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Sample records for identifying hiv infection

  1. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-10-23

    In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency.

  2. HIV-1 envelope sequence-based diversity measures for identifying recent infections

    PubMed Central

    Kafando, Alexis; Fournier, Eric; Serhir, Bouchra; Martineau, Christine; Doualla-Bell, Florence; Sangaré, Mohamed Ndongo; Sylla, Mohamed; Chamberland, Annie; El-Far, Mohamed; Charest, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    Identifying recent HIV-1 infections is crucial for monitoring HIV-1 incidence and optimizing public health prevention efforts. To identify recent HIV-1 infections, we evaluated and compared the performance of 4 sequence-based diversity measures including percent diversity, percent complexity, Shannon entropy and number of haplotypes targeting 13 genetic segments within the env gene of HIV-1. A total of 597 diagnostic samples obtained in 2013 and 2015 from recently and chronically HIV-1 infected individuals were selected. From the selected samples, 249 (134 from recent versus 115 from chronic infections) env coding regions, including V1-C5 of gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain of HIV-1, were successfully amplified and sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The ability of the four sequence-based diversity measures to correctly identify recent HIV infections was evaluated using the frequency distribution curves, median and interquartile range and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Comparing the median and interquartile range and evaluating the frequency distribution curves associated with the 4 sequence-based diversity measures, we observed that the percent diversity, number of haplotypes and Shannon entropy demonstrated significant potential to discriminate recent from chronic infections (p<0.0001). Using the AUC of ROC analysis, only the Shannon entropy measure within three HIV-1 env segments could accurately identify recent infections at a satisfactory level. The env segments were gp120 C2_1 (AUC = 0.806), gp120 C2_3 (AUC = 0.805) and gp120 V3 (AUC = 0.812). Our results clearly indicate that the Shannon entropy measure represents a useful tool for predicting HIV-1 infection recency. PMID:29284009

  3. HIV-1 envelope sequence-based diversity measures for identifying recent infections.

    PubMed

    Kafando, Alexis; Fournier, Eric; Serhir, Bouchra; Martineau, Christine; Doualla-Bell, Florence; Sangaré, Mohamed Ndongo; Sylla, Mohamed; Chamberland, Annie; El-Far, Mohamed; Charest, Hugues; Tremblay, Cécile L

    2017-01-01

    Identifying recent HIV-1 infections is crucial for monitoring HIV-1 incidence and optimizing public health prevention efforts. To identify recent HIV-1 infections, we evaluated and compared the performance of 4 sequence-based diversity measures including percent diversity, percent complexity, Shannon entropy and number of haplotypes targeting 13 genetic segments within the env gene of HIV-1. A total of 597 diagnostic samples obtained in 2013 and 2015 from recently and chronically HIV-1 infected individuals were selected. From the selected samples, 249 (134 from recent versus 115 from chronic infections) env coding regions, including V1-C5 of gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain of HIV-1, were successfully amplified and sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The ability of the four sequence-based diversity measures to correctly identify recent HIV infections was evaluated using the frequency distribution curves, median and interquartile range and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Comparing the median and interquartile range and evaluating the frequency distribution curves associated with the 4 sequence-based diversity measures, we observed that the percent diversity, number of haplotypes and Shannon entropy demonstrated significant potential to discriminate recent from chronic infections (p<0.0001). Using the AUC of ROC analysis, only the Shannon entropy measure within three HIV-1 env segments could accurately identify recent infections at a satisfactory level. The env segments were gp120 C2_1 (AUC = 0.806), gp120 C2_3 (AUC = 0.805) and gp120 V3 (AUC = 0.812). Our results clearly indicate that the Shannon entropy measure represents a useful tool for predicting HIV-1 infection recency.

  4. Computational analysis of antibody dynamics identifies recent HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Kelly E; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Deal, Aaron W; Rountree, Wes; Bainbridge, John; Grebe, Eduard; Anderson, David A; Sawant, Sheetal; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L; Denny, Thomas N; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Robb, Merlin L; Parkin, Neil; Santos, Breno R; Garrett, Nigel; Price, Matthew A; Naniche, Denise; Duerr, Ann C; Keating, Sheila; Hampton, Dylan; Facente, Shelley; Marson, Kara; Welte, Alex; Pilcher, Christopher D; Cohen, Myron S; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2017-12-21

    Accurate HIV-1 incidence estimation is critical to the success of HIV-1 prevention strategies. Current assays are limited by high false recent rates (FRRs) in certain populations and a short mean duration of recent infection (MDRI). Dynamic early HIV-1 antibody response kinetics were harnessed to identify biomarkers for improved incidence assays. We conducted retrospective analyses on circulating antibodies from known recent and longstanding infections and evaluated binding and avidity measurements of Env and non-Env antigens and multiple antibody forms (i.e., IgG, IgA, IgG3, IgG4, dIgA, and IgM) in a diverse panel of 164 HIV-1-infected participants (clades A, B, C). Discriminant function analysis identified an optimal set of measurements that were subsequently evaluated in a 324-specimen blinded biomarker validation panel. These biomarkers included clade C gp140 IgG3, transmitted/founder clade C gp140 IgG4 avidity, clade B gp140 IgG4 avidity, and gp41 immunodominant region IgG avidity. MDRI was estimated at 215 day or alternatively, 267 days. FRRs in untreated and treated subjects were 5.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Thus, computational analysis of dynamic HIV-1 antibody isotype and antigen interactions during infection enabled design of a promising HIV-1 recency assay for improved cross-sectional incidence estimation.

  5. Computational analysis of antibody dynamics identifies recent HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Kelly E.; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Deal, Aaron W.; Rountree, Wes; Anderson, David A.; Sawant, Sheetal; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L.; Denny, Thomas N.; Haynes, Barton F.; Robb, Merlin L.; Parkin, Neil; Santos, Breno R.; Price, Matthew A.; Naniche, Denise; Duerr, Ann C.; Hampton, Dylan; Facente, Shelley; Marson, Kara; Welte, Alex; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate HIV-1 incidence estimation is critical to the success of HIV-1 prevention strategies. Current assays are limited by high false recent rates (FRRs) in certain populations and a short mean duration of recent infection (MDRI). Dynamic early HIV-1 antibody response kinetics were harnessed to identify biomarkers for improved incidence assays. We conducted retrospective analyses on circulating antibodies from known recent and longstanding infections and evaluated binding and avidity measurements of Env and non-Env antigens and multiple antibody forms (i.e., IgG, IgA, IgG3, IgG4, dIgA, and IgM) in a diverse panel of 164 HIV-1–infected participants (clades A, B, C). Discriminant function analysis identified an optimal set of measurements that were subsequently evaluated in a 324-specimen blinded biomarker validation panel. These biomarkers included clade C gp140 IgG3, transmitted/founder clade C gp140 IgG4 avidity, clade B gp140 IgG4 avidity, and gp41 immunodominant region IgG avidity. MDRI was estimated at 215 day or alternatively, 267 days. FRRs in untreated and treated subjects were 5.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Thus, computational analysis of dynamic HIV-1 antibody isotype and antigen interactions during infection enabled design of a promising HIV-1 recency assay for improved cross-sectional incidence estimation. PMID:29263306

  6. Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected Latino Males.

    PubMed

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab assay for identifying acute HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Susan H; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Sivay, Mariya V; Debevec, Barbara; Veater, Stephanie; McKinstry, Laura; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mannheimer, Sharon; Grant, Robert M; Chesney, Margaret A; Coates, Thomas J; Koblin, Beryl A; Fogel, Jessica M

    Assays that detect HIV antigen (Ag) and antibody (Ab) can be used to screen for HIV infection. To compare the performance of the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab assay and two other Ag/Ab combination assays for detection of acute HIV infection. Samples were obtained from 24 individuals (18 from the US, 6 from South Africa); these individuals were classified as having acute infection based on the following criteria: positive qualitative RNA assay; two negative rapid tests; negative discriminatory test. The samples were tested with the BioPlex assay, the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo test, the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag-Ab EIA test, and a viral load assay. Twelve (50.0%) of 24 samples had RNA detected only ( > 40 to 13,476 copies/mL). Ten (43.5%) samples had reactive results with all three Ag/Ab assays, one sample was reactive with the ARCHITECT and Bio-Rad assays, and one sample was reactive with the Bio-Rad and BioPlex assays. The 11 samples that were reactive with the BioPlex assay had viral loads from 83,010 to >750,000 copies/mL; 9/11 samples were classified as Ag positive/Ab negative by the BioPlex assay. Detection of acute HIV infection was similar for the BioPlex assay and two other Ag/Ab assays. All three tests were less sensitive than a qualitative RNA assay and only detected HIV Ag when the viral load was high. The BioPlex assay detected acute infection in about half of the cases, and identified most of those infections as Ag positive/Ab negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Scan in HIV-1-Infected Individuals Identifying Variants Influencing Disease Course

    PubMed Central

    van Manen, Daniëlle; Delaneau, Olivier; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte D.; Limou, Sophie; Bol, Sebastiaan M.; Burger, Judith A.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Moerland, Perry D.; van 't Slot, Ruben; Zagury, Jean-François; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2011-01-01

    Background AIDS develops typically after 7–11 years of untreated HIV-1 infection, with extremes of very rapid disease progression (<2 years) and long-term non-progression (>15 years). To reveal additional host genetic factors that may impact on the clinical course of HIV-1 infection, we designed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 404 participants of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Methods The association of SNP genotypes with the clinical course of HIV-1 infection was tested in Cox regression survival analyses using AIDS-diagnosis and AIDS-related death as endpoints. Results Multiple, not previously identified SNPs, were identified to be strongly associated with disease progression after HIV-1 infection, albeit not genome-wide significant. However, three independent SNPs in the top ten associations between SNP genotypes and time between seroconversion and AIDS-diagnosis, and one from the top ten associations between SNP genotypes and time between seroconversion and AIDS-related death, had P-values smaller than 0.05 in the French Genomics of Resistance to Immunodeficiency Virus cohort on disease progression. Conclusions Our study emphasizes that the use of different phenotypes in GWAS may be useful to unravel the full spectrum of host genetic factors that may be associated with the clinical course of HIV-1 infection. PMID:21811574

  9. Cost-effectiveness of using social networks to identify undiagnosed HIV infection among minority populations.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ram K; Sansom, Stephanie L; Kimbrough, Lisa; Hutchinson, Angela B; Daltry, Daniel; Maldonado, Waleska; Simpson-May, Georgia M; Illemszky, Sean

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the Advancing HIV Prevention project to implement new strategies for diagnosing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections outside medical settings and prevent new infections by working with HIV-infected persons and their partners. : To assess the cost and effectiveness of a social network strategy to identify new HIV diagnoses among minority populations. Four community-based organizations (CBOs) in Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, District of Columbia, implemented a social network strategy for HIV counseling and testing from October 2003 to December 2005. We used standardized cost collection forms to collect program costs attributable to staff time, travel, incentives, test kits, testing supplies, office space, equipment, and utilities. The CBOs used the networks of high-risk and HIV-infected persons (recruiters) who referred their partners and associates for HIV counseling and testing. We obtained HIV-testing outcomes from project databases. Number of HIV tests, number of new HIV-diagnoses notified, total program cost, cost per person tested, cost per person notified of new HIV diagnosis. Two CBOs, both based in Philadelphia, identified 25 and 17 recruiters on average annually and tested 136 and 330 network associates, respectively. Among those tested, 12 and 13 associates were notified of new HIV diagnoses (seropositivity: 9.8%, 4.4%). CBOs in Boston, Massachusetts, and Washington, District of Columbia, identified 26 and 24 recruiters per year on average and tested 228 and 123 network associates. Among those tested, 12 and 11 associates were notified of new HIV diagnoses (seropositivity: 5.1%, 8.7%). The cost per associate notified of a new HIV diagnosis was $11 578 and $12 135 in Philadelphia, and $16 437 and $16 101 in Boston, Massachusetts, and Washington, District of Columbia. The cost of notifying someone with a new HIV diagnosis using social networks varied across sites. Our analysis

  10. Current and future assays for identifying recent HIV infections at the population level

    PubMed Central

    Smoleń-Dzirba, Joanna; Wąsik, Tomasz J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The precise diagnosis of recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is crucial for estimating HIV incidence, defined as the number of new infections in a population, per person at risk, during a specified time period. Incidence assessment is considered to be a tool for surveillance, public health and research. Differentiating recent from long-term HIV infections is possible thanks to the evaluation of HIV-specific immune response development or viral markers measurement. Several methods that enable the recognition of recent HIV-1 infection with the use of a single blood specimen have been developed, and their value for use in population level studies has been demonstrated. However, they are still inadequate due to a variable window period and false recent rates among HIV clades and across populations. Application of these assays at an individual level is far more questionable because of person-to-person variability in the antibody response and the course of HIV infection, and because of the prospective regulatory approval requirements. In this article we review the principles and the limitations of the currently available major laboratory techniques that allow detection of recent HIV infection. The assays based on the alteration of serological parameters, as well as the newest method based on an increase of HIV genetic diversity with the progress of infection, are described. PMID:21525823

  11. Applying the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder diagnostic criteria to HIV-infected youth

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Nicole; Joska, John A.; Paul, Robert; Donald, Kirsten A.; Stein, Dan J.; Thomas, Kevin G.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to apply the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) criteria for diagnosing HAND in HIV-infected adults, in a cohort of HIV-infected youth to thus establish whether this system is able to detect a spectrum of neurocognitive disorders (ND) in HIV-infected youth. Methods: We used a comprehensive pediatric neurocognitive battery, an assessment of functional competence, and the American Academy of Neurology system for diagnosing ND in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected youth (n = 86) and HIV-negative controls (n = 34) to establish whether this system could detect a spectrum of ND in HIV-infected youth (6–16 years). Results: Compared to a well-matched control group of HIV-negative youth, HIV-infected youth performed significantly more poorly on tests of Verbal IQ, Full Scale IQ, processing speed, finger tapping, verbal memory, expressive language, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition. HIV-infected youth were also more likely to have impaired total competence on the Child Behavior Checklist. Using the criteria for HAND, we found that 45.35% of the 86 HIV-infected youth could be diagnosed with an ND. Furthermore, youth with HIV encephalopathy (HIVE) were 9.4 times more likely to have a diagnosis of a major ND compared to HIV-infected youth without HIVE. Conclusions: The HAND criterion designed for adults was able to identify youth with important functional cognitive impairments who do not fit criteria for HIVE and would therefore not have been identified otherwise. This has major clinical implications regarding the importance of managing HIV-infected youth. PMID:27206720

  12. A Novel Single-Cell FISH-Flow Assay Identifies Effector Memory CD4+ T cells as a Major Niche for HIV-1 Transcription in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Grau-Expósito, Judith; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Miguel, Lucia; Navarro, Jordi; Curran, Adrià; Burgos, Joaquin; Ocaña, Imma; Ribera, Esteban; Torrella, Ariadna; Planas, Bibiana; Badía, Rosa; Castellví, Josep; Falcó, Vicenç; Crespo, Manuel; Buzon, Maria J

    2017-07-11

    Cells that actively transcribe HIV-1 have been defined as the "active viral reservoir" in HIV-infected individuals. However, important technical limitations have precluded the characterization of this specific viral reservoir during both treated and untreated HIV-1 infections. Here, we used a novel single-cell RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry (FISH-flow) assay that requires only 15 million unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the specific cell subpopulations that transcribe HIV RNA in different subsets of CD4 + T cells. In samples from treated and untreated HIV-infected patients, effector memory CD4 + T cells were the main cell population supporting HIV RNA transcription. The number of cells expressing HIV correlated with the plasma viral load, intracellular HIV RNA, and proviral DNA quantified by conventional methods and inversely correlated with the CD4 + T cell count and the CD4/CD8 ratio. We also found that after ex vivo infection of unstimulated PBMCs, HIV-infected T cells upregulated the expression of CD32. In addition, this new methodology detected increased numbers of primary cells expressing viral transcripts and proteins after ex vivo viral reactivation with latency reversal agents. This RNA FISH-flow technique allows the identification of the specific cell subpopulations that support viral transcription in HIV-1-infected individuals and has the potential to provide important information on the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis, HIV persistence, and viral reactivation. IMPORTANCE Persons infected with HIV-1 contain several cellular viral reservoirs that preclude the complete eradication of the viral infection. Using a novel methodology, we identified effector memory CD4 + T cells, immune cells preferentially located in inflamed tissues with potent activity against pathogens, as the main cells encompassing the transcriptionally active HIV-1 reservoir in patients on antiretroviral therapy. Importantly

  13. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J.; Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence,more » putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.« less

  14. Surveillance of recent HIV infections among newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Alexandra; Hauser, Andrea; Zimmermann, Ruth; Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Jörg; Wildner, Stephan; Kücherer, Claudia; Bannert, Norbert; Hamouda, Osamah; Bremer, Viviane; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2017-07-11

    The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections. A sample of voluntary laboratories among all HIV diagnostic laboratories was recruited. Residual blood from HIV diagnostic tests was spotted on filter paper as dried serum or dried plasma spots and was sent along with the notification form of the HIV cases. The BED-CEIA test was performed. A case was defined as recent HIV infection with a BED-CEIA test result of less than 0.8 normalized optical density, with the exclusion of CDC stage C. The proportion of recent newly diagnosed HIV infections among different groups (such as transmission groups, gender or age groups) was calculated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with recent HIV infection and to identify subpopulations with high proportions of recent HIV infections. Approximately 10,257 newly diagnosed cases were tested for recency using the BED-CEIA. In total, 3084 (30.4%) of those were recently infected with HIV. The highest proportion of recent HIV infections was found among men who had sex with men (MSM) (35%) and persons between 18 and 25 years of age (43.0%). Logistic regression revealed that female German intravenous drug users with a recent HIV infection had a higher chance of being detected than German MSM (OR 2.27). Surveillance of recent HIV infection is a useful additional tool to monitor the HIV epidemic in

  15. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper FW; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  16. Combined evaluation of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected pregnant women and infant HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiahong; Yeganeh, Nava; Camarca, Margaret; Morgado, Mariza G.; Watts, D. Heather; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy Maria; Bryson, Yvonne J.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Moye, Jack; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Bristow, Claire C.; Dickover, Ruth; Mirochnick, Mark; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. Methodology Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV. Infant HIV infection was determined by serial HIV DNA PCR testing. Maternal syphilis was tested by VDRL and confirmatory treponemal antibodies. Results A total of 899 mother-infant pairs were evaluated. Over 30% had at least one of the following infections (TP, CT, NG, and/or CMV) detected at the time of delivery. High rates of TP (8.7%), CT (17.8%), NG (4%), and CMV (6.3%) were observed. HIV MTCT was 9.1% (n = 82 infants). HIV MTCT was 12.5%, 10.3%, 11.1%, and 26.3% among infants born to women with CT, TP, NG or CMV respectively. Forty-two percent of HIV-infected infants were born to women with at least one of these 4 infections. Women with these infections were nearly twice as likely to have an HIV-infected infant (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.0), particularly those with 2 STIs (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.5–7.7). Individually, maternal CMV (aOR 4.4 1.5–13.0) and infant congenital CMV (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.2–7.8) but not other STIs (TP, CT, or NG) were associated with an increased risk of HIV MTCT. Conclusion HIV-infected pregnant women identified during labor are at high risk for STIs. Co-infection with STIs including CMV nearly doubles HIV MTCT risk. CMV infection appears to confer the largest risk of HIV MTCT. Trial registration NCT00099359. PMID:29304083

  17. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1–Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Mackelprang, Romel D.; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure. Methods. We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1. Results. HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1–infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time. Conclusions. A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1–discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection. PMID:22926009

  18. Evaluating Testing Strategies for Identifying Youths With HIV Infection and Linking Youths to Biomedical and Other Prevention Services

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Cherrie B.; Chiaramonte, Danielle; Lindeman, Peter; Chutuape, Kate; Cooper-Walker, Bendu; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Wilson, Craig M.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Importance Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected youths are unaware of their serostatus (approximately 60%) and therefore not linked to HIV medical or prevention services. The need to identify promising and scalable approaches to promote uptake of HIV testing among youths at risk is critical. Objective To evaluate a multisite HIV testing program designed to encourage localized HIV testing programs focused on self-identified sexual minority males and to link youths to appropriate prevention services after receipt of their test results. Design, Setting, and Participants Testing strategies were evaluated using an observational design during a 9-month period (June 1, 2015, through February 28, 2016). Testing strategies were implemented by 12 adolescent medicine HIV primary care programs and included targeted testing, universal testing, or a combination. Data were collected from local youth at high risk of HIV infection and, specifically, sexual minority males of color. Main Outcomes and Measures Proportion of sexual minority males and sexual minority males of color tested, proportion of previously undiagnosed HIV-positive youths identified, and rates of linkage to prevention services. Results A total of 3301 youths underwent HIV testing. Overall, 35 (3.6%) of those who underwent universal testing in primary care clinical settings, such as emergency departments and community health centers, were sexual minority males (35 [3.6%] were males of color) compared with 236 (46.7%) (201 [39.8%] were males of color) who were tested through targeted testing and 693 (37.8%) (503 [27.4%] were males of color) through combination efforts. Identification of new HIV-positive cases varied by strategy: 1 (0.1%) via universal testing, 39 (2.1%) through combination testing, and 16 (3.2%) through targeted testing. However, when targeted tests were separated from universal testing results for sites using a combined strategy, the rate of newly identified HIV-positive cases

  19. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun ju; Lee, Su jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. Methods A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. Results A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001). High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4%) than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002). The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%), HPV 18 (9.9%), and HPV 58 (5%) in MSM, and HPV 58(11%) and HPV 16 (8.9%) in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001). Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001). In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Conclusion Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age. PMID:27548632

  20. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun Ju; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001). High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4%) than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002). The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%), HPV 18 (9.9%), and HPV 58 (5%) in MSM, and HPV 58(11%) and HPV 16 (8.9%) in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001). Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001). In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  1. Opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in West Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witaningrum, A. M.; Khairunisa, S. Q.; Yunifiar, M. Q.; Bramanthi, R.; Rachman, B. E.; Nasronudin

    2018-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) had a major impact on health problemin Indonesia. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic is currently infected with HIV viruses developing rapidly in Indonesia.Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on opportunistic infection of HIV-1 are limited. The study using medical records as a research sample was conducted among HIV patients from January 2013 - December 2014 in Sele be Solu hospital among 49 patients. Opportunistic infections commonly occur in HIV-infected patients. The aim of the study was to know theprevalence of opportunistic infection among HIV positive patients in West Papua. Forty-nine HIV-1 patients were collected in Sele be Solu Hospital, West Papua.Opportunistic infection was identified such as tuberculosis, tuberculosis Pulmo, tuberculosis and candidiasis, candidiasis and diarrhea. The clinical sign appeared in HIV infected patients such as itchy, cough and loss weight. The prevalence of opportunistic infection indicated the necessity of monitoring the opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in Indonesia.

  2. Identifying Risk Factors for Recent HIV Infection in Kenya Using a Recent Infection Testing Algorithm: Results from a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrea A.; Parekh, Bharat S.; Umuro, Mamo; Galgalo, Tura; Bunnell, Rebecca; Makokha, Ernest; Dobbs, Trudy; Murithi, Patrick; Muraguri, Nicholas; De Cock, Kevin M.; Mermin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) that can distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection can be applied to nationally representative population-based surveys to characterize and identify risk factors for recent infection in a country. Materials and Methods We applied a RITA using the Limiting Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay (LAg) on stored HIV-positive samples from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey. The case definition for recent infection included testing recent on LAg and having no evidence of antiretroviral therapy use. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with recent and long-standing infection compared to HIV-uninfected persons. All estimates were weighted to adjust for sampling probability and nonresponse. Results Of 1,025 HIV-antibody-positive specimens, 64 (6.2%) met the case definition for recent infection and 961 (93.8%) met the case definition for long-standing infection. Compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of recent infection were living in Nairobi (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.37; confidence interval [CI] 2.64–48.87) and Nyanza (AOR 4.55; CI 1.39–14.89) provinces compared to Western province; being widowed (AOR 8.04; CI 1.42–45.50) or currently married (AOR 6.42; CI 1.55–26.58) compared to being never married; having had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the last year (AOR 2.86; CI 1.51–5.41); not using a condom at last sex in the past year (AOR 1.61; CI 1.34–1.93); reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis or symptoms of STI in the past year (AOR 1.97; CI 1.05–8.37); and being aged <30 years with: 1) HSV-2 infection (AOR 8.84; CI 2.62–29.85), 2) male genital ulcer disease (AOR 8.70; CI 2.36–32.08), or 3) lack of male circumcision (AOR 17.83; CI 2.19–144.90). Compared to HIV-uninfected persons, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of long-standing infection included living in Coast (AOR 1.55; CI 1.04–2

  3. Identifying Risk Factors for Recent HIV Infection in Kenya Using a Recent Infection Testing Algorithm: Results from a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Andrea A; Parekh, Bharat S; Umuro, Mamo; Galgalo, Tura; Bunnell, Rebecca; Makokha, Ernest; Dobbs, Trudy; Murithi, Patrick; Muraguri, Nicholas; De Cock, Kevin M; Mermin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) that can distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection can be applied to nationally representative population-based surveys to characterize and identify risk factors for recent infection in a country. We applied a RITA using the Limiting Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay (LAg) on stored HIV-positive samples from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey. The case definition for recent infection included testing recent on LAg and having no evidence of antiretroviral therapy use. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with recent and long-standing infection compared to HIV-uninfected persons. All estimates were weighted to adjust for sampling probability and nonresponse. Of 1,025 HIV-antibody-positive specimens, 64 (6.2%) met the case definition for recent infection and 961 (93.8%) met the case definition for long-standing infection. Compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of recent infection were living in Nairobi (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.37; confidence interval [CI] 2.64-48.87) and Nyanza (AOR 4.55; CI 1.39-14.89) provinces compared to Western province; being widowed (AOR 8.04; CI 1.42-45.50) or currently married (AOR 6.42; CI 1.55-26.58) compared to being never married; having had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the last year (AOR 2.86; CI 1.51-5.41); not using a condom at last sex in the past year (AOR 1.61; CI 1.34-1.93); reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis or symptoms of STI in the past year (AOR 1.97; CI 1.05-8.37); and being aged <30 years with: 1) HSV-2 infection (AOR 8.84; CI 2.62-29.85), 2) male genital ulcer disease (AOR 8.70; CI 2.36-32.08), or 3) lack of male circumcision (AOR 17.83; CI 2.19-144.90). Compared to HIV-uninfected persons, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of long-standing infection included living in Coast (AOR 1.55; CI 1.04-2.32) and Nyanza (AOR 2.33; CI 1.67-3.25) provinces compared to

  4. Solid Organ Transplants in HIV-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Harbell, Jack; Terrault, Norah A.; Stock, Peter

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing need for kidney and liver transplants in persons living with HIV. Fortunately, with the significant advances in antiretroviral therapy and management of opportunistic infections, HIV infection is no longer an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplantation. Data from several large prospective multi-center cohort studies have shown that solid organ transplantation in carefully selected HIV-infected individuals is safe. However, significant challenges have been identified including prevention of acute rejection, management of drug-drug interactions and treatment of recurrent viral hepatitis. This article reviews the selection criteria, outcomes, and special management considerations for HIV-infected patients undergoing liver or kidney transplantation. PMID:23893004

  5. Cytomegalovirus infection in HIV-infected versus non-infected infants and HIV disease progression in Cytomegalovirus infected versus non infected infants early treated with cART in the ANRS 12140-Pediacam study in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kfutwah, Anfumbom K W; Ngoupo, Paul Alain T; Sofeu, Casimir Ledoux; Ndongo, Francis Ateba; Guemkam, Georgette; Ndiang, Suzie Tetang; Owona, Félicité; Penda, Ida Calixte; Tchendjou, Patrice; Rouzioux, Christine; Warszawski, Josiane; Faye, Albert; Tejiokem, Mathurin Cyrille

    2017-03-23

    The outcome of CMV/HIV co-infection in infants treated early with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource-limited settings has not been described. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with early CMV infection in HIV-infected and non-infected infants included in a study in Cameroon, and to compare HIV disease progression and survival after 1 year of early cART, following infants' CMV status. HIV-infected infants followed from birth or from HIV diagnosis before 7 months old and HIV-uninfected infants born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers were tested for CMV at a median age of 4.0 months [Interquartile range (IQR): 3.4-4.9]. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CMV infection. Early cART was offered to HIV-infected infants: mortality, immunological and virological outcomes were assessed. Three hundred and sixty-nine infants were tested. The proportion of infants infected with CMV at baseline was significantly higher in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected groups (58.9% (86/146) vs 30.0% (67/223), p < 0.001). At baseline, median CMV viral load was higher in HIV-infected (3.7 log copies/ml [IQR; 3.1-4.3]) than in HIV-uninfected infants (2.8 log copies [IQR; 2.1-3.4], p < 0.001). cART was initiated in 90% of HIV-infected infants (132/146) at a median age of 4.0 months (IQR; 3.2-5.9); in this sub-group CMV infection was independently associated with being followed from the time of HIV diagnosis rather than from birth (aOR = 3.1, 95%CI [1.2-8.0]), born to a non-single mother (aOR = 3.4[1.4-8.1]), and breastfeeding (aOR = 7.3 [2.7-19.4]). HIV-infected infants were retested after a median of 7.1 months [4.8-9.5]: CMV was undetectable in 37 of the 61 (60.7%) initially CMV-infected cases and became detectable in 8 of the 38 (21.1%) initially CMV-negative cases. After 1 year of cART, the probability of death (0.185 vs 0.203; p = 0.75), the proportion of

  6. Psychiatric disorders, HIV infection and HIV/hepatitis co-infection in the correctional setting.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, J G; Paar, D P; Wu, H; Giordano, T P; Murray, O; Raimer, B G; Avery, E N; Diamond, P M; Pulvino, J S

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and depression have long been associated with risk behaviors for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The US prison population is reported to have elevated rates of HIV, hepatitis and most psychiatric disorders. This study examined the association of six major psychiatric disorders with HIV mono-infection, HIV/HCV co-infection and HIV/HBV co-infection in one of the nation's largest prison populations. The study population consisted of 370,511 Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates who were incarcerated for any duration between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2006. Information on medical conditions and sociodemographic factors was obtained from an institution-wide electronic medical information system. Offenders diagnosed with HIV mono-infection, HIV/HCV, HIV/HBV and all HIV combined exhibited elevated rates of major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, non-schizophrenic psychotic disorder and any psychiatric disorder. In comparison to offenders with HIV mono-infection, those with HIV/HCV co-infection had an elevated prevalence of any psychiatric disorder. This cross-sectional study's finding of positive associations between psychiatric disease and both HIV infection and hepatitis co-infection among Texas prison inmates holds both clinical and public health relevance. It will be important for future investigations to examine the extent to which psychiatric disorders serve as a barrier to medical care, communication with clinicians and adherence to prescribed medical regimens among both HIV-mono-infected and HIV/hepatitis-co-infected inmates.

  7. [Is it possible to cure HIV infection?].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Carolina; Madrid, Nadia P; Moreno, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the life expectancy in HIV-infected people, but it cannot cure the disease by itself. Several barriers have been identified for the cure of HIV infection, including a reservoir of latently infected cells, persistent viral replication in tissues, and anatomical sanctuaries. The main strategy proposed for the cure of HIV consists on the administration of drugs that, through the reactivation of latent HIV, would eliminate the cell reservoir. Ongoing clinical trials have shown the proof of concept, but the efficacy of these drugs in decreasing the reservoir size has not been proved so far.

  8. Yellow fever vaccine for patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Barte, Hilary; Horvath, Tara H; Rutherford, George W

    2014-01-23

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease prevalent in tropical Africa and Latin America. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 200,000 cases of YF and 30,000 deaths worldwide annually. Treatment for YF is supportive, but a live attenuated virus vaccine is effective for preventing infection. WHO recommends immunisation for all individuals > 9 months living in countries or areas at risk. However, the United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advises that YF vaccine is contraindicated in individuals with HIV. Given the large populations of HIV-infected individuals living in tropical areas where YF is endemic, YF vaccine may be an important intervention for preventing YF in immunocompromised populations. To assess the risk and benefits of YF immunisation for people infected with HIV. We used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of individuals with HIV infection who received YF vaccine (17DD or 17D-204). Two authors screened abstracts of references identified by electronic or bibliographic searches according to inclusion and exclusion criteria as detailed in the protocol. We identified 199 references and examined 19 in detail for study eligibility. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. Three cohort studies were included in the review. They examined 484 patients with HIV infection who received YF immunisation. Patients with HIV infection developed significantly lower concentrations of neutralising antibodies in the first year post immunisation compared to uninfected patients, though decay patterns were similar for recipients regardless of HIV infection. No study patient with HIV infection suffered serious adverse events as a result of YF vaccination. YF vaccination can produce protective levels of neutralising antibodies in

  9. Management of bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Negredo, Eugenia; Bonjoch, Anna; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral density is an emerging problem in persons living with HIV infection. Earlier and more rapid bone demineralization has been attributed not only to the high prevalence of traditional risk factors, but also to specific HIV-related factors. The aim of this guidance is to stimulate an appropriate management of osteoporosis in this population, to identify patients at risk and to better manage them. Appropriate screening of HIV-infected subjects to identify those at risk for bone fractures is described, as well as the recommended interventions. American and European recommendations in HIV-infected and non-infected populations were considered. As the etiology of bone loss is multifactorial, many factors have to be addressed. Overall, recommendations on traditional risk factors are the same for HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected subjects. However, we should consider some specific factors in the HIV-infected population, including an appropriate antiretroviral therapy in patients with low bone mineral density, and probably novel strategies that could provide an additional benefit, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, although data supporting this approach are scant. Some personal opinions are highlighted on the management of bone health in HIV-infected subjects, mainly on the use of FRAX(®) score and DXA scans. In addition, the need to implement new strategies to delay demineralization is remarked upon.

  10. Childbearing intentions among sexually active HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected female adolescents in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adler, David H.; Abar, Beau; Bennie, Thola; Sadeghi, Rokhsanna; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2017-01-01

    Women of reproductive age account for nearly half of all HIV-infected people worldwide. Childbearing intention among HIV-infected women is complicated by social and reproductive concerns related to their HIV status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected sexually active South African women aged 17 to 21 in order to compare their childbearing intentions and to identify predictors of the desire to have children among women with HIV. We found the rate of childbearing intention to be similarly high among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants (80 and 79% respectively, p=0.81). History of previous parity was found to be associated with decreased intention to have children. No difference in childbearing intention was found between HIV-infected women on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and women not on ART. High rates of childbearing intention among HIV-infected women require integration of reproductive health services with comprehensive HIV/AIDS care in order to mitigate the risks of sexual and vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:29214096

  11. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J.; Belshan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. PMID:26774171

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of

  13. HIITE: HIV-1 incidence and infection time estimator.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Yong; Love, Tanzy M T; Kapoor, Shivankur; Lee, Ha Youn

    2018-06-15

    Around 2.1 million new HIV-1 infections were reported in 2015, alerting that the HIV-1 epidemic remains a significant global health challenge. Precise incidence assessment strengthens epidemic monitoring efforts and guides strategy optimization for prevention programs. Estimating the onset time of HIV-1 infection can facilitate optimal clinical management and identify key populations largely responsible for epidemic spread and thereby infer HIV-1 transmission chains. Our goal is to develop a genomic assay estimating the incidence and infection time in a single cross-sectional survey setting. We created a web-based platform, HIV-1 incidence and infection time estimator (HIITE), which processes envelope gene sequences using hierarchical clustering algorithms and informs the stage of infection, along with time since infection for incident cases. HIITE's performance was evaluated using 585 incident and 305 chronic specimens' envelope gene sequences collected from global cohorts including HIV-1 vaccine trial participants. HIITE precisely identified chronically infected individuals as being chronic with an error less than 1% and correctly classified 94% of recently infected individuals as being incident. Using a mixed-effect model, an incident specimen's time since infection was estimated from its single lineage diversity, showing 14% prediction error for time since infection. HIITE is the first algorithm to inform two key metrics from a single time point sequence sample. HIITE has the capacity for assessing not only population-level epidemic spread but also individual-level transmission events from a single survey, advancing HIV prevention and intervention programs. Web-based HIITE and source code of HIITE are available at http://www.hayounlee.org/software.html. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Salmonella: comparison of isolates from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients.

    PubMed

    Wolday, D; Erge, W

    1998-07-01

    A retrospective analysis of all cases of Salmonella infections occurring between 1991 and 1995 was undertaken in order to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the isolates from both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected Ethiopian patients. During the 5-year study period, we identified 147 cases of Salmonella infections. Only in 49 cases was the HIV serostatus known; 22 (44.9%) of the infections were in HIV seronegative patients while 27 (55.9%) were in HIV seropositive patients. The strains were isolated from blood (71.4%), urine (18.4%) and stool (8.2%). Salmonella infection was found to be more frequent (55.15% versus 44.9%) among HIV positive than HIV-negative patients. Moreover, Salmonella isolates recovered from HIV-seropositive patients were significantly resistant to many of the antibiotics tested when compared to the isolates from HIV-seronegative patients. The only chloramphenicol resistant Salmonella typhi occurred in a patient who was seropositive for HIV. According to these results, Ethiopian patients infected with HIV may be at risk of acquiring infections, especially non-typhoidal salmonellas, that are multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains than HIV-uninfected subjects. The emergence of MDR Salmonella infection among HIV-positive patients requires reassessment of chemotherapeutic approaches in this patient population, and warrants continued laboratory surveillance.

  15. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  16. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Persons, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Pablo E.; Suarez, Pedro G.; Sanchez, Jorge; Zavala, David; Arevalo, Jorge; Ticona, Eduardo; Nolan, Charles M.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    During 1999 to 2000, we identified HIV-infected persons with new episodes of tuberculosis (TB) at 10 hospitals in Lima-Peru and a random sample of other Lima residents with TB. Multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB was documented in 35 (43%) of 81 HIV-positive patients and 38 (3.9%)of 965 patients who were HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status (p < 0.001). HIV-positive patients with MDR-TB were concentrated at three hospitals that treat the greatest numbers of HIV-infected persons with TB. Of patients with TB, those with HIV infection differed from those without known HIV infection in having more frequent prior exposure to clinical services and more frequent previous TB therapy or prophylaxis. However, MDR-TB in HIV-infected patients was not associated with previous TB therapy or prophylaxis. MDR-TB is an ongoing problem in HIV-infected persons receiving care in public hospitals in Lima and Callao; they represent sentinel cases for a potentially larger epidemic of nosocomial MDR-TB. PMID:14720398

  17. Depression in perinatally HIV-infected pregnant women compared to non-perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Angrand, Ruth C; Sperling, Rhoda; Roccobono, Kinga; Osborne, Lauren M; Jao, Jennifer

    2018-05-18

    "Depression (as noted in chart by a physician)" was compared between HIV infected pregnant women and controls. Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV), non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV), and HIV-uninfected (HIV-U) pregnant women were all compared using a logistic regression model. Overall, HIV-infected women had higher rates of depression than HIV-U, with PHIV women demonstrating a clinically and statistically significant increased risk compared to HIV-U women [adjusted OR: 15.9, 95% CI = 1.8-143.8]. Future studies in larger populations are warranted to confirm these findings and further elucidate mental health outcomes of PHIV and NPHIV pregnant women.

  18. Inflammatory cytokine biomarkers to identify women with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis who are at high risk of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Masson, Lindi; Arnold, Kelly B; Little, Francesca; Mlisana, Koleka; Lewis, David A; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Ngcapu, Sinaye; Johnson, Leigh; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2016-05-01

    Untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) cause genital inflammation and increase the risk of HIV infection. WHO-recommended syndromic STI and BV management is severely limited as many women with asymptomatic infections go untreated. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate genital cytokine profiles as a biomarker of STIs and BV to identify women with asymptomatic, treatable infections. Concentrations of 42 cytokines in cervicovaginal lavages from 227 HIV-uninfected women were measured using Luminex. All women were screened for BV by microscopy and STIs using molecular assays. Multivariate analyses were used to identify cytokine profiles associated with STIs/BV. A multivariate profile of seven cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-β, IL-4, fractalkine, macrophage-derived chemokine, and interferon-γ) most accurately predicted the presence of a treatable genital condition, with 77% classification accuracy and 75% cross-validation accuracy (sensitivity 72%; specificity 81%, positive predictive value (PPV) 86%, negative predictive value (NPV) 64%). Concomitant increased IL-1β and decreased IP-10 concentrations predicted the presence of a treatable genital condition without a substantial reduction in predictive value (sensitivity 77%, specificity 72%, PPV 82% and NPV 65%), correctly classifying 75% of the women. This approach performed substantially better than clinical signs (sensitivity 19%, specificity 92%, PPV 79% and NPV 40%). Supplementing syndromic management with an assessment of IL-1β and IP-10 as biomarkers of genital inflammation may improve STI/BV management for women, enabling more effective treatment of asymptomatic infections and potentially reducing their risk of HIV infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Using Peer-Referral Chains with Incentives to Promote HIV Testing and Identify Undiagnosed HIV Infections Among Crack Users in San Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Glasman, Laura R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas

    2016-01-01

    In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p < .001) and decayed more slowly (Z = 5.93, p < .001), and the total number of crack-using testers increased nearly fourfold. Testers in the peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ2(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals. PMID:26687093

  2. Using Peer-Referral Chains with Incentives to Promote HIV Testing and Identify Undiagnosed HIV Infections Among Crack Users in San Salvador.

    PubMed

    Glasman, Laura R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas

    2016-06-01

    In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p < .001) and decayed more slowly (Z = 5.93, p < .001), and the total number of crack-using testers increased nearly fourfold. Testers in the peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ(2)(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals.

  3. A Simple Model to Identify Risk of Sarcopenia and Physical Disability in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Farinatti, Paulo; Paes, Lorena; Harris, Elizabeth A; Lopes, Gabriella O; Borges, Juliana P

    2017-09-01

    Farinatti, P, Paes, L, Harris, EA, Lopes, GO, and Borges, JP. A simple model to identify risk of sarcopenia and physical disability in HIV-infected patients. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2542-2551, 2017-Early detection of sarcopenia might help preventing muscle loss and disability in HIV-infected patients. This study proposed a model for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) to calculate indices to identify "sarcopenia" (SA) and "risk for disability due to sarcopenia" (RSA) in patients with HIV. An equation to estimate ASM was developed in 56 patients (47.2 ± 6.9 years), with a cross-validation sample of 24 patients (48.1 ± 6.6 years). The model validity was determined by calculating, in both samples: (a) Concordance between actual vs. estimated ASM; (b) Correlations between actual/estimated ASM vs. peak torque (PT) and total work (TW) during isokinetic knee extension/flexion; (c) Agreement of patients classified with SA and RSA. The predictive equation was ASM (kg) = 7.77 (sex; F = 0/M = 1) + 0.26 (arm circumference; cm) + 0.38 (thigh circumference; cm) + 0.03 (Body Mass Index; kg·m) - 8.94 (R = 0.74; Radj = 0.72; SEE = 3.13 kg). Agreement between actual vs. estimated ASM was confirmed in validation (t = 0.081/p = 0.94; R = 0.86/p < 0.0001) and cross-validation (t = 0.12/p = 0.92; R = 0.87/p < 0.0001) samples. Regression characteristics in cross-validation sample (Radj = 0.80; SEE = 3.65) and PRESS (RPRESS = 0.69; SEEPRESS = 3.35) were compatible with the original model. Percent agreements for the classification of SA and RSA from indices calculated using actual and estimated ASM were of 87.5% and 77.2% (gamma correlations 0.72-1.0; p < 0.04) in validation, and 95.8% and 75.0% (gamma correlations 0.98-0.97; p < 0.001) in cross-validation sample, respectively. Correlations between actual/estimated ASM vs. PT (range 0.50-0.73, p ≤ 0.05) and TW (range 0.59-0.74, p ≤ 0.05) were similar in both samples. In conclusion, our model correctly estimated ASM

  4. [Impact of HIV/HBV infection and HIV/HBV co-infection on outcomes of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Cheng, W T; Zhou, Y B; Jiang, Q W

    2017-06-10

    Both HIV and HBV infection have become major health problems, of global concern, due to the high prevalence in the past few decades. Data from cumulated epidemiological surveys have shown the links between maternal HIV or HBV infection and adverse outcomes on pregnancy. Maternal HIV or HBV infection may also increase the mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of the two diseases. However, association between HIV-HBV co-infection and adverse pregnancy is still inconclusive. Does maternal HIV-HBV co-infection have an impact on mother-to-child transmission on either HIV or HBV? Study on effective precautionary measures to promote both maternal and child's health is deemed necessary.

  5. Nosocomial infections in HIV infected patients. Gruppo HIV e Infezioni Ospedaliere.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Pugliese, G; Girardi, E; Pallavicini, F; Carosi, G; Moro, M L; Ippolito, G

    1999-04-01

    To determine the incidence of nosocomial infections (NI) in HIV-infected patients and to analyse some of the associated risk factors. Multicentre prospective study on consecutive HIV-infected patients admitted to 19 Italian acute-care infectious disease wards. All patients admitted during a 1-year period were followed-up for NI until their discharge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for NI risk factors. As of June 1998 a total of 344 NI occurred in 4330 admissions, with at least one NI in 273 admissions (6.3%). The incidence rate of NI was 3.6 per 1000 patient days [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2-4.1]. Overall distribution by site was 36.6% bloodstream infections (BSI), 30.5% urinary tract infections, 18.4% pneumonia, 5.2% skin/soft tissue infections, 2.0% surgical wound infections and 7.3% others. Fifty-five out of the 126 BSI were related to a central venous catheter (CVC); the rate of CVC-associated infections was eight infections per 1000 devices. At multivariate analysis, variables independently associated with NI included CD4 T-lymphocyte count < 200 x 10(6)/l [odds ratio (OR), 2.21; 95% CI, 1.35-3.62], Karnofsky Performance Status < 40 (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.28-2.78), therapy with corticosteroids (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.29-2.45), CVC (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.41-4.35), urinary catheter (OR, 6.53; 95% CI, 4.81-8.86) and surgery (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.90-5.15). Results suggest that NI occur commonly in HIV-infected patients. As the number of cases of HIV continues to increase, the number of HIV-infected patients requiring hospitalization may also increase. Clinicians need to be aware of the risk factors for NI and must consider these infections in the overall management of HIV-infected, hospitalized patients.

  6. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Imlay, Hannah; Kaul, Daniel; Rao, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is a healthcare-associated infection resulting in significant morbidity. Although immunosuppression is associated with Clostridium difficile infection acquisition and adverse outcomes, the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients has been little studied in the era of antiretroviral therapy. This study identifies the risk factors for acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients. A retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study design was employed, with patients selected from our institution's outpatient HIV clinic. Clostridium difficile infection cases were defined as having positive stool testing plus an appropriate clinical presentation. The propensity score was generated via multiple logistic regression from year of HIV diagnosis, age at first contact, duration of follow-up, gender, and initial CD4 count. The 46 cases included were matched to a total of 180 controls. Prior antibiotic treatment was a significant predictor of Clostridium difficile infection (odds ratio: 13, 95% confidence interval: 3.49-48.8, p  < .001) as was number of hospital admissions in the preceding year (odds ratio: 4.02, confidence interval: 1.81-8.94, p  < .001). Having both proton pump inhibitor use and CD4 count <200 cells/µL significantly increased odds of Clostridium difficile infection in the multivariable model (odds ratio: 15.17, confidence interval: 1.31-175.9, p  = .021). As in the general population, frequent hospitalizations and exposure to antimicrobials are independent predictors of Clostridium difficile infection acquisition in patients with HIV. Additionally, low CD4 count and proton pump inhibitor use are new potentially modifiable variables that can be targeted for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in future interventional studies.

  7. Diagnosis of paediatric HIV infection in a primary health care setting with a clinical algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, C.; Liebeschuetz, S.; Blaauw, D.; Cassol, S.; Qazi, S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of an algorithm used by primary care health workers to identify children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This HIV algorithm is being implemented in South Africa as part of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), a strategy that aims to improve childhood morbidity and mortality by improving care at the primary care level. As AIDS is a leading cause of death in children in southern Africa, diagnosis and management of symptomatic HIV infection was added to the existing IMCI algorithm. METHODS: In total, 690 children who attended the outpatients department in a district hospital in South Africa were assessed with the HIV algorithm and by a paediatrician. All children were then tested for HIV viral load. The validity of the algorithm in detecting symptomatic HIV was compared with clinical diagnosis by a paediatrician and the result of an HIV test. Detailed clinical data were used to improve the algorithm. FINDINGS: Overall, 198 (28.7%) enrolled children were infected with HIV. The paediatrician correctly identified 142 (71.7%) children infected with HIV, whereas the IMCI/HIV algorithm identified 111 (56.1%). Odds ratios were calculated to identify predictors of HIV infection and used to develop an improved HIV algorithm that is 67.2% sensitive and 81.5% specific in clinically detecting HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Children with symptomatic HIV infection can be identified effectively by primary level health workers through the use of an algorithm. The improved HIV algorithm developed in this study could be used by countries with high prevalences of HIV to enable IMCI practitioners to identify and care for HIV-infected children. PMID:14997238

  8. Performances of fourth generation HIV antigen/antibody assays on filter paper for detection of early HIV infections.

    PubMed

    Kania, Dramane; Truong, Tam Nguyen; Montoya, Ana; Nagot, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Point-of-care testing and diagnosis of HIV acute infections play important roles in preventing transmission, but HIV rapid diagnosis tests have poor capacity to detect early infections. Filter paper can be used for capillary blood collection and HIV testing using 4th generation immunoassays. Antigen/antibody combined immunoassays were evaluated for their capacity to identify early HIV infections using filter paper in comparison with rapid test. Thirty nine serum samples collected from HIV seroconverters were spotted onto filter paper and tested by the Roche Elecsys(®) HIV Combi PT test and the DiaSorin Liaison XL Murex HIV Ab/Ag assay. Fourth generation immunoassays identified 34 out of 39 HIV early infections using dried serum spot, whereas the Determine™ HIV-1/2 rapid test detected 24 out of 39 HIV positive serum (87.2% vs 61.5% respectively, p = 0.009). p24 antigen was detected by the Liaison XL in 19 dried serum samples (48.7%). In the group characterized by a negative western blot, 7 out of 8 (87.5%) and 6 out of 8 (75.0%) samples were found positive for HIV using the Elecsys and the Liaison XL, respectively. None of these eight samples classified in this group of early acute infections were found positive by the rapid test. Fourth generation Ag/Ab immunoassays performed on dried serum spot had good performance for HIV testing during the early phases of HIV infection. This method may be useful to detect HIV early infections in hard-to-reach populations and individuals living in remote areas before rapid tests become positive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alterations in the nuclear proteome of HIV-1 infected T-cells

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoer, Jason; Jagadish, Teena; Haverland, Nicole A.

    Virus infection of a cell involves the appropriation of host factors and the innate defensive response of the cell. The identification of proteins critical for virus replication may lead to the development of novel, cell-based inhibitors. In this study we mapped the changes in T-cell nuclei during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at 20 hpi. Using a stringent data threshold, a total of 13 and 38 unique proteins were identified in infected and uninfected cells, respectively, across all biological replicates. An additional 15 proteins were found to be differentially regulated between infected and control nuclei. STRING analysis identified fourmore » clusters of protein–protein interactions in the data set related to nuclear architecture, RNA regulation, cell division, and cell homeostasis. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the differential expression of several proteins in both C8166-45 and Jurkat E6-1 T-cells. These data provide a map of the response in host cell nuclei upon HIV-1 infection. - Highlights: • We identify changes in the expression of nuclear proteins during HIV-1 infection. • 163 nuclear proteins were found differentially regulated during HIV-1 infection. • Bioinformatic analysis identified several nuclear pathways altered by HIV infection. • Candidate factors were validated in two independent cell lines.« less

  10. Paediatric HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Scarlatti, G

    1996-09-28

    By the year 2000 there will be six million pregnant women and five to ten million children infected with HIV-1. Intervention strategies have been planned and in some instances already started. A timely and cost-effective strategy needs to take into account that most HIV-1 infected individuals reside in developing countries. Further studies are needed on immunological and virological factors affecting HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, on differential disease progression in affected children, and on transient infection.

