--employee disengagement, a lack of coordination between functions, complex organizational structures that obscure accountability, and so on. To overcome such obstacles, managers must fundamentally rethink how work gets done. Most of the challenges stem from broken or poorly crafted commitments. That's because every company is, at its heart, a dynamic network of promises made between employees and colleagues, customers, outsourcing partners, or other stakeholders. Executives can overcome many problems in the short-term and foster productive, reliable workforces for the long-term by practicing what the authors call "promise-based management," which involves cultivating and coordinating commitments in a systematic way. Good promises share five qualities: They are public, active, voluntary, explicit, and mission based. To develop and execute an effective promise, the "provider" and the "customer" in the deal should go through three phases of conversation. The first, achieving a meeting of minds, entails exploring the fundamental questions of coordinated effort: What do you mean? Do you understand what I mean? What should I do? What will you do? Who else should we talk to? In the next phase, making it happen, the provider executes on the promise. In the final phase, closing the loop, the customer publicly declares that the provider has either delivered the goods or failed to do so. Leaders must weave and manage their webs of promises with great care-encouraging iterative conversation and making sure commitments are fulfilled reliably. If they do, they can enhance coordination and cooperation among colleagues, build the organizational agility required to seize new business opportunities, and tap employees' entrepreneurial energies.
... Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program--Implementation Grant Competition; Promise Neighborhoods Program--Planning Grant Competition AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Education (Department) reopens the competition for...
... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163883.html New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial Nemolizumab significantly ... the appearance of moderate to severe eczema, a new, preliminary trial finds. Nemolizumab is a man-made, ...
... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...
Rampelotto, P. H.
In recent years, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of Panspermia have been demolished and this hypothesis emerges as a promising field of research. In this work, recent discoveries and the principal advances in Panspermia are discussed.
Corporation for National Service, Washington, DC.
This handbook provides AmeriCorps Promise Fellows with important information about their participation in this special initiative of AmeriCorps and America's Promise--The Alliance for Youth. Section 1 is an overview of AmeriCorps, including its mission, the mission of America's Promise--The Alliance for Youth, and the role of AmeriCorps Promise…
Rural optometrists were found to differ from urban optometrists in background, environmental attitude, and interest patterns. Attitude toward the urban environment and place of origin were the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. When "urbanism" and "origin" were scaled and placed in a multiple regression equation to predict practice location, identification of an optometrist's location as rural or urban was highly accurate. Most importantly, scores on the equation were predictive of optometry students' future practice locations. A single cut-off point on the equation correctly identified 79% of students who entered rural or isolated small city practice and 81% of those who entered urban practice. The findings suggest that optometry students most likely to enter rural (or indeed urban) practice can be objectively identified early in, or even prior to, training. Such identification may assist educators in selecting and training optometrists who will deliver vision care to people in areas of greatest need.
Zandi, Peter P; Judy, Jennifer T
Existing psychotropic medications for the treatment of mental illnesses, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics, are clinically suboptimal. They are effective in only a subset of patients or produce partial responses, and they are often associated with debilitating side effects that discourage adherence. There is growing enthusiasm in the promise of pharmacogenetics to personalize the use of these treatments to maximize their efficacy and tolerability; however, there is still a long way to go before this promise becomes a reality. This article reviews the progress that has been made in research toward understanding how genetic factors influence psychotropic drug responses and the challenges that lie ahead in translating the research findings into clinical practices that yield tangible benefits for patients with mental illnesses.
Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A
Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. Examples of current experimental designs and capabilities of proteomic technology and basic principles of mass spectrometry are discussed. In addition, challenges and limitations of proteomics are presented, stressing those that are unique to veterinary/animal sciences.
The concept of product line management has recently drawn much attention in the health care field. The impetus has come from both marketing and accounting professionals as they have sought to find solutions to identified problems. Examined here are the roots of product line management, the reasons for the growth in the application of the concept in health care, and whether it promises to solve the problems faced by health care organizations in the current highly competitive environment.
Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Complemented with Selected 16S rRNA and gyrB Genes Sequencing to Practically Identify Clinical Important Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS)
Zhou, Menglan; Yang, Qiwen; Kudinha, Timothy; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Yupei; Xu, Ying-Chun
There are challenges in viridans group streptococci (VGS) identification especially for the mitis group. Few studies have investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS system in VGS identification. Using 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene sequencing as a gold standard, the performance of two MALDI-TOF MS instruments in the identification of 181 VGS clinical isolates was studied. The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS IVD systems correctly identified 88.4% and 98.9% of the 181 isolates, respectively. The Vitek MS RUO system was the least reliable, only correctly identifying 38.7% of the isolates to species level with several misidentifications and invalid results. The Bruker Biotyper system was very unreliable in the identification of species within the mitis group. Among 22 non-pneumococci isolates (S. mitis/S. oralis/S. pseudopneumoniae), Biotyper misidentified 21 of them as S. pneumoniae leading to a low sensitivity and low positive predictive value in these species. In contrast, the Vitek MS IVD demonstrated a better resolution for pneumococci and non-pneumococci despite the inability to distinguish between S. mitis/S. oralis. For more accurate species-level identification, further improvements in the VGS spectra databases are needed. Based on MALDI-TOF analysis and selected 16S rRNA gene plus gyrB genes sequencing, we designed a practical VGS identification algorithm. PMID:27617008
Traditional campus-based teacher education programs, located on college or university campuses, have been criticized for being removed from the "real world" of community life, and a number of programs have moved directly into urban communities in order for preservice teachers to become immersed in the life of the community. This article…
Unger, Karen V.
"Building Your Program" is intended to help mental health authorities, agency administrators, and program leaders think through and develop Supported Education. The first part of this booklet gives you background information about the Supported Education model. Specific information about your role in implementing and sustaining Supported Education…
Montes, Samantha D; Zweig, David
Promises are positioned centrally in the study of psychological contract breach and are argued to distinguish psychological contracts from related constructs, such as employee expectations. However, because the effects of promises and delivered inducements are confounded in most research, the role of promises in perceptions of, and reactions to, breach remains unclear. If promises are not an important determinant of employee perceptions, emotions, and behavioral intentions, this would suggest that the psychological contract breach construct might lack utility. To assess the unique role of promises, the authors manipulated promises and delivered inducements separately in hypothetical scenarios in Studies 1 (558 undergraduates) and 2 (441 employees), and they measured them separately (longitudinally) in Study 3 (383 employees). The authors' results indicate that breach perceptions do not represent a discrepancy between what employees believe they were promised and were given. In fact, breach perceptions can exist in the absence of promises. Further, promises play a negligible role in predicting feelings of violation and behavioral intentions. Contrary to the extant literature, the authors' findings suggest that promises may matter little; employees are concerned primarily with what the organization delivers.
Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele
Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392
Mamlin, Burke W; Tierney, William M
Healthcare is an information business with expanding use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Current ICT tools are immature, but a brighter future looms. We examine 7 areas of ICT in healthcare: electronic health records (EHRs), health information exchange (HIE), patient portals, telemedicine, social media, mobile devices and wearable sensors and monitors, and privacy and security. In each of these areas, we examine the current status and future promise, highlighting how each might reach its promise. Steps to better EHRs include a universal programming interface, universal patient identifiers, improved documentation and improved data analysis. HIEs require federal subsidies for sustainability and support from EHR vendors, targeting seamless sharing of EHR data. Patient portals must bring patients into the EHR with better design and training, greater provider engagement and leveraging HIEs. Telemedicine needs sustainable payment models, clear rules of engagement, quality measures and monitoring. Social media needs consensus on rules of engagement for providers, better data mining tools and approaches to counter disinformation. Mobile and wearable devices benefit from a universal programming interface, improved infrastructure, more rigorous research and integration with EHRs and HIEs. Laws for privacy and security need updating to match current technologies, and data stewards should share information on breaches and standardize best practices. ICT tools are evolving quickly in healthcare and require a rational and well-funded national agenda for development, use and assessment.
Zhang, Jun; Merialdi, Mario; Platt, Lawrence D.; Kramer, Michael S.
Normal fetal growth is a critical component of a healthy pregnancy and influences the long-term health of the offspring. However, defining normal and abnormal fetal growth has been a long-standing challenge in clinical practice and research. The authors review various references and standards that are widely used to evaluate fetal growth, and discuss common pitfalls of current definitions of abnormal fetal growth. Pros and cons of different approaches to customize fetal growth standards are described. The authors further discuss recent advances towards an integrated definition for fetal growth restriction. Such a definition may incorporate fetal size with the status of placental health measured by maternal and fetal Doppler velocimetry and biomarkers, biophysical findings and genetics. Although the concept of an integrated definition appears promising, further development and testing are required. An improved definition of abnormal fetal growth should benefit both research and clinical practice. PMID:20074690
Barradell, Sarah; Peseta, Tai
The original work on threshold concepts arose from a project designed to improve students' learning experiences by taking seriously the features of disciplinary knowledge as its starting point. The conceptual and empirical work on threshold concepts has since developed and matured. While many disciplines have engaged enthusiastically with the…
Johnson, Kathleen H.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Westbrook, Linda Oakes
A gap in data prevents measurement of the needs of school-age children and the influence of school nursing interventions on student health and education outcomes. Its remedy is in the data collected in school health rooms. A national clinical database describing school health will allow education and health leaders to build evidence-based programs…
Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, West Nile fever, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual scree...
Clark, D. H.
Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic particles when a glacier is present upstream, the signal can be highly variable and complex, most likely the result of stochastic processes in the basin. Our analyses indicate that although particle size reflects glacier activity upstream, it is rarely the best record of glacier change and is most useful in combination with other proxies, most notably MS, color, and organic content.
Oliferenko, Polina V.; Oliferenko, Alexander A.; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Osolodkin, Dmitry I.; Pillai, Girinath G.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Clark, Gary G.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Katritzky, Alan R.
Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort. PMID:24039693
Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Coyle, Harold P.; Miller, Kelly A.
The psychometrically sound development of assessment instruments requires pilot testing of candidate items as a first step in gauging their quality, typically a time-consuming and costly effort. Crowdsourcing offers the opportunity for gathering data much more quickly and inexpensively than from most targeted populations. In a simulation of a…
Hodge, Samuel R.
In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…
Kane, Michael B., Ed.; Mitchell, Ruth, Ed.
The chapters in this collection contribute to the debate about the value and usefulness of radically different kinds of assessments in the U.S. educational system by considering and expanding on the theoretical underpinnings of reports and speculation. The chapters are: (1) "Assessment Reform: Promises and Challenges" (Nidhi Khattri and…
Over the past 20 years, alcohol researchers have made intensive efforts to understand alcohol use and its outcomes. To date, researchers have made much progress toward understanding the causes and consequences of alcoholism and its related problems. This publication attempts to convey the great spirit and promise of alcohol research. Established…
Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A
Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.
Bederson, Benjamin B.
Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…
... education at the State and local levels and to help all children meet challenging State academic content and... community supports (both as defined in this notice), with great schools at the center; (3) Integrating...) Learning about the overall impact of the Promise Neighborhoods program and about the relationship...
Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Echeverría, Sandra E; Flórez, Karen R
This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions--intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation--and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave.
Graham, Colin; McKenzie, Alasdair
Data from 15 United Kingdom organizations highlighted best practices in developing entry workers: direct managers play a key role, coaching in learning by doing is essential, and networking with peers is valuable. Development is influenced by a mix of factors: mentoring, personnel practices, attitude, organizational culture, peer group, and…
The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and benefits have been identified in the area of ocean wave energy extraction, i.e., harnessing the motion of the ocean waves, and converting that motion into electrical energy. Ocean wave energy refers to the kinetic and potential energy in the heaving motion of ocean waves. Wave energy is essentially concentrated solar energy (as is wind energy). The heating of the earth’s surface by the sun (with other complex processes) drives the wind, which in turn blows across the surface of the ocean to create waves. At each stage of conversion, the power density increases. Ocean wave power offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. A typical large ocean wave propogates at around 12 m/s with very little attenuation across the ocean. If the waves can be detected several hundred kilometers off shore, there can be 10 hours or more of accurate forecast horizon. In fact, analysis has shown good forecast accuracy up to 48 hours in advance. Off the coast Oregon, the yearly average wave power is approximately 30 kW per meter of crestlength (i.e., unit length transverse to the direction of wave propagation and parallel to the shore.) This compares very favorably with power densities of solar and wind, which typically range in the several hundreds of Watts per square meter. Globally, the wave energy resource is stronger on the west coasts of large landmasses and increases in strength
Eisen, Marvin; Pallitto, Christina; Bradner, Carolyn; Bolshun, Natalya
This guidebook explores some of the practical issues associated with finding, choosing, and starting potentially effective prevention programs for at-risk preteens and teens. The guidebook is based on a study of 51 intervention programs that identified elements and delivery mechanisms that were associated with their effectiveness. A closer look at…
Luiten, Esther E M; Akkerman, Ida; Koulman, Albert; Kamermans, Pauline; Reith, Hans; Barbosa, Maria J; Sipkema, Detmer; Wijffels, René H
High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, (feed-)products for aquaculture and bioremediation solutions) is not the only factor to realise the commercial applications of marine biotechnology. What else is needed to exploit the promising potential of marine biotechnology and to create new industrial possibilities? In the study project 'Ocean Farming-Sustainable exploitation of marine organisms', we explore the possibilities of marine organisms to fulfill needs, such as safe and healthy food, industrial (raw) materials and renewable energy in a sustainable way. One of the three design groups is envisioning the future of strong land-based 'marine' market chains. Marine biotechnology is one of the foci of attention in this design group. This article provides a model of future-oriented thinking in which a variety of experts actively participate.
The Long Valley and Coso Hot Springs areas of California have been identified as the most promising sites for conducting a magma energy extraction experiment. These two locations were selected from among the potential sites on the basis of several factors that are critical to the success of the proposed long-term energy extraction experiment. These factors include the likelihood of the existence of shallow magma targets as well as several other drilling, energy extraction and programmatic considerations. As the magma energy extraction program continues, these sites will be analyzed in detail so that one can be selected as the site for the planned magma experiment.
Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Lee, Shawna J; Durrant, Joan E
The strong and ever-growing evidence base demonstrating that physical punishment places children at risk for a range of negative outcomes, coupled with global recognition of children's inherent rights to protection and dignity, has led to the emergence of programs specifically designed to prevent physical punishment by parents. This paper describes promising programs and strategies designed for each of three levels of intervention - indicated, selective, and universal - and summarizes the existing evidence base of each. Areas for further program development and evaluation are identified.
Iezzi, Manuela; Quaglino, Elena; Amici, Augusto; Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Forni, Guido; Cavallo, Federica
The emerging evidence that DNA vaccines elicit a protective immune response in rodents, dogs and cancer patients, coupled with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an initial DNA vaccine to treat canine tumors is beginning to close the gap between the optimistic experimental data and their difficult application in a clinical setting. Here we review a series of conceptual and biotechnological advances that are working together to make DNA vaccines targeting molecules that play important roles during cancer progression (oncoantigens) a promise with near-term clinical impact.
The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.
Fawcett, Stephen B.; Mathews, R. Mark; Fletcher, R. Kay
In recent years, the search for effective and replicable approaches to planned change in communities has escalated. Applied behavior analysts have participated in these efforts to remedy existing community problems and to increase the capacities of community residents to meet their goals. Examples of behavioral technologies for community settings are described and their advantages are noted. Criteria for more contextually appropriate community technologies are suggested and strategies for developing behavioral methods according to these criteria are described. This paper outlines some promising dimensions for behavioral community technology and discusses several possible limitations to a behavioral approach to addressing societal problems. PMID:16795630
Kennedy, M M
What are recruiters promising? Many new hires say that they accepted a job because of a promised mentoring program--one that never materializes, and one that the manager doesn't know was part of the discussions. Where does that leave the manager who may not be aware of this expectation? Faced with anchoring mobile Gen Xers, organizations are exploring mentoring as an inexpensive way to improve retention. But mentoring is not a technique that can be applied like a warm blanket to solve the problems of orientation, training, skills development, and retention. There are two reasons why mentoring isn't foolproof--the mentor and the protégé. If you are considering a mentoring program, or becoming a mentor yourself, here are some points to ponder: (1) If you can't (or won't) do it, give convincing reasons up front; (2) establish the rules of engagement; (3) a mentoring relationship doesn't guarantee loyalty; (4) having a protégé has political risks; (5) you can't force anyone to take advice; and (6) expect a quid pro quo.
Potkay, Joseph A
Microfluidic or microchannel artificial lungs promise to enable a new class of truly portable, therapeutic artificial lungs through feature sizes and blood channel designs that closely mimic those found in their natural counterpart. These new artificial lungs could potentially: 1) have surface areas and priming volumes that are a fraction of current technologies thereby decreasing device size and reducing the foreign body response; 2) contain blood flow networks in which cells and platelets experience pressures, shear stresses, and branching angles that copy those in the human lung thereby improving biocompatibility; 3) operate efficiently with room air, eliminating the need for gas cylinders and complications associated with hyperoxemia; 4) exhibit biomimetic hydraulic resistances, enabling operation with natural pressures and eliminating the need for blood pumps; and, 5) provide increased gas exchange capacity enabling respiratory support for active patients. This manuscript reviews recent research efforts in microfluidic artificial lungs targeted at achieving the advantages above, investigates the ultimate performance and scaling limits of these devices using a proven mathematical model, and discusses the future challenges that must be overcome in order for microfluidic artificial lungs to be applied in the clinic. If all of these promising advantages are realized and the remaining challenges are met, microfluidic artificial lungs could revolutionize the field of pulmonary rehabilitation.
Rosenheim, Jay A; Gratton, Claudio
Ecoinformatics, as defined in this review, is the use of preexisting data sets to address questions in ecology. We provide the first review of ecoinformatics methods in agricultural entomology. Ecoinformatics methods have been used to address the full range of questions studied by agricultural entomologists, enabled by the special opportunities associated with data sets, nearly all of which have been observational, that are larger and more diverse and that embrace larger spatial and temporal scales than most experimental studies do. We argue that ecoinformatics research methods and traditional, experimental research methods have strengths and weaknesses that are largely complementary. We address the important interpretational challenges associated with observational data sets, highlight common pitfalls, and propose some best practices for researchers using these methods. Ecoinformatics methods hold great promise as a vehicle for capitalizing on the explosion of data emanating from farmers, researchers, and the public, as novel sampling and sensing techniques are developed and digital data sharing becomes more widespread.
Rosch, Jason W
The pneumococcus is a remarkably adaptable pathogen whose disease manifestations range from mucosal surface infections such as acute otitis media and pneumonia to invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis. Currently approved vaccines target the polysaccharide capsule, of which there are over 90 distinct serotypes, leading to rapid serotype replacement in vaccinated populations. Substantial progress has been made in the development of a universal pneumococcal vaccine, with efforts focused on broadly conserved and protective protein antigens. An area attracting considerable attention is the potential application of live attenuated vaccines to confer serotype-independent protection against mucosal and systemic infection. On the basis of recent work to understand the mucosal and systemic responses to nasal administration of pneumococci and to develop novel attenuation strategies, the prospect of a practical and protective live vaccine remains promising.
Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Advances in theories of adolescent development and positive youth development have greatly increased our understanding of how programs and practices with adolescents can impede or enhance their development. In this article the authors reflect on the progress in research on youth development programs in the last two decades, since possibly the…
Bascia, Nina; Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric
Reducing class size, especially in primary grades, can have tremendous academic and social benefits for children--benefits that endure well beyond those first years of school. But smaller class sizes are not a cure-all. Beyond the hoopla of enthusiasm for this seemingly simple change in educational practice lie serious consequences for students…
Pane, John F.; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Baird, Matthew D.; Hamilton, Laura S.
The adoption of personalized learning approaches has increased significantly in recent years. This report examines achievement in 62 public charter and district schools that are pursuing a variety of personalized learning practices, and examines implementation details in 32 of those schools. Researchers obtained achievement data for personalized…
Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Audia, James E; Austin, Christopher; Baell, Jonathan; Bennett, Jonathan; Blagg, Julian; Bountra, Chas; Brennan, Paul E; Brown, Peter J; Bunnage, Mark E; Buser-Doepner, Carolyn; Campbell, Robert M; Carter, Adrian J; Cohen, Philip; Copeland, Robert A; Cravatt, Ben; Dahlin, Jayme L; Dhanak, Dashyant; Frederiksen, Mathias; Frye, Stephen V; Gray, Nathanael; Grimshaw, Charles E; Hepworth, David; Howe, Trevor; Huber, Kilian V M; Jin, Jian; Knapp, Stefan; Kotz, Joanne D; Kruger, Ryan G; Lowe, Derek; Mader, Mary M; Marsden, Brian; Mueller-Fahrnow, Anke; Müller, Susanne; O'Hagan, Ronan C; Overington, John P; Owen, Dafydd R; Rosenberg, Saul H; Ross, Ruth; Roth, Bryan; Schapira, Matthieu; Schreiber, Stuart L; Shoichet, Brian; Sundström, Michael; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Taunton, Jack; Toledo-Sherman, Leticia; Walpole, Chris; Walters, Michael A; Willson, Timothy M; Workman, Paul; Young, Robert N; Zuercher, William J
Chemical probes are powerful reagents with increasing impacts on biomedical research. However, probes of poor quality or that are used incorrectly generate misleading results. To help address these shortcomings, we will create a community-driven wiki resource to improve quality and convey current best practice. PMID:26196764
For almost as long as teacher education programs have existed, there has been controversy about the appropriate balance between liberal arts and pedagogy, theory and practice, and university experiences and school-based experiences. The author of this article, a member of the American Educational Research Association's Panel on Teacher Education,…
Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies.
