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Sample records for identifying carcinogenic activity

  1. Identifying and regulating carcinogens. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Contents include: Introduction and summary; policies for testing, assessing, and regulating carcinogens; federal agency assessment and regulation of carcinogens; the national toxicology program; agency responses to the annual report on carcinogens and NCI/NTP test results; statutory authority for regulating carcinogens; chemicals listed in annual report on carcinogens and NCI/NTP test results.

  2. Two types of putative preneoplastic lesions identified by hexosaminidase activity in whole-mounts of colons from F344 rats treated with carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Pretlow, T P; O'Riordan, M A; Spancake, K M; Pretlow, T G

    1993-06-01

    Previous studies identified as putative preneoplastic lesions 1) enzyme-altered foci in sections of methacrylate-embedded colon and 2) aberrant crypts in methylene blue-stained unembedded (whole-mount) colon and established that aberrant crypts embedded in methacrylate had enzyme alterations. We have now studied histochemically demonstrable hexosaminidase activity in unembedded or whole-mount preparations of colons from carcinogen-treated rats. These preparations have revealed two populations of crypts that are enzyme-altered: those that are morphologically altered or aberrant and those that are morphologically normal. Both populations can be quantified rigorously in less than an hour with whole-mount preparations reacted for hexosaminidase. The demonstration of phenotypic characteristics with histochemical techniques in whole-mount preparations should have wide applicability to functional studies in many normal and diseased tissues.

  3. Two types of putative preneoplastic lesions identified by hexosaminidase activity in whole-mounts of colons from F344 rats treated with carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Pretlow, T. P.; O'Riordan, M. A.; Spancake, K. M.; Pretlow, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies identified as putative preneoplastic lesions 1) enzyme-altered foci in sections of methacrylate-embedded colon and 2) aberrant crypts in methylene blue-stained unembedded (whole-mount) colon and established that aberrant crypts embedded in methacrylate had enzyme alterations. We have now studied histochemically demonstrable hexosaminidase activity in unembedded or whole-mount preparations of colons from carcinogen-treated rats. These preparations have revealed two populations of crypts that are enzyme-altered: those that are morphologically altered or aberrant and those that are morphologically normal. Both populations can be quantified rigorously in less than an hour with whole-mount preparations reacted for hexosaminidase. The demonstration of phenotypic characteristics with histochemical techniques in whole-mount preparations should have wide applicability to functional studies in many normal and diseased tissues. Images Figure 1 PMID:8506941

  4. Small fish models for identifying carcinogens in the aqueous environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W.E.; Overstreet, R.M.; Walker, W.W.

    1988-10-01

    Contaminants in water and sediments can be carcinogenic to aquatic wildlife as well as humans. Identifying those carcinogens, however, is difficult because they often occur in low concentrations and exert their effects over a large part of the life span of affected organisms. Furthermore, the carcinogens are often components of complex mixtures. Recent studies suggest that laboratory-reared fish species might be well suited for testing water-associated and other carcinogens. Here, we review the principal carcinogen exposure methods that utilize small fish species or can be adapted to utilize small fish species to detect carcinogens in aqueous environments. Emphasis is placedmore » on methods for which the end-point is tumor induction. The methods discussed are dietary exposures, skin painting, embryo microinjection, early life stage (pulse) exposures, static water exposures, flow-through exposures, and controlled field exposures. Early life stage exposures seem to have the greatest utility with regard to carcinogen sensitivity, ease of administration, disposal of test compounds, and economy of materials and effort. For certain types of carcinogens, however, long-term flow-through exposures are probably required. In summary, small fish carcinogenesis models offer an array of methodologies that can be utilized in a variety of combinations depending on compounds tested, exposure parameters employed, and end point sought.« less

  5. Identifying occupational carcinogens: an update from the IARC Monographs.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Dana; Guha, Neela; Hall, Amy L; Straif, Kurt

    2018-05-16

    The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations. Selected agents were substances, mixtures or types of radiation classified in IARC Group 1 with 'sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity' in humans from studies of exposed workers and evidence of occupational exposure documented in the pertinent monograph. The number of known occupational carcinogens has increased over time: 47 agents were identified as known occupational carcinogens in 2017 compared with 28 in 2004. These estimates are conservative and likely underestimate the number of carcinogenic agents present in workplaces. Exposure to these agents causes a wide range of cancers; cancers of the lung and other respiratory sites, followed by skin, account for the largest proportion. The dominant routes of exposure are inhalation and dermal contact. Important progress has been made in identifying occupational carcinogens; nevertheless, there is an ongoing need for research on the causes of work-related cancer. Most workplace exposures have not been evaluated for their carcinogenic potential due to inadequate epidemiologic evidence and a paucity of quantitative exposure data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. MOUSE LIVER TUMOR DATA: ASSESSMENT OF CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant number of chemicals have been shown to be carcinogenic in mouse liver while lacking carcinogenic activity in other organs or tissues of mice or rats. The review focus on the reasons for the unique susceptibility of the mouse liver to these carcinogens, and the exten...

  7. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscapemore » software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.« less

  8. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, T; Flint, Y B; Blank, M; Etkin, S; Lavi, S

    1988-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later. Images PMID:2835673

  9. Genomic Models of Short-Term Exposure Accurately Predict Long-Term Chemical Carcinogenicity and Identify Putative Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Gusenleitner, Daniel; Auerbach, Scott S.; Melia, Tisha; Gómez, Harold F.; Sherr, David H.; Monti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an overall decrease in incidence of and mortality from cancer, about 40% of Americans will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime, and around 20% will die of it. Current approaches to test carcinogenic chemicals adopt the 2-year rodent bioassay, which is costly and time-consuming. As a result, fewer than 2% of the chemicals on the market have actually been tested. However, evidence accumulated to date suggests that gene expression profiles from model organisms exposed to chemical compounds reflect underlying mechanisms of action, and that these toxicogenomic models could be used in the prediction of chemical carcinogenicity. Results In this study, we used a rat-based microarray dataset from the NTP DrugMatrix Database to test the ability of toxicogenomics to model carcinogenicity. We analyzed 1,221 gene-expression profiles obtained from rats treated with 127 well-characterized compounds, including genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. We built a classifier that predicts a chemical's carcinogenic potential with an AUC of 0.78, and validated it on an independent dataset from the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project consisting of 2,065 profiles from 72 compounds. Finally, we identified differentially expressed genes associated with chemical carcinogenesis, and developed novel data-driven approaches for the molecular characterization of the response to chemical stressors. Conclusion Here, we validate a toxicogenomic approach to predict carcinogenicity and provide strong evidence that, with a larger set of compounds, we should be able to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions. We found that the prediction of carcinogenicity is tissue-dependent and that the results also confirm and expand upon previous studies implicating DNA damage, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and regenerative pathology in the response to carcinogen exposure. PMID:25058030

  10. Identifying carcinogens: the tobacco industry and regulatory politics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel M; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    The process of identifying carcinogens for purposes of health and safety regulation has been contested internationally. The U.S. government produces a "Report on Carcinogens" every two years, which lists known and likely human carcinogenic substances. In the late 1990s the tobacco industry responded to the proposed listing of secondhand smoke with a multi-part strategy. Despite industry efforts to challenge both the substance of the report and the agency procedures, environmental tobacco smoke was declared by the agency in 2000 to be a known human carcinogen. A subsequent lawsuit, launched by chemical interests but linked to the tobacco industry, failed, but it produced a particular legal precedent of judicial review that is favorable to all regulated industries. The authors argue that, in this case, tobacco industry regulation contradicts academic expectations of business regulatory victories. However, the tobacco industry's participation in the regulatory process influenced the process in favor of all regulated industry.

  11. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Syrian hamster embryo cells transformation assay identifies efficiently nongenotoxic carcinogens, and can contribute to alternative, integrated testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    The long-term carcinogenesis bioassays have played a central role in protecting human health, but for ethical and practical reasons their use is dramatically diminishing and the genotoxicity short-term tests have taken the pivotal role in the pre-screening of chemical carcinogenicity. However, this strategy cannot detect nongenotoxic carcinogens. Since up to 25% of IARC human carcinogens are recognized to have nongenotoxic mechanisms of action, the risk they pose to human health cannot be disregarded, and it is urgent to fill the gap in the tools for alternative testing. In this paper, we analyze from different perspectives the ability of Cell Transformation Assays to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens, and we conclude that the Syrian hamster embryo cells test is able to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens with 80-90% efficiency, and thus, can play an important role in integrated, alternative testing strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a rat tracheal epithelial cell culture assay system to identify respiratory carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, V.E.; Arnold, J.T.; Arnold, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate a short-term epithelial cell assay system to detect respiratory carcinogens, primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells were exposed to a series of 17 compounds and scored for morphologically transformed cell colonies 28 days later. The test compounds included known carcinogens and noncarcinogens in volatile or liquid form. Tracheal epithelial cells were isolate from F344 rats, plated onto collagen-coated dishes, and exposed to the test compounds on day 1 for 24 hours. At day 30 the cultures were fixed, stained, and scored for colonies having a density greater than 1,300 cells/mm{sup 2}. With standardized protocols, such colonies aremore » very infrequent in media and solvent control cultures. Concentration levels for each chemical were chosen over a range from nontoxic to toxic levels. Highly positive compounds in this assay included benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(l)aceanthrylene, 3-methylcholanthrene, and formaldehyde. Compounds which were negative in this assay included pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide. Examining the concordance of in vitro results with whole animal carcinogenesis studies revealed an accuracy of 88% with one false-positive and one false-negative compound. The results of these studies indicate that the rat tracheal epithelial cell assay may be useful in identifying potential respiratory carcinogens in our environment.« less

  14. The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F; Davis, Devra Lee

    2008-11-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses-aspartame, cadmium, and toluene-suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives.

  15. The Limits of Two-Year Bioassay Exposure Regimens for Identifying Chemical Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F.; Davis, Devra Lee

    2008-01-01

    Background Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. Objectives In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Discussion Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses—aspartame, cadmium, and toluene—suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Conclusions Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives. PMID:19057693

  16. Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models to Predict the Carcinogenic Potency of Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to either: (1) identify alternative toxicity measures (shorter duration) that may be used as...

  17. Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yongbaek; Thai-Vu Ton; De Angelo, Anthony B.

    2006-07-15

    This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo arrays, with over 20,000 target genes, were used to evaluate o-NT- and BCA-induced RPMs, when compared to a non-transformed mesothelial cell line (Fred-PE). Analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software revealed 169 cancer-related genes that were categorized into binding activity, growth and proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and invasion and metastasis. The microarray data were validated by positive correlation with quantitative real-time RT-PCRmore » on 16 selected genes including igf1, tgfb3 and nov. Important carcinogenic pathways involved in RPM formation included insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), p38 MAPkinase, Wnt/{beta}-catenin and integrin signaling pathways. This study demonstrated that mesotheliomas in rats exposed to o-NT- and BCA were similar to mesotheliomas in humans, at least at the cellular and molecular level.« less

  18. Antioxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Lambert, Joshua D; Sang, Shengmin

    2009-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace), a popular beverage consumed world-wide, has been studied for its preventive effects against cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other diseases. Most of the proposed beneficial effects have been attributed to the polyphenolic compounds in tea, but the nature of these activities and the molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Tea polyphenols are known to be strong antioxidants. Prevention of oxidative stress, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, and prevention of DNA damage have been suggested as possible cancer preventive mechanisms for tea and tea polyphenols. In this chapter, we discuss these topics in the light of biotransformation and bioavailability of tea polyphenols. We also review the preventive effects of tea polyphenols in animal models of carcinogenesis and some of the possible post-initiation mechanisms of action. Finally, we discuss the effects of tea consumption on cancer risk in humans. It is our aim to raise some of the unanswered questions regarding cancer prevention by tea and to stimulate further research in this area.

  19. Aberrant activation of ubiquitin D at G2 phase and apoptosis by carcinogens that evoke cell proliferation after 28-day administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Taniai, Eriko; Yafune, Atsunori; Hayashi, Hitomi; Itahashi, Megu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that renal carcinogens examined in rats increase tubular cell proliferation and topoisomerase (Topo) IIα(+) cells. The present study was aimed at identifying early prediction markers of carcinogens after 28-day treatment in rats. Following gene expression screening by microarrays in renal tubules with renal carcinogens, immunohistochemical analysis and TUNEL-assay were performed with carcinogens targeting different organs. All renal carcinogens tested (ferric nitrilotriacetic acid, ochratoxin A (OTA), monuron, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and potassium bromate) increased tubular cells immunoreactive for minichromosome maintenance 3 (Mcm3) or ubiquitin D (Ubd) or those showing apoptosis, compared with untreated controls or non-carcinogenic renal toxicants. Carcinogens targeting the liver (thioacetamide (TAA), fenbendazole, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and methyleugenol), thyroid (sulfadimethoxine), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), forestomach (butylated hydroxyanisole), glandular stomach (catechol), and colon (chenodeoxycholic acid and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) were examined for induction of Mcm3, Ubd, Topo IIα, Ki-67 and apoptosis using non-carcinogenic toxicants as negative controls. All carcinogens increased Mcm3(+), Ubd(+), Topo IIα(+), Ki-67(+) or TUNEL(+) cells, except for hepatocarcinogen PBO and both colon carcinogens, which did not increase cell proliferation. Ubd(+) cells co-expressing Topo IIα was increased without changing phospho-Histone H3-co-expressing cell population as examined with OTA and TAA. Results revealed cooperative responses of Topo IIα, Ubd and apoptosis by carcinogens inducing high proliferation activity, irrespective of target organs, examined here after a 28-day administration. Aberrant expression of Ubd at G(2) phase and increased apoptosis reflecting aberrant cell cycle regulation may be the common feature of these carcinogens.

  20. Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo a...

  1. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION: EFFICIENCY OF SHORT-TERM TESTS IN IDENTIFYING GERM CELL MUTAGENS AND PUTATIVE NONGENOTOXIC CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than a decade, mutagenicity tests have had a clearly defined role in the identification of potential human mutagens and an ancillary role in the identification of potential human carcinogens. he efficiency of short-term tests in identifying germ cell mutagens has been ex...

  2. Mutagenic activation reduces carcinogenic activity of ortho-aminoazotoluene for mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova, L P; Bogdanova, L A; Kaledin, V I

    2013-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (aromatic amine and azo stain metabolic stimulation inhibitor) reduced the hepatocarcinogenic activity of 4-aminoazobenzene and reduced that of ortho-aminoazotoluene in suckling mice. Both 4-aminoazobenzene and ortho-aminoazotoluene exhibited mutagenic activity in Ames' test in vitro on S. typhimurium TA 98 strain with activation with liver enzymes; this mutagenic activity was similarly suppressed by adding pentachlorophenol into activation medium. Induction of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes, stimulating the mutagenic activity of ortho-aminoazotoluene, suppressed its carcinogenic effect on mouse liver. Hence, ortho-aminotoluene (the initial compound), but not its mutagenic metabolites, was the direct active hepatocarcinogen for mice.

  3. Cell-type-dependent activities of regulatory regions and E2 proteins derived from carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human alphapapillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Astrid; Straub, Elke; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2013-06-01

    A large number of studies have revealed that persistent infections with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types are necessary for the development of invasive cancer of the cervix. Recent studies have shown that not only do the major carcinogenic HPV types 16 and 18 encode E6 and E7 oncoproteins with immortalizing activity but also the very weakly or non-carcinogenic types 53, 66, 70 and 82. Currently, it is unknown whether transcriptional differences exist between these viruses that account for carcinogenicity in vivo. Therefore, we compared for the first time the activities of the upstream regulatory regions (URRs) that drive E6 and E7 expression derived from HPV16, -18, -31, -53, -66, -70 and -82 in the absence and presence of the viral E2 transcriptional regulator. URR activities in the absence of E2 varied widely and were further modulated by the cellular background. The co-expression of homologous E2 proteins resulted in repression of the URRs of only some HPV types and this varied with cell type. Activation by E2 proteins was less cell-type dependent but differed in an HPV-type-dependent manner. However, basal URR activity, repression of the URR by E2 and transcriptional activation by E2 did not correlate with HPV carcinogenicity in vivo. In summary, our data do not support the model that the transcriptional activity of human alphapapillomavirus types correlates with epidemiological risk classification.

  4. Aberrant activation of M phase proteins by cell proliferation-evoking carcinogens after 28-day administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Yafune, Atsunori; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2013-06-07

    We have previously reported that hepatocarcinogens increase liver cells expressing p21(Cip1), a G1 checkpoint protein and M phase proteins after 28-day treatment in rats. This study aimed to identify early prediction markers of carcinogens available in many target organs after 28-day treatment in rats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on Ki-67, p21(Cip1) and M phase proteins [nuclear Cdc2, phospho-Histone H3 (p-Histone H3), Aurora B and heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α)] with carcinogens targeting different organs. Carcinogens targeting thyroid (sulfadimethoxine; SDM), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), forestomach (butylated hydroxyanisole; BHA), glandular stomach (catechol; CC), and colon (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and chenodeoxycholic acid) were examined using a non-carcinogenic toxicant (caprolactam) and carcinogens targeting other organs as negative controls. All carcinogens increased Ki-67(+), nuclear Cdc2(+), p-Histone H3(+) or Aurora B(+) carcinogenic target cells, except for both colon carcinogens, which did not increase cell proliferation. On the other hand, p21(Cip1+) cells increased with SDM and CC. HP1α responded only to BHA. Results revealed carcinogens evoking cell proliferation concurrently induced cell cycle arrest at M phase or showing chromosomal instability reflecting aberration in cell cycle regulation, irrespective of target organs, after 28-day treatment. Therefore, M phase proteins may be early prediction markers of carcinogens evoking cell proliferation in many target organs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (SARS) AMONG MUTAGENS AND CARCINOGENS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The review is an introduction to methods for evaluating structure-activity relationships (SARs), and, in particular, to those methods that have been applied to study mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. A brief history and some background material on the earliest attempts to correla...

  6. IARC classes 1 and 2 carcinogens are successfully identified by an alternative strategy that detects DNA-reactivity and cell transformation ability of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Tcheremenskaia, Olga

    2013-12-12

    For decades, traditional toxicology has been the ultimate source of information on the carcinogenic potential of chemicals; however with increasing demand on regulation of chemicals and decreasing resources for testing, opportunities to accept "alternative" approaches have dramatically expanded. The need for tools able to identify carcinogens in shorter times and at a lower cost in terms of animal lives and money is still an open issue, and the present strategies and regulations for carcinogenicity pre-screening do not adequately protect human health. In previous papers, we have proposed an integrated in vitro/in silico strategy that detects DNA-reactivity and tissue disorganization/disruption by chemicals, and we have shown that the combination of Salmonella and Structural Alerts for the DNA-reactive carcinogens, and in vitro cell transformation assays for nongenotoxic carcinogens permits the identification of a very large proportion (up to 95%) of rodent carcinogens, while having a considerable specificity with the rodent noncarcinogens. In the present paper we expand the previous investigation and show that this alternative strategy identifies correctly IARC Classes 1 and 2 carcinogens. If implemented, this alternative strategy can contribute to improve the protection of human health while decreasing the use of animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Activation of aminoimidazole carcinogens by nitrosation: mutagenicity and nucleotide adducts

    PubMed Central

    Zenser, Terry V.; Lakshmi, Vijaya M.; Schut, Herman A. J.; Zhou, Hui-jia; Josephy, P. David

    2009-01-01

    2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are heterocyclic amines (HCA) derived from high temperature cooking of meat and thought to cause colon cancer in humans. Reactive nitrogen oxygen species, which are mediators of the inflammatory response, can convert these amines to the corresponding N-nitrosamines, N-NO-IQ and N-NO-MeIQx. This study was designed to evaluate whether these N-nitrosamines are genotoxic and could be responsible, in part, for the high incidence of colon cancer in individuals with colitis. Such an association would counsel reduced intake of well-done red meat by colitis patients. Mutagenicity was evaluated by reversion of a lacZ frameshift allele in three different E. coli strains. Strains DJ701 and DJ702 express recombinant (S. typhimurium) aromatic amine N-acetyltransferase; DJ702 also expresses recombinant human cytochrome P450 1A2 and NADPH-P450 reductase; and DJ2002 served as an N-acetyltransferase-negative control. In strain DJ701, N-NO-IQ and N-NO-MeIQx elicited dose-dependent mutagenicity, which was not further increased in DJ702. Neither nitrosamine was mutagenic in strain DJ2002. While both N-nitrosamines are stable for >4 hours (pH 7.4, 37°C), they react with DNA or 2′-deoxyguanosine 3′-monophosphate at lower pH (5.5) to form adducts. HOCl, a component of the inflammatory response, increased adduct formation, as measured by 32P-postlabeling. Following treatment with nuclease P1 and separation by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and then HPLC, N-NO-IQ and N-NO-MeIQx were shown to form the same adducts as those formed by N-OH-MeIQx or N-OH-IQ, namely N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) adducts. In summary, these N-nitrosamines are genotoxic and might be alternatives to their hydroxylamine analogues as activated intermediates leading to initiation of colon cancer in individuals with colitis. PMID:19449459

  8. Global structure–activity relationship model for nonmutagenic carcinogens using virtual ligand-protein interactions as model descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Albert R.; Trent, John O.

    2012-01-01

    Structure–activity relationship (SAR) models are powerful tools to investigate the mechanisms of action of chemical carcinogens and to predict the potential carcinogenicity of untested compounds. We describe the use of a traditional fragment-based SAR approach along with a new virtual ligand-protein interaction-based approach for modeling of nonmutagenic carcinogens. The ligand-based SAR models used descriptors derived from computationally calculated ligand-binding affinities for learning set agents to 5495 proteins. Two learning sets were developed. One set was from the Carcinogenic Potency Database, where chemicals tested for rat carcinogenesis along with Salmonella mutagenicity data were provided. The second was from Malacarne et al. who developed a learning set of nonalerting compounds based on rodent cancer bioassay data and Ashby’s structural alerts. When the rat cancer models were categorized based on mutagenicity, the traditional fragment model outperformed the ligand-based model. However, when the learning sets were composed solely of nonmutagenic or nonalerting carcinogens and noncarcinogens, the fragment model demonstrated a concordance of near 50%, whereas the ligand-based models demonstrated a concordance of 71% for nonmutagenic carcinogens and 74% for nonalerting carcinogens. Overall, these findings suggest that expert system analysis of virtual chemical protein interactions may be useful for developing predictive SAR models for nonmutagenic carcinogens. Moreover, a more practical approach for developing SAR models for carcinogenesis may include fragment-based models for chemicals testing positive for mutagenicity and ligand-based models for chemicals devoid of DNA reactivity. PMID:22678118

  9. Global structure-activity relationship model for nonmutagenic carcinogens using virtual ligand-protein interactions as model descriptors.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Albert R; Carrasquer, C Alex; Qamar, Shahid; Maguire, Jon M; Cunningham, Suzanne L; Trent, John O

    2012-10-01

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) models are powerful tools to investigate the mechanisms of action of chemical carcinogens and to predict the potential carcinogenicity of untested compounds. We describe the use of a traditional fragment-based SAR approach along with a new virtual ligand-protein interaction-based approach for modeling of nonmutagenic carcinogens. The ligand-based SAR models used descriptors derived from computationally calculated ligand-binding affinities for learning set agents to 5495 proteins. Two learning sets were developed. One set was from the Carcinogenic Potency Database, where chemicals tested for rat carcinogenesis along with Salmonella mutagenicity data were provided. The second was from Malacarne et al. who developed a learning set of nonalerting compounds based on rodent cancer bioassay data and Ashby's structural alerts. When the rat cancer models were categorized based on mutagenicity, the traditional fragment model outperformed the ligand-based model. However, when the learning sets were composed solely of nonmutagenic or nonalerting carcinogens and noncarcinogens, the fragment model demonstrated a concordance of near 50%, whereas the ligand-based models demonstrated a concordance of 71% for nonmutagenic carcinogens and 74% for nonalerting carcinogens. Overall, these findings suggest that expert system analysis of virtual chemical protein interactions may be useful for developing predictive SAR models for nonmutagenic carcinogens. Moreover, a more practical approach for developing SAR models for carcinogenesis may include fragment-based models for chemicals testing positive for mutagenicity and ligand-based models for chemicals devoid of DNA reactivity.

  10. In vitro screening of inhibition of PPAR-γ activity as a first step in identification of potential breast carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Kopp, T I; Lundqvist, J; Petersen, R K; Oskarsson, A; Kristiansen, K; Nellemann, C; Vogel, U

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol consumption and increased estrogen levels are major risk factors for breast cancer, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) plays an important role in alcohol-induced breast cancer. PPAR-γ activity is inhibited by ethanol, leading to increased aromatase activity and estrogen biosynthesis ultimately leading to breast cancer. If other organic solvents inhibit PPAR-γ activity, they should also lead to increased oestrogen biosynthesis and thus be potential breast carcinogens. Ten commonly used hydrophilic organic solvents were first tested in a cell-based screening assay for inhibitory effects on PPAR-γ transactivation. The chemicals shown to inhibit PPAR-γ were tested with vectors encoding PPAR-γ with deleted AB domains and only the ligand-binding domain to rule out unspecific toxicity. Next, the effects on biosynthesis of estradiol, testosterone and oestrone sulphate were measured in the H295R steroidogenesis assay after incubation with the chemicals. Ethylene glycol, ethyl acetate, and dimethyl sulphoxide inhibited PPAR-γ transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect on PPAR-γ was specific for PPAR-γ since the AB domain of PPAR-γ was required for the inhibitory effect. In the second step, ethylene glycol significantly increased production of oestradiol by 19% (p < 0.05) and ethyl acetate inhibited production of testosterone (p < 0.05). We here show that screening of 10 commonly used organic solvents for the ability to inhibit PPAR-γ transactivation followed by a well-established steroidogenesis assay for production of sex hormones in exposed H295 R cells may provide a screening tool for potential breast carcinogens. This initial screening thus identified ethylene glycol and possibly ethyl acetate as potential breast carcinogens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Identifying Carcinogenic Potentials of Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts using Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 byproducts (DBPs) have been identified for the major disinfectants currently in use and represent less than half of the total organic car...

  12. Development of Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures to Identify a Carcinogenic Potential for Priority Disinfection Byproducts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Of the approximately >600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) identified, the US EPA regulates 11 DBPS for an increased risk of cancer. An in-depth mechanism-ba...

  13. Use of mechanism-based structure-activity relationships analysis in carcinogenic potential ranking for drinking water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yin-Tak; Lai, David; McLain, Jennifer L; Manibusan, Mary Ko; Dellarco, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramine, and ozone react with organic and inorganic matter in water. The observations that some DBPs such as trihalomethanes (THMs), di-/trichloroacetic acids, and 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) are carcinogenic in animal studies have raised public concern over the possible adverse health effects of DBPs. To date, several hundred DBPs have been identified. To prioritize research efforts, an in-depth, mechanism-based structure-activity relationship analysis, supplemented by extensive literature search for genotoxicity and other data, was conducted for ranking the carcinogenic potential of DBPs that met the following criteria: a) detected in actual drinking water samples, b) have insufficient cancer bioassay data for risk assessment, and c) have structural features/alerts or short-term predictive assays indicative of carcinogenic potential. A semiquantitative concern rating scale of low, marginal, low-moderate, moderate, high-moderate, and high was used along with delineation of scientific rationale. Of the 209 DBPs analyzed, 20 were of priority concern with a moderate or high-moderate rating. Of these, four were structural analogs of MX and five were haloalkanes that presumably will be controlled by existing and future THM regulations. The other eleven DBPs, which included halonitriles (6), haloketones (2), haloaldehyde (1), halonitroalkane (1), and dialdehyde (1), are suitable priority candidates for future carcinogenicity testing and/or mechanistic studies. PMID:11834465

  14. Lactoperoxidase, an Antimicrobial Milk Protein, as a Potential Activator of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmad; Jiffri, Essam Hussain; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Beg, Mohd Amin

    2017-11-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an antimicrobial protein secreted from mammary, salivary and other mucosal glands. It is an important member of heme peroxidase enzymes and the primary peroxidase enzyme present in breast tissues. In addition to the antimicrobial properties, LPO has been shown to be associated with breast cancer etiology. Heterocyclic amines, an important class of environmental and dietary carcinogens, have been increasingly associated with breast cancer etiology. Heterocyclic amines undergo activation in breast tissue as a result of oxidation by LPO. The current study includes three important heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methy-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), that have carcinogenic activity. The structural binding characterization of IQ, MeIQx and PhIP with LPO was done using in silico approaches. Their binding pattern and interactions with LPO amino acid residues were analyzed. The three compounds bound in the distal heme cavity of LPO without replacing the important water molecule required for oxidation of substrate compounds. PhIP displayed lesser binding affinity for LPO in comparison to IQ and MeIQx. The binding mode of heterocyclic amines in distal heme cavity of LPO resembled to that of substrate binding pattern. The three heterocyclic amines are suggested to act as LPO substrate. The undisturbed water molecule present in distal heme cavity of the LPO is expected to facilitate the oxidation and activation of the three heterocyclic amines. These activated compounds may potentially bind with DNA in breast tissues forming DNA adducts and may subsequently lead to breast cancer initiation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Cell transformation and mutability of different genetic loci in mammalian cells by metabolically activated carcinogenic polycylic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.

    1977-01-01

    Treatment of experimental animals with chemical carcinogens, including some polycyclic hydrocarbons, can result in the formation of malignant tumors. The process whereby some chemicals induce malignancy is as yet unknown. However, in a model system using mammalian cells in culture, it was possible to show that the chemical carcinogens induce malignant transformation rather than select for pre-existing tumor cells. In the process of the in vitro cell transformation, the normal cells, which have an oriented pattern of cell growth, a limited life-span in vitro, and are not tumorigenic, are converted into cells that have a hereditary random pattern of cellmore » growth, the ability to grow continuously in culture, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. This stable heritable phenotype of the transformed cells is similar to that of cells derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced tumors. Such stable heritable phenotype changes may arise from alteration in gene expression due to a somatic mutation after interaction of the carcinogen with cellular DNA. In the present experiments we have shown that metabolically activated carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons which have been shown to bind to cellular DNA induce somatic mutations at different genetic loci in mammalian cells and that there is a relationship between the degree of mutant induction and the degree of carcinogenicity of the different hydrocarbons tested.« less

  16. Activation of nitrite. [Interaction of amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in digestive tract of animals

    SciTech Connect

    Lijinsky, W.

    At low doses dietary nitrite has no obvious deleterious effect, even when ingested for long periods, and nitrites have been used for a long time as flavoring and coloring additives to meat and fish and as preservatives in food in which there is a danger of botulism. In recent years there has been increasing concern that one form of activation of nitrite might be related to cancer. That is the property of interaction with amino compounds to form N-nitroso compounds, which are potent chemical carcinogens. Results are reported from studies on the carcinogenic effects of nitrite and amines in rats.more » (CH)« less

  17. Congenic rats with higher arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 activity exhibit greater carcinogen-induced mammary tumor susceptibility independent of carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Marcus W; Doll, Mark A; Samuelson, David J; Sanders, Mary Ann G; States, J Christopher; Hein, David W

    2017-03-31

    Recent investigations suggest role(s) of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) in breast cancer. Rat NAT2 is orthologous to human NAT1 and the gene products are functional homologs. We conducted in vivo studies using F344.WKY-Nat2 rapid/slow rats, congenic at rat Nat2 for high (rapid) and low (slow) arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity, to assess a possible role for rat NAT2 in mammary tumor susceptibility. Mammary carcinogens, methylnitrosourea (MNU) and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) neither of which is metabolized by N-acetyltransferase, were administered to assess mammary tumors. MNU was administered at 3 or 8 weeks of age. DMBA was administered at 8 weeks of age. NAT2 enzymatic activity and endogenous acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) levels were measured in tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the congenic rats. Tumor latency was shorter in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats, with statistical significance for MNU administered at 3 and 8 weeks of age (p = 0.009 and 0.050, respectively). Tumor multiplicity and incidence were higher in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats administered MNU or DMBA at 8 weeks of age (MNU, p = 0.050 and 0.035; DMBA, p = 0.004 and 0.027, respectively). Recombinant rat rapid-NAT2, as well as tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts derived from rapid NAT2 rats, catalyzed p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyl transfer and folate-dependent acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) hydrolysis at higher rates than those derived from rat slow-NAT2. Embryonic fibroblasts isolated from rapid NAT2 rats displayed lower levels of cellular AcCoA than slow NAT2 rats (p < 0.01). A novel role for rat NAT2 in mammary cancer was discovered unrelated to carcinogen metabolism, suggesting a role for human NAT1 in breast cancer.

  18. Paving asphalt products exhibit a lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Goyak, Katy O; McKee, Richard H; Minsavage, Gary D; McGowan, Claude; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Freeman, James J

    2011-10-01

    A paving asphalt and a vacuum residuum (derived from crude oil by atmospheric and subsequent vacuum distillation and used as a blend stock for asphalt) were tested in skin carcinogenesis assays in mice and in optimized Ames assays for mutagenic activity. In the skin cancer tests, each substance was applied twice weekly for 104 weeks to the clipped backs of groups of 50 male C3H mice. Neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum (30% weight/volume and 75% weight/weight in US Pharmacopeia mineral oil, respectively) produced any tumors. The positive control benzo[a]pyrene (0.05% w/v in toluene) induced tumors in 46 of 50 mice, demonstrating the effectiveness of the test method. Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 was used in the optimized Ames assay to evaluate mutagenic potential. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extractions of the substances were not mutagenic when tested up to toxic limits. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum was carcinogenic or mutagenic.

  19. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes neuronal death in mouse via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Kallol; Ghosh, Debapriya; Nazmi, Arshed; Kumawat, Kanhaiya Lal; Basu, Anirban

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked) food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our study throws light on other health hazards that such pollutants may exert.

  20. Anti-carcinogenic activity of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate-, an active anti-proliferative principal of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.).

    PubMed

    Fuke, Y; Haga, Y; Ono, H; Nomura, T; Ryoyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Synthetic 4-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MITC)(a potent inducer of phase 2 detoxification enzymes from broccoli) and 6-MITC(a potent anti-proliferative principal from wasabi) slightly inhibited the induction of mouse skin tumor in a two-stage process of carcinogenesis (initiator, 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; promotor,12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), but the effect was not significant. Both compounds, however, significantly inhibited the mutation of skin resulting from topical applications of the carcinogens. When a murine hepatoma cell line, Hepa 1c1c7, was treated with 2-,4-,6- and 8-MITCs, they augmented the induction of its quinone reductase, one of the phase 2 detoxification enzymes in a concentration dependent manner, and the 4- and 6-MITCs were much more potent on the reduction of the enzyme than the 2- and 8-MITCs. All 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs suppressed the growth of murine tumor cells, their suppressive activities being proportional to the length of their methyl residue. They were also cytotoxic to mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages which were not proliferating in vitro, indicating that the cellular targets of isothiocyanate may not be dependent upon the cell cycle. In addition, all the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs inhibited the production of nitric oxide (a potent radical carcinogen) by peritoneal macrophages.

  1. Use of Cell Viability Assay Data Improves the Prediction Accuracy of Conventional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Models of Animal Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Rusyn, Ivan; Richard, Ann; Tropsha, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Background To develop efficient approaches for rapid evaluation of chemical toxicity and human health risk of environmental compounds, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in collaboration with the National Center for Chemical Genomics has initiated a project on high-throughput screening (HTS) of environmental chemicals. The first HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested for their effects on cell viability in six different cell lines have recently become available via PubChem. Objectives We have explored these data in terms of their utility for predicting adverse health effects of the environmental agents. Methods and results Initially, the classification k nearest neighbor (kNN) quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modeling method was applied to the HTS data only, for a curated data set of 384 compounds. The resulting models had prediction accuracies for training, test (containing 275 compounds together), and external validation (109 compounds) sets as high as 89%, 71%, and 74%, respectively. We then asked if HTS results could be of value in predicting rodent carcinogenicity. We identified 383 compounds for which data were available from both the Berkeley Carcinogenic Potency Database and NTP–HTS studies. We found that compounds classified by HTS as “actives” in at least one cell line were likely to be rodent carcinogens (sensitivity 77%); however, HTS “inactives” were far less informative (specificity 46%). Using chemical descriptors only, kNN QSAR modeling resulted in 62.3% prediction accuracy for rodent carcinogenicity applied to this data set. Importantly, the prediction accuracy of the model was significantly improved (72.7%) when chemical descriptors were augmented by HTS data, which were regarded as biological descriptors. Conclusions Our studies suggest that combining NTP–HTS profiles with conventional chemical descriptors could considerably improve the predictive power of computational approaches in toxicology. PMID

  2. Relationship between molecular connectivity and carcinogenic activity: a confirmation with a new software program based on graph theory.