  11. HIV-1 infections with multiple founders are associated with higher viral loads than infections with single founders.

    PubMed

    Janes, Holly; Herbeck, Joshua T; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Thomas, Rasmi; Frahm, Nicole; Duerr, Ann; Hural, John; Corey, Lawrence; Self, Steve G; Buchbinder, Susan P; McElrath, M Juliana; O'Connell, Robert J; Paris, Robert M; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttihum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Gilbert, Peter B; Rolland, Morgane

    2015-10-01

    Given the variation in the HIV-1 viral load (VL) set point across subjects, as opposed to a fairly stable VL over time within an infected individual, it is important to identify the characteristics of the host and virus that affect VL set point. Although recently infected individuals with multiple phylogenetically linked HIV-1 founder variants represent a minority of HIV-1 infections, we found--n two different cohorts--hat more diverse HIV-1 populations in early infection were associated with significantly higher VL 1 year after HIV-1 diagnosis.

  12. Clinical epidemiology of bocavirus, rhinovirus, two polyomaviruses and four coronaviruses in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marta C; Kuschner, Zachary; Rabede, Zelda; Madimabe, Richard; Van Niekerk, Nadia; Moloi, Jackie; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Rossen, John W; Klugman, Keith P; Adrian, Peter V; Madhi, Shabir A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in molecular diagnostics have implicated newly-discovered respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human bocavirus (hBoV), human rhinovirus (hRV), polyomavirus-WU (WUPyV) and -KI (KIPyV) and human coronaviruses (CoV)-OC43, -NL63, -HKU1 and -229E among children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Multiplex real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was undertaken on archived nasopharyngeal aspirates from HIV-infected and -uninfected children (<2 years age) hospitalized for LRTI, who had been previously investigated for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza I-III, adenovirus and influenza A/B. At least one of these viruses were identified in 274 (53.0%) of 517 and in 509 (54.0%) of 943 LRTI-episodes in HIV-infected and -uninfected children, respectively. Human rhinovirus was the most prevalent in HIV-infected (31.7%) and -uninfected children (32.0%), followed by CoV-OC43 (12.2%) and hBoV (9.5%) in HIV-infected; and by hBoV (13.3%) and WUPyV (11.9%) in HIV-uninfected children. Polyomavirus-KI (8.9% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.002) and CoV-OC43 (12.2% vs. 3.6%; p<0.001) were more prevalent in HIV-infected than -uninfected children. Combined with previously-tested viruses, respiratory viruses were identified in 60.9% of HIV-infected and 78.3% of HIV-uninfected children. The newly tested viruses were detected at high frequency in association with other respiratory viruses, including previously-investigated viruses (22.8% in HIV-infected and 28.5% in HIV-uninfected children). We established that combined with previously-investigated viruses, at least one respiratory virus was identified in the majority of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children hospitalized for LRTI. The high frequency of viral co-infections illustrates the complexities in attributing causality to specific viruses in the aetiology of LRTI and may indicate a

  13. Analysis of HIV Diversity in HIV-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (HPTN 061)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Iris; Chau, Gordon; Wang, Jing; Clarke, William; Marzinke, Mark A.; Cummings, Vanessa; Breaud, Autumn; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Fields, Sheldon D.; Griffith, Sam; Scott, Hyman M.; Shoptaw, Steven; del Rio, Carlos; Magnus, Manya; Mannheimer, Sharon; Tieu, Hong-Van; Wheeler, Darrell P.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study. Methods A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and for 21 men who seroconverted during the study. HIV diversification was analyzed in a paired analysis for 62 HIV-infected men using plasma samples from the enrollment and 12-month (end of study) visits. Results Men with acute or recent infection at enrollment and seroconverters had lower median HRM scores (lower HIV diversity) than men with non-recent infection in all six regions analyzed. In univariate analyses, younger age, higher CD4 cell count, and HIV drug resistance were associated with lower median HRM scores in multiple regions; ARV drug detection was marginally associated with lower diversity in the pol region. In multivariate analysis, acute or recent infection (all six regions) and HIV drug resistance (both gag regions) were associated with lower median HRM scores. Diversification in the pol region over 12 months was greater for men with acute or recent infection, higher CD4 cell count, and lower HIV viral load at study enrollment. Conclusions HIV diversity was significantly associated with duration of HIV infection, and lower gag diversity was observed in men who had HIV drug resistance. HIV pol diversification was more pronounced in men with acute or recent infection, higher CD4 cell count, and lower HIV viral load. PMID:27936098

  14. Analysis of HIV Diversity in HIV-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (HPTN 061).

    PubMed

    Chen, Iris; Chau, Gordon; Wang, Jing; Clarke, William; Marzinke, Mark A; Cummings, Vanessa; Breaud, Autumn; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Fields, Sheldon D; Griffith, Sam; Scott, Hyman M; Shoptaw, Steven; Del Rio, Carlos; Magnus, Manya; Mannheimer, Sharon; Tieu, Hong-Van; Wheeler, Darrell P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Koblin, Beryl A; Eshleman, Susan H

    2016-01-01

    HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study. A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and for 21 men who seroconverted during the study. HIV diversification was analyzed in a paired analysis for 62 HIV-infected men using plasma samples from the enrollment and 12-month (end of study) visits. Men with acute or recent infection at enrollment and seroconverters had lower median HRM scores (lower HIV diversity) than men with non-recent infection in all six regions analyzed. In univariate analyses, younger age, higher CD4 cell count, and HIV drug resistance were associated with lower median HRM scores in multiple regions; ARV drug detection was marginally associated with lower diversity in the pol region. In multivariate analysis, acute or recent infection (all six regions) and HIV drug resistance (both gag regions) were associated with lower median HRM scores. Diversification in the pol region over 12 months was greater for men with acute or recent infection, higher CD4 cell count, and lower HIV viral load at study enrollment. HIV diversity was significantly associated with duration of HIV infection, and lower gag diversity was observed in men who had HIV drug resistance. HIV pol diversification was more pronounced in men with acute or recent infection, higher CD4 cell count, and lower HIV viral load.

  15. Screening for acute HIV infection in South Africa: finding acute and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms. PMID:20553336

  16. Hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sulkowski, Mark S

    2007-10-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCVrelated deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.

  17. A CONCISE PANEL OF BIOMARKERS IDENTIFIES NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTIONING CHANGES IN HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Michael, Benedict Daniel; Franklin, Donald; Cookson, Debra Rosario; Bharti, Ajay R.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive (NC) impairment (NCI) occurs commonly in people living with HIV. Despite substantial effort, no biomarkers have been sufficiently validated for diagnosis and prognosis of NCI in the clinic. The goal of this project was to identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for NCI in a comprehensively characterized HIV cohort. Methods Multidisciplinary case review selected 98 HIV-infected individuals and categorized them into four NC groups using normative data: stably normal (SN), stably impaired (SI), worsening (Wo), or improving (Im). All subjects underwent comprehensive NC testing, phlebotomy, and lumbar puncture at two timepoints separated by a median of 6.2 months. Eight biomarkers were measured in CSF and blood by immunoassay. Results were analyzed using mixed model linear regression and staged recursive partitioning. Results At the first visit, subjects were mostly middle-aged (median 45) white (58%) men (84%) who had AIDS (70%). Of the 73% who took antiretroviral therapy (ART), 54% had HIV RNA levels below 50 c/mL in plasma. Mixed model linear regression identified that only MCP-1 in CSF was associated with neurocognitive change group. Recursive partitioning models aimed at diagnosis (i.e., correctly classifying neurocognitive status at the first visit) were complex and required most biomarkers to achieve misclassification limits. In contrast, prognostic models were more efficient. A combination of three biomarkers (sCD14, MCP-1, SDF-1α) correctly classified 82% of Wo and SN subjects, including 88% of SN subjects. A combination of two biomarkers (MCP-1, TNF-α) correctly classified 81% of Im and SI subjects, including 100% of SI subjects. Conclusions This analysis of well-characterized individuals identified concise panels of biomarkers associated with NC change. Across all analyses, the two most frequently identified biomarkers were sCD14 and MCP-1, indicators of monocyte/macrophage activation. While the panels differed depending on

  18. Mice chronically infected with chimeric HIV resist peripheral and brain superinfection: a model of protective immunity to HIV.

    PubMed

    Kelschenbach, Jennifer L; Saini, Manisha; Hadas, Eran; Gu, Chao-Jiang; Chao, Wei; Bentsman, Galina; Hong, Jessie P; Hanke, Tomas; Sharer, Leroy R; Potash, Mary Jane; Volsky, David J

    2012-06-01

    Infection by some viruses induces immunity to reinfection, providing a means to identify protective epitopes. To investigate resistance to reinfection in an animal model of HIV disease and its control, we employed infection of mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV. When immunocompetent mice were infected by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of EcoHIV, they resisted subsequent secondary infection by IP injection, consistent with a systemic antiviral immune response. To investigate the potential role of these responses in restricting neurotropic HIV infection, we established a protocol for efficient EcoHIV expression in the brain following intracranial (IC) inoculation of virus. When mice were inoculated by IP injection and secondarily by IC injection, they also controlled EcoHIV replication in the brain. To investigate their role in EcoHIV antiviral responses, CD8+ T lymphocytes were isolated from spleens of EcoHIV infected and uninfected mice and adoptively transferred to isogenic recipients. Recipients of EcoHIV primed CD8+ cells resisted subsequent EcoHIV infection compared to recipients of cells from uninfected donors. CD8+ spleen cells from EcoHIV-infected mice also mounted modest but significant interferon-γ responses to two HIV Gag peptide pools. These findings suggest EcoHIV-infected mice may serve as a useful system to investigate the induction of anti-HIV protective immunity for eventual translation to human beings.

  19. Changing risk factors for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Patricia; Mohar, Alejandro; Terrazas, José-Juan; Pérez-Padilla, José-Rogelio; Vilar-Compte, Diana; Carranza, Dora; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2002-01-01

    HIV infection in women is a growing problem in developing countries. Risk factors for HIV infection vary from country to country and may change with time. We describe a retrospective review of the epidemiologic characteristics and associated gynecologic diseases of all HIV-infected women seen at two tertiary-care hospitals in Mexico City. One hundred thirty consecutive patients were included in the study from March 1985 to January 1996. Mean age at HIV diagnosis was 36.2 years (range: 16-76). Of the 75 women diagnosed with AIDS prior to 1992, 58 (69%) were infected through blood transfusion and 17 (20%) through sexual contact. After January 1992, 11 (23%) acquired infection through blood transfusion and 28 (60%) through sexual contact; these differences were statistically significant (p <0.0001). Prior to 1992, 66 (90%) women presented in stage IV, whereas after that year only 29 (51%) (p <0.001) presented in stage IV. Of 92 patients on whom a cervico-vaginal smear was carried out, human papillomavirus infection was identified in 22 (24%) women, nine (9.8%) had morphologic evidence of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (four with mild or moderate dysplasia and five with in situ cervical carcinoma). Four patients had invasive cervical carcinoma. The main risk factor for HIV infection in Mexican women with AIDS changed from transfusion acquired to sexually acquired in 1992. As a country, we were successful in providing safe blood but failed to prevent sexual transmission. Our patients had a high frequency of cervical carcinoma and precursor lesions associated with human papilloma virus.

  20. Treatment of helminth co-infection in HIV-1 infected individuals in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L; John-Stewart, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings. These areas often also have high prevalence of other infectious diseases, such as helminth infections. It is important to determine if helminth infection affects the progression of HIV-1 in these co-infected individuals. There are biologically plausible reasons for possible effects of helminth infection in HIV-1 infected individuals and findings from some observational studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. We sought to evaluate the available evidence from published and unpublished studies to determine if treatment of helminth infection in HIV-1 co-infected individuals impacts HIV-1 progression. Objectives Our objective was to determine if treating helminth infection in individuals with HIV-1 can reduce the progression of HIV-1 as determined by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression (including mortality). Search strategy We searched online for published and unpublished studies in The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (November 2006), EMBASE (November 2006), CENTRAL (July 2006), AIDSEARCH (August 2006). We also searched databases listing conference abstracts, scanned reference lists of articles, and contacted authors of included studies. Selection criteria We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared HIV-1 progression as measured by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-helminth therapy. Observational studies with relevant data were also included. Data collection and analysis Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical staging and/or mortality after treatment of helminth co-infection were extracted from the reports of the studies. Main results Of 6,384 abstracts identified, 15 met criteria for potential inclusion, of which five were eligible for inclusion. In

  1. HIV and co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christina C; Crane, Megan; Zhou, JingLing; Mina, Michael; Post, Jeffrey J; Cameron, Barbara A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Jaworowski, Anthony; French, Martyn A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite significant reductions in morbidity and mortality secondary to availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection still accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. The majority of deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of opportunistic co-infections are disproportionately high. In this review, we discuss the immunopathogenesis of five common infections that cause significant morbidity in HIV-infected patients globally. These include co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Plasmodium falciparum. Specifically, we review the natural history of each co-infection in the setting of HIV, the specific immune defects induced by HIV, the effects of cART on the immune response to the co-infection, the pathogenesis of immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with each infection, and advances in the areas of prevention of each co-infection via vaccination. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and gaps for future research. PMID:23772618

  2. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditi; Brown, C Titus; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Adami, Christoph

    2015-09-29

    Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these "functional" pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit.

  3. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Brown, C. Titus; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Adami, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit. PMID:26426037

  4. Pooled nucleic acid testing to identify antiretroviral treatment failure during HIV infection.

    PubMed

    May, Susanne; Gamst, Anthony; Haubrich, Richard; Benson, Constance; Smith, Davey M

    2010-02-01

    Pooling strategies have been used to reduce the costs of polymerase chain reaction-based screening for acute HIV infection in populations in which the prevalence of acute infection is low (less than 1%). Only limited research has been done for conditions in which the prevalence of screening positivity is higher (greater than 1%). We present data on a variety of pooling strategies that incorporate the use of polymerase chain reaction-based quantitative measures to monitor for virologic failure among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. For a prevalence of virologic failure between 1% and 25%, we demonstrate relative efficiency and accuracy of various strategies. These results could be used to choose the best strategy based on the requirements of individual laboratory and clinical settings such as required turnaround time of results and availability of resources. Virologic monitoring during antiretroviral therapy is not currently being performed in many resource-constrained settings largely because of costs. The presented pooling strategies may be used to significantly reduce the cost compared with individual testing, make such monitoring feasible, and limit the development and transmission of HIV drug resistance in resource-constrained settings. They may also be used to design efficient pooling strategies for other settings with quantitative screening measures.

  5. Aging, inflammation, and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Judith A

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged survival in HIV infection is accompanied by an increased frequency of non-HIV-related comorbidities. A number of age-related comorbidities occur earlier in HIV-infected patients than in individuals without HIV infection. This "accelerated aging" appears to be largely related to chronic inflammation, chronic immune activation, and immunosenescence in HIV infection. Levels of markers of inflammation and coagulopathy are elevated in HIV-infected patients, and elevations in markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, opportunistic conditions, or all-cause mortality. In both HIV infection and aging, immunosenescence is marked by an increased proportion of CD28-, CD57+ memory CD8+ T cells with reduced capacity to produce interleukin 2 (IL-2), increased production of IL-6, resistance to apoptosis, and shortened telomeres. A number of AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies are under way to examine treatment aimed at reducing chronic inflammation and immune activation in HIV infection. This article summarizes a presentation by Judith A. Aberg, MD, at the IAS-USA live continuing medical education course held in New York City in October 2011.

  6. Mycobacterium genavense infections in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maryam; Ajmal, Saira; Abu Saleh, Omar M; Bryson, Alexandra; Marcelin, Jasmine R; Wilson, John W

    2018-05-01

    Mycobacterium genavense is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium which can rarely cause disease in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. We describe our experience with this unusual infection and perform a systematic review of the literature to describe the features of M. genavense infection in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. All cases of Mycobacterium genavense infection in non-HIV patients at our institution were reviewed. In addition, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify previously published cases of M. genavense infections in non-HIV hosts. Two cases of M. genavense were identified at our center; a 51-year-old renal transplant recipient with a prosthetic knee joint infection and a 66-year-old woman with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia with gastrointestinal tract disease. The systematic review identified 44 cases of M. genavense infection in non-HIV hosts. The most common underlying conditions were solid organ transplantation (40%), sarcoidosis (14%) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (7%). Disease most commonly involved the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, liver or bone marrow. Diagnosis was challenging with PCR required for identification in nearly all cases. Over one-third of patients died, which may reflect the combination of infection and underlying comorbidities. Overall cure was achieved in 61% with a mean duration of antimycobacterial therapy of 15.5 months (range 10-24). M. genavense infection is a rare mycobacterial infection in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. It should be suspected in immunocompromised patients presenting with disseminated mycobacterial infection, acid fast bacilli on smear or histopathologic examination, with poor or no growth in mycobacterial cultures.

  7. HIV antibodies for treatment of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David M.; Koup, Richard A.; Ferrari, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Summary The bar is high to improve on current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), now highly effective, safe, and simple. However antibodies that bind the HIV envelope are able to uniquely target the virus as it seeks to enter new target cells, or as it is expressed from previously infected cells. Further, the use of antibodies against HIV as a therapeutic may offer advantages. Antibodies can have long half-lives, and are being considered as partners for long-acting antiretrovirals for use in therapy or prevention of HIV infection. Early studies in animal models and in clinical trials suggest that such antibodies can have antiviral activity but, as with small molecule antiretrovirals, the issues of viral escape and resistance will have to be addressed. Most promising, however, are the unique properties of anti-HIV antibodies: the potential ability to opsonize viral particles, to direct antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against actively infected cells, and ultimately the ability to direct the clearance of HIV-infected cells by effector cells of the immune system. These distinctive activities suggest that HIV antibodies and their derivatives may play an important role in the next frontier of HIV therapeutics, the effort to develop treatments that could lead to an HIV cure. PMID:28133794

  8. Alcohol Enhances HIV Infection of Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.; Wang, Xu; Dai, Min; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Selin; Peña, Juliet Crystal; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV+ women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:25053361

  9. Fatigue-Related Gene Networks Identified in CD14+ Cells Isolated From HIV-Infected Patients—Part I: Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Joachim G.; Dobra, Adrian; Morse, Caryn; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Danner, Robert L.; Munson, Peter J.; Logan, Carolea; Rangel, Zoila; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Mary; Adams, Larry D.; Raju, Raghavan; Dalakas, Marinos C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–related fatigue (HRF) is multicausal and potentially related to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by antiretroviral therapy with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Methodology The authors compared gene expression profiles of CD14+ cells of low versus high fatigued, NRTI-treated HIV patients to healthy controls (n = 5/group). The authors identified 32 genes predictive of low versus high fatigue and 33 genes predictive of healthy versus HIV infection. The authors constructed genetic networks to further elucidate the possible biological pathways in which these genes are involved. Relevance for nursing practice Genes including the actin cytoskeletal regulatory proteins Prokineticin 2 and Cofilin 2 along with mitochondrial inner membrane proteins are involved in multiple pathways and were predictors of fatigue status. Previously identified inflammatory and signaling genes were predictive of HIV status, clearly confirming our results and suggesting a possible further connection between mitochondrial function and HIV. Isolated CD14+ cells are easily accessible cells that could be used for further study of the connection between fatigue and mitochondrial function of HIV patients. Implication for Practice The findings from this pilot study take us one step closer to identifying biomarker targets for fatigue status and mitochondrial dysfunction. Specific biomarkers will be pertinent to the development of methodologies to diagnosis, monitor, and treat fatigue and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23324479

  10. The comparison of the performance of two screening strategies identifying newly-diagnosed HIV during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Boer, Kees; Smit, Colette; van der Flier, Michiel; de Wolf, Frank

    2011-10-01

    In the Netherlands, a non-selective opt-out instead of a selective opt-in antenatal HIV screening strategy was implemented in 2004. In case of infection, screening was followed by prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). We compared the performance of the two strategies in terms of detection of new cases of HIV and vertical transmission. HIV-infected pregnant women were identified retrospectively from the Dutch HIV cohort ATHENA January 2000 to January 2008. Apart from demographic, virological and immunological data, the date of HIV infection in relation to the index pregnancy was established. Separately, all infants diagnosed with HIV born following implementation of the screening program were identified by a questionnaire via the paediatric HIV centres. 162/481 (33.7%) HIV-positive pregnant women were diagnosed with HIV before 2004 and 172/214 (80.3%) after January 2004. Multivariate analysis showed an 8-fold (95% confidence interval 5.47-11.87) increase in the odds of HIV detection during pregnancy after the national introduction of the opt-out strategy. Still, three children born during a 5-year period after July 2004 were infected due to de novo infection in pregnancy. Implementation of a nation-wide screening strategy based upon non-selective opt-out screening followed by effective PMTCT appeared to detect more HIV-infected women for the first time in pregnancy and to reduce vertical transmission of HIV substantially. Nonetheless, still few children are infected because of maternal infection after the first trimester. We propose the introduction of partner screening on HIV as part of the antenatal screening strategy.

  11. Expansion and productive HIV-1 infection of Foxp3 positive CD4 T cells at pleural sites of HIV/TB co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Christina S; Baseke, Joy; Kafuluma, John Lusiba; Nserko, Mary; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Toossi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background CD4 T-cells expressing Foxp3 are expanded systemically during active tuberculosis (TB) regardless of HIV-1 co-infection. Foxp3+ CD4 T cells are targets of HIV-1 infection. However, expansion of HIV-1 infected Foxp3+ CD4 T cells at sites of HIV/TB co-infection, and whether they contribute to promotion of HIV-1 viral activity is not known. Methods Pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC) from HIV/TB co-infected patients with pleural TB were characterized by immune-staining and FACS analysis for surface markers CD4, CD127, CCR5, CXCR4, HLA-DR and intracellular expression of Foxp3, HIVp24, IFN-γ and Bcl-2. Whole PFMC and bead separated CD4+CD25+CD127− T cells were assessed for HIV-1 LTR strong stop (SS) DNA by real-time PCR, which represents viral DNA post cell entry and initiation of reverse transcription. Results High numbers of HIV-1 p24 positive Foxp3+ and Foxp3+CD127− CD4 T cells were identified in PFMC from HIV/TB co-infected subjects. CD4+Foxp3+CD127− T cells displayed high expression of the cellular activation marker, HLA-DR. Further, expression of the HIV-1 co-receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, were higher on CD4+Foxp3+T cells compared to CD4+Foxp3− T cells. Purified CD4+CD25+CD127− T cells isolated from PFMC of HIV/TB co-infected patients, were over 90% CD4+Foxp3+T cells, and exhibited higher HIV-1 SS DNA as compared to whole PFMC, and as compared to CD4+CD25+CD127− T cells from an HIV-infected subject with pleural mesothelioma. HIV-1 p24+ Foxp3+ CD4+T cells from HIV/TB patients higher in Bcl-2 expression as compared to both HIV-1 p24+ Foxp3− CD4 T cells, and Foxp3+ CD4+T cells without HIV-p24 expression. Conclusion Foxp3+ CD4 T cells in PFMC from HIV/TB co-infected subjects are predisposed to productive HIV-1 infection and have survival advantage as compared to Foxp3 negative CD4 T cells. PMID:28124031

  12. Vitamin D in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    JE, Lake; JS, Adams

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies have noted very high rates of low 25(OH)D (vitamin D) levels in both the general and HIV-infected populations. In HIV-infected patients, low 25(OH)D levels are likely a combination of both traditional risk factors and HIV- and antiretroviral therapy-specific contributors. Because of this unique risk profile, HIV-infected persons may be at greater risk for low 25(OH)D levels and frank deficiency and/or may respond to standard repletion regimens differently than HIV-uninfected patients. Currently, the optimal repletion and maintenance dosing regimens for HIV-infected patients remain unknown, as do potential benefits of supplementation that may be unique to the HIV-infected population. This paper reviews data published on HIV infection and vitamin D health in adults over the last year. PMID:21647555

  13. HIV infection in the South African construction industry.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter; Lake, Antony

    2018-06-01

    South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world, and compared with other sectors of the national economy, the construction industry is disproportionately adversely affected. Using data collected nationally from more than 57,000 construction workers, HIV infection among South African construction workers was estimated, together with an assessment of the association between worker HIV serostatus and worker characteristics of gender, age, nature of employment, occupation, and HIV testing history. The HIV infection of construction workers was estimated to be lower than that found in a smaller 2008 sample. All worker characteristics are significantly associated with HIV serostatus. In terms of most at-risk categories: females are more at risk of HIV infection than males; workers in the 30-49 year old age group are more at risk than other age groups; workers employed on a less permanent basis are more at risk; as are workers not having recently tested for HIV. Among occupations in the construction industry, general workers, artisans, and operator/drivers are those most at risk. Besides yielding more up-to-date estimated infection statistics, this research also identifies vulnerable sub-groups as valuable pointers for more targeted workplace interventions by construction firms.

  14. HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Sara A.; Johnson, Glenise; Hendel-Paterson, Brett; Nelson, Kailey; Mamo, Blain; Krohn, Kristina; Pessoa-Brandão, Luisa; O’Fallon, Ann; Stauffer, William

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of adult refugees prior to US resettlement was removed, thus leading to a potential for missed diagnosis. We reviewed refugee health assessment data and medical charts to evaluate the health status of HIV-infected refugees who arrived in Minnesota during 2000–2007, prior to this 2010 policy change. Among 19,292 resettled adults, 174 were HIV-infected; 169 (97%) were African (median age 26.4 (range: 17–76) years). Charts were abstracted for 157 (124 (79%) with ≥1 year of follow-up). At initial presentation, two of 74 (3%) women were pregnant; 27% became pregnant during follow-up. HIV clinical stage varied (59%, asymptomatic; 11%, mild symptoms; 10%, advanced symptoms; 3%, severe symptoms; 17%, unknown); coinfections were common (51 tuberculosis, 13 hepatitis B, 13 parasites, four syphilis). Prior to arrival 4% had received antiretrovirals. Opportunistic infections were diagnosed among 13%; 2% died from AIDS-related causes. Arrival screening may be needed to identify these HIV-infected refugees and prevent HIV-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:23202841

  15. First UK case report of kidney transplantation from an HIV-infected deceased donor to two HIV-infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Eileen; Karydis, Nikolaos; Drage, Martin; Hilton, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is now considered the treatment of choice for many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Graft survival rates using HIV-negative donors and carefully selected HIV-positive ESRD patients are similar to those observed in HIV-uninfected kidney transplant recipients. To address the relative shortfall in donated organs it has been proposed that organs from HIV-infected deceased donors might be allocated to HIV-infected patients on the transplant waiting list. Preliminary experience in South Africa reports promising short-term outcomes in a small number of HIV-infected recipients of kidney transplants from HIV-infected donors. We sought to replicate this experience in the UK by accepting kidney offers from HIV infected deceased donors for patients with HIV-infection on the kidney transplant waiting list. Here we report the UK's first cases of kidney transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients.

  16. HIV Infection and Bone Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.

  17. Neurodevelopment in children born to HIV-infected mothers by infection and treatment status.

    PubMed

    Le Doaré, Kirsty; Bland, Ruth; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2012-11-01

    We reviewed the impact of HIV, HIV exposure, and antiretroviral therapy/prophylaxis on neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-infected and HIV-exposed-uninfected infants and children. A literature search of Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, and conference Web sites (1990-March 2011) using the search terms, infant, child, HIV, neurodevelopment, cognition, language, and antiretroviral therapy, identified 31 studies of HIV/antiretroviral exposure using standardized tools to evaluate infant/child development as the main outcome. Articles were included if results were reported in children <16 years of age who were exposed to HIV and antiretrovirals in fetal/early life, and excluded if children did not acquire HIV from their mothers or were not exposed to antiretrovirals in fetal/early life. Infants who acquired HIV during fetal and early life tended to display poorer mean developmental scores than HIV-unexposed children. Mean motor and cognitive scores were consistently 1 to 2 SDs below the population mean. Mean scores improved if the infant received treatment before 12 weeks and/or a more complex antiretroviral regimen. Older HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy demonstrated near normal global mean neurocognitive scores; subtle differences in language, memory, and behavior remained. HIV-exposed-uninfected children treated with antiretrovirals demonstrated subtle speech and language delay, although not universally. In comparison with resource-rich settings, HIV-infected and HIV-exposed-uninfected infants/children in resource-poor settings demonstrated greater neurodevelopmental delay compared with HIV-unexposed infants. The effects on neurodevelopment in older HIV-infected children commenced on antiretroviral therapy from an early age and HIV-exposed-uninfected children particularly in resource-poor settings remain unclear.

  18. First UK case report of kidney transplantation from an HIV-infected deceased donor to two HIV-infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Eileen; Karydis, Nikolaos; Drage, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Kidney transplantation is now considered the treatment of choice for many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Graft survival rates using HIV-negative donors and carefully selected HIV-positive ESRD patients are similar to those observed in HIV-uninfected kidney transplant recipients. To address the relative shortfall in donated organs it has been proposed that organs from HIV-infected deceased donors might be allocated to HIV-infected patients on the transplant waiting list. Preliminary experience in South Africa reports promising short-term outcomes in a small number of HIV-infected recipients of kidney transplants from HIV-infected donors. We sought to replicate this experience in the UK by accepting kidney offers from HIV infected deceased donors for patients with HIV-infection on the kidney transplant waiting list. Here we report the UK’s first cases of kidney transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients. PMID:29644073

  19. Cancer risk among the HIV-infected elderly in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Katki, Hormuzd A; Engels, Eric A

    2016-06-19

    HIV-infected people and elderly people have higher cancer risk, but the combined effects of aging and HIV are not well described. We aimed to evaluate the magnitude of cancer risk in the HIV-infected elderly population. We conducted a case-cohort study including a 5% sample of U.S. Medicare enrollees and all cancer cases aged at least 65 in linked cancer registries. HIV was identified through Medicare claims. Among the HIV-infected, absolute cancer risk was calculated accounting for the competing risk of death. Associations between HIV and cancer were estimated with weighted Cox regression adjusting for demographic characteristics. Among 469 954 people in the 5% sample, 0.08% had an HIV diagnosis. Overall, 825 776 cancer cases were identified in cancer registries. Over 5 years, 10.1% of the HIV-infected elderly developed cancer, the most common diagnoses comprising lung (5-year cumulative incidence=2.2%), prostate (2.7%, among men), and colorectal cancer (0.9%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.8%). HIV was strongly associated with incidence of Kaposi sarcoma [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=94.4, 95% confidence interval (95%CI)=54.6-163], anal cancer (aHR=34.2, 95%CI=23.9-49.0) and Hodgkin lymphoma (aHR=6.3, 95%CI=2.8-14.3). HIV was also associated with incidence of liver cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and lung cancer (aHR=3.4, 2.6, and 1.6, respectively). In the elderly, HIV infection is associated with higher risk for many cancers, although some associations were weaker than expected, perhaps reflecting effects of non-HIV pathways on cancer development. Due to the effects of HIV and aging, the HIV-infected elderly have a sizeable absolute risk, highlighting a need for cancer prevention.

  20. Diagnosed HIV Infection in Transgender Adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Clark, Hollie; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Opoku, Jenevieve; Crepaz, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Publications on diagnosed HIV infection among transgender people have been limited to state- or local-level data. We analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System and present results from the first national-level analysis of transgender people with diagnosed HIV infection. From 2009 to 2014, HIV surveillance jurisdictions from 45 states plus the District of Columbia identified and reported at least one case of newly diagnosed HIV infection for transgender people; jurisdictions from 5 states reported no cases for transgender people. Of 2351 transgender people with newly diagnosed HIV infection during 2009-2014, 84.0% were transgender women (male-to-female), 15.4% were transgender men (female-to-male), and 0.7% were additional gender identity (e.g., gender queer, bi-gender). Over half of both transgender women (50.8%; 1002/1974) and men (58.4%; 211/361) with newly diagnosed HIV infection were non-Hispanic black/African American. Improvements in data collection methods and quality are needed to gain a better understanding of HIV burden among transgender people.

  1. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...

  2. Viral dynamics of primary HIV-1 infection in Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Abdoulaye Dieng; Eisen, Geoffrey; Guèye-Ndiaye, Aissatou; Mullins, Christopher; Traoré, Ibrahima; Dia, Mamadou Ciré; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Faye, Diegane; Mboup, Souleymane; Kanki, Phyllis

    2005-05-01

    Few studies have addressed primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa, where the epidemic is of a predominantly heterosexual character and is caused by different subtypes. The present study examines the dynamics of viral replication in subjects infected with various HIV-1 subtypes. Seven hundred fifty-two HIV-negative Senegalese women at high risk for infection were monitored every 3 months for acute/early HIV infection; 26 infections were identified (23 HIV-1 and 3 HIV-2), with an HIV-1 incidence rate of 3.23 cases/person-years observation. Multiple viral-load measurements were taken for all seroconverters. The mean+/-standard deviation viral load for all subjects during the early stage of infection was 4.13+/-0.66 log10 copies/mL, with an overall decrease of 0.22 log10 copies/mL after the early stage; the viral set point was reached after 12 months of infection. Most subjects had relatively low viral loads during the early stage of infection. HIV-1 CRF02_AG-infected women had a significantly higher mean viral load during the early stage of infection (mean +/- SD, 4.45+/-0.60 log(10) copies/mL) than did non-HIV-1 CRF02_AG-infected women (mean+/-SD, 3.78+/-0.46 log(10) copies/mL) (P=.008). None of the subjects reported symptoms consistent with primary HIV-1 infection. Our findings in Senegalese women differ from what have been described for primary HIV-1 infection. Further investigations of primary infections with non-B subtypes are warranted, to better characterize their differences with primary infections with subtype B.

  3. Lung Cancer in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the HAART era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is 2–4 times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the commonest histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Since pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies for this population frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. PMID:21802373

  4. Reporting of HIV-infected pregnant women: estimates from a Brazilian study.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Saraceni, Valéria; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the coverage of the reporting of cases of HIV-infected pregnant women, to estimate the increase in the coverage of the reporting with the routine search of data in other Brazilian health information systems, and to identify missed opportunities for identification of HIV-infected pregnant women in Brazilian maternity hospitals. This is a descriptive study on the linkage of Brazilian databases with primary data from the "Nascer no Brasil" study and secondary database collection from national health information systems. The "Nascer no Brasil" is a national-based study carried out in 2011-2012 with 23,894 pregnant women, which identified HIV-infected pregnant women using prenatal and medical records. We searched for cases of HIV-infected pregnant women identified in the "Nascer no Brasil" study in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases, the Control System for Laboratory Tests of the National CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Count and HIV Viral Load Network, and the Logistics Control System for Medications. We used the OpenRecLink software for the linkage of databases. We estimated the notification coverage, with the respective confidence interval, of the evaluated Brazilian health information systems. We estimated the coverage of the reporting of HIV-infected pregnant women in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases as 57.1% (95%CI 42.9-70.2), and we located 89.3% of the HIV-infected pregnant women (95%CI 81.2-94.2) in some of the Brazilian health information systems researched. The search in other national health information systems would result in an increase of 57.1% of the reported cases. We identified no missed opportunities for the diagnosis of HIV+ in pregnant women in the maternity hospitals evaluated by the "Nascer no Brasil" study. The routine search for information in other Brazilian health information systems, a procedure carried out by the Ministry of Health for cases of AIDS in adults and children, should be adopted for cases of HIV in

  5. Transmitted drug resistance in patients with acute/recent HIV infection in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina G; Coelho, Lara E; Grinsztejn, Eduarda; Jesus, Carlos S de; Guimarães, Monick L; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Cardoso, Sandra W

    The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy increased the transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains. Antiretroviral therapy initiation during acute/recent HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and improves immune response in HIV infected individuals. Transmitted drug resistance may jeopardize the early goals of early antiretroviral treatment among acute/recent HIV infected patients. Patients with acute/recent HIV infection who underwent resistance test before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included in this analysis. HIV-1 sequences were obtained using an in house protease/reverse transcriptase genotyping assay. Transmitted drug resistance was identified according to the Stanford HIV Database for Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations, based on WHO 2009 surveillance list, and HIV-1 subtyping according to Rega HIV-1 subtyping tool. Comparison between patients with and without transmitted drug resistance was made using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. Forty-three patients were included, 13 with acute HIV infection and 30 with recent HIV infection. The overall transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 16.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1-30.0%). The highest prevalence of resistance (11.6%, 95% CI: 8.1-24.5) was against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and K103N was the most frequently identified mutation. The high prevalence of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors resistance indicates that efavirenz-based regimen without prior resistance testing is not ideal for acutely/recently HIV-infected individuals in our setting. In this context, the recent proposal of including integrase inhibitors as a first line regimen in Brazil could be an advantage for the treatment of newly HIV infected individuals. However, it also poses a new challenge, since integrase resistance test is not routinely performed for antiretroviral naive individuals. Further studies on transmitted drug resistance among acutely/recently HIV-infected are

  6. Cardiovagal Autonomic Function in HIV-Infected Patients with Unsuppressed HIV Viremia

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic C.; Wood, Robert; Choi, Julia; Grandinetti, Andrew; Gerschenson, Mariana; Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; Nakamoto, Beau; Shikuma, Cecilia; Low, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Purpose HIV infection has been implicated in dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. Method Cross-sectional study examining the relationship between the presence of persistent detectable HIV viral load with autonomic function, measured by heart rate variability (HRV). Non-virologic suppression (NVS) was defined as having a detectable viral load for at least 3 months prior to autonomic function testing. HRV was measured during the following 4 maneuvers: resting and paced respirations and sustained handgrip and tilt. Inferences on parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations were determined by analyzing time and frequency domains of HRV. Results 57 participants were enrolled in 3 groups: 22 were HIV-infected participants with HIV virologic suppression (VS; undetectable HIV viral load), 9 were HIV-infected participants who had NVS, and 26 were HIV seronegative controls. There were lower time domain parameters in the HIV-infected group as a whole compared to controls. There were no significant differences in time domain parameters among HIV-infected participants. There were no differences in frequency domain parameters during any of the maneuvers between controls and all HIV-infected participants, nor between the NVS and VS groups. Conclusion There were differences in autonomic function between HIV-infected individuals and HIV seronegative controls, but not between the NVS and VS groups. PMID:21684854

  7. Characterization of HIV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma in HIV-infected patients: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marco; Parsons, Christopher; Cole, John

    2012-01-01

    Although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS-defining malignancies has decreased in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence and prevalence of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in the HIV-infected population continues to rise. Compared with the general population, HIV-infected patients exhibit a 5-10-fold increased risk for developing HL. A retrospective review of charts and electronic records from 2000-2010 at the HIV outpatient clinic (HOP)-Louisiana State University in New Orleans was conducted, and pathologically confirmed cases of HIV-HL were identified within this cohort. We found a prevalence of 6.3 cases per 1,000 patients per year of HIV-HL over a period of 10 years in our HIV outpatient clinic. The mean absolute CD4 count before treatment was 284 cells/mm(3) and after treatment was 194 cells/mm(3). The average time from the diagnosis of HIV infection to the diagnosis of HIV-HL was 7.6 years. The most common histopathologic type was mixed cellularity followed by lymphocytic predominance. The majority of patients had 6 cycles delivered. In terms of HL staging 87% presented with advanced stages (III B or IV). To the best of our knowledge 5 out of the 14 patients remain alive. Patients in our cohort were older than most patients identified in other cohorts. All of our patients had coexisting chronic illnesses associated with inflammation, as well as detectable HIV viral loads and CD4 count >200, suggesting a role for both HIV- and non-HIV-associated inflammation in HIV-HL pathogenesis in this population. The role of HIV virus and other oncogenic viruses (EBV, HPV, and others) in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin's lymphoma in this group of patients needs to be elucidated.

  8. Maternal HIV Infection Influences the Microbiome of HIV Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Jeffrey M.; Li, Fan; Martelly, Shoria; Byrt, Erin; Rouzier, Vanessa; Leo, Marguerithe; Tobin, Nicole; Pannaraj, Pia S.; Adisetiyo, Helty; Rollie, Adrienne; Santiskulvong, Chintda; Wang, Shuang; Autran, Chloe; Bode, Lars; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2017-01-01

    More than one million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with the bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant’s microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. PMID:27464748

  9. HIV-infected People in Sudan Moving Toward Chronic Poverty: Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salwa Muddthir; Eisa, Ammar Abobakre; Ibrahim, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify the socioeconomic impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) in Sudan. Focus group discussions were used to collect data and identify the most outstanding domains of HIV impact on PLWH and the survival mechanisms that may be common to a group of diverse HIV-infected persons (n = 30). The findings indicated that the most striking financial and social impacts were due to stigma associated with HIV in the conservative Sudanese society, which led to loss of work with all its consequences (e.g., children's education and health care expenses were affected). The socioeconomic impacts of HIV on infected populations are discussed, and suggestions for possible interventions to mitigate harmful impacts and stigma within the society, the workplace, and health care settings are highlighted. We concluded that HIV has intensified the existing problems of infected people, contributing to their vulnerability to poverty. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung cancer in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is two to four times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Because pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies because this population is frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CD4 mimetics sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jonathan; Veillette, Maxime; Brassard, Nathalie; Iyer, Shilpa S; Roger, Michel; Martin, Loïc; Pazgier, Marzena; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Smith, Amos B; Park, Jongwoo; Jones, David M; Courter, Joel R; Melillo, Bruno N; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Hahn, Beatrice H; Permar, Sallie R; Haynes, Barton F; Madani, Navid; Sodroski, Joseph G; Finzi, Andrés

    2015-05-19

    HIV-1-infected cells presenting envelope glycoproteins (Env) in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 has evolved a sophisticated mechanism to avoid exposure of ADCC-mediating Env epitopes by down-regulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of Env at the cell surface. Here we report that small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds induce the CD4-bound conformation of Env, and thereby sensitize cells infected with primary HIV-1 isolates to ADCC mediated by antibodies present in sera, cervicovaginal lavages, and breast milk from HIV-1-infected individuals. Importantly, we identified one CD4 mimetic with the capacity to sensitize endogenously infected ex vivo-amplified primary CD4 T cells to ADCC killing mediated by autologous sera and effector cells. Thus, CD4 mimetics hold the promise of therapeutic utility in preventing and controlling HIV-1 infection.

  12. CD4 mimetics sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jonathan; Veillette, Maxime; Brassard, Nathalie; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Roger, Michel; Martin, Loïc; Pazgier, Marzena; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Smith, Amos B.; Park, Jongwoo; Jones, David M.; Courter, Joel R.; Melillo, Bruno N.; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Permar, Sallie R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Madani, Navid; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Finzi, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1-infected cells presenting envelope glycoproteins (Env) in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 has evolved a sophisticated mechanism to avoid exposure of ADCC-mediating Env epitopes by down-regulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of Env at the cell surface. Here we report that small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds induce the CD4-bound conformation of Env, and thereby sensitize cells infected with primary HIV-1 isolates to ADCC mediated by antibodies present in sera, cervicovaginal lavages, and breast milk from HIV-1-infected individuals. Importantly, we identified one CD4 mimetic with the capacity to sensitize endogenously infected ex vivo-amplified primary CD4 T cells to ADCC killing mediated by autologous sera and effector cells. Thus, CD4 mimetics hold the promise of therapeutic utility in preventing and controlling HIV-1 infection. PMID:25941367

  13. Diagnosis of treponemal co-infection in HIV-infected West Africans.

    PubMed

    Mamoojee, Yaasir; Tan, Grace; Gittins, Sandra; Sarfo, Stephen; Stephenson, Lisa; Carrington, David; Bedu-Addo, George; Phillips, Richard; Appiah, Lambert T; Chadwick, David

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of two enzyme immunoassays (EIA), Murex and ICE, and the Determine TP point-of-care test (POCT) in diagnosing treponemal infection (syphilis or yaws) in patients attending a large HIV clinic in Ghana; to determine the prevalence of treponemal co-infections; and to characterise demographic and clinical features of patients with infection. Samples were tested with EIAs and rapid plasma reagin (RPR), then POCT and reference assays for Treponema pallidum to determine prevalence of active and past infection. Sensitivity and specificity of each assay were calculated and demographic and clinical characteristics of patients compared. Data were collected from case notes of patients retrospectively. Overall, 45/284 patient samples (14.8%, 95% CI, 11.1-19.4%) were Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) positive, and of these, 27 (64.3%) were RPR positive and 4 (8.9%) were treponemal IgM positive. Both EIAs and Determine TP POCT showed high sensitivities and specificities for identifying infection although RPR was less reliable. Clinical features of syphilis or yaws were rarely identified in TPPA-positive patients suggesting most had previous or late latent infection. Treatment of various intercurrent infections using short courses of antibiotics active against T. pallidum was common in the clinic. A high proportion of this HIV-infected cohort showed evidence of treponemal infection. Both EIAs as well as the POCT were practical and effective at diagnosing treponemal co-infection in this setting. RPR alone was unreliable at identifying active treponemal co-infection, however might be useful in some settings where treponemal-specific assays are unaffordable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Diagnosed HIV Infection in Transgender Adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Hollie; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Opoku, Jenevieve; Crepaz, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Publications on diagnosed HIV infection among transgender people have been limited to state- or local-level data. We analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System and present results from the first national-level analysis of transgender people with diagnosed HIV infection. From 2009 to 2014, HIV surveillance jurisdictions from 45 states plus the District of Columbia identified and reported at least one case of newly diagnosed HIV infection for transgender people; jurisdictions from 5 states reported no cases for transgender people. Of 2351 transgender people with newly diagnosed HIV infection during 2009–2014, 84.0% were transgender women (male-to-female), 15.4% were transgender men (female-to-male), and 0.7% were additional gender identity (e.g., gender queer, bi-gender). Over half of both transgender women (50.8%; 1002/1974) and men (58.4%; 211/361) with newly diagnosed HIV infection were non-Hispanic black/African American. Improvements in data collection methods and quality are needed to gain a better understanding of HIV burden among transgender people. PMID:28035497

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolates from HIV-infected patients in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Lan, R; Yang, C; Lan, L; Ou, J; Qiao, K; Liu, F; Gao, Q

    2011-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. The prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in HIV-infected patients in China is unknown. To estimate the prevalence of M. tuberculosis and NTM in HIV-infected patients in Guangxi Province, determine their drug resistance profiles, and evaluate the genotype patterns of M. tuberculosis strains. Samples were collected from two HIV designated hospitals in Guangxi Province between 2005 and 2008. HIV-infected patients who were culture-positive for mycobacteria were included. Drug susceptibility testing was performed for mycobacterial isolates. NTM species was identified by sequencing, and M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using the variable number of tandem repeats method. M. tuberculosis and NTM were identified in respectively 117 (53%) and 102 (47%) HIV-infected patients. Drug resistance was found in 27% and multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in 11% of the patients with TB. Previous treatment for TB was significantly associated with MDR-TB. Twenty (17%) TB patients belonged to eight VNTR-defined clusters. The high frequency of NTM among HIV-infected patients raises concerns about accurate species identification before the determination of appropriate treatment. The potential for TB transmission exists among HIV-infected patients. Intensified screening and effective treatment of TB-HIV co-infected patients is urgently needed.

  16. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity.

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Spudich, Serena S.

    2012-03-20

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a constant feature of systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91more » CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral and correlated abundances of identified proteins (a) within and between subjects, (b) with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and (c) with 'external' CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA), immune activation (neopterin) and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL). We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD) peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's) {le}0.3 and {ge}0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations) and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting the identified proteins, including one with

  17. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a nearly universal feature of untreated systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. Results After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral therapy and correlated abundances of identified proteins a) within and between subjects, b) with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and c) with "external" CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA), immune activation (neopterin) and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL). We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD) peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's) ≤ -0.3 and ≥0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations) and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting the identified

  18. [HIV infection and associated factors in HIV-antibody positive clients of female sex workers recently reported in Shaanxi province].

    PubMed

    Hu, T; Chang, W H; Zhang, M Y

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To investigate the current status of HIV infection and the related factors in HIV antibody positive clients of female sex workers (FSWs) recently reported in Shaanxi province. Methods: The HIV/AIDS cases newly diagnosed in males living in Shaanxi from January 1th of 2013 to June 30th of 2014 were selected and those infected through " commercial heterosexual behavior" were identified. The information about their demographic characteristics, previous unprotected heterosexual sex and the sample sources were collected, and serum or plasma samples were collected from them and tested with BED-CEIA. The proportion of recent HIV infections and associated factors were investigated. Results: The proportion of recent HIV infection and HIV-antibody detection rate in 212 HIV antibody positive male clients of FSWs were 25.5% and 6.6% respectively. The cases who had the educational level of junior middle school or high middle school were wore likely to have long term HIV infections than those with lower educational level (a OR =0.28, 95 % CI : 0.08-0.93). Compared with patients identified by hospitals or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, recent HIV infections were more likely to be found through preoperative test or blood transfusion test (a OR =3.14, 95 % CI : 1.06-9.30) and blood donation test (a OR =4.19, 95 % CI :1.01-17.42). Compared with the cases who had commercial sex only in Xi' an or other province or both in Xi' an and other province, the cases who had commercial sex in other cities in Shaanxi were more likely to be infected recently (a OR =0.19, 95 %CI : 0.07-0.57). Compared with the cases had temporary heterosexual sex partner, those who had no temporary sex partners were more likely to be infected recently (a OR =9.03, 95 % CI : 3.00-27.18) ( P <0.05). Conclusions: The proportion of recent HIV infections among HIV antibody positive clients of FSWs was high and the HIV-antibody detection rate among them was low. The educational level, sample source

  19. [HIV infection in the Stavropol' region].

    PubMed

    Filonenko, N G; Isaev, V P; Pelikh, N L

    2001-01-01

    The data on the dynamics of HIV infection in the Stavropol Territory beginning with 1987 are given. The situation became aggravated after 1996, and its sharp deterioration occurred in 2000 when 138 cases of HIV infection were detected and the area of this infection increased. In most cases patients became infected beyond the borders of the territory. About a half of the new cases of HIV infection registered in 2000 were detected in Ingushetia and Chechnya. The leading factor in the spread of HIV infection was the use of drugs by injection. The main trends of the prophylactic work are presented.

  20. Performance of the Bio-Rad Geenius HIV1/2 Supplemental Assay in Detecting "Recent" HIV Infection and Calculating Population Incidence.

    PubMed

    Keating, Sheila M; Kassanjee, Reshma; Lebedeva, Mila; Facente, Shelley N; MacArthur, Jeffrey C; Grebe, Eduard; Murphy, Gary; Welte, Alex; Martin, Jeffrey N; Little, Susan; Price, Matthew A; Kallas, Esper G; Busch, Michael P; Pilcher, Christopher D

    2016-12-15

    HIV seroconversion biomarkers are being used in cross-sectional studies for HIV incidence estimation. Bio-Rad Geenius HIV-1/2 Supplemental Assay is an immunochromatographic single-use assay that measures antibodies (Ab) against multiple HIV-1/2 antigens. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Geenius assay could additionally be used for recency estimation. This assay was developed for HIV-1/2 confirmation; however, quantitative data acquired give information on increasing concentration and diversity of antibody responses over time during seroconversion. A quantitative threshold of recent HIV infection was proposed to determine "recent" or "nonrecent" HIV infection; performance using this cutoff was evaluated. We tested 2500 highly characterized specimens from research subjects in the United States, Brazil, and Africa with well-defined durations of HIV infection. Regression and frequency estimation were used to estimate assay properties relevant to HIV incidence measurement: mean duration of recent infection (MDRI), false-recent rate, and assay reproducibility and robustness. Using the manufacturer's proposed cutoff index of 1.5 to identify "recent" infection, the assay has an estimated false-recent rate of 4.1% (95% CI: 2.2 to 7.0) and MDRI of 179 days (155 to 201) in specimens from treatment-naive subjects, presenting performance challenges similar to other incidence assays. Lower index cutoffs associated with lower MDRI gave a lower rate of false-recent results. These data suggest that with additional interpretive analysis of the band intensities using an algorithm and cutoff, the Geenius HIV-1/2 Supplemental Assay can be used to identify recent HIV infection in addition to confirming the presence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies.