Gern, James E.
Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children has led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products may be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility and potential impact for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases, and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984
Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael
DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed by dendritic cells, is able to recognize high mannosylated glycoproteins at the surface of a broad range of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. For at least some of these agents this interaction appears to be an important part of the infection process. Therefore, this lectin might be considered in the design of new antiviral drugs. In this manner, multivalent carbohydrate systems based on dendrimers and dendritic polymers are promising candidates as antiviral drugs. Boltorn hyperbranched dendritic polymers functionalized with mannose have been used to inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated infection in an Ebola-pseudotyped viral model. Their physiological solubility, lack of toxicity and especially their low price suggest the application of these glycodendritic polymers for possible formulation as microbicides.
Wharam, J Frank; Weiner, Jonathan P
Health plans and physician groups increasingly use sophisticated tools to predict individual patient outcomes. Such analytics will accelerate as US medicine enters the digital age. Promising applications of forecasting include better targeting of disease management as well as innovative patient care approaches such as personalized health insurance and clinical decision support systems. In addition, stakeholders will use predictions to advance their organizational agendas, and unintended consequences could arise. Forecasting-based interventions might have uncertain effectiveness, focus on cost savings rather than long-term health, or specifically exclude disadvantaged populations. Policy makers, health plans, and method developers should adopt strategies that address these concerns in order to maximize the benefit of healthcare forecasting on the long-term health of patients.
Agarwal, Pratul K.; Alam, Sadaf R.
Proteins work as highly efficient machines at the molecular level and are responsible for a variety of processes in all living cells. There is wide interest in understanding these machines for implications in biochemical/biotechnology industries as well as in health related fields. Over the last century, investigations of proteins based on a variety of experimental techniques have provided a wealth of information. More recently, theoretical and computational modeling using large scale simulations is providing novel insights into the functioning of these machines. The next generation supercomputers with petascale computing power, hold great promises as well as challenges for the biomolecular simulation scientists. We briefly discuss the progress being made in this area.
Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L
An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations.
On Agust 3, 1973, a small earthquake (magnitude 2.5) occurred near Blue Mountain Lake in the Adirondack region of northern New York State. This seemingly unimportant event was of great significance, however, because it was predicted. Seismologsits at the Lamont-Doherty geologcal Observatory of Columbia University accurately foretold the time, place, and magnitude of the event. Their prediction was based on certain pre-earthquake processes that are best explained by a hypothesis known as "dilatancy," a concept that has injected new life and direction into the science of earthquake prediction. Although much mroe reserach must be accomplished before we can expect to predict potentially damaging earthquakes with any degree of consistency, results such as this indicate that we are on a promising road.
Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Cavallo, Federica; Nanni, Patrizia; Quaglino, Elena
Years of unsuccessful attempts at fighting established tumors with vaccines have taught us all that they are only able to truly impact patient survival when used in a preventive setting, as would normally be the case for traditional vaccines against infectious diseases. While true primary cancer prevention is still but a long-term goal, secondary and tertiary prevention are already in the clinic and providing encouraging results. A combination of immunopreventive cancer strategies and recently approved checkpoint inhibitors is a further promise of forthcoming successful cancer disease control, but prevention will require a considerable reduction of currently reported toxicities. These considerations summed with the increased understanding of tumor antigens allow space for an optimistic view of the future. PMID:26343198
Heffern, Marie C.; Yamamoto, Natsuho; Holbrook, Robert J.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.
Inorganic complexes are versatile platforms for the development of potent and selective pharmaceutical agents. Cobalt possesses a diverse array of properties that can be manipulated to yield promising drug candidates. Investigations into the mechanism of cobalt therapeutic agents can provide valuable insight into the physicochemical properties that can be harnessed for drug development. This review presents examples of bioactive cobalt complexes with special attention to their mechanisms of action. Specifically, cobalt complexes that elicit biological effects through protein inhibition, modification of drug activity, and bioreductive activation are discussed. Insights gained from these examples reveal features of cobalt that can be rationally tuned to produce therapeutics with high specificity and improved efficacy for the biomolecule or pathway of interest. PMID:23270779
Hester, Rebecca J
Cultural competence has become a ubiquitous and unquestioned aspect of professional formation in medicine. It has been linked to efforts to eliminate race-based health disparities and to train more compassionate and sensitive providers. In this article, I question whether the field of cultural competence lives up to its promise. I argue that it does not because it fails to grapple with the ways that race and racism work in U.S. society today. Unless we change our theoretical apparatus for dealing with diversity to one that more critically engages with the complexities of race, I suggest that unequal treatment and entrenched health disparities will remain. If the field of cultural competence incorporates the lessons of critical race scholarship, however, it would not only need to transform its theoretical foundation, it would also need to change its name.
Prasad, Leena Kumari; O’Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong
An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease. PMID:26084368
Biomedicine has made enormous progress in the last half century in treating common diseases. However, we are becoming victims of our own success. Causes of death strongly associated with biological aging, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke-cluster within individuals as they grow older. These conditions increase frailty and limit the benefits of continued, disease-specific improvements. Here, we show that a "delayed-aging" scenario, modeled on the biological benefits observed in the most promising animal models, could solve this problem of competing risks. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over 50 years. Total government costs, including Social Security, rise substantially with delayed aging--mainly caused by longevity increases--but we show that these can be offset by modest policy changes. Expanded biomedical research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease and extend healthy life.
Prasad, Leena Kumari; O'Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong
An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease.
Casey, BJ; Soliman, Fatima; Bath, Kevin G.; Glatt, Charles E.