    PubMed Central

    Malacarne, D; Pesenti, R; Paolucci, M; Parodi, S

    1993-01-01

    For a database of 826 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity, we fragmented the structural formula of the chemicals into all possible contiguous-atom fragments with size between two and eight (nonhydrogen) atoms. The fragmentation was obtained using a new software program based on graph theory. We used 80% of the chemicals as a training set and 20% as a test set. The two sets were obtained by random sorting. From the training sets, an average (8 computer runs with independently sorted chemicals) of 315 different fragments were significantly (p < 0.125) associated with carcinogenicity or lack thereof. Even using this relatively low level of statistical significance, 23% of the molecules of the test sets lacked significant fragments. For 77% of the molecules of the test sets, we used the presence of significant fragments to predict carcinogenicity. The average level of accuracy of the predictions in the test sets was 67.5%. Chemicals containing only positive fragments were predicted with an accuracy of 78.7%. The level of accuracy was around 60% for chemicals characterized by contradictory fragments or only negative fragments. In a parallel manner, we performed eight paired runs in which carcinogenicity was attributed randomly to the molecules of the training sets. The fragments generated by these pseudo-training sets were devoid of any predictivity in the corresponding test sets. Using an independent software program, we confirmed (for the complex biological endpoint of carcinogenicity) the validity of a structure-activity relationship approach of the type proposed by Klopman and Rosenkranz with their CASE program. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8275991

  3. Identification of potential fish carcinogens in sediment from Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, G.C.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Huestis, S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A carcinogenicity- and mutagenicity-directed fractionation approach was used to identify the carcinogenic compounds in contaminated sediments that are putatively responsible for the high prevalence of tumors in bottom-dwelling fish from Hamilton Harbour, Ontario. Mutagenic activity was detected with Ames tester strains (TA98, TA100) in relatively nonpolar fractions of sediment extract containing PAHs and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds (NCACs). These fractions were also carcinogenic in an in vivo carcinogenicity bioassay with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). When a more polar extract fraction was tested for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, weak mutagenic activity was detected with an O-acetyltransferase-enriched Ames tester strain (YG1024), and weak carcinogenicmore » activity was detected in the rainbow trout assay. These data indicate that PAHs in contaminated Hamilton Harbour sediments are potent fish carcinogens, but it is also evident that other organic compounds in the sediment, such as NCACs and nitroarenes, may contribute to carcinogenicity.« less

  4. Chicken Fetal Liver DNA Damage and Adduct Formation by Activation-Dependent DNA-Reactive Carcinogens and Related Compounds of Several Structural Classes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary M.; Duan, Jian-Dong; Brunnemann, Klaus D.; Iatropoulos, Michael J.; Vock, Esther; Deschl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The chicken egg genotoxicity assay (CEGA), which utilizes the liver of an intact and aseptic embryo-fetal test organism, was evaluated using four activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and four structurally related less potent carcinogens or non-carcinogens. In the assay, three daily doses of test substances were administered to eggs containing 9–11-day-old fetuses and the fetal livers were assessed for two endpoints, DNA breaks using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and DNA adducts using the 32P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) assay. The effects of four carcinogens of different structures requiring distinct pathways of bioactivation, i.e., 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were compared with structurally related non-carcinogens fluorene (FLU) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) or weak carcinogens, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The four carcinogens all produced DNA breaks at microgram or low milligram total doses, whereas less potent carcinogens and non-carcinogens yielded borderline or negative results, respectively, at higher doses. AAF and B[a]P produced DNA adducts, whereas none was found with the related comparators FLU or B[e]P, consistent with comet results. DEN and NDELA were also negative for adducts, as expected in the case of DEN for an alkylating agent in the standard NPL assay. Also, AFB1 and AFB2 were negative in NPL, as expected, due to the nature of ring opened aflatoxin adducts, which are resistant to enzymatic digestion. Thus, the CEGA, using comet and NPL, is capable of detection of the genotoxicity of diverse DNA-reactive carcinogens, while not yielding false positives for non-carcinogens. PMID:24973097

  5. Chicken fetal liver DNA damage and adduct formation by activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and related compounds of several structural classes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Duan, Jian-Dong; Brunnemann, Klaus D; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Vock, Esther; Deschl, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    The chicken egg genotoxicity assay (CEGA), which utilizes the liver of an intact and aseptic embryo-fetal test organism, was evaluated using four activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and four structurally related less potent carcinogens or non-carcinogens. In the assay, three daily doses of test substances were administered to eggs containing 9-11-day-old fetuses and the fetal livers were assessed for two endpoints, DNA breaks using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and DNA adducts using the (32)P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) assay. The effects of four carcinogens of different structures requiring distinct pathways of bioactivation, i.e., 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were compared with structurally related non-carcinogens fluorene (FLU) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) or weak carcinogens, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The four carcinogens all produced DNA breaks at microgram or low milligram total doses, whereas less potent carcinogens and non-carcinogens yielded borderline or negative results, respectively, at higher doses. AAF and B[a]P produced DNA adducts, whereas none was found with the related comparators FLU or B[e]P, consistent with comet results. DEN and NDELA were also negative for adducts, as expected in the case of DEN for an alkylating agent in the standard NPL assay. Also, AFB1 and AFB2 were negative in NPL, as expected, due to the nature of ring opened aflatoxin adducts, which are resistant to enzymatic digestion. Thus, the CEGA, using comet and NPL, is capable of detection of the genotoxicity of diverse DNA-reactive carcinogens, while not yielding false positives for non-carcinogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Testing electromagnetic fields for potential carcinogenic activity: a critical review of animal models.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J; Kavet, R; Rafferty, C N

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the potential of electromagnetic fields (EMF) to influence the process of carcinogenesis, it will be necessary to supplement epidemiological studies with controlled laboratory studies in animals. There are now a number of suitable assays available that focus on different histopathological forms of cancer and on different stages of carcinogenesis--induction, promotion, progression. In this review we discuss eight major systems in the context of this generalized carcinogenesis paradigm. Our aim is to bring together what is currently known about the biology of carcinogenesis in these systems in order to provide a context for evaluating EMF results as they become available. We also critically discuss EMF test results that have so far been obtained in the animal models reviewed. Most of the 19 completed studies identified were negative. However, suggestive positive results were reported in three promotion assays (in rat mammary gland, in rat liver, and in mouse skin), and in one multigeneration study in mice. Results in the rat liver assay and in the multigeneration study have only been reported in abstract form and cannot be adequately evaluated. Positive results reported in both the rat mammary gland and the mouse skin systems are of weak statistical significance and have not been independently replicated. However, it may be of interest that effects in both systems appear primarily to involve the progression stage of carcinogenesis. We suggest that more definitive conclusions as to the carcinogenic potential of EMF may require expanded test protocols that reinforce traditional carcinogenesis end points with biochemical or other parameters reflective of biological processes known to be associated with carcinogenesis in the different systems. PMID:9114279

  7. Emerging Issues in Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity with Implications for Structure Activity Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    In silico systems for the prediction of the ability of chemicals to induce carcinogenicity in rodents have generally relied on knowledge of the structure and physical-chemical features of the compound, as well as the mutagenic and genotoxic features of the compound in various bio...

  8. PUBLIC SOURCES OF MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY DATA: USE IN STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    No Abstract - first paragraph of INTRODUCTION

    Publicly supported compilations of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data are available
    for a significant number and variety of environmental and industrial chemicals and, to a lesser
    extent, pharmaceutical chemicals. T...

  9. Carcinogen File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1978

    1978-01-01

    First in a series of bulletins designed to provide information about the problem of carcinogens in the environment is on benzo(a)pyrine. Benzo(a)pyrine is a proven cancer-causing substance that has been known for over ten years to occur in broiled sausages, gas-broiled fish and beef steak, and charcoal-broiled meat. (Author/BB)

  10. Novel Uses of In Vitro Data to Develop Quantitative Biological Activity Relationship Models for in Vivo Carcinogenicity Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Prachi; Povinelli, Richard J; Merrill, Stephen J; Bozdag, Serdar; Sem, Daniel S

    2015-04-01

    The availability of large in vitro datasets enables better insight into the mode of action of chemicals and better identification of potential mechanism(s) of toxicity. Several studies have shown that not all in vitro assays can contribute as equal predictors of in vivo carcinogenicity for development of hybrid Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. We propose two novel approaches for the use of mechanistically relevant in vitro assay data in the identification of relevant biological descriptors and development of Quantitative Biological Activity Relationship (QBAR) models for carcinogenicity prediction. We demonstrate that in vitro assay data can be used to develop QBAR models for in vivo carcinogenicity prediction via two case studies corroborated with firm scientific rationale. The case studies demonstrate the similarities between QBAR and QSAR modeling in: (i) the selection of relevant descriptors to be used in the machine learning algorithm, and (ii) the development of a computational model that maps chemical or biological descriptors to a toxic endpoint. The results of both the case studies show: (i) improved accuracy and sensitivity which is especially desirable under regulatory requirements, and (ii) overall adherence with the OECD/REACH guidelines. Such mechanism based models can be used along with QSAR models for prediction of mechanistically complex toxic endpoints. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice on the metabolic activation and detoxication of carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethylamine in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Szaefer, Hanna; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Oszmiański, Jan; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2009-06-10

    Chokeberry is a rich source of polyphenols, which may counteract the action of chemical carcinogens. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chokeberry juice alone or in combination with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) on phase I and phase II enzymes and DNA damage in rat liver. The forced feeding with chokeberry juice alone decreased the activities of enzymatic markers of cytochrome P450, CYP1A1 and 1A2. NDEA treatment also decreased the activity of CYP2E1 but enhanced the activity of CYP2B. Pretreatment with chokeberry juice further reduced the activity of these enzymes. Modulation of P450 enzyme activities was accompanied by the changes in the relevant proteins levels. Phase II enzymes were increased in all groups of animals tested. Chokeberry juice augmented DNA damage and aggravated the effect of NDEA. These results indicate that chokeberry may protect against liver damage; however, in combination with chemical carcinogens it might enhance their effect.

  12. Development of Normal Human Colonocyte Cultures to Identify the Carcinogenic Potential of Priorty Disinfection By-products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Of the approximately >600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) identified, the US EPA regulates 11 DBPs for an increased risk of cancer. An in-depth mechanism-...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL HUMAN COLON CELL CULTURES TO IDENTIFY UNREGULATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) WITH CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less than half of the total organic carbon in drinking water have been identified. We are developing an in vitro system to i...

  14. Development of Normal Human Colon Cell Cultures to Identify Unregulated Disiinfection By-products (DBPs) with a Carcinogenic Potential - GEMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 DBPs, less that half of the total organic carbon in drinking water, have been identified of which 50 unregulated DBPs have received the ...

  15. Review of the carcinogenic activity of diethanolamine and evidence of choline deficiency as a plausible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hon-Wing; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Stott, William T

    2005-12-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) is a chemical used widely in a number of industries and is present in many consumer products. Studies by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have indicated that lifetime dermal exposure to DEA increased the incidence and multiplicity of liver tumors in mice, but not in rats. In addition, DEA was not carcinogenic when tested in the Tg.Ac transgenic mouse model. Short-term genotoxicity tests have yielded negative results. In view of these apparent inconsistencies, we have critically evaluated the NTP studies and other data relevant to assessing the carcinogenic potential of DEA. The available data indicate that DEA induces mouse liver tumors by a non-genotoxic mode of action that involves its ability to cause choline deficiency. The following experimental evidence supports this hypothesis. DEA decreased the hepatic choline metabolites and S-adenosylmethionine levels in mice, similar to those observed in choline-deficient mice. In contrast, DEA had no effect in the rat, a species in which it was not carcinogenic at a maximum tolerated dose level. In addition, a consistent dose-effect relationship had been established between choline deficiency and carcinogenic activity since all DEA dosages that induced tumors in the NTP studies were also shown to cause choline deficiency. DEA decreased phosphatidylcholine synthesis by blocking the cellular uptake of choline in vitro, but these events did not occur in the presence of excess choline. Finally, DEA induced transformation in the Syrian hamster embryo cells, increased S-phase DNA synthesis in mouse hepatocytes, and decreased gap junctional intracellular communication in primary cultured mouse and rat hepatocytes, but all these events were prevented with choline supplementation. Since choline is an essential nutrient in mammals, this mode of action is qualitatively applicable to humans. However, there are marked species differences in susceptibility to choline deficiency, with rats and mice being far

  16. A computational method for the identification of new candidate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Lu, Jing; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death. Based on current knowledge, one of the causes of cancer is exposure to toxic chemical compounds, including radioactive compounds, dioxin, and arsenic. The identification of new carcinogenic chemicals may warn us of potential danger and help to identify new ways to prevent cancer. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify potential carcinogenic chemicals, as well as non-carcinogenic chemicals. According to the current validated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals from the CPDB (Carcinogenic Potency Database), the candidate chemicals were searched in a weighted chemical network constructed according to chemical-chemical interactions. Then, the obtained candidate chemicals were further selected by a randomization test and information on chemical interactions and structures. The analyses identified several candidate carcinogenic chemicals, while those candidates identified as non-carcinogenic were supported by a literature search. In addition, several candidate carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals exhibit structural dissimilarity with validated carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals.

  17. Clarifying carcinogenicity of ethylbenzene

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Chan, Po; Melnick, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Ethylbenzene has been evaluated for carcinogenic activity in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed by inhalation [Chan et al 1998;Chan & NTP 1999] and in Sprague-Dawley rats after oral exposure [Maltoni et al 1985,1997]. Bioassay findings are summarized below to expand on those not stated clearly or completely in Saghir et al [2010]. Overall in these three studies animals exposed to ethylbenzene had increased tumors in rats for kidneys, testes, head [including rare neuroesthesioepitheliomas], and total malignant tumors, whilst in mice tumors incidences were increased in the lung and liver [Huff,2002]. Thus ethylbenzene was carcinogenic by two exposure routes to both sexes of two species of rodents, two strains of rats, and one strain of mice, causing collectively tumors in five different target organs and a composite of “total malignant”tumors. PMID:20723573

  18. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    PubMed

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  19. Carcinogens in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, J. Bradford

    1976-01-01

    Reports the presence and use of known carcinogens in Kentucky colleges, junior colleges, and high schools. Includes a listing of known carcinogens and the synonym names under which each may be labeled. (SL)

  20. Theoretical Calculation of the Uv-Vis Spectral Band Locations of Pahs with Unknown Syntheses Procedures and Prospective Carcinogenic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ona-Ruales, Jorge Oswaldo; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara

    2017-06-01

    Annellation Theory and ZINDO/S semiempirical calculations have been used for the calculation of the locations of maximum absorbance (LMA) of the Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) of 31 C_{34}H_{16} PAHs (molecular mass 424 Da) with unknown protocols of synthesis. The presence of benzo[a]pyrene bay-like regions and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene fjord-like regions in several of the structures that could be linked to an enhancement of the biological behavior and carcinogenic activity stresses the importance of C_{34}H_{16} PAHs in fields like molecular biology and cancer research. In addition, the occurrence of large PAHs in oil asphaltenes exemplifies the importance of these calculations for the characterization of complex systems. The C_{34}H_{16} PAH group is the largest molecular mass group of organic compounds analyzed so far following the Annellation Theory and ZINDO/S methodology. Future analysis using the same approach will provide evidence regarding the LMA of other high molecular mass PAHs.

  1. Identifying Metabolically Active Chemicals Using a Consensus ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are abundant throughout the environment and can alter neurodevelopment, behavior, and reproductive success of humans and other species by perturbing signaling pathways related to the estrogen receptor (ER). A recent study compared results across 18 ER-related assays in the ToxCast™ in vitro screening program to predict the likelihood of a chemical exhibiting in vivo estrogenic activity, with the purpose of eliminating chemicals that may produce a false signal by interfering with the technological attributes of an individual assay. However, flaws in in vitro assay design can also prevent induction of signal activity by EDCs. Another reason for not observing activity for some EDCs in in vitro assays is that metabolic activation is required to perturb ER-related pathways. In the current study, 1,024 chemicals were identified as lacking ER activity after establishing a consensus across each of the 18 ER-related in vitro assays, and nearly 2,000 primary and 3,700 secondary unique metabolites were predicted for these chemicals. The ER binding activity for each metabolite was then predicted using an existing ER activity quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) consensus model. Binding activity was predicted for 2-3% of the metabolites within each generation. Of the inactive parent compounds generating at least one metabolite predicted to have ER-binding activity, nearly 30% were found to have metabolites from both gene

  2. Carcinogenic Activities and Sperm Abnormalities of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus and Inhibition of Their Virulence Potentials by Ayamycin.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed; Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Mannaa, Fathia A; Farghaly, Ayman A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A

    2017-11-01

    This investigation aimed to study the in vivo harmful effects of the subcutaneous injection of different methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus extracts (MRSA2, MRSA4, MRSA10, MRSA69, MRSA70, MRSA76, and MRSA78). Such strains represented the highest minimum inhibition concentration toward methicillin with various multidrug-resistant patterns. The obtained results revealed that rats injected with the MRSA4 extract died immediately after the last dose indicating the high cytotoxicity of MRSA4 strain (100% mortality). While the mortalities in other groups injected by the other MRSA extracts ranged from 50 to 75%. In comparison with the normal animal group, all MRSA extracts induced a hepatotoxic effect which was indicated from the significant (p < 0.01) increases in the activities of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) enzymes. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) combined with a partial nephrotoxicity that was monitored from the significant elevation of serum urea concentration. While serum creatinine levels did not affect. Similarly, a significant elevation was recorded in serum levels of tumor biomarkers (alpha fetoprotein; AFP, carcinoembryonic antigen; CEA, and lactate dehydrogenase; LDH) reflecting their carcinogenic potential. On the other hand, the percentage of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow cells was statistically significant in all groups as compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm abnormalities was statistically significant compared to the control. Different types of head abnormalities and coiled tail were recorded. Consequently, the current study focused on fighting MRSA virulence factors by the new compound ayamycin, which proved to be potent anti-virulence factor against all MRSA strains under study by significant decreasing of their streptokinase activities, hemolysin synthesis, biofilm formation, and their cell surface hydrophobicity.

  3. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  4. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  5. Carcinogenic agents in snuff.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Harley, N H; Fisenne, I; Adams, J D; Brunnemann, K D

    1986-03-01

    The oral use of snuff has been associated with an increased-risk for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. The five most popular U.S. snuff brands were analyzed for alkaloids, volatile and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), benzo[a]pyrene (CAS: 50-32-8), and polonium-210. The carcinogenic TSNA in the five snuff brands ranged from 9,600 to 289,000 ppb. These concentrations exceed the nitrosamine concentrations of other consumer products by at least 2 orders of magnitude. Polonium amounted to 0.16-1.22 pCi/g dry snuff. Trace amounts of benzo[a]pyrene (0.1-63 ppb) were indicative of contamination of the tobacco with thermal degradation products, probably due to fire curing or flue curing. The findings from this study, the biologic activity of snuff in animal models, and the epidemiologic studies on snuff use and oral cancer strongly suggest the need for reduction of carcinogens and especially of nitrosamines and polonium-210 in snuff.

  6. Active faults newly identified in Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    The Bellingham Basin, which lies north of Seattle and south of Vancouver around the border between the United States and Canada in the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone, is important for understanding the regional tectonic setting and current high rates of crustal deformation in the Pacific Northwest. Using a variety of new data, Kelsey et al. identified several active faults in the Bellingham Basin that had not been previously known. These faults lie more than 60 kilometers farther north of the previously recognized northern limit of active faulting in the area. The authors note that the newly recognized faults could produce earthquakes with magnitudes between 6 and 6.5 and thus should be considered in hazard assessments for the region. (Journal of Geophysical Reserch-Solid Earth, doi:10.1029/2011JB008816, 2012)

  7. Factors influencing the mutagenic activity of the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 1535 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kerklaan, P R; Bouter, S; Mohn, G R

    1984-04-01

    The colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (SMDH), a non-mutagen in the standard Ames assay, has been shown in previous experiments to become weakly mutagenic in Salmonella TA 1535 in vitro, when specific test conditions were used. The present studies were performed to determine more precisely the nature of metabolic factors and experimental conditions for optimal mutagenesis of SDMH in the same strain of Salmonella. First, it was confirmed that both the presence of rat liver S9 fractions (25 microliters/ml incubation mixture) and prolonged pre-incubation periods in liquid medium of at least 120 min were necessary to elicit SDMH mutagenesis. In contrast to results obtained with dimethylnitrosamine, which served as a model compound for the activation through oxidative, cytochrome P-450- and NADPH-dependent enzymatic processes, the activation of SDMH to mutagenic factors was not dependent on the presence of NADPH: in fact, NADPH strongly reduced the SDMH-induced mutation yields. It was also observed that growth of the indicator bacteria is an important prerequisite for mutation induction by SDMH. Aminoacetonitrile and disulfiram, two inhibitors of SDMH metabolism and carcinogenicity in mammals, also strongly inhibited SDMH mutagenesis in the present in vitro assay. It can, therefore, be concluded that (i) the right test protocol is of crucial importance for the detection of SDMH as a bacterial mutagen, and (ii) that activation pathways in vitro are (partially) different from presumed in vivo metabolism and activation.

  8. Identifying potential exposure reduction priorities using regional rankings based on emissions of known and suspected carcinogens to outdoor air in Canada.

    PubMed

    Setton, Eleanor M; Veerman, Basil; Erickson, Anders; Deschenes, Steeve; Cheasley, Roz; Poplawski, Karla; Demers, Paul A; Keller, C Peter

    2015-08-22

    Emissions inventories aid in understanding the sources of hazardous air pollutants and how these vary regionally, supporting targeted reduction actions. Integrating information on the relative toxicity of emitted pollutants with respect to cancer in humans helps to further refine reduction actions or recommendations, but few national programs exist in North America that use emissions estimates in this way. The CAREX Canada Emissions Mapping Project provides key regional indicators of emissions (total annual and total annual toxic equivalent, circa 2011) of 21 selected known and suspected carcinogens. The indicators were calculated from industrial emissions reported to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) and estimates of emissions from transportation (airports, trains, and car and truck traffic) and residential heating (oil, gas and wood), in conjunction with human toxicity potential factors. We also include substance-specific annual emissions in toxic equivalent kilograms and annual emissions in kilograms, to allow for ranking substances within any region. For provinces and territories in Canada, the indicators suggest the top five substances contributing to the total toxic equivalent emissions in any region could be prioritized for further investigation. Residents of Quebec and New Brunswick may be more at risk of exposure to industrial emissions than those in other regions, suggesting that a more detailed study of exposure to industrial emissions in these provinces is warranted. Residential wood smoke may be an important emission to control, particularly in the north and eastern regions of Canada. Residential oil and gas heating, along with rail emissions contribute little to regional emissions and therefore may not be an immediate regional priority. The developed indicators support the identification of pollutants and sources for additional investigation when planning exposure reduction actions among Canadian provinces and territories, but have

  9. Activation of the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells by a chemical carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Ma, Zhan; Xu, Songtao; Hou, Jun; Hu, Yao; Yu, Yinglu; Liu, Ruilai; Chen, Zhihong; Lu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic/germ cell traits are common in malignant tumors and are thought to be involved in malignant tumor behaviors. The reasons why tumors show strong embryonic/germline traits (displaced germ cells or gametogenic programming reactivation) are controversial. Here, we show that a chemical carcinogen, 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MCA), can trigger the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells (hBMDCs). 3-MCA promoted the generation of germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs that had undergone malignant transformation, whereas similar results were not observed in the parallel hBMDC culture at the same time point. The malignant transformed hBMDCs spontaneously and more efficiently generated into germ cell-like cells even at the single-cell level. The germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs were similar to natural germ cells in many aspects, including morphology, gene expression, proliferation, migration, further development, and teratocarcinoma formation. Therefore, our results demonstrate that a chemical carcinogen can reactivate the germline phenotypes of human somatic tissue-derived cells, which might provide a novel idea to tumor biology and therapy. PMID:24998261

  10. Micronuclei in cord blood lymphocytes and associations with biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens and hormonally active factors, gene polymorphisms, and gene expression: the NewGeneris cohort.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Agramunt, Silvia; Anna, Lívia; Besselink, Harrie; Botsivali, Maria; Brady, Nigel J; Ceppi, Marcello; Chatzi, Leda; Chen, Bowang; Decordier, Ilse; Farmer, Peter B; Fleming, Sarah; Fontana, Vincenzo; Försti, Asta; Fthenou, Eleni; Gallo, Fabio; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Gmuender, Hans; Godschalk, Roger W; Granum, Berit; Hardie, Laura J; Hemminki, Kari; Hochstenbach, Kevin; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kovács, Katalin; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Løvik, Martinus; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Pedersen, Marie; Rydberg, Per; Schoket, Bernadette; Segerbäck, Dan; Singh, Rajinder; Sunyer, Jordi; Törnqvist, Margareta; van Loveren, Henk; van Schooten, Frederik J; Vande Loock, Kim; von Stedingk, Hans; Wright, John; Kleinjans, Jos C; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; van Delft, Joost H M

    2014-02-01

    Leukemia incidence has increased in recent decades among European children, suggesting that early-life environmental exposures play an important role in disease development. We investigated the hypothesis that childhood susceptibility may increase as a result of in utero exposure to carcinogens and hormonally acting factors. Using cord blood samples from the NewGeneris cohort, we examined associations between a range of biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and hormonally acting factors with micronuclei (MN) frequency as a proxy measure of cancer risk. Associations with gene expression and genotype were also explored. DNA and protein adducts, gene expression profiles, circulating hormonally acting factors, and GWAS (genome-wide association study) data were investigated in relation to genomic damage measured by MN frequency in lymphocytes from 623 newborns enrolled between 2006 and 2010 across Europe. Malondialdehyde DNA adducts (M1dG) were associated with increased MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes (MNBN), and exposure to androgenic, estrogenic, and dioxin-like compounds was associated with MN frequency in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNMONO), although no monotonic exposure-outcome relationship was observed. Lower frequencies of MNBN were associated with a 1-unit increase expression of PDCD11, LATS2, TRIM13, CD28, SMC1A, IL7R, and NIPBL genes. Gene expression was significantly higher in association with the highest versus lowest category of bulky and M1dG-DNA adducts for five and six genes, respectively. Gene expression levels were significantly lower for 11 genes in association with the highest versus lowest category of plasma AR CALUX® (chemically activated luciferase expression for androgens) (8 genes), ERα CALUX® (for estrogens) (2 genes), and DR CALUX® (for dioxins). Several SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) on chromosome 11 near FOLH1 significantly modified associations between androgen activity and MNBN frequency. Polymorphisms in EPHX1/2 and CYP2E1

  11. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  12. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    11) proposed that L-proyl-tRNA synthetase could esterify N-hydroxy heterocyclic amines and that ATP was required to add the amino acid to the 16...need to be depleted of endogenous amino acids . To test this notion, tRNA synthetase substrates were removed by dialysis in one experiment, and activation...carcinogens in pyrolysates of amino acids and proteins and cooked foods: heterocyclic aromatic amines. In: Y.T. Woo (ed.) Chemical Induction of Cancer

  13. Enhancement of NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase activity by methylselenocysteine resets the circadian clock in carcinogen-treated mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Mingzhu; Guo, Wei-Ren; Park, Youngil; Kang, Hwan-Goo; Zarbl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that dietary methylselenocysteine (MSC) inhibits N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis by resetting circadian gene expression disrupted by the carcinogen at the early stage of tumorigenesis. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a circadian reporter system comprised of human mammary epithelial cells with a luciferase reporter driven by the promoter of human PERIOD 2 (PER2), a core circadian gene. In this in vitro model, NMU disrupted cellular circadian rhythm in a pattern similar to that observed with SIRT1-specific inhibitors; in contrast, MSC restored the circadian rhythms disrupted by NMU and protected against SIRT1 inhibitors. Moreover, NMU inhibited intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio and reduced NAD+-dependent SIRT1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, while MSC restored NAD+/NADH and SIRT1 activity in the NMU-treated cells, indicating that the NAD+-SIRT1 pathway was targeted by NMU and MSC. In rat mammary tissue, a carcinogenic dose of NMU also disrupted NAD+/NADH oscillations and decreased SIRT1 activity; dietary MSC restored NAD+/NADH oscillations and increased SIRT1 activity in the mammary glands of NMU-treated rats. MSC-induced SIRT1 activity was correlated with decreased acetylation of BMAL1 and increased acetylation of histone 3 lysine 9 at the Per2 promoter E-Box in mammary tissue. Changes in SIRT1 activity were temporally correlated with loss or restoration of rhythmic Per2 mRNA expression in NMU-treated or MSC-rescued rat mammary glands, respectively. Together with our previous findings, these results suggest that enhancement of NAD+-dependent SIRT1 activity contributes to the chemopreventive efficacy of MSC by restoring epigenetic regulation of circadian gene expression at early stages of mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:26544624

  14. Micronuclei in Cord Blood Lymphocytes and Associations with Biomarkers of Exposure to Carcinogens and Hormonally Active Factors, Gene Polymorphisms, and Gene Expression: The NewGeneris Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Agramunt, Silvia; Anna, Lívia; Besselink, Harrie; Botsivali, Maria; Brady, Nigel J.; Ceppi, Marcello; Chatzi, Leda; Chen, Bowang; Decordier, Ilse; Farmer, Peter B.; Fleming, Sarah; Fontana, Vincenzo; Försti, Asta; Fthenou, Eleni; Gallo, Fabio; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Gmuender, Hans; Godschalk, Roger W.; Granum, Berit; Hardie, Laura J.; Hemminki, Kari; Hochstenbach, Kevin; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kovács, Katalin; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Løvik, Martinus; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Pedersen, Marie; Rydberg, Per; Schoket, Bernadette; Segerbäck, Dan; Singh, Rajinder; Sunyer, Jordi; Törnqvist, Margareta; van Loveren, Henk; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Vande Loock, Kim; von Stedingk, Hans; Wright, John; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; van Delft, Joost H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Leukemia incidence has increased in recent decades among European children, suggesting that early-life environmental exposures play an important role in disease development. Objectives: We investigated the hypothesis that childhood susceptibility may increase as a result of in utero exposure to carcinogens and hormonally acting factors. Using cord blood samples from the NewGeneris cohort, we examined associations between a range of biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and hormonally acting factors with micronuclei (MN) frequency as a proxy measure of cancer risk. Associations with gene expression and genotype were also explored. Methods: DNA and protein adducts, gene expression profiles, circulating hormonally acting factors, and GWAS (genome-wide association study) data were investigated in relation to genomic damage measured by MN frequency in lymphocytes from 623 newborns enrolled between 2006 and 2010 across Europe. Results: Malondialdehyde DNA adducts (M1dG) were associated with increased MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes (MNBN), and exposure to androgenic, estrogenic, and dioxin-like compounds was associated with MN frequency in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNMONO), although no monotonic exposure–outcome relationship was observed. Lower frequencies of MNBN were associated with a 1-unit increase expression of PDCD11, LATS2, TRIM13, CD28, SMC1A, IL7R, and NIPBL genes. Gene expression was significantly higher in association with the highest versus lowest category of bulky and M1dG–DNA adducts for five and six genes, respectively. Gene expression levels were significantly lower for 11 genes in association with the highest versus lowest category of plasma AR CALUX® (chemically activated luciferase expression for androgens) (8 genes), ERα CALUX® (for estrogens) (2 genes), and DR CALUX® (for dioxins). Several SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) on chromosome 11 near FOLH1 significantly modified associations between androgen activity and MNBN

  15. Identifying Creative Activities in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keily, Margaret Mary

    This study compared the creative self-direction, creative behavior, and creative activities of preschool children to determine if students and teachers trained in the creative process and in observation techniques can, with reliability, observe the creative potential of young children. Creative abilities of 155 children from four preschool centers…

  16. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  17. Identifying Metabolically Active Chemicals Using a Consensus ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Traditional toxicity testing provides insight into the mechanisms underlying toxicological responses but requires a high investment in a large number of resources. The new paradigm of testing approaches involves rapid screening studies able to evaluate thousands of chemicals across hundreds of biological targets through use of in vitro assays. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are of concern due to their ability to alter neurodevelopment, behavior, and reproductive success of humans and other species. A recent integrated computational model examined results across 18 ER-related assays in the ToxCast in vitro screening program to eliminate chemicals that produce a false signal by possibly interfering with the technological attributes of an individual assay. However, in vitro assays can also lead to false negatives when the complex metabolic processes that render a chemical bioactive in a living system might be unable to be replicated in an in vitro environment. In the current study, the influence of metabolism was examined for over 1,400 chemicals considered inactive using the integrated computational model. Over 2,000 first-generation and over 4,000 second-generation metabolites were generated for the inactive chemicals using in silico techniques. Next, a consensus model comprised of individual structure activity relationship (SAR) models was used to predict ER-binding activity for each of the metabolites. Binding activity was predicted for 8-10% of the meta

  18. Rodent carcinogens: Setting priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Stern, B.R.

    1992-10-09

    The human diet contains an enormous background of natural chemicals, such as plant pesticides and the products of cooking, that have not been a focus of carcinogenicity testing. A broadened perspective that includes these natural chemicals is necessary. A comparison of possible hazards for 80 daily exposures to rodent carcinogens from a variety of sources is presented, using an index (HERP) that relates human exposure to carcinogenic potency in rodents. A similar ordering would be expected with the use of standard risk assessment methodology for the same human exposure values. Results indicate that, when viewed against the large background ofmore » naturally occurring carcinogens in typical portions of common foods, the residues of synthetic pesticides or environmental pollutants rank low. A similar result is obtained in a separate comparison of 32 average daily exposures to natural pesticides and synthetic pesticides residues in the diet. Although the findings do not indicate that these natural dietary carcinogens are important in human cancer, they cast doubt on the relative importance for human cancer of low-dose exposures to synthetic chemicals.« less

  19. Mechanomyogram for identifying muscle activity and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao Feng; Kumar, Dinesh Kant; Arjunan, Sridhar Poosapadi

    2009-01-01

    Mechanomyogram is the recording of the acoustic activity associated with the muscle contraction. While discovered nearly a decade ago with the intention of providing an alternate to the surface electromyogram, it has not yet been investigated thoroughly and there are no current applications associated with MMG. This paper reports an experimental study of MMG against force of contraction and muscle fatigue during cyclic contraction. The results indicate that there is a relationship between the intensity of the MMG recording and force of contraction. A change in the intensity of MMG is also observed with the onset of muscle fatigue. However, the inter-subject variation is very large. The results also indicate that the spectrum of the MMG is very inconsistent and not a useful feature of the signal.

  20. Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity Data: New Initiatives to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Currents models for prediction of chemical carcinogenicity and mutagenicity rely upon a relatively small number of publicly available data resources, where the data being modeled are highly summarized and aggregated representations of the actual experimental results. A number of new initiatives are underway to improve access to existing public carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data for use in modeling, as well as to encourage new approaches to the use of data in modeling. Rodent bioassay results from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Berkeley Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) have provided the largest public data resources for building carcinogenicity prediction models to date. However, relatively few and limited representations of these data have actually informed existing models. Initiatives, such as EPA's DSSTox Database Network, offer elaborated and quality reviewed presentations of the CPDB and expanded data linkages and coverage of chemical space for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. In particular the latest published DSSTox CPDBAS structure-data file includes a number of species-specific and summary activity fields, including a species-specific normalized score for carcinogenic potency (TD50) and various weighted summary activities. These data are being incorporated into PubChem to provide broad

  1. [Carcinogenic effect of metals].

    PubMed

    Desurmont, M

    1983-09-01

    Some metals are essential oligo-elements for man. However, if the body load of these same metal derivatives becomes excessive they may be responsible for deleterious effects, particularly cytotoxic ones. Metals are divided into four categories: potent carcinogens; presumptive carcinogens with a documented cocarcinogenic effect; ascertained cocarcinogens; metals with no demonstrated carcinogenic or cocarcinogenic effect. The most common tumors induced by metals are those of the lung. Arsenic induces cancer of the lung and skin, beryllium may induce lung cancer, the effects of cobalt are dubious, cadmium can induce cancer of the lung and, above all, prostate, the role of iron is uncertain, hexavalent chrome may induce cancer of the lung and nasal fossae, nickel is responsible for cancer of lung and nasal fossae. Our understanding of metal carcinogenesis is clearly insufficient and more experimental research and epidemiologic studies addressing this subject are needed.

  2. The carcinogenicity of chromium

    PubMed Central

    Norseth, Tor

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds is reviewed with specific attention to the gaps in knowledge for risk estimation and research needs. The most important problems at present are whether trivalent chromium compounds cause cancer, and whether there is a difference in cancer causing effects between the soluble and the slightly soluble hexavalent compounds in the practical exposure situation. Dose estimates for risk estimation based on epidemiological investigations are also lacking. Present evidence indicates that the trivalent chromium compounds do not cause cancer although high concentrations in some in vitro systems have shown genetic toxicity. Hexavalent chromium compounds cause cancer in humans, in experimental animals and exert genetic toxicity in bacteria and in mammalian cells in vitro. Epidemiological evidence and animal experiments indicate that the slightly soluble hexavalent salts are the most potent carcinogens, but proper identification and characterization of exposure patterns in epidemiological work are lacking. Workers also tend to have mixed exposures. Soluble and slightly soluble salts are equally potent genotoxic agents in vitro. Further work for establishing dose estimates for risk evaluation in epidemiological work is important. In vitro systems should be applied for further identification of the mechanism of the carcinogenic effects, and animal experiments are urgent for comparison of the carcinogenic potency of the different hexavalent salts. Hexavalent chromium salts must be regarded as established carcinogens, and proper action should be taken in all industries with regard to such exposure. At present the carcinogenic risk to the general population caused by chromium compounds seems to be negligible, chromium in cigarettes, however, is an uncertainty in this respect. The amount of chromium and the type of chromium compounds inhaled from cigarettes is not known. PMID:7023928

  3. Competitive inhibition of carcinogen-activating CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes by a standardized complex mixture of PAH extracted from coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, B.; Marston, C.P.; Luch, A.