  1. HLA Class I-Mediated HIV-1 Control in Vietnamese Infected with HIV-1 Subtype A/E.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Takayuki; Tran, Giang Van; Murakoshi, Hayato; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Qi, Ying; Naranbhai, Vivek; Kuse, Nozomi; Tamura, Yoshiko; Koyanagi, Madoka; Sakai, Sachiko; Nguyen, Dung Hoai; Nguyen, Dung Thi; Nguyen, Ha Thu; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Oka, Shinichi; Martin, Maureen P; Carrington, Mary; Sakai, Keiko; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2018-03-01

    HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) play an important role in the control of HIV-1 subtype B or C infection. However, the role of CTLs in HIV-1 subtype A/E infection still remains unclear. Here we investigated the association of HLA class I alleles with clinical outcomes in treatment-naive Vietnamese infected with subtype A/E virus. We found that HLA-C*12:02 was significantly associated with lower plasma viral loads (pVL) and higher CD4 counts and that the HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 haplotype was significantly associated with higher pVL and lower CD4 counts than those for individuals without these respective genotypes. Nine Pol and three Nef mutations were associated with at least one HLA allele in the HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 haplotype, with a strong negative correlation between the number of HLA-associated Pol mutations and CD4 count as well as a positive correlation with pVL for individuals with these HLA alleles. The results suggest that the accumulation of mutations selected by CTLs restricted by these HLA alleles affects HIV control. IMPORTANCE Most previous studies on HLA association with disease progression after HIV-1 infection have been performed on cohorts infected with HIV-1 subtypes B and C, whereas few such population-based studies have been reported for cohorts infected with the Asian subtype A/E virus. In this study, we analyzed the association of HLA class I alleles with clinical outcomes for 536 HIV-1 subtype A/E-infected Vietnamese individuals. We found that HLA-C*12:02 is protective, while the HLA haplotype HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 is deleterious. The individuals with HIV-1 mutations associated with at least one of the HLA alleles in the deleterious HLA haplotype had higher plasma viral loads and lower CD4 counts than those of individuals without the mutations, suggesting that viral adaptation and escape from HLA-mediated immune control occurred. The present study identifies a protective allele and a deleterious haplotype for HIV-1

  2. Patterns of HIV-1 Protein Interaction Identify Perturbed Host-Cellular Subsystems

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Jamie I.; Dickerson, Jonathan E.; Pinney, John W.; Robertson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits a diverse array of host cell functions in order to replicate. This is mediated through a network of virus-host interactions. A variety of recent studies have catalogued this information. In particular the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database (HHPID) has provided a unique depth of protein interaction detail. However, as a map of HIV-1 infection, the HHPID is problematic, as it contains curation error and redundancy; in addition, it is based on a heterogeneous set of experimental methods. Based on identifying shared patterns of HIV-host interaction, we have developed a novel methodology to delimit the core set of host-cellular functions and their associated perturbation from the HHPID. Initially, using biclustering, we identify 279 significant sets of host proteins that undergo the same types of interaction. The functional cohesiveness of these protein sets was validated using a human protein-protein interaction network, gene ontology annotation and sequence similarity. Next, using a distance measure, we group host protein sets and identify 37 distinct higher-level subsystems. We further demonstrate the biological significance of these subsystems by cross-referencing with global siRNA screens that have been used to detect host factors necessary for HIV-1 replication, and investigate the seemingly small intersect between these data sets. Our results highlight significant host-cell subsystems that are perturbed during the course of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, we characterise the patterns of interaction that contribute to these perturbations. Thus, our work disentangles the complex set of HIV-1-host protein interactions in the HHPID, reconciles these with siRNA screens and provides an accessible and interpretable map of infection. PMID:20686668

  3. Role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors in HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Guendel, Irene; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Sampey, Gavin C; Van Duyne, Rachel; Calvert, Valerie; Petricoin, Emanuel; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Many cellular cofactors have been documented to be critical for various stages of viral replication. Using high-throughput proteomic assays, we have previously identified Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) as a host protein that was uniquely upregulated in the plasma membrane of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected T cells. Here, we have further characterized the BTK expression in HIV-1 infection and show that this cellular factor is specifically expressed in infected myeloid cells. Significant upregulation of the phosphorylated form of BTK was observed in infected cells. Using size exclusion chromatography, we found BTK to be virtually absent in the uninfected U937 cells; however, new BTK protein complexes were identified and distributed in both high molecular weight (∼600 kDa) and a small molecular weight complex (∼60-120 kDa) in the infected U1 cells. BTK levels were highest in cells either chronically expressing virus or induced/infected myeloid cells and that BTK translocated to the membrane following induction of the infected cells. BTK knockdown in HIV-1-infected cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in selective death of infected, but not uninfected, cells. Using BTK-specific antibody and small-molecule inhibitors including LFM-A13 and a FDA-approved compound, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), we have found that HIV-1-infected cells are sensitive to apoptotic cell death and result in a decrease in virus production. Overall, our data suggests that HIV-1-infected cells are sensitive to treatments targeting BTK expressed in infected cells.

  4. The Burden of Neglected HIV-2 and HTLV-1 Infections in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Caballero, Estrella; de Mendoza, Carmen; Aguilera, Antonio; Pirón, Maria; Soriano, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    HIV-2 and HTLV-1 infections are globally less frequent than those produced by HIV-1, the classical AIDS agent. In Spain and up to the end of 2014, a total of 310 cases of HIV-2, 274 of HTLV-1, and 776 of HTLV-2 infections had been reported. No cases of HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 infections have been identified so far in Spain. Most persons infected with HIV-2 or HTLV-1 acknowledge epidemiological risk factors for contagion, such as originating from or living in endemic regions and/or having had sexual partners from those areas. However, risk factors could not be recognized in up to 20-25% of carriers in Spain. Thus, it seems worth keeping a high level of clinical suspicion in order to identify earlier these neglected human retroviral infections, since diagnostic procedures and antiviral treatment are specific for each of these agents. In this article we summarize the major contributions reported at the meeting of the Spanish Group for HIV-2/HTLV held in Madrid in December 2014.

  5. HIV infection and specific mucosal immunity: workshop 4B.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, S J; Fidel, P L; Tugizov, S; Tao, L; Wahl, S M

    2011-04-01

    Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. An area of fundamental importance is understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, which leads to increased susceptibility to bacterial, fungal, and viral infections of oral and other mucosae. This workshop attempted to address 5 basic issues-namely, HIV acquisition across mucosal surfaces, innate and adaptive immunity in HIV resistance, antiviral activity of breast milk as a model mucosal fluid, neutralizing immunoglobulin A antibodies against HIV, and progress toward a mucosal vaccine against HIV. The workshop attendants agreed that progress had been made in each area covered, with much recent information. However, these advances revealed how little work had been performed on stratified squamous epithelium compared with columnar epithelium, and the attendants identified several important biological questions that had not been addressed. It is increasingly clear that innate immunity has an important biological role, although basic understanding of the mechanisms of normal homeostasis is still being investigated. Application of the emerging knowledge was lacking with regard to homeostatic mucosal immunity to HIV and its role in changing this homeostasis. With regard to breast milk, a series of studies have demonstrated the differences between transmitters and nontransmitters, although whether these findings could be generalized to other secretions such as saliva was less clear. Important progress toward an oral mucosal HIV vaccine has been made, demonstrating proof of principle for administering vaccine candidates into oral lymphoid tissues to trigger anti-HIV local and systemic immune responses. Similarly, experimental data emphasized the central role of neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection via mucosal routes.

  6. Cancer screening in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Keith; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; Crothers, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy

    2011-09-01

    Non-AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening.

  7. CCD Camera Detection of HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Day, John R

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and precise quantification of the infectivity of HIV is important for molecular virologic studies, as well as for measuring the activities of antiviral drugs and neutralizing antibodies. An indicator cell line, a CCD camera, and image-analysis software are used to quantify HIV infectivity. The cells of the P4R5 line, which express the receptors for HIV infection as well as β-galactosidase under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, are infected with HIV and then incubated 2 days later with X-gal to stain the infected cells blue. Digital images of monolayers of the infected cells are captured using a high resolution CCD video camera and a macro video zoom lens. A software program is developed to process the images and to count the blue-stained foci of infection. The described method allows for the rapid quantification of the infected cells over a wide range of viral inocula with reproducibility, accuracy and at relatively low cost.

  8. Feasibility of identifying a cohort of US women at high risk for HIV infection for HIV vaccine efficacy trials: Longitudinal results of HVTN 906

    PubMed Central

    Koblin, Beryl A.; Metch, Barbara; Novak, Richard M.; Morgan, Cecilia; Lucy, Debbie; Dunbar, Debora; Graham, Parrie; Swann, Edith; Madenwald, Tamra; Escamilia, Gina; Frank, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying cohorts of US women with HIV infection rates sufficient for inclusion in vaccine efficacy trials has been challenging. Using geography and sexual network characteristics to inform recruitment strategies, HVTN 906 determined the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of women at high risk for HIV acquisition. Methods HIV uninfected women who reported unprotected sex in the prior six months, resided or engaged in risk behavior in local geographical high-risk pockets and/or had a male partner who had been incarcerated, injected drugs or had concurrent partners were eligible. Behavioral risk assessment, HIV counseling and testing and pregnancy testing were done at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Results Among 799 women, 71% were from local high-risk pockets and had high-risk male partners. Median age was 37 years; 79% were Black; 15% Latina. Over half (55%) reported a new partner in the prior six months, 57% reported a male partner who had concurrent female sexual partners and 37% reported a male partner who had been incarcerated. Retention at 18 months was 79.5%. Annual pregnancy incidence was 12%. Annual HIV incidence was 0.31% (95% CI: 0.06, 0.91). Risk behaviors decreased between screening and six months with smaller changes thereafter. Discussion This cohort of women recruited using new strategies based on geography and sexual network characteristics did not have an HIV incidence high enough for HIV vaccine efficacy trials, despite high baseline levels of risk and a high pregnancy rate. New strategies to identify cohorts of US women for efficacy trials are needed. PMID:23446497

  9. HIV risk behaviors among African American men in Los Angeles County who self-identify as heterosexual.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Amy Rock; Johnson, Denise F; Lu, Sharon; Jordan, Wilbert; Beall, Gildon; Currier, Judith; Simon, Paul A

    2002-11-01

    There are limited data on high-risk behaviors among heterosexual African American men with HIV infection. Risk behaviors were examined in a case-control study of HIV-infected (n = 90) and uninfected (n = 272) African American men who self-identified as heterosexual. Of men who self-identified as heterosexual, 31% (n = 28) of the infected men and 16% (n = 43) of the uninfected men reported having had anal sex with men. Among the heterosexual men reporting anal sex with men, 100% of the infected and 67% of the uninfected men reported inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men. Few of the infected (12%) and uninfected (2%) men reported oral sex with other men. Of the men who self-identified as heterosexual, 46% of those who were HIV-positive and 37% of those who were HIV-negative reported anal sex with women with infrequent condom use. An increasing risk for HIV was associated with decreasing age at first sexual experience (chi2, 9.3; p = .002). A history of injecting drugs (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.8, 5.4) and amphetamine (OR, 4.3; 95% CIs, 1.1, 16.7) and methamphetamine (OR, 2.9; 95% CIs, 1.4, 6.3) use were associated with HIV. Innovative HIV prevention strategies are needed that move beyond the traditional gay versus straight model to effectively access hard-to-reach African American men who self-identify as heterosexual.

  10. Gene expression patterns associated with neurological disease in human HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Masliah, Eliezer; Lefebvre, Celine

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb). We analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of patients from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC), which consists of samples from 3 different brain regions, including white matter, basal ganglia and frontal cortex of HIV-infected and control patients. While HIVE is characterized by widespread, uncontrolled inflammation and tissue damage, substantial gene expression evidence of induction of interferon (IFN), cytokines and tissue injury is apparent in all brain regions studied, even in the absence of NCI. Various degrees of white matter changes were present in all HIV-infected subjects and were the primary manifestation in patients with NCI in the absence of HIVE. In particular, NCI in patients without HIVE in the NNTC sample is associated with white matter expression of chemokines, cytokines and β-defensins, without significant activation of IFN. Altogether, the results identified distinct pathways differentially regulated over the course of neurological disease in HIV infection and provide a new perspective on the dynamics of pathogenic processes in the course of HIV neurological disease in humans. These results also demonstrate the power of the systems biology analyses and indicate that the establishment of larger human gene expression profile datasets will have the potential to provide novel mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of neurological disease in HIV infection and

  11. Bladder Cancer in HIV-infected Adults: An Emerging Issue? Case-Reports and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chawki, Sylvain; Ploussard, Guillaume; Montlahuc, Claire; Verine, Jérome; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Desgrandchamps, François; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Non-AIDS-related malignancies now represent a frequent cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, it has been rarely reported among HIV-infected patients. We wished to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients. We conducted a single center retrospective study from 1998 to 2013 in a university hospital in Paris. Cases of bladder cancer among HIV-infected patients were identified using the electronic records of the hospital database and of the HIV-infected cohort. Patient characteristics and outcomes were retrieved from patients charts. A systematic review of published cases of bladder cancers in patients with HIV-infection was also performed. During the study period we identified 15 HIV-infected patients (0.2% of the cohort) with a bladder cancer. Patients were mostly men (73%) and smokers (67%), with a median age of 56 years at cancer diagnosis. Bladder cancer was diagnosed a median of 14 years after HIV-infection. Most patients were on ART (86%) with median current and nadir CD4 cell counts of 506 and 195 cells/mm3, respectively. Haematuria (73%) was the most frequent presenting symptom and HPV-associated lesions were seen in 6/10 (60%) patients. Histopathology showed transitional cell carcinoma in 80% and a high proportion of tumors with muscle invasion (47%) and high histologic grade (73%). One-year survival rate was 74.6%. The systematic review identified 13 additional cases of urothelial bladder cancers which shared similar features. Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but may occur in relatively young patients with a low nadir CD4 cell count, have aggressive pathological features and can be fatal.

  12. Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators to Cervical Cancer Screening among Low-Income, HIV-Infected Women from an Integrated HIV Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Buchberg, Meredith; Schover, Leslie; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Arduino, Roberto C.; Vidrine, Damon J.

    2014-01-01

    Significantly elevated rates of cervical cancer and low rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening have been documented among HIV-infected women. However, little is known about women’s perceptions of cervical cancer screening utilization. Hence, this study describes barriers and facilitators related to cervical cancer screening in a sample of HIV-infected women seeking care at an integrated HIV clinic in Houston, Texas. Using an inductive qualitative methodological approach, data were obtained from five focus group discussions with a total of 33, HIV-infected women. The majority of the study sample consisted of women who self-identified as Black (69.7%), and reported heterosexual contact as the mode of HIV acquisition (75.8%). Barriers to cervical cancer screening were described as pain and discomfort associated with receiving Pap smears and subsequent procedures; lack of awareness of cervical cancer as a preventable disease; limited transportation access; and systemic issues as it relates to scheduling gynecological appointments. Facilitators were described as awareness of HIV-infected women’s increased risk of cervical cancer and strong provider-patient relationships. To address disparities in cervical cancer screening among low-income HIV-infected women, programs should capitalize on the identified facilitators and alleviate modifiable barriers using multi-level strategies. PMID:24635664

  13. Predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in primary care: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Rumbwere Dube, Benhildah N; Marshall, Tom P; Ryan, Ronan P

    2016-09-20

    Antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early, before they have irreversible immunologic damage. A large proportion of patients that are diagnosed with HIV, in United Kingdom, would have seen a general practitioner (GP) within the previous year. Determining the demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients prior to diagnosis of HIV may be useful in identifying patients likely to be HIV positive in primary care. This could help inform a strategy of early HIV testing in primary care. This systematic review aims to identify characteristics of HIV-infected adults prior to diagnosis that could be used in a prediction model for early detection of HIV in primary care. The systematic review will search for literature, mainly observational (cohort and case-control) studies, with human participants aged 18 years and over. The exposures are demographic, socio-economic or clinical risk factors or characteristics associated with HIV infection. The comparison group will be patients with no risk factors or no comparison group. The outcome is laboratory-confirmed HIV/AIDS infection. Evidence will be identified from electronic searches of online databases of EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library and grey literature search engines of Open Grey, Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index and examination of reference lists from selected studies (reference searching). Two reviewers will be involved in quality assessment and data extraction of the review. A data extraction form will be developed to collate data from selected studies. A checklist for quality assessment will be adapted from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). This systematic review will identify and consolidate existing scientific evidence on characteristics of HIV infected individuals that could be used to inform decision-making in prognostic model development. PROSPERO CRD42016042427.

  14. [Tuberculosis in HIV-infected and AIDS patients].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanova, A G; Stepanova, E V; Romanova, E I; Evseeva, I D

    2003-01-01

    The course of the combined infection (tuberculosis plus HIV-infection) has been analysed in 41 patients. Of them, 24 patients developed tuberculosis in the presence of HIV-infection (group 1) and 17 were infected with HIV when they already had tuberculosis running up to 5 years. HIV-infection in group 1 ran a more severe course, the patients developed generalized, disseminated and complicated forms of tuberculosis with more frequent lethal outcome. 39 patients of both groups received specific antituberculous therapy including 1-5 drugs. A response to treatment was achieved in 23 (60%) patients (52 and 47.8% at early and late HIV-infection stages, respectively). Treatment failure was explained by development of severe opportunistic infections and secondary diseases (generalized cytomegalovirus infection, advanced candidiasis, toxoplasmosis), poor compliance, asocial life style, advanced tuberculosis process, late diagnosis, inadequate treatment. It is shown that in late HIV-infection positive results of treatment can be expected only in early detection of tuberculosis and active long-term treatment.

  15. High Risk Human Papillomavirus Persistence Among HIV-infected Young Women in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adler, David; Wallace, Melissa; Bennie, Thola; Abar, Beau; Sadeghi, Rokhsanna; Meiring, Tracy; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Persistence of infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) increases the risk of incident and progressive precancerous lesions of the cervix. Rates of HR-HPV persistence have been shown to be increased among HIV-infected adult women, however there is a paucity of literature addressing HPV persistence in the young HIV-infected population. We compared rates of HR-HPV persistence between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young women. Methods We obtained self-collected vaginal swabs at six-month intervals from 50 HIV-uninfected and 33 HIV-infected young women recruited through a community youth center (age 17-21 years) and compared rates of HR-HPV persistence. HR-HPV testing was conducted using the Roche’s Linear Array® HPV Test. Results Eighty-three prevalent (upon baseline testing) and incident (upon subsequent testing) individual HR-HPV infections were identified among 43 members of the cohort (23 HIV-uninfected and 20 HIV-infected). At twelve months, 19% of baseline HR-HPV infections continued to be present with a statistically significant difference between HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected participants (4% versus 31%; p=0.01). Conclusions HIV-infected young women in our cohort had a seven-fold increased rate of persistence of HR-HPV overall at 12 months indicating an increased risk for incident and progressive precancerous lesions. Identification of persistent infection with HR-HPV may complement cytological findings in determining the need for colposcopy. PMID:25697074

  16. The immunology of Leishmania/HIV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude Eze

    2013-05-01

    Leishmaniases are emerging as an important disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons living in several sub-tropical and tropical regions around the world, including the Mediterranean. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is spreading at an alarming rate in Africa and the Indian subcontinent, areas with very high prevalence of leishmaniases. The spread of HIV into rural areas and the concomitant spread of leishmaniases to suburban/urban areas have helped maintain the occurrence of Leishmania/HIV co-infection in many parts of the world. The number of cases of Leishmania/HIV co-infection is expected to rise owing to the overlapping geographical distribution of the two infections. In Southwestern Europe, there is also an increasing incidence of Leishmania/HIV co-infection (particularly visceral leishmaniasis) in such countries as France, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Studies suggest that in humans, very complex mechanisms involving dysregulation of host immune responses contribute to Leishmania-mediated immune activation and pathogenesis of HIV. In addition, both HIV-1 and Leishmania infect and multiply within cells of myeloid or lymphoid origin, thereby presenting a perfect recipe for reciprocal modulation of Leishmania and HIV-1-related disease pathogenesis. Importantly, because recovery from leishmaniases is associated with long-term persistence of parasites at the primary infection sites and their draining lymph nodes, there is very real possibility that HIV-mediated immunosuppression (due to CD4(+) T cell depletion) could lead to reactivation of latent infections (reactivation leishmaniasis) in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present an overview of the immunopathogenesis of Leishmania/HIV co-infection and the implications of this interaction on Leishmania and HIV disease outcome.

  17. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicting severe damage to mucosal barriers, resulting in tissue infiltration of ‘symbiotic’ intestinal bacteria and viruses that essentially become opportunistic infections promoting systemic immune activation. This leads to activation and recruitment or more target cells for perpetuating HIV infection, resulting in persistent, high level viral replication in lymphoid tissues, rapid evolution of resistant strains, and continued evasion of immune responses. However, vaccine studies and studies of spontaneous controllers are finally providing correlates of immunity from protection and disease progression, including virus-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, binding antibodies, innate immune responses, and generation of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Emerging correlates of immunity indicate that prevention of HIV infection may be possible through effective vaccine strategies that protect and stimulate key regulatory cells and immune responses in susceptible hosts. Further, immune therapies specifically directed towards boosting specific aspects of the immune system may eventually lead to a cure for HIV-infected patients. PMID:23772612

  18. Preventing HIV infection in women.

    PubMed

    Adimora, Adaora A; Ramirez, Catalina; Auerbach, Judith D; Aral, Sevgi O; Hodder, Sally; Wingood, Gina; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Bukusi, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    Although the number of new infections has declined recently, women still constitute almost half of the world's 34 million people with HIV infection, and HIV remains the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. Prevention research has made considerable progress during the past few years in addressing the biological, behavioral, and social factors that influence women's vulnerability to HIV infection. Nevertheless, substantial work still must be performed to implement scientific advancements and to resolve many questions that remain. This article highlights some of the recent advances and persistent gaps in HIV prevention research for women and outlines key research and policy priorities.

  19. Preventing HIV Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Adimora, Adaora A.; Ramirez, Catalina; Auerbach, Judith D.; Aral, Sevgi O.; Hodder, Sally; Wingood, Gina; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Bukusi, Elizabeth Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although the number of new infections has declined recently, women still constitute almost half of the world's 34 million people with HIV infection, and HIV remains the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. Prevention research has made considerable progress during the past few years in addressing the biological, behavioral and social factors that influence women's vulnerability to HIV infection. Nevertheless, substantial work still must be done in order to implement scientific advancements and to resolve the many questions that remain. This article highlights some of the recent advances and persistent gaps in HIV prevention research for women and outlines key research and policy priorities. PMID:23764631

  20. Determinants of Recent HIV Infection Among Seattle-Area Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Richard A.; Carey, James W.; Hutcheson, Rebecca; Thomas, Katherine K.; Stall, Ronald D.; White, Edward; Allen, Iris; Mejia, Roberto; Golden, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify HIV-infection risk factors related to partner selection and sexual behaviors with those partners among men who have sex with men (MSM) in King County, Washington. Methods. Participants were recruited from HIV testing sites in the Seattle area. Recent HIV infection status was determined by the Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS) or a self-reported previous HIV-negative test. Data on behaviors with 3 male partners were collected via computer-based self-interviews. Generalized estimating equation models identified partnership factors associated with recent infection. Results. We analyzed data from 32 HIV-positive MSM (58 partners) and 110 HIV-negative MSM (213 partners). In multivariate analysis, recent HIV infection was associated with meeting partners at bathhouses or sex clubs, bars or dance clubs, or online; methamphetamine use during unprotected anal intercourse; and unprotected anal intercourse, except with HIV-negative primary partners. Conclusions. There is a need to improve efforts to promote condom use with casual partners, regardless of their partner's HIV status. New strategies to control methamphetamine use in MSM and to reduce risk behaviors related to meeting partners at high-risk venues are needed. PMID:18445808

  1. Characteristics of HIV-infected U.S. Army soldiers linked in molecular transmission clusters, 2001-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Liu, Ying; Pham, Peter T.; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; McCutchan, Francine E.; Scoville, Stephanie L.; Cersovsky, Steven B.; Michael, Nelson L.; Scott, Paul T.; Peel, Sheila A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Recent surveillance data suggests the United States (U.S.) Army HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men. To identify potential targets for HIV prevention strategies, the relationship between demographic and clinical factors and membership within transmission clusters based on baseline pol sequences of HIV-infected Soldiers from 2001 through 2012 were analyzed. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of baseline partial pol sequences, demographic and clinical characteristics available for all Soldiers in active service and newly-diagnosed with HIV-1 infection from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2012. HIV-1 subtype designations and transmission clusters were identified from phylogenetic analysis of sequences. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate and adjust for the association between characteristics and cluster membership. Results Among 518 of 995 HIV-infected Soldiers with available partial pol sequences, 29% were members of a transmission cluster. Assignment to a southern U.S. region at diagnosis and year of diagnosis were independently associated with cluster membership after adjustment for other significant characteristics (p<0.10) of age, race, year of diagnosis, region of duty assignment, sexually transmitted infections, last negative HIV test, antiretroviral therapy, and transmitted drug resistance. Subtyping of the pol fragment indicated HIV-1 subtype B infection predominated (94%) among HIV-infected Soldiers. Conclusion These findings identify areas to explore as HIV prevention targets in the U.S. Army. An increased frequency of current force testing may be justified, especially among Soldiers assigned to duty in installations with high local HIV prevalence such as southern U.S. states. PMID:28759645

  2. Travel medicine and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Igreja, Ricardo

    2008-09-01

    The number of HIV-infected persons who travel is increasing. This increase arises from those who have benefited from advances in antiretroviral therapy. The key to successful travel is careful pre-trip planning although many patients do not obtain advice before travelling. Travel advice for HIV patients is becoming increasingly specialized, and includes travel vaccination and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related issues. A closer collaboration between HIV and travel health clinics could provide better care for HIV-infected individuals.

  3. Trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells fosters both HIV-1 trans-infection in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes and reactivation of the HIV-1 reservoir.

    PubMed

    Chiozzini, Chiara; Arenaccio, Claudia; Olivetta, Eleonora; Anticoli, Simona; Manfredi, Francesco; Ferrantelli, Flavia; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Schietroma, Ivan; Andreotti, Mauro; Federico, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Intact HIV-1 and exosomes can be internalized by dendritic cells (DCs) through a common pathway leading to their transmission to CD4 + T lymphocytes by means of mechanisms defined as trans-infection and trans-dissemination, respectively. We previously reported that exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells activate both uninfected quiescent CD4 + T lymphocytes, which become permissive to HIV-1, and latently infected cells, with release of HIV-1 particles. However, nothing is known about the effects of trans-dissemination of exosomes produced by HIV-1-infected cells on uninfected or latently HIV-1-infected CD4 + T lymphocytes. Here, we report that trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells induces cell activation in resting CD4 + T lymphocytes, which appears stronger with mature than immature DCs. Using purified preparations of both HIV-1 and exosomes, we observed that mDC-mediated trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells to resting CD4 + T lymphocytes induces efficient trans-infection and HIV-1 expression in target cells. Most relevant, when both mDCs and CD4 + T lymphocytes were isolated from combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients, trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells led to HIV-1 reactivation from the viral reservoir. In sum, our data suggest a role of exosome trans-dissemination in both HIV-1 spread in the infected host and reactivation of the HIV-1 reservoir.

  4. HIV testing and burden of HIV infection in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sengayi, Mazvita; Babb, Chantal; Egger, Matthias; Urban, Margaret I

    2015-03-18

    HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. We did a cross-sectional analysis to identify predictors of prior HIV testing and to quantify the burden of HIV in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Johannesburg Cancer Case-control Study (JCCCS) recruits newly-diagnosed black cancer patients attending public referral hospitals for oncology and radiation therapy in Johannesburg . All adult cancer patients enrolled into the JCCCS from November 2004 to December 2009 and interviewed on previous HIV testing were included in the analysis. Patients were independently tested for HIV-1 using a single ELISA test . The prevalence of prior HIV testing, of HIV infection and of undiagnosed HIV infection was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with prior HIV testing. A total of 5436 cancer patients were tested for HIV of whom 1833[33.7% (95% CI=32.5-35.0)] were HIV-positive. Three-quarters of patients (4092 patients) had ever been tested for HIV. The total prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was 11.5% (10.7-12.4) with 34% (32.0-36.3) of the 1833 patients who tested HIV-positive unaware of their infection. Men >49 years [OR 0.49(0.39-0.63)] and those residing in rural areas [OR 0.61(0.39-0.97)] were less likely to have been previously tested for HIV. Men with at least a secondary education [OR 1.79(1.11-2.90)] and those interviewed in recent years [OR 4.13(2.62 - 6.52)] were likely to have prior testing. Women >49 years [OR 0.33(0.27-0.41)] were less likely to have been previously tested for HIV. In women, having children <5 years [OR 2.59(2.04-3.29)], hormonal contraceptive use [OR 1.33(1.09-1.62)], having at least a secondary education [OR:2.08(1.45-2.97)] and recent year of interview [OR 6.04(4.45-8.2)] were independently associated with previous HIV testing. In a study of newly diagnosed black

  5. Measles infection in HIV-infected African infants.

    PubMed

    Perry, R T; Mmiro, F; Ndugwa, C; Semba, R D

    2000-11-01

    Measles infection remains a serious threat to child survival in the developing world despite vaccination and treatment with vitamin A. This report reviews the epidemiology of measles in HIV-infected children in Africa. In hospitalized infants, the rate of malnutrition before measles and the rate of death after measles are both higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative infants. However, the rates of pneumonia and diarrhea in infants hospitalized with measles are the same in HIV-positive as in HIV-negative infants. In an autopsy study, measles was associated with death in HIV-positive children, only for those over 15 months of age. A cohort study found that infants of HIV-positive women were more likely than infants of HIV-negative women to have measles before 9 months of age, although the rates of complications did not differ between the two groups. The HIV status of the infants and the measles serology were too incomplete to draw firm conclusions, though only 1 of 54 infants tested was seropositive for measles at 6 months of age. In the context of the HIV epidemic, further work is needed to determine the risk of measles and its complications in HIV-positive infants and the optimal age of measles immunization.

  6. Prisoners co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Chantal L; King, Emma J; Dolan, Kate; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Almost from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in 1981, an association with tuberculosis (TB) was recognized. This association between HIV and TB co-infection has been particularly evident amongst prisoners. However, despite this, few studies of TB in prisons have stratified results by HIV status. Given the high prevalence of HIV-positive persons and TB-infected persons in prisons and the documented risk of TB in those infected with HIV, it is of interest to determine how co-infection varies amongst prison populations worldwide. For this reason we have undertaken a systematic review of studies of co-infected prisoners to determine the incidence and/or prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection in prisons, as well as outcomes in this group, measured as treatment success or death. Methods A literature search was undertaken using the online databases PubMed, Embase, IBSS, Scopus, Web of Science, Global Health and CINAHL Plus. No restrictions were set on language or publication date for article retrieval, with articles included if indexed up to 18 October 2015. A total of 1975 non-duplicate papers were identified. For treatment and outcome data all eligible papers were appraised for inclusion; for incidence/prevalence estimates papers published prior to 2000 were excluded from full text review. After full text appraisal, 46 papers were selected for inclusion in the review, 41 for incidence/prevalence estimates and nine for outcomes data, with four papers providing evidence for both outcomes and prevalence/incidence. Results Very few studies estimated the incidence of TB in HIV positive prisoners, with most simply reporting prevalence of co-infection. Co-infection is rarely explicitly measured, with studies simply reporting HIV status in prisoners with TB, or a cross-sectional survey of TB prevalence amongst prisoners with HIV. Estimates of co-infection prevalence ranged from 2.4 to 73.1% and relative risks for one, given the other, ranged from 2.0 to 10.75, although

  7. Facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention with adolescents: perspectives of HIV-infected parents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Laura L; Reis, Janet S; Weber, Kathleen M

    2013-08-01

    We examined HIV-infected parents' conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Eighty-one percent of parents reported "sometimes" or "often" communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one's child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents.

  8. Role of Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors in HIV-1 infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Guendel, Irene; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Sampey, Gavin C; Van Duyne, Rachel; Calvert, Valerie; Petricoin, Emanuel; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-01-01

    Many cellular cofactors have been documented to be critical for various stages of viral replication. Using high throughput proteomic assays, we have previously identified Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) as a host protein that was uniquely up-regulated in the plasma membrane of HIV-1 infected T-cells. Here, we have further characterized the BTK expression in HIV-1 infection and show that this cellular factor is specifically expressed in infected myeloid cells. Significant up-regulation of the phosphorylated form of BTK was observed in infected cells. Using size exclusion chromatography, we found BTK to be virtually absent in the uninfected U937 cells, however new BTK protein complexes were identified and distributed in both high molecular weight (~600 kDa) and a small molecular weight complex (~60–120 kDa) in the infected U1 cells. BTK levels were highest in cells either chronically expressing virus or induced/infected myeloid cells and that BTK translocated to the membrane following induction of the infected cells. BTK knockdown in HIV-1 infected cells using siRNA resulted in selective death of infected, but not uninfected, cells. Using BTK specific antibody and small molecule inhibitors including LFM-A13 and a FDA approved compound, Ibrutinib (PCI – 32765), we have found that HIV-1 infected cells are sensitive to apoptotic cell death and result in a decrease in virus production. Overall, our data suggests that HIV-1 infected cells are sensitive to treatments targeting BTK expressed in infected cells. PMID:25672887

  9. Age-Related Skeletal Muscle Decline Is Similar in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Scherzer, Rebecca; Kotler, Donald P.; Dobs, Adrian S.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Lewis, Cora E.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Bacchetti, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background. Skeletal muscle (SM) mass decreases with advanced age and with disease in HIV infection. It is unknown whether age-related muscle loss is accelerated in the current era of antiretroviral therapy and which factors might contribute to muscle loss among HIV-infected adults. We hypothesized that muscle mass would be lower and decline faster in HIV-infected adults than in similar-aged controls. Methods. Whole-body 1H-magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify regional and total SM in 399 HIV-infected and 204 control men and women at baseline and 5 years later. Multivariable regression identified associated factors. Results. At baseline and Year 5, total SM was lower in HIV-infected than control men. HIV-infected women were similar to control women at both time points. After adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, and total adipose tissue, HIV infection was associated with lower Year 5 SM in men and higher SM in women compared with controls. Average overall 5-year change in total SM was small and age related, but rate of change was similar in HIV-infected and control men and women. CD4 count and efavirenz use in HIV-infected participants were associated with increasing SM, whereas age and stavudine use were associated with decreasing SM. Conclusions. Muscle mass was lower in HIV-infected men compared with controls, whereas HIV-infected women had slightly higher SM than control women after multivariable adjustment. We found evidence against substantially faster SM decline in HIV infected versus similar-aged controls. SM gain was associated with increasing CD4 count, whereas stavudine use may contribute to SM loss. PMID:21310810

  10. Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.

    PubMed

    Yarasheski, Kevin E; Scherzer, Rebecca; Kotler, Donald P; Dobs, Adrian S; Tien, Phyllis C; Lewis, Cora E; Kronmal, Richard A; Heymsfield, Steven B; Bacchetti, Peter; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-03-01

    Skeletal muscle (SM) mass decreases with advanced age and with disease in HIV infection. It is unknown whether age-related muscle loss is accelerated in the current era of antiretroviral therapy and which factors might contribute to muscle loss among HIV-infected adults. We hypothesized that muscle mass would be lower and decline faster in HIV-infected adults than in similar-aged controls. Whole-body (1)H-magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify regional and total SM in 399 HIV-infected and 204 control men and women at baseline and 5 years later. Multivariable regression identified associated factors. At baseline and Year 5, total SM was lower in HIV-infected than control men. HIV-infected women were similar to control women at both time points. After adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, and total adipose tissue, HIV infection was associated with lower Year 5 SM in men and higher SM in women compared with controls. Average overall 5-year change in total SM was small and age related, but rate of change was similar in HIV-infected and control men and women. CD4 count and efavirenz use in HIV-infected participants were associated with increasing SM, whereas age and stavudine use were associated with decreasing SM. Muscle mass was lower in HIV-infected men compared with controls, whereas HIV-infected women had slightly higher SM than control women after multivariable adjustment. We found evidence against substantially faster SM decline in HIV infected versus similar-aged controls. SM gain was associated with increasing CD4 count, whereas stavudine use may contribute to SM loss.

  11. Prevalence and mortality of cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Su, Shu; Zhao, Hongxin; Wang, Dennis; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Fujie; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-16

    Cancer is responsible for elevated HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Research on HIV-infected patients with concurrent cancer is rare in China. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, and to investigate the mortality and risk factors among HIV-infected inpatients with cancer. Hospital records from a total of 1946 HIV-infected patients were collected from the Beijing Ditan Hospital. The data, from 2008 to 2013, were collected retrospectively. The cancer diagnoses included AIDS-defining cancers (ADC) and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC). Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors predicting the concurrence of cancer with HIV. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. 7.7 % (149 cases) of all HIV-infected inpatients had concurrent cancer at their first hospital admission; of those, 33.6 % (50 cases) had ADCs, and 66.4 % (99 cases) had NADCs. The most prevalent NADCs were Hodgkin's lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Patients who did not accept antiretroviral therapy (ART) were more likely to suffer from cancer [AOR = 2.07 (1.42-3.01), p = 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that the survival probability of HIV-positive cancer patients was significantly lower than that of HIV-positive cancer-free patients (log-rank test, p < 0.001). For patients diagnosed with cancer, the mortality was also higher among those who did not receive ART [AHR = 2.19 (1.84-2.61), p < 0.001]. The prevalence of cancer concurrence among hospitalized HIV-infected patients was 7.7 %. Concurrent cancer also increased mortality among HIV-infected patients. ART was protective against concurrent cancer as well as mortality among HIV-infected cancer patients. These results highlight the importance of promoting cancer screening and early ART initiation among HIV-infected patients.

  12. Preventing secondary infections among HIV-positive persons.

    PubMed Central

    Filice, G A; Pomeroy, C

    1991-01-01

    Secondary infectious diseases contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The authors developed comprehensive, practical recommendations for prevention of infectious complications in HIV-infected people. Recommendations are concerned with the pathogens that are more common or more severe in HIV-infected people. Several infectious complications can be prevented by avoiding ingestion of contaminated food or water. Zoonoses can be prevented by precautions to be taken in contacts with animals. The risk of several fungal diseases can be reduced if activities likely to lead to inhalation of spores are avoided. HIV-infected people should be advised how to lower adverse health effects of travel, especially international travel. The potential for infectious complications of sexual activity and illicit drug use should be stressed, and recommendations to reduce the risk are discussed. Recommendations for use of vaccines in HIV-infected people are reviewed. Blood CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations, tuberculin skin testing, Toxoplasma serology, and sexually transmitted disease screening should be performed in certain subsets of HIV-infected people. Guidelines for chemoprophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii and tuberculosis are presented. Recent data suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may prevent bacterial infections in HIV-infected children. PMID:1910184

  13. Mucosal immunology of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection, but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicting severe damage to mucosal barriers, resulting in tissue infiltration of 'symbiotic' intestinal bacteria and viruses that essentially become opportunistic infections promoting systemic immune activation. This leads to activation and recruitment or more target cells for perpetuating HIV infection, resulting in persistent, high-level viral replication in lymphoid tissues, rapid evolution of resistant strains, and continued evasion of immune responses. However, vaccine studies and studies of spontaneous controllers are finally providing correlates of immunity from protection and disease progression, including virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses, binding anti-bodies, innate immune responses, and generation of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Emerging correlates of immunity indicate that prevention of HIV infection may be possible through effective vaccine strategies that protect and stimulate key regulatory cells and immune responses in susceptible hosts. Furthermore, immune therapies specifically directed toward boosting specific aspects of the immune system may eventually lead to a cure for HIV-infected patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Thymic HIV-2 infection uncovers posttranscriptional control of viral replication in human thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Cabaço, Helena; Matoso, Paula; Foxall, Russell B; Tendeiro, Rita; Pires, Ana R; Carvalho, Tânia; Pinheiro, Ana I; Soares, Rui S; Sousa, Ana E

    2015-02-01

    A unique HIV-host equilibrium exists in untreated HIV-2-infected individuals. This equilibrium is characterized by low to undetectable levels of viremia throughout the disease course, despite the establishment of disseminated HIV-2 reservoirs at levels comparable to those observed in untreated HIV-1 infection. Although the clinical spectrum is similar in the two infections, HIV-2 infection is associated with a much lower rate of CD4 T-cell decline and has a limited impact on the mortality of infected adults. Here we investigated HIV-2 infection of the human thymus, the primary organ for T-cell production. Human thymic tissue and suspensions of total or purified CD4 single-positive thymocytes were infected with HIV-2 or HIV-1 primary isolates using either CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors. We found that HIV-2 infected both thymic organ cultures and thymocyte suspensions, as attested to by the total HIV DNA and cell-associated viral mRNA levels. Nevertheless, thymocytes featured reduced levels of intracellular Gag viral protein, irrespective of HIV-2 coreceptor tropism and cell differentiation stage, in agreement with the low viral load in culture supernatants. Our data show that HIV-2 is able to infect the human thymus, but the HIV-2 replication cycle in thymocytes is impaired, providing a new model to identify therapeutic targets for viral replication control. HIV-1 infects the thymus, leading to a decrease in CD4 T-cell production that contributes to the characteristic CD4 T-cell loss. HIV-2 infection is associated with a very low rate of progression to AIDS and is therefore considered a unique naturally occurring model of attenuated HIV disease. HIV-2-infected individuals feature low to undetectable plasma viral loads, in spite of the numbers of circulating infected T cells being similar to those found in patients infected with HIV-1. We assessed, for the first time, the direct impact of HIV-2 infection on the human thymus. We show that HIV-2 is able to infect the thymus

  15. Incomplete inhibition of HIV infection results in more HIV infected lymph node cells by reducing cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cele, Sandile; Ferreira, Isabella Markham; Young, Andrew C; Karim, Farina; Madansein, Rajhmun; Dullabh, Kaylesh J; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Buckels, Noel J; Ganga, Yashica; Khan, Khadija; Boulle, Mikael; Lustig, Gila; Neher, Richard A

    2018-01-01

    HIV has been reported to be cytotoxic in vitro and in lymph node infection models. Using a computational approach, we found that partial inhibition of transmissions of multiple virions per cell could lead to increased numbers of live infected cells. If the number of viral DNA copies remains above one after inhibition, then eliminating the surplus viral copies reduces cell death. Using a cell line, we observed increased numbers of live infected cells when infection was partially inhibited with the antiretroviral efavirenz or neutralizing antibody. We then used efavirenz at concentrations reported in lymph nodes to inhibit lymph node infection by partially resistant HIV mutants. We observed more live infected lymph node cells, but with fewer HIV DNA copies per cell, relative to no drug. Hence, counterintuitively, limited attenuation of HIV transmission per cell may increase live infected cell numbers in environments where the force of infection is high. PMID:29555018

  16. Barriers to Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing of HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men Engaged in HIV Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Barbee, Lindley A; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Tat, Susana A; Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 15% of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) engaged in HIV primary care have been diagnosed as having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past year, yet STI testing frequency remains low. We sought to quantify STI testing frequencies at a large, urban HIV care clinic, and to identify patient- and provider-related barriers to increased STI testing. We extracted laboratory data in aggregate from the electronic medical record to calculate STI testing frequencies (defined as the number of HIV-infected MSM engaged in care who were tested at least once over an 18-month period divided by the number of MSM engaged in care). We created anonymous surveys of patients and providers to elicit barriers. Extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was low (29%-32%), but the frequency of syphilis testing was higher (72%). Patients frequently reported high-risk behaviors, including drug use (16.4%) and recent bacterial STI (25.5%), as well as substantial rates of recent testing (>60% in prior 6 months). Most (72%) reported testing for STI in HIV primary care, but one-third went elsewhere for "easier" (42%), anonymous (21%), or more frequent (16%) testing. HIV primary care providers lacked testing and treatment knowledge (25%-32%) and cited lack of time (68%), discomfort with sexual history taking and genital examination (21%), and patient reluctance (39%) as barriers to increased STI testing. Sexually transmitted infection testing in HIV care remains unacceptably low. Enhanced education of providers, along with strategies to decrease provider time and increase patient ease and frequency of STI testing, is needed.

  17. Hepatic steatosis progresses faster in HIV mono-infected than HIV/HCV co-infected patients and is associated with liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pembroke, Thomas; Deschenes, Marc; Lebouché, Bertrand; Benmassaoud, Amine; Sewitch, Maida; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Halme, Alex; Vuille-Lessard, Elise; Pexos, Costa; Klein, Marina B; Sebastiani, Giada

    2017-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) seems common in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the relative effect of HIV, as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) in those co-infected, and the influence of HS on liver fibrosis progression are unclear. The LIVEr disease in HIV (LIVEHIV) is a Canadian prospective cohort study using transient elastography and associated controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) to screen for HS and liver fibrosis, in unselected HIV-infected adults. HS progression was defined as development of any grade HS (CAP ⩾248dB/m), or transition to severe HS (CAP >292dB/m), for those with any grade HS at baseline. Fibrosis progression was defined as development of significant liver fibrosis (liver stiffness measurement [LSM] >7.1kPa), or transition to cirrhosis (LSM >12.5kPa) for those with significant liver fibrosis at baseline. Cox regression analysis was used to assess predictors of HS and fibrosis progression. A prospective cohort study was conducted, which included 726 HIV-infected patients (22.7% HCV co-infected). Prevalence of any grade HS did not differ between HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients (36.1% vs. 38.6%, respectively). 313 patients were followed for a median of 15.4 (interquartile range 8.5-23.0) months. The rate of HS progression was 37.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.2-49.0) and 21.9 (95% CI 15.6-30.7) per 100 person-years in HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection, respectively. HCV co-infection was an independent negative predictor of HS progression (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.89). HS predicted liver fibrosis progression in HIV mono-infection (aHR 4.18, 95% CI 1.21-14.5), but not in HIV/HCV co-infection. HS progresses faster and is associated with liver fibrosis progression in HIV mono-infection but not in HIV/HCV co-infection. Lay summary: Fatty liver is the most frequent liver disease in Western countries. People living with HIV seem at high risk of fatty liver due to

  18. Limited overlap between phylogenetic HIV and hepatitis C virus clusters illustrates the dynamic sexual network structure of Dutch HIV-infected MSM.

    PubMed

    Vanhommerig, Joost W; Bezemer, Daniela; Molenkamp, Richard; Van Sighem, Ard I; Smit, Colette; Arends, Joop E; Lauw, Fanny N; Brinkman, Kees; Rijnders, Bart J; Newsum, Astrid M; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Prins, Maria; Van Der Meer, Jan T; Van De Laar, Thijs J; Schinkel, Janke

    2017-09-24

    MSM are at increased risk for infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Is HIV/HCV coinfection confined to specific HIV transmission networks? A HIV phylogenetic tree was constructed for 5038 HIV-1 subtype B polymerase (pol) sequences obtained from MSM in the AIDS therapy evaluation in the Netherlands cohort. We investigated the existence of HIV clusters with increased HCV prevalence, the HIV phylogenetic density (i.e. the number of potential HIV transmission partners) of HIV/HCV-coinfected MSM compared with HIV-infected MSM without HCV, and the overlap in HIV and HCV phylogenies using HCV nonstructural protein 5B sequences from 183 HIV-infected MSM with acute HCV infection. Five hundred and sixty-three of 5038 (11.2%) HIV-infected MSM tested HCV positive. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 93 large HIV clusters (≥10 MSM), 370 small HIV clusters (2-9 MSM), and 867 singletons with a median HCV prevalence of 11.5, 11.6, and 9.3%, respectively. We identified six large HIV clusters with elevated HCV prevalence (range 23.5-46.2%). Median HIV phylogenetic densities for MSM with HCV (3, interquartile range 1-7) and without HCV (3, interquartile range 1-8) were similar. HCV phylogeny showed 12 MSM-specific HCV clusters (clustersize: 2-39 HCV sequences); 12.7% of HCV infections were part of the same HIV and HCV cluster. We observed few HIV clusters with elevated HCV prevalence, no increase in the HIV phylogenetic density of HIV/HCV-coinfected MSM compared to HIV-infected MSM without HCV, and limited overlap between HIV and HCV phylogenies among HIV/HCV-coinfected MSM. Our data do not support the existence of MSM-specific sexual networks that fuel both the HIV and HCV epidemic.

  19. Antibody Maturation and Viral Diversification in HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    James, Maria M.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Sun, Jin; Hoover, Donald R.; Mullis, Caroline E.; Cousins, Matthew M.; Coates, Thomas; Moore, Richard D.; Kelen, Gabor D.; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Kumwenda, Johnstone J.; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Kumwenda, Newton I.; Taha, Taha E.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Post-exposure Prophylaxis in Infants (PEPI)-Malawi trial evaluated infant antiretroviral regimens for prevention of post-natal HIV transmission. A multi-assay algorithm (MAA) that includes the BED capture immunoassay, an avidity assay, CD4 cell count, and viral load was used to identify women who were vs. were not recently infected at the time of enrollment (MAA recent, N = 73; MAA non-recent, N = 2,488); a subset of the women in the MAA non-recent group known to have been HIV infected for at least 2 years before enrollment (known non-recent, N = 54). Antibody maturation and viral diversification were examined in these women. Methods Samples collected at enrollment (N = 2,561) and 12–24 months later (N = 1,306) were available for serologic analysis using the BED and avidity assays. A subset of those samples was used for analysis of viral diversity, which was performed using a high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay. Viral diversity analysis was performed using all available samples from women in the MAA recent group (61 enrollment samples, 38 follow-up samples) and the known non-recent group (43 enrollment samples, 22 follow-up samples). Diversity data from PEPI-Malawi were also compared to similar data from 169 adults in the United States (US) with known recent infection (N = 102) and known non-recent infection (N = 67). Results In PEPI-Malawi, results from the BED and avidity assays increased over time in the MAA recent group, but did not change significantly in the MAA non-recent group. At enrollment, HIV diversity was lower in the MAA recent group than in the known non-recent group. HRM diversity assay results from women in PEPI-Malawi were similar to those from adults in the US with known duration of HIV infection. Conclusions Antibody maturation and HIV diversification patterns in African women provide additional support for use of the MAA to identify populations with recent HIV infection. PMID:23460842

  20. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Infant HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kristina; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Bristow, Claire C; Xu, Jiahong; Ank, Bonnie; Morgado, Mariza G; Watts, D Heather; Weir, Fred; Persing, David; Mofenson, Lynne M; Veloso, Valdilea G; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) can lead to adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. The prevalence of STIs and its association with HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were evaluated in a substudy analysis from a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women collected at the time of labor and delivery were tested using polymerase chain reaction testing for the detection of CT and NG (Xpert CT/NG; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Infant HIV infection was determined by HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction at 3 months. Of the 1373 urine specimens, 249 (18.1%) were positive for CT and 63 (4.6%) for NG; 35 (2.5%) had both CT and NG detected. Among 117 cases of HIV MTCT (8.5% transmission), the lowest transmission rate occurred among infants born to CT- and NG-uninfected mothers (8.1%) as compared with those infected with only CT (10.7%) and both CT and NG (14.3%; P = 0.04). Infants born to CT-infected mothers had almost a 1.5-fold increased risk for HIV acquisition (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-2.3; P = 0.09). This cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women is at high risk for infection with CT and NG. Analysis suggests that STIs may predispose to an increased HIV MTCT risk in this high-risk cohort of HIV-infected women.