Excitement with the publication of the human genome has served as catalyst for scientists to uncover the functions of specific genes. The main avenues for understanding gene function have been in behavioral genetics on one end and on the other end, molecular mouse models. Attempts to bridge these approaches have used brain imaging to conveniently link anatomical abnormalities seen in knockout/transgenic mouse models and abnormal patterns of brain activity seen in humans. Although a convenient approach, this paper provides examples of challenges for imaging genetics, its application to developmental questions and promises for future directions. Attempts to link genes, brain and behavior using behavioral genetics, imaging genetics and mouse models of behavior are described. Each of these approaches alone, provide limited information on gene function in complex human behavior, but together, they are forming bridges between animal models and human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20496375
Wigg, Alan J; Padbury, Robert T
Effective liver support is needed for a variety of indications. A large number of both biological (containing hepatocytes) and non-biological extracorporeal liver support systems have been described in the literature over the last 50 years. Despite this, there is a paucity of good quality randomized control data examining the effectiveness of these therapies in human liver failure. In this review article, we examine the available data, with particular emphasis on the current front runners, the MARS and HepatAssist systems. Other problems associated with the development of these liver support systems are also discussed. Although promising in animal studies, we conclude that the use of these technologies is not supported currently by a sufficient evidence base to recommend them for routine clinical use and that a lack of understanding about the critical functions required of a liver support system is retarding a more rational approach to the design of these systems.
Mengle-Gaw, Laurel J; Schwartz, Benjamin D
The discovery of two isoforms of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2, and the development of COX-2-specific inhibitors as anti-inflammatories and analgesics have offered great promise that the therapeutic benefits of NSAIDs could be optimized through inhibition of COX-2, while minimizing their adverse side effect profile associated with inhibition of COX-1. While COX-2 specific inhibitors have proven to be efficacious in a variety of inflammatory conditions, exposure of large numbers of patients to these drugs in postmarketing studies have uncovered potential safety concerns that raise questions about the benefit/risk ratio of COX-2-specific NSAIDs compared to conventional NSAIDs. This article reviews the efficacy and safety profiles of COX-2-specific inhibitors, comparing them with conventional NSDAIDs. PMID:12467519
Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.
The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…
Ortiz, Ernesto; Possani, Lourival D
Since the description and biochemical characterization of the first insect-specific neurotoxins from scorpion venoms, almost all contributions have highlighted their potential application as leads for the development of potent bioinsecticides. Their practical use, however, has been hindered by different factors, some of which are intrinsically related to the toxins and other external determinants. Recent developments in the understanding of the action mechanisms of the scorpion insectotoxins and their bioactive surfaces, coupled with the exploration of novel bioinsecticide delivery systems have renewed the expectations that the scorpion insectotoxins could find their way into commercial applications in agriculture, as part of integrated pest control strategies. Herein, we review the current arsenal of available scorpion neurotoxins with a degree of specificity for insects, the progress made with alternative delivery methods, and the drawbacks that still preclude their practical use.
while there is still ample time to correct them. If we wait until we actually need these capabilities, it will be too late. As Bertolt Brecht sagely...current combat practices. Readers may observe that this study concentrates on large-scale con- ventional conflict in which American airpower played a...effort.20 Given these discussions, it is evident that effects played a key role in tar- get identification; however, selecting targets was one thing
This publication is the first of a series focusing on promising new ideas and innovative practices developed through the Adult College Completion Network. The brief addresses five topics of importance to those working to improve adult college completion: (1) Data availability particular to the returning adult population; (2) Partnerships between…
Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie
The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…
Riker, Carol A; Lee, Kiyoung; Darville, Audrey; Hahn, Ellen J
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use a heating element to vaporize nicotine and other ingredients, simulating the visual, sensory, and behavioral aspects of smoking without the combustion of tobacco. An ever-growing number of companies around the world manufacture a wide variety of e-cigarette brands, despite scant information on the safety of the ingredients for human inhalation. This article provides an overview of the history, production, and marketing of e-cigarettes, the contents of e-cigarettes and vapor, how they are used, public health concerns, and implications for nursing practice, research, and policy development.
Henrique Rampelotto, Pabulo
Although Panspermia -the hypothesis that life migrates naturally through space -has been raised many times along the human history, due to lack of any validation it remained merely speculative until few decades ago. It is only with the recent discoveries and advances from different fields of research that Panspermia has been given serious scientific consideration. The natural movement of material from planetary surface to planetary surface has been explored and the mechanisms are well established. A variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuum and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions experienced by microbes during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space as well as the impact in another planet. The discovery of potential habitable environments such as the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn expands the possibility of transfer of life within the Solar System. Consequently, studies of natural transfer of biological material occurring between satellites have been developed. Furthermore, the probability of interplanetary transfer of life out the Solar System has been explored. Therefore, in the last few decades, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of this hypothesis have been demolished and Panspermia reemerges as a promising field of research.
Conrad, D A; Shortell, S M
Today's ¿virtually¿ and vertically integrated health systems increasingly are much better positioned than the multihospital systems of the 1980s to respond to the healthcare challenges of the twenty-first century. The authors argue that the control of the health services ¿value chain¿ will devolve naturally to those market players who have the comparative advantage in coordinating the flows of information, human, and physical resources along the continuum of services required to improve and maintain the health of populations. Available evidence does not render a clear verdict on whether superior performance is generated by the virtual integration of strategic alliances and affiliations or the vertical integration represented by unified single ownership of all system components. While inertia, acute care-based ¿mental models,¿ weak incentives, and insufficiently developed information systems represent important barriers to the creation and sustainability of integrated systems, the authors argue that system evolution is occurring and offers promise of enhanced efficiency and patient benefit. However, the full potential of these systems will only be realized as they accept explicit accountability for meeting the health needs of their local communities. The transition from ¿covered lives¿ to accountability for the community population is crucial.
Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan
More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865
Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Echeverría, Sandra E.; Flórez, Karen R.
This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions—intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation—and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave. PMID:26735431
Lange, Jean-Paul; van der Heide, Evert; van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Price, Richard
Furfural offers a promising, rich platform for lignocellulosic biofuels. These include methylfuran and methyltetrahydrofuran, valerate esters, ethylfurfuryl and ethyltetrahydrofurfuryl ethers as well as various C(10)-C(15) coupling products. The various production routes are critically reviewed, and the needs for improvements are identified. Their relative industrial potential is analysed by defining an investment index and CO(2) emissions as well as determining the fuel properties for the resulting products. Finally, the most promising candidate, 2-methylfuran, was subjected to a road trial of 90,000 km in a gasoline blend. Importantly, the potential of the furfural platform relies heavily on the cost-competitive production of furfural from lignocellulosic feedstock. Conventional standalone and emerging coproduct processes-for example, as a coproduct of cellulosic ethanol, levulinic acid or hydroxymethyl furfural-are expensive and energetically demanding. Challenges and areas that need improvement are highlighted. In addition to providing a critical review of the literature, this paper also presents new results and analysis in this area.
Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.
The state of the art in human factors in flight-deck automation is presented. A number of critical problem areas are identified and broad design guidelines are offered. Automation-related aircraft accidents and incidents are discussed as examples of human factors problems in automated flight.
Although many correctional education studies have identified various treatment programs as being effective for reducing recidivism, few, if any, of these studies appear to be above reproach when assessing their methodological vigor. This paper highlights the shortcomings in the current post-treatment quasi-experimental design primarily used to…
Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T
The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve.
WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN
BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537
Kroeze, Kevin; Hyatt, Keith J.; Lambert, M. Chuck
There is an abundance of scams and pseudoscientific practices promising seemingly magical cures for whatever ails a person. A short viewing of late night television will readily reveal a whole host of scams that may be more effective at relieving the viewer of the cash in his or her pocket than alleviating any unwanted symptoms. Unfortunately,…
This article features five schools (John P. Oldham Elementary, Norwood, Massachusetts; R. J. Richey Elementary, Burnet, Texas; Pittsburgh Carmalt Science and Technology Academy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John D. Shaw Elementary, Wasilla, Alaska; and Springville K-8, Portland Oregon) that offer five promising practices. From fourth graders learning…
Oughaddou, Hamid; Enriquez, Hanna; Tchalala, Mohammed Rachid; Yildirim, Handan; Mayne, Andrew J.; Bendounan, Azzedine; Dujardin, Gérald; Ait Ali, Mustapha; Kara, Abdelkader
Silicene is emerging as a two-dimensional material with very attractive electronic properties for a wide range of applications; it is a particularly promising material for nano-electronics in silicon-based technology. Over the last decade, the existence and stability of silicene has been the subject of much debate. Theoretical studies were the first to predict a puckered honeycomb structure with electronic properties resembling those of graphene. Though these studies were for free-standing silicene, experimental fabrication of silicene has been achieved so far only through epitaxial growth on crystalline surfaces. Indeed, it was only in 2010 that researchers presented the first experimental evidence of the formation of silicene on Ag(1 1 0) and Ag(1 1 1), which has launched silicene in a similar way to graphene. This very active field has naturally led to the recent growth of silicene on Ir(1 1 1), ZrB2(0 0 0 1) and Au(1 1 0) substrates. However, the electronic properties of epitaxially grown silicene on metal surfaces are influenced by the strong silicene-metal interactions. This has prompted experimental studies of the growth of multi-layer silicene, though the nature of its "silicene" structure remains questionable. Of course, like graphene, synthesizing free-standing silicene represents the ultimate challenge. A first step towards this has been reported recently through chemical exfoliation from calcium disilicide (CaSi2). In this review, we discuss the experimental and theoretical studies of silicene performed to date. Special attention is given to different experimental studies of the electronic properties of silicene on metal substrates. New avenues for the growth of silicene on other substrates with different chemical characteristics are presented along with foreseeable applications such as nano-devices and novel batteries.
Maldonado-Ficco, Hernan; Perez-Alamino, Rodolfo; Maldonado-Cocco, José A
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is the second most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is another less common but equally chronic and disabling spondyloarthritis (SpA). Therapeutic agents for the treatment of these diseases have been somewhat lacking as compared with those available for rheumatoid arthritis, which represents a significant challenge for both the treating physician and the pharmaceutical industry. A promising development for our understanding of the physiopathology of PsA and AS involves new targets to interrupt IL-17 and IL-12/IL-23 pathways. Up to 30-40 % of SpA patients have inadequate or poor response, or are intolerant to anti-TNF therapies. Therefore, there has been a clear unmet medical need in an important group of these patients. As a result, new therapeutic targets have emerged for the treatment of both axial and peripheral SpA. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is increased in psoriatic lesions as well as in the synovial fluid of patients with PsA and in sites of enthesitis in SpA. IL-23 has been shown to play an important role in the polarization of CD4+ T-cells to become IL-17 producers. Based on these evidences, blockade of the cytokine IL-17 or its receptors was considered to have therapeutic implications for the treatment of psoriasis, as well as PsA and AS.This article presents a thorough review of an IL-17 A blocking agent, its mechanism of action, its clinical efficacy and its therapeutic safety.
Awad, Hanan; El-Aneed, Anas
With the fast growing market of pure enantiomer drugs and bioactive molecules, new chiral-selective analytical tools have been instigated including the use of mass spectrometry (MS). Even though MS is one of the best analytical tools that has efficiently been used in several pharmaceutical and biological applications, traditionally MS is considered as a "chiral-blind" technique. This limitation is due to the MS inability to differentiate between two enantiomers of a chiral molecule based merely on their masses. Several approaches have been explored to assess the potential role of MS in chiral analysis. The first approach depends on the use of MS-hyphenated techniques utilizing fast and sensitive chiral separation tools such as liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to MS detector. More recently, several alternative separation techniques have been evaluated such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC); the latter being a hybrid technique that combines the efficiency of CE with the selectivity of LC. The second approach is based on using the MS instrument solely for the chiral recognition. This method depends on the behavioral differences between enantiomers towards a foreign molecule and the ability of MS to monitor such differences. These behavioral differences can be divided into three types: (i) differences in the enantiomeric affinity for association with the chiral selector, (ii) differences of the enantiomeric exchange rate with a foreign reagent, and (iii) differences in the complex MS dissociation behaviors of the enantiomers. Most recently, ion mobility spectrometry was introduced to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate chiral compounds. This article provides an overview of MS role in chiral analysis by discussing MS based methodologies and presenting the challenges and promises associated with each approach.
Griffin, Tomás P; Martin, William Patrick; Islam, Nahidul; O'Brien, Timothy; Griffin, Matthew D
Diabetes mellitus (DM) commonly leads to progressive chronic kidney disease despite current best medical practice. The pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) involves a complex network of primary and secondary mechanisms with both intra-renal and systemic components. Apart from inhibition of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, targeting individual pathogenic mediators with drug therapy has not, thus far, been proven to have high clinical value. Stem or progenitor cell therapies offer an alternative strategy for modulating complex disease processes through suppressing multiple pathogenic pathways and promoting pro-regenerative mechanisms. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown particular promise based on their accessibility from adult tissues and their diverse mechanisms of action including secretion of paracrine anti-inflammatory and cyto-protective factors. In this review, the progress toward clinical translation of MSC therapy for DKD is critically evaluated. Results from animal models suggest distinct potential for systemic MSC infusion to favourably modulate DKD progression. However, only a few early phase clinical trials have been initiated and efficacy in humans remains to be proven. Key knowledge gaps and research opportunities exist in this field. These include the need to gain greater understanding of in vivo mechanism of action, to identify quantifiable biomarkers of response to therapy and to define the optimal source, dose and timing of MSC administration. Given the rising prevalence of DM and DKD worldwide, continued progress toward harnessing the inherent regenerative functions of MSCs and other progenitor cells for even a subset of those affected has potential for profound societal benefits.
Etzel, Joset A; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Braver, Todd S
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) is an increasingly popular approach for characterizing the information present in neural activity as measured by fMRI. For neuroimaging researchers, the searchlight technique serves as the most intuitively appealing means of implementing MVPA with fMRI data. However, searchlight approaches carry with them a number of special concerns and limitations that can lead to serious interpretation errors in practice, such as misidentifying a cluster as informative, or failing to detect truly informative voxels. Here we describe how such distorted results can occur, using both schematic illustrations and examples from actual fMRI datasets. We recommend that confirmatory and sensitivity tests, such as the ones prescribed here, should be considered a necessary stage of searchlight analysis interpretation, and that their adoption will allow the full potential of searchlight analysis to be realized.
Etzel, Joset A.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Braver, Todd S.