    2007-03-15

    A complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) extracted from coal tar, the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1597, was recently shown to decrease the levels of DNA binding of the 2 strong carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene (DBP) in the human mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MCF-7. The present study was designed to further elucidate the biochemical mechanisms involved in this inhibition process. We examined the effects of SRM 1597 on the metabolic activation of BP and DBP toward DNA-binding derivatives in Chinese hamster cells expressing either human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 or CYP1B1. The data obtained from biochemical experiments revealedmore » that SRM 1597 competitively inhibited the activity of both human enzymes as analyzed by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation assays. While the Michaelis-Menten constant (K-M) was {lt} 0.4 {mu}M in the absence of SRM 1597, this value increased up to 1.12 (CYP1A1) or 4.45 {mu}M (CYP1B1) in the presence of 0.1 {mu} g/ml SRM 1597. Hence the inhibitory effects of the complex mixture on human CYP1B1 were much stronger when compared to human CYP1A1 Taken together, the decreases in PAH-DNA adduct formation on co-treatment with SRM 1597 revealed inhibitory effects on the CYP enzymes that convert carcinogenic PAH into DNA-binding metabolites. The implications for the tumorigenicity of complex environmental PAR mixtures are discussed.« less

  4. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p <0.001), primarily among workers in the industry sector. A total of 32% of the workers in the province of Salamanca was exposed to some occupational carcinogen. Women were more exposed in the service sector and men in the agriculture and livestock sector. Nearly one third of the workers belonging to the external prevention services of the province of Salamanca, were exposed to some kind of occupational carcinogens. The most frequent being biological risks, solvent products, and silica, which were above the national mean of exposure. It is important to consider the exposure to occupational carcinogens in the implementation of interventions in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  6. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  7. Evaluating Pesticides for Carcinogenic Potential

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA reviews pesticides for potential carcinogenicity. Learn about EPA's guidelines for evaluating a chemical's potential carcinogenicity and updates to EPA's guidelines to reflect increased understanding of ways chemicals may cause cancer.

  8. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action.

    PubMed

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens.

  9. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens. PMID:27625608

  10. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    PubMed

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans

  11. Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

  12. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium.

    PubMed

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R R

    1980-11-01

    Occupational exposure represents the main source of human contamination by chromium. For non-occupationally exposed people the major environmental exposure to chromium occurs as a consequence of its presence in food. Chromium must be considered as an essential element. Its deficiency impairs glucose metabolism. Trivalent chromium salts are poorly absorbed through the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts because they do not cross membranes easily. Hexavalent chromium can be absorbed by the oral and pulmonary routes and probably also through the skin. After its absorption, hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to the trivalent form which is probably the only form to be found in biological material. Epidemiological studies have shown that some chromium salts (mainly the slightly soluble hexavalent salts) are carcinogens. Lung cancers have, indeed, often been reported among workers in chromate-producing industry and, to a lesser extent, in workers from the chrome-pigment industry. The first attempts to produce cancers in experimental animals by inhalation or parenteral introduction gave negative or equivocal results but, from 1960, positive results have been obtained with various chromium compounds. As for the carcinogenic activity, the mutagenicity of chromium has mainly been found with hexavalent salts. In the majority of assay systems used, trivalent chromium appears inactive. It can be considered as evident, however, that the ultimate mutagen which binds to the genetic material is the trivalent form produced intracellularly from hexavalent chromium, the apparent lack of activity of the trivalent form being due to its poor cellular uptake.

  13. Estimating occupational exposure to carcinogens in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Labrèche, France; Duguay, Patrice; Ostiguy, Claude; Boucher, Alexandre; Roberge, Brigitte; Peters, Cheryl E; Demers, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    We estimated the extent of exposure to occupational carcinogens in Quebec, Canada, to help raise awareness of occupational cancers. Proportions of workers exposed to 21 recognized and 17 probable carcinogens (according to Quebec occupational health regulation and the International Agency for Research on Cancer [IARC] classification) were extracted from various sources: workplace monitoring data, research projects, a population survey, radiation protection data, exposure estimates from the Carcinogen Exposure Canada (CAREX Canada) Project database, and published exposure data. These proportions were applied to Quebec labor force data. Among the 38 studied, carcinogens with the largest proportions of exposed workers were solar radiation (6.6% of workers), night shift work/rotating shift work including nights (6.0%), diesel exhaust fumes (4.4%), wood dust (2.9%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (2.0%). More than 15 carcinogens were identified in several industrial sectors, and up to 100,000 young workers are employed in these sectors. Although crude, estimates obtained with different data sources allow identification of research and intervention priorities for cancer in Quebec. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Zonal differences in DNA synthesis activity and cytochrome P450 gene expression in livers of male F344 rats treated with five nongenotoxic carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhi-Ying; White, C.C.; He, Cheng-Yi

    1995-12-31

    Both increased cell proliferation and {open_quotes}altered{close_quotes}CYP gene expression are prominent phenomena associated with liver tumor promotion by nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. BRDU-labeled parenchymal nuclei were observed primarily in the periportal area of groups of rats, independent of nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. Treatment with each of the 5 nongenotoxic carcinogens resulted in profound alterations in CPY gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Expression of CYP1A1, 1A1/2, 3A1, 2B1/2, and 4A immunoproteins demonstrated nongenotoxic carcinogen-specific patterns in both magnitude and zonal distribution. In agreement with the CYP immunoprotein data, treatment with each of the five nongenotoxic carcinogens resulted in a uniquemore » composition of mRNAs of CYP2B1, 2B2, 2C6, 2C11, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1, which were variably increased or decreased relative to the untreated control livers, depending on the treatment. Similarly, the rate and pattern of CYP enzyme-mediated hydroxylation toward testosterone, 17{beta}-estradiol, corticosterone, and lauric acid were greatly altered by nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. Because many endogenous substrates are modulators of DNA and RNA synthesis, intracellular kinetics of endogenous substrates of CYP enzymes in the corresponding hepatocytes could contribute, at least in part, to the differences in gene expression, differentiation, and cell proliferation among the hepatocytes in the cell plate. 64 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  15. Target organs in chronic bioassays of 533 chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Manley, N.B.

    1991-06-01

    A compendium of carcinogenesis bioassay results organized by target organ is presented for 533 chemicals that are carcinogenic in at least one species. This compendium is based primarily on experiments in rats or mice; results in hamsters, nonhuman primates, and dogs are also reported. The compendium can be used to identify chemicals that induce tumors at particular sites, and to determine whether target sites are the same for chemicals positive in more than one species. The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), which includes results of 3969 experiments, is used in the analysis. The published CPDB includes details on each test, andmore » literature references. Chemical carcinogens are reported for 35 different target organs in rats or mice. More than 80% of the carcinogens in each of these species are positive in at least one of the 8 most frequent target sites; liver, lung, mammary gland, stomach, vascular system, kidney, hematopoietic system, and urinary bladder. An analysis is presented of how well one can predict the carcinogenic response in mice from results in rats, or vice versa. Among chemicals tested in both species, 76% of rat carcinogens are positive in mice, and 71% of mouse carcinogens are positive in rats. Prediction is less accurate to the same target site: 52% of rat carcinogens are positive in the same site in mice, and 48% of mouse carcinogens are positive in the same site in rats. The liver is the most frequent site in common between rats and mice.« less

  16. Quantification of the carcinogenic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in used engine oil by topical application onto the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Misfeld, J

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the substances mainly responsible for the carcinogenic effect of used engine oil from gasoline engines using topical application as a carcinogen-specific bioassay. This was performed by comparison of the tumorigenic effect of single fractions with that of an unseparated sample of the lubricating oil. The probit analysis of the results shows: 1) The used engine oil, from gasoline-driven automobiles, investigated provoked local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The incidence of carcinoma depended on the dose of the oil. 2) The fraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than three rings accounts for about 70% of the total carcinogenicity in the case of crankcase oil. This fraction constitutes only up to 1.14% by weight of the total oil sample. 3) The content of benzo(a)pyrene (216.8 mg/kg) accounts for 18% of the total carcinogenicity of the used oil. 4) Regarding the reduced carcinogenicity of the oil sample, which was reconstituted from all fractions, it seems possible that some of the carcinogenic substances were lost due to volatility, with evaporation of the solvents from the oil-fractionation processes. 5) Regarding the small effect of the PAH-free fraction, as well as the equal carcinogenic effects of the PAH-fraction (containing more than three rings) and the reconstituted oil sample, no hints for a co-carcinogenic activity were obtained.

  17. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc(-/-)p53(+/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Melis, Joost P M; Speksnijder, Ewoud N; Kuiper, Raoul V; Salvatori, Daniela C F; Schaap, Mirjam M; Maas, Saskia; Robinson, Joke; Verhoef, Aart; van Benthem, Jan; Luijten, Mirjam; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-15

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed the Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory effects of spirulina platensis on carcinogen-activating cytochrome P450 isozymes and potential for drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Savranoglu, Seda; Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) has been considered as potential food source of 21st century due to its remarkable nutrient profile and therapeutic benefits. However, the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated drug/chemical interaction potential of SP has not yet been pursued. We investigated the effects of SP on the expressions and enzymatic activities of main CYP isozymes. After the rats were orally administered with SP daily for 5 consecutive weeks, there were significant downregulations in hepatic expression levels and inhibition in enzymatic activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 compared to controls. In addition, a significant decrease was observed in CYP2C6-associated enzyme activity with no remarkable changes in messenger RNA (mRNA)/protein levels. The SP application resulted in significant increases in mRNA/protein levels of both CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 without a significant change in enzyme activities. These findings partly explain the chemopreventive properties of SP toward various organ toxicities, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis; however, its coadministration with some CYP substrates may lead to undesirable drug interactions.

  19. Gpr110 deficiency decelerates carcinogen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis via activation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Benting; Zhu, Junjie; Tan, Juan; Mao, Yulei; Tang, Lingyun; Shen, Chunling; Zhang, Hongxing; Kuang, Ying; Fei, Jian; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Zhugang

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex process that includes pronounced necroinflammation, unregulated hepatocyte damage, subsequent extensive fibrosis, and carcinogenesis. GPR110 was an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor. Analysis of the expression pattern of Gpr110 in mice displayed that Gpr110 was expressed highly in liver, implicating the tissue compartments where Gpr110 could execute its functions, the role of Gpr110 in the physiological and pathological state of liver remains unclear. Based on a Gpr110 knockout mouse model, we evaluated the role of Gpr110 in hepatocarcinogenesis by using a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis model, as well as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) plus CCl4-induced liver cancer model. In this study, we found subdued chronic liver injury, reduced compensatory proliferation, lower liver fibrosis, but enhanced inflammation occurred in Gpr110-/- mice during CCl4 challenge. In addition, Gpr110-/- mice were resistant to liver tumorigenesis induced by DEN plus CCl4 injection. Molecular mechanisms underlying these differences correlated with augmented activation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway, which exerted hepatoprotective effects during liver damage, fibrosis, and oncogenesis in Gpr110-/- mice. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the activation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway enhanced hepatic fibrosis and promoted DEN plus CCl4-induced carcinogenesis in Gpr110-/- mice. In summary, absence of Gpr110 decelerates liver fibrosis/cirrhosis progressing into tumorigenesis, due to strengthening activation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway, leading to a weaker liver injury and fibrosis microenvironment. It is indicated that targeting Gpr110 and activating the IL-6/STAT3 pathway may be considered to be preventive methods for some cirrhosis transition. PMID:28401002

  20. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  1. Cytogenetic studies of mice chronically fed carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Director, A.E.; Ramsey, M.J.; Tucker, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    Over the past few years, we have carried out chronic feeding studies in C57BL/6 female mice. These experiments examined the effect of the chronic ingestion of a single chemical carcinogen on chromosomes. The carcinogens studied were PhIP,MeIQx, cyclophosphamide and urethane. These studies used traditional assays, such as SCEs and MN, as well as chromosome painting. In all four cases, the traditional assays showed an increase in the frequency of lesions, demonstrating that the chemicals, and/or their reactive metabolites, reached the target nuclei. This, however, seemed at odds with the data obtained from chromosome painting, which did not show an increasemore » in the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations. This discrepancy between traditional assays and chromosome painting may be due to the nature of the lesions that each assay identifies. The traditional assays tend to identify lesions on the chromatid level, where as chromosome painting identifies lesions on the chromosome level requires two or more DNA double strand breaks occurring proximally in both time and space. In other words, for exposure to a chemical carcinogen to induce an increase in chromosome aberrations as measured by chromosome painting, the chemical, or its metabolites, would have to cause a large number of double strand breaks. By applying this logic to the data obtained from the four chronic feeding studies, one can infer that the chronic ingestion of chemical carcinogens does not result in the frequent formation of double strand breaks and therefore, does not result in the frequent formation of double strand breaks and therefore, does not result in increased frequencies of stable chromosome aberrations. We must, therefore, look elsewhere for the mechanism(s) underlying carcinogenesis due to chronic exposure to chemical carcinogens.« less

  2. Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

  3. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  4. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  5. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  6. Identifying Emotions on the Basis of Neural Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Karim S.; Markey, Amanda R.; Cherkassky, Vladimir L.; Loewenstein, George; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-01-01

    We attempt to determine the discriminability and organization of neural activation corresponding to the experience of specific emotions. Method actors were asked to self-induce nine emotional states (anger, disgust, envy, fear, happiness, lust, pride, sadness, and shame) while in an fMRI scanner. Using a Gaussian Naïve Bayes pooled variance classifier, we demonstrate the ability to identify specific emotions experienced by an individual at well over chance accuracy on the basis of: 1) neural activation of the same individual in other trials, 2) neural activation of other individuals who experienced similar trials, and 3) neural activation of the same individual to a qualitatively different type of emotion induction. Factor analysis identified valence, arousal, sociality, and lust as dimensions underlying the activation patterns. These results suggest a structure for neural representations of emotion and inform theories of emotional processing. PMID:23840392

  7. Identifying Emotions on the Basis of Neural Activation.

    PubMed

    Kassam, Karim S; Markey, Amanda R; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Loewenstein, George; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-01-01

    We attempt to determine the discriminability and organization of neural activation corresponding to the experience of specific emotions. Method actors were asked to self-induce nine emotional states (anger, disgust, envy, fear, happiness, lust, pride, sadness, and shame) while in an fMRI scanner. Using a Gaussian Naïve Bayes pooled variance classifier, we demonstrate the ability to identify specific emotions experienced by an individual at well over chance accuracy on the basis of: 1) neural activation of the same individual in other trials, 2) neural activation of other individuals who experienced similar trials, and 3) neural activation of the same individual to a qualitatively different type of emotion induction. Factor analysis identified valence, arousal, sociality, and lust as dimensions underlying the activation patterns. These results suggest a structure for neural representations of emotion and inform theories of emotional processing.

  8. Genetic toxicology of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.A.; Stack, H.F.; Waters, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The report examines a group of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens that have been cited in the published literature. Using short-term test data from the US Environmental Protection Agency/International Agency for Research on Cancer genetic activity profile (EPA/IARC GAP) database, these agents are classified on the basis of their mutagenicity emphasizing three genetic endpoints: gene mutation, chromosomal aberration and aneuploidy. On the basis of results of short-term tests for these effects, criteria was defined for evidence of mutagenicity (and nonmutagenicity) these criteria were applied in classifying the group of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens. The results from this evaluation based on the EPA/IARC GAPmore » database are presented along with a summary of the short-term test data for each chemical and the relevant carcinogenicity results from the NTP, Gene-Tox and IARC databases. The data clearly demonstrate that many of the putative nongenotoxic carcinogens that have been adequately tested in short-term bioassays induce gene or chromosomal mutations or aneuploidy.« less

  9. Carcinogen Control in the Chemical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents general and specific guidelines for handling carcinogens. Additional topics include: definition of potential occupational carcinogens; classification of carcinogens; inventory requirements; signs and labels for materials and laboratories; decontamination and disposal procedures; medical surveillance for employees working with controlled…

  10. Identifying transcription factor functions and targets by phenotypic activation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Gordon; Morris, Quaid D.; Sopko, Richelle; Robinson, Mark D.; Ryan, Owen; Chan, Esther T.; Frey, Brendan J.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Mapping transcriptional regulatory networks is difficult because many transcription factors (TFs) are activated only under specific conditions. We describe a generic strategy for identifying genes and pathways induced by individual TFs that does not require knowledge of their normal activation cues. Microarray analysis of 55 yeast TFs that caused a growth phenotype when overexpressed showed that the majority caused increased transcript levels of genes in specific physiological categories, suggesting a mechanism for growth inhibition. Induced genes typically included established targets and genes with consensus promoter motifs, if known, indicating that these data are useful for identifying potential new target genes and binding sites. We identified the sequence 5′-TCACGCAA as a binding sequence for Hms1p, a TF that positively regulates pseudohyphal growth and previously had no known motif. The general strategy outlined here presents a straightforward approach to discovery of TF activities and mapping targets that could be adapted to any organism with transgenic technology. PMID:16880382

  11. Activation and inactivation of carcinogenic dihaloalkanes and other compounds by glutathione S-transferase 5-5 in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain NM5004.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Yamazaki, H; Oda, Y; Hiratsuka, A; Watabe, T; Guengerich, F P

    1996-01-01

    Yrs-Yrs and rat liver GST (a mixture of alpha and mu class enzymes). Thus, the present results support the view that the theta class rat GST 5-5 enzyme participates in the activation and inactivation of potential environmental carcinogenic chemicals. This newly developed NM5004 tester strain is of use in the elucidation of roles of GST 5-5 in transformations.

  12. Identification of 4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl-2'-deoxycytidine Adducts Formed in the Reaction of DNA with 4-(Acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone: A Chemically Activated Form of Tobacco-Specific Carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anna K; Zarth, Adam T; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-03-31

    Metabolic activation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 1 ) and N '-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, 2 ) results in the formation of 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts, several of which have been previously identified both in vitro and in tissues of laboratory animals treated with NNK or NNN. However, 2'-deoxycytidine adducts formed in this process have been incompletely examined in previous studies. Therefore, in this study we prepared characterized standards for the identification of previously unknown 2'-deoxycytidine and 2'-deoxyuridine adducts that could be produced in these reactions. The formation of these products in reactions of 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc, 3 ), a model 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylating agent, with DNA was investigated. The major 2'-deoxycytidine adduct, identified as its stable cytosine analogue O 2 -[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-cytosine ( 12 ), was O 2 -[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2'-deoxycytidine ( 13 ), whereas lesser amounts of 3-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2'-deoxycytidine ( 14 ) and N 4 -[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2'-deoxycytidine ( 15 ) were also observed. The potential conversion of relatively unstable 2'-deoxycytidine adducts to stable 2'-deoxyuridine adducts by treatment of the adducted DNA with bisulfite was also investigated, but the harsh conditions associated with this approach prevented quantitation. The results of this study provide new validated standards for the study of 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylation of DNA, a critical reaction in the carcinogenesis by 1 and 2 , and demonstrate the presence of previously unidentified 2'-deoxycytidine adducts in this DNA.

  13. Chemistry of carcinogenic metals.

    PubMed Central

    Martell, A E

    1981-01-01

    The periodic distribution of known and suspected carcinogenic metal ions is described, and the chemical behavior of various types of metal ions is explained in terms of the general theory of hard and soft acids and bases. The chelate effect is elucidated, and the relatively high stability of metal chelates in very dilute solutions is discussed. The concepts employed for the chelate effect are extended to explain the high stabilities of macrocyclic and cryptate complexes. Procedures for the use of equilibrium data to determine the speciation of metal ions and complexes under varying solution conditions are described. Methods for assessing the interferences by hydrogen ion, competing metal ions, hydrolysis, and precipitation are explained, and are applied to systems containing iron(III) chelates of fourteen chelating agents designed for effective binding of the ferric ion. The donor groups available for the building up of multidentate ligands are presented, and the ways in which they may be combined to achieve high affinity and selectivity for certain types of metal ions are explained. PMID:6791915

  14. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as ‘probable’ and ‘possible’ human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities. PMID:27748850

  15. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers (Review).

    PubMed

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as 'probable' and 'possible' human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities.

  16. Identifying clusters of active transportation using spatial scan statistics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Stinchcomb, David G; Pickle, Linda W; Dill, Jennifer; Berrigan, David

    2009-08-01

    There is an intense interest in the possibility that neighborhood characteristics influence active transportation such as walking or biking. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how a spatial cluster identification method can evaluate the geographic variation of active transportation and identify neighborhoods with unusually high/low levels of active transportation. Self-reported walking/biking prevalence, demographic characteristics, street connectivity variables, and neighborhood socioeconomic data were collected from respondents to the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS; N=10,688) in Los Angeles County (LAC) and San Diego County (SDC). Spatial scan statistics were used to identify clusters of high or low prevalence (with and without age-adjustment) and the quantity of time spent walking and biking. The data, a subset from the 2001 CHIS, were analyzed in 2007-2008. Geographic clusters of significantly high or low prevalence of walking and biking were detected in LAC and SDC. Structural variables such as street connectivity and shorter block lengths are consistently associated with higher levels of active transportation, but associations between active transportation and socioeconomic variables at the individual and neighborhood levels are mixed. Only one cluster with less time spent walking and biking among walkers/bikers was detected in LAC, and this was of borderline significance. Age-adjustment affects the clustering pattern of walking/biking prevalence in LAC, but not in SDC. The use of spatial scan statistics to identify significant clustering of health behaviors such as active transportation adds to the more traditional regression analysis that examines associations between behavior and environmental factors by identifying specific geographic areas with unusual levels of the behavior independent of predefined administrative units.

  17. Identifying Clusters of Active Transportation Using Spatial Scan Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lan; Stinchcomb, David G.; Pickle, Linda W.; Dill, Jennifer; Berrigan, David

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an intense interest in the possibility that neighborhood characteristics influence active transportation such as walking or biking. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how a spatial cluster identification method can evaluate the geographic variation of active transportation and identify neighborhoods with unusually high/low levels of active transportation. Methods Self-reported walking/biking prevalence, demographic characteristics, street connectivity variables, and neighborhood socioeconomic data were collected from respondents to the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS; N=10,688) in Los Angeles County (LAC) and San Diego County (SDC). Spatial scan statistics were used to identify clusters of high or low prevalence (with and without age-adjustment) and the quantity of time spent walking and biking. The data, a subset from the 2001 CHIS, were analyzed in 2007–2008. Results Geographic clusters of significantly high or low prevalence of walking and biking were detected in LAC and SDC. Structural variables such as street connectivity and shorter block lengths are consistently associated with higher levels of active transportation, but associations between active transportation and socioeconomic variables at the individual and neighborhood levels are mixed. Only one cluster with less time spent walking and biking among walkers/bikers was detected in LAC, and this was of borderline significance. Age-adjustment affects the clustering pattern of walking/biking prevalence in LAC, but not in SDC. Conclusions The use of spatial scan statistics to identify significant clustering of health behaviors such as active transportation adds to the more traditional regression analysis that examines associations between behavior and environmental factors by identifying specific geographic areas with unusual levels of the behavior independent of predefined administrative units. PMID:19589451

  18. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P M

    1998-08-01

    Of 240 pesticides screened for carcinogenicity by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs, at least 24 (10%) produce thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Thirteen of the thyroid carcinogens also induce liver tumors, mainly in mice, and 9 chemicals produce tumors at other sites. Some mutagenic data are available on all 24 pesticides producing thyroid tumors. Mutagenicity does not seem to be a major determinant in thyroid carcinogenicity, except for possibly acetochlor; evidence is less convincing for ethylene thiourea and etridiazole. Studies on thyroid-pituitary functioning, including indications of thyroid cell growth and/or changes in thyroxine, triiodothyronine, or thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, are available on 19 pesticides. No such antithyroid information is available for etridiazole, N-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide, terbutryn, triadimefon, and trifluralin. Of the studied chemicals, only bromacil lacks antithyroid activity under study conditions. Intrathyroidal and extrathyroidal sites of action are found: amitrole, ethylene thiourea, and mancozeb are thyroid peroxidase inhibitors; and acetochlor, clofentezine, fenbuconazole, fipronil, pendimethalin, pentachloronitrobenzene, prodiamine, pyrimethanil, and thiazopyr seem to enhance the hepatic metabolism and excretion of thyroid hormone. Thus, with 12 pesticides that mode of action judgments can be made, 11 disrupt thyroid-pituitary homeostasis only; no chemical is mutagenic only; and acetochlor may have both antithyroid and some mutagenic activity. More information is needed to identify other potential antithyroid modes of thyroid carcinogenic action.

  19. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment provide EPA staff with guidance for developing and using risk assessments. They also provide basic information to the public about the Agency's risk assessment methods.

  20. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the identification of human carcinogens: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Islami, F

    2013-04-01

    The use of biological-based markers of exposure, intermediate effect, outcome, and susceptibility has become standard practice in cancer epidemiology, which has contributed to identification of several carcinogenic agents. Nevertheless, with the exception of biological agents, this contribution, in terms of providing sufficiently strong evidence as required by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs, has been modest. We discuss the overall contribution of molecular epidemiology to identification of carcinogens, with focus on IARC monographs. For many carcinogens, valid biological markers of exposure and mechanisms of actions are not available. Molecular markers are usually assessed in single biological samples, which may not represent the actual exposure or biological events related to carcinogens. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to identification of carcinogens has mainly been limited to the carcinogens acting through a genotoxic mechanism, i.e. when carcinogens induce DNA damage. A number of factors, including certain hormones and overweight/obesity, may show carcinogenic effects through nongenotoxic pathways, for which mechanisms of carcinogenicity are not well identified and their biomarkers are sparse. Longitudinal assessment of biomarkers may provide more informative data in molecular epidemiology studies. For many carcinogens and mechanistic pathways, in particular nongenotoxic carcinogenicity, valid biological markers still need to be identified.

  1. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G.; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.

    2007-07-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest ismore » MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200

  2. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Y.; Maekawa, A.; Takahashi, M.

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activitiesmore » for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes.111 references.« less

  3. Nonmutagenic carcinogens induce intrachromosomal recombination in dividing yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, R H

    1993-12-01

    A large number of animal and human carcinogens without apparent genotoxic activity exist (nonmutagenic carcinogens) that are difficult or impossible to detect with the currently used short-term tests. Because of the association of carcinogenesis with genome rearrangement, a system selecting for intrachromosomal recombination (DEL recombination) that results in genome rearrangement has been constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because DEL recombination is under different genetic control than interchromosomal recombination and meiotic recombination, it is probably due to a different mechanism. It has been found that DEL recombination is readily inducible by 10 mutagenic carcinogens and 17 nonmutagenic carcinogens that are not detectable (false negatives) with the Ames assay. In addition, three out of four mutagens that do not cause cancer (false positives in the Ames assay) do not induce DEL recombination. DEL recombination is inducible by UV only in dividing cells but not in cells synchronized in the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle. Interchromosomal recombination, on the other hand, is inducible in G1 but not in G2. The nonmutagenic carcinogens induce DEL recombination only in actively growing cells, which may give some indication as to their mechanism. Further characterization of the mechanism involved in induction of DEL recombination may contribute to the understanding of the biological activity of nonmutagenic carcinogens.

  4. CORRELATION OF CARCINOGENIC POTENCY WITH MOUSE SKIN 32P-POSTLABELING AND LAC Z-MUTATION DATE FOR DMBA AN ITS K-REGION SULPHUR ISOSTERE: COMPARISON WITH ACTIVITIES OBSERVED IN STANDARD GENOTOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    6,11-Dimethylbenzo(b]naphtho[2,3-d]thiophene (S-DMBA) is one of several carcinogenic analogs of the reference mouse skin carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[alanthracene (OMBA)Demonstration of the weak carcinogenicity of S-DMBA by Tilak in 1946 established at that early stage the inadeq...

  5. In vitro cell transformation assays for an integrated, alternative assessment of carcinogenicity: a data-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The study of the chemical carcinogenesis mechanisms and the design of efficient prevention strategies and measures are of crucial importance to protect human health. The long-term carcinogenesis bioassays have played a central role in protecting human health, but for ethical and practical reasons their use is dramatically diminishing, and the genotoxicity short-term tests have taken the pivotal role in the pre-screening of carcinogenicity. However, there is evidence that this strategy is not sensitive enough to detect all genotoxic carcinogens and it cannot detect nongenotoxic carcinogens. In a previous article, we have shown that an integrated strategy consisting of the in vitro Ames and Syrian Hamster Embryo cells transformation assays, combined with structure-activity relationships, is a valid alternative to the present pre-screening strategies. Here, we expand the previous investigation by (i) including results of cell transformation assays on inorganics, together with an additional assay (Bhas 42), and (ii) considering new structural alerts for nongenotoxic carcinogenicity. We also present a new analysis on global relationships between toxicological endpoints. The new results confirm that the previously proposed integrated, alternative strategy is an efficient tool to identify both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens, with an estimated 90-95% sensitivity.

  6. METABOLISM, GENOTOXICITY, AND CARCINOGENICITY OF COMFREY

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P.; Fuscoe, James C.; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction. PMID:21170807

  7. Toxicogenomics and cancer risk assessment: a framework for key event analysis and dose-response assessment for nongenotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Bercu, Joel P; Jolly, Robert A; Flagella, Kelly M; Baker, Thomas K; Romero, Pedro; Stevens, James L

    2010-12-01

    In order to determine a threshold for nongenotoxic carcinogens, the traditional risk assessment approach has been to identify a mode of action (MOA) with a nonlinear dose-response. The dose-response for one or more key event(s) linked to the MOA for carcinogenicity allows a point of departure (POD) to be selected from the most sensitive effect dose or no-effect dose. However, this can be challenging because multiple MOAs and key events may exist for carcinogenicity and oftentimes extensive research is required to elucidate the MOA. In the present study, a microarray analysis was conducted to determine if a POD could be identified following short-term oral rat exposure with two nongenotoxic rodent carcinogens, fenofibrate and methapyrilene, using a benchmark dose analysis of genes aggregated in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes, which likely encompass key event(s) for carcinogenicity. The gene expression response for fenofibrate given to rats for 2days was consistent with its MOA and known key events linked to PPARα activation. The temporal response from daily dosing with methapyrilene demonstrated biological complexity with waves of pathways/biological processes occurring over 1, 3, and 7days; nonetheless, the benchmark dose values were consistent over time. When comparing the dose-response of toxicogenomic data to tumorigenesis or precursor events, the toxicogenomics POD was slightly below any effect level. Our results suggest that toxicogenomic analysis using short-term studies can be used to identify a threshold for nongenotoxic carcinogens based on evaluation of potential key event(s) which then can be used within a risk assessment framework. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global proteome analysis identifies active immunoproteasome subunits in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M; Brown, Lyda M; Hoffman, Michael D; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Global Proteome Analysis Identifies Active Immunoproteasome Subunits in Human Platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M.; Brown, Lyda M.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. PMID:25146974

  10. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc{sup −/−}p53{sup +/−} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden; Speksnijder, Ewoud N.

    2013-01-15

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed themore » Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Highlights: ► The Xpc*p53 mouse model is able to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. ► Time, animals and cost can be significantly reduced compared to the 2-year bioassay. ► Xpc*p53 mice are more advantageous for carcinogen identification than Xpa*p53 mice. ► Xpc*p53 mice exhibit a wild type response upon exposure to genotoxicants.« less

  11. Environmental pollutants, diet, physical activity, body size, and breast cancer: where do we stand in research to identify opportunities for prevention?

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A; Michels, Karin B; Moysich, Kirsten B; Bernstein, Leslie; Attfield, Kathleen R; Gray, Sharon

    2007-06-15

    Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of death in US women in mid-life. Treatment has adverse effects, adding to the importance of finding modifiable risk factors. At the invitation of Susan G. Komen for the Cure, we reviewed studies of breast cancer and environmental pollutants, diet (assessed prospectively), body size, and physical activity, and animal studies that identify chemicals as potential mammary carcinogens. Databases developed in the review include information on 216 chemicals that increased mammary gland tumors in animal studies and 450 epidemiologic studies (accessible at www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and www.komen.org/environment). Exposure to potential mammary carcinogens is widespread from chemicals found in consumer products, air and drinking water pollution, food, and women's workplaces. Epidemiologic studies have included only a small number of chemicals identified as mammary carcinogens or as hormone disruptors, which may have implications for breast cancer; however, evidence is emerging for associations between breast cancer and polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organic solvents. Prospective diet studies have not revealed consistent associations with breast cancer. Improved exposure assessment methods will help advance future human studies of both diet and environmental pollutants. Studies of physical activity show that it is protective. In the same vein as evidence-based medicine, messages for patients, policymakers, and the public should support decision-making based on the strength of current evidence; such messages might address exposure reduction for some pollutants. Investments in research on environmental factors in breast cancer have potentially large public health benefits.

  12. The OPTX Project. V. Identifying Distant Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.; Tremonti, C.

    2011-11-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity (BPT-AGN). Yet this BPT diagram is limited to z < 0.5, the redshift at which [N II]λ6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g - z color, [Ne III]λ3869, and [O II]λλ3726 + 3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z < 1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray-selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray-selected AGNs as BPT-SF. We use the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole galaxy samples, with their accompanying deep Chandra imaging, to perform X-ray and infrared stacking analyses to further validate our TBT-AGN and TBT-SF selections; that is, we verify the dominance of AGN activity in the former and star formation activity in the latter. Finally, we address the inclusion of the majority of the BPT-comp (sources lying between the BPT-SF and BPT-AGN regimes) in our TBT-AGN regime. We find that the stacked BPT-comp source is X-ray hard (langΓeffrang = 1.0+0.4 -0.4) and has a high X-ray luminosity to total infrared luminosity ratio. This suggests that, on average, the X-ray signal in BPT-comp is dominated by obscured or low accretion rate AGN activity rather than by star formation, supporting their inclusion in the TBT-AGN regime. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  13. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  14. Biased and unbiased strategies to identify biologically active small molecules.

    PubMed

    Abet, Valentina; Mariani, Angelica; Truscott, Fiona R; Britton, Sébastien; Rodriguez, Raphaël

    2014-08-15

    Small molecules are central players in chemical biology studies. They promote the perturbation of cellular processes underlying diseases and enable the identification of biological targets that can be validated for therapeutic intervention. Small molecules have been shown to accurately tune a single function of pluripotent proteins in a reversible manner with exceptional temporal resolution. The identification of molecular probes and drugs remains a worthy challenge that can be addressed by the use of biased and unbiased strategies. Hypothesis-driven methodologies employs a known biological target to synthesize complementary hits while discovery-driven strategies offer the additional means of identifying previously unanticipated biological targets. This review article provides a general overview of recent synthetic frameworks that gave rise to an impressive arsenal of biologically active small molecules with unprecedented cellular mechanisms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Clear Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity by a Whole-Leaf Extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats. PMID:22968693

  16. How to Identify Success Among Networks That Promote Active Living.

    PubMed

    Litt, Jill; Varda, Danielle; Reed, Hannah; Retrum, Jessica; Tabak, Rachel; Gustat, Jeanette; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated organization- and network-level factors that influence organizations' perceived success. This is important for managing interorganizational networks, which can mobilize communities to address complex health issues such as physical activity, and for achieving change. In 2011, we used structured interview and network survey data from 22 states in the United States to estimate multilevel random-intercept models to understand organization- and network-level factors that explain perceived network success. A total of 53 of 59 "whole networks" met the criteria for inclusion in the analysis (89.8%). Coordinators identified 559 organizations, with 3 to 12 organizations from each network taking the online survey (response rate = 69.7%; range = 33%-100%). Occupying a leadership position (P < .01), the amount of time with the network (P < .05), and support from community leaders (P < .05) emerged as correlates of perceived success. Organizations' perceptions of success can influence decisions about continuing involvement and investment in networks designed to promote environment and policy change for active living. Understanding these factors can help leaders manage complex networks that involve diverse memberships, varied interests, and competing community-level priorities.

  17. How to Identify Success Among Networks That Promote Active Living

    PubMed Central

    Varda, Danielle; Reed, Hannah; Retrum, Jessica; Tabak, Rachel; Gustat, Jeanette; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated organization- and network-level factors that influence organizations’ perceived success. This is important for managing interorganizational networks, which can mobilize communities to address complex health issues such as physical activity, and for achieving change. Methods. In 2011, we used structured interview and network survey data from 22 states in the United States to estimate multilevel random-intercept models to understand organization- and network-level factors that explain perceived network success. Results. A total of 53 of 59 “whole networks” met the criteria for inclusion in the analysis (89.8%). Coordinators identified 559 organizations, with 3 to 12 organizations from each network taking the online survey (response rate = 69.7%; range = 33%–100%). Occupying a leadership position (P < .01), the amount of time with the network (P < .05), and support from community leaders (P < .05) emerged as correlates of perceived success. Conclusions. Organizations’ perceptions of success can influence decisions about continuing involvement and investment in networks designed to promote environment and policy change for active living. Understanding these factors can help leaders manage complex networks that involve diverse memberships, varied interests, and competing community-level priorities. PMID:26378863

  18. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Doak, S M; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-01-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undiluted (0.2 ml per application) to the shorn dorsal skin twice weekly for up to 78 weeks, with 48 mice in each treatment group and 96 in the untreated control group; two further groups, each of 48 mice, were similarly treated either with a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract (PCA content, 19.7% w/v) or with a low dose of benzo(a)pyrene (12.5 micrograms/ml acetone). The mice were housed individually in polypropylene cages in specified pathogen free conditions. The incidence of cutaneous and systemic tumours was determined from histological analysis of haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. The results were correlated with the PCA content of the extracts and compared with those from female mice exposed to a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract. Four of the hydrotreated extracts were carcinogenic for murine skin; the two products with the lower PCA contents were less carcinogenic than the products with the higher PCA contents and all were less carcinogenic than the commercial extract. One extract with the lowest PCA content was non-carcinogenic. Thus refining by severe hydrotreatment was an effective method of reducing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum aromatic extracts. Although other physicochemical properties may influence the biological activity of oil products, the PCA content determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction may be a useful indicator of the potential of oil products to induce cutaneous tumours in experimental animals. There was no

  19. Health e-mavens: identifying active online health information users.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Liu, Miao; Krakow, Melinda

    2016-10-01

    Given the rapid increase of Internet use for effective health communication, it is important for health practitioners to be able to identify and mobilize active users of online health information across various web-based health intervention programmes. We propose the concept 'health e-mavens' to characterize individuals actively engaged in online health information seeking and sharing activities. This study aimed to address three goals: (i) to test the factor structure of health e-mavenism, (ii) to assess the reliability and validity of this construct and (iii) to determine what predictors are associated with health e-mavenism. This study was a secondary analysis of nationally representative data from the 2010 Health Tracking Survey. We assessed the factor structure of health e-mavenism using confirmatory factor analysis and examined socio-demographic variables, health-related factors and use of technology as potential predictors of health e-mavenism through ordered regression analysis. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a second-order two-factor structure best captured the health e-maven construct. Health e-mavenism comprised two second-order factors, each encompassing two first-order dimensions: information acquisition (consisting of information tracking and consulting) and information transmission (consisting of information posting and sharing). Both first-order and second-order factors exhibited good reliabilities. Several factors were found to be significant predictors of health e-mavenism. This study offers a starting point for further inquiries about health e-mavens. It is a fruitful construct for health promotion research in the age of new media technologies. We conclude with specific recommendations to further develop the health e-maven concept through continued empirical research. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Regulation of Carcinogenic Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gori, Gio Batta

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that a system of relative standards be formulated which would compare utility of substances to their relative risk as carcinogens. This would define a range of use restrictions. Substances intended for specific uses would then be regulated according to these standards. (Author/RE)

  1. Carcinogens Report Adds Seven Agents.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    The National Toxicology Program has added seven new substances to its 14th Report on Carcinogens, bringing the total number in this congressionally mandated report to 248. The latest additions are the chemical trichloroethylene; cobalt metal and compounds that release cobalt ions in vivo; and five viruses, including HIV-1. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. New clues on carcinogenicity-related substructures derived from mining two large datasets of chemical compounds.