  1. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Infant HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kristina; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Bristow, Claire C.; Xu, Jiahong; Ank, Bonnie; Morgado, Mariza G; Watts, D. Heather; Weir, Fred; Persing, David; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) can lead to adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. STI prevalence and its association with HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were evaluated in a sub-study analysis from a randomized, multi-center clinical trial. METHODOLOGY Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women collected at the time of labor and delivery were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for the detection of CT and NG (Xpert® CT/NG, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Infant HIV infection was determined by HIV DNA PCR at 3 months. RESULTS Of the 1373 urine specimens, 249 (18.1%) were positive for CT and 63 (4.6%) for NG; 35 (2.5%) had both CT and NG detected. Among 117 cases of HIV MTCT (8.5% transmission) the lowest transmission rate occurred among infants born to CT and NG uninfected mothers (8.1%) as compared to those infected with only CT (10.7%) and both CT and NG (14.3%), (p = 0.04). Infants born to CT-infected mothers had almost a 1.5-fold increased risk for HIV acquisition (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.9–2.3, p=0.09). CONCLUSION This cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women are at high risk for infection with CT and NG. Analysis suggests that STIs may predispose to an increased HIV MTCT risk in this high risk cohort of HIV-infected women. PMID:26372927

  2. Strongyloidiasis Epidemiology and Treatment Response in Patients with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas; Moore, Cody; Arduino, Roberto; Serpa, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background We sought to characterize the epidemiology of HIV and S. stercoralis coinfection in an urban HIV cohort, and to investigate the effect of S. stercoralis infection on HIV virologic control and immune recovery. Methods We reviewed the medical records of all HIV-infected patients diagnosed with strongyloidiasis who received care at Thomas Street Health Center (Houston, TX) between 2000 and 2015. For each case we included up to two matched HIV-infected patients without strongyloidiasis (controls). Matching was based on age, sex, ethnicity, baseline CD4 percentage, and HIV viral load at the time of strongyloidiasis diagnosis in the case patient. We recorded patient demographics, comorbidities, CD4 count and percentage, HIV viral load, and absolute eosinophilia count (AEC) at the time of HIV diagnosis, strongyloidiasis diagnosis, and six and twelve months after ivermectin treatment. Results We identified 15 cases of HIV and S.stercoralis coinfection; 13 had at least one available matched control. The mean age of coinfected patients was 45; all were Hispanic, 84.6% were male, and the mean CD4 nadir was 146 cells/ul. At the time of strongyloidiasis diagnosis, the mean CD4 count was 460 cells/ul, HIV RNA viral load 2.07 logs/ml, and AEC was 1,360 cells/μL. At 6 and 12 months after treatment, CD4 counts were 514 and 464 cells/μL, HIV RNA viral loads 1.78 and 2.31 log/mL, and AECs 319 and 362 cells/μL, respectively. Although CD4 counts increased 6 months after treatment, they returned to baseline levels at 12 months; neither change achieved statistical significance. The reduction in AECs after ivermectin treatment was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Matched controls without S.stercoralis had lower AECs at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months; otherwise, there were no differences between cases and controls. Conclusion Strongyloidiasis treatment in HIV-infected patients led to normalization of the AEC at 6 months in most cases, but AECs

  3. Cervical Dysplasia and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Females in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mrubata, Megan; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2014-01-01

    Background. HIV-infected adolescents may be at higher risk for high-grade cervical lesions than HIV-uninfected adolescents. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infections and Pap smear abnormalities between these two groups. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the HPV DNA and Pap smear results between 35 HIV-infected and 50 HIV-uninfected adolescents in order to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes and cervical cytological abnormalities. Comparisons were made using Pearson χ 2 and independent-samples t-tests analyses, and associations between demographic and behavioral characteristics and HPV infections were examined. Results. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any HPV (88.6% versus 48.0%; P < 0.001) and with at least one HR-HPV (60.0% versus 24.0%; P = 0.001), and to have multiple concurrent HPV infections (68.6% versus 22.0%; P < 0.001). HPV 16 and 18 were relatively underrepresented among HR-HPV infections. Abnormal Pap test results were more common among HIV-infected participants (28.8% versus 12.0%; P = 0.054). A history of smoking was associated with HR-HPV infection. Conclusions. HIV-infected adolescents have an increased risk of infection with HR-HPV and of Pap test abnormalities. The majority of HR-HPV infections among our participants would not be prevented by the currently available vaccinations against HPV. PMID:25389377

  4. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Q M; Nguyen, H L; Do, T N; Nguyen, V N; Nguyen, B H; Nguyen, T V A; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B J

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are leading causes of disease and death in Vietnam, but TB/HIV disease trends and the profile of co-infected patients are poorly described. We examined national TB and HIV notification data to provide a geographic overview and describe relevant disease trends within Vietnam. We also compared the demographic and clinical profiles of TB patients with and without HIV infection. During the past 10 years (2005-2014) cumulative HIV case numbers and deaths increased to 298,151 and 71,332 respectively, but access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved and new infections and deaths declined. From 2011-2014 routine HIV testing of TB patients increased from 58.9% to 72.5% and of all TB patients diagnosed with HIV in 2014, 2,803 (72.4%) received ART. The number of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB cases enrolled for treatment increased almost 3-fold (578 to 1,532) from 2011-2014. The rate of HIV co-infection in MDR and non-MDR TB cases (51/1,532; 3.3% vs 3,774/100,555; 3.8%; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.7-1.2) was similar in 2014. The care of TB/HIV co-infected patients have shown sustained improvement in Vietnam. Rising numbers of MDR-TB cases is a concern, but this is not "driven" by HIV co-infection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. PRESCRIPTION LONG-TERM OPIOID USE IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Michael J.; Ray, G. Thomas; Saunders, Kathleen; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Campbell, Cynthia I.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Sullivan, Mark D.; Banta-Green, Caleb; Von Korff, Michael; Weisner, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine changes in use of prescription opioids for the management of chronic non-cancer pain in HIV-infected patients and to identify patient characteristics associated with long-term use. Methods Long-term prescription opioid use (i.e. 120+ days supply or 10+ prescriptions during a year) was assessed between 1997 and 2005 among 6,939 HIV-infected Kaiser Permanente members and HIV-uninfected persons in the general health plan memberships. Results In 2005, 8% of HIV+ individuals had prevalent long-term opioid use, more than double the prevalence among HIV-uninfected individuals. However, the large increases in use from 1997 to 2005 in the general population were not observed for HIV-infected individuals. The strongest associations with prevalent use among HIV-infected individuals were female gender with a prevalence ratio [PR] of 1.8 (95% CI=1.3, 2.5); Charlson comorbidity score of 2 or more (compared with a score of 0) with a PR of 1.9 (95% CI=1.4, 2.8); injection drug use history with a PR of 1.8 (95% CI=1.3, 2.6); substance use disorders with a PR of 1.8 (95% CI=1.3, 2.5). CD4, HIV RNA, and AIDS diagnoses were associated with prevalent opioid use early in the antiretroviral therapy era (1997), but not in 2005. Conclusions Long-term opioid use for chronic pain has remained stable over time for HIV patients, while use increased in the general population. The prevalence of prescribed opioids in HIV patients was highest for certain subgroups, including women, and those with a comorbidity and substance abuse history. PMID:21677568

  6. Concurrency and HIV transmission network characteristics among MSM with recent HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Pines, Heather A; Wertheim, Joel O; Liu, Lin; Garfein, Richard S; Little, Susan J; Karris, Maile Y

    2016-11-28

    Sexual partner concurrency is common among MSM and may increase the probability of HIV transmission during recent (acute or early) infection. We examined the relationship between concurrency and HIV transmission network characteristics (proxies for HIV transmission) among MSM with recent HIV infection. Observational study integrating behavioral, clinical, and molecular epidemiology. We inferred a partial HIV transmission network using 986 HIV-1 pol sequences obtained from HIV-infected individuals in San Diego, California (1996-2015). We further analyzed data from 285 recently HIV-infected MSM in the network who provided information on up to three sexual partners in the past 3 months, including the timing of intercourse with each partner. Concurrency was defined as sexual partners overlapping in time. Logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to investigate the link between concurrency and HIV transmission network characteristics (i.e. clustering and degree or number of connections to others in the network) among these MSM. Of recently HIV-infected MSM (n = 285), 54% reported concurrent partnerships and 54% were connected by at least one putative transmission link to others (i.e. clustered) in the network (median degree = 1.0; interquartile range: 0.0-3.0). Concurrency was positively associated with HIV transmission network clustering (adjusted odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 3.10) and degree (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.15). Our findings provide empirical evidence consistent with the hypothesis that concurrency facilitates HIV transmission during recent infection. Interventions to mitigate the impact of concurrency on HIV transmission may help curb the HIV epidemic among MSM.

  7. HIV-1 group P infection: towards a dead-end infection?

    PubMed

    Alessandri-Gradt, Elodie; De Oliveira, Fabienne; Leoz, Marie; Lemee, Véronique; Robertson, David L; Feyertag, Felix; Ngoupo, Paul-Alain; Mauclere, Philippe; Simon, François; Plantier, Jean-Christophe

    2018-06-19

    HIV/1 group P (HIV-1/P) is the last HIV/1 group discovered and, to date, constitutes only two strains. To obtain new insight into this divergent group, we screened for new infections by developing specific tools, and analysed phenotypic and genotypic properties of the prototypic strain RBF168. In addition, the follow-up of the unique infected patient monitored so far has raised the knowledge of the natural history of this infection and its therapeutic management. We developed an HIV-1/P specific seromolecular strategy and screened over 29 498 specimen samples. Infectivity and evolution of the gag-30 position, considered as marker of adaptation to human, were explored by successive passages of RBF168 strain onto human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Natural history and immunovirological responses to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) were analysed based on CD4 cells and plasmatic viral load evolution. No new infection was detected. Infectivity of RBF168 was found lower, relative to other main HIV groups and the conservative methionine found in the gag-30 position revealed a lack of adaptation to human. The follow-up of the patient during the 5-year ART-free period, showed a relative stability of CD4 cell count with a mean of 326 cells/μl. Initiation of cART led to rapid RNA undetectability with a significant increase of CD4 cells, reaching 687 cells/μl after 8 years. Our results showed that HIV-1/P strains remain extremely rare and could be less adapted and pathogenic than other HIV strains. These data lead to the hypothesis that HIV-1/P infection could evolve towards, or even already corresponds to, a dead-end infection.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of Recent and Long-Term HIV-1 Infections in Rural Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Zeh, Clement; Inzaule, Seth C; Ondoa, Pascale; Nafisa, Lillian G; Kasembeli, Alex; Otieno, Fredrick; Vandenhoudt, Hilde; Amornkul, Pauli N; Mills, Lisa A; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-01-01

    To identify unique characteristics of recent versus established HIV infections and describe sexual transmission networks, we characterized circulating HIV-1 strains from two randomly selected populations of ART-naïve participants in rural western Kenya. Recent HIV infections were identified by the HIV-1 subtype B, E and D, immunoglobulin G capture immunoassay (IgG BED-CEIA) and BioRad avidity assays. Genotypic and phylogenetic analyses were performed on the pol gene to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations, characterize HIV subtypes and potential transmission clusters. Factors associated with recent infection and clustering were assessed by logistic regression. Of the 320 specimens, 40 (12.5%) were concordantly identified by the two assays as recent infections. Factors independently associated with being recently infected were age ≤19 years (P = 0.001) and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past six months (P = 0.004). HIV subtype distribution differed in recently versus chronically infected participants, with subtype A observed among 53% recent vs. 68% chronic infections (p = 0.04) and subtype D among 26% recent vs. 12% chronic infections (p = 0.012). Overall, the prevalence of primary drug resistance was 1.16%. Of the 258 sequences, 11.2% were in monophyletic clusters of between 2-4 individuals. In multivariate analysis factors associated with clustering included having recent HIV infection P = 0.043 and being from Gem region P = 0.002. Recent HIV-1 infection was more frequent among 13-19 year olds compared with older age groups, underscoring the ongoing risk and susceptibility of younger persons for acquiring HIV infection. Our findings also provide evidence of sexual networks. The association of recent infections with clustering suggests that early infections may be contributing significant proportions of onward transmission highlighting the need for early diagnosis and treatment as prevention for ongoing prevention

  9. Molecular Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of Recent and Long-Term HIV-1 Infections in Rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Zeh, Clement; Inzaule, Seth C.; Ondoa, Pascale; Nafisa, Lillian G.; Kasembeli, Alex; Otieno, Fredrick; Vandenhoudt, Hilde; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Mills, Lisa A.; Nkengasong, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify unique characteristics of recent versus established HIV infections and describe sexual transmission networks, we characterized circulating HIV-1 strains from two randomly selected populations of ART-naïve participants in rural western Kenya. Methods Recent HIV infections were identified by the HIV-1 subtype B, E and D, immunoglobulin G capture immunoassay (IgG BED-CEIA) and BioRad avidity assays. Genotypic and phylogenetic analyses were performed on the pol gene to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations, characterize HIV subtypes and potential transmission clusters. Factors associated with recent infection and clustering were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the 320 specimens, 40 (12.5%) were concordantly identified by the two assays as recent infections. Factors independently associated with being recently infected were age ≤19 years (P = 0.001) and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past six months (P = 0.004). HIV subtype distribution differed in recently versus chronically infected participants, with subtype A observed among 53% recent vs. 68% chronic infections (p = 0.04) and subtype D among 26% recent vs. 12% chronic infections (p = 0.012). Overall, the prevalence of primary drug resistance was 1.16%. Of the 258 sequences, 11.2% were in monophyletic clusters of between 2–4 individuals. In multivariate analysis factors associated with clustering included having recent HIV infection P = 0.043 and being from Gem region P = 0.002. Conclusions Recent HIV-1 infection was more frequent among 13–19 year olds compared with older age groups, underscoring the ongoing risk and susceptibility of younger persons for acquiring HIV infection. Our findings also provide evidence of sexual networks. The association of recent infections with clustering suggests that early infections may be contributing significant proportions of onward transmission highlighting the need for early diagnosis and treatment

  10. The Impact of HIV Co-Infection on the Genomic Response to Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Michaëla A. M.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; van Vught, Lonneke A.; Wiewel, Maryse A.; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Cremer, Olaf L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Franitza, Marek; Toliat, Mohammad R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Grobusch, Martin P.; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    HIV patients have an increased risk to develop sepsis and HIV infection affects several components of the immune system involved in sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesized that HIV infection might aggrevate the aberrant immune response during sepsis, so we aimed to determine the impact of HIV infection on the genomic host response to sepsis. We compared whole blood leukocyte gene expression profiles among sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and validated our findings in a cohort of patients admitted to the same ICUs in a different time frame. To examine the influence of HIV infection per se, we also determined the expression of genes of interest in a cohort of asymptomatic HIV patients. We identified a predominantly common host response in sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection. HIV positive sepsis patients in both ICU cohorts showed overexpression of genes involved in granzyme signaling (GZMA, GZMB), cytotoxic T-cell signaling (CD8A, CD8B) and T-cell inhibitory signaling (LAG3), compared to HIV negative patients. Enhanced expression of CD8A, CD8B and LAG3 was also unmasked in asymptomatic HIV patients. Plasma levels of granzymes in sepsis patients were largely below detection limit, without differences according to HIV status. These results demonstrate that sepsis is characterized by a massive common response with few differences between HIV positive and HIV negative sepsis patients. Observed differences in granzyme signaling, cytotoxic T-cell signaling and T-cell inhibitory signaling appear to be changes commonly observed in asymptomatic HIV patients which persist during sepsis. PMID:26871709

  11. Proteomic Signatures of Human Oral Epithelial Cells in HIV-Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yohannes, Elizabeth; Ghosh, Santosh K.; Jiang, Bin; McCormick, Thomas S.; Weinberg, Aaron; Hill, Edward; Faddoul, Faddy; Chance, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The oral epithelium, the most abundant structural tissue lining the oral mucosa, is an important line of defense against infectious microorganisms. HIV infected subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are susceptible to comorbid viral, bacterial and fungal infections in the oral cavity. To provide an assessment of the molecular alterations of oral epithelia potentially associated with susceptibility to comorbid infections in such subjects, we performed various proteomic studies on over twenty HIV infected and healthy subjects. In a discovery phase two Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) analyses of human oral gingival epithelial cell (HOEC) lysates were carried out; this identified 61 differentially expressed proteins between HIV-infected on HAART subjects and healthy controls. Down regulated proteins in HIV-infected subjects include proteins associated with maintenance of protein folding and pro- and anti-inflammatory responses (e.g., heat-shock proteins, Cryab, Calr, IL-1RA, and Galectin-3-binding protein) as well as proteins involved in redox homeostasis and detoxification (e.g., Gstp1, Prdx1, and Ero1). Up regulated proteins include: protein disulfide isomerases, proteins whose expression is negatively regulated by Hsp90 (e.g., Ndrg1), and proteins that maintain cellular integrity (e.g., Vimentin). In a verification phase, proteins identified in the protein profiling experiments and those inferred from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were analyzed using Western blotting analysis on separate HOEC lysate samples, confirming many of the discovery findings. Additionally in HIV-infected patient samples Heat Shock Factor 1 is down regulated, which explains the reduced heat shock responses, while activation of the MAPK signal transduction cascade is observed. Overall, HAART therapy provides an incomplete immune recovery of the oral epithelial cells of the oral cavity for HIV-infected subjects, and the toxic side effects of HAART and

  12. HIV infection in children.

    PubMed

    Canosa, C A

    1991-01-01

    Various studies have reported rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from mother to child of 13-40%. Vertical transmission occurs in utero, during delivery, or, in a small number of cases, through breast milk. Whether mothers at various stages of HIV infection experience different rates of transmission remains unknown. Maternal antibodies cross the placenta and are present from birth up to 18 months of age. The offspring of HIV-positive mothers tend to be low birthweight, under 37 weeks' gestation, and at high risk of perinatal mortality. It is likely, however, that this profile is indicative of the low socioeconomic status of most women with HIV rather than a result of infection. Also emerging is a psychosocial profile of the HIV child. These children are isolated, neglected, battered, frequently abandoned, and exhibit various degrees of mental retardation. Also common are delayed psychomotor development, loss of developmental milestones, limited attention span, poor language development, and abnormal reflexes. These features result from the interaction of low socioeconomic status, a lack of psychosocial stimulation, nutritional deficiencies, and central nervous system infections. Since HIV-infected children tend to be the offspring of drug addicts, bisexuals, and prostitutes, they are not awarded the same compassion as children afflicted with other terminal illnesses. Moreover, these children are generally neglected by groups formed to provide support to AIDS patients. Thus, it is up to the general public, the mass media, and the health care system to advocate for the needs of these neglected children.

  13. High prevalence of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirk D; Masur, Henry; Jones, Elizabeth C; Joe, Galen O; Rick, Margaret E; Kelly, Grace G; Mican, JoAnn M; Liu, Shuying; Gerber, Lynn H; Blackwelder, William C; Falloon, Judith; Davey, Richard T; Polis, Michael A; Walker, Robert E; Lane, H Clifford; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2002-07-02

    Osteonecrosis has been reported to occur occasionally among HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis of symptomatic osteonecrosis of the hip in two of the authors' patients, together with reports from community physicians, raised a concern that the prevalence of osteonecrosis is increasing. To determine the prevalence of osteonecrosis of the hip in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients and to identify potential risk factors associated with osteonecrosis. Survey and comparison study. The Clinical Center of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. 339 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults (of 364 asked to participate) and 118 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative volunteers enrolled between 1 June and 15 December 1999. Osteonecrosis of the hip, as documented by magnetic resonance imaging. Data from clinic records and a patient questionnaire administered before magnetic resonance imaging were used in an analysis of risk factors. A subset of patients was evaluated for hypercoagulable state. Fifteen (4.4% [95% CI, 2.5% to 7.2%]) of 339 HIV-infected participants had osteonecrosis lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, and no HIV-negative participants had similar lesions. Among HIV-infected participants, osteonecrosis occurred more frequently in those who used systemic corticosteroids, lipid-lowering agents, or testosterone; those who exercised routinely by bodybuilding; and those who had detectable levels of anticardiolipin antibodies. Patients infected with HIV have an unexpectedly high occurrence of osteonecrosis of the hip. Although screening asymptomatic patients is not warranted, HIV-infected patients with persistent groin or hip pain should be evaluated for this debilitating complication.

  14. Routine opt-out rapid HIV screening and detection of HIV infection in emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Haukoos, Jason S; Hopkins, Emily; Conroy, Amy A; Silverman, Morgan; Byyny, Richard L; Eisert, Sheri; Thrun, Mark W; Wilson, Michael L; Hutchinson, Angela B; Forsyth, Jessica; Johnson, Steven C; Heffelfinger, James D

    2010-07-21

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine (nontargeted) opt-out HIV screening in health care settings, including emergency departments (EDs), where the prevalence of undiagnosed infection is 0.1% or greater. The utility of this approach in EDs remains unknown. To determine whether nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening in the ED was associated with identification of more patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection than physician-directed diagnostic rapid HIV testing. Quasi-experimental equivalent time-samples design in an urban public safety-net hospital with an approximate annual ED census of 55,000 patient visits. Patients were 16 years or older and capable of providing consent for rapid HIV testing. Nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening and physician-directed diagnostic rapid HIV testing alternated in sequential 4-month time intervals between April 15, 2007, and April 15, 2009. Number of patients with newly identified HIV infection and the association between nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening and identification of HIV infection. In the opt-out phase, of 28,043 eligible ED patients, 6933 patients (25%) completed HIV testing (6702 patients were screened; 231 patients were diagnostically tested). Ten of 6702 patients (0.15%; 95% CI, 0.07%-0.27%) who did not decline HIV screening in the opt-out phase had new HIV diagnoses, and 5 of 231 patients (2.2%; 95% CI, 0.7%-5.0%) who were diagnostically tested during the opt-out phase had new HIV diagnoses. In the diagnostic phase, of 29,925 eligible patients, 243 (0.8%) completed HIV testing. Of these, 4 patients (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.5%-4.2%) had new diagnoses. The prevalence of new HIV diagnoses in the opt-out phase (including those diagnostically tested) and in the diagnostic phase was 15 in 28,043 (0.05%; 95% CI, 0.03%-0.09%) and 4 in 29,925 (0.01%; 95% CI, 0.004%-0.03%), respectively. Nontargeted opt-out HIV screening was independently associated with new HIV diagnoses (risk ratio, 3

  15. Facilitators and Barriers to Discussing HIV Prevention With Adolescents: Perspectives of HIV-Infected Parents

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Janet S.; Weber, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Methods. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Results. Eighty-one percent of parents reported “sometimes” or “often” communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one’s child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Conclusions. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents. PMID:23763390

  16. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most

  17. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with the metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected black Africans receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Apalata, Teke; Longokolo, Murielle; Mbula Mambimbi, Marcel; Etienne, Mokondjimobe; Buassa-bu-Tsumbu, Baudouin; Gombet, Thierry; Ellenga, Bertrain; Milongo Dipa, Guy; Lukoki Luila, Evelyne; Nge Okwe, Augustin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is common in human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Immune deficiencies caused by HIV give rise to numerous opportunistic gastrointestinal pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, the commonest cause of chronic gastritis. The study sought to determine the relationship between H pylori infection and the MetS among HIV-infected clinic attendees. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in a specialised heart clinic in Kinshasa, DR Congo. Between January 2004 and December 2008, 116 HIV-infected patients (61 with MetS and 55 without MetS) who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms were included in the study following an informed consent. Univariate associations were determined by odds ratios (OR), while multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the MetS. Results H pylori infection (OR = 13.5, 95% CI: 10.3–17.6; p < 0.0001) and peripheral obesity (median hip circumference ≥ 97 cm) (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.2–18.8; p = 0.029) were identified as MetS-related factors in HIV-infected patients. Higher rates of the MetS were associated with increased incidence of HIV-related immunocompromise using World Health Organisation (WHO) staging criteria. There was a univariate significant difference in the prevalence of the MetS between antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients and patients treated by means of a first-line HAART regimen of stavudine (d4T), lamivudine (3TC) and nevirapine (NVP). However, this difference was not significant in multivariate logistic analysis. Conclusion H pylori infection was significantly associated with the MetS in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25940117

  18. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Ali; Mohraz, Minoo; Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz; Shariati, Mona; Kheirandish, Parastou; Abdollahi, Maryam; Soori, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  19. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (P<0.05), HBV DNA (P<0.001) and APRI (P<0.05) compared to those who were HBeAg negative. HBV/D was the predominant genotype (73.2%) and D2 (43.7%) was the commonest subgenotype. Interpretation & conclusions: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to

  20. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D N; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. the present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (P<0.05), HBV DNA (p<0.001) and APRI (p<0.05) compared to those who were HBeAg negative. HBV/D was the predominant genotype (73.2%) and D2 (43.7%) was the commonest subgenotype. HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to initiate appropriate ART regimen.

  1. Ontogeny of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody production in HIV-1-infected infants.

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, H; Zhan, M X; Ilmet-Moore, T; Ajuang-Simbiri, K; Krasinski, K; Borkowsky, W

    1993-01-01

    The early serologic response of infants to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is normally obscured by the presence of transplacentally acquired maternal HIV antibody. By measuring HIV antibody produced in vitro by lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood of infants and children of HIV-1-infected mothers, we have been able to study the natural acquisition of humoral immunity to perinatal HIV-1 infection. One hundred ninety-seven infants of HIV-1-infected women were studied prospectively and longitudinally from birth. In the neonatal period, infected infants produced only small amounts of HIV-specific IgG antibodies to a restricted number of antigens. The amount of immunoglobulin to HIV-1 and the number of HIV-1 antigens recognized increased with age. After 6 months of life 85% of infected infants made detectable antibody to two or more viral proteins. Antibody to gp160 appeared first and was the most frequently found at all ages, followed by antibody to the envelope proteins gp120 and gp41. The amount of HIV antibody produced correlated positively with the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. This assay provides a method of studying the immunogenicity of vaccines against HIV-1 in HIV-1-infected infants and of assessing the effect of early therapeutic interventions on the humoral response to HIV-1. PMID:8460144

  2. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection. PMID:22310820

  3. HIV Infection in the Etiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Gregory D.; Merlo, Christian A.

    2011-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV have an elevated risk of lung cancer, but whether the increase simply reflects a higher smoking prevalence continues to be debated. This review summarizes existing data on the association of HIV infection and lung cancer, with particular attention to study design and adjustment for cigarette smoking. Potential mechanisms by which HIV infection may lead to lung cancer are discussed. Finally, irrespective of causality and mechanisms, lung cancer represents an important and growing problem confronting HIV-infected patients and their providers. Substantial efforts are needed to promote smoking cessation and to control lung cancer among HIV-infected populations. PMID:21653536

  4. A case-control study of factors associated with HIV infection among black women.

    PubMed

    Forna, Fatu M; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Adimora, Adaora A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Leone, Peter; Brooks, John T; Marks, Gary; Greenberg, Alan

    2006-11-01

    To identify social, behavioral and epidemiologic factors associated with HIV infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected black women residing in North Carolina. A case-control study conducted in August 2004 in North Carolina. Cases were 18-40-year-old women with HIV infections diagnosed from 2003-2004. Controls were 18-40-yearold, HIV-negative heterosexually active women recruited from HIV testing sites. Five focus group discussions were also conducted with women not participating in the case-control study. Multivariate analyses of 31 cases and 101 controls showed that HIV-positive women were more likely to receive public assistance [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1, 26.0], to report a history of genital herpes infection (aOR 10.6; 95% CI 2.4, 47.2), and were less likely to have discussed a variety of sexual and behavioral issues relevant to risk of HIV infection with their male partners (aOR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.8). Focus group participants indicated that financial and social demands created competing challenges for making HIV prevention a priority. Inadequate communication between black women and their sexual partners may create barriers to sexual and behavioral risk reduction. A multidimensional approach that addresses both biological factors such as herpes infection and socioeconomic factors may be needed to reduce HIV transmission in this population.

  5. Comparison of Ischemic Stroke Incidence in HIV-Infected and Non-HIV-Infected Patients in a U.S. Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Felicia C.; Regan, Susan; Feske, Steven; Meigs, James B.; Grinspoon, Steven K.; Triant, Virginia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is increased among HIV-infected patients, but little is known regarding ischemic stroke rates. We sought to compare stroke rates and determine stroke risk factors in HIV versus non-HIV patients. Methods An HIV cohort and matched non-HIV comparator cohort seen between 1996 and 2009 were identified from a Boston health care system. The primary endpoint was ischemic stroke, defined using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. Unadjusted stroke incidence rates were calculated. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Results The incidence rate of ischemic stroke was 5.27 per 1000 person years (PY) in HIV compared with 3.75 in non-HIV patients, with an unadjusted HR of 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.69, P<0.001). HIV remained an independent predictor of stroke after controlling for demographics and stroke risk factors (1.21, 1.01-1.46, P=0.043). The relative increase in stroke rates (HIV vs. non-HIV) was significantly higher in younger HIV patients (incidence rate ratio 4.42, 95% CI 1.56-11.09 age 18-29; 2.96, 1.69-4.96 age 30-39; 1.53, 1.06-2.17 age 40-49), and in women (HR 2.16 [1.53-3.04] for women vs. 1.18 [0.95-1.47] for men). Among HIV patients, increased HIV RNA (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.17, P=0.001) was associated with an increased risk of stroke. Conclusions Stroke rates were increased among HIV-infected patients, independent of common stroke risk factors, particularly among young patients and women. PMID:22580566

  6. T cells establish and maintain CNS viral infection in HIV-infected humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Jenna B; Liao, Baolin; Nixon, Christopher C; Cleary, Rachel A; Thayer, William O; Birath, Shayla L; Swanson, Michael D; Sheridan, Patricia; Zakharova, Oksana; Prince, Francesca; Kuruc, JoAnn; Gay, Cynthia L; Evans, Chris; Eron, Joseph J; Wahl, Angela; Garcia, J Victor

    2018-06-04

    The human brain is an important site of HIV replication and persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Direct evaluation of HIV infection in the brains of otherwise healthy individuals is not feasible; therefore, we performed a large-scale study of bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice as an in vivo model to study HIV infection in the brain. Human immune cells, including CD4+ T cells and macrophages, were present throughout the BLT mouse brain. HIV DNA, HIV RNA, and/or p24+ cells were observed in the brains of HIV-infected animals, regardless of the HIV isolate used. HIV infection resulted in decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells, increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, and a decreased CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in the brain. Using humanized T cell-only mice (ToM), we demonstrated that T cells establish and maintain HIV infection of the brain in the complete absence of human myeloid cells. HIV infection of ToM resulted in CD4+ T cell depletion and a reduced CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio. ART significantly reduced HIV levels in the BLT mouse brain, and the immune cell populations present were indistinguishable from those of uninfected controls, which demonstrated the effectiveness of ART in controlling HIV replication in the CNS and returning cellular homeostasis to a pre-HIV state.

  7. Epigenetic alterations are associated with monocyte immune dysfunctions in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Espíndola, Milena S; Soares, Luana S; Galvão-Lima, Leonardo J; Zambuzi, Fabiana A; Cacemiro, Maira C; Brauer, Verônica S; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Amaral, Laurence R; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Bollela, Valdes R; Frantz, Fabiani G

    2018-04-03

    Monocytes are key cells in the immune dysregulation observed during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The events that take place specifically in monocytes may contribute to the systemic immune dysfunction characterized by excessive immune activation in infected individuals, which directly correlates with pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Here, we investigated the immune dysfunction in monocytes from untreated and treated HIV + patients and associated these findings with epigenetic changes. Monocytes from HIV patients showed dysfunctional ability of phagocytosis and killing, and exhibited dysregulated cytokines and reactive oxygen species production after M. tuberculosis challenge in vitro. In addition, we showed that the expression of enzymes responsible for epigenetic changes was altered during HIV infection and was more prominent in patients that had high levels of soluble CD163 (sCD163), a newly identified plasmatic HIV progression biomarker. Among the enzymes, histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1) was the best epigenetic biomarker correlated with HIV - sCD163 high patients. In conclusion, we confirmed that HIV impairs effector functions of monocytes and these alterations are associated with epigenetic changes that once identified could be used as targets in therapies aiming the reduction of the systemic activation state found in HIV patients.

  8. Analysis of Major Histocompatibility Complex-Bound HIV Peptides Identified from Various Cell Types Reveals Common Nested Peptides and Novel T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rucevic, Marijana; Kourjian, Georgio; Boucau, Julie; Blatnik, Renata; Garcia Bertran, Wilfredo; Berberich, Matthew J.; Walker, Bruce D.; Riemer, Angelika B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the critical role of epitope presentation for immune recognition, we still lack a comprehensive definition of HIV peptides presented by HIV-infected cells. Here we identified 107 major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound HIV peptides directly from the surface of live HIV-transfected 293T cells, HIV-infected B cells, and primary CD4 T cells expressing a variety of HLAs. The majority of peptides were 8 to 12 amino acids (aa) long and mostly derived from Gag and Pol. The analysis of the total MHC-peptidome and of HLA-A02-bound peptides identified new noncanonical HIV peptides of up to 16 aa that could not be predicted by HLA anchor scanning and revealed an heterogeneous surface peptidome. Nested sets of surface HIV peptides included optimal and extended HIV epitopes and peptides partly overlapping or distinct from known epitopes, revealing new immune responses in HIV-infected persons. Surprisingly, in all three cell types, a majority of Gag peptides derived from p15 rather than from the most immunogenic p24. The cytosolic degradation of peptide precursors in corresponding cells confirmed the generation of identified surface-nested peptides. Cytosolic degradation revealed peptides commonly produced in all cell types and displayed by various HLAs, peptides commonly produced in all cell types and selectively displayed by specific HLAs, and peptides produced in only one cell type. Importantly, we identified areas of proteins leading to common presentations of noncanonical peptides by several cell types with distinct HLAs. These peptides may benefit the design of immunogens, focusing T cell responses on relevant markers of HIV infection in the context of HLA diversity. IMPORTANCE The recognition of HIV-infected cells by immune T cells relies on the presentation of HIV-derived peptides by diverse HLA molecules at the surface of cells. The landscape of HIV peptides displayed by HIV-infected cells is not well defined. Considering the diversity of HLA

  9. Contraception and HIV infection in women.

    PubMed

    Heikinheimo, Oskari; Lähteenmäki, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    More than 15 million women, many of reproductive age, were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the end of 2007. As the HIV epidemic evolves, heterosexual intercourse is increasingly risky: the risk of infection in exposed young women is 4- to 7-fold higher than in young men and nearly half a million newborns annually have HIV. This review aims to show the effect of contraceptive choices on risk of HIV and on the course of disease in women with HIV. Relevant citations were selected by agreement between the authors after a search of MEDLINE using the terms HIV/AIDS and contraception. Risk of transmission of HIV varies from 1 in 200 to 1 in 10 000 coital incidents, depending in part on the integrity of the vaginal epithelium. Consistent use of male condoms has been proven to reduce horizontal transmission of HIV by 80% among HIV-serodiscordant couples. Hormonal contraception may increase the risk of HIV acquisition in high-risk women such as commercial sex workers, but not in women at low risk of HIV. While hormonal contraception did not affect progression of disease in two cohort studies involving 370 women, in a randomized trial among women not receiving antiretroviral medication, clinical disease accelerated in the oral contraception group (13.2/100 woman-years) compared with the copper intrauterine devices group (8.6/100 woman-years; hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.1). Hormonal contraception does not interfere with antiviral drug effectiveness. All the available reversible contraceptive methods can generally be used by women at risk of HIV infection and by HIV-infected women. Further studies are needed to investigate the safety and efficiency of hormonal contraception in women living with HIV/AIDS.

  10. Neutropenia during HIV Infection: Adverse Consequences and Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xin; Sims, Matthew D; Hanna, Michel M; Xie, Ming; Gulick, Peter G; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Basson, Marc D; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Neutropenia frequently occurs in patients with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Causes for neutropenia during HIV infection are multifactoral, including the viral toxicity to hematopoietic tissue, the use of myelotoxic agents for treatment, complication with secondary infections and malignancies, as well as the patient’s association with confounding factors which impair myelopoiesis. An increased prevalence and severity of neutropenia is commonly seen in advanced stages of HIV disease. Decline of neutrophil phagocytic defense in combination with the failure of adaptive immunity renders the host highly susceptible to developing fatal secondary infections. Neutropenia and myelosuppression also restrict the use of many antimicrobial agents for treatment of infections caused by HIV and opportunistic pathogens. In recent years, HIV infection has increasingly become a chronic disease because of progress in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prevention and treatment of severe neutropenia becomes critical for improving the survival of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24654626

  11. Women with HIV are more commonly infected with non-16 and -18 high-risk HPV types.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Nathalie Dauphin; Kobetz, Erin N; Hnatyszyn, James; Twiggs, Leo B; Lucci, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    To review and summarize evidence from clinical, translational and epidemiologic studies which have examined the clinically relevant aspects of HPV type prevalence and cervical dysplasia in HIV-infected women. Relevant studies were identified through a MEDLINE search. References of identified reports were also used to identify additional published articles for review. HIV-infected women in different geographic regions (such as Zambia, Brazil, Rochester NY) appear to be infected with less prevalent types of HR-HPV as compared to the general population who, across all continents, are more commonly infected with types 16 and 18. Secondly, integration of HPV DNA into the host genome is no longer thought to be a necessary cause of malignant transformation of cervical cells. However, rate of integration appears to differ by the type of HPV. In fact, the types of HPV which appear to be more common in cervical dysplasia of HIV-infected women are the same types which are more likely to require integration for malignant transformation. Finally, HPV types found in HIV-infected women are relatively common and likely to persist. The most common among these types belong to the alpha-9 and -7 species which are the most carcinogenic species. Given that current vaccines target HR-HPV-16/18, the findings from the above mentioned studies may have important implications for the design of HPV vaccines that target the types of HPV associated with disease risk in HIV-infected women. HPV typing and assessment of the physical state (whether it is integrated or episomal) appear to be two valuable parameters for the prognostic evaluation of dysplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. This, however, has not yet been assessed in HIV-infected women. Recent data about the immune response in HPV/HIV co-infection may lead to understanding potential mechanisms for less virulent HPV causing malignant transformation in HIV-infected women.

  12. Risk of Anal Cancer in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals in North America

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Bryan; Justice, Amy C.; Engels, Eric; Gill, M. John; Goedert, James J.; Kirk, Gregory D.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Bosch, Ronald J.; Brooks, John T.; Napravnik, Sonia; Hessol, Nancy A.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Klein, Marina B.; Moore, Richard D.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Rourke, Sean B.; Saag, Michael S.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Press, Natasha; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Dubrow, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anal cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), although few have evaluated rates separately for men who have sex with men (MSM), other men, and women. There are also conflicting data regarding calendar trends. Methods. In a study involving 13 cohorts from North America with follow-up between 1996 and 2007, we compared anal cancer incidence rates among 34 189 HIV-infected (55% MSM, 19% other men, 26% women) and 114 260 HIV-uninfected individuals (90% men). Results. Among men, the unadjusted anal cancer incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 131 for HIV-infected MSM, 46 for other HIV-infected men, and 2 for HIV-uninfected men, corresponding to demographically adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of 80.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.7–151.1) for HIV-infected MSM and 26.7 (95% CI, 11.5–61.7) for other HIV-infected men compared with HIV-uninfected men. HIV-infected women had an anal cancer rate of 30/100 000 person-years, and no cases were observed for HIV-uninfected women. In a multivariable Poisson regression model, among HIV-infected individuals, the risk was higher for MSM compared with other men (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8–6.0), but no difference was observed comparing women with other men (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5–2.2). In comparison with the period 2000–2003, HIV-infected individuals had an adjusted RR of 0.5 (95% CI, .3–.9) in 1996–1999 and 0.9 (95% CI, .6–1.2) in 2004–2007. Conclusions. Anal cancer rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected MSM, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, suggesting a need for universal prevention efforts. Rates increased after the early antiretroviral therapy era and then plateaued. PMID:22291097

  13. Respiratory viruses in young South African children with acute lower respiratory infections and interactions with HIV.

    PubMed

    Annamalay, Alicia A; Abbott, Salome; Sikazwe, Chisha; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Bizzintino, Joelene; Zhang, Guicheng; Laing, Ingrid; Chidlow, Glenys R; Smith, David W; Gern, James; Goldblatt, Jack; Lehmann, Deborah; Green, Robin J; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2016-08-01

    Human rhinovirus (RV) is the most common respiratory virus and has been associated with frequent and severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). The prevalence of RV species among HIV-infected children in South Africa is unknown. To describe the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including RV species, associated with HIV status and other clinical symptoms in children less than two years of age with and without ALRI in Pretoria, South Africa. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 105 hospitalized ALRI cases and 53 non-ALRI controls less than two years of age. HIV status was determined. Common respiratory viruses were identified by PCR, and RV species and genotypes were identified by semi-nested PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analyses. Respiratory viruses were more common among ALRI cases than controls (83.8% vs. 69.2%; p=0.041). RV was the most commonly identified virus in cases with pneumonia (45.6%) or bronchiolitis (52.1%), regardless of HIV status, as well as in controls (39.6%). RV-A was identified in 26.7% of cases and 15.1% of controls while RV-C was identified in 21.0% of cases and 18.9% of controls. HIV-infected children were more likely to be diagnosed with pneumonia than bronchiolitis (p<0.01). RSV was not identified in any HIV-infected cases (n=15) compared with 30.6% of HIV-uninfected cases (n=85, p=0.013), and was identified more frequently in bronchiolitis than in pneumonia cases (43.8% vs. 12.3%; p<0.01). RV-A and RV-C are endemic in South African children and HIV infection may be protective against RSV and bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of enterobacteriaceae isolated from HIV-infected patients in Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo Za Balega

    2014-01-01

    People infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are susceptible to develop severe bacterial infections. We set out to determine the frequency and the sensitivity to antibiotics of enterobaceriaceae isolated from urine and feces of HIV-infected persons. Urine and feces samples were collected from HIV-infected patients of the Centre de Traitement Ambulatoire de Kabinda (CTA/Kabinda, Kinshasa) and analyzed at the Reference National Laboratory for HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections. The isolated enterobacteriaceae strains were identified by conventional microbiological methods. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern was carried out by disc diffusion method. THE FOLLOWING BACTERIA PATHOGENS WERE ISOLATED: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Providencia. Most species were sensitive to cefotaxim, ceftriaxon, and gentamicin and resistant to chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, and norfloxacin. The results of the present study show that the most frequently bacteria isolated were Esherichia coli and cefotaxim, ceftriaxon, and gentamicin were the most active antibiotics.

  15. Screening Yield of HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination and Pooled HIV RNA Testing for Acute HIV Infection in a High-Prevalence Population.

    PubMed

    Peters, Philip J; Westheimer, Emily; Cohen, Stephanie; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Moss, Nicholas; Tsoi, Benjamin; Hall, Laura; Fann, Charles; Daskalakis, Demetre C; Beagle, Steve; Patel, Pragna; Radix, Asa; Foust, Evelyn; Kohn, Robert P; Marmorino, Jenni; Pandori, Mark; Fu, Jie; Samandari, Taraz; Gay, Cynthia L

    2016-02-16

    Although acute HIV infection contributes disproportionately to onward HIV transmission, HIV testing has not routinely included screening for acute HIV infection. To evaluate the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assay to detect acute HIV infection compared with pooled HIV RNA testing. Multisite, prospective, within-individual comparison study conducted between September 2011 and October 2013 in 7 sexually transmitted infection clinics and 5 community-based programs in New York, California, and North Carolina. Participants were 12 years or older and seeking HIV testing, without known HIV infection. All participants with a negative rapid HIV test result were screened for acute HIV infection with an HIV Ag/Ab combination assay (index test) and pooled human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA testing. HIV RNA testing was the reference standard, with positive reference standard result defined as detectable HIV-1 RNA on an individual RNA test. Number and proportion with acute HIV infections detected. Among 86,836 participants with complete test results (median age, 29 years; 75.0% men; 51.8% men who have sex with men), established HIV infection was diagnosed in 1158 participants (1.33%) and acute HIV infection was diagnosed in 168 participants (0.19%). Acute HIV infection was detected in 134 participants with HIV Ag/Ab combination testing (0.15% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.18%]; sensitivity, 79.8% [95% CI, 72.9%-85.6%]; specificity, 99.9% [95% CI, 99.9%-99.9%]; positive predictive value, 59.0% [95% CI, 52.3%-65.5%]) and in 164 participants with pooled HIV RNA testing (0.19% [95% CI, 0.16%-0.22%]; sensitivity, 97.6% [95% CI, 94.0%-99.4%]; specificity, 100% [95% CI, 100%-100%]; positive predictive value, 96.5% [95% CI, 92.5%-98.7%]; sensitivity comparison, P < .001). Overall HIV Ag/Ab combination testing detected 82% of acute HIV infections detectable by pooled HIV RNA testing. Compared with rapid HIV testing alone, HIV Ag/Ab combination testing

  16. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High Risk for HIV Infection in New York City.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Lynch, Laura; Banfield, Angela; McCright-Gill, Talaya; Del Olmo, Montserrat; Martinez, Belkis

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends persons at high risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%) but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and structural-level factors associated with past-year HIV testing among heterosexuals at high risk for HIV. Participants were African-American/Black and Hispanic heterosexual adults (N = 2307) residing in an urban area with both high poverty and HIV prevalence rates. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling in 2012-2015 and completed a computerized structured assessment battery covering background factors, multi-level putative facilitators of HIV testing, and HIV testing history. Separate logistic regression analysis for males and females identified factors associated with past-year HIV testing. Participants were mostly male (58%), African-American/Black (75%), and 39 years old on average (SD = 12.06 years). Lifetime homelessness (54%) and incarceration (62%) were common. Half reported past-year HIV testing (50%) and 37% engaged in regular, annual HIV testing. Facilitators of HIV testing common to both genders included sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing or STI diagnosis, peer norms supporting HIV testing, and HIV testing access. Among women, access to general medical care and extreme poverty further predicted HIV testing, while recent drug use reduced the odds of past-year HIV testing. Among men, past-year HIV testing was also associated with lifetime incarceration and substance use treatment. The present study identified gaps in rates of HIV testing among heterosexuals at high risk for HIV, and both common and

  17. Adherence to feeding guidelines among HIV-infected and HIV uninfected mothers in a rural district in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Babirye, J N; Nuwaha, F; Grulich, A E

    2009-07-01

    To describe the infant feeding behaviour of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers, and identify factors influencing adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Analytical cross-sectional study. Bushenyi, rural district in South-western Uganda One hundred and ninety four mothers who had a child less than 12 months of age. About half, 94 (48.5%), of these were HIV-infected. Proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfed, complementary fed, replacement fed, and adhered to feeding guidelines. Most (84.5%, 164/194) of the mothers had ever breastfed their infants, the rest had exclusively replacement fed since birth. Among children less than six months who were breastfeeding, 31.5% (34/108) were exclusively breastfeeding and the rest were mixed feeding. HIV-infected mothers were more likely than HIV-uninfected mothers to exclusively breastfeed (Crude Odds Ratio [COR], 3.61, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.42-9.21). For infants older than six months, complementary feeding was more common among HIV-uninfected (100%) than HIV-infected mothers (41.7%; P < 0.001). Among infants of all ages, none of the HIV-uninfected and 45% of HIV-infected mothers were replacement feeding (p < 0.001). More than a half (59.8%) of the mothers adhered to infant feeding guidelines. The only independent predictor of adherence after multivariate analysis was mother ever attending infant feeding counselling (AOR 9.03; 95% CI 4.03-20.25). Only 35% of mothers reported ever attending infant feeding counselling. Infant feeding counselling was associated with improved adherence to feeding guidelines. Since infant feeding counselling is low in this population there is need for scale-up of this essential service.

  18. Syphilis in HIV-Infected Mothers and Infants: Results from the NICHD/HPTN 040 Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Nava; Watts, Heather D.; Camarca, Margaret; Soares, Gabriel; Joao, Esau; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy Maria; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grinzstejn, Beatriz; Morgado, Mariza G; Bryson, Yvonne; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Untreated syphilis during pregnancy is associated with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, prematurity and infant mortality. Syphilis may facilitate HIV transmission, which is especially concerning in low and middle income countries where both diseases are common. Methods We performed an analysis of data available from NICHD/HPTN 040 (P1043), a study focused on the prevention of intrapartum HIV transmission to 1684 infants born to 1664 untreated HIV-infected women. The present analysis evaluates risk factors and outcomes associated with a syphilis diagnosis in this cohort of HIV-infected women and their infants. Results Approximately 10% (n=171) of women enrolled had serological evidence of syphilis without adequate treatment documented and 1.4% (n=24) infants were dually HIV and syphilis infected. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that compared to HIV-infected women, co-infected women were significantly more likely to self-identify as non-white (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.2), to consume alcohol during pregnancy (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1) and to transmit HIV to their infants (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4), with 88% of HIV infections being acquired in-utero. As compared to HIV infected or HIV exposed infants, co-infected infants were significantly more likely to be born to mothers with VDRL titers ≥1:16 (AOR 3, 95% CI 1.1-8.2) and higher viral loads (AOR 1.5 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Of 6 newborns with symptomatic syphilis, 2 expired shortly after birth, and 2 were HIV-infected. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be a common co-infection in HIV-infected women and can facilitate in utero transmission of HIV to infants. Most infants are asymptomatic at birth, but those with symptoms have high mortality rates. PMID:25742089

  19. Syphilis in HIV-infected mothers and infants: results from the NICHD/HPTN 040 study.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Nava; Watts, Heather D; Camarca, Margaret; Soares, Gabriel; Joao, Esau; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy Maria; Grinzstejn, Beatriz; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G; Morgado, Mariza G; Bryson, Yvonne; Mofenson, Lynne M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2015-03-01

    Untreated syphilis during pregnancy is associated with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, prematurity and infant mortality. Syphilis may facilitate HIV transmission, which is especially concerning in low- and middle-income countries where both diseases are common. We performed an analysis of data available from NICHD/HPTN 040 (P1043), a study focused on the prevention of intrapartum HIV transmission to 1684 infants born to 1664 untreated HIV-infected women. This analysis evaluates risk factors and outcomes associated with a syphilis diagnosis in this cohort of HIV-infected women and their infants. Approximately, 10% of women (n=171) enrolled had serological evidence of syphilis without adequate treatment documented and 1.4% infants (n=24) were dually HIV and syphilis infected. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that compared with HIV-infected women, co-infected women were significantly more likely to self-identify as non-white (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5-4.2), to consume alcohol during pregnancy (AOR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) and to transmit HIV to their infants (AOR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4), with 88% of HIV infections being acquired in utero. As compared with HIV-infected or HIV-exposed infants, co-infected infants were significantly more likely to be born to mothers with venereal disease research laboratory titers≥1:16 (AOR 3, 95% CI: 1.1-8.2) and higher viral loads (AOR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Of 6 newborns with symptomatic syphilis, 2 expired shortly after birth, and 2 were HIV-infected. Syphilis continues to be a common co-infection in HIV-infected women and can facilitate in utero transmission of HIV to infants. Most infants are asymptomatic at birth, but those with symptoms have high mortality rates.