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) is an increasingly popular approach for characterizing the information present in neural activity as measured by fMRI. For neuroimaging researchers, the searchlight technique serves as the most intuitively appealing means of implementing MVPA with fMRI data. However, searchlight approaches carry with them a number of special concerns and limitations that can lead to serious interpretation errors in practice, such as misidentifying a cluster as informative, or failing to detect truly informative voxels. Here we describe how such distorted results can occur, using both schematic illustrations and examples from actual fMRI datasets. We recommend that confirmatory and sensitivity tests, such as the ones prescribed here, should be considered a necessary stage of searchlight analysis interpretation, and that their adoption will allow the full potential of searchlight analysis to be realized. PMID:23558106
Rastogi, Vaibhav; Santiago-Moreno, Juan; Doré, Sylvain
Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. It has been used in the treatment of various ailments and to boost immunity for centuries; especially in Asian countries. The most common ginseng variant in traditional herbal medicine is ginseng, which is made from the peeled and dried root of Panax Ginseng. Ginseng has been suggested as an effective treatment for a vast array of neurological disorders, including stroke and other acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Ginseng’s neuroprotective effects are focused on the maintenance of homeostasis. This review involves a comprehensive literature search that highlights aspects of ginseng’s putative neuroprotective effectiveness, focusing on stroke. Attenuation of inflammation through inhibition of various proinflammatory mediators, along with suppression of oxidative stress by various mechanisms, including activation of the cytoprotective transcriptional factor Nrf2, which results in decrease in reactive oxygen species, could account for its neuroprotective efficacy. It can also prevent neuronal death as a result of stroke, thus decreasing anatomical and functional stroke damage. Although there are diverse studies that have investigated the mechanisms involved in the efficacy of ginseng in treating disorders, there is still much that needs to be clarified. Both in vitro and in vivo studies including randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to develop in-depth knowledge of ginseng and its practical applications. PMID:25653588
Ullman, Edwin F.
The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.
Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R
The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day 'Multivariate meta-analysis' event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice.
Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Sonino, Nicoletta
Psychosomatic research has advanced over the past decades in dealing with complex biopsychosocial phenomena and may provide new effective modalities of patient care. Among psychosocial variables affecting individual vulnerability, course, and outcome of any medical disease, the role of chronic stress (allostatic load/overload) has emerged as a crucial factor. Assessment strategies include the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. They are presented here in an updated version based on insights derived from studies carried out so far and encompass allostatic overload, type A behavior, alexithymia, the spectrum of maladaptive illness behavior, demoralization, irritable mood, and somatic symptoms secondary to a psychiatric disorder. Macroanalysis is a helpful tool for identifying the relationships between biological and psychosocial variables and the individual targets for medical intervention. The personalized and holistic approach to the patient includes integration of medical and psychological therapies in all phases of illness. In this respect, the development of a new psychotherapeutic modality, Well-Being Therapy, seems to be promising. The growth of subspecialties, such as psychooncology and psychodermatology, drives towards the multidisciplinary organization of health care to overcome artificial boundaries. There have been major transformations in health care needs in the past decades. From psychosomatic medicine, a land of innovative hypotheses and trends, many indications for changes in the current practice of medicine are now at hand. The aim of this critical review is to outline current and potential clinical applications of psychosomatic methods.
Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn
In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are
Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Sanmamed, Miguel F; Bosch, Ana; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Schalper, Kurt A; Segura, Victor; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Tabernero, Josep; Sweeney, Christopher J; Choueiri, Toni K; Martín, Miguel; Fusco, Juan Pablo; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria Esperanza; Calvo, Alfonso; Prior, Celia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pio, Ruben; Gonzalez-Billalabeitia, Enrique; Gonzalez Hernandez, Alvaro; Páez, David; Piulats, Jose María; Gurpide, Alfonso; Andueza, Mapi; de Velasco, Guillermo; Pazo, Roberto; Grande, Enrique; Nicolas, Pilar; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Garcia-Donas, Jesus; Castellano, Daniel; Pajares, María J; Suarez, Cristina; Colomer, Ramon; Montuenga, Luis M; Melero, Ignacio
The discovery of reliable biomarkers to predict efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs remains one of the key challenges in cancer research. Despite its relevance, no efficient study designs to identify promising candidate biomarkers have been established. This has led to the proliferation of a myriad of exploratory studies using dissimilar strategies, most of which fail to identify any promising targets and are seldom validated. The lack of a proper methodology also determines that many anti-cancer drugs are developed below their potential, due to failure to identify predictive biomarkers. While some drugs will be systematically administered to many patients who will not benefit from them, leading to unnecessary toxicities and costs, others will never reach registration due to our inability to identify the specific patient population in which they are active. Despite these drawbacks, a limited number of outstanding predictive biomarkers have been successfully identified and validated, and have changed the standard practice of oncology. In this manuscript, a multidisciplinary panel reviews how those key biomarkers were identified and, based on those experiences, proposes a methodological framework-the DESIGN guidelines-to standardize the clinical design of biomarker identification studies and to develop future research in this pivotal field.
Ritter, Gary W.; Ash, Jennifer
Promise programs are place-based scholarships, generally tied to a city or school district, offering near-universal access to all living in the "place." While Promise programs share some characteristics with other scholarship programs, they're unique because they seek to change communities and schools. Underlying such promise programs is…
Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan
Coronary stent implantation started in Germany 20 years ago. In the beginning, the progress was very slow and accelerated 10 years later. Meanwhile, coronary stent implantation is a standard procedure in interventional cardiology. From the beginning of permanent stent implantation, research started to provide temporary stenting of coronary arteries, first with catheter-based systems, later with stent-alone technology. Stents were produced from polymers or metal. The first polymer stent implantation failed except the Igaki-Tamai stent in Japan. Newly developed absorbable polymer stents seem to be very promising, as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated. Temporary metal stents were developed based on iron and magnesium. Currently, the iron stent is tested in peripheral arteries. The absorbable magnesium stent (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) was tested in peripheral arteries below the knee and meanwhile in the multicenter international PROGRESS-AMS (Clinical Performance and Angiographic Results of Coronary Stenting with Absorbable Metal Stents) study. The first magnesium stent implantation was performed on July 30, 2004 after extended experimental testing in Essen. The magnesium stent behaved like a bare-metal stent with low recoil of 5-7%. The stent struts were absorbed when tested with IVUS. Stent struts were not visible by fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). That means, that the magnesium stent is invisible and therefore CT and MRI can be used for imaging of interventions. Only using micro-CT the stent struts were visible. The absorption process could be demonstrated in a patient 18 days after implantation due to suspected acute coronary syndrome, which was excluded. IVUS showed a nice open lumen. Stent struts were no longer visible, but replaced by tissue indicating the previous stent location. Coronary angiography after 4 months showed an ischemia-driven target lesion
Converging theoretical, psychopharmacological, neurodevelopmental advances have led to increasing interest in preventive intervention in schizophrenia. In particular, evidence suggests that early treatment is associated with a better prognosis. Furthermore, based on the reported reduction in severe side effects, the new novel antipsychotics potentially provide the tools for early intervention. Nevertheless, initiation of intervention during the prodrome has become controversial because of such unresolved issues as: (i) how to accurately identify susceptible individuals who are in true need of preventive intervention; (ii) at what developmental point in the prodrome medication should be initiated; (iii) how long medication should be continued; and (iv) what medication is optimal for each phase of the prodrome. By adopting a naturalistic, prospective research strategy, the Recognition and Prevention (RAP) program now underway in New York has been designed to address these and other important questions involved in prodromal research and treatment. PMID:22033553
Miller, A M
Although attention to the links between health and human rights is growing globally, the full potential of a progressive human rights approach to health has not yet been explored, and it is even more faintly understood in the United States than in the rest of the world. At the same time, global claims for sexual rights, particularly for those identifying as gay, lesbian, transsexual, or bisexual, are increasingly being made as human rights claims. All of these approaches to rights advocacy risk limiting their own transformative impact unless advocates critique their own strategies. Paradoxically, using health as a way to bring attention to nonheteronormative sexualities can be both helpful and potentially dangerous, especially when coupled with human rights. Recognizing sexuality as a critical element of humanity, and establishing a fundamental human right to health, can play a role in broader social justice claims, but the tendency of both public health and human rights advocacy to "normalize" and regulate must be scrutinized and challenged.