    PubMed

    Golbamaki, Azadi; Benfenati, Emilio; Golbamaki, Nazanin; Manganaro, Alberto; Merdivan, Erinc; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Gini, Giuseppina

    2016-04-02

    In this study, new molecular fragments associated with genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens are introduced to estimate the carcinogenic potential of compounds. Two rule-based carcinogenesis models were developed with the aid of SARpy: model R (from rodents' experimental data) and model E (from human carcinogenicity data). Structural alert extraction method of SARpy uses a completely automated and unbiased manner with statistical significance. The carcinogenicity models developed in this study are collections of carcinogenic potential fragments that were extracted from two carcinogenicity databases: the ANTARES carcinogenicity dataset with information from bioassay on rats and the combination of ISSCAN and CGX datasets, which take into accounts human-based assessment. The performance of these two models was evaluated in terms of cross-validation and external validation using a 258 compound case study dataset. Combining R and H predictions and scoring a positive or negative result when both models are concordant on a prediction, increased accuracy to 72% and specificity to 79% on the external test set. The carcinogenic fragments present in the two models were compared and analyzed from the point of view of chemical class. The results of this study show that the developed rule sets will be a useful tool to identify some new structural alerts of carcinogenicity and provide effective information on the molecular structures of carcinogenic chemicals.

  3. Epigenetic priors for identifying active transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Buske, Fabian A; McLeay, Robert C; Whitington, Tom; Noble, William Stafford; Bailey, Timothy L

    2012-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the genome-wide binding of transcription factors in a particular cell type or under a particular condition is necessary for understanding transcriptional regulation. Using epigenetic data such as histone modification and DNase I, accessibility data has been shown to improve motif-based in silico methods for predicting such binding, but this approach has not yet been fully explored. We describe a probabilistic method for combining one or more tracks of epigenetic data with a standard DNA sequence motif model to improve our ability to identify active transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We convert each data type into a position-specific probabilistic prior and combine these priors with a traditional probabilistic motif model to compute a log-posterior odds score. Our experiments, using histone modifications H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K9ac and H3K27ac, as well as DNase I sensitivity, show conclusively that the log-posterior odds score consistently outperforms a simple binary filter based on the same data. We also show that our approach performs competitively with a more complex method, CENTIPEDE, and suggest that the relative simplicity of the log-posterior odds scoring method makes it an appealing and very general method for identifying functional TFBSs on the basis of DNA and epigenetic evidence. FIMO, part of the MEME Suite software toolkit, now supports log-posterior odds scoring using position-specific priors for motif search. A web server and source code are available at http://meme.nbcr.net. Utilities for creating priors are at http://research.imb.uq.edu.au/t.bailey/SD/Cuellar2011. t.bailey@uq.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Maekawa, A; Takahashi, M; Hayashi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:2269236

  5. Reducing the use of carcinogens: the Massachusetts experience.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Molly M; Massey, Rachel I; Tenney, Heather; Harriman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Toxics use reduction (TUR) is one part of a comprehensive cancer prevention strategy. TUR emphasizes reducing the use of cancer-causing chemicals by improving manufacturing processes and identifying and adopting safer alternatives. This analysis draws on 20 years of data collected from industries reporting to the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA) program to assess trends in the use and release of chemicals associated with cancer. We used a master list of known and suspected carcinogens developed from authoritative sources and a list of carcinogens grouped by their association with 11 cancer sites to analyze trends in use and release of chemicals by industrial facilities reporting to the TURA program from 1990 to 2010. The trend analysis shows that reported use and releases of carcinogens by these Massachusetts companies have decreased dramatically over time. Reported use declined 32% from 1990 to 2010, and reported releases declined 93% from 1991 to 2010 (1991 is when additional industrial sectors, including electric utilities, were phased into the program). Particularly large reductions were achieved in the use of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and cadmium and cadmium compounds. The analysis of groups of chemicals associated with specific cancer sites shows similar trends. Important opportunities for further reductions in many carcinogens, including formaldehyde, hexavalent chromium, and a variety of halogenated compounds are identified. Continued work to minimize the use of carcinogens can help to reduce the burden of cancer in Massachusetts and elsewhere.

  6. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) programs and the regulation of carcinogens: Methods and philosophies. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.; Johnson, L.; Kelly, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the manner in which the EPA identifies, assesses risk for, and regulates substances determined to cause cancer in humans. The report provides an overall perspective of the carcinogen standard-setting process as it is affected by scientific, legal, and political influences. Discussed are: history and methods of carcinogen regulation; toxicological methods for determining carcinogenicity; the use of human-exposure data to regulate carcinogens; an overview of the agency's system for classifying chemical agents suspected or known to cause cancer; significant Federal court cases and decisions that have influenced attempts by Federal agencies to regulate carcinogens; and factors affecting EPAsmore » regulation of carcinogens.« less

  7. Key Characteristics of Carcinogens as a Basis for Organizing Data on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martyn T; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Gibbons, Catherine F; Fritz, Jason M; Portier, Christopher J; Rusyn, Ivan; DeMarini, David M; Caldwell, Jane C; Kavlock, Robert J; Lambert, Paul F; Hecht, Stephen S; Bucher, John R; Stewart, Bernard W; Baan, Robert A; Cogliano, Vincent J; Straif, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    A recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) updated the assessments of the > 100 agents classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans (IARC Monographs Volume 100, parts A-F). This exercise was complicated by the absence of a broadly accepted, systematic method for evaluating mechanistic data to support conclusions regarding human hazard from exposure to carcinogens. IARC therefore convened two workshops in which an international Working Group of experts identified 10 key characteristics, one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. These characteristics provide the basis for an objective approach to identifying and organizing results from pertinent mechanistic studies. The 10 characteristics are the abilities of an agent to 1) act as an electrophile either directly or after metabolic activation; 2) be genotoxic; 3) alter DNA repair or cause genomic instability; 4) induce epigenetic alterations; 5) induce oxidative stress; 6) induce chronic inflammation; 7) be immunosuppressive; 8) modulate receptor-mediated effects; 9) cause immortalization; and 10) alter cell proliferation, cell death, or nutrient supply. We describe the use of the 10 key characteristics to conduct a systematic literature search focused on relevant end points and construct a graphical representation of the identified mechanistic information. Next, we use benzene and polychlorinated biphenyls as examples to illustrate how this approach may work in practice. The approach described is similar in many respects to those currently being implemented by the U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System Program and the U.S. National Toxicology Program. Smith MT, Guyton KZ, Gibbons CF, Fritz JM, Portier CJ, Rusyn I, DeMarini DM, Caldwell JC, Kavlock RJ, Lambert P, Hecht SS, Bucher JR, Stewart BW, Baan R, Cogliano VJ, Straif K. 2016. Key characteristics of carcinogens as a basis for organizing data on mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Environ Health

  8. Key Characteristics of Carcinogens as a Basis for Organizing Data on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Martyn T.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Gibbons, Catherine F.; Fritz, Jason M.; Portier, Christopher J.; Rusyn, Ivan; DeMarini, David M.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Lambert, Paul F.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Bucher, John R.; Stewart, Bernard W.; Baan, Robert A.; Cogliano, Vincent J.; Straif, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) updated the assessments of the > 100 agents classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans (IARC Monographs Volume 100, parts A–F). This exercise was complicated by the absence of a broadly accepted, systematic method for evaluating mechanistic data to support conclusions regarding human hazard from exposure to carcinogens. Objectives and Methods: IARC therefore convened two workshops in which an international Working Group of experts identified 10 key characteristics, one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. Discussion: These characteristics provide the basis for an objective approach to identifying and organizing results from pertinent mechanistic studies. The 10 characteristics are the abilities of an agent to 1) act as an electrophile either directly or after metabolic activation; 2) be genotoxic; 3) alter DNA repair or cause genomic instability; 4) induce epigenetic alterations; 5) induce oxidative stress; 6) induce chronic inflammation; 7) be immunosuppressive; 8) modulate receptor-mediated effects; 9) cause immortalization; and 10) alter cell proliferation, cell death, or nutrient supply. Conclusion: We describe the use of the 10 key characteristics to conduct a systematic literature search focused on relevant end points and construct a graphical representation of the identified mechanistic information. Next, we use benzene and polychlorinated biphenyls as examples to illustrate how this approach may work in practice. The approach described is similar in many respects to those currently being implemented by the U.S. EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System Program and the U.S. National Toxicology Program. Citation: Smith MT, Guyton KZ, Gibbons CF, Fritz JM, Portier CJ, Rusyn I, DeMarini DM, Caldwell JC, Kavlock RJ, Lambert P, Hecht SS, Bucher JR, Stewart BW, Baan R, Cogliano VJ, Straif K. 2016. Key characteristics of carcinogens as a

  9. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, was developed in support of the EPA's evaluation of a petition from the American Chemistry Council requesting to delist EGBE per the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Title III, section 112(b)(1). The position paper was a key component of the Agency's recent determination to grant this petition. It will also be used in the Agency's IRIS assessment of ethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE). An NTP (1998; 2000) study has reported some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidence of hemangiosarcomas of the liver, and some evidence of carcinogenic activity in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidence of forestomach squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas.

  11. [The National Registry of Occupational Exposures to Carcinogens (SIREP): information system and results].

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The recording of occupational exposure to carcinogens is a fundamental step in order to assess exposure risk factors in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the Italian register of occupational exposures to carcinogen agents (SIREP). The core data collected in the system are: firm characteristics, worker demographics, and exposure information. Statistical descriptive analyses were performed by economic activity sector, carcinogen agent and geographic location. Currently, the information recorded regard: 12,300 firms, 130,000 workers, and 250,000 exposures. The SIREP database has been set up in order to assess, control and reduce the carcinogen risk at workplace.

  12. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated organics: Detection of some single-species/single-site carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brooks, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce DNA damage using the Microscreen prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli. Comparison of the performance characteristics of the prophage-induction and Salmonella assays to rodent carcinogenicity assays showed that the prophage-induction assay had a somewhat higher specificity than did the Salmonella assay (70% vs. 50%); sensitivity, concordance, and positive and negative predictivity were similar for the two microbial assays. The Microscreen prophage-induction assay failed to detect eight carcinogens, perhaps due to toxicity or other unknown factors; five of these eight carcinogens were detected by the Salmonella assay. However, the prophage-induction assaymore » did detect six carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella assay, and five of these were single-species, single-site carcinogens, mostly mouse liver carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens, such as the chloroethanes, produce free radicals, which may be the basis for their carcinogenicity and ability to induce prophage. The prophage-induction (or other SOS) assay may be useful in identifying some genotoxic chlorinated carcinogens that induce DNA damage that do not revert the standard Salmonella tester strains.« less

  13. Carcinogenicity of Disinfection By-products and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review by S.D. Richardson et al. (Mutat. Res. 636:178, 2007) presents the first analysis of the 30-year literature on the genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and occurrence of 87 disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified in drinking water. Of these, 11 are regulated by the U.S. EP...

  14. Alcohol Activates the Hedgehog Pathway and Induces Related Pro-carcinogenic Processes in the Alcohol-Preferring Rat Model of Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Isaac S.; Guy, Cynthia D.; Machado, Mariana V.; Wank, Abigail; Kadiyala, Vishnu; Michelotti, Gregory; Choi, Steve; Swiderska-Syn, Marzena; Karaca, Gamze; Pereira, Thiago A.; Yip-Schneider, Michele T.; Schmidt, C. Max; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The responsible mechanisms are not well understood. Hepatocarcinogenesis increases with age and is enhanced by factors that impose a demand for liver regeneration. Because alcohol is hepatotoxic, habitual alcohol ingestion evokes a recurrent demand for hepatic regeneration. The alcohol-preferring (P) rat model mimics the level of alcohol consumption by humans who habitually abuse alcohol. Previously, we showed that habitual heavy alcohol ingestion amplified age-related hepatocarcinogenesis in P-rats, with over 80% of alcohol-consuming P rats developing HCCs after 18 months of alcohol exposure, compared to only 5% of water-drinking controls. Methods Herein, we used quantitative real time PCR and quantitative immunocytochemistry to compare liver tissues from alcohol-consuming P rats and water-fed P rat controls after 6, 12, or 18 months of drinking. We aimed to identify potential mechanisms that might underlie the differences in liver cancer formation, and hypothesized that chronic alcohol ingestion would activate Hedgehog (HH), a regenerative signaling pathway that is over-activated in HCC. Results Chronic alcohol ingestion amplified age-related degenerative changes in hepatocytes, but did not cause appreciable liver inflammation or fibrosis even after 18 months of heavy drinking. HH signaling was also enhanced by alcohol exposure, as evidenced by increased levels of mRNAs encoding HH ligands, HH-regulated transcription factors, and HH-target genes. Immunocytochemistry confirmed increased alcohol-related accumulation of HH ligand-producing cells and HH-responsive target cells. HH-related regenerative responses were also induced in alcohol-exposed rats. Three of these processes (i.e., deregulated progenitor expansion, the reverse-Warburg effect, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions) are known to promote cancer growth in other tissues. Conclusions Alcohol-related changes in Hedgehog signaling

  15. [Application of quantum-chemical methods to prediction of the carcinogenicity of chemical substances].

    PubMed

    Zholdikova, Z I; Kharchevnikova, N V

    2006-01-01

    A version of logical-combinatorial JSM type intelligent system was used to predict the presence and the degree of a carcinogenic effect. This version was based on combined description of chemical substances including both structural and numeric parameters. The new version allows for the fact that the toxicity and danger caused by chemical substances often depend on their biological activation in the organism. The authors substantiate classifying chemicals according to their carcinogenic activity, and illustrate the use of the system to predict the carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a model of bioactivation via the formation of diolepoxides, and the carcinogenicity of halogenated alkanes using a model of bioactivation via oxidative dehalogenation. The paper defined the boundary level of an energetic parameter, the exceeding of which correlated with the inhibition of halogenated alkanes's metabolism and the absence of carcinogenic activity.

  16. Health effects of coal mining and combustion: carcinogens and cofactors.

    PubMed Central

    Falk, H L; Jurgelski, W

    1979-01-01

    Some polynuclear aromatics (PNA) have been found to be potent carcinogens for all tissues and organs of experimental animals that have been exposed to them, but different dose levels are needed for these effects. They have been known for decades to cause cancer at the site of application but also at certain sites distant from the area of contact. Although some hydrocarbons are potent and complete carcinogens, the majority of related hydrocarbons was originally found to be inactive. Since they generally appear together, it was important to know more about their interaction, particularly whether they would synergize, or antagonize. The polycyclic hydrocarbons have been studied by subcutaneous injection, where they prove very potent carcinogens. They are also very active on the skin of mice where they produce cancer on prolonged application. Inhalation studies, require larger doses yielded negative results until particulate matter was introduced which facilitated the development of lung tumors. Although iron oxide dust was used initially, other dusts were also capable of enhancing the response of the tissue to benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis. This point is of importance, particularly since the inhalation of PNA in situations of air pollution or coal mining involves particulates, although of a different type. Soot is not a homogenous substance and several factors determine its properties. Soots will lose some of the absorbed chemicals during their residence in air, but they retain their PNAs for long periods of time when they reach the soil. The carcinogenicity of PNAs in the adsorbed state may be completely absent, depending on particle size of the soot and availability of eluting capability of the tissues or cells in contact with the soot. Whenever the carcinogenic polynuclear aromatics can be eluted they will be active in producing cancer if their residence is adequate. There seems to be no reason to assume that a large increase in coal combustion in the future will

  17. Mechanism-based classification of PAH mixtures to predict carcinogenic potential

    DOE PAGES

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; ...

    2015-04-22

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[ a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[ def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a two-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC>>BaP=Mix2=Mix3>Mix1=Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profilesmore » measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared to tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (p<0.05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. As a result, these data further provide a ‘source-to outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.« less

  18. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in human bronchial epithelium treated with various chemical carcinogens in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, T.; Ide, F.; Kodama, K.

    1984-07-01

    A system was developed in which organ culture of human bronchial epithelium was used in combination with autoradiography for quantitative measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in bronchial epithelial cells. Human bronchi obtained at surgery were cut into small sections and treated with various carcinogens plus (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine in short-term organ culture. Significant numbers of silver grains, indicating UDS, were detected on the nuclei of epithelial cells of human bronchi treated with carcinogens, and the numbers were proportional to the concentrations of carcinogens. In this system seven representative carcinogens induced UDS. Four active metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene, and benz(a)anthracene also weremore » found to induce very active UDS in human bronchial epithelium. These findings suggest that human bronchial epithelial cells can repair different types of DNA modification induced by chemical carcinogens.« less

  20. Identifying protein β-turns with vibrational Raman optical activity.

    PubMed

    Weymuth, Thomas; Jacob, Christoph R; Reiher, Markus

    2011-04-18

    β-turns belong to the most important secondary structure elements in proteins. On the basis of density functional calculations, vibrational Raman optical activity signatures of different types of β-turns are established and compared as well as related to other signatures proposed in the literature earlier. Our findings indicate that there are much more characteristic ROA signals of β-turns than have been hitherto suggested. These suggested signatures are, however, found to be valid for the most important type of β-turns. Moreover, we compare the influence of different amino acid side chains on these signatures and investigate the discrimination of β-turns from other secondary structure elements, namely α- and 3(10)-helices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, A; Pulliero, A

    2014-07-01

    The first evidence that microRNA expression is early altered by exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in still healthy organisms was obtained for cigarette smoke. To date, the cumulative experimental data indicate that similar effects are caused by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropyrenes, endocrine disruptors, airborne mixtures, carcinogens in food and water, and carcinogenic drugs. Accordingly, the alteration of miRNA expression is a general mechanism that plays an important pathogenic role in linking exposure to environmental toxic agents with their pathological consequences, mainly including cancer development. This review summarizes the existing experimental evidence concerning the effects of chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. For each carcinogen, the specific microRNA alteration signature, as detected in experimental studies, is reported. These data are useful for applying microRNA alterations as early biomarkers of biological effects in healthy organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, microRNA alteration results in carcinogenesis only if accompanied by other molecular damages. As an example, microRNAs altered by chemical carcinogens often inhibits the expression of mutated oncogenes. The long-term exposure to chemical carcinogens causes irreversible suppression of microRNA expression thus allowing the transduction into proteins of mutated oncogenes. This review also analyzes the existing knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which environmental carcinogens alter microRNA expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves p53-microRNA interconnection, microRNA adduct formation, and alterations of Dicer function. On the whole, reported findings provide evidence that microRNA analysis is a molecular toxicology tool that can elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms activated by environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Moesin Is a Biomarker for the Assessment of Genotoxic Carcinogens in Mouse Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-01-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane and glycidol are well known genotoxic carcinogens, which have been widely used in industry. To identify a specific biomarker for these carcinogens in cells, the cellular proteome of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with these compounds was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Of 50 protein spots showing a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity compared to control cells on a 2-D gel, we focused on the candidate biomarker moesin. Western analysis using monoclonal rabbit anti-moesin confirmed the identity of the protein and its increased level of expression upon exposure to the carcinogenic compounds. Moesin expression also increased in cells treated with six additional genotoxic carcinogens, verifying that moesin could serve as a biomarker to monitor phenotypic change upon exposure to genotoxic carcinogens in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. PMID:22358511

  3. Moesin is a biomarker for the assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in mouse lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-02-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane and glycidol are well known genotoxic carcinogens, which have been widely used in industry. To identify a specific biomarker for these carcinogens in cells, the cellular proteome of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with these compounds was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Of 50 protein spots showing a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity compared to control cells on a 2-D gel, we focused on the candidate biomarker moesin. Western analysis using monoclonal rabbit anti-moesin confirmed the identity of the protein and its increased level of expression upon exposure to the carcinogenic compounds. Moesin expression also increased in cells treated with six additional genotoxic carcinogens, verifying that moesin could serve as a biomarker to monitor phenotypic change upon exposure to genotoxic carcinogens in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.

  4. Antagonistic interactions of an arsenic-containing mixture in a multiple organ carcinogenicity bioassay.

    PubMed

    Pott, W A; Benjamin, S A; Yang, R S

    1998-11-27

    Inorganic arsenic (As), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are frequently identified as groundwater contaminants near hazardous waste disposal sites. While the carcinogenicity of each of these chemicals has been extensively studied individually, little information exists regarding their carcinogenic potential in combination. Therefore, we investigated the carcinogenic promoting potential of chemical mixtures containing arsenic, DCE, VC and TCE following multiple initiator administration in a multiple organ carcinogenicity bioassay (N. Ito, T. Shirai, S. Fukushima, Medium-term bioassay for carcinogens using multiorgan models, in: N. Ito, H. Sugano (Eds.), Modification of Tumor Development in Rodents, Prog. Exp. Tumor Res., 33, 41-57, Basel, Karger, 1991). Our results reveal a dose-responsive antagonistic effect of this four-chemical mixture on the development of preneoplastic hepatic lesions (altered hepatocellular foci and glutathione S-transferase pi positive foci) as well as bronchioalveolar hyperplasia and adenoma formation.

  5. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    vitro and in vivo studies have shown its toxic and carcinogenic properties; 2) the carcinogenic properties of erionite have been demonstrated, and erionite has been associated with a mesothelioma epidemic in Anatolia, Turkey. Erionite is also widespread in areas of north central USA, where it is contained in gravel paving stone, and is cause for concern due to increased commercial traffic. Numerous studies have shown that non-regulated fibrous materials pose similar health hazards to regulated "asbestos". An increase in human activities in areas where these fibrous minerals are present, such as in surficial rock and soil, will result in the generation of airborne dust, exposing people to carcinogenic fibers. The current limited regulation leads people to believe that only the six mineral fibers referred to as "asbestos" are dangerous. We propose that fibrous minerals should be regulated as a single group, as they have similar deleterious effects on the human body. Regulations would be simplified and more effective if they embrace all carcinogenic fibrous minerals.

  6. Risk-based indicators of Canadians' exposures to environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Setton, Eleanor; Hystad, Perry; Poplawski, Karla; Cheasley, Roslyn; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Keller, C Peter; Demers, Paul A

    2013-02-12

    Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food and beverages. The ability to

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  8. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a "margin of exposure" approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  9. Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment were published in the Federal Register on April 23, 1996 (Federal Register: 17960-18011) for a 120-day public review and comment period. The Proposed Guidelines are a revision of EPA's 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Ass...

  10. Immunoaffinity purification of dietary heterocyclic amine carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderlaan, M.; Hwang, M.; Djanegara, T.

    1993-03-01

    Cooking meats produces a family of heterocyclic aromatic amines that are carcinogens in rodents and genotoxic in many short-term assays. Concern that these compounds may be human carcinogens has prompted us to develop immunochemical methods for quantifying these compounds in the human diet and for identifying the parent compounds and metabolites in urine and feces. Previously reported monoclonal antibodies to 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 6-phenyl-2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) were used to purify by immunoaffinity these known mutagens and cross-reacting structural analogs from well-done cooked beef and urine samples. Materials recovered from the immunoaffinity columns were subsequently separated by HPLC to purify the knownmore » mutagens from cross-reacting chemicals that co-purify by immunoaffinity. Immunoaffinity chromatography was found to be a rapid means of quantifying individual known mutagens, with a minimum of precolumn sample clean-up required. In addition, this procedure has yielded several new mutagens present in cooked meats that are apparently structural analogs of PhIP. Immunoaffinity techniques were also used to purify metabolites from the urine of rats and humans exposed to MeIQx or PhIP. For MeIQx-exposed rats, the combination antibodies immunoconcentrated 75% of the total urinary radioactivity. Analysis of PhIP metabolites recovered from antibody columns is facilitated by the intrinsic fluorescence of PhIP and its metabolites, providing sufficient sensitivity to monitor individuals for the levels of PhIP excreted following consumption of typical western diets. 6 refs., 3 figs.« less

  11. In vivo transgenic bioassays and assessment of the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed Central

    Contrera, J F; DeGeorge, J J

    1998-01-01

    There is general agreement in the scientific community on the need to improve carcinogenicity testing and the assessment of human carcinogenic risk and to incorporate more information on mechanisms and modes of action into the risk assessment process. Advances in molecular biology have identified a growing number of genes such as protooncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are highly conserved across species and are associated with a wide variety of human and animal cancers. In vivo transgenic rodent models incorporating such mechanisms are used to identify mechanisms involved in tumor formation and as selective tests for carcinogens. Transgenic methods can be considered an extension of genetic manipulation by selective breeding, which long has been employed in science and agriculture. The use of two rodent species in carcinogenicity testing is especially important for identifying transspecies carcinogens. The capacity of a substance to induce neoplasia across species suggests that the mechanism(s) involved in the induction of the neoplasia are conserved and therefore may have significance for humans. Based on available information there is sufficient experience with some in vivo transgenic rodent carcinogenicity models to support their application as complementary second species studies in conjunction with a single 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study. The optional substitution of a second 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study with an alternative study such as an in vivo transgenic carcinogenicity study is part of the International Conference on Harmonization guidance S1B: Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals. This guidance is intended to be flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of possible carcinogenicity assessment models currently under consideration or models that may be developed in the future. The use of an in vivo transgenic mouse model in place of a second 2-year mouse study will improve the assessment of carcinogenic risk by contributing

  12. Consequences of synergy between environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Berenbaum, M.C.

    1985-12-01

    As it is generally impossible to determine dose-response relationships for carcinogens at the low concentrations in which they occur in the environment, risk-benefit considerations are by consensus based on the linear, no-threshold model, on the assumption that this represents the worst case. However, this assumption does not take into account the possibility of synergistic interactions between carcinogens. It is shown here that, as a result of such interactions, the dose-response curve for added risk due to any individual carcinogen will generally be steeper at lower doses than at higher doses, and consequently the risk at low environmental levels will bemore » higher than would be expected from a linear response. Moreover, this excess risk at low doses is shown to increase as the general level of environmental carcinogens rises and, independently of this effect, it may also increase with the number of carcinogens present.« less

  13. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    PubMed

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans.

  14. Novel naïve Bayes classification models for predicting the carcinogenicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Cao, Zhi-Xing; Li, Meng; Li, Yu-Zhi; Peng, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    The carcinogenicity prediction has become a significant issue for the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a novel prediction model of carcinogenicity of chemicals by using a naïve Bayes classifier. The established model was validated by the internal 5-fold cross validation and external test set. The naïve Bayes classifier gave an average overall prediction accuracy of 90 ± 0.8% for the training set and 68 ± 1.9% for the external test set. Moreover, five simple molecular descriptors (e.g., AlogP, Molecular weight (M W ), No. of H donors, Apol and Wiener) considered as important for the carcinogenicity of chemicals were identified, and some substructures related to the carcinogenicity were achieved. Thus, we hope the established naïve Bayes prediction model could be applied to filter early-stage molecules for this potential carcinogenicity adverse effect; and the identified five simple molecular descriptors and substructures of carcinogens would give a better understanding of the carcinogenicity of chemicals, and further provide guidance for medicinal chemists in the design of new candidate drugs and lead optimization, ultimately reducing the attrition rate in later stages of drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and CYP1A induction by cooked food-derived carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in human HepG2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Masashi; Sumi, Haruna; Hosaka, Takuomi; Umemura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2016-11-01

    The ability of nine cooked food-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), such as 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-6-methylpyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1), 2-amino-pyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole hydrochloride (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), to activate human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (hAhR) was examined using a HepG2-A10 cell line, which has previously established from human hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cells for use in hAhR-based luciferase reporter gene assays. Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, AαC, MeAαC, IQ and MeIQx showed a definite ability to induce not only luciferase (hAhR activation) in HepG2-A10 cells but also cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1/1A2 mRNAs in HepG2 cells, while such the ability of Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, and PhIP was very low. In addition, all the HCAs examined, especially MeAαC and MeIQx, had a definite capacity for inhibiting the activity of ethoxyresorfin O-deethylase (CYP1As, especially CYP1A1). The present findings demonstrate that all the HCAs examined have the ability to activate hAhR and its target genes, and further confirm that these HCAs become good substrates for human CYP1A subfamily enzyme(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carcinogenicity of the insulation wools: reassessment of the IARC evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Davis, J M; Douglas, D; Gruber, U F; Hoskins, J A; Ilgren, E B; Johnson, N F; Rossiter, C E; Wagner, J C

    1991-08-01

    In assessing the health evidence concerning man-made mineral fibers, the chemical composition, surface activity, durability, and size of fibers have to be taken into account. Special-purpose fine glass fibers need to be separated from the insulation wools (glass, rock, and slag wool). The epidemiological evidence is sufficient to conclude that there has been no mesothelioma risk to workers producing or using glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool. The epidemiological studies have been large and powerful, and they show no evidence of a cause-effect relationship between lung cancer and exposure to glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool fibers. There is some evidence of a small cancer hazard attached to the manufacturing process in slag wool plants 20 to 50 years ago, when asbestos was used in some products and other carcinogenic substances were present. However, this hazard is not associated with any index of exposure to slag wool itself. Animal inhalation studies of ordinary insulation wools also show that there is no evidence of hazard associated with exposure to these relatively coarse, soluble fibers. The evidence of carcinogenicity is limited to experiments with special-purpose fine durable glass fibers or experimental fibers, and only when these fibers are injected directly into the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Multiple chronic inhalation studies of these same special-purpose fine glass fibers have not produced evidence of carcinogenicity. It is suggested that the present IARC evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of insulation wools should be revised to Category 3: not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans.

  18. Carcinogens in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Järvholm, Bengt

    2006-09-01

    The construction industry is a complex work environment. The work sites are temporary and rapidly changing. Asbestos has been widely used in construction industry, but the risks were primarily detected in specialized trades, such as insulation workers and plumbers. Today, the majority of cases related to asbestos exposure will occur in other occupational groups in the construction industry. In a large cohort of Swedish construction workers, insulators and plumbers constituted 37% of all cases of pleural mesothelioma between 1975 and 1984 while they constituted 21% of the cases between 1998 and 2002. It is estimated that 25-40% of all male cases of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden are caused by asbestos exposure in the construction trades. There are many other known carcinogens occurring in the construction industry, including PAHs, diesel exhausts, silica, asphalt fumes, solvents, etc., but it is difficult to estimate exposures and thus the size of the risk. The risk of cancer is less easy to detect with traditional epidemiological methods in the construction industry than in other industrial sectors. It is not sufficient to rely upon broad epidemiological data to estimate the risk of cancer due chemicals in the construction industry. Thus, a strategy to decrease exposure, e.g., to dust, seems a feasible way to reduce the risk.

  19. Monocyclic aromatic amines as potential human carcinogens: old is new again

    PubMed Central

    Skipper, Paul L.; Kim, Min Young; Sun, H.-L. Patty; Wogan, Gerald N.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Alkylanilines are a group of chemicals whose ubiquitous presence in the environment is a result of the multitude of sources from which they originate. Exposure assessments indicate that most individuals experience lifelong exposure to these compounds. Many alkylanilines have biological activity similar to that of the carcinogenic multi-ring aromatic amines. This review provides an overview of human exposure and biological effects. It also describes recent investigations into the biochemical mechanisms of action that lead to the assessment that they are most probably more complex than those of the more extensively investigated multi-ring aromatic amines. Not only is nitrenium ion chemistry implicated in DNA damage by alkylanilines but also reactions involving quinone imines and perhaps reactive oxygen species. Recent results described here indicate that alkylanilines can be potent genotoxins for cultured mammalian cells when activated by exogenous or endogenous phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. The nature of specific DNA damage products responsible for mutagenicity remains to be identified but evidence to date supports mechanisms of activation through obligatory N-hydroxylation as well as subsequent conjugation by sulfation and/or acetylation. A fuller understanding of the mechanisms of alkylaniline genotoxicity is expected to provide important insights into the environmental and genetic origins of one or more human cancers and may reveal a substantial role for this group of compounds as potential human chemical carcinogens. PMID:19887514

  20. Potential carcinogenicity of homoisoflavanoids and flavonoids from Resina sanguinis draconis (Dracaena cinnabari Balf.).

    PubMed

    Vachálková, A; Novotný, L; Nejedlíková, M; Suchý, V

    1995-01-01

    Polarographic behavior of three homoisoflavanoids and four flavanoids isolated from the dragon's blood (Resina sanguinis draconis. Dracaena cinnabari Balf.), collected at Sokotra, was investigated in aprotic solution and an index of potential carcinogenicity tg alpha was determined. Generally, homoisoflavanoids and flavanoids were reduced in two two-electron steps, the first being reversible and the second one irreversible. The parameter tg alpha values indicated that the majority of these compounds possesses no or only marginal potential carcinogenic activity. However, it was demonstrated that some structural modifications in basic flavonoid structure lead to changed electrochemical properties and a substantial increase of derivative potential carcinogenicity.

  1. Perspectives of comparing risks of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, F.; Boffetta, P.

    1988-10-19

    In 1987, investigators concluded that the risks of man-made industrial carcinogens and pesticides (outside of the workplace) are trivial compared with the risks of naturally occurring carcinogens found mostly in the diet. They used a ranking system based on human exposure and rodent potency (HERP) data to arrive at this conclusion. As a result, they recommend that regulatory agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration, base their priorities in this area on their HERP system. We analyzed the assumptions and data set upon which the HERPs were based, concluding that such a simplified approachmore » to set public health policy is inappropriate given the underlying uncertainties. However, we note that when comparisons are consistently based on estimates of average daily exposure to common carcinogens, the HERP scores of many man-made pollutants are comparable to those of naturally occurring carcinogens in the diet.158 references.« less

  2. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, Susan, E-mail: suebarlow@mistral.co.u; Schlatter, Josef; Federal Office of Public Health, Consumer Protection Directorate, Stauffacherstrasse 101, CH-8004 Zuerich

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitudemore » below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.« less

  3. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  4. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity based on chemicals evaluated in the IARC monographs.

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, H; Tomatis, L

    1983-01-01

    The qualitative relationship between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (DNA-damaging activity), based on chemicals which are known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic to man and/or to experimental animals, is analyzed using 532 chemicals evaluated in Volumes 1-25 of the IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. About 40 compounds (industrial processes) were found to be either definitely or probably carcinogenic to man, and 130 chemicals have been adequately tested in rodents and most of them also in various short-term assays. For a comparison between the carcinogenicity of a chemical and its behavior in short-term tests, systems were selected that have a value for predicting carcinogenicity. These were divided into mutagenicity in (A) the S. typhimurium/microsome assay, (B) other submammalian systems and (C) cultured mammalian cells; (D) chromosomal abnormalities in mammalian cells; (E) DNA damage and repair; (F) cell transformation (or altered growth properties) in vitro. The following conclusions can be drawn. In the absence of studies in man, long-term animal tests are still today the only ones capable of providing evidence of the carcinogenic effect of a chemical. The development and application of an appropriate combination of short-term tests (despite current limitations) can significantly contribute to the prediction/confirmation of the carcinogenic effects of chemicals in animals/man. Confidence in positive tests results is increased when they are confirmed in multiple short-term tests using nonrepetitive end points and different activation systems. Assays to detect carcinogens which do not act via electrophiles (promoters) need to be developed. The results of a given short-term test should be interpreted in the context of other toxicological data. Increasing demand for quantitative carcinogenicity data requires further examination of whether or not there is a quantitative relationship between the potency of a

  6. Integration of QSAR and SAR methods for the mechanistic interpretation of predictive models for carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novič, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge-based Toxtree expert system (SAR approach) was integrated with the statistically based counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN) model (QSAR approach) to contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of a carcinogenicity model for non-congeneric chemicals using Dragon descriptors and carcinogenic potency for rats as a response. The transparency of the CP ANN algorithm was demonstrated using intrinsic mapping technique specifically Kohonen maps. Chemical structures were represented by Dragon descriptors that express the structural and electronic features of molecules such as their shape and electronic surrounding related to reactivity of molecules. It was illustrated how the descriptors are correlated with particular structural alerts (SAs) for carcinogenicity with recognized mechanistic link to carcinogenic activity. Moreover, the Kohonen mapping technique enables one to examine the separation of carcinogens and non-carcinogens (for rats) within a family of chemicals with a particular SA for carcinogenicity. The mechanistic interpretation of models is important for the evaluation of safety of chemicals. PMID:24688639

  7. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Julie E.; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A.; Fahey, Jed W.; Normolle, Daniel P.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Kensler, Thomas W.; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSEs) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared to vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. PMID:27339168

  8. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Julie E; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A; Fahey, Jed W; Normolle, Daniel P; Grandis, Jennifer R; Kensler, Thomas W; Johnson, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 547-57. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  10. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  11. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  12. Carcinogenicity assessments of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals: a review of approved molecules and best practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Vahle, John L; Finch, Gregory L; Heidel, Shawn M; Hovland, David N; Ivens, Inge; Parker, Suezanne; Ponce, Rafael A; Sachs, Clifford; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Short, Brian; Todd, Marque D

    2010-06-01

    An important safety consideration for developing new therapeutics is assessing the potential that the therapy will increase the risk of cancer. For biotherapeutics, traditional two-year rodent bioassays are often not scientifically applicable or feasible. This paper is a collaborative effort of industry toxicologists to review past and current practice regarding carcinogenicity assessments of biotherapeutics and to provide recommendations. Publicly available information on eighty marketed protein biotherapeutics was reviewed. In this review, no assessments related to carcinogenicity or tumor growth promotion were identified for fifty-one of the eighty molecules. For the twenty-nine biotherapeutics in which assessments related to carcinogenicity were identified, various experimental approaches were employed. This review also discusses several key principles to aid in the assessment of carcinogenic potential, including (1) careful consideration of mechanism of action to identify theoretical risks, (2) careful investigation of existing data for indications of proliferative or immunosuppressive potential, and (3) characterization of any proliferative or immunosuppressive signals detected. Traditional two-year carcinogenicity assays should not be considered as the default method for assessing the carcinogenicity potential of biotherapeutics. If experimentation is considered warranted, it should be hypothesis driven and may include a variety of experimental models. Ultimately, it is important that preclinical data provide useful guidance in product labeling.