  20. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rakhmanina, Natella; Phelps, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS With the ongoing epidemic of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infections in the pediatric age group, the delivery of safe and effective antiretroviral therapy to children and adolescents is crucial to save the lives of millions of children worldwide. Antiretroviral drugs have been demonstrated to significantly decrease HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, assure normal growth and development, and improve survival and quality of life in children and adolescents. The immunologic response to HIV infection is closely related to the child’s development and creates age specific parameters for the evaluation of therapeutic response to antiretroviral therapy in pediatric HIV disease. In addition to the changes in immunological response to HIV infection, the development and maturation of organ systems involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination determines significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs throughout the childhood. Multiple factors including age-specific adherence barriers, changes in social and economical surroundings, and psychological and sexual maturation affect the choices and outcomes of the treatment of pediatric HIV disease. In this chapter we will review the evolution of antiretroviral treatment from early infancy through adolescence. PMID:23036246

  1. HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines: evidence of ongoing replication.

    PubMed

    Symons, Jori; Chopra, Abha; Malatinkova, Eva; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Leary, Shay; Cooper, Don; Abana, Chike O; Rhodes, Ajantha; Rezaei, Simin D; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Mallal, Simon; Lewin, Sharon R; Cameron, Paul U

    2017-01-13

    Assessing the location and frequency of HIV integration sites in latently infected cells can potentially inform our understanding of how HIV persists during combination antiretroviral therapy. We developed a novel high throughput sequencing method to evaluate HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines to determine whether there was virus replication or clonal expansion in these cell lines observed as multiple integration events at the same position. We modified a previously reported method using random DNA shearing and PCR to allow for high throughput robotic processing to identify the site and frequency of HIV integration in latently infected cell lines. Latently infected cell lines infected with intact virus demonstrated multiple distinct HIV integration sites (28 different sites in U1, 110 in ACH-2 and 117 in J1.1 per 150,000 cells). In contrast, cell lines infected with replication-incompetent viruses (J-Lat cells) demonstrated single integration sites. Following in vitro passaging of the ACH-2 cell line, we observed a significant increase in the frequency of unique HIV integration sites and there were multiple mutations and large deletions in the proviral DNA. When the ACH-2 cell line was cultured with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir, there was a significant decrease in the number of unique HIV integration sites and a transient increase in the frequency of 2-LTR circles consistent with virus replication in these cells. Cell lines latently infected with intact HIV demonstrated multiple unique HIV integration sites indicating that these cell lines are not clonal and in the ACH-2 cell line there was evidence of low level virus replication. These findings have implications for the use of latently infected cell lines as models of HIV latency and for the use of these cells as standards.

  2. Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Malamba, Samuel S; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Remera, Eric; Riedel, David J; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-09-11

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection. This study used a cross-sectional survey, targeting pregnant women in sentinel sites. Pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HIV infection. A series of tests were done to ensure high sensitivity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HBV-HIV co-infection among those collected during ANC sentinel surveillance, these included: age, marital status, education level, occupation, residence, pregnancy and syphilis infection. The prevalence of HBsAg among 13,121 pregnant women was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.4-4.0%) and was similar among different socio-demographic characteristics that were assessed. The proportion of HIV-infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women was 4.1% [95% CI: 2.5-6.3%]. The prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection was higher among women aged 15-24 years compared to those women aged 25-49 years [aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.8-27.0)]. Women residing in urban areas seemed having HBV-HIV co-infection compared with women residing in rural areas [aOR = 4.3 (95% CI: 1.2-16.4)]. Women with more than two pregnancies were potentially having the co-infection compared to those with two or less (aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.7-27.8). Women with RPR-positive test were seemed associated with HBV-HIV co-infection (aOR = 24.9 (95% CI: 5.0-122.9). Chronic HBV infection is a public health problem among pregnant women in Rwanda. Understanding that HBV-HIV co-infection may be more prominent in younger women from urban

  3. Innate immunity in resistance to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Biasin, Mara; Clerici, Mario; Piacentini, Luca

    2010-11-01

    Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in subjects who do not seroconvert despite multiple exposures to the virus and to the progression to AIDS in HIVinfected individuals depends on multiple factors involving both the innate and the adaptive immune system. The contribution of natural immunity in preventing HIV infection has so far received little attention, but many recently published articles suggest a key role for Toll‐like receptors, natural killer cells, interleukin‐22, acute‐phase amyloid A protein, and APOBEC3G in conferring resistance to HIV infection. The study of these factors will shed light on HIV pathogenesis and contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to this elusive disease.

  4. HIV infection in females dependent on drugs.

    PubMed

    Wai, B H; Singh, S; Varma, S L

    1996-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-one drug-dependent females in a drug rehabilitation centre were studied to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among them. Twenty-four (14%) were positive on the Western Blot test. The presence of HIV infection was significantly correlated with syphilis (p < 0.03) and age (p < 0.001); 83% of those who were HIV positive were intravenous drug users. The need for harm reduction programmes to prevent spread of HIV infection among injecting drug users is stressed.

  5. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  6. Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dhawan, Benu; Chaudhry, Rama; Vajpayee, Madhu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings. PMID:22310829

  7. Prognostic factors of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients without HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Jinwoo; Cho, Young-Jae; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Lee, Jae Ho; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Lee, Choon-Taek; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Kim, Hong Bin; Park, Jong Sun

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients without HIV infection (non-HIV PCP) has been increasing along with the increased use of chemotherapeutic agents and immunosuppressants, but the prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP remain unclear. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP. Immunocompromised patients without HIV infection who were diagnosed and treated for PCP were included. The PCP diagnosis was based on positive direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results and compatible clinical symptoms and radiological findings. In total, 372 non-HIV patients with positive PCP DFA or PCR findings were screened and 173 were included. Univariate analysis indicated that age, smoking, chronic lung disease or hematologic malignancy, chemotherapeutic agents, high alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (D[A-a]O2), C-reactive protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), CMV antigenemia, combined bacteremia, high percentage of neutrophils and rate of co-infection in BAL fluid, and mechanical ventilator care were related to the prognosis of non-HIV PCP. Multivariate analysis revealed that high D(A-a)O2, combined bacteremia, increased BUN and preexisting lung disease were indicators of a poor prognosis. High D(A-a)O2, combined bacteremia, increased BUN and preexisting lung disease were independent factors of poor prognosis in non-HIV PCP patients. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The stochastic dance of early HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Stephen J.

    2005-12-01

    The stochastic nature of early HIV infection is described in a series of models, each of which captures aspects of the dance of HIV during the early stages of infection. It is to this highly variable target that the immune response must respond. The adaptability of the various components of the immune response is an important aspect of the system's operation, as the nature of the pathogens that the response will be required to respond to and the order in which those responses must be made cannot be known beforehand. As HIV infection has direct influence over cells responsible for the immune response, the dance predicts that the immune response will be also in a variable state of readiness and capability for this task of adaptation. The description of the stochastic dance of HIV here will use the tools of stochastic models, and for the most part, simulation. The justification for this approach is that the early stages and the development of HIV diversity require that the model to be able to describe both individual sample path and patient-to-patient variability. In addition, as early viral dynamics are best described using branching processes, the explosive growth of these models both predicts high variability and rapid response of HIV to changes in system parameters.In this paper, a basic viral growth model based on a time dependent continuous-time branching process is used to describe the growth of HIV infected cells in the macrophage and lymphocyte populations. Immigration from the reservoir population is added to the basic model to describe the incubation time distribution. This distribution is deduced directly from the modeling assumptions and the model of viral growth. A system of two branching processes, one in the infected macrophage population and one in the infected lymphocyte population is used to provide a description of the relationship between the development of HIV diversity as it relates to tropism (host cell preference). The role of the immune

  9. Acceleration of Age-Associated Methylation Patterns in HIV-1-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sehl, Mary; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Hultin, Patricia M.; Hultin, Lance E.; Quach, Austin; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Jamieson, Beth D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young (20-35) and older (36-56) adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, p<1 x10-200 and 0.47, p<1x10-200. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) identified 17 co-methylation modules; module 3 (ME3) was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70) and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31). Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015). In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage= 0.007088, p=2.08 x 10-9; βHIV= 0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage= 0.008762, p=1.27x 10-5; βHIV= 0.128649, p= 0.0001). Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10-6, odds ratio=1.91). These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that are similar to

  10. Cumulative Exposure to Cell-Free HIV in Breast Milk, Rather Than Feeding Pattern per se, Identifies Postnatally Infected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Neveu, Dorine; Viljoen, Johannes; Bland, Ruth M.; Nagot, Nicolas; Danaviah, Siva; Coutsoudis, Anna; Rollins, Nigel Campbell; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Van de Perre, Philippe; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    Background. We quantified the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA shedding in breast milk, cumulative RNA exposure, and postnatal transmission, relating timing of infection in the infant to estimated total volume of milk exposure. Methods. Nested case-control study of 36 infants of HIV-infected mothers. Case patients were infants who acquired HIV infection through breastfeeding from age 6 through 28 weeks, and control subjects were uninfected infants matched on age at obtainment of a breast milk sample. Mothers and infants received peripartum single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis. Feeding data were collected daily; breast milk samples were collected and infant anthropometry was performed at 6 weeks and monthly thereafter. Volume of milk ingested was estimated using infant weight and feeding pattern. Results. Before HIV acquisition in case patients, feeding pattern (exclusive breastfeeding; median duration, 65 vs 70 days; P = .6) and daily milk intake (mean volume, 638 vs 637 mL; P = .97) did not differ significantly between case patients and control subjects. Case mothers were more likely to shed virus (64% vs 9% always, 22% vs 20.5% intermittently, 14% vs 70.5% never shed; overall, P < .001). Case patients ingested ∼15 times more HIV-1 RNA particles than did control subjects (196.5 vs 13 × 106 copies; P < .001). Allowing for maternal antenatal CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 load, child sex and duration of mixed breastfeeding, the association between HIV RNA exposure and infection remained statistically significant (P < .001). Conclusions. Postnatal acquisition of HIV-1 is more strongly associated with cumulative exposure to cell-free particles in breast milk than with feeding mode. Reducing breast milk viral load through antiretroviral therapy to mother or child can further decrease postnatal transmission in exclusively breastfed infants. PMID:21367736

  11. Cognitive function in early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Aanchal; Hou, Jue; Liu, Lei; Gao, Yi; Kettering, Casey; Ragin, Ann B

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations. At the initial timepoint, the HIV group demonstrated significantly weaker performance on measures of verbal memory, visual memory, psychomotor speed, motor speed, and executive function. A similar pattern was found when cognitive function was examined at follow-up and across both timepoints. The HIV subjects had generally weaker performance on psychomotor speed, executive function, motor speed, visual memory, and verbal memory. The rate of decline in cognitive function across the 2-year follow-up period did not differ between groups. Correlations between clinical status markers and cognitive function at both timepoints showed weaker performance associated with increased disease burden. Neurocognitive difficulty in chronic HIV infection may have very early onset and reflect consequences of initial brain viral invasion and neuroinflammation during the intense, uncontrolled viremia of acute HIV infection. Further characterization of the changes occurring in initial stages of infection and the risk and protective factors for cognitive function could inform new strategies for neuroprotection.

  12. Psychosocial profile of HIV-infected adolescents in a Southern US urban cohort.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, H; Garvie, P A; Sinnock, C; Heston, J D; Flynn, P M

    2006-08-01

    We undertook a retrospective medical chart review of HIV-infected adolescents referred to a Southern US urban comprehensive adolescent HIV clinic between 1992 and 2003 to describe the psychosocial profile of adolescents infected with HIV via high-risk behaviours.Ninety-one adolescents (59 females, 32 males, 95% African-American, median age 17 years) were identified. Common reasons for initial HIV testing included routine prenatal screening (20%), clinical symptoms suggestive of HIV (20%), and recognized risk-related behaviours (20%). Findings included a history of unstable housing in the previous year (27%), running away (29%), knowing someone with HIV (36%), parental substance abuse (reported by youth, 46%), parental abandonment/neglect (30%), high substance use rates (marijuana 33%, tobacco 27%), current/prior STDs (60%), and involvement with the juvenile justice system or incarceration (41%). Sexual abuse/assault was reported by 41%. Previous depression was reported in 15% with approximately half reporting prior hospitalization. An additional 12% of the cohort had current clinical depressive symptoms. We conclude that infections with HIV via high-risk behaviours during adolescence occur in youth with multiple psychosocial stressors. Targeted prevention efforts to reduce these underlying stressors may decrease new adolescent infection. HIV-infected youth are best served in a comprehensive care environment with immediate access to medical care, social work, and psychology/psychiatry services.

  13. Lights and Shadows about the Effectiveness of IVF in HIV Infected Women: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marques, Catarina; Guerreiro, Cristina; Soares, Sérgio Reis

    2015-01-01

    HIV infected women have higher rates of infertility. Objective. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the effectiveness of fresh IVF/ICSI cycles in HIV infected women. A search of the PubMed database was performed to identify studies assessing fresh nondonor oocyte IVF/ICSI cycle outcomes of serodiscordant couples with an HIV infected female partner. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Whenever a comparison with a control group was available, with the exception of one case, ovarian stimulation cancelation rate was higher and pregnancy rate (PR) was lower in HIV infected women. However, statistically significant differences in both rates were only seen in one and two studies, respectively. A number of noncontrolled sources of bias for IVF outcome were identified. This fact, added to the small size of samples studied and heterogeneity in study design and methodology, still hampers the performance of a meta-analysis on the issue. Conclusion. Prospective matched case-control studies are necessary for the understanding of the specific effects of HIV infection on ovarian response and ART outcome.

  14. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, p<0.001) and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16-0.32, p<0.001) but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = -0.10, 95%CI:-0.28-0.08, p = 0.27). HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  15. The Family Health Project: psychosocial adjustment of children whose mothers are HIV infected.

    PubMed

    Forehand, R; Steele, R; Armistead, L; Morse, E; Simon, P; Clark, L

    1998-06-01

    The psychosocial adjustment of 87 inner-city African American children 6-11 years old whose mothers were HIV infected was compared with that of 149 children from a similar sociodemographic background whose mothers did not report being HIV infected. Children were not identified as being HIV infected. Mother reports, child reports, and standardized reading achievement scores were used to assess 4 domains of adjustment: externalizing problems, internalizing problems, cognitive competence, and prosocial competence. The results indicated that, on average, children from both groups had elevated levels of behavior problem scores and low reading achievement scores when compared with national averages. Relative to children whose mothers were not infected, those whose mothers were HIV infected were reported to have more difficulties in all domains of psychosocial adjustment. Potential family processes that may explain the findings are discussed.

  16. Cancer Treatment Disparities in HIV-Infected Individuals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Suneja, Gita; Shiels, Meredith S.; Angulo, Rory; Copeland, Glenn E.; Gonsalves, Lou; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Macomber, Kathryn E.; Melville, Sharon K.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose HIV-infected individuals with cancer have worse survival rates compared with their HIV-uninfected counterparts. One explanation may be differing cancer treatment; however, few studies have examined this. Patients and Methods We used HIV and cancer registry data from Connecticut, Michigan, and Texas to study adults diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, or cervical, lung, anal, prostate, colorectal, or breast cancers from 1996 to 2010. We used logistic regression to examine associations between HIV status and cancer treatment, adjusted for cancer stage and demographic covariates. For a subset of local-stage cancers, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between HIV status and standard treatment modality. We identified predictors of cancer treatment among individuals with both HIV and cancer. Results We evaluated 3,045 HIV-infected patients with cancer and 1,087,648 patients with cancer without HIV infection. A significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected individuals did not receive cancer treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.99), lung cancer (aOR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.80 to 2.64), Hodgkin's lymphoma (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.37), prostate cancer (aOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.46), and colorectal cancer (aOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.72). HIV infection was associated with a lack of standard treatment modality for local-stage DLBCL (aOR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.72), non–small-cell lung cancer (aOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46 to 4.03), and colon cancer (aOR, 4.77; 95% CI, 1.76 to 12.96). Among HIV-infected individuals, factors independently associated with lack of cancer treatment included low CD4 count, male sex with injection drug use as mode of HIV exposure, age 45 to 64 years, black race, and distant or unknown cancer stage. Conclusion HIV-infected individuals are less likely to receive treatment for some cancers than uninfected people, which may affect survival

  17. Cancer treatment disparities in HIV-infected individuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Gita; Shiels, Meredith S; Angulo, Rory; Copeland, Glenn E; Gonsalves, Lou; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Macomber, Kathryn E; Melville, Sharon K; Engels, Eric A

    2014-08-01

    HIV-infected individuals with cancer have worse survival rates compared with their HIV-uninfected counterparts. One explanation may be differing cancer treatment; however, few studies have examined this. We used HIV and cancer registry data from Connecticut, Michigan, and Texas to study adults diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, or cervical, lung, anal, prostate, colorectal, or breast cancers from 1996 to 2010. We used logistic regression to examine associations between HIV status and cancer treatment, adjusted for cancer stage and demographic covariates. For a subset of local-stage cancers, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between HIV status and standard treatment modality. We identified predictors of cancer treatment among individuals with both HIV and cancer. We evaluated 3,045 HIV-infected patients with cancer and 1,087,648 patients with cancer without HIV infection. A significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected individuals did not receive cancer treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.99), lung cancer (aOR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.80 to 2.64), Hodgkin's lymphoma (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.37), prostate cancer (aOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.46), and colorectal cancer (aOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.72). HIV infection was associated with a lack of standard treatment modality for local-stage DLBCL (aOR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.72), non-small-cell lung cancer (aOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46 to 4.03), and colon cancer (aOR, 4.77; 95% CI, 1.76 to 12.96). Among HIV-infected individuals, factors independently associated with lack of cancer treatment included low CD4 count, male sex with injection drug use as mode of HIV exposure, age 45 to 64 years, black race, and distant or unknown cancer stage. HIV-infected individuals are less likely to receive treatment for some cancers than uninfected people, which may affect survival rates. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical

  18. Infective endocarditis in drug addicts: role of HIV infection and the diagnostic accuracy of Duke criteria.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Enrico; Imazio, Massimo; Tidu, Massimo; Forno, Davide; De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe; Dal Conte, Ivano; Preziosi, Costantina; Lipani, Filippo; Trinchero, Rita

    2007-03-01

    Intravenous drug users (IVDUs) are at increased risk of infective endocarditis. Moreover, HIV infection is common in IVDUs, with a reported prevalence of 40-90%. The clinical features of IVDUs with infective endocarditis and HIV infection may be peculiar. Few data have been reported on the diagnostic accuracy of Duke criteria in IVDUs with or without HIV infection, and a comparison of these two populations is lacking. The present study aimed to compare prospectively the clinical features of patients with infective endocarditis with or without HIV infection and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Duke criteria in these patients. The study population consisted of 201 consecutive adult IVDUs with a suspected infective endocarditis (102 patients with HIV infection and 99 patients without HIV infection). Infective endocarditis was the final diagnosis in 40 of 102 patients (38.2%) with HIV infection and in 55 of 99 HIV-negative patients (55.6%). Despite similar baseline features, longer vegetations were recorded in infective endocarditis without HIV infection (23.7 +/- 7.1 mm versus 13.6 +/- 6.8 mm; P = 0.001). Patients with infective endocarditis and HIV infection had a higher total mortality at 2 months (respectively 12.5% versus 1.8%; P = 0.09); almost all the deaths were recorded in patients with AIDS or a CD4 cell count below 200 per microl, and no deaths were recorded in patients with HIV infection and a CD4 cell count > 500 per microl. Despite no identical clinical features, Duke criteria had a similar sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy in IVDUs with and without HIV infection.

  19. B cell responses to HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Susan; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The induction of neutralizing antibodies directed against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has received considerable attention in recent years, in part driven by renewed interest and opportunities for antibody-based strategies for prevention such as passive transfer of antibodies and the development of preventive vaccines, as well as immune-based therapeutic interventions. Advances in the ability to screen, isolate and characterize HIV-specific antibodies have led to the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). The majority of these antibodies have been isolated from B cells of chronically HIV-infected individuals with detectable viremia. In this review, we provide insight into the phenotypic and functional attributes of human B cells, with a focus on HIV-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/cells that are responsible for sustaining humoral immune responses against HIV. We discuss the abnormalities in B cells that occur in HIV infection both in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, especially in the setting of persisting viremia. Finally, we consider the opportunities and drawbacks of intensively interrogating antibodies isolated from HIV-infected individuals to guide strategies aimed at developing effective antibody-based vaccine and therapeutic interventions for HIV. PMID:28133792

  20. Knowledge of pregnant women on transmission of HIV infection through breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Kasinga, F; Mogotlane, S M; van Rensburg, G H

    2008-09-01

    Although breast-feeding is nature's way of providing nutrition to the baby, in HIV positive mothers this has been identified as one of the means through which HIV infection is transmitted from the mother to the child. In Africa where children under the age of 5 are killed by preventable diseases like diarrhoea, the issue of HIV transmission through breast feeding poses an added huge problem. Research has, however shown that exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, reduces the risk substantially. It is imperative that mothers be informed about safer methods of infant feeding so that HIV infection is kept to a minimum. The objective of the study was to explore and describe the knowledge that pregnant women had about mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. A non-experimental quantitative exploratory and descriptive research design was used to explore the knowledge women had on mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. From the data collected, it showed that although women were aware of the susceptibility of children to HIV infection if fed on breast and formula feeds simultaneously by HIV positive mothers, exclusive feeding was a problem as people associated the practise with a positive HIV status. Women who had not disclosed their HIV status and were HIV positive, found it difficult to comply with the requirement to exclusively feed their infants. These either continued with complementary feeds or did not collect the free formula milk supply preferring instead to buy the formula feeds privately. In this study it was recommended that information on transmission of HIV infection from mother to child through breast -feeding including the benefits of exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, for the first three to six months be provided to the community so that relatives can support the mother on infant feeding method of choice.

  1. Disclosure of HIV Diagnosis to HIV-Infected Children in South Africa: Focus Groups for Intervention Development

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, G. Anita; Jemmott, John B.; Sidloyi, Lulama; Ngwane, Zolani

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide about 2.5 million children younger than 15 years of age are living with HIV, and more than 2.3 million of them live in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy has reduced mortality among HIV-infected children, and as they survive into adolescence, disclosing to them their diagnosis has emerged as a difficult issue, with many adolescents unaware of their diagnosis. There is a need to build an empirical foundation for strategies to appropriately inform infected children of their diagnosis, particularly in South Africa, which has the largest number of HIV-positive people in the world. As a step toward developing such strategies, we conducted a study in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa to identify beliefs about disclosing HIV diagnosis to HIV-infected children among caregivers, health-care providers, and HIV-positive children who knew their diagnosis. We implemented 7 focus groups with 80 participants: 51 caregivers in 4 groups, 24 health-care providers in 2 groups, and 5 HIV-positive children in 1 group. We found that although the participants believed that children from age 5 years should begin to learn about their illness, with full disclosure by age 12, they suggested that many caregivers fail to fully inform their children. The participants said that the primary caregiver was the best person to disclose. The main reasons cited for failing to disclose were (a) lack of knowledge about HIV and its treatment, (b) the concern that the children might react negatively, and (c) the fear that the children might inappropriately disclose to others, which would occasion gossip, stigmatization, and discrimination towards them and the family. We discuss the implications for developing interventions to help caregivers appropriately disclose HIV status to HIV-infected children and, more generally, communicate effectively with the children to improve their health outcomes. PMID:22468145

  2. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    LoRicco, Josephine G; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C; Roan, Nadia R; Makhatadze, George I

    2016-07-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248-286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86-107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection*

    PubMed Central

    LoRicco, Josephine G.; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C.; Roan, Nadia R.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248–286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86–107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection. PMID:27226574

  4. [Genital warts in HIV-infected individuals].

    PubMed

    Wieland, U; Kreuter, A

    2017-03-01

    Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata) are much more frequent in human immunodeficiency (HIV)-positive patients compared to HIV-negative individuals. Anogenital warts of HIV-infected patients differ from those of HIV-negative individuals with respect to their spread, occurrence on more unusual anatomical sites, human papillomavirus (HPV)-type spectrum, tendency to recur, and risk of malignant transformation. Between 18 and 56% of anogenital warts of HIV-positive patients harbor high-grade dysplasia. Therefore, anogenital warts of HIV-infected patients should be preferentially treated with ablative methods and should be evaluated histopathologically. Gender-neutral prophylactic HPV vaccination of HPV-naive boys and girls could also lead to a significant reduction of anogenital warts in this patient group in the future.

  5. Disparities in the treatment and outcomes of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Suneja, Gita; Shiels, Meredith S.; Melville, Sharon K.; Williams, Melanie A.; Rengan, Ramesh; Engels, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV-infected people have elevated risk for lung cancer and higher mortality following cancer diagnosis than HIV-uninfected individuals. It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals with lung cancer receive similar cancer treatment as HIV-uninfected individuals. Design/methods We studied adults more than 18 years of age with lung cancer reported to the Texas Cancer Registry (N = 156 930) from 1995 to 2009. HIV status was determined by linkage with the Texas enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. For nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, we identified predictors of cancer treatment using logistic regression. We used Cox regression to evaluate effects of HIV and cancer treatment on mortality. Results Compared with HIV-uninfected lung cancer patients (N = 156 593), HIV-infected lung cancer patients (N = 337) were more frequently young, black, men, and with non-Hispanic distant stage disease. HIV-infected NSCLC patients less frequently received cancer treatment than HIV-uninfected patients [60.3 vs. 77.5%; odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30–0.52, after adjustment for diagnosis year, age, sex, race, stage, and histologic subtype]. HIV infection was associated with higher lung cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.15–1.56, adjusted for demographics and tumor characteristics). Inclusion of cancer treatment in adjusted models slightly attenuated the effect of HIV on lung cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 1.25; 95% CI 1.06–1.47). Also, there was a suggestion that HIV was more strongly associated with mortality among untreated than among treated patients (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 vs. 1.16, P-interaction = 0.34). Conclusion HIV-infected NSCLC patients were less frequently treated for lung cancer than HIV-uninfected patients, which may have affected survival. PMID:23079809

  6. Statistical behavior of time dynamics evolution of HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Ramón E. R.; Santos, Iury A. X.; Nunes, Marcos G. P.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.; Barbosa, Anderson L. R.

    2017-09-01

    We use the tools of the random matrix theory (RMT) to investigate the statistical behavior of the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. By means of the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution we have identified four distinct regimes of the evolution of HIV infection. We verified that at the beginning of the so-called clinical latency phase the concentration of infected cells grows slowly and evolves in a correlated way. This regime is followed by another one in which the correlation is lost and that in turn leads the system to a regime in which the increase of infected cells is faster and correlated. In the final phase, the one in which acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is stablished, the system presents maximum correlation as demonstrated by GOE distribution.

  7. HIV-infected women of Burkina Faso: a "reservoir" of mycoplasma infection.

    PubMed

    Djigma, Florencia; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Sanogo, Korotini; Bisseye, Cyrille; Kabre, Abdoulaye; Pietra, Virginio; Simpore, Jacques; Nikiema, Jean Baptiste; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2011-03-21

    The objective of this work was to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasma colonization in 251 HIV-positive compared to 200 HIV-negative women at the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) service of Saint Camille Medical Center  Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). After revealing the cervix with a speculum, we collected swabs of vaginal discharge for the detection of pathogenic bacteria. Among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, we identified respectively: Mycoplasma hominis (16.7% versus 5.5%); Ureaplasma urealyticum (16.3% versus 0.0%); co-infection M. hominis with U. urealyticum (13.14% versus 0.0%); Candida albicans (21.11% versus 41.5%); E. coli (9.96% versus 4.0%); and the presence of abundant vaginal discharge (27.5% versus 5.0%) respectively. The Nugent's score, utilized for the diagnosis of BV, was significantly higher in HIV-positive women (p < 0.001) associated with poor vaginal hygiene practices (p < 0.01) and no use of condoms (p < 0.01). Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumonia, Klebsiella oxitocica, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Gardnerella vaginalis were also isolated, but in a low prevalence ranging from 0% to 5%. These results demonstrate that the HIV-positive women of Burkina Faso are frequently affected by BV and represent a reservoir for mycoplasma infection. Since these germs can lead to sterility and premature delivery, it is important to develop a policy of screening. 

  8. Longitudinal Modeling of Depressive Trajectories Among HIV-Infected Men Using Cocaine.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shibani; Haghighat, Roxanna; Misra, Vikas; Lorenz, David R; Holman, Alex; Dutta, Anupriya; Gabuzda, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine use is prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. While cross-sectional studies suggest that cocaine users may be at increased risk for depression, long-term effects of cocaine on depressive symptoms remain unclear. This is a longitudinal study of 341 HIV-infected and uninfected men (135 cocaine users and 206 controls) ages 30-60 enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study during 1996-2009. The median baseline age was 41; 73% were African-American. In mixed-effects models over a median of 4.8 years of observation, cocaine use was associated with higher depressive symptoms independent of age, education level, and smoking (n = 288; p = 0.02); HIV infection modified this association (p = 0.03). Latent class mixed models were used to empirically identify distinct depressive trajectories (n = 160). In adjusted models, cocaine use was associated with threefold increased odds of membership in the class with persistent high depressive symptoms (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-6.69) and eightfold increased odds (95% CI (2.73-25.83) when tested among HIV-infected subjects only. Cocaine use is a risk factor for chronic depressive symptoms, particularly among HIV-infected men, highlighting the importance of integrating mental health and substance use treatments to address barriers to well-being and successful HIV-care.

  9. [Overweight, obesity and underweight in HIV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Wiesława; Knysz, Brygida; Drelichowska-Durawa, Justyna; Czarnecki, Marcin; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Biłyk, Ewa; Karczewski, Maciej; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The history of HIV infection has always been associated with patient nutritional problems, initially in the form of wasting syndrome, and since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy such metabolic disorders as lipodystrophy, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia that are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases have been observed. evaluation of nutritional disorders in HIV infected patients using anthropometric parameters: waist circumference, BMI (body mass index) and WHR (waist-hip ratio). the study included 72 HIV infected patients (48 men, 24 women, average age 39.4). The control group comprised 27 not infected subjects, matched for age and sex. Physical examination with measurements of body mass, height, waist and hip circumference was performed and the values of two anthropometric parameters--body mass index and waist/hip ratio were calculated. BMI in the group of HIV infected patients was significantly lower than in the control group (23.6 vs. 25.6 kg/m2, p = 0.01). These BMI values are normal, but significantly lower in HIV-infected men compared with not infected, and no differences were found between women. Infected men are less likely to be overweight and obese than not infected ones. Underweight was noted in 6.8% of patients from the study group (6% of men and 4% of women). WHR was significantly higher in the study group comparing with the healthy subjects (0.92 vs. 0.86 p = 0.002), which resulted from significantly lower hip circumference among the infected patients (93.0 vs. 98.3, p = 0.002). Waist circumference was similar in both groups (85.1 vs. 84.0). The WHR value in the infected women was a result of insignificantly higher waist circumference and lower hip circumference. HIV infected women have significantly more often too large waist circumference comparing with not infected ones (46% vs 0%, p = 0.01). In the group of infected men, the WHR value was significantly affected only by low hip circumference, and larger waist

  10. Placental pathology in HIV infection at term: a comparison with HIV-uninfected women.

    PubMed

    Kalk, Emma; Schubert, Pawel; Bettinger, Julie A; Cotton, Mark F; Esser, Monika; Slogrove, Amy; Wright, Colleen A

    2017-05-01

    To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n = 120) and HIV-negative (n = 103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. Data were analysed using logistic regression. HIV-infected women were older (median [IQR] 27.4 years [24-31] vs. 25.8 [23-30]), more likely to be multiparous (81.7% vs. 71.8%) and had lower CD4 counts (median [IQR] 323.5 cells/ml [235-442] vs. 467 [370-656]). There were no differences in gestational age at first antenatal visit or at delivery. The proportion of specimens with placental lesions was similar in both groups (39.2% vs. 44.7%). Half of all samples were below the tenth percentile expected-weight-for-gestation regardless of HIV status. This was unaffected by adjustment for confounding variables. Maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) was more frequent in HIV infection (24.2% vs. 12.6%; P = 0.028), an association which strengthened after adjustment (aOR 2.90 [95% confidence interval 1.11-7.57]). Otherwise the frequency of individual diagnoses did not differ between the groups on multivariate analysis. In this cohort of term, uncomplicated pregnant women, few differences were observed between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups apart from MVM. This lesion may underlie the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, which have been observed at higher rates in some HIV-infected women on ART. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Associated with HIV Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    et al, however, were very similar to that of ours and suggests a relationship (6). Eosinophilic folliculitis is a papular eruption which occurs in HIV...patients with moderate to advanced HIV infection (14). The dermatopathology of eosinophilic folliculitis is primarily characterized by follicular...Berger TG. HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis : A unique dermatosis associated with advanced HIV infection. Arch Derm 1991; 127: 206 15. Ray TL

  12. Fracture risk by HIV infection status in perinatally HIV-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Siberry, George K; Li, Hong; Jacobson, Denise

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of fractures in HIV-infected children and comparable HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children in a multicenter, prospective cohort study (PACTG 219/219C) in the United States. The main outcome was first fracture during the risk period. Nine fractures occurred in 7 of 1326 HIV-infected and 2 of 649 HEU children, corresponding to incidence rates of 1.2 per 1000 person-years and 1.1 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The incidence rate ratio was 1.1 (95% CI 0.2, 5.5). There was no evidence of a substantially increased risk of fracture in HIV-infected compared to HEU children.

  13. Pulmonary tuberculosis in severely-malnourished or HIV-infected children with pneumonia: a review.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A C; Faruque, Abu S G; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K; Hossain, Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2013-09-01

    Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/ very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies

  14. Global oral inequalities in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, S J

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection globally reveal striking variances with regard to continent, country, region and gender. Of the global total of 33 million people infected with HIV, approximately 65% are in sub-Saharan African countries and 15% in South and South-East Asia with the remaining 20% spread over the rest of the world. As a percentage of the population, the Caribbean at 1.1% is second only to sub-Saharan Africa (5.5%). The majority of the world's HIV is in women. Deaths from HIV are twenty-fold greater in Africa than in Europe or the USA. Individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa show huge variances in the HIV+ prevalence with most West African countries having a rate of less than 2% whilst southern African countries including Swaziland and Botswana have rates of around 25%. Environment, education and social habits all contribute to the HIV infection rates. Similar variations between countries are seen in SE Asia with Cambodia and Papua New Guinea having rates three times greater than Pakistan. One of the most striking examples of inequality is in life years added to HIV populations as a result of antiretroviral therapy. UN AIDS figures over 1996-2008 suggest an average of 2.88 added years in the USA and Europe, but only 0.1 in sub-Saharan Africa, a thirty-fold difference largely due to accessibility to ART. ART leads to a reduction in oral lesions but it is estimated that some 10 million HIV+ subjects do not have access to oral care. Thus, inequalities exist both for HIV infection and for the associated oral lesions, mainly related to ART access. HIV infection and oral mucosal lesions both appear to be related to general social determinants of health. Oral HCW must be part of mainstream healthcare teams to address these inequalities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Identifying the Cognitive Decrements Caused By HIV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-10

    critical analyses 46 pointed to further assessment of frontal lobe structures. Most of the 15 different tests yielded more than on* dependent variable...is also one of the tests included in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study longitudinal research on the progression of HIV infection. Left frontal lobe ...structures underlie verbal fluency performance and the particular sensitivity of frontal lobe structures to perturbations with HIV infection would

  16. HIV and Syphilis Infection among Men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Banerjee, Geetanjoli; Gertz, Alida M.; García, Hermes

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with HIV and syphilis infection among a sample of men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic during 2009 to 2010 in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A sample of 350 clinical records from men visiting the clinic for the first time during 2009 to 2010 was reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample, and bivariate analyses were performed separately for HIV and syphilis to identify factors associated with these infectious diseases. Variables that were significantly associated (p<0.05) with HIV and syphilis in the bivariate analysis were considered for inclusion in the logistic regression models. Results Overall, 11.2% and 14.1% of the men were infected with HIV and syphilis, respectively, and 5.1% were coinfected with HIV and syphilis. In multivariate logistic regression models, ever injecting drugs (POR = 8.1; 95%Cl 3.0, 21.8) and being a man who has sex with men (MSM) (POR = 5.3; 95%CI 2.3, 11.9) were positively associated with HIV infection. Being a man older than 45 years (POR = 4.0; 95%CI: 1.9, 8.9) and being an MSM (POR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.3, 4.9) were both significantly associated with syphilis infection. Conclusion These findings reinforce the need for greater education and prevention efforts for HIV and other STIs among men in PR, particularly those who are MSM. However, there is a need to make an a priori assessment of the level of health literacy in the members of this group so that a culturally sensitive intervention can be provided to the men who attend this STI clinic. PMID:23556260

  17. Association between hepatitis B co-infection and elevated liver stiffness among HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Vinikoor, Michael J; Mulenga, Lloyd; Siyunda, Alice; Musukuma, Kalo; Chilengi, Roma; Moore, Carolyn Bolton; Chi, Benjamin H; Davies, Mary-Ann; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    To describe liver disease epidemiology among HIV-infected individuals in Zambia. We recruited HIV-infected adults (≥18 years) at antiretroviral therapy initiation at two facilities in Lusaka. Using vibration controlled transient elastography, we assessed liver stiffness, a surrogate for fibrosis/cirrhosis, and analysed liver stiffness measurements (LSM) according to established thresholds (>7.0 kPa for significant fibrosis and >11.0 kPa for cirrhosis). All participants underwent standardised screening for potential causes of liver disease including chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus co-infection, herbal medicine, and alcohol use. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with elevated liver stiffness. Among 798 HIV-infected patients, 651 had a valid LSM (median age, 34 years; 53% female). HBV co-infection (12%) and alcohol use disorders (41%) were common and hepatitis C virus co-infection (<1%) was rare. According to LSM, 75 (12%) had significant fibrosis and 13 (2%) had cirrhosis. In multivariable analysis, HBV co-infection as well as male sex, increased age and WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 were independently associated with LSM >7.0 kPa (all P < 0.05). HBV co-infection was the only independent risk factor for LSM >11.0 kPa. Among HIV-HBV patients, those with elevated ALT and HBV viral load were more likely to have significant liver fibrosis than patients with normal markers of HBV activity. HBV co-infection was the most important risk factor for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and should be diagnosed early in HIV care to optimise treatment outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recent advances targeting innate immunity-mediated therapies against HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Velu, Vijayakumar; Vignesh, Ramachandran; Vijayaraghavalu, Sivakumar; Rukumani, Devi Velayuthan; Sabet, Negar Shafiei

    2012-08-01

    Early defence mechanisms of innate immunity respond rapidly to infection against HIV-1 in the genital mucosa. Additionally, innate immunity optimises effective adaptive immune responses against persistent HIV infection. Recent research has highlighted the intrinsic roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G, tripartite motif-containing protein 5, tetherin, sterile α-motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 in restricting HIV-1 replication. Likewise, certain endogenously secreted antimicrobial peptides, namely α/β/θ-defensins, lactoferrins, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, trappin-2/elafin and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α are reportedly protective. Whilst certain factors directly inhibit HIV, others can be permissive. Interferon-λ3 exerts an anti-HIV function by activating Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription-mediated innate responses. Morphine has been found to impair intracellular innate immunity, contributing to HIV establishment in macrophages. Interestingly, protegrin-1 could be used therapeutically to inhibit early HIV-1 establishment. Moreover, chloroquine inhibits plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation and improves effective T-cell responses. This minireview summarizes the recently identified targets for innate immunity-mediated therapies and outlines the challenges that lie ahead in improving treatment of HIV infection. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Trends of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, estimated HIV incidence, and risky sexual behaviors among gay bathhouse attendees in Taiwan: 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Ko, Nai-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Hung, Chien-Ching; Tseng, Fan-Chen; Chang, Jui-Ling; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lee, Meng-Ping; Chen, Bo-Jie; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2011-02-01

    Five serial cross-sectional surveys were done at eight gay bathhouses in Taiwan to investigate the trends of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and estimated HIV incidence between 2004 and 2008. Bathhouse attendees completed a questionnaire and tests for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C virus, and amoebiasis. Twenty-nine (38.6%) were identified as having recent HIV-1 infections. There was a significant increase in HIV incidence, from 7.8% in 2004 to 15% in 2007 (χ(2) = 17.59, P-trend <0.001). Recreational drug use is the primary risk behavior. Comprehensive screening programs in gay bathhouses for early detection of HIV and STIs are important.

  20. Syphilis and HIV co-infection. Epidemiology, treatment and molecular typing of Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    testing of material from genital lesions. In total, 22 strain types were identified. HIV-infected patients were diagnosed with nine different strains types and a difference by HIV status was not observed indicating that HIV-infected patients did not belong to separate sexual networks. In conclusion, concurrent HIV remains common in patients diagnosed with syphilis in Denmark, both in those diagnosed by serological testing and PCR testing. Although the rate of syphilis has stabilized in recent years, a spread to low-risk groups is of concern, especially due to the complex symptomatology of syphilis. However, given the efficient treatment options and the targeted screening of pregnant women and persons at higher risk of syphilis, control of the infection seems within reach. Avoiding new HIV infections is the major challenge and here cART may play a prominent role.

  1. Diagnosing acute HIV infection: The performance of quantitative HIV-1 RNA testing (viral load) in the 2014 laboratory testing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsiu; Cohen, Stephanie E; Westheimer, Emily; Gay, Cynthia L; Hall, Laura; Rose, Charles; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Gose, Severin; Fu, Jie; Peters, Philip J

    2017-08-01

    New recommendations for laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were published in 2014. The updated testing algorithm includes a qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay to resolve discordant immunoassay results and to identify acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is not widely available; therefore, we evaluated the performance of a more widely available quantitative HIV-1 RNA assay, viral load, for diagnosing AHI. We determined that quantitative viral loads consistently distinguished AHI from a false-positive immunoassay result. Among 100 study participants with AHI and a viral load result, the estimated geometric mean viral load was 1,377,793copies/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Recent HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Hubei, 2010-2013].

    PubMed

    Peng, Tinghai; Peng, Guoping; Yang, Kai; Jiang, Honglin; Chen, Huiping; Tang, Heng; Chu, Xiaogang; Liu, Cong

    2015-02-01

    To understand the HIV infection status among MSM in Hubei province and provide scientific evidence for the development of intervention strategy. A total of 11 438 samples were collected from MSM in sentinel surveillance during 2010-2013 to detect HIV-1 antibody. BED-CEIA was used to identify the recent HIV infection, and the recent HIV infection rate among the MSM was estimated. The age, group and area specific recent infection rate and condom use rate were analyzed. The annual HIV positive rates among MSM were 3.34% , 3.74% , 2.96% and 3.15% respectively and the annual recent infection rates were 2.31% , 1.91% , 1.53% and 1.71% respectively during 2010-2013. The HIV positive rate in age group ≤ 30 years was lower than that in age group >30 years, but the recent HIV incidence rate was higher in age group ≤ 30 years than in age group >30 years. The detection rate of recent HIV infection varied with sample source, the highest detection rate was among the samples form work group/CDC and public bathroom (3.54% and 3.49%, respectively). The recent HIV i nfection rate in Wuhan was highest (5.73%). The proportion of MSM using condoms in each homosexual behavior during past six months was 38.91% . Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors related to recent HIV infection included sample source (OR = 0.344-0.713), area (OR = 3.581-9.577) and condom usage (OR = 6.686). The HIV-1 infection rate in MSM was at a high level in Hubei, especially in some areas. The condom use rate was low, it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of HIV infection in MSM.

  3. HIV dynamics with multiple infections of target cells.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Narendra M; Perelson, Alan S

    2005-06-07

    The high incidence of multiple infections of cells by HIV sets the stage for rapid HIV evolution by means of recombination. Yet how HIV dynamics proceeds with multiple infections remains poorly understood. Here, we present a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of viral, target cell, and multiply infected cell subpopulations during HIV infection. Model calculations reproduce several experimental observations and provide key insights into the influence of multiple infections on HIV dynamics. We find that the experimentally observed scaling law, that the number of cells coinfected with two distinctly labeled viruses is proportional to the square of the total number of infected cells, can be generalized so that the number of triply infected cells is proportional to the cube of the number of infected cells, etc. Despite the expectation from Poisson statistics, we find that this scaling relationship only holds under certain conditions, which we predict. We also find that multiple infections do not influence viral dynamics when the rate of viral production from infected cells is independent of the number of times the cells are infected, a regime expected when viral production is limited by cellular rather than viral factors. This result may explain why extant models, which ignore multiple infections, successfully describe viral dynamics in HIV patients. Inhibiting CD4 down-modulation increases the average number of infections per cell. Consequently, altering CD4 down-modulation may allow for an experimental determination of whether viral or cellular factors limit viral production.

  4. HIV dynamics with multiple infections of target cells

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Narendra M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    The high incidence of multiple infections of cells by HIV sets the stage for rapid HIV evolution by means of recombination. Yet how HIV dynamics proceeds with multiple infections remains poorly understood. Here, we present a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of viral, target cell, and multiply infected cell subpopulations during HIV infection. Model calculations reproduce several experimental observations and provide key insights into the influence of multiple infections on HIV dynamics. We find that the experimentally observed scaling law, that the number of cells coinfected with two distinctly labeled viruses is proportional to the square of the total number of infected cells, can be generalized so that the number of triply infected cells is proportional to the cube of the number of infected cells, etc. Despite the expectation from Poisson statistics, we find that this scaling relationship only holds under certain conditions, which we predict. We also find that multiple infections do not influence viral dynamics when the rate of viral production from infected cells is independent of the number of times the cells are infected, a regime expected when viral production is limited by cellular rather than viral factors. This result may explain why extant models, which ignore multiple infections, successfully describe viral dynamics in HIV patients. Inhibiting CD4 down-modulation increases the average number of infections per cell. Consequently, altering CD4 down-modulation may allow for an experimental determination of whether viral or cellular factors limit viral production. PMID:15928092

  5. Post-treatment control of HIV infection

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV is not a cure. However, recent studies suggest that ART, initiated early during primary infection, may induce post-treatment control (PTC) of HIV infection with HIV RNA maintained at <50 copies per mL. We investigate the hypothesis that ART initiated early during primary infection permits PTC by limiting the size of the latent reservoir, which, if small enough at treatment termination, may allow the adaptive immune response to prevent viral rebound (VR) and control infection. We use a mathematical model of within host HIV dynamics to capture interactions among target cells, productively infected cells, latently infectedmore » cells, virus, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Analysis of our model reveals a range in CTL response strengths where a patient may show either VR or PTC, depending on the size of the latent reservoir at treatment termination. Below this range, patients will always rebound, whereas above this range, patients are predicted to behave like elite controllers. As a result, using data on latent reservoir sizes in patients treated during primary infection, we also predict population-level VR times for non-controllers consistent with observations.« less

  6. Post-treatment control of HIV infection

    DOE PAGES

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-04-13

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV is not a cure. However, recent studies suggest that ART, initiated early during primary infection, may induce post-treatment control (PTC) of HIV infection with HIV RNA maintained at <50 copies per mL. We investigate the hypothesis that ART initiated early during primary infection permits PTC by limiting the size of the latent reservoir, which, if small enough at treatment termination, may allow the adaptive immune response to prevent viral rebound (VR) and control infection. We use a mathematical model of within host HIV dynamics to capture interactions among target cells, productively infected cells, latently infectedmore » cells, virus, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Analysis of our model reveals a range in CTL response strengths where a patient may show either VR or PTC, depending on the size of the latent reservoir at treatment termination. Below this range, patients will always rebound, whereas above this range, patients are predicted to behave like elite controllers. As a result, using data on latent reservoir sizes in patients treated during primary infection, we also predict population-level VR times for non-controllers consistent with observations.« less

  7. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001 ...

  8. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001 ...

  9. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001 ...

  10. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001 ...

  11. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001 ...

  12. B-cell responses to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Moir, Susan; Fauci, Anthony S

    2017-01-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies directed against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has received considerable attention in recent years, in part driven by renewed interest and opportunities for antibody-based strategies for prevention such as passive transfer of antibodies and the development of preventive vaccines, as well as immune-based therapeutic interventions. Advances in the ability to screen, isolate, and characterize HIV-specific antibodies have led to the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). The majority of these antibodies have been isolated from B cells of chronically HIV-infected individuals with detectable viremia. In this review, we provide insight into the phenotypic and functional attributes of human B cells, with a focus on HIV-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/cells that are responsible for sustaining humoral immune responses against HIV. We discuss the abnormalities in B cells that occur in HIV infection both in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, especially in the setting of persisting viremia. Finally, we consider the opportunities and drawbacks of intensively interrogating antibodies isolated from HIV-infected individuals to guide strategies aimed at developing effective antibody-based vaccine and therapeutic interventions for HIV. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. [HIV infection and immigration].

    PubMed

    Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A

    2016-01-01

    Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV-Infected Patients: Check Early, Treat Hard

    PubMed Central

    Garlassi, Elisa; Cacopardo, Bruno; Cappellani, Alessandro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cocchi, Stefania; De Paoli, Paolo; Lleshi, Arben; Izzi, Immacolata; Torresin, Augusta; Di Gangi, Pietro; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Ferrari, Mariachiara; Bearz, Alessandra; Berretta, Salvatore; Nasti, Guglielmo; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Balestreri, Luca; Tirelli, Umberto; Ventura, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasing cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. The aims of this study were to describe HCC tumor characteristics and different therapeutic approaches, to evaluate patient survival time from HCC diagnosis, and to identify clinical prognostic predictors in patients with and without HIV infection. Patients and Methods. A multicenter observational retrospective comparison of 104 HIV-infected patients and 484 uninfected patients was performed in four Italian centers. HCC was staged according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) criteria. Results. Tumor characteristics of patients with and without HIV were significantly different for age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) score ≤1, and etiology of chronic liver disease. Despite the similar potentially curative option rate and better BCLC stage at diagnosis, the median survival time was significantly shorter in HIV+ patients. HIV+ patients were less frequently retreated at relapse. Independent predictors of survival were: BCLC stage, potentially effective HCC therapy, tumor dimension ≤3 cm, HCC diagnosis under a screening program, HCC recurrence, and portal vein thrombosis. Restricting the analysis to HIV+ patients only, all positive prognostic factors were confirmed together with HAART exposure. Conclusion. This study confirms a significantly shorter survival time in HIV+ HCC patients. The less aggressive retreatment at recurrence approach does not balance the benefit of younger age and better BCLC stage and PS score of HIV+ patients. Thus, considering the prognosis of HIV+ HCC patients, effective screening techniques, programs, and specific management guidelines are urgently needed. PMID:21868692

  15. HIV and syphilis infection among men attending a [corrected] sexually transmitted infection clinic in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P; Banerjee, Geetanjoli; Gertz, Alida M; García, Hermes

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with HIV and syphilis infection among a sample of men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic during 2009 to 2010 in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). A sample of 350 clinical records from men visiting the clinic for the first time during 2009 to 2010 was reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample, and bivariate analyses were performed separately for HIV and syphilis to identify factors associated with these infectious diseases. Variables that were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with HIV and syphilis in the bivariate analysis were considered for inclusion in the logistic regression models. Overall, 11.2% and 14.1% of the men were infected with HIV and syphilis, respectively, and 5.1% were coinfected with HIV and syphilis. In multivariate logistic regression models, ever injecting drugs (POR = 8.1; 95% CI 3.0, 21.8) and being a man who has sex with men (MSM) (POR = 5.3; 95% CI 2.3, 11.9) were positively associated with HIV infection. Being a man older than 45 years (POR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.9, 8.9) and being an MSM (POR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9) were both significantly associated with syphilis infection. These findings reinforce the need for greater education and prevention efforts for HIV and other STIs among men in PR, particularly those who are MSM. However, there is a need to make an a priori assessment of the level of health literacy in the members of this group so that a culturally sensitive intervention can be provided to the men who attend this STI clinic.

  16. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Cheryl; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Walaza, Sibongile; Haffejee, Sumayya; Chhagan, Meera; Naby, Fathima; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Madhi, Shabir A

    2013-12-15

    There are limited data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children in settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. Children aged <5 years admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals with physician-diagnosed neonatal sepsis or ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for RSV and other viruses. Associations between possible risk factors and severe outcomes for RSV infection among HIV-infected and uninfected children were examined. The relative risk of hospitalization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children was calculated in 1 site with population denominators. Of 4489 participants, 4293 (96%) were tested for RSV, of whom 1157 (27%) tested positive. With adjustment for age, HIV-infected children had a 3-5-fold increased risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI (2010 relative risk, 5.6; [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5-6.4]; 2011 relative risk, 3.1 [95% CI, 2.6-3.6]). On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected children with RSV-associated ALRTI had higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio. 31.1; 95% CI, 5.4-179.8) and hospitalization for >5 days (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.6) than HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children have a higher risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI and a poorer outcome than HIV-uninfected children. These children should be targeted for interventions aimed at preventing severe RSV disease.