Flash, Charlene; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H.
With an estimated 2.6 million new HIV infections diagnosed annually, the world needs new prevention strategies to partner with condom use, harm reduction approaches for injection drug users, and male circumcision. Antiretrovirals can reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission and limit HIV acquisition after occupational exposure. Macaque models and clinical trials demonstrate efficacy of oral or topical antiretrovirals used prior to HIV exposure to prevent HIV transmission, ie pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Early initiation of effective HIV treatment in serodiscordant couples results in a 96% decrease in HIV transmission. HIV testing to determine serostatus and identify undiagnosed persons is foundational to these approaches. The relative efficacy of different approaches, adherence, cost and long-term safety will affect uptake and impact of these strategies. Ongoing research will help characterize the role for oral and topical formulations and help quantify potential benefits in sub-populations at risk for HIV acquisition. PMID:22351302
da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira
The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987
Funk, Michael Sean
Promising Black males are an understudied and underserved population in the field of higher education. The purpose of this study was to understand how promising Black males define academic success and to identify the factors that affect academic success at a large predominately White public institutions of higher education located in the…
Robinson, J.M.; Ackerman, W.E.; Kniss, D.A.; Takizawa, T.; Vandré, D.D.
Proteomics is an area of study that sets as its ultimate goal the global analysis of all of the proteins expressed in a biological system of interest. However, technical limitations currently hamper proteome-wide analyses of complex systems. In a more practical sense, a desired outcome of proteomics research is the translation of large protein data sets into formats that provide meaningful information regarding clinical conditions (e.g., biomarkers to serve as diagnostic and/or prognostic indicators of disease). Herein, we discuss placental proteomics by describing existing studies, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses. In so doing, we strive to inform investigators interested in this area of research about the current gap between hyperbolic promises and realities. Additionally, we discuss the utility of proteomics in discovery-based research, particularly as regards the capacity to unearth novel insights into placental biology. Importantly, when considering under studied systems such as the human placenta and diseases associated with abnormalities in placental function, proteomics can serve as a robust ‘shortcut’ to obtaining information unlikely to be garnered using traditional approaches. PMID:18222537
Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S
Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions.
Teck Lim, Goy; Valente, Stephanie A; Hart-Spicer, Cherie R; Evancho-Chapman, Mary M; Puskas, Judit E; Horne, Walter I; Schmidt, Steven P
One in eight American women develops breast cancer. Of the many patients requiring mastectomy yearly as a consequence, most elect some form of breast reconstruction. Since 2006, only silicone breast implants have been approved by the FDA for the public use. Unfortunately, over one-third of women with these implants experience complications as a result of tissue-material biocompatibility issues, which may include capsular contracture, calcification, hematoma, necrosis and implant rupture. Our group has been working on developing alternatives to silicone. Linear triblock poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) polymers are self-assembling nanostructured thermoplastic rubbers, already in clinical practice as drug eluting stent coatings. New generations with a branched (arborescent or dendritic) polyisobutylene core show promising potential as a biomaterial alternative to silicone rubber. The purpose of this pre-clinical research was to evaluate the material-tissue interactions of a new arborescent block copolymer (TPE1) in a rabbit implantation model compared to a linear SIBS (SIBSTAR 103T) and silicone rubber. This study is the first to compare the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, tensile properties and histological evaluation of arborescent SIBS-type materials with silicone rubber before implantation and after explantation.
Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Kumar Bhattacharjee, Abesh; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn
The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23793356
Gabrieli, John D E
Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction. Second, educational neuroscience contributes to ideas about education practices and policies beyond classroom curriculum that are important for helping vulnerable students. Third, educational neuroscience studies using neuroimaging have not only revealed for the first time the brain basis of neurodevelopmental differences that have profound influences on educational outcomes, but have also identified individual brain differences that predict which students learn more or learn less from various curricula. In several cases, the brain measures significantly improved or vastly outperformed conventional behavioral measures in predicting what works for individual children. These findings indicate that educational neuroscience, at a minimum, has provided novel insights into the possibilities of individualized education for students, rather than the current practice of learning through failure that a curriculum did not support a student. In the best approach to improving education, educational neuroscience ought to contribute to basic research addressing the needs of students and teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record
Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Hou, Jinling
For a number of disease entities, oxidative stress becomes a significant factor in the etiology and progression of cell dysfunction and injury. Therapeutic strategies that can identify novel signal transduction pathways to ameliorate the toxic effects of oxidative stress may lead to new avenues of treatment for a spectrum of disorders that include diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and immune system dysfunction. In this respect, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) may offer exciting prospects for several disorders since these receptors can limit or prevent apoptotic cell injury as well as impact upon cellular development and function. Yet the role of mGluRs is complex in nature and may require specific mGluR modulation for a particular disease entity to maximize clinical efficacy and limit potential disability. Here we discuss the potential clinical translation of mGluRs and highlight the role of novel signal transduction pathways in the metabotropic glutamate system that may be vital for the clinical utility of mGluRs.
Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M
Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.
Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.
The paper analyzes the role of human factors in flight-deck automation, identifies problem areas, and suggests design guidelines. Flight-deck automation using microprocessor technology and display systems improves performance and safety while leading to a decrease in size, cost, and power consumption. On the other hand negative factors such as failure of automatic equipment, automation-induced error compounded by crew error, crew error in equipment set-up, failure to heed automatic alarms, and loss of proficiency must also be taken into account. Among the problem areas discussed are automation of control tasks, monitoring of complex systems, psychosocial aspects of automation, and alerting and warning systems. Guidelines are suggested for designing, utilising, and improving control and monitoring systems. Investigation into flight-deck automation systems is important as the knowledge gained can be applied to other systems such as air traffic control and nuclear power generation, but the many problems encountered with automated systems need to be analyzed and overcome in future research.