  13. Estrogen Degraders and Estrogen Degradation Pathway Identified in an Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Fu, Han-Yi; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Shih, Chao-Jen; Huang, Lina; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Ismail, Wael; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2018-05-15

    The environmental release and fate of estrogens are becoming an increasing public concern. Bacterial degradation has been considered the main process for eliminating estrogens from wastewater treatment plants. Various bacterial isolates are reportedly capable of aerobic estrogen degradation, and several estrogen degradation pathways have been proposed in proteobacteria and actinobacteria. However, the ecophysiological relevance of estrogen-degrading bacteria in the environment is unclear. In this study, we investigated the estrogen degradation pathway and corresponding degraders in activated sludge collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant, Taipei, Taiwan. Cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods were used to assess estrogen biodegradation in the collected activated sludge. Estrogen metabolite profile analysis revealed the production of pyridinestrone acid and two A/B-ring cleavage products in activated sludge incubated with estrone (1 mM), which are characteristic of the 4,5- seco pathway. PCR-based functional assays detected sequences closely related to alphaproteobacterial oecC , a key gene of the 4,5- seco pathway. Metagenomic analysis suggested that Novosphingobium spp. are major estrogen degraders in estrone-amended activated sludge. Novosphingobium sp. strain SLCC, an estrone-degrading alphaproteobacterium, was isolated from the examined activated sludge. The general physiology and metabolism of this strain were characterized. Pyridinestrone acid and the A/B-ring cleavage products were detected in estrone-grown strain SLCC cultures. The production of pyridinestrone acid was also observed during the aerobic incubation of strain SLCC with 3.7 nM (1 μg/liter) estrone. This concentration is close to that detected in many natural and engineered aquatic ecosystems. The presented data suggest the ecophysiological relevance of Novosphingobium spp. in activated sludge. IMPORTANCE Estrogens, which persistently contaminate surface water

  14. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  15. A modified reverse one-hybrid screen identifies transcriptional activation in Phyochrome-Interacting Factor 3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcriptional activation domains (TAD) are difficult to predict and identify, since they are not conserved and have little consensus. Here, we describe a yeast-based screening method that is able to identify individual amino acid residues involved in transcriptional activation in a high throughput...

  16. Identification and classification of carcinogens: procedures of the Chemical Substances Threshold Limit Value Committee, ACGIH. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

    PubMed Central

    Spirtas, R; Steinberg, M; Wands, R C; Weisburger, E K

    1986-01-01

    The Chemical Substances Threshold Limit Value Committee of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has refined its procedures for evaluating carcinogens. Types of epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence used are reviewed and a discussion is presented on how the Committee evaluates data on carcinogenicity. Although it has not been conclusively determined whether biological thresholds exist for all types of carcinogens, the Committee will continue to develop guidelines for permissible exposures to carcinogens. The Committee will continue to use the safety factor approach to setting Threshold Limit Values for carcinogens, despite its shortcomings. A compilation has been developed for lists of substances considered to be carcinogenic by several scientific groups. The Committee will use this information to help to identify and classify carcinogens for its evaluation. PMID:3752326

  17. Identification and classification of carcinogens: procedures of the Chemical Substances Threshold Limit Value Committee, ACGIH. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

    SciTech Connect

    Spirtas, R.; Steinberg, M.; Wands, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    The Chemical Substances Threshold Limit Value Committee of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has refined its procedures for evaluating carcinogens. Types of epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence used are reviewed and a discussion is presented on how the Committee evaluates data on carcinogenicity. Although it has not been conclusively determined whether biological thresholds exist for all types of carcinogens, the Committee will continue to develop guidelines for permissible exposures to carcinogens. The Committee will continue to use the safety factor approach to setting Threshold Limit Values for carcinogens, despite its shortcomings. A compilation has been developed for lists ofmore » substances considered to be carcinogenic by several scientific groups. The Committee will use this information to help to identify and classify carcinogens for its evaluation.« less

  18. Perinatal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of Styrene –Acrylonitrile Trimer, A Ground Water Contaminant

    PubMed Central

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A.; Malarkey, David E.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Gerken, Diane K.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site’s ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600 ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. PMID:24060431

  19. On the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of automobile exhaust condensate evaluated by local application onto mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Naujack, K W; Misfeld, J; Timm, J

    1983-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify the substances chiefly responsible for the carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate using topical application onto the skin of mice. This was performed by comparing the carcinogenic effect of various fractions with that of an unseparated sample of automobile exhaust condensate, tested in 3 different doses. The probit and Weibull analysis of the result shows: (a) The condensate, emitted from a gasoline-driven automobile provokes local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence demonstrates a clear cut dose-response relationship. (b) The fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than 3 rings accounts for about 84-91% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate. This fraction represents only about 3.5% by wt of the condensate. (c) The content of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.414 mg/g) accounts for 6-7.6% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate, 15 selected PAHs for about 41%. (d) Regarding the minor effect of the PAH-free fraction (about 83% by wt), no hints for a cocarcinogenic activity were observed.

  20. Carcinogens induce reversion of the mouse pink-eyed unstable mutation

    PubMed Central

    Schiestl, Robert H.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Khogali, Fathia; Carls, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    Deletions and other genome rearrangements are associated with carcinogenesis and inheritable diseases. The pink-eyed unstable (pun) mutation in the mouse is caused by duplication of a 70-kb internal fragment of the p gene. Spontaneous reversion events in homozygous pun/pun mice occur through deletion of a duplicated sequence. Reversion events in premelanocytes in the mouse embryo detected as black spots on the gray fur of the offspring were inducible by the carcinogen x-rays, ethyl methanesulfonate, methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, trichloroethylene, benzene, and sodium arsenate. The latter three carcinogens are not detectable with several in vitro or in vivo mutagenesis assays. We studied the molecular mechanism of the carcinogen-induced reversion events by cDNA analysis using reverse transcriptase–PCR method and identified the induced reversion events as deletions. DNA deletion assays may be sensitive indicators for carcinogen exposure. PMID:9114032

  1. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Hooper, K; LaDou, J; Rosenbaum, J S; Book, S A

    1992-01-01

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.

  2. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in Australian road transport workers.

    PubMed

    Si, Si; Carey, Renee; Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah D; Driscoll, Timothy; Darcey, Ellie; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Road transport workers (RTWs) are at high risk of exposure to several occupational carcinogens. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the extent and the circumstances of exposure. As a sub-study of the Australian Work Exposures Study, this study investigated the prevalence of occupational exposure in Australian RTWs. A random sample of Australian working population was invited to a telephone interview regarding their current jobs. An automated expert-assessment procedure was applied to self-reported job-related tasks using a web-based application. 162 RTWs were included in this study. RTWs were exposed to diesel exhaust (97%), solar ultraviolet radiation (78%), environmental tobacco smoke (55%), benzene (29%), silica (15%), and asbestos (10%) at work. Besides driving on roads, vehicle maintenance-related tasks were the major source of carcinogen exposures among RTWs. Most RTWs are exposed to at least one carcinogen at work. We have identified tasks where the use of control measures could potentially reduce exposures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, K.; LaDou, J.; Rosenbaum, J.S.

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies suchmore » as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.« less

  4. Risk assessment for carcinogens under California's Proposition 65

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, W.S.; Zeise, L.; Kelter, A.

    1990-06-01

    Risk assessments for carcinogens are being developed through an accelerated process in California as a part of the state's implementation of Proposition 65, the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act. Estimates of carcinogenic potency made by the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) are generally similar to estimates made by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The largest differences are due to EPA's use of the maximum likelihood estimate instead of CDHS' use of the upper 95% confidence bounds on potencies derived from human data and to procedures used to correct for studies of short duration or with earlymore » mortality. Numerical limits derived from these potency estimates constitute no significant risk levels, which govern exemption from Proposition 65's discharge prohibition and warning requirements. Under Proposition 65 regulations, lifetime cancer risks less than 10(-5) are not significant and cumulative intake is not considered. Following these regulations, numerical limits for a number of Proposition 65 carcinogens that are applicable to the control of toxic discharges are less stringent than limits under existing federal water pollution control laws. Thus, existing federal limits will become the Proposition 65 levels for discharge. Chemicals currently not covered by federal and state controls will eventually be subject to discharge limitations under Proposition 65. No significant risk levels (expressed in terms of daily intake of carcinogens) also trigger warning requirements under Proposition 65 that are more extensive than existing state or federal requirements. A variety of chemical exposures from multiple sources are identified that exceed Proposition 65's no significant risk levels.« less

  5. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, D; Irigaray, P; Hardell, L; Clapp, R; Montagnier, L; Epstein, S; Sasco, A J

    2007-11-01

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment.

  6. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Belpomme, D.; Cancer Research Center, Association for Research and Treatments Against Cancer; Irigaray, P.

    2007-11-15

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicalsmore » related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment.« less

  7. On the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Tarone, Robert E

    2018-01-01

    The recent classification by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the herbicide glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen has generated considerable discussion. The classification is at variance with evaluations of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by several national and international regulatory bodies. The basis for the IARC classification is examined under the assumptions that the IARC criteria are reasonable and that the body of scientific studies determined by IARC staff to be relevant to the evaluation of glyphosate by the Monograph Working Group is sufficiently complete. It is shown that the classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen was the result of a flawed and incomplete summary of the experimental evidence evaluated by the Working Group. Rational and effective cancer prevention activities depend on scientifically sound and unbiased assessments of the carcinogenic potential of suspected agents. Implications of the erroneous classification of glyphosate with respect to the IARC Monograph Working Group deliberative process are discussed.

  8. Mutagens and carcinogens - Occurrence and role during chemical and biological evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner-Sorolla, A.; Oro, J.

    1981-01-01

    The roles of mutagenic and carcinogenic substances in early biologic evolution is examined, along with terrestrial and extraterrestrial sources of mutagens and carcinogens. UV solar radiation is noted to have served to stimulate prebiotic life while also causing harmful effects in plants and animals. Aromatic compounds have been found in meteorites, and comprise leukemogens, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and nitrasamine precursors. Other mutagenic sources are volcanoes, and the beginning of evolution with mutagenic substances is complicated by the appearance of malignancies due to the presence of carcinogens. The atmosphere of the Precambrian period contained both mutagens and early carcinogens and, combined with volcanic activity discharges, formed an atmospheric chemical background analogous to the background ionizing radiation. Carcinogenesis is concluded to be intrinsic to nature, having initiated evolution and, eventually, cancer cells.

  9. Binding of environmental carcinogens to asbestos and mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, G; Pagé, M; Dumas, L

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for measuring the binding capacity of asbestos and other mineral fibres for environmental carcinogens. Benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P), nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (NAAF) were assayed in the presence of Canadian grade 4T30 chrysotile, chrysotile A, amosite, crocidolite, glass microfibres, glasswool, attapulgite, and titanium dioxide. Chrysotile binds significantly more carcinogens than the other mineral fibres. This binding assay is reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 8% and 6% respectively for inter and intra assay. The influence of pH was also studied, and there is good correlation between the carcinogen binding and the charge of the tested mineral fibres. The in vitro cytotoxicity on macrophage like cell line P388D1 and the haemolytic activity of various mineral fibres were also measured; a good correlation was found between the binding capacity and the cytotoxicity of tested mineral fibres on P388D1 cells. These results give some explanations for the reported synergism between exposure to asbestos and the smoking habits of workers. PMID:6331497

  10. Interrelationships among carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, acute toxicity, and chemical structure in a genotoxicity data base

    SciTech Connect

    Benigni, R.; Andreoli, C.; Giuliani, A.

    1989-01-01

    The interrelationships among carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, acute toxicity (LD50), and a number of molecular descriptors were studied by computerized data analysis methods on the data base generated by the International Program for the Evaluation of Short-Term Test for Carcinogens (IPESTTC). With the use of statistical regression methods, three main associations were evidenced: (1) the well-known correlation between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity; (2) a correlation between mutagenicity and toxicity (LD50 ip in mice); and (3) a correlation between toxicity and a recently introduced estimator of the free energy of binding of the molecules to biological receptors. As expected on the basis of themore » large variety of chemical classes represented in the IPESTTC data base, no simple relationship between mutagenicity or carcinogenicity and chemical descriptors was found. To overcome this problem, a new pattern recognition method (REPAD), developed by us for structure-activity studies of noncongeneric chemicals, has been used. This allowed us to highlight a significant difference between the whole patterns of relationships among chemicophysical variables in the two groups to active (mutagenicity and/or carcinogenic) and inactive chemicals. This approach generated a classification rule able to correctly assign about 80% of carcinogens or mutagens.« less

  11. Sucralose Non-Carcinogenicity: A Review of the Scientific and Regulatory Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Colin; Brusick, David; Cohen, Samuel M.; Hardisty, Jerry F.; Grotz, V. Lee; Williams, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulatory authorities worldwide have found the nonnutritive sweetener, sucralose, to be noncarcinogenic, based on a range of studies. A review of these and other studies found through a comprehensive search of electronic databases, using appropriate key terms, was conducted and results of that review are reported here. An overview of the types of studies relied upon by regulatory agencies to assess carcinogenicity potential is also provided as context. Physiochemical and pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic studies confirm stability under conditions of use and reveal no metabolites of carcinogenic potential. In vitro and in vivo assays reveal no confirmed genotoxic activity. Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animal models provide no evidence of carcinogenic potential for sucralose. In studies in healthy adults, sucralose was well-tolerated and without evidence of toxicity or other changes that might suggest a potential for carcinogenic effects. In summary, sucralose does not demonstrate carcinogenic activity even when exposure levels are several orders of magnitude greater than the range of anticipated daily ingestion levels. PMID:27652616

  12. Sucralose Non-Carcinogenicity: A Review of the Scientific and Regulatory Rationale.

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin; Brusick, David; Cohen, Samuel M; Hardisty, Jerry F; Grotz, V Lee; Williams, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory authorities worldwide have found the nonnutritive sweetener, sucralose, to be noncarcinogenic, based on a range of studies. A review of these and other studies found through a comprehensive search of electronic databases, using appropriate key terms, was conducted and results of that review are reported here. An overview of the types of studies relied upon by regulatory agencies to assess carcinogenicity potential is also provided as context. Physiochemical and pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic studies confirm stability under conditions of use and reveal no metabolites of carcinogenic potential. In vitro and in vivo assays reveal no confirmed genotoxic activity. Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animal models provide no evidence of carcinogenic potential for sucralose. In studies in healthy adults, sucralose was well-tolerated and without evidence of toxicity or other changes that might suggest a potential for carcinogenic effects. In summary, sucralose does not demonstrate carcinogenic activity even when exposure levels are several orders of magnitude greater than the range of anticipated daily ingestion levels.

  13. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies

    PubMed Central

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans. PMID:25716480

  14. Annual report on carcinogens (5th)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Report on Carcinogens, prepared by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), U.S. Public Health Service, is issued by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), pursuant to Public Law 95-622 of November 9, 1978. This law requires the Secretary to publish an annual report that contains 'a list of all substances (i) which either are known to be carcinogens or which may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens and (ii) to which a significant number of persons residing in the United States are exposed;...' Annual Reports should also provide available information on the naturemore » of exposures, the estimated number of persons potentially exposed, and the extent to which the implementation of Federal regulations decreases the risk to public health from exposure to these substances.« less

  15. Too many rodent carcinogens: Mitogenesis increases mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.N.; Gold, L.S.

    1990-08-31

    A clarification of the mechanism of carcinogenesis is developing at a rapid rate. This new understanding undermines many assumptions of current regulatory policy toward rodent carcinogens and necessitates rethinking the utility and meaning of routine animal cancer tests. At a recent watershed meeting on carcinogenesis, much evidence was presented suggesting that mitogenesis plays a dominant role in carcinogenesis. Our own rethinking of mechanism was prompted by our findings that: spontaneous DNA damage caused by endogenous oxidants is remarkably frequent and in chronic testing at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), more than half of all chemicals tested (both natural and synthetic)more » are carcinogens in rodents, and a high percentage of these carcinogens are not mutagens.« less

  16. Greek employee awareness of carcinogenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chatzis, Christos; Karvounis, Kiki; Hatziara, Panayiota; Riza, Elena; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Linos, Athena

    2004-10-01

    Occupational risk factors contribute significantly to the development of lung cancer; however, little is known about the extent to which employees are informed of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. Through a case-control study, we estimated the level of awareness among Greek employees potentially exposed to known carcinogenic substances within various occupational settings. Only 6.6% of men (n = 482) employed in occupations with potential exposure to carcinogenic substances were aware of such occupational exposures. Age, education, and residence were significantly associated with awareness. Employees having at least a secondary level of education were 3.5 times more aware than those having at most 6 years of educational training. Assessing awareness among workers potentially exposed to occupational risk factors and promoting occupational health education are important steps for increasing health and safety at the workplace.

  17. Biodegradation of the metallic carcinogen hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) by an indigenously isolated bacterial strain

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Susmita

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter). Materials and Methods: Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI) without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI) were considered as Cr resistant. Results: The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI) concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. Conclusion: Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI). PMID:20976016

  18. A mechanism-mediated model for carcinogenicity: Model content and prediction of the outcome of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays currently being conducted on 25 organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, R.

    A hierarchical model consisting of quantitative structure-activity relationships based mainly on chemical reactivity was developed to predict the carcinogenicity of organic chemicals to rodents. The model is comprised of quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSARs based on hypothesized mechanisms of action, metabolism, and partitioning. Predictors included octanol/water partition coefficient, molecular size, atomic partial charge, bond angle strain, atomic acceptor delocalizibility, atomic radical superdelocalizibility, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy of hypothesized intermediate nitrenium ion of primary aromatic amines, difference in charge of ionized and unionized carbon-chlorine bonds, substituent size and pattern on polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, the distance between lone electron pairsmore » over a rigid structure, and the presence of functionalities such as nitroso and hydrazine. The model correctly classified 96% of the carcinogens in the training set of 306 chemicals, and 90% of the carcinogens in the test set of 301 chemicals. The test set by chance contained 84% of the positive thiocontaining chemicals. A QSAR for these chemicals was developed. This posttest set modified model correctly predicted 94% of the carcinogens in the test set. This model was used to predict the carcinogenicity of the 25 organic chemicals the U.S. National Toxicology Program was testing at the writing of this article. 12 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  19. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided. PMID:12426143

  20. Chemical carcinogenesis: Too many rodent carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.N.; Gold, L.S.

    1990-10-01

    The administration of chemicals at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in standard animal cancer tests is postulated to increase cell division (mitogenesis), which in turn increases rates of mutagenesis and thus carcinogenesis. The animal data are consistent with this mechanism, because a high proportion{endash}about half{endash}of all chemicals tested (whether natural or synthetic) are indeed rodent carcinogens. The authors conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures, where cell killing does not occur, the hazards to humans of rodent carcinogens may be much lower than is commonly assumed.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Edible Mushrooms from Niger Delta, Nigeria: Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed

    Igbiri, Sorbari; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Ekhator, Osazuwa Clinton; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2017-02-01

    In the oil-rich Niger Delta, hydrocarbon pollution and oil spillages, gas flaring and sundry anthropogenic activities constitute sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with food contamination playing a major role in human exposure. In this study we assessed PAH levels in wild and cultivated edible mushroom species consumed by the general population from the oil producing Niger Delta, Nigeria. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs were determined by gas chromatography and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were calculated. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs ranged from 0.02 mg/kg – 3.37 mg/kg. The dietary intake of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic USEPA-16 PAHs (Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, Phenanthrene, Flourene, Flouranthene, Pyrene, Benzo[a]Anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo[a]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Flouranthene, Benzo[K]Flouranthene, Benzo[g,h,i] Perylene, Dibenz[a,h]Anthracene and Ideno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene) for adults, adolescents and seniors ranged from 0.00 – 0.05 mg/kg/day, 0.00 – 0.06 mg/kg/day and 0.00 – 0.07 mg/kg/day. The BaPeq ranged from 0.02 – 2.76 with margin of exposure MOE values of BaP ranging from 3,500,000 to 700,000, 3,500,000 and 3,500,000 to 7,000,000 for adults, adolescents and seniors indicating very insignificant health risk. The incremental lifetime cancer risk was within the safe range of 1.56x10-8 – 1.73x10-6 with the highest calculated risk found for wild Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom species from the study area. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Reducing carcinogens in public schools: A non-regulatory approach by a regulatory agency

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    The New Jersey Public Employees` Occupational Safety and Health Program identified 318 public school districts that reported any of 10 selected carcinogens on their 1990 New Jersey Right to Know Survey of hazardous substances. After obtaining more information about the school districts` use of these carcinogens from a 10% random sample phone survey, a letter recommending substitution of less hazardous substances was sent to the 318 school districts. Individualized to reflect information provided by the schools in the 1990 survey, a form requesting additional information on the status of containers holding the carcinogens was also sent. There were 1,303 reportsmore » of the 10 carcinogens from the 272 (86%) school districts that completed the form. Most were disposed of (668, 51%), used completely (65, 5%), or were slated for disposal (287, 22%). This is an example of a successful project by a regulatory agency to reduce potential exposure to carcinogens in public schools. The 10 most reported carcinogens were arsenic, arsenic trioxide, asbestos, benzene, benzidine, lead chromate, sodium arsenate, sodium arsenite, sodium dichromate, and vinyl chloride.« less

  3. Carcinogen susceptibility is regulated by genome architecture and predicts cancer mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    García-Nieto, Pablo E; Schwartz, Erin K; King, Devin A; Paulsen, Jonas; Collas, Philippe; Herrera, Rafael E; Morrison, Ashby J

    2017-10-02

    The development of many sporadic cancers is directly initiated by carcinogen exposure. Carcinogens induce malignancies by creating DNA lesions (i.e., adducts) that can result in mutations if left unrepaired. Despite this knowledge, there has been remarkably little investigation into the regulation of susceptibility to acquire DNA lesions. In this study, we present the first quantitative human genome-wide map of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the ubiquitous carcinogen in sunlight that causes skin cancer. Remarkably, the pattern of carcinogen susceptibility across the genome of primary cells significantly reflects mutation frequency in malignant melanoma. Surprisingly, DNase-accessible euchromatin is protected from UV, while lamina-associated heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery is vulnerable. Many cancer driver genes have an intrinsic increase in carcinogen susceptibility, including the BRAF oncogene that has the highest mutation frequency in melanoma. These findings provide a genome-wide snapshot of DNA injuries at the earliest stage of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, they identify carcinogen susceptibility as an origin of genome instability that is regulated by nuclear architecture and mirrors mutagenesis in cancer. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Pesticide-exposure Matrix helps identify active ingredients in pesticides used in past years

    Cancer.gov

    Pesticide-exposure Matrix was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years

  5. Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

  6. Fluorescence-based recombination assay for sensitive and specific detection of genotoxic carcinogens in human cells.

    PubMed

    Ireno, Ivanildce C; Baumann, Cindy; Stöber, Regina; Hengstler, Jan G; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    In vitro genotoxicity tests are known to suffer from several shortcomings, mammalian cell-based assays, in particular, from low specificities. Following a novel concept of genotoxicity detection, we developed a fluorescence-based method in living human cells. The assay quantifies DNA recombination events triggered by DNA double-strand breaks and damage-induced replication fork stalling predicted to detect a broad spectrum of genotoxic modes of action. To maximize sensitivities, we engineered a DNA substrate encompassing a chemoresponsive element from the human genome. Using this substrate, we screened various human tumor and non-transformed cell types differing in the DNA damage response, which revealed that detection of genotoxic carcinogens was independent of the p53 status but abrogated by apoptosis. Cell types enabling robust and sensitive genotoxicity detection were selected for the generation of reporter clones with chromosomally integrated DNA recombination substrate. Reporter cell lines were scrutinized with 21 compounds, stratified into five sets according to the established categories for identification of carcinogenic compounds: genotoxic carcinogens ("true positives"), non-genotoxic carcinogens, compounds without genotoxic or carcinogenic effect ("true negatives") and non-carcinogenic compounds, which have been reported to induce chromosomal aberrations or mutations in mammalian cell-based assays ("false positives"). Our results document detection of genotoxic carcinogens in independent cell clones and at levels of cellular toxicities <60 % with a sensitivity of >85 %, specificity of ≥90 % and detection of false-positive compounds <17 %. Importantly, through testing cyclophosphamide in combination with primary hepatocyte cultures, we additionally provide proof-of-concept for the identification of carcinogens requiring metabolic activation using this novel assay system.

  7. Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of cyanobacterial toxins - a review.

    PubMed

    Zegura, Bojana; Straser, Alja; Filipič, Metka

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms has increased significantly in many regions of the world in the last century due to water eutrophication. These blooms are hazardous to humans, animals, and plants due to the production of cyanotoxins, which can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). There is evidence that certain cyanobacterial toxins are genotoxic and carcinogenic; however, the mechanisms of their potential carcinogenicity are not well understood. The most frequently occurring and widespread cyanotoxins in brackish and freshwater blooms are the cyclic heptapeptides, i.e., microcystins (MCs), and the pentapeptides, i.e., nodularins (NODs). The main mechanism associated with potential carcinogenic activity of MCs and NOD is the inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to the hyperphosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is considered to be associated with their tumor-promoting activity. Apart from this, MCs and NOD induce increased formation of reactive oxygen species and, consequently, oxidative DNA damage. There is also evidence that MCs and NOD induce micronuclei, and NOD was shown to have aneugenic activity. Both cyanotoxins interfere with DNA damage repair pathways, which, along with DNA damage, is an important factor involved in the carcinogenicity of these agents. Furthermore, these toxins increase the expression of TNF-α and early-response genes, including proto-oncogenes, genes involved in the response to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Rodent studies indicate that MCs and NOD are tumor promotors, whereas NOD is thought to have also tumor-initiating activity. Another cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN), which has been neglected for a long time, is lately being increasingly found in the freshwater environment. The principal mechanism of its toxicity is the irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. It is pro

  8. Use of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to measure DNA binding capacity of chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Earley, K.; Sharma, S.

    1988-05-01

    Although animal models have been used successfully to study metabolic activation and binding of carcinogens to DNA, only limited studies have been done in human systems. To circumvent the problems associated with the inaccessibility of human tissues and a lack of sensitive methods to detect DNA damage, the authors have investigated the capability of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro to metabolize carcinogens to their DNA binding species by a {sup 32}P-labeled adduct assay. Freshly isolated lymphocytes were exposed at 37{degree}C for 18 hr to 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-aminofluorene, 2-anthramine, 2-acetylaminophenanthrene, benzidine, 1-nitropyrene, 1,2-benzanthracene, triphenylene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, or benzo(a)pyrene at 30 {mu}M each,more » compounds that are shown or suspected to be carcinogenic in experimental animals. The data indicate that all test carcinogens formed readily measurable levels of DNA adducts. Analysis of exposed DNAs by {sup 32}P-labeling after digestion and adduct enrichment showed exclusively or predominantly one major adduct for all test carcinogens, except for 2-anthramine, triphenylene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, which showed two or three adducts. From 12 lymphocyte specimens studied thus far, significant interindividual variations were observed. The lymphocyte system in combination with the {sup 32}P-adduct assay may prove to be an ultrasensitive means to determine interindividual variations in the ability to biotransform carcinogens.« less

  9. QSAR Study for Carcinogenic Potency of Aromatic Amines Based on GEP and MLPs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fucheng; Zhang, Anling; Liang, Hui; Cui, Lianhua; Li, Wenlian; Si, Hongzong; Duan, Yunbo; Zhai, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    A new analysis strategy was used to classify the carcinogenicity of aromatic amines. The physical-chemical parameters are closely related to the carcinogenicity of compounds. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) is a method of predicting the carcinogenicity of aromatic amine, which can reveal the relationship between carcinogenicity and physical-chemical parameters. This study accessed gene expression programming by APS software, the multilayer perceptrons by Weka software to predict the carcinogenicity of aromatic amines, respectively. All these methods relied on molecular descriptors calculated by CODESSA software and eight molecular descriptors were selected to build function equations. As a remarkable result, the accuracy of gene expression programming in training and test sets are 0.92 and 0.82, the accuracy of multilayer perceptrons in training and test sets are 0.84 and 0.74 respectively. The precision of the gene expression programming is obviously superior to multilayer perceptrons both in training set and test set. The QSAR application in the identification of carcinogenic compounds is a high efficiency method. PMID:27854309

  10. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity for Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahy, J.; Shields, N.; Taylor, N. F.; Dodd, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down…

  11. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a limit of 20 ppb or approximately 30 microg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB(1) is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of <1.5 microg of unknown compounds are considered TDIs. Most DNA-reactants, including acrylamide, heterocyclic amines, and alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl are below this value. Above that value, measurement of actual DNA adducts levels in either experimental animals with a risk assessment, or, when this occurs, exposed humans are needed. A number of approaches to undertake this are described including immunological, mass spectrometric and (32)P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to evaluate the results. A

  12. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, A.M.; Williams, G.M.

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. Amore » single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), a limit of 20 ppb or {approx}30 {mu}g/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB{sub 1} is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of <1.5 {mu}g of unknown compounds are considered TDIs. Most DNA-reactants, including acrylamide, heterocyclic amines, and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl are below this value. Above that value, measurement of actual DNA adducts levels in either experimental animals with a risk assessment, or, when this occurs, exposed humans are needed. A number of approaches to undertake this are described including immunological, mass spectrometric and {sup 32}P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to

  13. Legal implications of monitoring workers for carcinogenic and mutagenic risk.

    PubMed

    Damme, C J

    1982-01-01

    Many industries have initiated testing programs designed to identify workers who are especially vulnerable to workplace assaults by carcinogenic or mutagenic agents. This paper examines a number of legal issues attendant on such programs, including disclosure and consent, confidentiality, and other potential liability-producing factors. This paper also briefly looks at the legal issues that might arise if the federal government were to mandate similar programs. Finally, the basic rationale of industrial monitoring programs is discussed within the context of the emerging legal issues.

  14. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence. PMID:8499796

  15. New public QSAR model for carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the main goals of the new chemical regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) is to fulfill the gaps in data concerned with properties of chemicals affecting the human health. (Q)SAR models are accepted as a suitable source of information. The EU funded CAESAR project aimed to develop models for prediction of 5 endpoints for regulatory purposes. Carcinogenicity is one of the endpoints under consideration. Results Models for prediction of carcinogenic potency according to specific requirements of Chemical regulation were developed. The dataset of 805 non-congeneric chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDBAS) was used. Counter Propagation Artificial Neural Network (CP ANN) algorithm was implemented. In the article two alternative models for prediction carcinogenicity are described. The first model employed eight MDL descriptors (model A) and the second one twelve Dragon descriptors (model B). CAESAR's models have been assessed according to the OECD principles for the validation of QSAR. For the model validity we used a wide series of statistical checks. Models A and B yielded accuracy of training set (644 compounds) equal to 91% and 89% correspondingly; the accuracy of the test set (161 compounds) was 73% and 69%, while the specificity was 69% and 61%, respectively. Sensitivity in both cases was equal to 75%. The accuracy of the leave 20% out cross validation for the training set of models A and B was equal to 66% and 62% respectively. To verify if the models perform correctly on new compounds the external validation was carried out. The external test set was composed of 738 compounds. We obtained accuracy of external validation equal to 61.4% and 60.0%, sensitivity 64.0% and 61.8% and specificity equal to 58.9% and 58.4% respectively for models A and B. Conclusion Carcinogenicity is a particularly important endpoint and it is expected that QSAR models will not replace the human experts opinions

  16. Detection of rare and possibly carcinogenic human papillomavirus genotypes as single infections in invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Geraets, Daan; Alemany, Laia; Guimera, Nuria; de Sanjose, Silvia; de Koning, Maurits; Molijn, Anco; Jenkins, David; Bosch, Xavier; Quint, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types to the burden of cervical cancer has been well established. However, the role and contribution of phylogenetically related HPV genotypes and rare variants remains uncertain. In a recent global study of 8977 HPV-positive invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs), the genotype remained unidentified in 3.7% by the HPV SPF10 PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 (version 1) algorithm. The 331 ICC specimens with unknown genotype were analysed by a novel sequence methodology, using multiple selected short regions in L1. This demonstrated HPV genotypes that have infrequently or never been detected in ICC, ie HPV26, 30, 61, 67, 68, 69, 73 and 82, and rare variants of HPV16, 18, 26, 30, 34, 39, 56, 67, 68, 69, 82 and 91. These are not identified individually by LiPA25 and only to some extent by other HPV genotyping assays. Most identified genotypes have a close phylogenetic relationship with established carcinogenic HPVs and have been classified as possibly carcinogenic by IARC. Except for HPV85, all genotypes in α-species 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11 were encountered as single infections in ICCs. These species of established and possibly carcinogenic HPV types form an evolutionary clade. We have shown that the possibly carcinogenic types were detected only in squamous cell carcinomas, which were often keratinizing and diagnosed at a relatively higher mean age (55.3 years) than those associated with established carcinogenic types (50.9 years). The individual frequency of the possibly carcinogenic types in ICCs is low, but together they are associated with 2.25% of the 8338 included ICCs with a single HPV type. This fraction is greater than seven of the established carcinogenic types individually. This study provides evidence that possibly carcinogenic HPV types occur as single infections in invasive cervical cancer, strengthening the circumstantial evidence of a carcinogenic role. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and

  17. Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Corpet, Denis E; van den Berg, Martin; Ross, Matthew K; Christiani, David C; Beland, Frederick A; Smith, Martyn T

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as ‘is genotoxic,’ ‘is immunosuppressive’ or ‘modulates receptor-mediated effects,’ and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings. A systematic search, screening and evaluation procedure identified a broad literature encompassing multiple KCs for most (12/16) IARC Group 1 or 2A carcinogens identified in these meetings. Five carcinogens are genotoxic and induce oxidative stress, of which pentachlorophenol, hydrazine and malathion also showed additional KCs. Four others, including welding fumes, are immunosuppressive. The overall evaluation was upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic data for only two agents, tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachloroazobenzene. Both carcinogens modulate receptor-mediated effects in combination with other KCs. Fewer studies were identified for Group 2B or 3 agents, with the vast majority (17/18) showing only one or no KCs. Thus, an objective approach to identify and evaluate mechanistic studies pertinent to cancer revealed strong evidence for multiple KCs for most Group 1 or 2A carcinogens but also identified opportunities for improvement. Further development and mapping of toxicological and biomarker endpoints and pathways relevant to the KCs can advance the systematic search and evaluation of mechanistic data in carcinogen hazard identification. PMID:29562322

  18. Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Corpet, Denis E; van den Berg, Martin; Ross, Matthew K; Christiani, David C; Beland, Frederick A; Smith, Martyn T

    2018-04-05

    Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as 'is genotoxic,' 'is immunosuppressive' or 'modulates receptor-mediated effects,' and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings. A systematic search, screening and evaluation procedure identified a broad literature encompassing multiple KCs for most (12/16) IARC Group 1 or 2A carcinogens identified in these meetings. Five carcinogens are genotoxic and induce oxidative stress, of which pentachlorophenol, hydrazine and malathion also showed additional KCs. Four others, including welding fumes, are immunosuppressive. The overall evaluation was upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic data for only two agents, tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachloroazobenzene. Both carcinogens modulate receptor-mediated effects in combination with other KCs. Fewer studies were identified for Group 2B or 3 agents, with the vast majority (17/18) showing only one or no KCs. Thus, an objective approach to identify and evaluate mechanistic studies pertinent to cancer revealed strong evidence for multiple KCs for most Group 1 or 2A carcinogens but also identified opportunities for improvement. Further development and mapping of toxicological and biomarker endpoints and pathways relevant to the KCs can advance the systematic search and evaluation of mechanistic data in carcinogen hazard identification.

  19. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsmore » (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).« less

  20. Application of bacterial reverse mutation assay for detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Kanode, Rewan; Chandra, Saurabh; Sharma, Sharad

    2017-06-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens may play a significant role in development of cancer. Currently short-term assays for mutagenicity classify genotoxic carcinogens and lack the abilities to detect epigenetic carcinogens. The need to develop an endpoint always remains to recognize potentially carcinogenic agents employing rapid and practical bioassays. For this, the present study utilized TA98 and TA1537 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium to evaluate four non-genotoxic carcinogenic agents (Coumarin, β-Myrcene, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and trans-anethole). These chemicals were tested individually and in combination with promutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in presence of metabolic activation system (S9) by plate incorporation method. Exposure to all four test chemicals revealed marked increase of revertant colonies in promutagen combined groups as compared to promutagens alone. However significantly greater fold responses were observed with 2AA combination groups (Coumarin +2AA, β-Myrcene +2AA, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate +2AA and trans-anethole +2AA) with TA98 strain as compared with TA1537, which seems to have enhanced the mutagenic response of 2AA in metabolically activated conditions. It is concluded that out of both tester strains TA98 strain of Salmonella typhimurium has the potential to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens when combined with potent promutgens either by inhibiting or modulating activities of liver microsomal enzymes biochemically which may indirectly contribute to neoplastic alterations. Further this simple, short-term alternative assay may provide rapid information during extrapolative toxicology for differentiating genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens.