  17. The Dilemmas of Childhood HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudigier, Anne F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Increase in number of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and consequential developmental disabilities of these children are discussed. Families caring for HIV-infected children express four recurrent themes: psychological stress, grief and mourning, guilt and self-blame, and isolation and fear of discrimination. Flexible…

  18. Male circumcision and HIV infection risk.

    PubMed

    Krieger, John N

    2012-02-01

    Male circumcision is being promoted to reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection rates. This review evaluates the scientific evidence suggesting that male circumcision reduces HIV infection risk in high-risk heterosexual populations. We followed the updated International Consultation on Urological Diseases evidence-based medicine recommendations to critically review the scientific evidence on male circumcision and HIV infection risk. Level 1 evidence supports the concept that male circumcision substantially reduces the risk of HIV infection. Three major lines of evidence support this conclusion: biological data suggesting that this concept is plausible, data from observational studies supported by high-quality meta-analyses, and three randomized clinical trials supported by high-quality meta-analyses. The evidence from these biological studies, observational studies, randomized controlled clinical trials, meta-analyses, and cost-effectiveness studies is conclusive. The challenges to implementation of male circumcision as a public health measure in high-risk populations must now be faced.

  19. HIV infection risk factors among male-to-female transgender persons: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    Male-to-female (MTF) transgender women experience a host of psychosocial issues such as discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization. These challenges often limit economic opportunities, affect mental health, and may place members of this population at an increased risk for HIV infection. This report presents a review of the literature that focuses on risk factors for HIV infection specific to the MTF population. Factors including needle sharing and substance abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors, commercial sex work, health care access, lack of knowledge regarding HIV transmission, violence, stigma and discrimination, and mental health issues have been identified in the literature as risk factors for the acquisition of HIV infection by members of this population. Implications for care provided to MTF transgender persons are presented, and suggestions for future research are identified.

  20. Arterial stiffness in HIV-infected youth and associations with HIV-related variables.

    PubMed

    Eckard, Allison Ross; Raggi, Paolo; Ruff, Joshua H; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Rosebush, Julia C; Labbato, Danielle; Daniels, Julie E; Uribe-Leitz, Monika; Longenecker, Christopher T; McComsey, Grace A

    2017-10-03

    Children and young adults infected with HIV are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, scarce data exist on the utility of non-invasive methods to diagnose subclinical CVD, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship of carotid-femoral PWV with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compare measurements to healthy controls, and evaluate variables associated with PWV in HIV-infected youth. One hundred and one 8-25 year-old subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy with low-level viremia or an undetectable HIV-1 RNA were enrolled, along with 86 healthy controls similar in age, sex and race. There was no significant difference in PWV between groups (median (Q1, Q3): 5.7 (5.2, 6.3) vs 5.7 (4.9, 6.5) m/s; P = 0.81). Among the HIV-infected subjects, PWV was positively correlated with both internal carotid artery (R = 0.31, P = 0.02) and carotid bulb IMT (R = 0.29, P = 0.01). In multivariable regression, only current alcohol consumption and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with PWV in the HIV-infected group (where current alcohol consumption and higher systolic blood pressure were associated with higher PWV); whereas, age, body mass index, and current marijuana use were associated with PWV in healthy controls. In this study of PWV in HIV-infected youth, measures of arterial stiffness were not different between subjects and controls. However, in HIV-infected youth, there was a significant association between PWV and carotid IMT, as well as between PWV and current alcohol consumption. Thus, PWV may have potential as a useful, non-invasive method to assess CVD risk in HIV-infected youth, but further investigation is needed.

  1. Lessons from acute HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Robb, Merlin L; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the characteristics of transmission during acute HIV infection (AHI) may inform targets for vaccine-induced immune interdiction. Individuals treated in AHI with a small HIV reservoir size may be ideal candidates for therapeutic HIV vaccines aiming for HIV remission (i.e. viremic control after treatment interruption). The AHI period is brief and peak viremia predicts a viral set point that occurs 4-5 weeks following infection. Robust HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses lower viral set points. Phylogenetic analyses of founder viruses demonstrated unique bottleneck selections and specific genetic signatures to optimize for high-fitness variants and successful transmission events. HIV clades, route of transmission and the presence of minor variants may affect vaccine protection. Antiretroviral treatment in AHI results in smaller HIV reservoir size, better CD4 T-cell recovery and fewer virus escapes. The knowledge of untreated and treated AHI informs the development of vaccines, in that preventive vaccines will require broad coverage for multiple clades and antigenic variants associated with unique bottleneck selections. Vaccines that help the host to control viremia could minimize onward transmission. Therapeutic HIV vaccines aimed at HIV remission should be studied in early-treated individuals who have few or no viral escape mutants and a more preserved immune system.

  2. Epidemic dispersion of HIV and HCV in a population of co-infected Romanian injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Paraschiv, Simona; Banica, Leontina; Nicolae, Ionelia; Niculescu, Iulia; Abagiu, Adrian; Jipa, Raluca; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Pingarilho, Marta; Neaga, Emil; Theys, Kristof; Libin, Pieter; Otelea, Dan; Abecasis, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Co-infections with HIV and HCV are very frequent among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, very few studies comparatively reconstructed the transmission patterns of both viruses in the same population. We have recruited 117 co-infected PWID during a recent HIV outbreak in Romania. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on HIV and HCV sequences in order to characterize and compare transmission dynamics of the two viruses. Three large HIV clusters (2 subtype F1 and one CRF14_BG) and thirteen smaller HCV transmission networks (genotypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 4a and 4d) were identified. Eighty (65%) patients were both in HIV and HCV transmission chains and 70 of those shared the same HIV and HCV cluster with at least one other patient. Molecular clock analysis indicated that all identified HIV clusters originated around 2006, while the origin of the different HCV clusters ranged between 1980 (genotype 1b) and 2011 (genotypes 3a and 4d). HCV infection preceded HIV infection in 80.3% of cases. Coincidental transmission of HIV and HCV was estimated to be rather low (19.65%) and associated with an outbreak among PWID during detention in the same penitentiary. This study has reconstructed and compared the dispersion of these two viruses in a PWID population.

  3. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  4. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  5. Cancer and HIV infection in referral hospitals from four West African countries.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, Antoine; Odutola, Michael; Ekouevi, Didier K; Tanon, Aristophane; Oga, Emmanuel; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Charurat, Manhattan; Zannou, Marcel D; Eholie, Serge P; Sasco, Annie J; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Adebamowo, Clement; Dabis, Francois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of the HIV epidemic on cancer epidemiology are sparsely documented in Africa. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for cancer in four West African countries. A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals of Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Togo. Each participating clinical ward included all adult patients seeking care with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer. All patients were systematically screened for HIV infection. HIV prevalence of AIDS-defining and some non-AIDS defining cancers (Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, liver, lung, skin, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity and anogenital cancers) were compared to a referent group of cancers reported in the literature as not associated with HIV. Odds ratios adjusted on age, gender and lifetime number of sexual partners (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Among the 1644 cancer patients enrolled, 184 (11.2%) were identified as HIV-infected. The HIV prevalence in the referent group (n=792) was 4.4% [CI 3.0-5.8]. HIV infection was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (aOR 34.6 [CI: 17.3-69.0]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aOR 3.6 [CI 1.9-6.8]), cervical cancer (aOR 4.3 [CI 2.2-8.3]), anogenital cancer (aOR 17.7 [CI 6.9-45.2]) and squamous cell skin carcinoma (aOR 5.2 [CI 2.0-14.4]). A strong association is now reported between HIV infection and Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers including cervical cancer and anogenital cancer. As these cancers are amenable to prevention strategies, screening of HPV-related cancers among HIV-infected persons is of paramount importance in this African context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Change in brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy after treatment during acute HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Ross, William; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chalermchai, Thep; DeGruttola, Victor; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Pothisri, Mantana; Busovaca, Edgar; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Jagodzinski, Linda; Spudich, Serena; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome H; Valcour, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (tCHO), creatine (CR), myoinositol (MI), and glutamate and glutamine (GLX) were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31) and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26) and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10) from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital gray matter (OGM), and basal ganglia (BG). Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART. After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection) compared to control (p = 0.0014), as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023). A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022) with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months. We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury.

  7. Heroin dependence and HIV infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chawarski, Marek C; Mazlan, Mahmud; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2006-04-01

    Malaysia is experiencing severe problems with heroin dependence and HIV infection. This, study evaluated drug use and other HIV risk behaviors and their association with HIV and other infectious diseases in heroin-dependent subjects enrolled in a clinical trial of drug abuse treatment in Muar, Malaysia. Baseline assessment of treatment-seeking subjects (n=177) included the Addiction Severity Index; AIDS Risk Inventory; serological tests for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C; and chest X-ray. All of the subjects were male; 67.8% were Malays, 28.8% Chinese, and 2.3%. Indian. Subjects had a mean (SD) age of 37.2 (9.1) years and 14.4 (8.5) years of using heroin; 76.3% reported lifetime injection drug use (IDU), and 41.5% reported current IDU; 30 of 156 (19.2%) tested HIV positive, 143 of 159 (89.9%) tested hepatitis C positive, and 25 of 159 (15.7%) had radiological evidence of pulmonary tuberbulosis. Malay subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of current IDU, needle sharing (p<0.01), and HIV infection (p<0.05) compared with Chinese subjects. Lifetime IDU, needle sharing, lack of consistent condom use, and Malay ethnicity were significantly associated with HIV infection. The high prevalence of HIV infection among heroin-dependent individuals, in Malaysia supports the important of interventions to reduce the major risk factors for HIV, including IDU, needle sharing, and unprotected sex.

  8. Safety of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV), RotaTeq(®), in Kenya, including among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed infants.

    PubMed

    Laserson, Kayla F; Nyakundi, Daveline; Feikin, Daniel R; Nyambane, Geoffrey; Cook, Earnest; Oyieko, Janet; Ojwando, Joel; Rivers, Stephen B; Ciarlet, Max; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Breiman, Robert F

    2012-04-27

    = 0.67). In total, 12 deaths occurred among identified HIV-infected infants: 8 (38%) receiving vaccine vs. 4 (23.5%) receiving placebo (RR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.59-4.5). Among the 21 HIV-infected infants in the vaccine group, 2 of 8 deaths were gastroenteritis-related; among the 17 HIV-infected infants in the placebo group, 3 of 4 deaths were gastroenteritis-related. There were no significant differences in serious or non-serious AEs, including vaccine-related SAEs, between the 88 HIV-exposed vaccine recipients vs. the 89 HIV-exposed placebo recipients. PRV appears to be a safe intervention against rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants in Kenya. AEs, including serious AEs, were not associated with receipt of vaccine. Further, SAEs were not significantly more common among HIV-infected or HIV-exposed participants; however, the low number of HIV-infected infants did not provide sufficient power to fully assess safety in HIV-infected vaccine recipients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Longitudinal Changes over 10 years in Free Testosterone among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Men

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Laurence; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Palella, Frank J.; Margolick, Joseph B; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Pialoux, Gilles; Dobs, Adrian S.; Brown, Todd T

    2015-01-01

    Background Aging in males is associated with lower testosterone levels and a decrease in diurnal variation of testosterone secretion. Cross-sectional studies have shown lower than expected testosterone levels among HIV-infected men, but whether age-related changes in serum testosterone differ by HIV serostatus is not known. Methods HIV-infected men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), age ≥ 45 years at highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation, who had ≥ 2 samples from the subsequent 10 years, were matched to HIV-uninfected men by age, race, MACS site, and calendar time of samples. Linear mixed effects regression models were used to determine whether free testosterone (FT) and its rate of change differed by HIV serostatus. Results 182 HIV-infected and 267 HIV-uninfected men were included: median age 48.8 years (Interquartile range (IQR); 45.8, 53.4), median numbers of FT measurements per participant 4 (IQR; 3, 5), 65% were drawn in the AM. Mean adjusted FT levels were lower among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected men in AM samples (−6.1 ng/dL (95% CI: −9.8, −2.4), p=0.001), but not in PM samples (−1.7 ng/dL (−6.0, 2.6), p=0.441). The rate of FT decline with age did not differ by HIV serostatus: 9.2 ng/dL (95% CI: −13.4, −5.0) per 10 years for HIV- infected vs. 7.9 ng/dL (95% CI: −10.2, −5.5) for HIV-uninfected men, p = 0.578. Conclusion FT decreased similarly with increasing age regardless of HIV serostatus. The lower AM, but not PM, FT levels among HIV-infected men compared to HIV-uninfected men suggests a loss of diurnal variation in FT among HIV-infected men. PMID:26761271

  10. Lights and Shadows about the Effectiveness of IVF in HIV Infected Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Catarina; Guerreiro, Cristina; Soares, Sérgio Reis

    2015-01-01

    Background. HIV infected women have higher rates of infertility. Objective. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the effectiveness of fresh IVF/ICSI cycles in HIV infected women. Materials and Methods. A search of the PubMed database was performed to identify studies assessing fresh nondonor oocyte IVF/ICSI cycle outcomes of serodiscordant couples with an HIV infected female partner. Results and Discussion. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Whenever a comparison with a control group was available, with the exception of one case, ovarian stimulation cancelation rate was higher and pregnancy rate (PR) was lower in HIV infected women. However, statistically significant differences in both rates were only seen in one and two studies, respectively. A number of noncontrolled sources of bias for IVF outcome were identified. This fact, added to the small size of samples studied and heterogeneity in study design and methodology, still hampers the performance of a meta-analysis on the issue. Conclusion. Prospective matched case-control studies are necessary for the understanding of the specific effects of HIV infection on ovarian response and ART outcome. PMID:26778910

  11. Live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine for HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Shafran, S D

    2016-04-01

    Multiple guidelines exist for the use of live viral vaccines for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella and yellow fever in people with HIV infections, but these guidelines do not make recommendations regarding live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine (LAHZV), which is approved for people over 50 years in the general population. LAHZV is made with the same virus used in varicella vaccine. The incidence of herpes zoster remains increased in people with HIV infection, even when on suppressive antiretroviral therapy, and a growing proportion of HIV-infected patients are over 50 years of age. The purpose of this article is to review the use of varicella vaccine and LAHZV in people with HIV infection and to make recommendations about the use of LAHZV in adults with HIV infection. A PubMed search was undertaken using the terms 'herpes zoster AND HIV' and 'varicella AND HIV'. Reference lists were also reviewed for pertinent citations. Varicella vaccine is recommended in varicella-susceptible adults, as long as they have a CD4 count > 200 cells/μL, the same CD4 threshold used for MMR and yellow fever vaccines. No transmission of vaccine strain Varicella zoster virus has been documented in people with HIV infections with a CD4 count above this threshold. LAHZV was administered to 295 HIV-infected adults with a CD4 count > 200 cells/μL, and was safe and immunogenic with no cases of vaccine strain infection. It is recommended that LAHZV be administered to HIV-infected adults with a CD4 count above 200 cells/μL, the same CD4 threshold used for other live attenuated viral vaccines. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  12. Drug-resistant herpes simplex virus in HIV infected patients.

    PubMed

    Lolis, Margarita S; González, Lenis; Cohen, Philip J; Schwartz, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) infection is a major source of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, since reactivations - whether symptomatic or asymptomatic - are associated with increased HIV viral load and viral shedding. Acyclovir, valacyclovir and famcyclovir are indicated for the treatment of HSV2 in HIV patients. This class of drugs has been shown to enhance survival in HIV-infected individuals. However, with the emergence of drug-resistant strains of HSV2, the rates of resistance among HIV patients are almost ten-fold those in immunocompetent individuals, comparing 0.6% to 6%. These HSV2 infections tend to be more severe and to recur. More ominously, disease progression of HIV is promoted by concurrent infection with HSV2. Intravenous foscarnet and cidofovir may be used for acyclovir-resistant HSV; however, resistance to these drugs has been documented. Newer therapies such as the toll-like receptor agonist imiquimod and immunomodulating dipeptides offer promise for the treatment of HSV2 in HIV-infected individuals.

  13. Transcriptomic meta-analysis identifies gene expression characteristics in various samples of HIV-infected patients with nonprogressive disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le-Le; Zhang, Zi-Ning; Wu, Xian; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Fu, Ya-Jing; Shang, Hong

    2017-09-12

    A small proportion of HIV-infected patients remain clinically and/or immunologically stable for years, including elite controllers (ECs) who have undetectable viremia (<50 copies/ml) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) who maintain normal CD4 + T cell counts for prolonged periods (>10 years). However, the mechanism of nonprogression needs to be further resolved. In this study, a transcriptome meta-analysis was performed on nonprogressor and progressor microarray data to identify differential transcriptome pathways and potential biomarkers. Using the INMEX (integrative meta-analysis of expression data) program, we performed the meta-analysis to identify consistently differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in nonprogressors and further performed functional interpretation (gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis) of the DEGs identified in the meta-analysis. Five microarray datasets (81 cases and 98 controls in total), including whole blood, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, were collected for meta-analysis. We determined that nonprogressors have reduced expression of important interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), CD38, lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in whole blood, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed a significant enrichment in DEGs that function in the type I interferon signaling pathway. Upregulated pathways, including the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in whole blood, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction in CD4 + T cells and the MAPK signaling pathway in CD8 + T cells, were identified in nonprogressors compared with progressors. In each metabolic functional category, the number of downregulated DEGs was more than the upregulated DEGs, and almost all genes were downregulated DEGs in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the three types of samples. Our transcriptomic meta-analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the gene expression profiles in major blood types of nonprogressors, providing new

  14. Frequency of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Brazilian HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Salmazo, Péricles Sidnei; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Shiraishi, Flávio Gobbis; Bazan, Rodrigo; Okoshi, Katashi; Hueb, João Carlos

    2018-04-09

    AIDS as well as atherosclerosis are important public health problems. The longer survival among HIV-infected is associated with increased number of cardiovascular events in this population, and this association is not fully understood. To identify the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients compared to control subjects; to analyze associations between atherosclerosis and clinical and laboratory variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score (FCRS). Prospective cross-sectional case-control study assessing the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in 264 HIV-infected patients and 279 controls. Clinical evaluation included ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), laboratory analysis of peripheral blood, and cardiovascular risk according to FCRS criteria. The significance level adopted in the statistical analysis was p < 0.05. Plaques were found in 37% of the HIV group and 4% of controls (p < 0.001). Furthermore, carotid intima-media thickness was higher in the HIV group than in controls (p < 0.001). Patients with carotid plaque had higher fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides than those without plaques. The presence of HIV, adjusted for age, overweight/obesity, and smoking increased by almost fivefold the risk of atherosclerotic carotid plaque (OR: 4.9; 95%CI: 2.5-9.9; p < 0.001). Exposure to protease inhibitors did not influence carotid intima-media thickness, was not associated with carotid plaque frequency, and did not alter the mechanical characteristics of the arterial system (PWV and AIx). HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of atherosclerosis in association with classical cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment with protease inhibitors does not promote functional changes in the arteries, and shows no association with increased frequency of

  15. HIV Infection Affects Streptococcus mutans Levels, but Not Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Saxena, D.; Chen, Z.; Norman, R.G.; Phelan, J.A.; Laverty, M.; Fisch, G.S.; Corby, P.M.; Abrams, W.; Malamud, D.; Li, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes. PMID:22821240

  16. Glutamate metabolism in HIV-1 infected macrophages: Role of HIV-1 Vpr.

    PubMed

    Datta, Prasun K; Deshmane, Satish; Khalili, Kamel; Merali, Salim; Gordon, John C; Fecchio, Chiara; Barrero, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    HIV-1 infected macrophages play a significant role in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) not only facilitates HIV-1 infection but also contribute to long-lived persistence in macrophages. Our previous studies using SILAC-based proteomic analysis showed that the expression of critical metabolic enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were altered in response to Vpr expression in macrophages. We hypothesized that Vpr-induced modulation of glycolysis and TCA cycle regulates glutamate metabolism and release in HIV-1 infected macrophages. We assessed the amount of specific metabolites induced by Vpr and HIV-1 in macrophages at the intracellular and extracellular level in a time-dependent manner utilizing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) targeted metabolomics. In addition, stable isotope-labeled glucose and an MRM targeted metabolomics assay were used to evaluate the de novo synthesis and release of glutamate in Vpr overexpressing macrophages and HIV-1 infected macrophages, throughout the metabolic flux of glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle activation. The metabolic flux studies demonstrated an increase in glucose uptake, glutamate release and accumulation of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and glutamine in the extracellular milieu in Vpr expressing and HIV-1 infected macrophages. Interestingly, glutamate pools and other intracellular intermediates (glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), citrate, malate, α-KG, and glutamine) showed a decreased trend except for fumarate, in contrast to the glutamine accumulation observed in the extracellular space in Vpr overexpressing macrophages. Our studies demonstrate that dysregulation of mitochondrial glutamate metabolism induced by Vpr in HIV-1 infected macrophages commonly seen, may contribute to neurodegeneration via excitotoxic mechanisms in the context of NeuroAIDS.

  17. Barriers, Motivators, and Facilitators to Engagement in HIV Care Among HIV-Infected Ghanaian Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Kershaw, Trace; Kushwaha, Sameer; Boakye, Francis; Wallace-Atiapah, Nii-Dromo; Nelson, LaRon E

    2018-03-01

    In Ghana, men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a high burden of HIV. Identifying factors that influence engagement in HIV care among HIV-infected Ghanaian MSM is critical to devising novel interventions and strengthening existing programs aimed at improving outcomes across the HIV care continuum. Consequently, we conducted an exploratory qualitative research study with 30 HIV-infected Ghanaian MSM between May 2015 and July 2015. Common barriers were fear of being seen in HIV-related health facility, financial difficulties, and health system challenges. Major motivators for engagement in care included social support, fear of mortality from HIV, and knowledge of effectiveness of HIV treatment. Key facilitators were enrollment in health insurance, prior relationship and familiarity with hospital personnel, and positive experience in healthcare setting. Our findings highlight the need for new and innovative care delivery mediums, affirming and competent healthcare providers, and increased access to health insurance.

  18. Stem cell transplantation in the context of HIV--how can we cure HIV infection?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Gerhard; Anderson, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    All HIV target cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. More than two decades ago, a hypothesis was postulated that a cure for HIV may be possible by performing a transplant with HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem cells that would allow for an HIV-resistant immune system to arise. HIV-resistant stem cells could be generated by genetically modifying them with gene therapy vectors transferring anti-HIV genes. First attempts of stem cell gene therapy for HIV were carried out in the USA in the 1990s demonstrating safety, but also little efficacy at that time. The first demonstration that the postulated hypothesis was correct was the cure of an HIV-infected individual in Berlin in 2009 who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant from a donor who lacked the CCR5 chemokine receptor, a naturally arising mutation rendering HIV target cells resistant to infection with macrophage tropic strains of HIV. In 2013, reports were published about a possible cure of HIV-infected individuals who received allogeneic bone marrow transplants with cells not resistant to HIV. We will review these stem cell transplant procedures and discuss their utility to provide a cure for HIV infection, including efficacious future stem cell gene therapy applications.

  19. Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K; Greenman, Michelle P; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J

    2017-03-01

    Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity after vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. This cross-sectional study was nested within 2 ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia. Dried blood spot cards from youth (5-15 years) in these studies from 2009 to 2013 were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses. HIV-uninfected youth, HIV-infected treatment-naive youth and HIV-infected youth receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared. A total of 617 HIV-uninfected, 144 HIV-infected treatment-naive and 128 HIV-infected youth receiving ART were included in this study. The proportion seropositive for measles virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (92.5%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (74.1%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (71.9%). No differences by age were observed. The proportion seropositive for rubella virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (54.7%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (41.7%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (49.6%), with increases observed by age for all groups. Measles seroprevalence was lower among HIV-infected than uninfected youth, consistent with waning immunity after measles vaccination. HIV-infected youth would benefit from revaccination. Half of all youth in rural Zambia were susceptible to rubella and may need targeting for catch-up rubella campaigns when measles-rubella vaccine is introduced.

  20. Country of infection among HIV-infected patients born abroad living in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adriouch, Leila; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Adenis, Antoine; Couppié, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Over 75% of patients in the HIV cohort in French Guiana are of foreign origin. Our objective was to estimate what proportion of the migrant population of HIV-infected patients in Cayenne had been infected in French Guiana. We included patients of known foreign origin who were followed in Cayenne, for whom the year of arrival in French Guiana was known and the initial CD4 count at the time of diagnosis was available. The time between seroconversion and time at diagnosis was estimated using the formula [square root (CD4 at seroconversion)-square root(CD4 at HIV diagnosis)] / slope of CD4 decline.CD4 counts at the time of infection and the slope were computed in an age and ethnicity-dependent variable. The median estimated time between infection and diagnosis was 4.5 years (IQR = 0.2-9.2). Overall, using a median estimate of CD4 count at the time of infection, it was estimated that 53.2% (95% CI = 48.3-58%) of HIV infected foreign patients had acquired HIV after having arrived in French Guiana. Patients having arrived in French Guiana before and during the 1990s and those receiving their HIV diagnosis before 2010 were more likely to have been infected in French Guiana. Contrary to widespread belief suggesting that most migrants are already HIV-infected when they arrive in French Guiana, a large proportion of foreign HIV patients seem acquire the virus in French Guiana.There is still much to do in terms of primary prevention and testing among migrants.

  1. Correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Armenta, Richard F; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Garfein, Richard S; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2017-01-01

    Objective We identified correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. Materials and methods PWID ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past month were recruited between 2006–2007 and completed risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with high-perceived risk of HIV infection. Results Among 974 PWID, HIV prevalence was 4.4%; 45.0% of participants perceived themselves to be more likely to become HIV infected relative to other PWID in Tijuana. Participants who reported high-perceived risk of HIV infection participated in high-risk behaviors such as injecting with used syringes, transactional sex, and were less likely to have had an HIV test. Conclusions Recognition of HIV infection risk was associated with high risk behaviors and markers of vulnerability. Findings support efforts to encourage HIV testing and access to health care for this vulnerable population. PMID:26545125

  2. Correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Richard F; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Garfein, Richard S; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    We identified correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. PWID ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past month were recruited between 2006-2007 and completed risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with high-perceived risk of HIV infection. Among 974 PWID, HIV prevalence was 4.4%; 45.0% of participants perceived themselves to be more likely to become HIV infected relative to other PWID in Tijuana. Participants who reported high-perceived risk of HIV infection participated in high-risk behaviors such as injecting with used syringes, transactional sex, and were less likely to have had an HIV test. Recognition of HIV infection risk was associated with high risk behaviors and markers of vulnerability. Findings support efforts to encourage HIV testing and access to health care for this vulnerable population.

  3. Cancer clinical trials in persons with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Little, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    The era of modern HIV therapeutics is well underway. The cancer and infectious disease epidemiology of HIV disease has markedly altered as populations are availed to the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). The types of cancers occurring among those with HIV infection has broadened but the case burden in absolute numbers is very low relative to the background population. There are fewer incident cases of the AIDS-defining cancers (aggressive B-cell lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cervical cancer). There is an increased risk for certain non-AIDS-defining cancers, but these occur somewhat sporadically relative to clinical trial enrollment. The changing epidemiology of cancer in HIV poses challenges as well as opportunities for participation of persons with HIV in cancer therapy clinical trials. There are excellent examples of cancer trials that inform cancer therapy for patients with HIV infection. Examples include those from HIV-specific trials and from trials mainly focused on the background population that included patients with HIV infection. Interpretation of clinical trials to guide therapy for those with HIV infection and cancer largely depends on data that does not include HIV-infected patients. The ability to extend clinical trial findings to populations not included in clinical trials remains problematic for a variety of populations, including those with HIV or AIDS. Careful prioritization of studies designed to bridge this gap is needed. However, there are published studies that serve as excellent examples bridging these gaps and the portfolio of cancer therapy trials underway will inform HIV and cancer better than at any time in the past.

  4. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…

  5. Identification of HIV infection-related DNA methylation sites and advanced epigenetic aging in HIV-positive, treatment-naive U.S. veterans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristin N; Hui, Qin; Rimland, David; Xu, Ke; Freiberg, Matthew S; Justice, Amy C; Marconi, Vincent C; Sun, Yan V

    2017-02-20

    HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk than healthy persons for aging-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and non-AIDS defining cancers. Recent evidence suggests that HIV infection may modulate changes in the host cell epigenome, and these changes represent a potential mechanism through which HIV infection accelerates aging. We assessed the difference in DNA methylation (DNAm) age, an aging marker involving multiple age-related cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites, among antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in a cohort of veterans from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 19 ART-naive, HIV-positive, and 19 HIV-negative male participants, matched by age and race. Blood samples were collected from HIV-positive participants 7-11 years after ART initiation. We compared DNAm age between HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups at baseline and between HIV-positive patients at baseline and follow-up. We also performed an epigenome-wide analysis to identify CpG methylation sites associated with HIV infection. DNAm age in HIV-positive individuals is, on average, 11.2 years higher than HIV study participants at baseline, and two of 10 HIV-positive individuals showed an increase in DNAm age after ART initiation. Epigenome-wide association studies showed an association of HIV infection with one site, in gene VPS37B, which approached statistical significance in our cohort (P = 3.30 × 10, Bonferroni-corrected threshold = 1.22 × 10) and was replicated in a second, larger cohort. ART treatment-naive HIV-positive individuals have significantly older DNAm age compared to HIV-negative individuals in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study cohort. Longitudinal changes in DNAm age are highly variable across individuals after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

  6. The molecular mechanism of human resistance to HIV-1 infection in persistently infected individuals--a review, hypothesis and implications.

    PubMed

    Becker, Yechiel

    2005-08-01

    Resistance to HIV-1 infection in Europeans is associated with a mutation in the gene that codes for the CCR5 protein that is present in Th2 cells and serves as a coreceptor for HIV-1 R5 strain. A deletion of 32 amino acids from the cytokine receptor prevents infection. This mutation prevails in Europeans and is absent in Africans. However, duplication of a gene that codes for a chemokine that binds to the CCR5 was discovered in Africans (mean gene copy 6 while in non-Africans the mean gene copy is 3). Higher expression of these genes protects T cells against HIV-1 infection in vitro. It should be noted that resistance to HIV-1 R5 variant does not protect against HIV-1 R4 variant. It was reported that a minority of highly HIV-1 exposed African professional sex workers (APSW) were resistant to the virus infection during a 10 years period. Recently, the analysis of the cytokines in the serum of the persistently infected seronegative women revealed that the latter hypo-expresses the cytokine IL-4. Since the molecular events during HIV-1 infection are associated with a marked increase in the levels of IL-4 and IgE in the sera of the infected individuals, it suggests that AIDS is an allergy. Thus, a very low level of IL-4 production may abrogate the virus infection. Studies on the human IL-4 gene revealed that together with the IL-4 mRNA a spliced variant with a deletion of exon 2 is synthesized. The latter is a natural antagonist of IL-4 and when expressed in an individual at a level higher than IL-4, the person will resist a microbial infection (e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or asthma. The present hypothesis suggests that the HIV-1 resistant APSWs produce more IL-4 delta 2 molecules than IL-4 molecules. The binding of IL-4 delta 2 to IL-4 receptors on T and B cells prevents their functions and the infection by HIV-1. The implications of these studies are that treatment of HIV-1 infected people with drugs that will block the IL-4 receptors will stop HIV-1 infections

  7. A high throughput Cre–lox activated viral membrane fusion assay identifies pharmacological inhibitors of HIV entry

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, Anthony M.; Cheung, Pamela; Swartz, Talia H.

    Enveloped virus entry occurs when viral and cellular membranes fuse releasing particle contents into the target cell. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry occurs by cell-free virus or virus transferred between infected and uninfected cells through structures called virological synapses. We developed a high-throughput cell-based assay to identify small molecule inhibitors of cell-free or virological synapse-mediated entry. An HIV clone carrying Cre recombinase as a Gag-internal gene fusion releases active Cre into cells upon viral entry activating a recombinatorial gene switch changing dsRed to GFP-expression. A screen of a 1998 known-biological profile small molecule library identified pharmacological HIV entry inhibitors thatmore » block both cell-free and cell-to-cell infection. Many top hits were noted as HIV inhibitors in prior studies, but not previously recognized as entry antagonists. Modest therapeutic indices for simvastatin and nigericin were observed in confirmatory HIV infection assays. This robust assay is adaptable to study HIV and heterologous viral pseudotypes. - Highlights: • Cre recombinase viral fusion assay screens cell-free or cell–cell entry inhibitors. • This Gag-iCre based assay is specific for the entry step of HIV replication. • Screened a library of known pharmacologic compounds for HIV fusion antagonists. • Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but here are classified as entry antagonists. Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but not as entry antagonists. • The assay is compatible with pseudotyping with HIV and heterologous viruses.« less

  8. Exploring Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High Risk for HIV Infection Recruited with Venue-based Sampling.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M; Jenness, Samuel M; Silverman, Elizabeth; Hagan, Holly; Ritchie, Amanda S; Leonard, Noelle R; McCright-Gill, Talaya; Martinez, Belkis; Swain, Quentin; Kutnick, Alexandra; Sherpa, Dawa

    2016-02-01

    Annual HIV testing is recommended for high-risk populations in the United States, to identify HIV infections early and provide timely linkage to treatment. However, heterosexuals at high risk for HIV, due to their residence in urban areas of high poverty and elevated HIV prevalence, test for HIV less frequently than other risk groups, and late diagnosis of HIV is common. Yet the factors impeding HIV testing in this group, which is predominantly African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic, are poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Using a systematic community-based sampling method, venue-based sampling (VBS), we estimate rates of lifetime and recent (past year) HIV testing among high-risk heterosexuals (HRH), and explore a set of putative multi-level barriers to and facilitators of recent testing, by gender. Participants were 338 HRH African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic adults recruited using VBS, who completed a computerized structured assessment battery guided by the Theory of Triadic Influence, comprised of reliable/valid measures on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and multi-level barriers to HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV testing within the past year. Most HRH had tested at least once (94%), and more than half had tested within the past year (58%), but only 37% tested annually. In both men and women, the odds of recent testing were similar and associated with structural factors (better access to testing) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and diagnosis. Thus VBS identified serious gaps in rates of annual HIV testing among HRH. Improvements in access to high-quality HIV testing and leveraging of STI testing are needed to increase the proportion of HRH testing annually for HIV. Such improvements could increase early detection of HIV, improve the long-term health of individuals, and reduce HIV transmission by increasing rates of viral

  9. Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Tanaka, Atsushi; Islam, Salequl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1–resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1–resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1–resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4+ T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5–4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8–18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo. PMID:26650729

  10. Peripheral neuropathy in patients with HIV infection: consider dual pathology.

    PubMed

    Miller, R F; Bunting, S; Sadiq, S T; Manji, H

    2002-12-01

    Two HIV infected patients presented with peripheral neuropathy, in one patient this was originally ascribed to HIV associated mononeuritis multiplex and in the other to stavudine. Investigations confirmed these diagnoses and in both cases genetic analysis identified a second hereditary aetiology: in the first patient hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and in the second hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.

  11. Multi-Donor Longitudinal Antibody Repertoire Sequencing Reveals the Existence of Public Antibody Clonotypes in HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Setliff, Ian; McDonnell, Wyatt J; Raju, Nagarajan; Bombardi, Robin G; Murji, Amyn A; Scheepers, Cathrine; Ziki, Rutendo; Mynhardt, Charissa; Shepherd, Bryan E; Mamchak, Alusha A; Garrett, Nigel; Karim, Salim Abdool; Mallal, Simon A; Crowe, James E; Morris, Lynn; Georgiev, Ivelin S

    2018-06-13

    Characterization of single antibody lineages within infected individuals has provided insights into the development of Env-specific antibodies. However, a systems-level understanding of the humoral response against HIV-1 is limited. Here, we interrogated the antibody repertoires of multiple HIV-infected donors from an infection-naive state through acute and chronic infection using next-generation sequencing. This analysis revealed the existence of "public" antibody clonotypes that were shared among multiple HIV-infected individuals. The HIV-1 reactivity for representative antibodies from an identified public clonotype shared by three donors was confirmed. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of publicly available antibody repertoire sequencing datasets revealed antibodies with high sequence identity to known HIV-reactive antibodies, even in repertoires that were reported to be HIV naive. The discovery of public antibody clonotypes in HIV-infected individuals represents an avenue of significant potential for better understanding antibody responses to HIV-1 infection, as well as for clonotype-specific vaccine development. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Genital Herpes on Cervicovaginal HIV Shedding in Women Co-Infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A.; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Design Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Results Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41–0.60, p<0.001) and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16–0.32, p<0.001) but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = −0.10, 95%CI:−0.28–0.08, p = 0.27). Conclusions HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility. PMID:23516595

  13. Alternative Effector-Function Profiling Identifies Broad HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses in Highly HIV-Exposed Individuals Who Remain Uninfected

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A.; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T.; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine–like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:25249264

  14. Characteristics of HIV infected individuals traveling abroad. Results from the +REDIVI Collaborative Network.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Molina, Jose A; Martinez-Perez, Angela; Serre, Nuria; Treviño, Begoña; Ruiz-Giardín, José Manuel; Torrús, Diego; Goikoetxea, Josune; Echevarría, Esteban Martín; Malmierca, Eduardo; Rojo, Gerardo; Calabuig, Eva; Gutierrez, Belén; Norman, Francesca; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio

    2016-02-01

    The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV- (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV- travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P=.001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P<.001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P=.078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV- travelers the main diagnoses were "healthy" (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Occult HBV infection in HIV-infected adults and evaluation of pooled NAT for HBV.

    PubMed

    Dinesha, T R; Boobalan, J; Sivamalar, S; Subashini, D; Solomon, S S; Murugavel, K G; Balakrishnan, P; Smith, D M; Saravanan, S

    2018-06-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among HIV-infected persons and to evaluate the use of a pooling strategy to detect occult HBV infection in the setting of HIV infection. Five hundred and two HIV-positive individuals were tested for HBV, occult HBV and hepatitis C and D with serologic and nucleic acid testing (NAT). We also evaluated a pooled NAT strategy for screening occult HBV infection among the HIV-positive individuals. The prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive individuals was 32 (6.4%), and occult HBV prevalence was 10%. The pooling HBV NAT had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%, compared to HBV DNA NAT of individual samples. In conclusion, this study found a high prevalence of occult HBV infection among our HIV-infected population. We also demonstrated that pooled HBV NAT is highly specific, moderately sensitive and cost-effective. As conventional HBV viral load assays are expensive in resource-limited settings such as India, pooled HBV DNA NAT might be a good way for detecting occult HBV infection and will reduce HBV-associated complications. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immunization of HIV-infected adult patients — French recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Frésard, Anne; Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth; Launay, Odile

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remain at increased risk of infection including vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccines are therefore critical components in the protection of HIV-infected patients from an increasing number of preventable diseases. However, missed opportunities for vaccination among HIV-infected patients persist and vaccine coverage in this population could be improved. This article presents the French recommendations regarding immunization of HIV-infected adults in the light of the evidence-based literature on the benefits and the potential risks of vaccines among this vulnerable population. PMID:27409293

  17. Relationship between xerostomia and salivary flow rates in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Chanowanna, Nilnara; Pruphetkaew, Nannapat; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between self-reported xerostomia and salivary flow rates among HIV-infected individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed on 173 individuals (81 HIV-infected individuals, mean age: 32 years, and 92 non-HIV controls, mean age: 30 years). Subjective complaints of dry mouth, based on a self-report of xerostomia questions, and dry mouth, based on a visual analogue scale (VAS), were recorded along with measurements of salivary flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva. The relationship between subjective responses to the xerostomia questions, the VAS of dry mouth, and objective measurements of salivary flow rates were analyzed. Responses to the questions--Do you carry water or a saliva substitute? and Have you had taste disturbance?--were significantly different between HIV-infected and non-HIV individuals (P < 0.05). Individuals' responses to questions concerning dry mouth were significantly correlated with a low unstimulated salivary flow rate. A significant correlation between the VAS of dry mouth and salivary flow rates was observed (P = 0.023). Responses to self-reported xerostomia questions reflects low unstimulated salivary flow rates. Thus, questions concerning dry mouth might be useful tools to identify HIV-infected individuals with hyposalivation, especially at a resting stage. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Unusual primary HIV infection with colonic ulcer complicated by hemorrhagic shock: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Timely diagnosis of primary HIV infection is important to prevent further transmission of HIV. Primary HIV infection may take place without symptoms or may be associated with fever, pharyngitis or headache. Sometimes, the clinical presentation includes aseptic meningitis or cutaneous lesions. Intestinal ulceration due to opportunistic pathogens (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii) has been described in patients with AIDS. However, although invasion of intestinal lymphoid tissue is a prominent feature of human and simian lentivirus infections, colonic ulceration has not been reported in acute HIV infection. Case description A 42-year-old Caucasian man was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate for pharyngitis. He did not improve, and a rash developed. History taking revealed a negative HIV antibody test five months previously and unprotected sex with a male partner the month before admission. Repeated tests revealed primary HIV infection with an exceptionally high HIV-1 RNA plasma concentration (3.6 × 107 copies/mL) and a low CD4 count (101 cells/mm3, seven percent of total lymphocytes). While being investigated, the patient had a life-threatening hematochezia. After angiographic occlusion of a branch of the ileocaecal artery and initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the patient became rapidly asymptomatic and could be discharged. Colonoscopy revealed a bleeding colonic ulcer. We were unable to identify an etiology other than HIV for this ulcer. Conclusion This case adds to the known protean manifestation of primary HIV infection. The lack of an alternative etiology, despite extensive investigations, suggests that this ulcer was directly caused by primary HIV infection. This conclusion is supported by the well-described extensive loss of intestinal mucosal CD4+ T cells associated with primary HIV infection, the extremely high HIV viral load observed in our patient, and the rapid improvement of the ulcer after initiation of highly

  19. Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Donastorg, Yeycy; Metch, Barbara; Madenwald, Tamra; Joseph, Patrice; Severe, Karine; Garced, Sheyla; Perez, Marta; Escamilia, Gina; Swann, Edith; Pape, Jean William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009–2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man in the previous 6 months. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. Results HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.8–9.0)] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3–1.0)] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. Conclusions This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial. PMID:24096973

  20. Innate immunity against HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Altfeld, Marcus; Gale, Michael

    2015-06-01

    During acute HIV-1 infection, viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns are recognized by pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs) of infected cells, which triggers a signaling cascade that initiates innate intracellular antiviral defenses aimed at restricting the replication and spread of the virus. This cell-intrinsic response propagates outward via the action of secreted factors such as cytokines and chemokines that activate innate immune cells and attract them to the site of infection and to local lymphatic tissue. Antiviral innate effector cells can subsequently contribute to the control of viremia and modulate the quality of the adaptive immune response to HIV-1. The concerted actions of PRR signaling, specific viral-restriction factors, innate immune cells, innate-adaptive immune crosstalk and viral evasion strategies determine the outcome of HIV-1 infection and immune responses.

  1. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Flavonoid Myricetin on HIV-1 Infection in a Dual-Chamber In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Pasetto, Silvana; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01–100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic), H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic), and the dual tropic (X4R5) HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research. PMID:25546350

  2. Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV- Infected And Uninfected Zambian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K.; Greenman, Michelle; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Thuma, Philip E.; Moss, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity following vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. Methods This cross-sectional study was nested within two ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia. Dried blood spot cards from youth (5–15 years) in these studies from 2009–2013 were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses. HIV-uninfected youth, HIV-infected treatment-naïve youth, and HIV-infected youth receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared. Results 617 HIV-uninfected, 144 HIV-infected treatment-naïve, and 128 HIV-infected youth receiving ART were included in the study. The proportion seropositive for measles virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (92.5%) compared to HIV-infected treatment-naïve youth (74.1%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (71.9%). No differences by age were observed. The proportion seropositive for rubella virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (54.7%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naïve youth (41.7%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (49.6%), with increases observed by age for all groups. Conclusions Measles seroprevalence was lower among HIV-infected than uninfected youth, consistent with waning immunity following measles vaccination. HIV-infected youth would likely benefit from revaccination. Half of all youth in rural Zambia were susceptible to rubella and may need targeting for catch-up rubella campaigns when measles-rubella vaccine is introduced. PMID:27879554

  3. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  4. HIV and TB co-infection in Indian context.

    PubMed

    Mahyoub, E M; Garg, Suneela; Singh, M M; Agarwal, Paras; Gupta, V K; Gupta, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in a Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic and TB center of a tertiary level hospital to find out socio-demographic correlates of HIV/TB individuals and risk factors of HIV/TB co-infection in Indian context. It is a case-control study comprising 420 subjects, 3 groups of 140 each. For a case group of HIV-TB co-infected subjects, two control groups, one comprising HIV patients (not having TB), and the other TB patients (not having HIV). Majority 267 (63.6%) males, 100 (71.4%) in case group (HIV/ TB), 74 (52.9%) in control group 1 (TB) and 93 (66.4%) in control group 2 (HIV). Mean (+/-SD) age of case-group was 34.91 (+/- 8.57) years. New TB cases were 213 (76.1%), more among control-group 1, compared to case-group. Multivariate analysis showed that risk of co-infection was 1.94 times higher among individuals aged >35 years. Difference statistically significant amongst those who were not on ART than who were on ART (p < 0.001). Those with CD4 counts <200 had 1.85 times risk of TB. Smokers had 1.92 times risk of TB. Co-infection higher in males, in age group 35-44 years, urban area, lower educational status and lower socioeconomic class. Current history of smoking significantly associated with co-infection. HIV status during TB infection was detected in 1/4th of study subjects. History of TB symptoms in family significantly associated with co-infection.

  5. Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas A E; Giordano, Thomas P; Pasalar, Siavash; Jacobson, Kathleen R; Glick, Nancy R; Sha, Beverly E; Mammen, Priya E; Hunt, Bijou R; Todorovic, Tamara; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Adomolga, Vincent; Feaster, Daniel J; Branson, Bernard M

    2018-01-05

    Newer combination HIV antigen-antibody tests allow detection of HIV sooner after infection than previous antibody-only immunoassays because, in addition to HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, they detect the HIV-1 p24 antigen, which appears before antibodies develop. We determine the yield of screening with HIV antigen-antibody tests and clinical presentations for new diagnoses of acute and established HIV infection across US emergency departments (EDs). This was a retrospective study of 9 EDs in 6 cities with HIV screening programs that integrated laboratory-based antigen-antibody tests between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Unique patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were identified and classified as having either acute HIV infection or established HIV infection. Acute HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result, a negative HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay, or Western blot result, but detectable HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA); established HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result and a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay or Western blot result. The primary outcomes were the number of new HIV diagnoses and proportion of patients with laboratory-defined acute HIV infection. Secondary outcomes compared reason for visit and the clinical presentation of acute HIV infection. In total, 214,524 patients were screened for HIV and 839 (0.4%) received a new diagnosis, of which 122 (14.5%) were acute HIV infection and 717 (85.5%) were established HIV infection. Compared with patients with established HIV infection, those with acute HIV infection were younger, had higher RNA and CD4 counts, and were more likely to have viral syndrome (41.8% versus 6.5%) or fever (14.3% versus 3.4%) as their reason for visit. Most patients with acute HIV infection displayed symptoms attributable to acute infection (median symptom count 5 [interquartile range 3 to 6]), with fever often

  6. Toxoplasmosis in HIV infection: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraju, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas. The tissue cyst or oocyst is the infective form which enters by ingestion of contaminated meat and transform into tachyzoites and disseminate into blood stream. In immunocompetent persons due to cell-mediated immunity the parasite is transformed into tissue cyst resulting in life long chronic infection. In HIV-infected people opportunistic infection by T. gondii occurs due to depletion of CD4 cells, decreased production of cytokines and interferon gamma and impaired cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity resulting in reactivation of latent infection. The diagnosis can be done by clinical, serological, radiological, histological or molecular methods, or by the combination of these. There is various treatment regimen including acute treatment, maintenance therapy should be given as the current anti T. gondii therapy cannot eradicate tissue cysts. In HIV patients, CD4 counts <100; cotrimoxazole, alternately dapsone + pyrimethamine can be given for 6 months. Hence, early diagnosis of T. gondii antibodies is important in all HIV-positive individuals to prevent complications of cerebral toxoplasmosis. PMID:27722101

  7. Glutamate metabolism in HIV-1 infected macrophages: Role of HIV-1 Vpr

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Prasun K.; Deshmane, Satish; Khalili, Kamel; Merali, Salim; Gordon, John C.; Fecchio, Chiara; Barrero, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 infected macrophages play a significant role in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) not only facilitates HIV-1 infection but also contribute to long-lived persistence in macrophages. Our previous studies using SILAC-based proteomic analysis showed that the expression of critical metabolic enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were altered in response to Vpr expression in macrophages. We hypothesized that Vpr-induced modulation of glycolysis and TCA cycle regulates glutamate metabolism and release in HIV-1 infected macrophages. We assessed the amount of specific metabolites induced by Vpr and HIV-1 in macrophages at the intracellular and extracellular level in a time-dependent manner utilizing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) targeted metabolomics. In addition, stable isotope-labeled glucose and an MRM targeted metabolomics assay were used to evaluate the de novo synthesis and release of glutamate in Vpr overexpressing macrophages and HIV-1 infected macrophages, throughout the metabolic flux of glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle activation. The metabolic flux studies demonstrated an increase in glucose uptake, glutamate release and accumulation of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and glutamine in the extracellular milieu in Vpr expressing and HIV-1 infected macrophages. Interestingly, glutamate pools and other intracellular intermediates (glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), citrate, malate, α-KG, and glutamine) showed a decreased trend except for fumarate, in contrast to the glutamine accumulation observed in the extracellular space in Vpr overexpressing macrophages. Our studies demonstrate that dysregulation of mitochondrial glutamate metabolism induced by Vpr in HIV-1 infected macrophages commonly seen, may contribute to neurodegeneration via excitotoxic mechanisms in the context of NeuroAIDS. PMID:27245560

  8. Moyamoya Syndrome in a Child With HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Ankur Kumar; Bhattad, Sagar; Suri, Deepti; Singhal, Manphool; Gupta, Aman; Singh, Paramjeet

    2018-06-01

    Neurologic manifestations of HIV infection are not uncommon. However, stroke secondary to Moyamoya syndrome has rarely been described in children with HIV infection. We report a 10-year-old boy with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection, who presented with recurrent strokes while on antiretroviral therapy.

  9. Cancer Prevention in HIV-Infected Populations

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Priscila H.; Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M.; Yarchoan, Robert; Uldrick, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer since the advent of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While cART substantially decreases the risk of developing some cancers, HIV-infected individuals remain at high risk for Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma and several solid tumors. Currently HIV-infected patients represent an aging group, and malignancies have become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Tailored cancer-prevention strategies are needed for this population. In this review we describe the etiologic agents and pathogenesis of common malignancies in the setting of HIV, as well as current evidence for cancer prevention strategies and screening programs. PMID:26970136

  10. The network structure of sex partner meeting places reported by HIV-infected MSM: Opportunities for HIV targeted control.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Meredith; Schumacher, Christina; Fields, Errol L; Perin, Jamie; Safi, Amelia Greiner; Ellen, Jonathan M; Muvva, Ravikiran; Chaulk, Patrick; Jennings, Jacky M

    2017-06-01

    Baltimore, Maryland ranks among U.S. cities with the highest incidence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV screening at sex partner meeting places or venues frequented by MSM with new diagnoses and/or high HIV viral load may reduce transmission by identifying and linking infected individuals to care. We investigated venue-based clustering of newly diagnosed MSM to identify high HIV transmission venues. HIV surveillance data from MSM diagnosed between October 2012-June 2014 and reporting ≥1 sex partner meeting place were examined. Venue viral load was defined according to the geometric mean viral load of the cluster of cases that reported the venue and classified as high (>50,000 copies/mL), moderate (1500-50,000 copies/mL), and low (<1500 copies/mL). 143 MSM provided information on ≥1 sex partner meeting place, accounting for 132 unique venues. Twenty-six venues were reported by > 1 MSM; of these, a tightly connected cluster of six moderate viral load sex partner meeting places emerged, representing 66% of reports. Small, dense networks of moderate to high viral load venues may be important for targeted HIV control among MSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescents, sex and injecting drug use: risks for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present data on the HIV-related risks for adolescents growing up in an area where injecting drug use is prevalent and HIV infection has been identified among local injecting drug users. We report on young peoples' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of drug use and injectors; HIV and AIDS; sex, safer sex and condom use. These adolescents had an extensive and practically oriented knowledge of illicit drugs and drug injectors. The majority of adolescents contacted had an unsophisticated but approximate understanding of HIV transmission dynamics and how to guard against infection. Our data suggest that many adolescents find issues relating to sex awkward, embarrassing and difficult subjects for discussion. In a final section we consider some of the policy implications of our work focussing in particular on the prevention of injecting, the promotion of condom use, and the necessity of avoiding a focus upon risk groups.