  1. EPA's evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, several international agencies have evaluated the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate. In March 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a subdivision of the World Health Organization (WHO), determined that glyphosate was a probable carcinogen (gro...

  2. [Risk assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects in the use of food].

    PubMed

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V

    2012-01-01

    Application of methodology for assessing the risk of diseases associated with consumption of contaminated foods, is aimed at predicting possible changes in the future and helps to create a framework for the prevention of negative effects on public health. The purpose of the study is assessment of health risks formed under the influence of chemical contaminants that pollute the food. Exponential average daily dose of receipt of chemicals in the body, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were calculated.

  3. Using FMRI brain activation to identify cognitive states associated with perception of tools and dwellings.

    PubMed

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Mason, Robert A; Malave, Vicente L; Wang, Wei; Mitchell, Tom M; Just, Marcel Adam

    2008-01-02

    Previous studies have succeeded in identifying the cognitive state corresponding to the perception of a set of depicted categories, such as tools, by analyzing the accompanying pattern of brain activity, measured with fMRI. The current research focused on identifying the cognitive state associated with a 4s viewing of an individual line drawing (1 of 10 familiar objects, 5 tools and 5 dwellings, such as a hammer or a castle). Here we demonstrate the ability to reliably (1) identify which of the 10 drawings a participant was viewing, based on that participant's characteristic whole-brain neural activation patterns, excluding visual areas; (2) identify the category of the object with even higher accuracy, based on that participant's activation; and (3) identify, for the first time, both individual objects and the category of the object the participant was viewing, based only on other participants' activation patterns. The voxels important for category identification were located similarly across participants, and distributed throughout the cortex, focused in ventral temporal perceptual areas but also including more frontal association areas (and somewhat left-lateralized). These findings indicate the presence of stable, distributed, communal, and identifiable neural states corresponding to object concepts.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Disposal means the safe removal of the carcinogens addressed by this section from the work environment... in an environment free of the 13 carcinogens addressed by this section. The clean change room shall... external environment. Decontamination means the inactivation of a carcinogen addressed by this section or...

  5. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  6. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J. Mark F.; Bell, Andrew S.; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  7. [Preventive activities in primary health care: identifying the agreement among evidence-based guidelines].

    PubMed

    Gosalbes Soler, V; Márquez Calderón, S; Maiques Galán, A; Latour Pérez, J; Bernal Delgado, E; Puig Barberá, J; Arranz Lázaro, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the agreement among evidence-based guidelines about recommendations on preventive activities in low risk adults. For which we identified, from the 1996 US Task Force on Preventive Services Guide those preventives activities classified like A or B (recommendation in favour of provision) and like D or E (recommendation against provision), excepting those D and E recommendations based on descriptives studies or expert opinions. Both preventive activities aimed at pregnant women and children and those which are not applicable to our context were excluded. Selected preventive services were compared with the range of age, sex and periodicity in which agreement with the recommendations of American College of Physicians and Canadian Task Force on Preventive Services existed. We found the following agreements. Screening activities. In favour: screening for hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, uterine cervix cancer, rubella, visual and hearing impairment and problem drinking. Against: cancer of prostate, lung, bladder and thyroid, and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Counseling activities. In favour: smoking, motor-vehicles injuries, alcohol consumption, unintended pregnancy. Immunizations and quimioprophylaxis. In favour: Vaccines for influenza, tetanus-diphtheria, hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella. Postexposure prophylaxis to hepatitis A, hepatitis B, meningococcal, rabies and tetanus. We see then, that a high degree in agreement among the main guidelines exists; about the preventive activities to perform in Primary Health Services, nevertheless we observed low fulfillment of certain preventive activities in Primary Health Services, different barriers for the accomplishment from these activities were described.

  8. Identifying the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barr, M; Shields, N

    2011-11-01

    Many children with Down syndrome do not undertake the recommended amount of daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to physical activity for this group. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents (16 mothers, 4 fathers) of children with Down syndrome aged between 2 and 17 years to examine what factors facilitate physical activity and what factors are barriers to activity for their children. The participants were recruited through a community disability organisation that advocates for people with Down syndrome and their families. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and independently coded and analysed by two researchers using thematic analysis. Four themes on facilitators of physical activity were identified: (1) the positive role of the family; (2) opportunity for social interaction with peers; (3) structured accessible programmes that make adaptations for children with Down syndrome; and (4) children who were determined to succeed and physically skilled. Four themes on the barriers to physical activity were also identified: (1) characteristics commonly associated with Down syndrome; (2) competing family responsibilities; (3) reduced physical or behavioural skills; and (4) a lack of accessible programmes. The results highlight the important role of families in determining how much physical activity children with Down syndrome undertake and the effect that common characteristics associated with Down syndrome can have on maintaining an active lifestyle. Future research needs to concentrate on successful methods of encouraging physical activity, such as ensuring social interaction is part of the activity, and eliminating barriers to physical activity such as the a lack of appropriate programmes for children with Down syndrome. Implementing these strategies may encourage children with Down syndrome to participate more frequently in a physically active lifestyle. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of

  9. Current and emerging challenges in toxicopathology: Carcinogenic threshold of phenobarbital and proof of arsenic carcinogenicity using rat medium-term bioassays for carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Shoji; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2005-09-01

    For the last 25 years, Prof. Nobuyuki Ito and his laboratory have focused on the development of liver medium-term bioassay system for detection of carcinogens in F344 rats utilizing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci as an end point marker. In this presentation, the outline and samples of medium-term bioassay systems were described. Furthermore, our data demonstrated the presence of a threshold for the non-genotoxic carcinogen, phenobarbital (PB), and the lack of linearity in the low-dose area of the dose-response curve, providing evidence for hormesis. In addition, the establishment and applications of multiorgan carcinogenicity bioassay (DMBDD model), used for themore » examination of the carcinogenicity of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals, are discussed. Dimethylarsinic acid, one of organic arsenics, was found to be carcinogenic in rat bladder using DMBDD model and carcinogenicity test.« less

  10. SABER: A computational method for identifying active sites for new reactions

    PubMed Central

    Nosrati, Geoffrey R; Houk, K N

    2012-01-01

    A software suite, SABER (Selection of Active/Binding sites for Enzyme Redesign), has been developed for the analysis of atomic geometries in protein structures, using a geometric hashing algorithm (Barker and Thornton, Bioinformatics 2003;19:1644–1649). SABER is used to explore the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to locate proteins with a specific 3D arrangement of catalytic groups to identify active sites that might be redesigned to catalyze new reactions. As a proof-of-principle test, SABER was used to identify enzymes that have the same catalytic group arrangement present in o-succinyl benzoate synthase (OSBS). Among the highest-scoring scaffolds identified by the SABER search for enzymes with the same catalytic group arrangement as OSBS were l-Ala d/l-Glu epimerase (AEE) and muconate lactonizing enzyme II (MLE), both of which have been redesigned to become effective OSBS catalysts, demonstrated by experiments. Next, we used SABER to search for naturally existing active sites in the PDB with catalytic groups similar to those present in the designed Kemp elimination enzyme KE07. From over 2000 geometric matches to the KE07 active site, SABER identified 23 matches that corresponded to residues from known active sites. The best of these matches, with a 0.28 Å catalytic atom RMSD to KE07, was then redesigned to be compatible with the Kemp elimination using RosettaDesign. We also used SABER to search for potential Kemp eliminases using a theozyme predicted to provide a greater rate acceleration than the active site of KE07, and used Rosetta to create a design based on the proteins identified. PMID:22492397

  11. SABER: a computational method for identifying active sites for new reactions.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Geoffrey R; Houk, K N

    2012-05-01

    A software suite, SABER (Selection of Active/Binding sites for Enzyme Redesign), has been developed for the analysis of atomic geometries in protein structures, using a geometric hashing algorithm (Barker and Thornton, Bioinformatics 2003;19:1644-1649). SABER is used to explore the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to locate proteins with a specific 3D arrangement of catalytic groups to identify active sites that might be redesigned to catalyze new reactions. As a proof-of-principle test, SABER was used to identify enzymes that have the same catalytic group arrangement present in o-succinyl benzoate synthase (OSBS). Among the highest-scoring scaffolds identified by the SABER search for enzymes with the same catalytic group arrangement as OSBS were L-Ala D/L-Glu epimerase (AEE) and muconate lactonizing enzyme II (MLE), both of which have been redesigned to become effective OSBS catalysts, demonstrated by experiments. Next, we used SABER to search for naturally existing active sites in the PDB with catalytic groups similar to those present in the designed Kemp elimination enzyme KE07. From over 2000 geometric matches to the KE07 active site, SABER identified 23 matches that corresponded to residues from known active sites. The best of these matches, with a 0.28 Å catalytic atom RMSD to KE07, was then redesigned to be compatible with the Kemp elimination using RosettaDesign. We also used SABER to search for potential Kemp eliminases using a theozyme predicted to provide a greater rate acceleration than the active site of KE07, and used Rosetta to create a design based on the proteins identified. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  12. Identifying facilitators and barriers to physical activity for adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mahy, J; Shields, N; Taylor, N F; Dodd, K J

    2010-09-01

    Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down syndrome and their support people about what factors facilitate physical activity and what factors are barriers to activity. A sample of 18 participants (3 men, 15 women) was recruited through two agencies providing services for adults with disabilities; six participants were adults with Down syndrome and 12 participants were support people (four were parents of adults with Down syndrome and eight participants were employed by day programmes attended by the adults with Down syndrome). The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers. Three themes around facilitators to physical activity were identified: (1) support from others; (2) that the physical activity was fun or had an interesting purpose; and (3) routine and familiarity. Three themes around barriers were also identified: (1) lack of support; (2) not wanting to engage in physical activity; and (3) medical and physiological factors. The results suggest that support people play a key role, both as facilitators and barriers, in the participation by adults with Down syndrome in physical activity. Many of the barriers and facilitators of activity for adults with Down syndrome indentified are similar to those reported for adults without impairment. Our findings are also consistent with established theories in the field of health behaviour change.

  13. Carcinogenicity of Embedded Tungsten Alloys in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    year carcinogenicity (Aim 1) and serial euthanasia (Aim 2) studies were analyzed for metal content using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry...inductively coupled- plasma mass spectrometer (PQ ExCell ICPMS System, ThermoElemental, Franklin, MA) equipped with a Cetac ASX500 Autosampler. High...Metal analysis using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry showed that both the tungsten/nickel/cobalt and tungsten/nickel/iron

  14. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  15. Ecological Congruence Assessment for Classroom Activities and Routines: Identifying Goals and Intervention Practices in Childcare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark; Brashers, Margaret Sigalove; Neitzel, Jennifer C.

    2002-01-01

    This article explains how educators can use the ecological congruence assessment process for identifying functional goals for young children with disabilities. Process steps include: teacher collects information about functioning in usual classroom activities, routines, and transitions; summarizes the collected information; and shares the…

  16. Identifying Strategies Programs Adopt to Meet Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Standards in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Robert G.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Saunders, Ruth; Beighle, Aaron; Khan, M. Mahmud; Chandler, Jessica; Brazendale, Keith; Randell, Allison; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The YMCA of USA has adopted Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Standards for its afterschool programs (ASPs). Little is known about strategies YMCA ASPs are implementing to achieve Standards and these strategies' effectiveness. Aims: (1) Identify strategies implemented in YMCA ASPs and (2) evaluate the relationship between…

  17. Using Active Learning to Identify Health Information Technology Related Patient Safety Events.

    PubMed

    Fong, Allan; Howe, Jessica L; Adams, Katharine T; Ratwani, Raj M

    2017-01-18

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (HIT) has led to new patient safety hazards that are often difficult to identify. Patient safety event reports, which are self-reported descriptions of safety hazards, provide one view of potential HIT-related safety events. However, identifying HIT-related reports can be challenging as they are often categorized under other more predominate clinical categories. This challenge of identifying HIT-related reports is exacerbated by the increasing number and complexity of reports which pose challenges to human annotators that must manually review reports. In this paper, we apply active learning techniques to support classification of patient safety event reports as HIT-related. We evaluated different strategies and demonstrated a 30% increase in average precision of a confirmatory sampling strategy over a baseline no active learning approach after 10 learning iterations.

  18. A Virtual Screening Approach For Identifying Plants with Anti H5N1 Neuraminidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic and occasional drug-resistant influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop novel anti-influenza therapeutics. Here, we report computational and experimental efforts to identify influenza neuraminidase inhibitors from among the 3000 natural compounds in the Malaysian-Plants Natural-Product (NADI) database. These 3000 compounds were first docked into the neuraminidase active site. The five plants with the largest number of top predicted ligands were selected for experimental evaluation. Twelve specific compounds isolated from these five plants were shown to inhibit neuraminidase, including two compounds with IC50 values less than 92 μM. Furthermore, four of the 12 isolated compounds had also been identified in the top 100 compounds from the virtual screen. Together, these results suggest an effective new approach for identifying bioactive plant species that will further the identification of new pharmacologically active compounds from diverse natural-product resources. PMID:25555059

  19. Whole-organism screening for gluconeogenesis identifies activators of fasting metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gut, Philipp; Baeza-Raja, Bernat; Andersson, Olov; Hasenkamp, Laura; Hsiao, Joseph; Hesselson, Daniel; Akassoglou, Katerina; Verdin, Eric; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the control of energy homeostasis can lower cardiovascular risk in metabolically compromised individuals. To identify new regulators of whole-body energy control, we conducted a high-throughput screen in transgenic reporter zebrafish for small molecules that modulate the expression of the fasting-inducible gluconeogenic gene pck1. We show that this in vivo strategy identified several drugs that impact gluconeogenesis in humans, as well as metabolically uncharacterized compounds. Most notably, we find that the Translocator Protein (TSPO) ligands PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 are glucose lowering agents despite a strong inductive effect on pck1 expression. We show that these drugs are activators of a fasting-like energy state, and importantly that they protect high-fat diet induced obese mice from hepatosteatosis and glucose intolerance, two pathological manifestations of metabolic dysregulation. Thus, using a whole-organism screening strategy, this study has identified new small molecule activators of fasting metabolism. PMID:23201900

  20. Modulation of carcinogen bioavailability by immunisation with benzo[a]pyrene-conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Grova, Nathalie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J F; Schellenberger, Mario T; Farinelle, Sophie; Muller, Claude P

    2009-06-24

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) conjugate vaccines based on ovalbumin, tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid (DT) as carrier proteins were developed to investigate the effect of specific antibodies on the bioavailability of this ubiquitous carcinogen and its metabolites. After metabolic activation of this prototype carcinogen, B[a]P forms DNA adducts which initiate chemical carcinogenesis. B[a]P-DT conjugate induced the most robust immune response. The antibodies reacted not only with B[a]P but also with the proximate carcinogen 7,8-diol-B[a]P. Antibodies modulated the bioavailability of B[a]P and its metabolic activation in a dose-dependent manner by sequestration in the blood. Our results showed that this immune prophylactic strategy influences the pharmacokinetic of B[a]P and further studies to investigate their effects on chemical carcinogenesis are warranted.

  1. [Painting in construction and exposure to carcinogenic chemical agents: an Italian study in Lombardy].

    PubMed

    Cirla, P E; Martinotti, I; Firmi, A M; Cirla, A M

    2012-01-01

    The risk associated with exposure to chemical carcinogens (as classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer and/or the European Union), during painting activities in construction seems controversial. This study included all 43 activities of professional painting in this sector existing in the area of Cremona, in Lombardy region. The aim was to consider and promote preventive technical and medical solutions, basing on efficacy. The occupational exposure and the already adopted preventive measures were evaluated by investigations at workplaces, supported by standardized questionnaires and registrations. 860 commercial products (402 chemical substances) were classified: in 38% of cases the ingredients were not listed in the Material Safety Data Sheets (retrieved by the manufacturer). The real possibility of a risk exposure to carcinogens has been reported in a small proportion of situations. In all companies the presence of carcinogens was unrecognized or at least had not been taken into account in the risk assessment of workers.

  2. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  3. Synthesis and Structure activity relationships of EGCG Analogues, A Recently Identified Hsp90 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Hall, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal polyphenol isolated from green tea, was recently shown to inhibit Hsp90, however structure-activity relationships for this natural product have not yet been produced. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of EGCG analogues to establish structure-activity relationships between EGCG and Hsp90. All four rings as well as the linker connecting the C- and the D-rings were systematically investigated, which led to the discovery of compounds that inhibit Hs90 and display improvement in efficacy over EGCG. Anti-proliferative activity of all the analogues was determined against MCF-7 and SKBr3 cell lines and Hsp90 inhibitory activity of four most potent analogues was further evaluated by western blot analyses and degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Prenyl substituted aryl ester of 3,5-dihydroxychroman-3-ol ring system was identified as novel scaffold that exhibit Hsp90 inhibitory activity. PMID:23834230

  4. Assessment of global and gene-specific DNA methylation in rat liver and kidney in response to non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ozden, Sibel, E-mail: stopuz@istanbul.edu.tr; Turgut Kara, Neslihan; Sezerman, Osman Ugur

    Altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, which is regulated in part at the level of DNA methylation, is an important event involved in non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. This may serve as a marker for early detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), methapyrilene (MPY) and male rat kidney carcinogens, d-limonene, p-dichlorobenzene (DCB), chloroform and ochratoxin A (OTA) on global and CpG island promoter methylation in their respective target tissues in rats. No significant dose-related effects on global DNA hypomethylation were observed in tissues of rats compared to vehicle controls using LC–MS/MSmore » in response to short-term non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure. Initial experiments investigating gene-specific methylation using methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, revealed partial methylation of p16 in the liver of rats treated with HCB and TCDD. However, no treatment related effects on the methylation status of Cx32, e-cadherin, VHL, c-myc, Igfbp2, and p15 were observed. We therefore applied genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays to identify alterations in gene-specific methylation. Under the conditions of our study, some genes were differentially methylated in response to MPY and TCDD, whereas d-limonene, DCB and chloroform did not induce any methylation changes. 90-day OTA treatment revealed enrichment of several categories of genes important in protein kinase activity and mTOR cell signaling process which are related to OTA nephrocarcinogenicity. - Highlights: • Studied non-genotoxic carcinogens caused no change on global DNA hypomethylation. • d-Limonene, DCB and chloroform did not show any genome-wide methylation changes. • Some genes were differentially methylated in response to MPY, TCDD and OTA. • Protein kinase

  5. [Occupational exposure to carcinogens: analysis of the application of the CAREX information system to Catalonia].

    PubMed

    de Grado Andrés, Adolfo; Molinero Ruiz, Emilia; van der Haar, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate occupational exposures to human carcinogens in Catalonia in 2009, taking as a reference the CAREX ESP 2007 information system, and to evaluate the suitability of extrapolating these data to Catalonia. The reference population is the number of people registered with the Social Security system in Catalonia in 2009. Carcinogens considered are those which the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified into groups 1 and 2A and are related to occupational exposures. The exposure prevalences from the CAREX ESP 2007, adapted to the Catalonian Industrial Classification (CCAE 09), were used. Technical survey reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Centers of the Catalonian local government, and related databases were consulted. The most frequent occupational exposures to human carcinogens were solar radiation, crystalline silica, diesel exhaust, radon and wood dust, although based mainly on data not considered adequate for extrapolation to Catalonia. Around 217 exposure situations for 25 carcinogens, not previously considered in CAREX ESP 2007, were identified. The estimated number of workers exposed to human carcinogens in Catalonia in 2009 based on the CAREX ESP 2007 system could differ from the real situation. Development of a CAREX CAT system that incorporates exposure data from Catalonia is recommended. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  6. Testing chemical carcinogenicity by using a transcriptomics HepaRG-based model?

    PubMed Central

    Doktorova, T. Y.; Yildirimman, Reha; Ceelen, Liesbeth; Vilardell, Mireia; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Ates, Gamze; Heymans, Anja; Gmuender, Hans; Bort, Roque; Corvi, Raffaella; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Li, Ruoya; Mouchet, Nicolas; Chesne, Christophe; van Delft, Joost; Kleinjans, Jos; Castell, Jose; Herwig, Ralf; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The EU FP6 project carcinoGENOMICS explored the combination of toxicogenomics and in vitro cell culture models for identifying organotypical genotoxic- and non-genotoxic carcinogen-specific gene signatures. Here the performance of its gene classifier, derived from exposure of metabolically competent human HepaRG cells to prototypical non-carcinogens (10 compounds) and hepatocarcinogens (20 compounds), is reported. Analysis of the data at the gene and the pathway level by using independent biostatistical approaches showed a distinct separation of genotoxic from non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens and non-carcinogens (up to 88 % correct prediction). The most characteristic pathway responding to genotoxic exposure was DNA damage. Interlaboratory reproducibility was assessed by blindly testing of three compounds, from the set of 30 compounds, by three independent laboratories. Subsequent classification of these compounds resulted in correct prediction of the genotoxicants. As expected, results on the non-genotoxic carcinogens and the non-carcinogens were less predictive. In conclusion, the combination of transcriptomics with the HepaRG in vitro cell model provides a potential weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of chemical substances. PMID:26417288

  7. Identifying physical activity type in manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury by means of accelerometers.

    PubMed

    García-Massó, X; Serra-Añó, P; Gonzalez, L M; Ye-Lin, Y; Prats-Boluda, G; Garcia-Casado, J

    2015-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study. The main objective of this study was to develop and test classification algorithms based on machine learning using accelerometers to identify the activity type performed by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was conducted in the Physical Therapy department and the Physical Education and Sports department of the University of Valencia. A total of 20 volunteers were asked to perform 10 physical activities, lying down, body transfers, moving items, mopping, working on a computer, watching TV, arm-ergometer exercises, passive propulsion, slow propulsion and fast propulsion, while fitted with four accelerometers placed on both wrists, chest and waist. The activities were grouped into five categories: sedentary, locomotion, housework, body transfers and moderate physical activity. Different machine learning algorithms were used to develop individual and group activity classifiers from the acceleration data for different combinations of number and position of the accelerometers. We found that although the accuracy of the classifiers for individual activities was moderate (55-72%), with higher values for a greater number of accelerometers, grouped activities were correctly classified in a high percentage of cases (83.2-93.6%). With only two accelerometers and the quadratic discriminant analysis algorithm we achieved a reasonably accurate group activity recognition system (>90%). Such a system with the minimum of intervention would be a valuable tool for studying physical activity in individuals with SCI.

  8. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS.

    Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  9. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright

  10. GASS-WEB: a web server for identifying enzyme active sites based on genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, João P A; Pappa, Gisele L; Pires, Douglas E V; Izidoro, Sandro C

    2017-07-03

    Enzyme active sites are important and conserved functional regions of proteins whose identification can be an invaluable step toward protein function prediction. Most of the existing methods for this task are based on active site similarity and present limitations including performing only exact matches on template residues, template size restraints, despite not being capable of finding inter-domain active sites. To fill this gap, we proposed GASS-WEB, a user-friendly web server that uses GASS (Genetic Active Site Search), a method based on an evolutionary algorithm to search for similar active sites in proteins. GASS-WEB can be used under two different scenarios: (i) given a protein of interest, to match a set of specific active site templates; or (ii) given an active site template, looking for it in a database of protein structures. The method has shown to be very effective on a range of experiments and was able to correctly identify >90% of the catalogued active sites from the Catalytic Site Atlas. It also managed to achieve a Matthew correlation coefficient of 0.63 using the Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP 10) dataset. In our analysis, GASS was ranking fourth among 18 methods. GASS-WEB is freely available at http://gass.unifei.edu.br/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Identifying Novel Phenotypes of Vulnerability and Resistance to Activity-Based Anorexia in Adolescent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.; Underwood, Mark D.; Foltin, Richard W.; Myers, Michael M.; Walsh, B. Timothy; Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Marsteller, Douglas A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Activity-based anorexia is a translational rodent model that results in severe weight loss, hyperactivity, and voluntary self-starvation. The goal of our investigation was to identify vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats. Method Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained under conditions of restricted access to food (N = 64; or unlimited access, N = 16) until experimental exit, predefined as a target weight loss of 30–35% or meeting predefined criteria for animal health. Nonlinear mixed effects statistical modeling was used to describe wheel running behavior, time to event analysis was used to assess experimental exit, and a regressive partitioning algorithm was used to classify phenotypes. Results Objective criteria were identified for distinguishing novel phenotypes of activity-based anorexia, including a vulnerable phenotype that conferred maximal hyperactivity, minimal food intake, and the shortest time to experimental exit, and a resistant phenotype that conferred minimal activity and the longest time to experimental exit. Discussion The identification of objective criteria for defining vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats provides an important framework for studying the neural mechanisms that promote vulnerability to or protection against the development of self-starvation and hyperactivity during adolescence. Ultimately, future studies using these novel phenotypes may provide important translational insights into the mechanisms that promote these maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anorexia nervosa. PMID:23853140

  12. Identifying novel phenotypes of vulnerability and resistance to activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Underwood, Mark D; Foltin, Richard W; Myers, Michael M; Walsh, B Timothy; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Marsteller, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    Activity-based anorexia is a translational rodent model that results in severe weight loss, hyperactivity, and voluntary self-starvation. The goal of our investigation was to identify vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained under conditions of restricted access to food (N = 64; or unlimited access, N = 16) until experimental exit, predefined as a target weight loss of 30-35% or meeting predefined criteria for animal health. Nonlinear mixed effects statistical modeling was used to describe wheel running behavior, time to event analysis was used to assess experimental exit, and a regressive partitioning algorithm was used to classify phenotypes. Objective criteria were identified for distinguishing novel phenotypes of activity-based anorexia, including a vulnerable phenotype that conferred maximal hyperactivity, minimal food intake, and the shortest time to experimental exit, and a resistant phenotype that conferred minimal activity and the longest time to experimental exit. The identification of objective criteria for defining vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats provides an important framework for studying the neural mechanisms that promote vulnerability to or protection against the development of self-starvation and hyperactivity during adolescence. Ultimately, future studies using these novel phenotypes may provide important translational insights into the mechanisms that promote these maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Emodin is identified as the active component of ether extracts from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, for anti-MRSA activity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Peng, Wei; Li, Xiaoli; Liu, Ming; Li, Bin; Qin, Rongxin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cen, Yanyan; Pan, Xichun; Yan, Zifei; Xiao, Kangkang; Zhou, Hong

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) activity and chemical compositions of ether extracts from Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati (ET-RPC). Significant anti-MRSA activities of ET-RPC against MRSA252 and MRSA clinical strains were tested in in vitro antibacterial experiments, such as inhibition zone diameter test, minimal inhibitory concentration test, and dynamic bacterial growth assay. Subsequently, 7 major compounds of ET-RPC were purified and identified as polydatin, resveratrol-4-O-d-(6'-galloyl)-glucopyranoside, resveratrol, torachryson-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside, 6-hydroxy-emodin, and emodin using liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry. After investigation of anti-MRSA activities of the 7 major compounds, only emodin had significant anti-MRSA activity. Further, transmission electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes in the cell wall of MRSA252, and the result revealed that emodin could damage the integrity of cell wall, leading to loss of intracellular components. In summary, our results showed ET-RPC could significantly inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains. Emodin was identified as the major compound with anti-MRSA activity; this activity was related to destruction of the integrity of the cell wall and cell membrane.

  14. Identifying relationships between unrelated pharmaceutical target proteins on the basis of shared active compounds.

    PubMed

    Miljković, Filip; Kunimoto, Ryo; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Computational exploration of small-molecule-based relationships between target proteins from different families. Target annotations of drugs and other bioactive compounds were systematically analyzed on the basis of high-confidence activity data. A total of 286 novel chemical links were established between distantly related or unrelated target proteins. These relationships involved a total of 1859 bioactive compounds including 147 drugs and 141 targets. Computational analysis of large amounts of compounds and activity data has revealed unexpected relationships between diverse target proteins on the basis of compounds they share. These relationships are relevant for drug discovery efforts. Target pairs that we have identified and associated compound information are made freely available.

  15. The carcinogenicity of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU).

    PubMed

    Warzok, R; Martin, J; Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H

    1983-01-01

    In long-term experiments with Hooded rats the carcinogenic potential of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU) could be demonstrated for the first time. Br-MPNU is formed also endogenously after combined administration of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-urea (Br-MPU) and sodium nitrite. After repeated intragastric administration of 0.33 mmol Br-MPU and 0.73 mmol NaNO2 per kg b.w. papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach developed in 83%. After repeated administration of 0.28 mmol Br-MPNU per kg b.w. these neoplasms were observed in 88%. The comparison of results obtained in similar experiments with 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea shows that bromine substitution led to a reduction of the carcinogenic activity. The present paper is part of a complex program studying the interrelationships between structure, physico-chemical properties, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrosoureas.

  16. Identifying knowledge activism in worker health and safety representation: A cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alan; Oudyk, John; King, Andrew; Naqvi, Syed; Lewchuk, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Although worker representation in OHS has been widely recognized as contributing to health and safety improvements at work, few studies have examined the role that worker representatives play in this process. Using a large quantitative sample, this paper seeks to confirm findings from an earlier exploratory qualitative study that worker representatives can be differentiated by the knowledge intensive tactics and strategies that they use to achieve changes in their workplace. Just under 900 worker health and safety representatives in Ontario completed surveys which asked them to report on the amount of time they devoted to different types of representation activities (i.e., technical activities such as inspections and report writing vs. political activities such as mobilizing workers to build support), the kinds of conditions or hazards they tried to address through their representation (e.g., housekeeping vs. modifications in ventilation systems), and their reported success in making positive improvements. A cluster analysis was used to determine whether the worker representatives could be distinguished in terms of the relative time devoted to different activities and the clusters were then compared with reference to types of intervention efforts and outcomes. The cluster analysis identified three distinct groupings of representatives with significant differences in reported types of interventions and in their level of reported impact. Two of the clusters were consistent with the findings in the exploratory study, identified as knowledge activism for greater emphasis on knowledge based political activity and technical-legal representation for greater emphasis on formalized technical oriented procedures and legal regulations. Knowledge activists were more likely to take on challenging interventions and they reported more impact across the full range of interventions. This paper provides further support for the concepts of knowledge activism and technical

  17. Validation of mercury tip-switch and accelerometer activity sensors for identifying resting and active behavior in bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasmine Ware,; Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Robbins, Charles T.; Joy Erlenbach,; Shannon Jensen,; Amy Cutting,; Nicole Nicassio-Hiskey,; Amy Hash,; Owen, Megan A.; Heiko Jansen,

    2015-01-01

    Activity sensors are often included in wildlife transmitters and can provide information on the behavior and activity patterns of animals remotely. However, interpreting activity-sensor data relative to animal behavior can be difficult if animals cannot be continuously observed. In this study, we examined the performance of a mercury tip-switch and a tri-axial accelerometer housed in collars to determine whether sensor data can be accurately classified as resting and active behaviors and whether data are comparable for the 2 sensor types. Five captive bears (3 polar [Ursus maritimus] and 2 brown [U. arctos horribilis]) were fitted with a collar specially designed to internally house the sensors. The bears’ behaviors were recorded, classified, and then compared with sensor readings. A separate tri-axial accelerometer that sampled continuously at a higher frequency and provided raw acceleration values from 3 axes was also mounted on the collar to compare with the lower resolution sensors. Both accelerometers more accurately identified resting and active behaviors at time intervals ranging from 1 minute to 1 hour (≥91.1% accuracy) compared with the mercury tip-switch (range = 75.5–86.3%). However, mercury tip-switch accuracy improved when sampled at longer intervals (e.g., 30–60 min). Data from the lower resolution accelerometer, but not the mercury tip-switch, accurately predicted the percentage of time spent resting during an hour. Although the number of bears available for this study was small, our results suggest that these activity sensors can remotely identify resting versus active behaviors across most time intervals. We recommend that investigators consider both study objectives and the variation in accuracy of classifying resting and active behaviors reported here when determining sampling interval.

  18. Significant Centers of Tectonic Activity as Identified by Wrinkle Ridges for the Western Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R.C.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Golombek, M. P.; Franklin, B. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Lias, J.

    2000-01-01

    The western hemisphere region of Mars has been the site of numerous scientific investigations regarding its tectonic evolution. For this region of Mars, the dominant tectonic region is the Tharsis province. Tharsis is characterized by an enormous system of radiating grabens and a circumferential system of wrinkle ridges. Past investigations of grabens associated with Tharsis have identified specific centers of tectonic activity. A recent structural analysis of the western hemisphere region of Mars which includes the Tharsis region, utilized 25,000 structures to determine the history of local and regional centers of tectonic activity based primarily on the spatial and temporal relationships of extensional features. This investigation revealed that Tharsis is more structurally complex (heterogeneous) than has been previously identified: it consists of numerous regional and local centers of tectonic activity (some are more dominant and/or more long lived than others). Here we use the same approach as Anderson et al. to determine whether the centers of tectonic activity that formed the extensional features also contributed to wrinkle ridge (compressional) formation.

  19. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  20. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers.

  1. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianying; Lei, Zhixin; Wu, Qin; Huang, Deyu; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2018-01-01

    Mequindox (MEQ), acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N-oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM) mice (50 mice/sex/group) were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg) for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo, and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice. PMID:29692735

  2. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianying; Lei, Zhixin; Wu, Qin; Huang, Deyu; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2018-01-01

    Mequindox (MEQ), acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N -oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM) mice (50 mice/sex/group) were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg) for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo , and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling of Multiple Sclerosis Pathology Identifies Early Patterns of Demyelination Surrounding Chronic Active Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Debbie A. E.; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; van der Poel, Marlijn; Bossers, Koen; Schuurman, Karianne G.; van Eden, Corbert G.; Hol, Elly M.; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages phagocytose myelin focally in (chronic) active lesions. These demyelinating sites expand in time, but at some point turn inactive into a sclerotic scar. To identify molecular mechanisms underlying lesion activity and halt, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression in rim and peri-lesional regions of chronic active and inactive MS lesions, as well as in control tissue. Gene clustering revealed patterns of gene expression specifically associated with MS and with the presumed, subsequent stages of lesion development. Next to genes involved in immune functions, we found regulation of novel genes in and around the rim of chronic active lesions, such as NPY, KANK4, NCAN, TKTL1, and ANO4. Of note, the presence of many foamy macrophages in active rims was accompanied by a congruent upregulation of genes related to lipid binding, such as MSR1, CD68, CXCL16, and OLR1, and lipid uptake, such as CHIT1, GPNMB, and CCL18. Except CCL18, these genes were already upregulated in regions around active MS lesions, showing that such lesions are indeed expanding. In vitro downregulation of the scavenger receptors MSR1 and CXCL16 reduced myelin uptake. In conclusion, this study provides the gene expression profile of different aspects of MS pathology and indicates that early demyelination, mediated by scavenger receptors, is already present in regions around active MS lesions. Genes involved in early demyelination events in regions surrounding chronic active MS lesions might be promising therapeutic targets to stop lesion expansion. PMID:29312322

  4. Gene Expression Profiling of Multiple Sclerosis Pathology Identifies Early Patterns of Demyelination Surrounding Chronic Active Lesions.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Debbie A E; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; van der Poel, Marlijn; Bossers, Koen; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Eden, Corbert G; Hol, Elly M; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages phagocytose myelin focally in (chronic) active lesions. These demyelinating sites expand in time, but at some point turn inactive into a sclerotic scar. To identify molecular mechanisms underlying lesion activity and halt, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression in rim and peri-lesional regions of chronic active and inactive MS lesions, as well as in control tissue. Gene clustering revealed patterns of gene expression specifically associated with MS and with the presumed, subsequent stages of lesion development. Next to genes involved in immune functions, we found regulation of novel genes in and around the rim of chronic active lesions, such as NPY, KANK4, NCAN, TKTL1 , and ANO4 . Of note, the presence of many foamy macrophages in active rims was accompanied by a congruent upregulation of genes related to lipid binding, such as MSR1, CD68, CXCL16 , and OLR1 , and lipid uptake, such as CHIT1, GPNMB , and CCL18 . Except CCL18 , these genes were already upregulated in regions around active MS lesions, showing that such lesions are indeed expanding. In vitro downregulation of the scavenger receptors MSR1 and CXCL16 reduced myelin uptake. In conclusion, this study provides the gene expression profile of different aspects of MS pathology and indicates that early demyelination, mediated by scavenger receptors, is already present in regions around active MS lesions. Genes involved in early demyelination events in regions surrounding chronic active MS lesions might be promising therapeutic targets to stop lesion expansion.

  5. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery. PMID:27010513

  6. Electrochemical methods for monitoring of environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Barek, J; Cvacka, J; Muck, A; Quaiserová, V; Zima, J

    2001-04-01

    The use of modern electroanalytical techniques, namely differential pulse polarography, differential pulse voltammetry on hanging mercury drop electrode or carbon paste electrode, adsorptive stripping voltammetry and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the determination of trace amounts of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, azo compounds, heterocyclic compounds, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic and heterocyclic amines is discussed. Scope and limitations of these methods are described and some practical applications based on their combination with liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction are given.