  12. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Severely-malnourished or HIV-infected Children with Pneumonia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A.C.; Faruque, Abu S.G.; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2013-01-01

    Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies

  13. Progesterone augments cell susceptibility to HIV-1 and HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infections.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Viswanath; Xue, Wang; Tan, Ji; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Gao, Yamei; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-10-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women, oral or injectable progesterone containing contraceptive pills may enhance HIV-1 acquisition in vivo, and the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. In developing countries, Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infection has been shown to be a risk for increase of HIV-1 acquisition and, if co-infected women use progesterone pills, infections may increase several fold. In this study, we used an in vitro cell culture system to study the effects of progesterone on HIV-1 replication and to explore the molecular mechanism of progesterone effects on infected cells. In our in vitro model, CEMss cells (lymphoblastoid cell line) were infected with either HIV-1 alone or co-infected with HSV-2. HIV-1 viral load was measured with and without sex hormone treatment. Progesterone-treated cells showed an increase in HIV-1 viral load (1411.2 pg/mL) compared with cells without progesterone treatment (993.1 pg/mL). Increased cell death was noted with HSV-2 co-infection and in progesterone-treated cells. Similar observations were noted in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cells derived from three female donors. Progesterone-treated cells also showed reduced antiviral efficacy. Inflammatory cytokines and associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. Progesterone upregulated inflammatory cytokines and chemokines conversely and downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression. Nuclear protein analysis by electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed the association of progesterone with progesterone response element (PRE), which may lead to downregulation of Bcl-2. These data indicate that progesterone treatment enhances HIV-1 replication in infected cells and co-infection with HSV-2 may further fuel this process. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Bacterial pneumonia, HIV therapy, and disease progression among HIV-infected women in the HIV epidemiologic research (HER) study.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Rakhi; Lo, Yungtai; Homel, Peter; Flanigan, Timothy P; Gardner, Lytt I; Howard, Andrea A; Rompalo, Anne M; Moskaleva, Galina; Schuman, Paula; Schoenbaum, Ellie E

    2006-07-01

    To determine the rate and predictors of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and its effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression in HIV-infected women, we performed a multiple-site, prospective study of HIV-infected women in 4 cities in the United States. During the period of 1993-2000, we observed 885 HIV-infected and 425 HIV-uninfected women with a history of injection drug use or high-risk sexual behavior. Participants underwent semiannual interviews, and CD4+ lymphocyte count and viral load were assessed in HIV-infected subjects. Data regarding episodes of bacterial pneumonia were ascertained from medical record reviews. The rate of bacterial pneumonia among 885 HIV-infected women was 8.5 cases per 100 person-years, compared with 0.7 cases per 100 person-years in 425 HIV-uninfected women (P < .001). In analyses limited to follow-up after 1 January 1996, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) use were associated with a decreased risk of bacterial pneumonia. Among women who had used TMP-SMX for 12 months, each month of HAART decreased bacterial pneumonia risk by 8% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR(adj)], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-0.95). Increments of 50 CD4+ cells/mm3 decreased the risk (HR(adj), 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93), and smoking doubled the risk (HR(adj), 2.12; 95% CI, 1.26-3.55). Bacterial pneumonia increased mortality risk (HR(adj), 5.02; 95% CI, 2.12-11.87), with adjustment for CD4+ lymphocyte count and duration of HAART and TMP-SMX use. High rates of bacterial pneumonia persist among HIV-infected women. Although HAART and TMP-SMX treatment decreased the risk, bacterial pneumonia was associated with an accelerated progression to death. Interventions that improve HAART utilization and promote smoking cessation among HIV-infected women are warranted.

  15. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected patients in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, S M; Cai, W P; Hu, F Y; Lan, Y; Liao, B L; Chen, Y P; Tang, X P

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HIV-infected adults at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2793 HIV-infected adults were enrolled between January 2004 and September 2011. Demographic data and laboratory parameters were collected, HBV-DNA levels were measured, and HBV genotypes were identified before ART initiation. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HIV-infected patients was 13.2%. A total of 266 HIV/HBV co-infected patients and 1469 HIV mono-infected patients were recruited. The median alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels of HIV/HBV co-infected patients were higher than HIV mono-infected patients (32 U/L vs. 22 U/L, p < 0.001 and 35 U/L vs. 24 U/L, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas the median CD4 cell count of HIV/HBV co-infected patients was lower than HIV mono-infected patients (59 cells/mm(3) vs. 141 cells/mm(3), p < 0.001). The level of CD4 cell count was lower in hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive co-infected patients than HBeAg-negative patients (36 cells/mm(3) vs. 69 cells/mm(3), p = 0.014). A similar result was found in high level of HBV-DNA and low level of HBV-DNA groups (33 cells/mm(3) vs. 89 cells/mm(3), p < 0.001). HBV genotypes were classified as genotypes B and C. Patients infected with genotypes B and C differed significantly in terms of proportion of those who were HBeAg-positive (40.5% vs. 62.2%, p = 0.014). This study indicates a high prevalence of HBsAg in HIV-infected adults in Guangdong. The level of CD4 cell count in HIV/HBV co-infected patients was much lower than HIV mono-infected patients, especially in patients who were HBeAg-positive and had a high level of HBV-DNA. The predominant HBV genotype in HIV/HBV co-infected patients is genotype B. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in primary care among adults living in developed countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rumbwere Dube, Benhildah N; Marshall, Tom P; Ryan, Ronan P; Omonijo, Modupe

    2018-06-02

    Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important because antiretroviral therapies are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early. Diagnosis of HIV relies on laboratory testing and determining the demographic and clinical characteristics of undiagnosed HIV-infected patients may be useful in identifying patients for testing. This systematic review aims to identify characteristics of HIV-infected adults prior to diagnosis that could be used in a prediction model for early detection of patients for HIV testing in UK primary care. The population of interest was adults aged ≥ 18 years in developed countries. The exposures were demographic, socio-economic or clinical characteristics associated with the outcome, laboratory confirmed HIV/AIDS infection. Observational studies with a comparator group were included in the systematic review. Electronic searches for articles from January 1995 to April 2016 were conducted on online databases of EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library and grey literature. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion. A checklist was developed for quality assessment, and a data extraction form was created to collate data from selected studies. Full-text screening of 429 articles identified 17 cohort and case-control studies, from 26,819 retrieved articles. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with HIV infection included age, gender and measures of deprivation. Lifestyle choices identified were drug use, binge-drinking, number of lifetime partners and having a partner with risky behaviour. Eighteen clinical features and comorbid conditions identified in this systematic review are included in the 51 conditions listed in the British HIV Association guidelines. Additional clinical features and comorbid conditions identified but not specified in the guidelines included hyperlipidemia, hypertension, minor trauma and diabetes. This systematic review consolidates existing scientific evidence on

  17. Review of cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa.

    PubMed

    Grønborg, Helene Ladefoged; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wejse, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations. Retinitis, pneumonia, and colitis were the most commonly reported CMV manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. Among patients with pulmonary symptoms, the prevalence of CMV pneumonitis varied from 20% to over 60%, whereas CMV was found in 0% to 14% of patients with gastrointestinal manifestations. Cytomegalovirus retinitis was found in 0% to 2.6% of examined HIV-infected individuals. The diagnostics of CMV end-organ diseases were found complex and difficult to interpret in African settings. Cytomegalovirus viremia was correlated with significantly lower CD4 cell count and increase in activated and apoptosis vulnerable T-lymphocytes. Also, CMV coinfection was found to be associated with increased transmission and progression of HIV infection. Moreover, detectable CMV DNA was an independent predictor of HIV transmission and mortality among HIV-infected individuals. Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent in Africa and a common cause of disease manifestations in HIV-infected individuals among all age groups. Cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa is associated with increased transmission and mortality of HIV, but it is a neglected area of research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Paracoccidioidomycosis due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis S1 plus HIV co-infection

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Priscila Marques; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Almeida, Marcos de Abreu; Coelho, Rowena Alves; Andrade, Hugo Boechat; Ferreira, Ana Beatriz Teixeira Brandão Camello; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi

    2018-01-01

    was the species identified in all cases. CONCLUSIONS HIV/PCM co-infection can change the natural history of this fungal disease. The authors reinforce the need to include HIV screening diagnostic tests routinely for patients with PCM. PMID:29412355

  19. Change in Brain Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy after Treatment during Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Ross, William; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chalermchai, Thep; DeGruttola, Victor; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Pothisri, Mantana; Busovaca, Edgar; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Jagodzinski, Linda; Spudich, Serena; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome H.; Valcour, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Objective Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (tCHO), creatine (CR), myoinositol (MI), and glutamate and glutamine (GLX) were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31) and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26) and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10) from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital gray matter (OGM), and basal ganglia (BG). Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART. Results After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection) compared to control (p = 0.0014), as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023). A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022) with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months. Interpretation We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury. PMID:23229129

  20. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor suppression of HIV infectivity and replication.

    PubMed

    Benton, Tami; Lynch, Kevin; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R; Tustin, Nancy B; Ping Lai, Jian; Metzger, David S; Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D; Evans, Dwight L

    2010-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would down-regulate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity and that the greatest effects would be seen in people with depression. Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathobiology of depression, and pharmacologic therapies for depression target this system. The 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous and immune systems. Depression has been associated with suppression of natural killer cells and CD8(+) lymphocytes, key regulators of HIV infection. Ex vivo models for acute and chronic HIV infection were used to study the effects of citalopram on HIV viral infection and replication in 48 depressed and nondepressed women. For both the acute and chronic infection models, HIV reverse transcriptase activity was measured in the citalopram treatment condition and the control condition. The SSRI significantly down-regulated the reverse transcriptase response in both the acute and chronic infection models. Specifically, citalopram significantly decreased the acute HIV infectivity of macrophages. Citalopram also significantly decreased HIV viral replication in the latently infected T-cell line and in the latently infected macrophage cell line. There was no difference in down-regulation by depression status. These studies suggest that an SSRI enhances natural killer/CD8 noncytolytic HIV suppression in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and decreases HIV viral infectivity of macrophages, ex vivo, suggesting the need for in vivo studies to determine a potential role for agents targeting serotonin in the host defense against HIV.

  1. HIV Infection and HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs - 20 Cities, United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Janet C; Broz, Dita; Spiller, Michael W; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2018-01-12

    In the United States, 9% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections diagnosed in 2015 were attributed to injection drug use (1). In 2015, 79% of diagnoses of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs occurred in urban areas (2). To monitor the prevalence of HIV infection and associated behaviors among persons who inject drugs, CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) conducts interviews and HIV testing in selected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) (3). The prevalence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in 20 MSAs in 2015 was 7%. In a behavioral analysis of HIV-negative persons who inject drugs, an estimated 27% receptively shared syringes and 67% had condomless vaginal sex in the previous 12 months. During the same period, 58% had tested for HIV infection and 52% received syringes from a syringe services program. Given the increased number of persons newly injecting drugs who are at risk for HIV infection because of the recent opioid epidemic (2,4), these findings underscore the importance of continuing and expanding health services, HIV prevention programs, and community-based strategies, such as those provided by syringe services programs, for this population.

  2. New Antiretroviral Therapies for Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jennifer L.; Kraus, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome affect millions of children worldwide. The development of antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the morbidity and mortality of pediatric patients infected with HIV. Currently, 4 classes of antiretroviral agents exist: nucleoside / nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and entry inhibitors. A total of 21 single-entity antiretroviral agents and 4 co-formulated antiretroviral products hold Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for treatment of HIV-1 infection. However, not all of these agents are indicated for use in patients less than 18 years of age. Since the year 2000, 7 new antiretroviral agents (atazanavir, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, fosamprenavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, tenofovir, and tipranavir) have been approved by the FDA for use in adult patients as part of combination therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Although only 3 of these newer agents (emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, and lopinavir/ritonavir) are currently FDA approved for use in pediatric patients, pediatric clinical studies of the other 4 new agents are currently underway. The purpose of this article is to review these 7 new antiretroviral agents and describe their roles in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection. For each drug, the following information will be addressed: FDA-approved indication and age groups, clinical efficacy, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug reactions, clinically relevant drug interactions, pediatric and adult dosing, dosage forms, administration, and place in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection. PMID:23118639

  3. High uptake of hepatitis C virus treatment in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients attending an integrated HIV/hepatitis C virus clinic.

    PubMed

    Kieran, J; Dillon, A; Farrell, G; Jackson, A; Norris, S; Mulcahy, F; Bergin, C

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease in HIV-infected patients. The HCV treatment outcomes and barriers to HCV referral were examined in a centre with a HIV/HCV co-infection clinic. Patients who were antibody positive for both HIV and HCV between 1987 and January 2009 were identified. A retrospective chart review was undertaken. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess predictors of HCV clinic referral. Data were collected on 386 HIV/HCV patients; 202/386 had been referred to the co-infection clinic and 107/202 had HCV treatment. In addition, 29/202 were undergoing pretreatment work-up. Overall sustained virologic response (SVR) was 44%; SVR was equivalent in those who acquired HIV/HCV infection from intravenous drug use (IDU) and others. On multivariate analysis, patients who missed appointments, were younger, with active IDU and advanced HIV and who were not offered HCV treatment were less likely to be referred to the clinic. Patients attending the clinic were more likely to have been screened for hepatocellular carcinoma than those attending the general HIV service. Two-thirds of patients referred to the clinic had engaged with the HCV treatment programme. Dedicated co-infection clinics lower the threshold for treatment and improve management of liver disease in co-infected patients.

  4. Predictors and consequences of anaemia among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bosch, Ronald J; Kupka, Roland; Hunter, David J; Msamanga, Gernard I; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2010-02-01

    Predictors and consequences of childhood anaemia in settings with high HIV prevalence are not well known. The aims of the present study were to identify maternal and child predictors of anaemia among children born to HIV-infected women and to study the association between childhood anaemia and mortality. Prospective cohort study. Maternal characteristics during pregnancy and Hb measurements at 3-month intervals from birth were available for children. Information was also collected on malaria and HIV infection in the children, who were followed up for survival status until 24 months after birth. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study sample consisted of 829 children born to HIV-positive women. Advanced maternal clinical HIV disease (relative risk (RR) for stage > or =2 v. stage 1: 1.31, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.51) and low CD4 cell counts during pregnancy (RR for <350 cells/mm3 v. > or =350 cells/mm3: 1.58, 95 % CI 1.05, 2.37) were associated with increased risk of anaemia among children. Birth weight <2500 g, preterm birth (<34 weeks), malaria parasitaemia and HIV infection in the children also increased the risk of anaemia. Fe-deficiency anaemia in children was an independent predictor of mortality in the first two years of life (hazard ratio 1.99, 95 % CI 1.06, 3.72). Comprehensive care including highly active antiretroviral therapy to eligible HIV-infected women during pregnancy could reduce the burden of anaemia in children. Programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and antimalarial treatment to children could improve child survival in settings with high HIV prevalence.

  5. ALS syndrome in patients with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashok; Berger, Joseph R

    2006-01-15

    A viral etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been proposed because of the selective vulnerability of motor neurons to certain viruses. During the last 20 years, at least 19 cases of ALS or ALS-like disease have been reported in HIV-1 (HIV) seropositive individuals. To describe two cases of clinically definite ALS in patients with HIV infection and to review the previously reported cases of HIV-associated ALS syndrome. A multidisciplinary ALS center and Neuro-AIDS clinic at a tertiary care university hospital. We investigated and prospectively monitored two patients who had developed clinically definite ALS by El Escorial criteria several years after acquiring the HIV infection. The previously reported cases of ALS or ALS-like disease in patients with HIV infection were reviewed for comparison and contrast with the characteristics of sporadic ALS. The clinical course of ALS in our two HIV seropositive individuals mirrored that of classical sporadic ALS. A review of previously described 19 patients with ALS syndrome revealed clinically definite ALS in 4 cases and clinically probable or possible ALS in 15. ALS commenced at different stages of the HIV disease; in 7 patients, HIV infection was discovered contemporaneously with diagnosis of ALS. CD4+ T cell count ranged from 2 to 560 cells/mm3. Three (1 definite ALS) of the fatal cases were studied at autopsy and all exhibited pathology outside the motor neuron pool. Unlike our patients, 7 of 8 patients with HIV-associated ALS syndrome receiving HAART demonstrated at least partial recovery of their motor deficit. ALS-like syndrome can occur in association with HIV infection; however, the causal relationship remains uncertain. Patients with ALS syndrome related to HIV infection are generally younger in age and often demonstrate pathology outside the motor neuron system. Patients with HIV-associated ALS syndrome may improve following antiretroviral therapy. An aggressive HAART regimen to reduce viral load

  6. Elevated Cancer-Specific Mortality Among HIV-Infected Patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Coghill, Anna E; Shiels, Meredith S; Suneja, Gita; Engels, Eric A

    2015-07-20

    Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, HIV-infected people remain at increased risk for many cancers, and the number of non-AIDS-defining cancers is increasing with the aging of the HIV-infected population. No prior study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of HIV on cancer-specific mortality. We identified cases of 14 common cancers occurring from 1996 to 2010 in six US states participating in a linkage of cancer and HIV/AIDS registries. We used Cox regression to examine the association between patient HIV status and death resulting from the presenting cancer (ascertained from death certificates), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of cancer diagnosis, and cancer stage. We included 1,816,461 patients with cancer, 6,459 (0.36%) of whom were HIV infected. Cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected patients for many cancers: colorectum (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.84), pancreas (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.18), larynx (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.47), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.39), melanoma (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.70), breast (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.31), and prostate (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.41). HIV was not associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After further adjustment for cancer treatment, HIV remained associated with elevated cancer-specific mortality for common non-AIDS-defining cancers: colorectum (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.80), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44), melanoma (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.27), and breast (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.73). HIV-infected patients with cancer experienced higher cancer-specific mortality than HIV-uninfected patients, independent of cancer stage or receipt of cancer treatment. The elevation in cancer-specific mortality among HIV-infected patients may be attributable to unmeasured stage or treatment differences as well

  7. Elevated Cancer-Specific Mortality Among HIV-Infected Patients in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Coghill, Anna E.; Shiels, Meredith S.; Suneja, Gita; Engels, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, HIV-infected people remain at increased risk for many cancers, and the number of non–AIDS-defining cancers is increasing with the aging of the HIV-infected population. No prior study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of HIV on cancer-specific mortality. Patients and Methods We identified cases of 14 common cancers occurring from 1996 to 2010 in six US states participating in a linkage of cancer and HIV/AIDS registries. We used Cox regression to examine the association between patient HIV status and death resulting from the presenting cancer (ascertained from death certificates), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of cancer diagnosis, and cancer stage. We included 1,816,461 patients with cancer, 6,459 (0.36%) of whom were HIV infected. Results Cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected patients for many cancers: colorectum (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.84), pancreas (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.18), larynx (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.47), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.39), melanoma (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.70), breast (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.31), and prostate (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.41). HIV was not associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After further adjustment for cancer treatment, HIV remained associated with elevated cancer-specific mortality for common non–AIDS-defining cancers: colorectum (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.80), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44), melanoma (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.27), and breast (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.73). Conclusion HIV-infected patients with cancer experienced higher cancer-specific mortality than HIV-uninfected patients, independent of cancer stage or receipt of cancer treatment. The elevation in cancer-specific mortality among HIV-infected patients may be attributable to

  8. Epidemiological profile and risk factors of HIV and HBV/HCV co-infection in Fujian Province, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shouli; Yan, Pingping; Yang, Tianfei; Wang, Zhenghua; Yan, Yansheng

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of HIV-infected subjects co-infected with HBV/HCV in Fujian Province, southeastern China, and identify the risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 2,028 HIV antibody-positive subjects in Fujian Province. Serum HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody were detected, and CD4 + T cell count was measured. Of the 2,028 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections was 16.22%, 3.7%, and 0.79%, respectively. Man (OR = 1.912, 95% CI: 1.371-2.667), key population (OR = 0.756, 95% CI: 0.57-0.976) and detainee (OR = 0.486, 95% CI: 0.259-0.909) were risk factors of HIV-HBV co-infection, and man (OR = 2.227, 95% CI: 1.096-4.525), minority (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.696-14.98), junior high school or lower education (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.071-5.025), intravenous drug use (OR = 38.46, 95% CI: 11.46-129.11) and detainee (OR = 5.687, 95% CI: 2.44-13.25) were risk factors of HIV-HCV co-infection. In addition, a lower mean CD4 + T cell count was measured in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects among the untreated individuals, while in the treated populations, a higher mean CD4 + T cell count was detected in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects. HIV co-infection with HBV or HCV, notably HIV-HBV co-infection, is widespread in southeastern China. Hepatitis virus screening should be included in monitoring of HIV infection, and HIV and hepatitis virus co-infection should be considered during the development of HIV antiretroviral therapy scheme. J. Med. Virol. 89:443-449, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Amyloid and tau cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Gisslén, Magnus; Krut, Jan; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Cinque, Paola; Brew, Bruce J; Spudich, Serena; Hagberg, Lars; Rosengren, Lars; Price, Richard W; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2009-12-22

    Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta), amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (Abeta1-42), and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau) in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC), 25 with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV-) subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease. CSF sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF Abeta1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections. Parallel reductions of CSF sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. HIV Infection and Compromised Mucosal Immunity: Oral Manifestations and Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Samantha E.; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers. This leads to microbial products translocation and subsequently hyper-immune activation. Although introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, viral replication persists. As a result, antigen presence and immune activation are linked to “inflammaging” that attributes to a pro-inflammatory environment and the accelerated aging process in HIV patients. HIV infection is also associated with the prevalence of oral mucosal infections and dysregulation of oral microbiota, both of which may compromise the oral mucosal immunity of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, impaired oral immunity in HIV infection may predispose the patients to periodontal diseases that are associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to examine existing evidence regarding the role of innate and cellular components of the oral cavity in HIV infection and how HIV infection may drive systemic hyper-immune activation in these patients. We will also discuss current knowledge on HIV oral transmission, HIV immunosenescence in relation to the oral mucosal alterations during the course of HIV infection and periodontal disease. Finally, we discuss oral manifestations associated with HIV infection and how HIV infection and ART influence the oral microbiome

  11. HIV Infection and Compromised Mucosal Immunity: Oral Manifestations and Systemic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Heron, Samantha E; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers. This leads to microbial products translocation and subsequently hyper-immune activation. Although introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, viral replication persists. As a result, antigen presence and immune activation are linked to "inflammaging" that attributes to a pro-inflammatory environment and the accelerated aging process in HIV patients. HIV infection is also associated with the prevalence of oral mucosal infections and dysregulation of oral microbiota, both of which may compromise the oral mucosal immunity of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, impaired oral immunity in HIV infection may predispose the patients to periodontal diseases that are associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to examine existing evidence regarding the role of innate and cellular components of the oral cavity in HIV infection and how HIV infection may drive systemic hyper-immune activation in these patients. We will also discuss current knowledge on HIV oral transmission, HIV immunosenescence in relation to the oral mucosal alterations during the course of HIV infection and periodontal disease. Finally, we discuss oral manifestations associated with HIV infection and how HIV infection and ART influence the oral microbiome. Therefore

  12. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Amy; Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    independently associated with HIV infection. This study confirms transgender individuals as one of the highest-risk groups for HIV infection in Cambodia. It suggests the need for programmatic strategies that mitigate identified associated risks and facilitate access to HIV care for this population.

  13. Elevated Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) Identifies Elevated Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Sadeer G.; Kim, Chang H; Morris, Stephen R.; Freeman, Michael L.; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Rodriguez, Benigno; McComsey, Grace A.; Dalton, Jarrod E.; Simon, Daniel I.; Lederman, Michael M.; Longenecker, Chris T.; Zidar, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Red cell distribution width (RDW) is linked to cardiovascular risk in the general population, an association that might be driven by inflammation. Whether this relationship holds for patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has not been previously studied. Using a large clinical registry, we show that elevated RDW (>14.5%) is independently associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.39 [1.25–1.55]), peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.41 [1.29–1.53]), myocardial infarction (1.43 [1.25–1.63]), heart failure (OR 2.23 [1.99–2.49]), and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.96 [1.64–2.33]). In conclusion, in the context of the inflammatory milieu that accompanies HIV infection, RDW remains a powerful marker of CV disease. PMID:27828877

  14. Effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M M; Ryan, J G; Briscoe, V S; Shadle, K M

    1996-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a critical problem among the incarcerated population, with rates as high as 17% being reported for prison systems in New York. The literature suggests that stressful living conditions and inherent defects in the immune system associated with HIV infection make prison populations more susceptible to a disproportionate decrease in their CD4 counts. To determine the effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals, the charts of 800 inmates were reviewed. Baseline (draw 1), 2- to 5-month (draw 2), and 6- to 12-month (draw 3) CD4 cell counts were obtained. Mean cell counts were calculated, and paired t-tests were used to identify differences. The group receiving antiretrovirals throughout showed no difference in mean CD4 cell count between draws 1 and 2 or between draws 1 and 3. The group not receiving HIV medications did not show a significant difference in CD4 cell counts between draws 1 and 2, but did show a significant difference between draws 1 and 3. For this group, the rate of decline in CD4 cells was greater than among an outpatient setting. The subsample of subjects initiating therapy prior to the second blood draw showed a significant increase in mean CD4 cell counts at draw 1 versus draw 2, but did not show a significant change when comparing draw 1 to draw 3. When examining subjects based on their antiviral status, the mean CD4 cell count at each of the draws was statistically associated with subjects' antiviral status. We conclude that incarceration causes a more rapid decrease in CD4 cells compared with an outpatient population, causing clinical significance on the normal course of HIV disease.

  15. High prevalence of dental caries among HIV-infected children in West Africa compared to uninfected siblings.

    PubMed

    Rajonson, Noëlla; Meless, David; Ba, Boubacar; Faye, Malick; Diby, Jean-Serge; N'zore, Serge; Datté, Sébastien; Diecket, Lucrèce; N'Diaye, Clémentine; Aka, Edmond Addi; Kouakou, Kouadio; Ba, Abou; Ekouévi, Didier Koumavi; Dabis, François; Shiboski, Caroline; Arrivé, Elise

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between HIV infection and dental caries among children in West Africa, and to identify factors associated with dental caries among HIV-infected children. We conducted a multi-center cross-sectional study in Mali, Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire with a random sample of HIV-infected children aged 5-15 years on antiretroviral therapy and their uninfected siblings. A standardized examination was performed by calibrated dentists. The association between the number of decayed, missing or filled permanent and primary teeth surfaces (DMFdefS) and HIV status was investigated by fitting multivariable zero-inflated negative binomial models, for each age group (<12 and ≥12 years). Factors associated with dental caries could be investigated only for HIV-infected children <12 years old. The sample included 420 HIV-infected children and 418 non-infected siblings. The median DMFdefS was 7 for the HIV-infected children and 2 for the uninfected siblings. The proportion of children with DMFdefS ≥1 was significantly higher among the HIV-infected children than uninfected children (86.0 percent versus 64.4 percent, P < 0.001). The HIV-infected children were less likely to be caries-free than the uninfected siblings in both age groups. We found a higher degree of caries experience among HIV-infected children < 12 years old, in whom it was associated with sweet drink consumption, history of night bottle use, immunosuppression, and younger age at study entry. Although preventable, the burden of dental disease was high in children from families affected by HIV in West Africa and was associated with HIV infection and immunosuppression. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Platelet activation suppresses HIV-1 infection of T cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelets, anucleate cell fragments abundant in human blood, can capture HIV-1 and platelet counts have been associated with viral load and disease progression. However, the impact of platelets on HIV-1 infection of T cells is unclear. Results We found that platelets suppress HIV-1 spread in co-cultured T cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Platelets containing granules inhibited HIV-1 spread in T cells more efficiently than degranulated platelets, indicating that the granule content might exert antiviral activity. Indeed, supernatants from activated and thus degranulated platelets suppressed HIV-1 infection. Infection was inhibited at the stage of host cell entry and inhibition was independent of the viral strain or coreceptor tropism. In contrast, blockade of HIV-2 and SIV entry was less efficient. The chemokine CXCL4, a major component of platelet granules, blocked HIV-1 entry and neutralization of CXCL4 in platelet supernatants largely abrogated their anti-HIV-1 activity. Conclusions Release of CXCL4 by activated platelets inhibits HIV-1 infection of adjacent T cells at the stage of virus entry. The inhibitory activity of platelet-derived CXCL4 suggests a role of platelets in the defense against infection by HIV-1 and potentially other pathogens. PMID:23634812

  17. Platelet activation suppresses HIV-1 infection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Solomon Tsegaye, Theodros; Gnirß, Kerstin; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Kiene, Miriam; Krämer-Kühl, Annika; Behrens, Georg; Münch, Jan; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    Platelets, anucleate cell fragments abundant in human blood, can capture HIV-1 and platelet counts have been associated with viral load and disease progression. However, the impact of platelets on HIV-1 infection of T cells is unclear. We found that platelets suppress HIV-1 spread in co-cultured T cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Platelets containing granules inhibited HIV-1 spread in T cells more efficiently than degranulated platelets, indicating that the granule content might exert antiviral activity. Indeed, supernatants from activated and thus degranulated platelets suppressed HIV-1 infection. Infection was inhibited at the stage of host cell entry and inhibition was independent of the viral strain or coreceptor tropism. In contrast, blockade of HIV-2 and SIV entry was less efficient. The chemokine CXCL4, a major component of platelet granules, blocked HIV-1 entry and neutralization of CXCL4 in platelet supernatants largely abrogated their anti-HIV-1 activity. Release of CXCL4 by activated platelets inhibits HIV-1 infection of adjacent T cells at the stage of virus entry. The inhibitory activity of platelet-derived CXCL4 suggests a role of platelets in the defense against infection by HIV-1 and potentially other pathogens.

  18. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  19. Neoplasms-associated deaths in HIV-1 infected and non-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marinho; Luz, Estela; Leal, Mateus; Oliveira, João Vitor; Patrício, Rejane; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Brites, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    HIV-infected patients are at a higher risk to develop malignancies than general population. Although AIDS-related malignancies are a common feature of late-stage disease, patients under successful antiretroviral therapy also have an increased risk for development of non-AIDS malignancies. To compare the frequency and characteristics of adults HIV-infected patients and general population who died of malignancies in Bahia, Brazil from January 2000 to December 2010. National Information System on Mortality (SIM) was searched to identify all deaths in the study period caused by malignancies in general population and in HIV patients. The frequency of malignancies in these two groups was compared. For HIV patients we also recorded the last HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load and CD4+ cells count, retrieved from oficial databases on laboratory monitoring for HIV patients. In the study period 733,645 deaths were reported, 677,427 (92.3%) of them in individual older than 13 years. Malignancies were the cause of death in 77,174 (11.4%) of them, and 5156 (0.8%) were associated to HIV/Aids. Among deaths of HIV/Aids patients, Kaposi´s sarcoma was the most prevalent malignancy (OR: 309.7; 95% CI: 177-544), followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 5.3-19.3), Hodgkin´s lymphoma (OR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.2-8.4), and cranial nervous malignancies (OR: 3.3; 95% CI:1.6-7.0). HIV patients died at a significantly lower age (43.7 years), than general population (64.5 years, p < 0.0001). Patients who had a diagnosis of Aids-related malignancies had lower CD4+ cells count than those with non-AIDS relates malignancies (p = 0.04). HIV infection is a clear risk fator for development of some malignancies, and is associated with early mortality, compared to general population. The level of CD4+ cells count predicts the type of malignancies causing death in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV and hepatitis B and C co-infection among people who inject drugs in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Ahmed; Matiko, Eva; Khalid, Farhat; Welty, Susie; Ali, Ameir; Othman, Asha; Haji, Shaaban; Dahoma, Mohammed; Rutherford, George

    2017-11-28

    People who inject drugs are at high risk of acquiring hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to risky injection and sexual practices. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, and co-infection of these viruses among people who inject drugs in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We used respondent-driven sampling to identify 408 participants, from whom we collected demographic data, information on sexual behaviours and injection drug practices, and blood samples for biological testing. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia, HCV, and HIV infection were 5.9, 25.4, and 11.3%, respectively. Of the participants who were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, 33.5% were infected with HCV and 18.8% were infected with HIV. Of the HCV-infected participants, 29.3% were infected with HIV. Of the participants who were infected with HIV, 9.0% were HBsAg positive, 66.6% had HCV and 8.5% had both. None of the potential risk factors we measured were associated with HBsAg positivity. In contrast, older age and longer duration of injection drug use were independently associated with HCV infection. HCV infection among people who inject drugs is lower in Zanzibar than in other countries, but could rise without proper interventions. These findings underscore the importance of screening people who inject drugs for HIV, HBsAg, and HCV; providing HBV vaccination to those who are eligible; initiating antiretroviral therapy for those who are co-infected with HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV; and introducing interventions that have high impact on reducing needle sharing.

  1. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2014-01-01

    The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly.

  2. Cocaine-mediated impact on HIV infection in humanized BLT mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohn G.; Lowe, Emily L.; Dixit, Dhaval; Seyeon Youn, Cindy; Kim, Irene J.; Jung, James B.; Rovner, Robert; Zack, Jerome A.; Vatakis, Dimitrios N.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse has been shown to have broad-ranging effects on human immunity. With regards to HIV infection, in vitro studies have shown that cocaine enhances infection of stimulated lymphocytes. Moreover, cohort studies in the pre- and post-HAART era have linked stimulant abuse with increased HIV pathogenesis. The latter data, however, have been undermined by a series of confounding factors underscoring the importance of controlled in vivo models to fully assess the impact of cocaine use and abuse on HIV infection and pathogenesis. Here, we have infected humanized mice with HIV-1 following acute cocaine exposure to assess the impact on infection. Stimulant exposure resulted in increased inflammatory cytokine expression, accelerated HIV infection, while blunting effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These data demonstrate cocaine’s multifactorial impact on HIV infection that extends beyond high-risk behavior. PMID:26084721

  3. Prevalence and correlates of non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of female sex workers in India.

    PubMed

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G; Pardeshi, Manoj H; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners' HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one's serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners' HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction.

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Non-Disclosure of HIV Serostatus to Sex partners among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers and HIV-infected Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892

  5. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Gregory D; Merlo, Christian; O' Driscoll, Peter; Mehta, Shruti H; Galai, Noya; Vlahov, David; Samet, Jonathan; Engels, Eric A

    2007-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have an elevated risk for lung cancer, but whether the increase reflects solely their heavy tobacco use remains an open question. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Link to the Intravenous Experience Study has prospectively observed a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, since 1988, using biannual collection of clinical, laboratory, and behavioral data. Lung cancer deaths were identified through linkage with the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the effect of HIV infection on lung cancer risk, controlling for smoking status, drug use, and clinical variables. Among 2086 AIDS Link to the Intravenous Experience Study participants observed for 19,835 person-years, 27 lung cancer deaths were identified; 14 of the deaths were among HIV-infected persons. All but 1 (96%) of the patients with lung cancer were smokers, smoking a mean of 1.2 packs per day. Lung cancer mortality increased during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, compared with the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy period (mortality rate ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-16). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and calendar period, HIV infection was associated with increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.9). Preexisting lung disease, particularly noninfectious diseases and asthma, displayed trends for increased lung cancer risk. Illicit drug use was not associated with increased lung cancer risk. Among HIV-infected persons, smoking remained the major risk factor; CD4 cell count and HIV load were not strongly associated with increased lung cancer risk, and trends for increased risk with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy were not significant. HIV infection is associated with significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer, independent of smoking status.

  6. CMV colitis in early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Smith, P R; Glynn, M; Sheaff, M; Aitken, C

    2000-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a well recognized complication of advanced HIV disease and is only rarely diagnosed in patients with normal immune function. A case of CMV colitis occurring in early HIV infection is described. Although CMV infection is normally confined to patients with advanced HIV disease, it is possible that a number of contributing factors may have led to clinical disease in this patient. CMV colitis is an important diagnosis to consider in all patients who present with a diarrhoeal illness associated with systemic features, regardless of underlying immunosuppression.

  7. Myocardial infarction among Danish HIV-infected individuals: population-attributable fractions associated with smoking.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Line D; Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret T; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Obel, Niels

    2015-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the contribution from smoking and potentiating effects of HIV are controversial. From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, we identified 3251 HIV-infected individuals and 13 004 population controls matched on age and gender. Data on MI were obtained from the National Hospital Registry and the National Registry of Causes of Death. We calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) for risk of MI and population-attributable fractions (PAF) of MI associated with smoking. In never smokers, HIV was not associated with an increased risk of MI (aIRR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], .41-2.54). In previous and current smokers, HIV was associated with a substantially increased risk of MI (aIRR, 1.78; 95% CI, .75-4.24 and aIRR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.70). The PAF associated with ever smoking (previous or current) was 72% (95% CI, 55%-82%) for HIV-infected individuals and 24% (95% CI, 3%-40%) for population controls. If all current smokers stopped smoking, 42% (95% CI, 21%-57%) and 21% (95% CI, 12%-28%) of all MIs could potentially be avoided in these 2 populations. Smoking is associated with a higher risk of MI in the HIV-infected population than in the general population. Approximately 3 of 4 MIs among HIV-infected individuals are associated with ever smoking compared with only 1 of 4 MIs among population controls. Smoking cessation could potentially prevent more than 40% of MIs among HIV-infected individuals, and smoking cessation should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Antiretroviral Therapy and Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Price, Richard W.; Spudich, Serena

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) HIV-1 infection begins during primary viremia and continues throughout the course of untreated systemic infection. While frequently accompanied by local inflammatory reactions detectable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), CNS HIV-1 infection is not usually clinically apparent. In a minority of patients, CNS HIV-1 infection evolves late in the course of systemic infection into encephalitis, which compromises brain function and presents clinically as AIDS dementia complex (ADC). Combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a major impact on all aspects of HIV-1 CNS infection and disease. In those with asymptomatic infection, HAART usually effectively suppresses CSF HIV-1 and markedly reduces the incidence of symptomatic ADC. In those presenting with ADC, HAART characteristically prevents neurological progression and leads to variable, and at times substantial, recovery. Treatment has similarly reduced CNS opportunistic infections. With better control of these severe disorders, attention has turned to the possible consequences of chronic silent infection, and the issue of whether indolent, low-grade brain injury might require earlier treatment intervention. PMID:18447615

  9. Oral lesions in HIV+/AIDS adolescents perinatally infected undergoing HAART.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Domínguez-Sánchez, Anitza; Pavía-Ruz, Noris; Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío; Verdugo-Díaz, Roberto; Valles-Medina, Ana-María; Meráz-Acosta, Héctor

    2010-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of the oral lesions related to HIV-infection (HIV-OL) in HIV+/AIDS adolescents (=13 years old), and the differences with HIV+/AIDS children (=3 - <13 years old) perinatally infected. 25 HIV+/AIDS adolescents and 62 HIV+/AIDS children, undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, were orally examined. HIV-OL was diagnosed in accordance with EC-Clearinghouse-World Health Organization. The patients were classifies with respect to their immune status in relation with the CD4+ cell counts as moderately immunodeficient; mildly immunodeficient and severely immunodeficient in accordance to the revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years (CDC-USA). The virological status was established in relation to the copies of RNA-HIV-1/mL as follows: with undetectable viral load (UDVL); with low viral load and with high viral load. A chi-square test was performed (p<0.05 IC95%). The prevalence of HIV-OL in HIV+/AIDS adolescents was 20% while in HIV/AIDS children was 30.6% (p>0.05). Oral candidiasis was the most prevalent oral lesion in both groups. Association (p<0.05) of a high prevalence of HIV-OL and oral candidiasis with a high viral load was observed in both study groups. Adolescents perinatally HIV-infected have a high prevalence of HIV-OL. Oral Candidiasis still is the most frequent oral opportunistic infection. Oral lesions could have association to viral failure in HIV+/AIDS adolescents undergoing HAART.

  10. Identification of early HIV infections using the fourth generation Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CIA) in San Diego County.

    PubMed

    Manlutac, Anna Liza M; Giesick, Jill S; McVay, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    HIV screening assays have gone through several generations of development in an effort to narrow the "window period" of detection. Utilizing a fourth generation HIV screening assay has the potential to detect earlier HIV infection, thus reducing HIV-1 transmission. To identify acute infections to decrease HIV transmission in San Diego County. Serum specimens were collected from clients seen by multiple submitters in San Diego County. All acceptable specimens were screened using the 4th Gen Combo Assay. Initially reactive specimens were repeated in duplicate and if repeatedly reactive, were confirmed by HIV-1 Immunofluorescent Antibody Assay (IFA). IFA negative/inconclusive specimens were sent for HIV-1 NAT and HIV-2 antibody testing to referral laboratories. BioRad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test was also performed on a subset of specimens. Of 14,559 specimens received in 20 months, 14,517 specimens were tested. Of the 14,517 specimens that were tested, a total of 279 (1.9%) specimens were CIA repeatedly reactive and 240 of the 279 confirmed by HIV-1 IFA. Thirty-nine gave IFA negative/inconclusive result and 30 were further tested for HIV-1 NAT and 36 for HIV-2 antibody. Thirteen specimens were considered false positives by CIA and 17 specimens were classified as acute infections. Eleven of 39 IFA negative/inconclusive specimens were further tested by Multispot. Five of the 11 were positive by Multispot. The fourth generation Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay identified 17 patients who may have been missed by the prior HIV-1 screening assay used at San Diego County Public Health Laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cumulative HIV viremia and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among a sample of HIV-infected male veterans.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowski, Marc A; Day, Rena S; Du, Xianglin L; Chan, Wenyaw; Chiao, Elizabeth Y

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that cumulative measurement of HIV exposure is associated with mortality, AIDS, and AIDS-defining malignancies. However, the relationship between cumulative HIV and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different HIV measures on NADM hazard among HIV-infected male veterans. We performed a retrospective cohort study using Veterans Affairs HIV Clinical Case Registry data from 1985 to 2010. We analyzed the relationship between HIV exposure (recent HIV RNA, % undetectable HIV RNA, and HIV copy-years viremia) and NADM. To evaluate the effect of HIV, we calculated hazard ratios for 3 common virally associated NADM [ie, hepatocarcinoma (HCC), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA)] in multivariable Cox regression models. Among 31,576 HIV-infected male veterans, 383 HCC, 211 HL, and 373 SCCA cases were identified. In multivariable regression models, cross-sectional HIV measurement was not associated with NADM. However, compared with <20% undetectable HIV, individuals with ≥80% had decreased HL [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37 to 1.02] and SCCA (aHR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.93). Conversely, each log10 increase in HIV copy-years was associated with elevated HL (aHR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.40) and SCCA (aHR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.52). Model fit was best with HIV copy-years. Cumulative HIV was not associated with HCC. Cumulative HIV was associated with certain virally associated NADM (ie, HL and SCCA), independent of measured covariates. Findings underline the importance of early treatment initiation and durable medication adherence to reduce cumulative HIV burden. Future research should prioritize how to best apply cumulative HIV measures in screening for these cancers.

  12. Shifting the Paradigm: Using HIV Surveillance Data as a Foundation for Improving HIV Care and Preventing HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Patricia; Gardner, Lytt I; Buchacz, Kate; Garland, Pamela Morse; Mugavero, Michael J; Bosshart, Jeffrey T; Shouse, R Luke; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Reducing HIV incidence in the United States and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV hinge on improving access to highly effective treatment and overcoming barriers to continuous treatment. Using laboratory tests routinely reported for HIV surveillance to monitor individuals’ receipt of HIV care and contacting them to facilitate optimal care could help achieve these objectives. Historically, surveillance-based public health intervention with individuals for HIV control has been controversial because of concerns that risks to privacy and autonomy could outweigh benefits. But with the availability of lifesaving, transmission-interrupting treatment for HIV infection, some health departments have begun surveillance-based outreach to facilitate HIV medical care. Methods Guided by ethics frameworks, we explored the ethical arguments for changing the uses of HIV surveillance data. To identify ethical, procedural, and strategic considerations, we reviewed the activities of health departments that are using HIV surveillance data to contact persons identified as needing assistance with initiating or returning to care. Findings Although privacy concerns surrounding the uses of HIV surveillance data still exist, there are ethical concerns associated with not using HIV surveillance to maximize the benefits from HIV medical care and treatment. Early efforts to use surveillance data to facilitate optimal HIV medical care illustrate how the ethical burdens may vary depending on the local context and the specifics of implementation. Health departments laid the foundation for these activities by engaging stakeholders to gain their trust in sharing sensitive information; establishing or strengthening legal, policy and governance infrastructure; and developing communication and follow-up protocols that protect privacy. Conclusions We describe a shift toward using HIV surveillance to facilitate optimal HIV care. Health departments should review the

  13. Effects of schistosomiasis on susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 viral load at HIV-1 seroconversion: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; Dupnik, Kathryn M; van Dam, Govert J; Urassa, Mark; Lutonja, Peter; Kornelis, Dieuwke; de Dood, Claudia J; Hoekstra, Pytsje; Kanjala, Chifundo; Isingo, Raphael; Peck, Robert N; Lee, Myung Hee; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Todd, Jim; Changalucha, John M; Johnson, Warren D; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2017-09-01

    Schistosomiasis affects 218 million people worldwide, with most infections in Africa. Prevalence studies suggest that people with chronic schistosomiasis may have higher risk of HIV-1 acquisition and impaired ability to control HIV-1 replication once infected. We hypothesized that: (1) pre-existing schistosome infection may increase the odds of HIV-1 acquisition and that the effects may differ between men and women, and (2) individuals with active schistosome infection at the time of HIV-1 acquisition may have impaired immune control of HIV-1, resulting in higher HIV-1 viral loads at HIV-1 seroconversion. We conducted a nested case-control study within a large population-based survey of HIV-1 transmission in Tanzania. A population of adults from seven villages was tested for HIV in 2007, 2010, and 2013 and dried blood spots were archived for future studies with participants' consent. Approximately 40% of this population has Schistosoma mansoni infection, and 2% has S. haematobium. We tested for schistosome antigens in the pre- and post-HIV-1-seroconversion blood spots of people who acquired HIV-1. We also tested blood spots of matched controls who did not acquire HIV-1 and calculated the odds that a person with schistosomiasis would become HIV-1-infected compared to these matched controls. Analysis was stratified by gender. We compared 73 HIV-1 seroconverters with 265 controls. Women with schistosome infections had a higher odds of HIV-1 acquisition than those without (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.2-6.6], p = 0.019). Schistosome-infected men did not have an increased odds of HIV-1 acquisition (adjusted OR = 0.7 [0.3-1.8], p = 0.42). We additionally compared HIV-1 RNA levels in the post-seroconversion blood spots in HIV-1 seroconverters with schistosomiasis versus those without who became HIV-infected in 2010, before antiretroviral therapy was widely available in the region. The median whole blood HIV-1 RNA level in the 15 HIV-1 seroconverters with schistosome infection was

  14. Associations of cytokines, sleep patterns, and neurocognitive function in youth with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Foster, Samuel B; Lu, Ming; Glaze, Daniel G; Reuben, James M; Harris, Lynnette L; Cohen, Evan N; Lee, Bang-Ning; Zhao, Enxu; Paul, Mary E; Schwarzwald, Heidi; McMullen-Jackson, Chivon; Clark, Charla; Armstrong, F Daniel; Brouwers, Pim Y; Miller, Tracie L; Colin, Andrew A; Scott, Gwendolyn B; Shahzeidi, Shahriar; Willen, Elizabeth J; Asthana, Deshratn; Lipshultz, Steven E; Thompson, Bruce W; Shearer, William T

    2012-07-01

    Youth infected with HIV at birth often have sleep disturbances, neurocognitive deficits, and abnormal psychosocial function which are associated with and possibly resulted from elevated blood cytokine levels that may lead to a decreased quality of life. To identify molecular pathways that might be associated with these disorders, we evaluated 38 HIV-infected and 35 uninfected subjects over 18-months for intracellular cytokine levels, sleep patterns and duration of sleep, and neurodevelopmental abilities. HIV infection was significantly associated with alterations of intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12), sleep factors (total time asleep and daytime sleep patterns), and neurocognitive factors (parent and patient reported problems with socio-emotional, behavioral, and executive functions; working memory-mental fatigue; verbal memory; and sustained concentration and vigilance. By better defining the relationships between HIV infection, sleep disturbances, and poor psychosocial behavior and neurocognition, it may be possible to provide targeted pharmacologic and procedural interventions to improve these debilitating conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of Cytokines, Sleep Patterns, and Neurocognitive Function in Youth with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Samuel B.; Lu, Ming; Glaze, Daniel G.; Reuben, James M; Harris, Lynnette L.; Cohen, Evan N.; Lee, Bang-Ning; Zhao, Enxu; Paul, Mary E.; Schwarzwald, Heidi; McMullen-Jackson, Chivon; Clark, Charla; Armstrong, F. Daniel; Brouwers, Pim Y.; Miller, Tracie L.; Colin, Andrew A.; Scott, Gwendolyn B.; Shahzeidi, Shahriar; Willen, Elizabeth J.; Asthana, Deshratn; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Thompson, Bruce; Shearer, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Youth infected with HIV at birth often have sleep disturbances, neurocognitive deficits, and abnormal psychosocial function which are associated with and possibly resulted from elevated blood cytokine levels that may lead to a decreased quality of life. To identify molecular pathways that might be associated with these disorders, we evaluated 38 HIV-infected and 35 uninfected subjects over 18-months for intracellular cytokine levels, sleep patterns and duration of sleep, and neurodevelopmental abilities. HIV infection was significantly associated with alterations of intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12), sleep factors (total time asleep and daytime sleep patterns), and neurocognitive factors (parent and patient reported problems with socio-emotional, behavioral, and executive functions; working memory-mental fatigue; verbal memory; and sustained concentration and vigilance. By better defining the relationships between HIV infection, sleep disturbances, and poor psychosocial behavior and neurocognition, it may be possible to provide targeted pharmacologic and procedural interventions to improve these debilitating conditions. PMID:22659030

  16. Distinct alterations in the distribution of CD45RO+ T-cell subsets in HIV-2 compared with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Jaleco, A C; Covas, M J; Pinto, L A; Victorino, R M

    1994-12-01

    Some clinical studies indicate that disease progression in HIV-2-infected subjects may be slower than in HIV-1. We investigated whether there were differences in the distribution of CD45RO+ (memory) and CD45RA+ (naive) T-cell subsets between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets was performed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy controls, HIV-1-(n = 49) and HIV-2-infected (n = 47) individuals divided into two groups: asymptomatic (ASY)/persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) and AIDS-related complex (ARC)/AIDS. Both HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected patients had significant reductions in the absolute number and percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes compared with seronegative individuals. No significant differences were found between HIV-2- and HIV-1-infected subjects in the same clinical stage. CD4+CD45RA+ cells were significantly reduced in HIV-1 and HIV-2 ARC/AIDS patients and mildly reduced in ASY/PGL HIV-1 and HIV-2 patients. There were no differences in the degree of reduction of CD4+CD45RO+ cells in ASY/PGL HIV-1 versus HIV-2 patients. However, in HIV-1-infected ARC/AIDS individuals the reduction in the percentage of this subset was more pronounced than in HIV-2 infection and this difference reached statistical significance. The increase in CD8+ lymphocytes (percentage and absolute number) was more pronounced in HIV-1 and the differences between HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected patients were statistically significant. CD8+CD45RO+ cells were significantly increased both in ASY/PGL and ARC/AIDS HIV-1-infected patients, whereas HIV-2-infected ASY/PGL patients had normal levels of these cells and HIV-2-infected ARC/AIDS patients had increases that were much less pronounced than that observed in HIV-1-infected ARC/AIDS patients. Significant differences in the absolute number and percentage of this subset between HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected individuals in similar clinical stages were found. HIV-2-infected individuals exhibit a

  17. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221

  19. Prevalence of HIV infection, access to HIV care, and response to antiretroviral therapy among partners of HIV-infected individuals in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Wongprasit, Pawinee; Phuphuakrat, Angsana; Chotiprasitsakul, Darunee; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2018-01-01

    Health care providers usually focus on index HIV-infected patients and seldom obtain information from their partners. We aimed to determine HIV-preventative measures among couples, the prevalence of HIV infection, and treatment outcomes of partners. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospital settings, a university hospital in Bangkok and a general hospital in northeastern Thailand, from January 2011-October 2015. Factors associated with serodiscordant relationships were determined by logistic regression. A total of 393 couples were enrolled for analysis; 156 (39.7%) were serodiscordant. The median relationship duration of serodiscordant couples was shorter than that of seroconcordant couples (6.4 years vs 11.6 years, p < 0.001). Of 237 HIV-infected partners, 17.7% had AIDS-defining illness, the median nadir CD4 count (interquartile range) was 240 (96-427) cells/mm3, 83.5% received antiretroviral therapy (ART), 98.3% had adherence > 95%, 90.3% had undetectable HIV RNA, and 22.9% had a prior history of treatment failure. There was no significant difference in condom usage in the prior 30 days between serodiscordant and seroconcordant couples. Factors of index HIV-infected patients associated with serodiscordant relationships were younger age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04 per 5 years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.06), receiving care at the general hospital (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08-2.78), a shorter duration of relationship (OR 1.04 per year; 95% CI 1.01-1.07), a higher nadir CD4 count (OR 1.06 per 50 cells/mm3; 95% CI 1.1-1.13), and not receiving a protease inhibitor-based regimen (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.06-3.96). A high number of serodiscordant couples was determined. Partners' information should be retrieved as a holistic approach. Interventions for minimizing HIV transmission within serodiscordant couples should be evaluated and implemented.

  20. [Organ transplants for HIV-infected patients--time for reevaluation?].

    PubMed

    Katzenstein, Terese L

    2005-11-14

    With the improvement in antiretroviral therapy, comorbidity is increasingly a cause of morbidity among HIV-infected patients. In the United States and several European countries, kidney and liver transplantations have been performed on selected HIV-infected patients. The short-term results have been comparable to those among HIV-negative recipients. Based on these results, it is recommended that kidney and liver transplants be offered to Danish HIV patients based on the same criteria as those that apply for non-HIV-infected patients with end-stage kidney or liver disease.

  1. Human papillomavirus infection in anal intraepithelial lesions from HIV infected Cuban men.

    PubMed

    Limia, Celia M; Soto, Yudira; García, Yanara; Blanco, Orestes; Kourí, Vivian; López, María V; Toledo, María E; Pérez, Lissette; Baños, Yoanna; Caturla, Yaniris; Aguayo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    An association between HPV infection and progression to anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) has been established, specifically in high-risk populations such as HIV-infected men. In this population, anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies. A cross-sectional study to detect anal lesions and HPV infection was performed. Anal mucosa samples were collected from 56 HIV-infected men from Cuba. The cytological diagnosis was done according to Bethesda 2001 System. HPV DNA detection was determined by qPCR for six high-risk HPV types and end point PCR for low-risk HPV types (6 and 11). The end point PCR with nucleotide sequencing technique was achieved to detect other genotypes of HPV not included in the qPCR in those samples negative for HPV- 6 and 11 or negative for the six genotypes identified in the qPCR. Cytological diagnosis identified 53 of 56 (95%) men with abnormal anal cytology. Among those, 26% (14/53) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 4% (2/53) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high-grade lesions (ASC-H), 64% (34/53) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), and 6% (3/53) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HPV DNA was detected in 89% (50/56) of men and 79% had at least one of the high-risk HPV types. HPV- 16 was the most common genotype (52%), while HPV-18 was the most frequently detected genotype in men with HSIL. We found statistically significant differences in the HPV viral loads with respect to the cytology results ( p  = 0.0006) and that the practice of receptive anal sex was a risk factor for anal HPV infection ( p  = 0.032). This study shows a high prevalence of ASIL and high-risk HPV infections in the study group and is the first study showing the distribution of HPV genotypes in HIV infected Cuban men with abnormal anal cytology. This information may be of importance for local decision makers to improve

  2. Buddy programs for people infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Joe; Demi, Alice

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this correlational study were to describe and compare clients' and volunteers' perceptions of a buddy program for people infected with HIV and to identify relationships between social support and clients' quality of life. Clients' social support was assessed with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List(ISEL), and their quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV (MOS-HIV) Scale. Clients' and volunteers' perceptions of satisfaction and assistance with activities were assessed with researcher-developed instruments. A convenience sample of 46 client-volunteer dyads was recruited from five AIDS service organizations. Clients perceived adequate levels of social support, moderate amounts of assistance, high levels of satisfaction with client-volunteer relationships, and moderate to low quality of life. A positive relationship was found between clients' and volunteers' perceptions of satisfaction. Relationships were found between ISEL subscales and the Health Transition and Mental Health subscales of the MOS-HIV and the MOS-HIV total scale scores. The findings of the study provide support for the continuation of buddy programs.

  3. Investigation of patients treated by an HIV-infected cardiothoracic surgeon--Israel, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-01-09

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from an infected health-care worker to patients is rare, with the greatest potential for occurrence during exposure-prone, invasive surgical procedures in which the blood of the health-care worker might come into contact with patients' blood or mucous membranes. When a surgeon is discovered to have HIV infection, a decision must be made about notification of patients, but only limited data are available to guide decision-making. Such notifications generally are decided upon on a case-by-case basis, taking into account such factors as the nature of the procedures performed, the infection-control knowledge and practices of the infected surgeon, the presumed likelihood of transmission, and available resources. This report describes the case of a cardiothoracic surgeon in Israel specializing in open-heart procedures (coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgery) who was found to be HIV positive in January 2007 during evaluation for fever of recent onset. The duration of infection was unknown. A lookback investigation of patients operated on by the infected surgeon during the preceding 10 years was conducted under the auspices of the Israel Ministry of Health to determine whether any surgeon-to-patient HIV transmission had occurred. Of 1,669 patients identified, 545 (33%) underwent serologic testing for HIV antibody. All results were negative. A Ministry-appointed panel of experts delineated conditions under which the surgeon could resume work. The results of this investigation add to previously published data indicating a low risk for provider-to-patient HIV transmission.

  4. Oral and dental lesions in HIV infected Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Abe, Elizabeth Oluwatoyin; Agelebe, Efeturi

    2015-01-01

    Oral diseases in the HIV infected children though commonly encountered are under researched and often overlooked by physicians in developing countries. The aim of this study is to document the types and frequency of oral lesions in HIV infected children and examine the effects of management with HAART on their rates. A cross sectional study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the pediatricians and dental surgeons. The 58 children studied consisted of 34 boys and 24 girls with their ages ranging from 3 months to 13 years. Thirty seven (63.8%) of the 58 children had oral diseases. Enamel hypoplasia, candidiasis, caries, angular chelitis, and herpes labialis were the most common oral lesions found in the patients. Oral soft tissue lesions were less frequently encountered among children on HAART. Statistical significance was recorded among those infected with candidiasis. More than 60% of the children diagnosed with oral disease had no knowledge of the state of their oral health before the study. Oral diseases are very common amongst the children studied. Awareness of oral disease among the children and their caregivers is low. Administration of HAART may have a preventive effect on the development of oral soft tissue disease. There is a need to integrate dental care into the paediatric HIV care programs.

  5. The role of enacted stigma in parental HIV disclosure among HIV-infected parents in China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies have delineated that HIV-infected parents face numerous challenges in disclosing their HIV infection to the children ("parental HIV disclosure"), and practices of parental HIV disclosure vary with individual characteristics, family contexts, and social environment. Using cross-sectional data from 1254 HIV-infected parents who had children aged 5-16 years in southwest China, the current study examined the association of parental HIV disclosure with mental health and medication adherence among parents and explored the possible effect of enacted stigma on such association. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents who had experienced disclosure to children reported higher level enacted stigma, worse mental health conditions, and poorer medication adherence. Enacted stigma partially mediated the associations between disclosure and both mental health and medication adherence after controlling basic background characteristics. Our findings highlight the importance of providing appropriate disclosure-related training and counseling service among HIV-infected parents. In a social setting where HIV-related stigma is still persistent, disclosure intervention should address and reduce stigma and discrimination in the practice of parental HIV disclosure.

  6. Reproductive health and family planning needs among HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sarnquist, Clea C; Rahangdale, Lisa; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2013-03-01

    Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion. Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes. HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.

  7. Reproductive decision-making and determinants of contraceptive use in HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Williams, H A; Watkins, C E; Risby, J A

    1996-06-01

    Perinatal transmission and reproductive decisions of HIV-infected women can be categorized in statistical and epidemiological terms. These reports and figures, however, do little to fully explain the complexities of human relationships, life experiences, personal and cultural influences, and situational and environmental variables that impact on the HIV-infected woman regarding reproductive decision-making. It is only with genuine attempts to understand the woman's perspective and the dynamic and unique variables that influence reproductive decision-making, as well as maintaining a non-judgmental and culturally sensitive perspective, can we hope to assist women, and society as a whole, in coming to terms with the complexities of HIV and reproductive decision-making. Further study is needed to identify factors that influence reproductive decision-making in HIV-infected women. The determinants of contraceptive use regarding demographic factors, barriers to contraceptive use, and factors that contribute to successful contraceptive use in this population must be understood if efforts to reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies are to be successful. More conclusive data are needed on the safety and efficacy of oral contraceptives in HIV-infected women as well as data that describe the effects of longer acting hormonal contraceptives such as levonorgestrel implants (Norplant; Wyeth-Ayerst, Philadelphia, PA) and injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo Provera; Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, MI). More research is needed to determine the effects of patient education and counseling and closer follow-up on effective long-term contraception in HIV-infected women.

  8. HIV infection among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sagay, A S; Kapiga, S H; Imade, G E; Sankale, J L; Idoko, J; Kanki, P

    2005-07-01

    To determine risk factors for HIV among pregnant women (N = 2657) receiving antenatal services in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. Information about potential risk factors was obtained at interview. Biological samples were collected for detection of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of HIV was 8.2%. Women aged 20-29 years had more than 4-fold increased risk of HIV. Women of Catholic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.01-2.95) and Pentecostal (AOR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.46-4.52) denominations were more likely to be HIV-infected when compared to Moslem women. The risk of HIV was also increased among women with multiple marriages and in women married to a banker/accountant. Other predictors of HIV were having a husband with other partners, perceived risk of HIV, STIs, candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis. Development of effective interventions, including behavioral change, expansion of perinatal HIV prevention services and STI control, should be given the highest priority.

  9. Effect of Advanced HIV Infection on the Respiratory Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Homer L; Knox, Kenneth S; Zhou, Jin; Crothers, Kristina A; Nelson, David E; Toh, Evelyn; Day, Richard B; Lin, Huaiying; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Qunfeng; Mi, Deming; Katz, Barry P; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M

    2016-07-15

    Previous work found the lung microbiome in healthy subjects infected with HIV was similar to that in uninfected subjects. We hypothesized the lung microbiome from subjects infected with HIV with more advanced disease would differ from that of an uninfected control population. To measure the lung microbiome in an HIV-infected population with advanced disease. 16s RNA gene sequencing was performed on acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 30 subjects infected with HIV with advanced disease (baseline mean CD4 count, 262 cells/mm(3)) before and up to 3 years after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and compared with 22 uninfected control subjects. The lung microbiome in subjects infected with HIV with advanced disease demonstrated decreased alpha diversity (richness and diversity) and greater beta diversity compared with uninfected BAL. Differences improved with HAART, but still persisted up to 3 years after starting therapy. Population dispersion in the group infected with HIV was significantly greater than in the uninfected cohort and declined after treatment. There were differences in the relative abundance of some bacteria between the two groups at baseline and after 1 year of therapy. After 1 year on HAART, HIV BAL contained an increased abundance of Prevotella and Veillonella, bacteria previously associated with lung inflammation. The lung microbiome in subjects infected with HIV with advanced disease is altered compared with an uninfected population both in diversity and bacterial composition. Differences remain up to 3 years after starting HAART. We speculate an altered lung microbiome in HIV infection may contribute to chronic inflammation and lung complications seen in the HAART era.

  10. Metabolic complications and selected cytokines in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Bociąga-Jasik, Monika; Polus, Anna; Góralska, Joanna; Śliwa, Agnieszka; Raźny, Urszula; Zdzienicka, Anna; Garlicki, Aleksander; Mach, Tomasz; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at a higher risk of developing metabolic disturbances. The pathogenesis of these complications is complex and not fully explored. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of HIV infection and antiretroviral (ARV) therapy on the development of metabolic changes and adipocytokine concentrations. The analysis of the differences in the investigated parameters among lipodystrophic and nonlipodystrophic patients was also performed. A total of 42 HIV‑infected patients on ARV therapy (HIV[+]ARV[+]), 13 HIV‑infected ARV naive patients (HIV[+]ARV[-]), and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. A lipid profile, fasting free fatty acids (FFAs), glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance--HOMA‑IR) were tested. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF‑α), interleukin 6 (IL‑6), adiponectin, leptin, and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) were determined. Increased FFA levels were observed in HIV(+)ARV(-) patients. HIV(+)ARV(+) patients had significantly higher triglycerides and insulin level compared with controls. HOMA‑IR showed a tendency to be higher in HIV(+)ARV(+) patients compared with the other study groups. The ARV therapy longer than 2 years resulted in more pronounced metabolic abnormalities. HIV infection itself had a significant effect on inflammation expressed by elevated TNF‑α and IL‑6 levels. We did not observe differences in adiponectin and FABP4 concentrations among the study groups, while the leptin concentration was significantly lower in HIV‑infected lipodystrophic than in nonlipodystrophic patients. HIV infection induces lipid disorders, especially associated with fatty acid turnover augmented by ARV therapy. Compared with FABP4, leptin is a better biological marker of metabolic complications in HIV‑infected patients.

  11. Characteristics and Predictors of Death among Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Country: Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Shahrin, Lubaba; Leung, Daniel T.; Matin, Nashaba; Pervez, Mohammed Moshtaq; Azim, Tasnim; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictors of death in hospitalized HIV-infected patients have not been previously reported in Bangladesh. Objective The primary aim of this study was to determine predictors of death among hospitalized HIV-infected patients at a large urban hospital in Bangladesh. Methods A study was conducted in the HIV in-patient unit (Jagori Ward) of icddr,b's Dhaka Hospital. Characteristics of patients who died during hospitalization were compared to those of patients discharged from the ward. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine associations between potential risk factors and death. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with death. Results Of 293 patients admitted to the Jagori Ward, 57 died during hospitalization. Most hospitalized patients (67%) were male and the median age was 35 (interquartile range: 2–65) years. Overall, 153 (52%) patients were diagnosed with HIV within 6 months of hospitalization. The most common presumptive opportunistic infections (OIs) identified were tuberculosis (32%), oesophageal candidiasis (9%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) (8%), and histoplasmosis (7%). On multivariable analysis, independent predictors of mortality were CD4 count ≤200 cells/mm3 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 16.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7–74.4), PJP (aOR: 18.5, 95% CI: 4.68–73.3), oesophageal candidiasis (aOR: 27.5, 95% CI: 5.5–136.9), malignancy (aOR:15.2, 95% CI: 2.3–99.4), and bacteriuria (aOR:7.9, 95% CI: 1.2–50.5). Being on antiretroviral therapy prior to hospitalization (aOR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.06–0.5) was associated with decreased mortality. Conclusion This study showed that most patients who died during hospitalization on the Jagori Ward had HIV-related illnesses which could have been averted with earlier diagnosis of HIV and proper management of OIs. It is prudent to develop a national HIV screening programme to facilitate early identification of HIV. PMID:25485634

  12. Reduced mortality associated with breast-feeding-acquired HIV infection and breast-feeding among HIV-infected children in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Matthew P; Brooks, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Horsburgh, Robert; Thea, Donald M

    2008-05-01

    In developing countries, where mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breast-feeding is common, little is known about the impact of postpartum transmission on child survival. This study assessed whether children infected postpartum have longer survival from time of infection versus those infected during gestation or delivery. We used a prospective cohort study to analyze data from 213 HIV-infected children enrolled in a breast-feeding intervention trial in Lusaka, Zambia (2001 to 2004). We compared mortality 1 year after HIV infection in children stratified by age of infection: 0 to 3 days (intrauterine [IU] group), 4 to 40 days (intrapartum/early postpartum [IP/EPP] group), and >40 days (postpartum [PP] group). A total of 61, 71, and 81 children were infected in the IU, IP/EPP, and PP groups, respectively. Children with intrauterine or intrapartum/early postpartum transmission had higher mortality over the first 12 months after infection than children with postpartum transmission (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively); no differences were detected between children with intrauterine and intrapartum/early postpartum transmission. Nearly 20% of the IU and IP/EPP groups died by 100 days after infection, whereas nearly 10% of the PP group had died by this time. After adjusting for birth weight, maternal CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, and maternal death, children infected postpartum had one quarter the mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15 to 0.50) of those infected in utero. Stopping breast-feeding increased mortality in infected children (HR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.3). This study demonstrates a survival benefit among children infected postpartum versus children infected during pregnancy or delivery and a benefit to increased breast-feeding duration among infected children. Testing children for HIV early may provide a means to allow for earlier intervention.

  13. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in AIDS patients, HIV seropositive healthy carriers and HIV seronegative individuals in southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew

    2008-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.

  14. CROI 2016: Hot Spots in HIV Infection and Advances in HIV Prevention.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Susan P; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) highlighted hot spots in HIV infection. Men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender populations, people who inject drugs, fisherfolk, migrants, adolescents, and older adults are heavily impacted in a number of regions. Stigma contributes to risk behaviors and HIV acquisition across populations. HIV testing is a crucial first step in the HIV care continuum, and several large community-based surveys are underway in Africa to increase HIV testing, linkage to care, and uptake of antiretroviral treatment. Advances in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) featured prominently at CROI 2016. Two large efficacy trials of a vaginal ring containing the investigational drug dapivirine demonstrated efficacy and safety in preventing HIV infections in women in Africa. Data on the safety of long-acting injectable PrEP and several investigational PrEP drugs and formulations were also presented. Knowledge and use of PrEP among MSM in the United States appears to be increasing, and high uptake was seen among black MSM when provided as part of a culturally tailored support program. The use of broadly neutralizing antibodies for HIV prevention is a novel and promising approach to be evaluated in efficacy trials.

  15. Epidemic of Lung Cancer in Patients With HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Winstone, Tiffany A.; Man, S. F. Paul; Hull, Mark; Montaner, Julio S.

    2013-01-01

    The survival of patients with HIV infection has improved dramatically over the past 20 years, largely owing to a significant reduction in opportunistic infections and AIDs-defining malignancies, such as lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. However, with improved survival, patients with HIV are experiencing morbidity and mortality from other (non-AIDs-defining) complications, such as solid organ malignancies. Of these, the leading cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population is lung cancer, accounting for nearly 30% of all cancer deaths and 10% of all non-HIV-related deaths. Importantly, the average age of onset of lung cancer in the HIV-infected population is 25 to 30 years earlier than that in the general population and at lower exposure to cigarette smoke. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of lung cancer in the HIV-infected population and discusses some of the important risk factors and pathways that may enhance the risk of lung cancer in this population. PMID:23381313

  16. Mindfulness instruction for HIV-infected youth: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Webb, Lindsey; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Ellen, Jonathan; Sibinga, Erica

    2018-06-01

    HIV-infected youth experience many stressors, including stress related to their illness, which can negatively impact their mental and physical health. Therefore, there is a significant need to identify potentially effective interventions to improve stress management, coping, and self-regulation. The object of the study was to assess the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program compared to an active control group on psychological symptoms and HIV disease management in youth utilizing a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-two HIV-infected adolescents, ages 14-22 (mean age 18.71 years), were enrolled from two urban clinics and randomized to MBSR or an active control. Data were collected on mindfulness, stress, self-regulation, psychological symptoms, medication adherence, and cognitive flexibility at baseline, post-program, and 3-month follow-up. CD4+ T lymphocyte and HIV viral load (HIV VL) counts were also pulled from medical records. HIV-infected youth in the MBSR group reported higher levels of mindfulness (P = .03), problem-solving coping (P = .03), and life satisfaction (P = .047), and lower aggression (P = .002) than those in the control group at the 3-month follow-up. At post-program, MBSR participants had higher cognitive accuracy when faced with negative emotion stimuli (P = .02). Also, those in the MBSR study arm were more likely to have or maintain reductions in HIV VL at 3-month follow-up than those in the control group (P = .04). In our sample, MBSR instruction proved beneficial for important psychological and HIV-disease outcomes, even when compared with an active control condition. Lower HIV VL levels suggest improved HIV disease control, possibly due to higher levels of HIV medication adherence, which is of great significance in both HIV treatment and prevention. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of MBSR for improving the psychological and physical health of HIV-positive youth.

  17. Bone health in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Eckard, Allison R; Mora, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Chronic HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy compromises bone health in children and adolescents, potentially impacting their long-term quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review the most recent literature on this topic in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Recent studies continue to demonstrate bone abnormalities in HIV-infected children and adolescents, whether HIV is acquired perinatally or during adolescence. Researchers have employed new modalities, both high tech and those that can be utilized in resource-limited settings, to better assess bone health. New data suggest that this population may also be experiencing an increase incidence of fractures, and they may not acquire the same peak bone mass as their HIV-uninfected counterparts. Reassuringly, however, in-utero tenofovir exposure does not appear to have a significant impact on bone health in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. HIV-infected children and adolescents are exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy for many decades starting early in life and during the most critical time for skeletal growth and bone mass accrual. Recent findings underscore the need for further research on bone in this population. Longitudinal studies are especially needed to evaluate long-term risk of osteoporosis and fracture.

  18. FIB-4 index is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Lesley S; Tate, Janet P; Justice, Amy C; Lo Re, Vincent; Lim, Joseph K; Bräu, Norbert; Brown, Sheldon T; Butt, Adeel A; Gibert, Cynthia; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Dubrow, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Chronic inflammation caused by hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and/or heavy alcohol use can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). FIB-4 is an index score calculated from platelet count, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and age that predicts fibrosis and cirrhosis. We hypothesized that high FIB-4 would be associated with development of HCC in HIV-infected persons, who are at high risk due to high prevalence of viral hepatitis and alcohol consumption, and possibly due to HIV infection itself. Using proportional hazards models, we tested this hypothesis among 22,980 HIV-infected men from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. We identified incident HCC cases from the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry. During follow-up, there were 112 incident HCC diagnoses. The age- and race/ethnic group-adjusted HR was 4.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4-7.4] for intermediate FIB-4 and 13.0 (95% CI, 7.2-23.4) for high FIB-4, compared with low FIB-4. After further adjustment for enrollment year, CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA level, antiretroviral therapy use, hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol abuse/dependency, and diabetes, FIB-4 remained a strong, significant, independent risk factor for HCC. The multivariate-adjusted HR was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.1-6.4) for intermediate FIB-4 and 9.6 (95% CI, 5.2-17.4) for high FIB-4. Calculated from routine, noninvasive laboratory tests, FIB-4 is a strong, independent HCC risk factor in HIV-infected patients. FIB-4 might prove valuable as an easily measured index to identify those at highest risk for HCC, even prior to development of clinical cirrhosis.

  19. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302

  20. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru.

    PubMed

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A J; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A; Gilman, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed.

  1. Prognostic value of a CCR5 defective allele in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Romiti, M L; Colognesi, C; Cancrini, C; Mas, A; Berrino, M; Salvatori, F; Orlandi, P; Jansson, M; Palomba, E; Plebani, A; Bertran, J M; Hernandez, M; de Martino, M; Amoroso, A; Tovo, P A; Rossi, P; Espanol, T; Scarlatti, G

    2000-01-01

    A deletion of 32 base pairs in the CCR5 gene (delta32 CCR5) has been linked to resistance to HIV-1 infection in exposed adults and to the delay of disease progression in infected adults. To determine the role of delta32 CCR5 in disease progression of HIV-1 infected children born to seropositive mothers, we studied a polymerase chain reaction in 301 HIV-1 infected, 262 HIV-1 exposed-uninfected and 47 HIV-1 unexposed-uninfected children of Spanish and Italian origin. Infected children were further divided into two groups according to their rate of HIV-1 disease progression: rapid progressors who developed severe clinical and/or immunological conditions within the second year of life, and delayed progressors with any other evolution of disease. Among the latter were the long-term, non-progressors (LTNP) who presented with mild or no symptoms of HIV-1 infection above 8 years of age. Viral phenotype was studied for 45 delayed progressors. No correlation was found between delta32 CCR5 and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. However, the frequency of the deletion was substantially higher in LTNP, compared with delayed (p = 0.019) and rapid progressors (p = 0.0003). In children carrying the delta32 CCRS mutation, the presence of MT-2 tropic virus isolate was associated with a severe immune suppression (p = 0.028); whereas, the presence of MT-2 negative viruses correlated with LTNP (p = 0.010). Given the rapidity and simplicity of the assay, the delta32 CCR5 mutation may be a useful predictive marker to identify children with delayed disease progression who, consequently, may not require immediate antiretroviral treatment.

  2. Thyroid cancer in a long-term nonprogressor HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Phatak, Uday A.; Chitale, P. V.; Jagdale, Rakhi V.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term non-progressor HIV infection (LTNP-HIV) is seen in <1 percent of HIV-afflicted population. There are definite criteria for the diagnosis of LTNP-HIV. Malignancies either solid tumors or haematological cancers have not been reported in such population. We report here a rare case of follicular thyroid carcinoma in LTNP-HIV infection. She never had any opportunistic infections. She did not receive anti-retroviral therapy in the entire course of illness and continued to have good quality of life. Treatment of follicular thyroid cancer was similar to other patients without HIV infection. This could be the first case study from India. PMID:26692617

  3. Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Infection during HIV-1 Gag Vaccination▿

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Arumugam; Lewis, Martha J.; Kitchen, Christina M. R.; Robertson, Michael N.; Shiver, John W.; Daar, Eric S.; Pitt, Jacqueline; Ali, Ayub; Ng, Hwee L.; Currier, Judith S.; Yang, Otto O.

    2008-01-01

    Vaccination for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains an elusive goal. Whether an unsuccessful vaccine might not only fail to provoke detectable immune responses but also could actually interfere with subsequent natural immunity upon HIV-1 infection is unknown. We performed detailed assessment of an HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine recipient (subject 00015) who was previously uninfected but sustained HIV-1 infection before completing a vaccination trial and another contemporaneously acutely infected individual (subject 00016) with the same strain of HIV-1. Subject 00015 received the vaccine at weeks 0, 4, and 8 and was found to have been acutely HIV-1 infected around the time of the third vaccination. Subject 00016 was a previously HIV-1-seronegative sexual contact who had symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection approximately 2 weeks earlier than subject 00015 and demonstrated subsequent seroconversion. Both individuals reached an unusually low level of chronic viremia (<1,000 copies/ml) without treatment. Subject 00015 had no detectable HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses until a borderline response was noted at the time of the third vaccination. The magnitude and breadth of Gag-specific CTL responses in subject 00015 were similar to those of subject 00016 during early chronic infection. Viral sequences from gag, pol, and nef confirmed the common source of HIV-1 between these individuals. The diversity and divergence of sequences in subjects 00015 and 00016 were similar, indicating similar immune pressure on these proteins (including Gag). As a whole, the data suggested that while the gag DNA vaccine did not prime detectable early CTL responses in subject 00015, vaccination did not appreciably impair his ability to contain viremia at levels similar to those in subject 00016. PMID:18199650

  4. Multifarious immunotherapeutic approaches to cure HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Imami, Nesrina; Herasimtschuk, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy in the context of treated HIV-1 infection aims to improve immune responses to achieve better control of the virus. To date, multifaceted immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to reduce immune activation and increase CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, further to the effects of antiretroviral therapy alone, in addition to improving HIV-1-specific T-cell responses. While sterilizing cure of HIV-1 would involve elimination of all replication-competent virus, a functional cure in which the host has long-lasting control of viral replication may be more feasible. In this commentary, we discuss novel strategies aimed at targeting the latent viral reservoir with cure of HIV-1 infection being the ultimate goal, an achievement that would have considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection.

  5. Detailed Molecular Epidemiologic Characterization of HIV-1 Infection in Bulgaria Reveals Broad Diversity and Evolving Phylodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Ivailo Alexiev; Beshkov, Danail; Shankar, Anupama; Hanson, Debra L.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Georgieva, Viara; Karamacheva, Lyudmila; Taskov, Hristo; Varleva, Tonka; Elenkov, Ivaylo; Stoicheva, Mariana; Nikolova, Daniela; Switzer, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available to describe the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Bulgaria. To better understand the genetic diversity and the epidemiologic dynamics of HIV-1 we analyzed 125 new polymerase (pol) sequences from Bulgarians diagnosed through 2009 and 77 pol sequences available from our previous study from persons infected prior to 2007. Epidemiologic and demographic information was obtained from each participant and phylogenetic analysis was used to infer HIV-1 evolutionary histories. 120 (59.5%) persons were infected with one of five different HIV-1 subtypes (A1, B, C, F1 and H) and 63 (31.2%) persons were infected with one of six different circulating recombinant forms (CRFs; 01_AE, 02_AG, 04_cpx, 05_DF, 14_BG, and 36_cpx). We also for the first time identified infection with two different clusters of unique A-like and F-like sub-subtype variants in 12 persons (5.9%) and seven unique recombinant forms (3.5%), including a novel J/C recombinant. While subtype B was the major genotype identified and was more prevalent in MSM and increased between 2000–2005, most non-B subtypes were present in persons ≥45 years old. CRF01_AE was the most common non-B subtype and was higher in women and IDUs relative to other risk groups combined. Our results show that HIV-1 infection in Bulgaria reflects the shifting distribution of genotypes coincident with the changing epidemiology of the HIV-1 epidemic among different risk groups. Our data support increased public health interventions targeting IDUs and MSM. Furthermore, the substantial and increasing HIV-1 genetic heterogeneity, combined with fluctuating infection dynamics, highlights the importance of sustained and expanded surveillance to prevent and control HIV-1 infection in Bulgaria. PMID:23527245

  6. [Mechanisms of lymphopenia in HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Roger, P M; Pradier, C; Dellamonica, P

    1994-01-22

    Blood counts of CD4 cells remain the best prognostic factor in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the small number of infected cells contrasts with the importance of lymphocyte depletion. Several mechanisms might explain this depletion including: antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Twenty to 50% of the antibodies produced in vitro by B lymphocytes are directed against HIV antigens, especially the gp120 and gp41 viral envelope antigen. If this cytotoxicity effect occurs in vivo, it could reduce of lymphocytes carrying the viral genome and partially explain the major lymphopenia in HIV-infected patients. It is not yet known whether the long-term effect of these antibodies is immunoprotective or deleterious, but they may play a protective role at least in the initial stages of the disease. autoimmunity. Sequence homology between the HLA II molecules and the glycoproteins of the viral envelope has been clinically and biologically documented in many manifestations of HIV infection. It has been suggested that alloreactivity, similar to the graft-versus-host reaction could be involved. In addition, programmed cell-death of the CD4 lymphocytes appears to be overactivated in HIV-positive subjects, possibly because the gp120 viral antigen perturbs the CD4-dependent signal for cell death. deleterious effects of cytokines. Tumour necrosis factor, for example, is known to play a role in the regulation of viral replication; it may favour the destruction of contaminated cells but also the initiation of provirus replication and integration into the cell genome. supra-antigens and/or infectious factors. Supra-antigenes, which can link with HLA molecules, are capable of oligoclonal activation without being "processed" in the cell presenting the antigen. This activation might affect cell death. Certain germ toxins could also play a role as cofactors. Cohort studies of asymptomatic HIV patients are needed to improve our understanding of these mechanisms

  7. Public Policy Affirmations Affecting the Planning and Implementation of Developmental Services for Children and Adults with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Allen C., Comp.; And Others

    The increasing number of individuals infected with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has created a need to examine public policy issues and to further efforts in planning, implementing, and evaluating services for individuals with HIV infection and their families. A working conference was convened, which identified several…

  8. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly. PMID:24957136

  9. Cerebro-meningeal infections in HIV-infected patients: a study of 116 cases in Libreville, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ondounda, Magloire; Ilozue, Chinenye; Magne, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Cerebro-meningeal pathology is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the aetiology is often difficult to ascertain with certainty. To describe the major suspected and identified causes of meningeal or encephalitic syndromes in HIV infection in Libreville, Gabon. A descriptive study using clinical records of patients hospitalised in the Department of Medicine in the Military Hospital of Libreville (Gabon) between January 2006 and May 2010. Clinical features were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression to evaluate association with the outcome of a clinical improvement or death. The most frequent neurological symptoms were reduced level of consciousness (54.3%), headache (55.2%), motor deficit (38.7%), and convulsions (36.2%). Cerebral toxoplasmosis represented 64.7% of diagnoses, followed by cryptococcal neuromeningitis in 12.9% of cases. Tuberculoma was diagnosed in 4 cases and lymphoma in 2 cases. In 9.5% of cases, no aetiology was determined. Toxoplasmosis treatment led to clinical improvement in 69.3% of cases with suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis. Overall mortality was 39.7%. The diagnosis of neurological conditions in HIV positive patients is difficult, particularly in a low-resource setting. A trial of treatment for toxoplasmosis should be initiated first line with all signs of neurological pathology in a patient infected with HIV.

  10. Immune defence against HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-exposed seronegative persons.

    PubMed

    Schmechel, S C; Russell, N; Hladik, F; Lang, J; Wilson, A; Ha, R; Desbien, A; McElrath, M J

    2001-11-01

    Rare individuals who are repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 through unprotected sexual contact fail to acquire HIV-1 infection. These persons represent a unique study population to evaluate mechanisms by which HIV-1 replication is either prevented or controlled. We followed longitudinally a group of healthy HIV-1 seronegative persons each reporting repeated high-risk sexual activities with their HIV-1-infected partner at enrollment. The volunteers were primarily (90%) male homosexuals, maintaining high risk activities with their known infected partner (45%) or multiple other partners (61%). We evaluated the quantity and specificity of HIV-1-specific T cells in 31 exposed seronegatives (ES) using a IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay to enumerate T cells recognizing epitopes within HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef. PBMC from only three of the 31 volunteers demonstrated ex vivo HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma secretion, in contrast to nearly 30% exhibiting cytolytic responses in previous studies. These findings suggest that if T cell responses in ES are induced by HIV-1 exposure, the frequency is at low levels in most of them, and below the level of detection using the ELISPOT assay. Alternative approaches to improve the sensitivity of detection may include use of dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells in the ex vivo assay and more careful definition of the risk behavior and extent of HIV-1 exposure in conjunction with the evaluation of T cell responses.

  11. HIV infection among U.S. Army and Air Force military personnel: sociodemographic and genotyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Singer, Darrell E; Bautista, Christian T; O'Connell, Robert J; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Agan, Brian K; Kijak, Gustavo H; Hakre, Shilpa; Sanchez, Jose L; Sateren, Warren B; McCutchan, Francine E; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T

    2010-08-01

    Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Defense has periodically screened all military personnel for HIV allowing for the monitoring of the infection in this dynamic cohort population. A nested case-control study was performed to study sociodemographics, overseas assignment, and molecular analysis of HIV. Cases were newly identified HIV infections among U.S. Army and Air Force military personnel from 2000 to 2004. Controls were frequency matched to cases by gender and date of case first positive HIV screening test. Genotyping analysis was performed using high-throughput screening assays and partial genome sequencing. HIV was significantly associated with black race [odds ratio (OR) = 6.65], single marital status (OR = 4.45), and age (OR per year = 1.07). Ninety-seven percent were subtype B and 3% were non-B subtypes (A3, CRF01_AE, A/C recombinant, G, CRF02_AG). Among cases, overseas assignment in the period at risk prior to their first HIV-positive test was associated with non-B HIV subtype infection (OR = 8.44). Black and single military personnel remain disproportionately affected by HIV infection. Most non-B HIV subtypes were associated with overseas assignment. Given the increased frequency and length of assignments, and the expanding HIV genetic diversity observed in this population, there is a need for active HIV genotyping surveillance and a need to reinforce primary HIV prevention efforts.

  12. The role of social support on HIV testing and treatment adherence: A qualitative study of HIV-infected refugees in southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Shada A; O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Faustin, Zikama M; Tsai, Alexander C; Kasozi, Julius; Ware, Norma C

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the factors that encourage or discourage refugees to test for HIV, or to access and adhere to HIV care. In non-refugee populations, social support has been shown to influence HIV testing and utilisation of services. The present study enrolled HIV-infected refugees on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda, who participated in qualitative interviews on HIV testing, treatment, and adherence. Interviews were analysed for themes about four types of social support: emotional, informational, instrumental, and appraisal support. A total of 61 interviews were analysed. Four roles for these types of social support were identified: (1) informational support encouraged refugees to test for HIV; (2) emotional support helped refugees cope with a diagnosis of HIV; (3) instrumental support facilitated adherence to ART and (4) after diagnosis, HIV-infected refugees provided informational and emotional support to encourage other refugees to test for HIV. These results suggest that social support influences HIV testing and treatment among refugees. Future interventions should capitalise on social support within a refugee settlement to facilitate testing and treatment.

  13. Malignancies in HIV-Infected and AIDS Patients.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongjia; Lu, Hongzhou

    2017-01-01

    Currently, HIV infection and AIDS are still one of the most important epidemic diseases around the world. As early in the initial stage of HIV epidemic, the high incidence of ADCs including Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was the substantial amount of disease burden of HIV infection and AIDS. With the increasing accessibility of HAART and improving medical care for HIV infection and AIDS, AIDS-related illness including ADCs has dramatically decreased. Meanwhile, the incidence of NADCs rises in PLWH. Compared with the general population, most of cancers are more likely to attack PLWH, and NADCs in PLWH were characterized as earlier onset and more aggressive. However, the understanding for cancer development in PLWH is still dimness. Herein, we reviewed the current knowledge of epidemiology and pathogenesis for malignancies in PLWH summarized from recent studies. On the basis of that, we discussed the special considerations for cancer treatment in PLWH. As those malignancies could be the major issue for HIV infection or AIDS in the future, we expect enhanced investigations, surveillances, and clinical trial for improving the understanding and management for cancers developed in PLWH.

  14. Rethinking the Heterosexual Infectivity of HIV-1: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Kimberly A.; Poole, Charles; Pettifor, Audrey E.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of cumulative HIV incidence suggest that co-factors such as genital ulcer disease (GUD), HIV disease stage, and circumcision influence HIV transmission; however, the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 is commonly cited as a fixed value (∼0·001, or 1 transmission per thousand contacts). We sought to estimate transmission co-factor effects on the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 and to quantify the extent to which study methods have affected infectivity estimates. Methods We conducted a systematic search (through April 2008) of PubMed, Web of Science, and relevant bibliographies to identify articles estimating the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1. We used meta-regression and stratified random-effects meta-analysis to assess differences in infectivity by co-factors and study methods. Findings Infectivity estimates were extremely heterogeneous, ranging from zero transmissions after more than 100 penile-vaginal contacts in some sero-discordant couples to one transmission for every 3·1 episodes of heterosexual anal intercourse. Estimates were only weakly associated with study methods. Infectivity differences (95% confidence intervals), expressed as number of transmissions per 1000 contacts, were 8 (0-16) comparing uncircumcised to circumcised male susceptibles, 6 (3-9) comparing susceptible individuals with and without GUD, 2 (1-3) comparing late-stage to mid-stage index cases, and 3 (0-5) comparing early-stage to mid-stage index cases. Interpretation A single value for the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 fails to reflect the variation associated with important co-factors. The commonly cited value of ∼0·001 was estimated among stable couples with low prevalences of high-risk co-factors, and represents a lower bound. Co-factor effects are important to include in epidemic models, policy considerations, and prevention messages. PMID:18684670

  15. Risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children attending HIV care and treatment clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Makubi, Abel N; Mugus, Ferdinand; Magesa, Pius M; Roberts, David; Quaresh, Amrana

    2012-01-01

    There is paucity of data describing the risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children in Tanzania. This cross sectional study aimed at determining the contributing factors for anaemia among HIV-infected children attending Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify possible factors associated with anaemia in HIV-infected children. In this study a total of 75 (44%) patients among 167 recruited HIV children aged 6 months to 59 months were found to be anaemic (Hg<11 g/dl). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that not being on HAART (OR 3.40, 95%CI (1.20-9.60), having CD4% <25% (OR 2.30, 95%CI (1.20-34.60), having a history of tuberculosis (TB) (OR 3.23, 95%CI (1.10-9.70) and having hookworm infestation (OR 5.97, 95%CI (1.92-18.4) were independent risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children. The analyses also showed that being HIV positive for ≥ 2.5 years resulted into a low risk of severe anaemia compared to being HIV positive for < 2.5 years. Taking multivitamins (OR 0.07, 95%, CI (0.020-0.30) and antihelminthics (OR 0.27, 95%CI (0.10-0.74) were also protective against anaemia in children. Similar factors (with exception of using antihelmintics) were associated with severe anaemia. In conclusion the factors associated with anaemia in HIV infected children were multifactorial in nature. Efforts to correct anaemia in HIV infected children should include use of HAART and treatment of infections such as TB and hookworms.

  16. Prevalence of Pulmonary tuberculosis and immunological profile of HIV co-infected patients in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, as high as 2/3 of tuberculosis patients are HIV/AIDS co-infected and tuberculosis is the most common cause of death among HIV/AIDS patients worldwide. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infections are associated with special diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and constitute an immense burden on healthcare systems of heavily infected countries like Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis and their immunologic profiles among HIV positive patients. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among adult HIV-positive patients attending HIV/AIDS clinic of Gondar University Hospital. Clinical and laboratory investigations including chest x-ray and acid fast staining were used to identify tuberculosis cases. Blood samples were collected to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of study subjects. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Results A total of 400 HIV positive study participants were enrolled. Thirty (7.5%, 95%CI: 5.2-10.6%) of the study participants were found to have pulmonary tuberculosis. In multivariate analysis, only CD4+ lymphocyte count (AOR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.002-8.368) was found to be independently associated with tuberculosis-HIV co-infection. Individuals who had advanced WHO clinical stage were also statistically significant for co-infection. The mean CD4+ lymphocyte count of HIV mono-infected participants were 296 ± 192 Cells/mm3 and tuberculosis-HIV co-infected patients had mean CD4+ lymphocyte count of 199 ± 149 Cells/mm3 with p value of 0.007. Conclusions We found high prevalence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection. Lower CD4+ lymphocyte count was found to be the only predicting factor for co-infection. Early detection of co-infection is very necessary to prolong their ART initiation time and by then strengthening their immune status. PMID:22738361

  17. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of HIV Infection/AIDS in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmetagic, Sead; Porobić-Jahic, Humera; Piljic, Dilista; Custovic, Amer; Sabitovic, Damir; Zepic, Denis

    2015-02-01

    More than three decades after recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States, the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has dramatically changed the global burden of disease. The main goal of this research is retrospective analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 28 HIV infected patients, who were diagnosed and treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in University Clinical Center Tuzla in the period from 1996 until the end of 2013. Retrospective analysis was performed using the medical records of 28 HIV-infected persons. Two rapid tests were used for HIV testing: OraQuick Advance test, Vikia HIV1/2, Elisa combo test, HIV RNA test. AIDS disease was determined by using the criteria from WHO. Among a total of 28 HIV-infected persons, 23 (82.14%) were males and 5 (17.86%) were females, with the male: female ratio of 4,6:1. In terms of the transmission route, a large proportion of cases were infected through heterosexual contact 19 (67.86%). At the time of the first visit, 16 (57.15%) patients showed asymptomatic HIV infection, 4 (14.28%) HIV infection with symptoms other than the AIDS defining diseases, and 8 (28.57) had AIDS. At the time of first hospital visit, the CD4 + cells count ranged from 40 to 1795/µl (conducted in 19 patients), and mean value of CD4 + cells was 365,31/µl, and mean HIV RNA titer was 287 118 copies/ml³. Of 28 HIV-infected persons 39 cases of opportunistic diseases developed in 12 patients (42.9%). In terms of the frequency of opportunistic diseases, tuberculosis (12 cases, 42.9%). Among a total of 28 HIV-infected patients, 6 (21.4%) of them died. This study characterizes the epidemiological and clinical patterns of HIV-infected patients in Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina to accurately understand HIV infection/AIDS in our region, in the hope to contribute in the establishment of effective HIV guidelines in the Tuzla region of B&H in the future.

  18. Prevalence, risk factors, and impact of isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khamduang, Woottichai; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Jourdain, Gonzague; Suwankornsakul, Weerapong; Jarupanich, Tapnarong; Chalermpolprapa, Veeradate; Nanta, Sirisak; Puarattana-Aroonkorn, Noossara; Tonmat, Sakchai; Lallemant, Marc; Goudeau, Alain; Sirirungsi, Wasna

    2013-06-01

    Prevalence and risk factors for isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not well known in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected pregnant women. It is unclear if women with occult infections are at risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. HIV-1-infected and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative pregnant women were tested for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and anti-HBc using enzyme immunoassay. Women with isolated anti-HBc were assessed for occult HBV infection, defined as HBV DNA levels >15 IU/mL, using the Abbott RealTime HBV DNA assay. Infants born to women with isolated anti-HBc and detectable HBV DNA were tested at 4 months of age for HBV DNA. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection. Among 1812 HIV-infected pregnant women, 1682 were HBsAg negative. Fourteen percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-15%) of HBsAg-negative women had an isolated anti-HBc that was independently associated with low CD4 count, age >35 years, birth in northern Thailand, and positive anti-hepatitis C virus serology. Occult HBV infection was identified in 24% (95% CI, 18%-30%) of women with isolated anti-HBc, representing 2.6% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.5%) of HIV-1-infected pregnant women, and was inversely associated with HIV RNA levels. None of the women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection transmitted HBV to their infants. HIV-1-infected pregnant women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection have very low HBV DNA levels and are thus at very low risk to transmit HBV to their infants.

  19. Cancer Treatment in Patients With HIV Infection and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers: A Survey of US Oncologists.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Gita; Boyer, Matthew; Yehia, Baligh R; Shiels, Meredith S; Engels, Eric A; Bekelman, Justin E; Long, Judith A

    2015-05-01

    HIV-infected individuals with non-AIDS-defining cancers are less likely to receive cancer treatment compared with uninfected individuals. We sought to identify provider-level factors influencing the delivery of oncology care to HIV-infected patients. A survey was mailed to 500 randomly selected US medical and radiation oncologists. The primary outcome was delivery of standard treatment, assessed by responses to three specialty-specific management questions. We used the χ(2) test to evaluate associations between delivery of standard treatment, provider demographics, and perceptions of HIV-infected individuals. Multivariable logistic regression identified associations using factor analysis to combine several correlated survey questions. Our response rate was 60%; 69% of respondents felt that available cancer management guidelines were insufficient for the care of HIV-infected patients with cancer; 45% never or rarely discussed their cancer management plan with an HIV specialist; 20% and 15% of providers were not comfortable discussing cancer treatment adverse effects and prognosis with their HIV-infected patients with cancer, respectively; 79% indicated that they would provide standard cancer treatment to HIV-infected patients. In multivariable analysis, physicians comfortable discussing adverse effects and prognosis were more likely to provide standard cancer treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.07). Physicians with concerns about toxicity and efficacy of treatment were significantly less likely to provide standard cancer treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.85). Provider-level factors are associated with delivery of nonstandard cancer treatment to HIV-infected patients. Policy change, provider education, and multidisciplinary collaboration are needed to improve access to cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in HIV-infected males.

    PubMed

    Torti, Carlo; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Soldini, Pier Antonio; Focà, Emanuele; Maroldi, Roberto; Gotti, Daria; Carosi, Giampiero; Giustina, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Age-related co-morbidities including osteoporosis are relevant in patients responding to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Vertebral fractures are common osteoporotic fractures and their diagnosis is useful for managing at-risk individuals. However, there are few data from HIV-infected patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with vertebral fractures in a population of HIV-infected males. A cross-sectional study of 160 HIV-infected patients with available chest X-rays was conducted from 1998 to 2010. One hundred and sixty-three males with comparable age and with no history of HIV infection were recruited as controls. Semi-quantitative evaluation of vertebral heights in lateral chest X-rays and quantitative morphometry assessment of centrally digitized images using dedicated morphometry software were utilized to detect prevalent vertebral fractures. The result showed that the vertebral fractures were detected in 43/160 (26.9%) HIV-infected patients and in 21/163 (12.9%) controls (P = 0.002). In HIV-infected patients with fractures, 27 had two or more fractures and ten patients had severe fractures. The prevalence of any fractures and multiple fractures in HIV-infected patients receiving cART (29.6 and 20.0%) was slightly higher than in HIV-infected patients not exposed to cART (17.1 and 5.7%), but significantly higher than control subjects (12.9 and 3.7%). At multivariable analyses, body mass index and diabetes mellitus were independently correlated with vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that a significant proportion of HIV-infected males receiving cART showed vertebral fractures. Furthermore, proactive diagnosis of vertebral fragility fractures is particularly relevant in patients who are overweight or suffer from diabetes.

  1. Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among married Indian women.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Raj, Anita

    2008-08-13

    Despite reductions in prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among the general population of India, women account for a rising percentage of all HIV cases with husbands' risk behavior described as the major source of women's infection. Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been described as being associated with heterosexual transmission of HIV to women in India and elsewhere. To assess the relationship between experiencing IPV and the occurrence of HIV infection in a nationally representative sample of married Indian women tested for HIV. The Indian National Family Health Survey 3 was conducted across all Indian states in 2005 through 2006. The nationally representative sample included 124,385 married women; analyses conducted in 2007 and 2008 were limited to 28,139 married women who provided IPV data and HIV test results via systematic selection into respective subsamples. Prevalence estimates of lifetime IPV and HIV infection were calculated and demographic differences assessed. Intimate partner violence was conceptualized as physical violence with or without sexual violence and then was further categorized as physical violence only vs physical and sexual violence. Regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for HIV infection among Indian women based on experiences of IPV after adjusting for demographics and women's HIV risk behaviors. One-third of married Indian women (35.49%) reported experiencing physical IPV with or without sexual violence from their husbands; 7.68% reported both physical and sexual IPV, and 27.80% reported experiencing physical IPV in the absence of sexual violence. Approximately 1 in 450 women (0.22%) tested positive for HIV. In adjusted models, married Indian women experiencing both physical and sexual violence from husbands demonstrated elevated HIV infection prevalence vs those not experiencing IPV (0.73% vs 0.19%; adjusted OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.41-10.94; P = .01

  2. HIV sequence diversity during the early phase of infection is associated with HIV DNA reductions during antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nidan; Li, Yijia; Han, Yang; Xie, Jing; Li, Taisheng

    2017-06-01

    The association between baseline human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sequence diversity and HIV DNA decay after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains uncharacterized during the early stages of HIV infection. Samples were obtained from a cohort of 17 patients with early HIV infection (<6 months after infection) who initiated ART, and the C2V5 region of the HIV-1 envelope (env) gene was amplified via single genome amplification (SGA) to determine the peripheral plasma HIV quasispecies. We categorized HIV quasispecies into two groups according to baseline viral sequence genetic distance, which was determined by the Poisson-Fitter tool. Total HIV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), viral load, and T cell subsets were measured prior to and after the initiation of ART. The median SGA sequence number was 17 (range 6-28). At baseline, we identified 7 patients with homogeneous viral populations (designated the Homogeneous group) and 10 patients with heterogeneous viral populations (designated the Heterogeneous group) based on SGA sequences. Both groups exhibited similar HIV DNA decay rates during the first 6 months of ART (P > 0.99), but the Homogenous group experienced more prominent decay than the Heterogeneous group after 6 months (P = 0.037). The Heterogeneous group had highe