  7. Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Mosby, Terezie T; Cosgrove, Maeve; Sarkardei, Samiramis; Platt, Karl L; Kaina, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    There is no doubt that diet is one of the main modifiable risk factors for many degenerative diseases, including cancer. More than 30% of adult cancers can be prevented or delayed by diet, being physically active and having a healthy body weight. Plant-based foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, a favorable omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio, and fish consumption have a protective effect against cancer. On the contrary, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, high intake of red and processed meat, high intake of sodium, alcohol consumption, a diet rich in refined carbohydrates, and a high intake of total fat may increase risk of cancer. Furthermore, calorie restriction and having a body/mass index on the lower end of the normal range can significantly decrease or delay the onset of cancers. Most studies were performed on adults and thus the role of diet in childhood cancer is less well-understood. In the past, diet was not considered to play any role in its etiology in children. However, nowadays there is a growing body of evidence that prolonged and frequent breastfeeding, the maternal diet during pregnancy and vitamin intake during pregnancy, may impart benefit for reduced cancer risk in children. Usually, decades of healthy dietary habits are needed to see significant difference in cancer risk. Therefore, diet choices and diet preparation starting early in life deserve more attention. Here we review data focusing on which dietary factors, including food-borne carcinogens, affect the onset of cancers in adults and stress out the potential role of diet in childhood cancer prevention.

  8. Identification of EBP50 as a Specific Biomarker for Carcinogens Via the Analysis of Mouse Lymphoma Cellular Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-01-01

    To identify specific biomarkers generated upon exposure of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells to carcinogens, 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis were conducted using the cellular proteome of L5178Y cells that had been treated with the known carcinogens, 1,2-dibromoethane and O-nitrotoluene and the noncarcinogens, emodin and D-mannitol. Eight protein spots that showed a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity following carcinogen treatment compared with treatment with noncarcinogens were selected. Of the identified proteins, we focused on the candidate biomarker ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), the expression of which was specifically increased in response to treatment with the carcinogens. The expression level of EBP50 was determined by western analysis using polyclonal rabbit anti-EBP50 antibody. Further, the expression level of EBP50 was increased in cells treated with seven additional carcinogens, verifying that EBP50 could serve as a specific biomarker for carcinogens. PMID:22434383

  9. Identification of EBP50 as a specific biomarker for carcinogens via the analysis of mouse lymphoma cellular proteome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-03-01

    To identify specific biomarkers generated upon exposure of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells to carcinogens, 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis were conducted using the cellular proteome of L5178Y cells that had been treated with the known carcinogens, 1,2-dibromoethane and O-nitrotoluene and the noncarcinogens, emodin and D-mannitol. Eight protein spots that showed a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity following carcinogen treatment compared with treatment with noncarcinogens were selected. Of the identified proteins, we focused on the candidate biomarker ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), the expression of which was specifically increased in response to treatment with the carcinogens. The expression level of EBP50 was determined by western analysis using polyclonal rabbit anti-EBP50 antibody. Further, the expression level of EBP50 was increased in cells treated with seven additional carcinogens, verifying that EBP50 could serve as a specific biomarker for carcinogens.

  10. DNA-REACTIVE CARCINOGENS: MODE OF ACTION AND HUMAN CANCER HAZARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been known for decades that mutagenicity plays an important role in the activity of most carcinogens. This mutagenicity can result from direct damage to DNA through a chemical being DNA-reactive or from indirect effects, such as through the production of oxygen radicals th...

  11. On the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in volcano exhausts.

    PubMed

    Ilnitsky, A P; Belitsky, G A; Shabad, L M

    1976-05-01

    The content of benzo(a)pyrene in the juvenile ashes of the volcano Tyatya (Kunashir Island, Kuriles) and in the soil, vegetation and volcanic mud collected near volcanos in Kamchatka was studied. It was concluded that volcanic activity does not play a large role in forming the background level of this carcinogen in the human environment.

  12. Tracking heavy water (D 2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon

    Here, microbial communities are essential to the function of virtually all ecosystems and eukaryotes, including humans. However, it is still a major challenge to identify microbial cells active under natural conditions in complex systems. Here in this study, we developed a new method to identify and sort active microbes on the single-cell level in complex samples using stable isotope probing with heavy water (D 2O) combined with Raman microspectroscopy. Incorporation of D 2O-derived D into the biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and archaea could be unambiguously detected via C-D signature peaks in single-cell Raman spectra, and the obtained labelingmore » pattern was confirmed by nanoscale-resolution secondary ion MS. In fast-growing Escherichia coli cells, label detection was already possible after 20 min. For functional analyses of microbial communities, the detection of D incorporation from D 2O in individual microbial cells via Raman microspectroscopy can be directly combined with FISH for the identification of active microbes. Applying this approach to mouse cecal microbiota revealed that the host-compound foragers Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens exhibited distinctive response patterns to amendments of mucin and sugars. By Raman-based cell sorting of active (deuterated) cells with optical tweezers and subsequent multiple displacement amplification and DNA sequencing, novel cecal microbes stimulated by mucin and/or glucosamine were identified, demonstrating the potential of the nondestructive D 2O-Raman approach for targeted sorting of microbial cells with defined functional properties for single-cell genomics.« less

  13. Tracking heavy water (D 2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells

    DOE PAGES

    Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon; ...

    2014-12-30

    Here, microbial communities are essential to the function of virtually all ecosystems and eukaryotes, including humans. However, it is still a major challenge to identify microbial cells active under natural conditions in complex systems. Here in this study, we developed a new method to identify and sort active microbes on the single-cell level in complex samples using stable isotope probing with heavy water (D 2O) combined with Raman microspectroscopy. Incorporation of D 2O-derived D into the biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and archaea could be unambiguously detected via C-D signature peaks in single-cell Raman spectra, and the obtained labelingmore » pattern was confirmed by nanoscale-resolution secondary ion MS. In fast-growing Escherichia coli cells, label detection was already possible after 20 min. For functional analyses of microbial communities, the detection of D incorporation from D 2O in individual microbial cells via Raman microspectroscopy can be directly combined with FISH for the identification of active microbes. Applying this approach to mouse cecal microbiota revealed that the host-compound foragers Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens exhibited distinctive response patterns to amendments of mucin and sugars. By Raman-based cell sorting of active (deuterated) cells with optical tweezers and subsequent multiple displacement amplification and DNA sequencing, novel cecal microbes stimulated by mucin and/or glucosamine were identified, demonstrating the potential of the nondestructive D 2O-Raman approach for targeted sorting of microbial cells with defined functional properties for single-cell genomics.« less

  14. Tracking heavy water (D2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells

    PubMed Central

    Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon; Woebken, Dagmar; Wang, Yun; Zhu, Di; Palatinszky, Marton; Schintlmeister, Arno; Schmid, Markus C.; Hanson, Buck T.; Shterzer, Naama; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen; Gibson, Christopher M.; Fowler, Patrick W.; Huang, Wei E.; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities are essential to the function of virtually all ecosystems and eukaryotes, including humans. However, it is still a major challenge to identify microbial cells active under natural conditions in complex systems. In this study, we developed a new method to identify and sort active microbes on the single-cell level in complex samples using stable isotope probing with heavy water (D2O) combined with Raman microspectroscopy. Incorporation of D2O-derived D into the biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and archaea could be unambiguously detected via C-D signature peaks in single-cell Raman spectra, and the obtained labeling pattern was confirmed by nanoscale-resolution secondary ion MS. In fast-growing Escherichia coli cells, label detection was already possible after 20 min. For functional analyses of microbial communities, the detection of D incorporation from D2O in individual microbial cells via Raman microspectroscopy can be directly combined with FISH for the identification of active microbes. Applying this approach to mouse cecal microbiota revealed that the host-compound foragers Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens exhibited distinctive response patterns to amendments of mucin and sugars. By Raman-based cell sorting of active (deuterated) cells with optical tweezers and subsequent multiple displacement amplification and DNA sequencing, novel cecal microbes stimulated by mucin and/or glucosamine were identified, demonstrating the potential of the nondestructive D2O-Raman approach for targeted sorting of microbial cells with defined functional properties for single-cell genomics. PMID:25550518

  15. Potent Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocidal activity of diaminonaphthoquinones, lead antimalarial chemotypes identified in an antimalarial compound screen.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takeshi Q; Guiguemde, W Armand; Barnett, David S; Maron, Maxim I; Min, Jaeki; Connelly, Michele C; Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Guy, R Kiplin; Williamson, Kim C

    2015-03-01

    Forty percent of the world's population is threatened by malaria, which is caused by Plasmodium parasites and results in an estimated 200 million clinical cases and 650,000 deaths each year. Drug resistance has been reported for all commonly used antimalarials and has prompted screens to identify new drug candidates. However, many of these new candidates have not been evaluated against the parasite stage responsible for transmission, gametocytes. If Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes are not eliminated, patients continue to spread malaria for weeks after asexual parasite clearance. Asymptomatic individuals can also harbor gametocyte burdens sufficient for transmission, and a safe, effective gametocytocidal agent could also be used in community-wide malaria control programs. Here, we identify 15 small molecules with nanomolar activity against late-stage gametocytes. Fourteen are diaminonaphthoquinones (DANQs), and one is a 2-imino-benzo[d]imidazole (IBI). One of the DANQs identified, SJ000030570, is a lead antimalarial candidate. In contrast, 94% of the 650 compounds tested are inactive against late-stage gametocytes. Consistent with the ineffectiveness of most approved antimalarials against gametocytes, of the 19 novel compounds with activity against known anti-asexual-stage targets, only 3 had any strong effect on gametocyte viability. These data demonstrate the distinct biology of the transmission stages and emphasize the importance of screening for gametocytocidal activity. The potent gametocytocidal activity of DANQ and IBI coupled with their efficacy against asexual parasites provides leads for the development of antimalarials with the potential to prevent both the symptoms and the spread of malaria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified,more » however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures.« less

  17. High local carcinogenic activity of 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea and its inactivation by intravenous application in rats: comparison of in vivo findings with the in vitro direct and a combined in vivo/in vitro sister chromatid exchange assay in V79-E cells.

    PubMed

    Thust, R; Martin, J; Mendel, J; Schreiber, D

    1987-02-01

    1,3-Dimethyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (DMPNU) is a very potent local carcinogen in rats and induces a 100% frequency of forestomach carcinomas when applied i.g. in two different dosages (10 applications of 0.3 or 0.03 mmol/kg body wt, respectively, at 14-day intervals), but it is inactive upon i.v. administration (10 applications of 0.03 mmol/kg body wt at 14-day intervals). By means of the direct sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in V79-E cells in the presence of rat blood, serum or plasma, respectively, as well as by a 'host-mediated' SCE assay (in which the agent was given i.v. to rats, and blood taken from the animal was checked for the recovery of genotoxic activity in cell cultures), we tried to elucidate the unexpected lack of carcinogenic activity of i.v. DMPNU. The direct SCE assay revealed a drastic reduction of DMPNU genotoxicity by rat blood, serum or plasma, respectively, which is abolished by the esterase inhibitor diisopropylfluorophosphate. In the 'host-mediated' SCE assay a genotoxic activity of DMPNU was only recoverable after a very high i.v. dose and when the blood added to the cell cultures had been taken from the rat heart within 1 min after DMPNU administration in vivo. 1-Methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) and 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (MPNU) were used as positive controls in these experiments and also gave a lower response than theoretically expected, but the relative loss of activity with the latter compounds was much lower than with DMPNU. It is assumed that an esterase in rat blood effectively decomposes this trisubstituted nitrosourea. Problems of the novel 'host-mediated' SCE assay are discussed.

  18. Using Deep UV Raman Spectroscopy to Identify In Situ Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapers, H. M.; Wanger, G.; Amend, J.; Orphan, V. J.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial communities living in close association with lithic substrates play a critical role in biogeochemical cycles. Understanding the interactions between microorganisms and their abiotic substrates requires knowledge of microbial activity. Identifying active cells adhered to complex environmental substrates, especially in low biomass systems, remains a challenge. Stable isotope probing (SIP) provides a means to trace microbial activity in environmental systems. Active members of the community take up labeled substrates and incorporate the labels into biomolecules that can be detected through downstream analyses. Here we show for the first time that Deep UV (248 nm) Raman spectroscopy can differentiate microbial cells labeled with stable isotopes. Previous studies have used Raman spectroscopy with a 532 nm source to identify active bacterial cells by measuring a Raman shift between peaks corresponding to amino acids incorporating 13C compared to controls. However, excitation at 532 nm precludes detection on complex substrates due to high autofluorescence of native minerals. Excitation in the DUV range offers non-destructive imaging on mineral surfaces - retaining critical contextual information. We prepared cultures of E. coli grown in 50 atom% 13C glucose spotted onto Al wafers to test the ability of DUV Raman spectroscopy to differentiate labeled and unlabeled cells. For the first time, we are able to demonstrate a distinct and repeatable shift between cells grown in labeled media and unlabeled media when imaged on Al wafers with DUV Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are dominated by the characteristic Raman bands of guanine. The dominant marker peak for guanine attributed to N7-C8 and C8-N9 ring stretching and C8-H in-plane bending, is visible at 1480 cm-1 in the unlabeled cells and is blue-shifted by 20 wavenumbers to 1461 cm-1 in the labeled cells. The ability of DUV Raman to effectively identify regions containing cells that have incorporated isotopic

  19. Phytotoxicity of vulpia residues: III. Biological activity of identified allelochemicals from Vulpia myuros.

    PubMed

    An, M; Pratley, J E; Haig, T

    2001-02-01

    Twenty compounds identified in vulpia (Vulpia myuros) residues as allelochemicals were individually and collectively tested for biological activity. Each exhibited characteristic allelochemical behavior toward the test plant, i.e., inhibition at high concentrations and stimulation or no effect at low concentrations, but individual activities varied. Allelopathins present in large quantities, such as syringic, vanillic, and succinic acids, possessed low activity, while those present in small quantities, such as catechol and hydrocinnamic acid, possessed strong inhibitory activity. The concept of a phytotoxic strength index was developed for quantifying the biological properties of each individual allelopathin in a concise, comprehensive, and meaningful format. The individual contribution of each allelopathin, assessed by comparing the phytotoxic strength index to the overall toxicity of vulpia residues, was variable according to structure and was influenced by its relative proportion in the residue. The majority of compounds possessed low or medium biological activity and contributed most of the vulpia phytotoxicity, while compounds with high biological activity were in the minority and only present at low concentration. Artificial mixtures of these pure allelochemicals also produced phytotoxicity. There were additive/synergistic effects evident in the properties of these mixtures. One such mixture, formulated from allelochemicals found in the same proportions as occur in vulpia extract, produced stronger activity than another formulated from the same set of compounds but in equal proportions. These results suggest that the exploration of the relative composition of a cluster of allelopathins may be more important than simply focusing on the identification of one or two compounds with strong biological activity and that synergism is fundamental to the understanding of allelopathy.

  20. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

    PubMed

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Selection of an in vitro carcinogenicity test for derivatives of the carcinogen hexamethylphosphoramide.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J.; Styles, J. A.; Anderson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The demonstration that hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) possesses potent carcinogenic properties has raised doubts about the safety of exposure to other phosphoric amides. In order to define a suitable short-term test with which to evaluate such analogues, the response of the Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay of Ames and cell transformation assay of Styles to HMPA and 3 selected analogues has been studied. These analogues were the related leukaemogen phosphoramide, the putative non-carcinogen, phosphoric trianilide and N.N'N''-trimethylphosphorothioic triamide, a compound of unknown and hitherto unpredictable properties. While both tests found the trianilide negative, the Ames test failed to detect phosphoramide as positive and gave an erratic and predominantly negative response to HMPA. In contrast, the transformation assay found both phosphoramide and HMPA positive. This test response profile indicates that the transformation assay is the preferred test with which to evaluate analogues of HMPA for potential carcinogenicity. Some structural requirements for potential carcinogenicity within this class of compounds are tentatively deduced. PMID:337998

  2. Identifying active methane-oxidizers in thawed Arctic permafrost by proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, C. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Chourey, K.; Hettich, R. L.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Layton, A. C.; Mykytczuk, N. C.; Whyte, L.; Onstott, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The rate of CH4 release from thawing permafrost in the Arctic has been regarded as one of the determining factors on future global climate. It is uncertain how indigenous microorganisms would interact with such changing environmental conditions and hence their impact on the fate of carbon compounds that are sequestered in the cryosol. Multitudinous studies of pristine surface cryosol (top 5 cm) and microcosm experiments have provided growing evidence of effective methanotrophy. Cryosol samples corresponding to active layer were sampled from a sparsely vegetated, ice-wedge polygon at the McGill Arctic Research Station at Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada (N79°24, W90°45) before the onset of annual thaw. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated the occurrence of methanotroph-containing bacterial families as minor components (~5%) in pristine cryosol including Bradyrhizobiaceae, Methylobacteriaceae and Methylocystaceae within alpha-Proteobacteria, and Methylacidiphilaceae within Verrucomicrobia. The potential of methanotrophy is supported by preliminary analysis of metagenome data, which indicated putative methane monooxygenase gene sequences relating to Bradyrhizobium sp. and Pseudonocardia sp. are present. Proteome profiling in general yielded minute traces of proteins, which likely hints at dormant nature of the soil microbial consortia. The lack of specific protein database for permafrost posted additional challenge to protein identification. Only 35 proteins could be identified in the pristine cryosol and of which 60% belonged to Shewanella sp. Most of the identified proteins are known to be involved in energy metabolism or post-translational modification of proteins. Microcosms amended with sodium acetate exhibited a net methane consumption of ~65 ngC-CH4 per gram (fresh weight) of soil over 16 days of aerobic incubation at room temperature. The pH in microcosm materials remained acidic (decreased from initial 4.7 to 4.5). Protein extraction and

  3. Identifying barriers to patient acceptance of active surveillance: content analysis of online patient communications.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mark V; Bennett, Michele; Vincent, Armon; Lee, Olivia T; Lallas, Costas D; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Gomella, Leonard G; Dicker, Adam P; Showalter, Timothy N

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research aimed at identifying patient acceptance of active surveillance (AS) has been identified as a public health research priority. The primary objective of this study was to determine if analysis of a large-sample of anonymous internet conversations (ICs) could be utilized to identify unmet public needs regarding AS. English-language ICs regarding prostate cancer (PC) treatment with AS from 2002-12 were identified using a novel internet search methodology. Web spiders were developed to mine, aggregate, and analyze content from the world-wide-web for ICs centered on AS. Collection of ICs was not restricted to any specific geographic region of origin. NLP was used to evaluate content and perform a sentiment analysis. Conversations were scored as positive, negative, or neutral. A sentiment index (SI) was subsequently calculated according to the following formula to compare temporal trends in public sentiment towards AS: [(# Positive IC/#Total IC)-(#Negative IC/#Total IC) x 100]. A total of 464 ICs were identified. Sentiment increased from -13 to +2 over the study period. The increase sentiment has been driven by increased patient emphasis on quality-of-life factors and endorsement of AS by national medical organizations. Unmet needs identified in these ICs include: a gap between quantitative data regarding long-term outcomes with AS vs. conventional treatments, desire for treatment information from an unbiased specialist, and absence of public role models managed with AS. This study demonstrates the potential utility of online patient communications to provide insight into patient preferences and decision-making. Based on our findings, we recommend that multidisciplinary clinics consider including an unbiased specialist to present treatment options and that future decision tools for AS include quantitative data regarding outcomes after AS.

  4. Air-cathode microbial fuel cell array: a device for identifying and characterizing electrochemically active microbes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; de Figueiredo, Paul; Han, Arum

    2011-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have generated excitement in environmental and bioenergy communities due to their potential for coupling wastewater treatment with energy generation and powering diverse devices. The pursuit of strategies such as improving microbial cultivation practices and optimizing MFC devices has increased power generating capacities of MFCs. However, surprisingly few microbial species with electrochemical activity in MFCs have been identified because current devices do not support parallel analyses or high throughput screening. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of using advanced microfabrication methods to fabricate an MFC microarray. Here, we extend these studies by demonstrating a microfabricated air-cathode MFC array system. The system contains 24 individual air-cathode MFCs integrated onto a single chip. The device enables the direct and parallel comparison of different microbes loaded onto the array. Environmental samples were used to validate the utility of the air-cathode MFC array system and two previously identified isolates, 7Ca (Shewanella sp.) and 3C (Arthrobacter sp.), were shown to display enhanced electrochemical activities of 2.69 mW/m(2) and 1.86 mW/m(2), respectively. Experiments using a large scale conventional air-cathode MFC validated these findings. The parallel air-cathode MFC array system demonstrated here is expected to promote and accelerate the discovery and characterization of electrochemically active microbes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Is benzene exposure from gasoline carcinogenic?

    PubMed

    Jamall, Ijaz S; Willhite, Calvin C

    2008-02-01

    This article questions the basis for benzene as the carcinogenic surrogate in deriving health risk-based 'clean-up levels' for gasoline-impacted soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank properties. The epidemiological evidence suggests that acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) associated with chronic occupational benzene exposure can be best described by sigmoid dose-response relationships. A review of the molecular toxicology and kinetics of benzene points to the existence of threshold mechanisms in the induction of leukemia. The toxicological and epidemiological literature on chronic exposure to unleaded gasoline indicates that the benzene exposures required to induce a measurable carcinogenic response are substantially greater than exposures likely to be encountered from exposure to gasoline at contaminated properties. Thus, assuming that theoretical cancer risks associated with exposure to benzene from gasoline reflect actual health risks associated with such environmental exposures to gasoline and using these theoretical cancer risks and cancer potency factors for benzene to dictate soil and groundwater clean up of gasoline are not scientifically defensible.

  6. Expression of GARP selectively identifies activated human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Kozhaya, Lina; Mercer, Frances; Khaitan, Alka; Fujii, Hodaka; Unutmaz, Derya

    2009-08-11

    The molecules that define human regulatory T cells (Tregs) phenotypically and functionally remain to be fully characterized. We recently showed that activated human Tregs express mRNA for a transmembrane protein called glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32). Here, using a GARP-specific mAb, we demonstrate that expression of GARP on activated Tregs correlates with their suppressive capacity. However, GARP was not induced on T cells activated in the presence of TGFbeta, which expressed high levels of FOXP3 and lacked suppressive function. Ectopic expression of FOXP3 in conventional T cells was also insufficient for induction of GARP expression in most donors. Functionally, silencing GARP in Tregs only moderately attenuated their suppressive activity. CD25+ T cells sorted for high GARP expression displayed more potent suppressive activity compared with CD25+GARP- cells. Remarkably, CD25+GARP- T cells expanded in culture contained 3-5 fold higher IL-17-secreting cells compared with either CD25+GARP+ or CD25-GARP- cells, suggesting that high GARP expression can potentially discriminate Tregs from those that have switched to Th17 lineage. We also determined whether GARP expression correlates with FOXP3-expressing T cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected subjects. A subset of HIV+ individuals with high percentages of FOXP3+ T cells did not show proportionate increase in GARP+ T cells. This finding suggests that higher FOXP3 levels observed in these HIV+ individuals is possibly due to immune activation rather than to an increase in Tregs. Our findings highlight the significance of GARP both in dissecting duality of Treg/Th17 cell differentiation and as a marker to identify bona fide Tregs during diseases with chronic immune activation.

  7. Expression of GARP selectively identifies activated human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Kozhaya, Lina; Mercer, Frances; Khaitan, Alka; Fujii, Hodaka; Unutmaz, Derya

    2009-01-01

    The molecules that define human regulatory T cells (Tregs) phenotypically and functionally remain to be fully characterized. We recently showed that activated human Tregs express mRNA for a transmembrane protein called glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32). Here, using a GARP-specific mAb, we demonstrate that expression of GARP on activated Tregs correlates with their suppressive capacity. However, GARP was not induced on T cells activated in the presence of TGFβ, which expressed high levels of FOXP3 and lacked suppressive function. Ectopic expression of FOXP3 in conventional T cells was also insufficient for induction of GARP expression in most donors. Functionally, silencing GARP in Tregs only moderately attenuated their suppressive activity. CD25+ T cells sorted for high GARP expression displayed more potent suppressive activity compared with CD25+GARP− cells. Remarkably, CD25+GARP− T cells expanded in culture contained 3–5 fold higher IL-17-secreting cells compared with either CD25+GARP+ or CD25−GARP− cells, suggesting that high GARP expression can potentially discriminate Tregs from those that have switched to Th17 lineage. We also determined whether GARP expression correlates with FOXP3-expressing T cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) −infected subjects. A subset of HIV+ individuals with high percentages of FOXP3+ T cells did not show proportionate increase in GARP+ T cells. This finding suggests that higher FOXP3 levels observed in these HIV+ individuals is possibly due to immune activation rather than to an increase in Tregs. Our findings highlight the significance of GARP both in dissecting duality of Treg/Th17 cell differentiation and as a marker to identify bona fide Tregs during diseases with chronic immune activation. PMID:19666573

  8. Identifying Strategies Programs Adopt to Meet Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Standards in Afterschool Programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert G; Moore, Justin B; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Saunders, Ruth; Beighle, Aaron; Khan, M Mahmud; Chandler, Jessica; Brazendale, Keith; Randell, Allison; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W

    2017-08-01

    The YMCA of USA has adopted Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Standards for its afterschool programs (ASPs). Little is known about strategies YMCA ASPs are implementing to achieve Standards and these strategies' effectiveness. (1) Identify strategies implemented in YMCA ASPs and (2) evaluate the relationship between strategy implementation and meeting Standards. HEPA was measured via accelerometer (moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity [MVPA]) and direct observation (snacks served) in 20 ASPs. Strategies were identified and mapped onto a capacity building framework ( Strategies To Enhance Practice [STEPs]). Mixed-effects regression estimated increases in HEPA outcomes as implementation increased. Model-implied estimates were calculated for high (i.e., highest implementation score achieved), moderate (median implementation score across programs), and low (lowest implementation score achieved) implementation for both HEPA separately. Programs implemented a variety of strategies identified in STEPs. For every 1-point increase in implementation score 1.45% (95% confidence interval = 0.33% to 2.55%, p ≤ .001) more girls accumulated 30 min/day of MVPA and fruits and/or vegetables were served on 0.11 more days (95% confidence interval = 0.11-0.45, p ≤ .01). Relationships between implementation and other HEPA outcomes did not reach statistical significance. Still regression estimates indicated that desserts are served on 1.94 fewer days (i.e., 0.40 vs. 2.34) in the highest implementing program than the lowest implementing program and water is served 0.73 more days (i.e., 2.37 vs. 1.64). Adopting HEPA Standards at the national level does not lead to changes in routine practice in all programs. Practical strategies that programs could adopt to more fully comply with the HEPA Standards are identified.

  9. Evaluating digestion efficiency in full-scale anaerobic digesters by identifying active microbial populations through the lens of microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Ran; Narihiro, Takashi; Nobu, Masaru K.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a common technology to biologically stabilize wasted solids produced in municipal wastewater treatment. Its efficiency is usually evaluated by calculating the reduction in volatile solids, which assumes no biomass growth associated with digestion. To determine whether this assumption is valid and further evaluate digestion efficiency, this study sampled 35 digester sludge from different reactors at multiple time points together with the feed biomass in a full-scale water reclamation plant at Chicago, Illinois. The microbial communities were characterized using Illumina sequencing technology based on 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (rDNA). 74 core microbial populations were identified and represented 58.7% of the entire digester community. Among them, active populations were first identified using the ratio of 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA (rRNA/rDNA) for individual populations, but this approach failed to generate consistent results. Subsequently, a recently proposed mass balance model was applied to calculate the specific growth rate (μ), and this approach successfully identified active microbial populations in digester (positive μ) that could play important roles than those with negative μ. It was further estimated that 82% of microbial populations in the feed sludge were digested in comparison with less than 50% calculated using current equations.

  10. Novel Active Learning Experiences for Students to Identify Barriers to Independent Living for People with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue

    2016-07-01

    This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  11. Urban school leadership for elementary science instruction: Identifying and activating resources in an undervalued school subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillane, James P.; Diamond, John B.; Walker, Lisa J.; Halverson, Rich; Jita, Loyiso

    2001-10-01

    This article explores school leadership for elementary school science teaching in an urban setting. We examine how school leaders bring resources together to enhance science instruction when there appear to be relatively few resources available for it. From our study of 13 Chicago elementary (K-8) schools' efforts to lead instructional change in mathematics, language arts, and science education, we show how resources for leading instruction are unequally distributed across subject areas. We also explore how over time leaders in one school successfully identified and activated resources for leading change in science education. The result has been a steady, although not always certain, development of science as an instructional area in the school. We argue that leading change in science education involves the identification and activation of material resources, the development of teachers' and school leaders' human capital, and the development and use of social capital.

  12. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles (“fingerprints”), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  13. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles ("fingerprints"), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease.

  14. Identifying the Active Microbiome Associated with Roots and Rhizosphere Soil of Oilseed Rape

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Shahid; Ekblad, Alf; Alström, Sadhna; Högberg, Nils; Finlay, Roger

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA stable isotope probing and high-throughput sequencing were used to characterize the active microbiomes of bacteria and fungi colonizing the roots and rhizosphere soil of oilseed rape to identify taxa assimilating plant-derived carbon following 13CO2 labeling. Root- and rhizosphere soil-associated communities of both bacteria and fungi differed from each other, and there were highly significant differences between their DNA- and RNA-based community profiles. Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were the most active bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soil. Bacteroidetes were more active in roots. The most abundant bacterial genera were well represented in both the 13C- and 12C-RNA fractions, while the fungal taxa were more differentiated. Streptomyces, Rhizobium, and Flavobacterium were dominant in roots, whereas Rhodoplanes and Sphingomonas (Kaistobacter) were dominant in rhizosphere soil. “Candidatus Nitrososphaera” was enriched in 13C in rhizosphere soil. Olpidium and Dendryphion were abundant in the 12C-RNA fraction of roots; Clonostachys was abundant in both roots and rhizosphere soil and heavily 13C enriched. Cryptococcus was dominant in rhizosphere soil and less abundant, but was 13C enriched in roots. The patterns of colonization and C acquisition revealed in this study assist in identifying microbial taxa that may be superior competitors for plant-derived carbon in the rhizosphere of Brassica napus. IMPORTANCE This microbiome study characterizes the active bacteria and fungi colonizing the roots and rhizosphere soil of Brassica napus using high-throughput sequencing and RNA-stable isotope probing. It identifies taxa assimilating plant-derived carbon following 13CO2 labeling and compares these with other less active groups not incorporating a plant assimilate. Brassica napus is an economically and globally important oilseed crop, cultivated for edible oil, biofuel

  15. Identifying the Active Microbiome Associated with Roots and Rhizosphere Soil of Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Gkarmiri, Konstantia; Mahmood, Shahid; Ekblad, Alf; Alström, Sadhna; Högberg, Nils; Finlay, Roger

    2017-11-15

    RNA stable isotope probing and high-throughput sequencing were used to characterize the active microbiomes of bacteria and fungi colonizing the roots and rhizosphere soil of oilseed rape to identify taxa assimilating plant-derived carbon following 13 CO 2 labeling. Root- and rhizosphere soil-associated communities of both bacteria and fungi differed from each other, and there were highly significant differences between their DNA- and RNA-based community profiles. Verrucomicrobia , Proteobacteria , Planctomycetes , Acidobacteria , Gemmatimonadetes , Actinobacteria , and Chloroflexi were the most active bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soil. Bacteroidetes were more active in roots. The most abundant bacterial genera were well represented in both the 13 C- and 12 C-RNA fractions, while the fungal taxa were more differentiated. Streptomyces , Rhizobium , and Flavobacterium were dominant in roots, whereas Rhodoplanes and Sphingomonas ( Kaistobacter ) were dominant in rhizosphere soil. " Candidatus Nitrososphaera" was enriched in 13 C in rhizosphere soil. Olpidium and Dendryphion were abundant in the 12 C-RNA fraction of roots; Clonostachys was abundant in both roots and rhizosphere soil and heavily 13 C enriched. Cryptococcus was dominant in rhizosphere soil and less abundant, but was 13 C enriched in roots. The patterns of colonization and C acquisition revealed in this study assist in identifying microbial taxa that may be superior competitors for plant-derived carbon in the rhizosphere of Brassica napus IMPORTANCE This microbiome study characterizes the active bacteria and fungi colonizing the roots and rhizosphere soil of Brassica napus using high-throughput sequencing and RNA-stable isotope probing. It identifies taxa assimilating plant-derived carbon following 13 CO 2 labeling and compares these with other less active groups not incorporating a plant assimilate. Brassica napus is an economically and globally important oilseed crop, cultivated for edible oil

  16. Small difference in carcinogenic potency between GBP nanomaterials and GBP micromaterials.

    PubMed

    Gebel, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    durations longer than 24 months. Taking the different study durations into account, the real potency differences were estimated to be twofold lower than the relative potency factors identified. In conclusion, the chronic rat inhalation studies with GBP materials indicate that the difference in carcinogenic potency between GBP nanomaterials and GBP micromaterials is low can be described by a factor of 2-2.5 referring to the dose metrics mass concentration.

  17. Development of a QPatch automated electrophysiology assay for identifying KCa3.1 inhibitors and activators.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David Paul; Yu, Weifeng; Brown, Brandon M; Løjkner, Lars Damgaard; Wulff, Heike

    2013-01-01

    The intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel KCa3.1 (also known as KCNN4, IK1, or the Gárdos channel) plays an important role in the activation of T and B cells, mast cells, macrophages, and microglia by regulating membrane potential, cellular volume, and calcium signaling. KCa3.1 is further involved in the proliferation of dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblast and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization responses in the vascular endothelium. Accordingly, KCa3.1 inhibitors are therapeutically interesting as immunosuppressants and for the treatment of a wide range of fibroproliferative disorders, whereas KCa3.1 activators constitute a potential new class of endothelial function preserving antihypertensives. Here, we report the development of QPatch assays for both KCa3.1 inhibitors and activators. During assay optimization, the Ca(2+) sensitivity of KCa3.1 was studied using varying intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. A free Ca(2+) concentration of 1 μM was chosen to optimally test inhibitors. To identify activators, which generally act as positive gating modulators, a lower Ca(2+) concentration (∼200 nM) was used. The QPatch results were benchmarked against manual patch-clamp electrophysiology by determining the potency of several commonly used KCa3.1 inhibitors (TRAM-34, NS6180, ChTX) and activators (EBIO, riluzole, SKA-31). Collectively, our results demonstrate that the QPatch provides a comparable but much faster approach to study compound interactions with KCa3.1 channels in a robust and reliable assay.

  18. Serum interleukin measurement may help identify thyroid cancer patients with active disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mariana Bonjiorno; Marcello, Marjory Alana; Batista, Fernando de Assis; Peres, Karina Colombera; Meneghetti, Murilo; Ward, Mirela Andrea Latham; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sá de Camargo; da Assumpção, Ligia Vera Montali; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2018-02-01

    Investigate the clinical utility of serum interleukin dosages of IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 in the diagnosis and characterization of patients with DTC. In particular, verify ILs utility in the identification of individuals who are evolving disease-free or with the active disease. We evaluated 200 patients with malignant nodules (100 patients disease-free and 100 patients with recurrence/active disease); 60 benign nodules and 100 healthy controls, serum levels were assessed by ELISA. All ILs, but not IL-4, differentiated these three groups. We observed that IL-2, 2R and 10 serum concentrations were associated with thyroglobulin levels. Serum IL-2 was able to differentiate patients with active disease from the disease-free with a sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 58%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 70% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97% (p=0.0007). IL-6R levels differentiated patients with active disease from the disease-free patients with 56% sensitivity, 63% specificity, PPV of 60% and NPV of 59% (p<0.0001). IL-8 values also distinguished patients with active disease from the disease-free ones with sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 76%, PPV of 68% and NPV of 60% (p=0.0025); using IL-12, we obtained a sensitivity value of 73%, specificity of 66%, PPV of 68% and NPV of 71% (p<0.0001). Furthermore, interleukin levels showed association with some tumor characteristics of aggressiveness. We suggest that the serum concentration of ILs may assist in the diagnosis and characterization of tumor malignancy helping identify patients with active disease who deserve closer medical attention. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemistry of mutagens and carcinogens in broiled food.

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, the following subjects are important areas in studies on mutagens and carcinogens in broiled foods. In addition to heterocyclic amines which need microsomal activation, the structural elucidation of more labile direct-acting mutagens is necessary. It is known that there are still various unknown minor mutagens in broiled foods. Although the structural characterization of such compounds is more difficult, it is important since they might be hazardous in spite of their low mutagenicity. A more feasible and easier method for quantitative analysis of mutagens, in addition to HPLC and GC/MS methods presently employed, must be developed. The mechanism of formation of mutagens by broiling of food should be studied. An effective chemical method to prevent formation of mutagens or to destroy them, once formed, should be developed. PMID:3757944

  20. Time-driven activity-based costing to identify opportunities for cost reduction in pediatric appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yangyang R; Abbas, Paulette I; Smith, Carolyn M; Carberry, Kathleen E; Ren, Hui; Patel, Binita; Nuchtern, Jed G; Lopez, Monica E

    2016-12-01

    As reimbursement programs shift to value-based payment models emphasizing quality and efficient healthcare delivery, there exists a need to better understand process management to unearth true costs of patient care. We sought to identify cost-reduction opportunities in simple appendicitis management by applying a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methodology to this high-volume surgical condition. Process maps were created using medical record time stamps. Labor capacity cost rates were calculated using national median physician salaries, weighted nurse-patient ratios, and hospital cost data. Consumable costs for supplies, pharmacy, laboratory, and food were derived from the hospital general ledger. Time-driven activity-based costing resulted in precise per-minute calculation of personnel costs. Highest costs were in the operating room ($747.07), hospital floor ($388.20), and emergency department ($296.21). Major contributors to length of stay were emergency department evaluation (270min), operating room availability (395min), and post-operative monitoring (1128min). The TDABC model led to $1712.16 in personnel costs and $1041.23 in consumable costs for a total appendicitis cost of $2753.39. Inefficiencies in healthcare delivery can be identified through TDABC. Triage-based standing delegation orders, advanced practice providers, and same day discharge protocols are proposed cost-reducing interventions to optimize value-based care for simple appendicitis. II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Difficulty identifying feelings and automatic activation in the fusiform gyrus in response to facial emotion.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Mischa; Kugel, Harald; Suslow, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Difficulties in identifying and differentiating one's emotions are a central characteristic of alexithymia. In the present study, automatic activation of the fusiform gyrus to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia as assessed by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. During 3 Tesla fMRI scanning, pictures of faces bearing sad, happy, and neutral expressions masked by neutral faces were presented to 22 healthy adults who also responded to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The fusiform gyrus was selected as the region of interest, and voxel values of this region were extracted, summarized as means, and tested among the different conditions (sad, happy, and neutral faces). Masked sad facial emotions were associated with greater bilateral activation of the fusiform gyrus than masked neutral faces. The subscale, Difficulty Identifying Feelings, was negatively correlated with the neural response of the fusiform gyrus to masked sad faces. The correlation results suggest that automatic hyporesponsiveness of the fusiform gyrus to negative emotion stimuli may reflect problems in recognizing one's emotions in everyday life.

  2. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Leadon, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light. Thymine glycols were detected using a monoclonal antibody against this product in a sensitive immunoassay. We found that thymine glycols were produced in DNA in a dose dependent manner after exposure to the carcinogens and that their production was reduced if either catalase or superoxide dismutase or both were present at the time of treatment. The efficiency of thymine glycol production following exposure to the chemical carcinogens was greater than that following equi-toxic doses of radiation. Thymine glycols were efficiently removed from the DNA of human cells following treatment with either the chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation or ultraviolet light. PMID:3477281

  3. A rapid review to identify physical activity accrued while playing golf

    PubMed Central

    Luscombe, Jack; Murray, Andrew D; Jenkins, Evan; Archibald, Daryll

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify physical activity (PA) accrued while playing golf and modifiers of PA accrued. Design A rapid review of primary research studies. Quality was assessed using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute quality assessment tool for cohort and cross-sectional studies. Methods and outcomes The following databases were searched from 1900 to March 2017: SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Google Advanced Search, ProQuest, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. All primary research investigating golf or golfers with any of the following outcomes was included: metabolic equivalent of task, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure, heart rate, step count, distance covered, strength, flexibility, balance, sedentary behaviour. Results Phase one searching identified 4944 citations and phase two searching identified 170 citations. In total, 19 articles met inclusion criteria. Golf is primarily a moderate intensity PA, but may be low intensity depending on the playing population and various modifiers. Less PA is accrued by those who ride a golf cart compared with those walking the course. Conclusions Golf can be encouraged in order to attain PA recommendations. Further research is required into the relationship between golf and strength and flexibility PA recommendations and how modifiers affect PA accrued. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017058237. PMID:29187418

  4. Identifying group-sensitive physical activities: a differential item functioning analysis of NHANES data.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroup-sensitive physical activities (PA) using differential item functioning (DIF) analysis. A sub-unweighted sample of 1857 (men=923 and women=934) from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey PA questionnaire data was used for the analyses. Using the Mantel-Haenszel, the simultaneous item bias test, and the ANOVA DIF methods, 33 specific leisure-time moderate and/or vigorous PA (MVPA) items were analyzed for DIF across race/ethnicity, gender, education, income, and age groups. Many leisure-time MVPA items were identified as large DIF items. When participating in the same amount of leisure-time MVPA, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to participate in basketball and dance activities than non-Hispanic whites (NHW); NHW were more likely to participated in golf and hiking than non-Hispanic blacks; Hispanics were more likely to participate in dancing, hiking, and soccer than NHW, whereas NHW were more likely to engage in bicycling, golf, swimming, and walking than Hispanics; women were more likely to participate in aerobics, dancing, stretching, and walking than men, whereas men were more likely to engage in basketball, fishing, golf, running, soccer, weightlifting, and hunting than women; educated persons were more likely to participate in jogging and treadmill exercise than less educated persons; persons with higher incomes were more likely to engage in golf than those with lower incomes; and adults (20-59 yr) were more likely to participate in basketball, dancing, jogging, running, and weightlifting than older adults (60+ yr), whereas older adults were more likely to participate in walking and golf than younger adults. DIF methods are able to identify subgroup-sensitive PA and thus provide useful information to help design group-sensitive, targeted interventions for disadvantaged PA subgroups. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  5. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph, “available...

  6. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph, “available...

  7. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph, “available...

  8. Memory-Augmented Active Deep Learning for Identifying Relations Between Distant Medical Concepts in Electroencephalography Reports.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Ramon; Goodwin, Travis R; Harabagiu, Sanda M

    2018-01-01

    The automatic identification of relations between medical concepts in a large corpus of Electroencephalography (EEG) reports is an important step in the development of an EEG-specific patient cohort retrieval system as well as in the acquisition of EEG-specific knowledge from this corpus. EEG-specific relations involve medical concepts that are not typically mentioned in the same sentence or even the same section of a report, thus requiring extraction techniques that can handle such long-distance dependencies. To address this challenge, we present a novel frame work which combines the advantages of a deep learning framework employing Dynamic Relational Memory (DRM) with active learning. While DRM enables the prediction of long-distance relations, active learning provides a mechanism for accurately identifying relations with minimal training data, obtaining an 5-fold cross validationF1 score of 0.7475 on a set of 140 EEG reports selected with active learning. The results obtained with our novel framework show great promise.

  9. Identifying factors associated with regular physical activity in leisure time among Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Godin, Gaston; Anderson, Donna; Lambert, Léo-Daniel; Desharnais, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors explaining regular physical activity among Canadian adolescents. A cohort study conducted over a period of 2 years. A French-language high school located near Québec City. A cohort of 740 students (352 girls; 388 boys) aged 13.3 +/- 1.0 years at baseline. Psychosocial, life context, profile, and sociodemographic variables were assessed at baseline and 1 and 2 years after baseline. Exercising almost every day during leisure time at each measurement time was the dependent variable. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis indicated that exercising almost every day was significantly associated with a high intention to exercise (odds ratio [OR]: 8.33, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 5.26, 13.18), being satisfied with the activity practiced (OR: 2.07, CI 95%: 1.27, 3.38), perceived descriptive norm (OR: 1.82, CI 95%: 1.41, 2.35), being a boy (OR: 1.83, CI 95%: 1.37, 2.46), practicing "competitive" activities (OR: 1.80, CI 95%: 1.37, 2.36), eating a healthy breakfast (OR: 1.68, CI 95%: 1.09, 2.60), and normative beliefs (OR: 1.48, CI 95%: 1.14, 1.90). Specific GEE analysis for gender indicated slight but significant differences. This study provides evidence for the need to design interventions that are gender specific and that focus on increasing intention to exercise regularly.

  10. Identifying the Nonradical Mechanism in the Peroxymonosulfate Activation Process: Singlet Oxygenation Versus Mediated Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun-Tae; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jaesung; Park, Hee-Deung; Lee, Jaesang

    2018-06-01

    Select persulfate activation processes were demonstrated to initiate oxidation not reliant on sulfate radicals, although the underlying mechanism has yet to be identified. This study explored singlet oxygenation and mediated electron transfer as plausible nonradical mechanisms for organic degradation by carbon nanotube (CNT)-activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The degradation of furfuryl alcohol (FFA) as a singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) indicator and the kinetic retardation of FFA oxidation in the presence of l-histidine and azide as 1 O 2 quenchers apparently supported a role of 1 O 2 in the CNT/PMS system. However, the 1 O 2 scavenging effect was ascribed to a rapid PMS depletion by l-histidine and azide. A comparison of CNT/PMS and photoexcited Rose Bengal (RB) excluded the possibility of singlet oxygenation during heterogeneous persulfate activation. In contrast to the case of excited RB, solvent exchange (H 2 O to D 2 O) did not enhance FFA degradation by CNT/PMS and the pH- and substrate-dependent reactivity of CNT/PMS did not reflect the selective nature of 1 O 2 . Alternatively, concomitant PMS reduction and trichlorophenol oxidation were achieved when PMS and trichlorophenol were physically separated in two chambers using a conductive vertically aligned CNT membrane. This result suggested that CNT-mediated electron transfer from organics to persulfate was primarily responsible for the nonradical degradative route.

  11. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  12. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos.

  13. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  14. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  15. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  5. Fact Sheet: EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005

    FACT SHEET: EPA's GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT

    On March 29, 2005, EPA issued the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk A...

  6. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1990.112 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, AND REGULATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria...

  7. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1990.112 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, AND REGULATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria...

  8. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  9. Identifying minimal hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients by measuring spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Long-Feng; Chen, Qiu-Feng; Li, Jun; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with aberrant regional intrinsic brain activity in cirrhotic patients. However, few studies have investigated whether altered intrinsic brain activity can be used as a biomarker of MHE among cirrhotic patients. In this study, 36 cirrhotic patients (with MHE, n = 16; without MHE [NHE], n = 20) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Spontaneous brain activity was measured by examining the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the fMRI signal. MHE was diagnosed based on the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES). A two-sample t-test was used to determine the regions of interest (ROIs) in which ALFF differed significantly between the two groups; then, ALFF values within ROIs were selected as classification features. A linear discriminative analysis was used to differentiate MHE patients from NHE patients. The leave-one-out cross-validation method was used to estimate the performance of the classifier. The classification analysis was 80.6 % accurate (81.3 % sensitivity and 80.0 % specificity) in terms of distinguishing between the two groups. Six ROIs were identified as the most discriminative features, including the bilateral medial frontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, left precentral and postcentral gyrus, right lingual gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior/superior parietal lobule. The ALFF values within ROIs were correlated with PHES in cirrhotic patients. Our findings suggest that altered regional brain spontaneous activity is a useful biomarker for MHE detection among cirrhotic patients.

  10. Biomarkers of susceptibility to chemical carcinogens: the example of non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Rachel S; Vineis, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Genetic susceptibly to suspected chemical and environmental carcinogens may modify the response to exposure. The aim of this review was to explore the issues involved in the study of gene-environment interactions, and to consider the use of susceptibility biomarkers in cancer epidemiology, using non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) as an example. PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles considering biomarkers of susceptibility to chemical, agricultural and industrial carcinogens in the aetiology of NHL. The results suggest a modifying role for genetic susceptibility to a number of occupational and environmental exposures including organochlorines, chlorinated solvents, chlordanes and benzene in the aetiology of NHL. The potential importance of these gene-environment interactions in NHL may help to explain the lack of definitive carcinogens identified to date for this malignancy. Although a large number of genetic variants and gene-environment interactions have been explored for NHL, to date replication is lacking and therefore the findings remain to be validated. These findings highlight the need for novel standardized methodologies in the study of genetic susceptibility to chemical carcinogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Further analysis of Ames-negative rodent carcinogens that are only genotoxic in mammalian cells in vitro at concentrations exceeding 1 mM, including retesting of compounds of concern.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Fowler, Paul

    2010-11-01

    In the analysis by Parry et al. [Parry, J. M., Parry, E., Phrakonkham, P. and Corvi, R. (2010) Analysis of published data for top concentration considerations in mammalian cell genotoxicity testing. Mutagenesis, 25, 531-538], 24 rodent carcinogens that were negative in the Ames test were identified that were only positive in mammalian cell tests at concentrations between 1 and 10 mM. These carcinogens can be subdivided into four groups as follows: (1) probable non-genotoxic (non-mutagenic) carcinogens, tumour promoters or negative for genotoxicity in vivo (n=10); (2) questionable carcinogens (n=4); (3) carcinogens with a probable genotoxic mode of action (n=5); (4) compounds where carcinogenicity or in vivo genotoxicity is unknown or unclear (n=5). It is not expected that in vitro mammalian cell tests should give positive results with Group 1 chemicals. Within Groups 2-4, five chemicals were considered a low priority because they could be detected using modified conditions because genotoxicity was associated with precipitate or pH shifts or because non-standard metabolism was required. The remaining nine chemicals were therefore considered most critical in terms of detection of genotoxic activity in mammalian cells. Daminozide was also included because it may have given positive responses between 1 and 10 mM. Many of the reported studies could have given positive results only at >1 mM because 'old' protocols were followed. These 10 chemicals have therefore been retested using modern protocols. Some were negative even up to 10 mM. Others were positive at concentrations <1 mM. Only methylolacrylamide was positive at a concentration >1 mM (2 mM = 202 μg/ml). Low-molecular weight substances may therefore require concentrations >1 mM, but further work is needed. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the 10 mM upper limit in mammalian cell tests can be lowered without any loss of sensitivity in detecting genotoxic rodent carcinogens. A new limit of 1 mM or 500

  12. Tetrandrine identified in a small molecule screen to activate mesenchymal stem cells for enhanced immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Concannon, John; Ng, Kelvin S; Seyb, Kathleen; Mortensen, Luke J; Ranganath, Sudhir; Gu, Fangqi; Levy, Oren; Tong, Zhixiang; Martyn, Keir; Zhao, Weian; Lin, Charles P; Glicksman, Marcie A; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-26

    Pre-treatment or priming of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) prior to transplantation can significantly augment the immunosuppressive effect of MSC-based therapies. In this study, we screened a library of 1402 FDA-approved bioactive compounds to prime MSC. We identified tetrandrine as a potential hit that activates the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent immunosuppressive agent, by MSC. Tetrandrine increased MSC PGE2 secretion through the NF-κB/COX-2 signaling pathway. When co-cultured with mouse macrophages (RAW264.7), tetrandrine-primed MSC attenuated the level of TNF-α secreted by RAW264.7. Furthermore, systemic transplantation of primed MSC into a mouse ear skin inflammation model significantly reduced the level of TNF-α in the inflamed ear, compared to unprimed cells. Screening of small molecules to pre-condition cells prior to transplantation represents a promising strategy to boost the therapeutic potential of cell therapy.

  13. Past Strategies and Future Directions for Identifying AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Sinnett, Sarah E.; Brenman, Jay E.

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a promising therapeutic target for cancer, type II diabetes, and other illnesses characterized by abnormal energy utilization. During the last decade, numerous labs have published a range of methods for identifying novel AMPK modulators. The current understanding of AMPK structure and regulation, however, has propelled a paradigm shift in which many researchers now consider ADP to be an additional regulatory nucleotide of AMPK. How can the AMPK community apply this new understanding of AMPK signaling to translational research? Recent insights into AMPK structure, regulation, and holoenzyme-sensitive signaling may provide the hindsight needed to clearly evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of past AMPK drug discovery efforts. Improving future strategies for AMPK drug discovery will require pairing the current understanding of AMPK signaling with improved experimental designs. PMID:24583089

  14. Active Learning with Rationales for Identifying Operationally Significant Anomalies in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Manali; Das, Kamalika; Bilgic, Mustafa; Matthews, Bryan; Nielsen, David Lynn; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2016-01-01

    A major focus of the commercial aviation community is discovery of unknown safety events in flight operations data. Data-driven unsupervised anomaly detection methods are better at capturing unknown safety events compared to rule-based methods which only look for known violations. However, not all statistical anomalies that are discovered by these unsupervised anomaly detection methods are operationally significant (e.g., represent a safety concern). Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) have to spend significant time reviewing these statistical anomalies individually to identify a few operationally significant ones. In this paper we propose an active learning algorithm that incorporates SME feedback in the form of rationales to build a classifier that can distinguish between uninteresting and operationally significant anomalies. Experimental evaluation on real aviation data shows that our approach improves detection of operationally significant events by as much as 75% compared to the state-of-the-art. The learnt classifier also generalizes well to additional validation data sets.

  15. Functional measures developed for clinical populations identified impairment among active workers with upper extremity disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Bethany T.; Dale, Ann Marie; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Rachford, Robert; Strickland, Jaime; Kaskutas, Vicki; Evanoff, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have explored measures of function across a range of health outcomes in a general working population. Using four upper extremity (UE) case definitions from the scientific literature, we described the performance of functional measures of work, activities of daily living, and overall health. Methods A sample of 573 workers completed several functional measures: modified recall versions of the QuickDASH, Levine Functional Status Scale (FSS), DASH Work module (DASH-W), and standard SF-8 physical component score. We determined case status based on four UE case definitions: 1) UE symptoms, 2) UE musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), 3) carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and 4) work limitations due to UE symptoms. We calculated effect sizes for each case definition to show the magnitude of the differences that were detected between cases and non-cases for each case definition on each functional measure. Sensitivity and specificity analyses showed how well each measure identified functional impairments across the UE case definitions. Results All measures discriminated between cases and non-cases for each case definition with the largest effect sizes for CTS and work limitations, particularly for the modified FSS and DASH-W measures. Specificity was high and sensitivity was low for outcomes of UE symptoms and UE MSD in all measures. Sensitivity was high for CTS and work limitations. Conclusions Functional measures developed specifically for use in clinical, treatment-seeking populations may identify mild levels of impairment in relatively healthy, active working populations, but measures performed better among workers with CTS or those reporting limitations at work. PMID:26091980

  16. An open simulation approach to identify chances and limitations for vulnerable road user (VRU) active safety.

    PubMed

    Seiniger, Patrick; Bartels, Oliver; Pastor, Claus; Wisch, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that active safety will have a significant impact on reducing accident figures for pedestrians and probably also bicyclists. However, chances and limitations for active safety systems have only been derived based on accident data and the current state of the art, based on proprietary simulation models. The objective of this article is to investigate these chances and limitations by developing an open simulation model. This article introduces a simulation model, incorporating accident kinematics, driving dynamics, driver reaction times, pedestrian dynamics, performance parameters of different autonomous emergency braking (AEB) generations, as well as legal and logical limitations. The level of detail for available pedestrian accident data is limited. Relevant variables, especially timing of the pedestrian appearance and the pedestrian's moving speed, are estimated using assumptions. The model in this article uses the fact that a pedestrian and a vehicle in an accident must have been in the same spot at the same time and defines the impact position as a relevant accident parameter, which is usually available from accident data. The calculations done within the model identify the possible timing available for braking by an AEB system as well as the possible speed reduction for different accident scenarios as well as for different system configurations. The simulation model identifies the lateral impact position of the pedestrian as a significant parameter for system performance, and the system layout is designed to brake when the accident becomes unavoidable by the vehicle driver. Scenarios with a pedestrian running from behind an obstruction are the most demanding scenarios and will very likely never be avoidable for all vehicle speeds due to physical limits. Scenarios with an unobstructed person walking will very likely be treatable for a wide speed range for next generation AEB systems.

  17. NG2 expression in glioblastoma identifies an actively proliferating population with an aggressive molecular signature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mayhani, M. Talal F.; Grenfell, Richard; Narita, Masashi; Piccirillo, Sara; Kenney-Herbert, Emma; Fawcett, James W.; Collins, V. Peter; Ichimura, Koichi; Watts, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of primary brain tumor and a highly malignant and heterogeneous cancer. Current conventional therapies fail to eradicate or curb GBM cell growth. Hence, exploring the cellular and molecular basis of GBM cell growth is vital to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Neuroglia (NG)-2 is a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed by NG2+ progenitors and is strongly linked to cell proliferation in the normal brain. By using NG2 as a biomarker we identify a GBM cell population (GBM NG2+ cells) with robust proliferative, clonogenic, and tumorigenic capacity. We show that a significant proportion (mean 83%) of cells proliferating in the tumor mass express NG2 and that over 50% of GBM NG2+ cells are proliferating. Compared with the GBM NG2− cells from the same tumor, the GBM of NG2+ cells overexpress genes associated with aggressive tumorigenicity, including overexpression of Mitosis and Cell Cycling Module genes (e.g., MELK, CDC, MCM, E2F), which have been previously shown to correlate with poor survival in GBM. We also show that the coexpression pattern of NG2 with other glial progenitor markers in GBM does not recapitulate that described in the normal brain. The expression of NG2 by such an aggressive and actively cycling GBM population combined with its location on the cell surface identifies this cell population as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of patients with GBM. PMID:21798846

  18. Identifying non-point sources of endocrine active compounds and their biological impacts in freshwater lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Beth H.; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ferrey, Mark L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Lundy, James R.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern, particularly endocrine active compounds (EACs), have been identified as a threat to aquatic wildlife. However, little is known about the impact of EACs on lakes through groundwater from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). This study aims to identify specific contributions of OWTS to Sullivan Lake, Minnesota, USA. Lake hydrology, water chemistry, caged bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposures were used to assess whether EACs entered the lake through OWTS inflow and the resultant biological impact on fish. Study areas included two OWTS-influenced near-shore sites with native bluegill spawning habitats and two in-lake control sites without nearby EAC sources. Caged bluegill sunfish were analyzed for plasma vitellogenin concentrations, organosomatic indices, and histological pathologies. Surface and porewater was collected from each site and analyzed for EACs. Porewater was also collected for laboratory exposure of larval fathead minnow, before analysis of predator escape performance and gene expression profiles. Chemical analysis showed EACs present at low concentrations at each study site, whereas discrete variations were reported between sites and between summer and fall samplings. Body condition index and liver vacuolization of sunfish were found to differ among study sites as did gene expression in exposed larval fathead minnows. Interestingly, biological exposure data and water chemistry did not match. Therefore, although results highlight the potential impacts of seepage from OWTS, further investigation of mixture effects and life history factor as well as chemical fate is warranted.

  19. Identifying Feasible Physical Activity Programs for Long-Term Care Homes in the Ontario Context

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Saad; Newhouse, Ian; Malik, Ali; Heckman, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Structured exercise programs for frail institutionalized seniors have shown improvement in physical, functional, and psychological health of this population. However, the ‘feasibility’ of implementation of such programs in real settings is seldom discussed. The purpose of this systematic review was to gauge feasibility of exercise and falls prevention programs from the perspective of long-term care homes in Ontario, given the recent changes in funding for publically funded physiotherapy services. Method Six electronic databases were searched by two independent researchers for randomized controlled trials that targeted long-term care residents and included exercise as an independent component of the intervention. Results A total of 39 studies were included in this review. A majority of these interventions were led by physiotherapist(s), carried out three times per week for 30–45 minutes per session. However, a few group-based interventions that were led by long-term care staff, volunteers, or trained non-exercise specialists were identified that also required minimal equipment. Conclusion This systematic review has identified ‘feasible’ physical activity and falls prevention programs that required minimal investment in staff and equipment, and demonstrated positive outcomes. Implementation of such programs represents cost-effective means of providing long-term care residents with meaningful gains in physical, psychological, and social health. PMID:26180563

  20. Preventing, Identifying, and Treating Prescription Drug Misuse Among Active-Duty Service Members

    PubMed Central

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Hunter, Sarah B.; Ober, Allison J.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Vardavas, Raffaele; Blanchard, Janice C.; DeVries, David; Drabo, Emmanuel F.; Leuschner, Kristin J.; Stewart, Warren; Walters, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Prescription drug misuse (PDM) is of critical concern for the military because of its potential impact on military readiness, the health and well-being of military personnel, and associated health care costs. The purpose of this study is to summarize insights gleaned from a series of activities that the RAND Corporation undertook for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Readiness to address this important health and military readiness issue. The authors completed a review of U.S. Department of Defense policies and a comprehensive literature review of clinical guidelines and the empirical literature on the prevention and treatment of PDM and conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 66 health and behavioral health care providers at nine medical treatment facilities across three regions within the contiguous United States to identify best practices in the prevention, identification, and treatment of PDM and the extent to which those practices are known and followed. The study also presents the framework of an analytic tool that, once informed by data available to the military but not available to the authors, can assist the military in predicting future trends in PDM based on current demographics of active-duty service members and rates of injury and prescribing of prescription drugs. The findings from this work led the authors to formulate a set of key insights that they believe might improve the rapid identification and treatment of service members dealing with PDM, thereby improving future force readiness. PMID:29057158

  1. QM/MM simulations identify the determinants of catalytic activity differences between type II dehydroquinase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lence, Emilio; van der Kamp, Marc W; González-Bello, Concepción; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2018-05-16

    Type II dehydroquinase enzymes (DHQ2), recognized targets for antibiotic drug discovery, show significantly different activities dependent on the species: DHQ2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtDHQ2) and Helicobacter pylori (HpDHQ2) show a 50-fold difference in catalytic efficiency. Revealing the determinants of this activity difference is important for our understanding of biological catalysis and further offers the potential to contribute to tailoring specificity in drug design. Molecular dynamics simulations using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potential, with correlated ab initio single point corrections, identify and quantify the subtle determinants of the experimentally observed difference in efficiency. The rate-determining step involves the formation of an enolate intermediate: more efficient stabilization of the enolate and transition state of the key step in MtDHQ2, mainly by the essential residues Tyr24 and Arg19, makes it more efficient than HpDHQ2. Further, a water molecule, which is absent in MtDHQ2 but involved in generation of the catalytic Tyr22 tyrosinate in HpDHQ2, was found to destabilize both the transition state and the enolate intermediate. The quantification of the contribution of key residues and water molecules in the rate-determining step of the mechanism also leads to improved understanding of higher potencies and specificity of known inhibitors, which should aid ongoing inhibitor design.

  2. Evidence That the Capacity of Nongenotoxic Carcinogens to Induce Oxidative Stress Is Subject to Marked Variability

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Colin J.; Cameron, Amy R.; Chatham, Lynsey; Stanley, Lesley A.; Wolf, Charles Roland

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs and environmental chemicals which are not directly mutagenic have the capacity to increase the incidence of tumors in the liver and other tissues. For this reason, such compounds are known as nongenotoxic carcinogens. The mechanisms underlying their effects remain unclear; however, their capacity to induce oxidative stress is considered to be a critical step in the carcinogenic process, although the evidence that this is actually the case remains equivocal and sparse. We have exploited a novel heme oxygenase-1 reporter mouse to evaluate the capacity of nongenotoxic carcinogens with different mechanisms of action to induce oxidative stress in the liver in vivo. When these compounds were administered at doses reported to cause liver tumors, marked differences in activation of the reporter were observed. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and nafenopin were strong inducers of oxidative stress, whereas phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, cyproterone acetate, and WY14,643 were, at best, only very weak inducers. In the case of phenobarbital and thioacetamide, the number of LacZ-positive hepatocytes increased with time, and for the latter also with dose. The data obtained demonstrate that although some nongenotoxic carcinogens can induce oxidative stress, it is not a dominant feature of the response to these compounds. Therefore in contrast to the current models, these data suggest that oxidative stress is not a key determinant in the mechanism of nongenotoxic carcinogenesis but may contribute to the effects in a compound-specific manner. PMID:25690736

  3. Ozonation of mutagenic and carcinogenic polyaromatic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, G.R.; Caulfield, M.J.; Pollard, M.

    1979-06-01

    The Salmonella-microsome assay for mutagenesis was used to determine the effect of ozone on the mutagenesis of selected carcinogens and mutagens in water. Short periods of ozonation were shown to completely inactivate the mutagenicity of several polyaromatic amine mutagens including acriflavine, proflavine, and beta-naphthylamine. Selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also sensitive to ozonation. Kinetic studies revealed that the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene was destroyed after short periods of ozonation. To correlate loss of mutagenicity with loss of carcinogenicity, two polyaromatic hydrocarbons were treated with ozone, extracted from water with hexane, and tested for carcinogenicity in mice. When 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene andmore » 3-methyl-cholanthrene were treated with ozone, there was a substantial reduction in carcinogenicity compared to control groups treated with oxygen alone. However, a small number of tumors developed in the group of animals receiving a hexane extract of ozonated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. This activity may be due to breakdown products of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene that are not mutagenic.« less

  4. [D.lgsl. 625/1994--Protection against carcinogenic agents: the obligation to educate].

    PubMed

    Fucci, P; Anselmi, E; Bracci, C; Comba, P

    1997-01-01

    According to act 626/1994, employers have the duty to inform and train workers and their representatives. The implementation of training activities requires the following points: planning the training program according to the needs of the target population, use of the methods aimed at promoting learning and the adoption of safe behaviour, setting-up of evaluation tools. The disciplines of risk perception and communication and adult training may provide useful contribution in this frame. At the light of the preliminary experiences in this field, the importance of the following items for workers, workers representatives and employers is emphasized: probabilistic causality models, role of cognitive and emotional factors in the learning process, definition of carcinogenic according to national and international organisation, meaning of TLV with respect to carcinogenic exposure, interaction between carcinogens in the case of multiple exposition, risk evaluation, preventive measures, transfer of carcinogen risk from workplace to domestic environment, due to lack of compliance with basic hygienic rules such proper use of work clothes.

  5. Toxico-Cheminformatics and QSPR Modeling of the Carcinogenic Potency Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report on the development of a tiered, confirmatory scheme for prediction of chemical carcinogenicity based on QSAR studies of compounds with available mutagenic and carcinogenic data. For 693 such compounds from the Carcinogenic Potency Database characterized molecular topologic...

  6. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. USE OF qRTPCR TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS OF BROMATE EXPOSURE IN F344 MALE RAT KIDNEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a drinking water disinfection by-product that is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. To identify potential biomarkers of carcinogenicity, male F344 rats were chronically exposed to a carcinogenic dose (400mg/l) of KBrO3 in their drinking water. Kidneys were...

  8. Ochratoxin A induces rat renal carcinogenicity with limited induction of oxidative stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Yu, Tao; Zhu, Liye

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has displayed nephrotoxicity and renal carcinogenicity in mammals, however, no clear mechanisms have been identified detailing the relationship between oxidative stress and these toxicities. This study was performed to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress and the renal carcinogenicity induced by OTA. Rats were treated with 70 or 210 μg/kg b.w. OTA for 4 or 13 weeks. In the rats administrated with OTA for 13 weeks, the kidney was damaged seriously. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Karyomegaly was prominent in the tubular epithelium. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was detected inmore » the outer stripe of the outer medulla in both low- and high-dose groups. OTA increased the mRNA levels of clusterin in rat kidneys. Interestingly, OTA did not significantly alter the oxidative stress level in rat liver and kidney. Yet, some indications related to proliferation and carcinogenicity were observed. A dose-related increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was observed at 4 weeks in both liver and kidney, but at 13 weeks, only in the kidney. OTA down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulated vimentin and lipocalin 2 in rat kidney at 13 weeks. The p53 gene was decreased in both liver and kidney at 13 weeks. These results suggest that OTA caused apparent kidney damage within 13 weeks but exerted limited effect on oxidative stress parameters. It implies that cell proliferation is the proposed mode of action for OTA-induced renal carcinogenicity. - Highlights: • We studied OTA toxicities in both the rat liver and kidney for 13 weeks. • OTA exerts limited effects on oxidative stress in the rat liver and kidney. • OTA induced renal carcinogenicity resulting from cell proliferation.« less

  9. An analysis of pharmaceutical experience with decades of rat carcinogenicity testing: support for a proposal to modify current regulatory guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sistare, Frank D; Morton, Daniel; Alden, Carl; Christensen, Joel; Keller, Douglas; Jonghe, Sandra De; Storer, Richard D; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Kraynak, Andrew; Trela, Bruce; Bienvenu, Jean-Guy; Bjurström, Sivert; Bosmans, Vanessa; Brewster, David; Colman, Karyn; Dominick, Mark; Evans, John; Hailey, James R; Kinter, Lewis; Liu, Matt; Mahrt, Charles; Marien, Dirk; Myer, James; Perry, Richard; Potenta, Daniel; Roth, Arthur; Sherratt, Philip; Singer, Thomas; Slim, Rabih; Soper, Keith; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Stoltz, James; Turner, Oliver; Turnquist, Susan; van Heerden, Marjolein; Woicke, Jochen; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2011-06-01

    Data collected from 182 marketed and nonmarketed pharmaceuticals demonstrate that there is little value gained in conducting a rat two-year carcinogenicity study for compounds that lack: (1) histopathologic risk factors for rat neoplasia in chronic toxicology studies, (2) evidence of hormonal perturbation, and (3) positive genetic toxicology results. Using a single positive result among these three criteria as a test for outcome in the two-year study, fifty-two of sixty-six rat tumorigens were correctly identified, yielding 79% test sensitivity. When all three criteria were negative, sixty-two of seventy-six pharmaceuticals (82%) were correctly predicted to be rat noncarcinogens. The fourteen rat false negatives had two-year study findings of questionable human relevance. Applying these criteria to eighty-six additional chemicals identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as likely human carcinogens and to drugs withdrawn from the market for carcinogenicity concerns confirmed their sensitivity for predicting rat carcinogenicity outcome. These analyses support a proposal to refine regulatory criteria for conducting a two-year rat study to be based on assessment of histopathologic findings from a rat six-month study, evidence of hormonal perturbation, genetic toxicology results, and the findings of a six-month transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study. This proposed decision paradigm has the potential to eliminate over 40% of rat two-year testing on new pharmaceuticals without compromise to patient safety.

  10. Functional Semi-Blind Source Separation Identifies Primary Motor Area Without Active Motor Execution.

    PubMed

    Porcaro, Camillo; Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Salustri, Carlo; Tecchio, Franca

    2018-04-01

    High time resolution techniques are crucial for investigating the brain in action. Here, we propose a method to identify a section of the upper-limb motor area representation (FS_M1) by means of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded during a completely passive condition (FS_M1bySS). We delivered a galvanic stimulation to the median nerve and we applied to EEG the semi-Blind Source Separation (s-BSS) algorithm named Functional Source Separation (FSS). In order to prove that FS_M1bySS is part of FS_M1, we also collected EEG in a motor condition, i.e. during a voluntary movement task (isometric handgrip) and in a rest condition, i.e. at rest with eyes open and closed. In motor condition, we show that the cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) of FS_M1bySS does not differ from FS_ M1 CMC (0.04 for both sources). Moreover, we show that the FS_M1bySS's ongoing whole band activity during Motor and both rest conditions displays high mutual information and time correlation with FS_M1 (above 0.900 and 0.800, respectively) whereas much smaller ones with the primary somatosensory cortex [Formula: see text] (about 0.300 and 0.500, [Formula: see text]). FS_M1bySS as a marker of the upper-limb FS_M1 representation obtainable without the execution of an active motor task is a great achievement of the FSS algorithm, relevant in most experimental, neurological and psychiatric protocols.

  11. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Herceg, Zdenko

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the ‘normal’ epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing. PMID:23749751

  12. Development of human cell models for assessing the carcinogenic potential of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Pang Yaqin; Li Wenxue; Ma Rulin

    2008-11-01

    To develop human cell models for assessing the carcinogenic potential of chemicals, we established transgenic human cell lines and tested the sensitivity of known carcinogens using a cell transformation assay. A retroviral vector encoding an oncogenic allele of H-Ras (HBER) or c-Myc (HBEM) was introduced into human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) immortalized by SV40 large T (LT) antigen, leading to increased cell proliferation but failing to confer a transformed phenotype characterized by anchorage-independent cell growth and tumor formation of immunodeficient mice. When these pre-transformed cells were treated with nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}), we found that it shortened the latency ofmore » malignant transformation at least by 19 wk in HBER cells or 16 wk in HBEM cells compared to vector control cells. Similarly, the latency of cell transformation was shorter by 15 wk in HBER cells or 9 wk in HBEM cells when cells were treated with benzo(a)pyrenediol epoxide (BPDE). HBER cells appeared to be more sensitive to TPA, NiSO{sub 4} or BPDE-induced cell transformation compared to human embryonic kidney cells expressing H-Ras (HEKR), implying that cell-type specificity is one of important factors determining the effectiveness of the assay. Using AFB{sub 1} and BaP as the representative pro-carcinogens, we also compared the efficiency of three different metabolic conditions in mediating cell transformation. Low dose chemical induction seems to be a prospective system used for metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Our findings provided direct evidence that a genetically modified human cell transformation model can be applied to the assessment of potent carcinogens.« less

  13. A study of tobacco carcinogenesis XLVIII. Carcinogenicity of N'-nitrosonornicotine in mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Koppang, N; Rivenson, A; Reith, A; Dahle, H K; Evensen, O; Hoffmann, D

    1992-11-01

    During tobacco processing and smoking, nicotine and nornicotine give rise to N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a highly abundant, strong carcinogen. NNN is known to exert carcinogenic activity in mice, rats and hamsters. Major target organs for NNN carcinogenicity in the rat are the esophagus and the nasal mucosa, and in the Syrian golden hamster trachea and nasal mucosa. In comparison with the rat, the mink (Mustela vison) has a markedly expanded nasal mucosa. Therefore, we explored in this study whether the mink could serve as a non-rodent model for nasal carcinogenesis using NNN as the carcinogen. Twenty random-bred mink, beginning at the age of 3 weeks, received twice weekly s.c. injections of NNN, a total dose of 11.9 mM per animal over a 38 week period. All of the 19 mink at risk developed malignant tumors of both the respiratory and the olfactory region of the nose within 3.5 years. In most animals the malignant tumors, primarily esthesioneuroepithelioma, invaded the brain. Remarkably, NNN induced no other tumors in the mink. None of the control animals developed nasal tumors nor tumors at other sites during the 3.5 years of the assay. The historical data from the farm did not reveal any spontaneous occurrence of nasal tumors in mink at any age. This study supports the concept that NNN is a proven carcinogen for multiple species of mammals and that the mink can serve as a non-rodent, non-inbred animal model for nasal carcinogenesis, especially since NNN induces only tumors in the nasal cavity in this species and not at other sites, as it does in mice, rats and hamsters.

  14. Accurate characterization of carcinogenic DNA adducts using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Charles A.; Chiu, Norman H. L.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemical carcinogens and their in vivo activated metabolites react readily with genomic DNA, and form covalently bound carcinogen-DNA adducts. Clinically, carcinogen-DNA adducts have been linked to various cancer diseases. Among the current methods for DNA adduct analysis, mass spectroscopic method allows the direct measurement of unlabeled DNA adducts. The goal of this study is to explore the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to determine the identity of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Two of the known carcinogenic DNA adducts, namely N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP) and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), were selected as our models. In MALDI-TOF MS measurements, the small matrix ion and its cluster ions did not interfere with the measurements of both selected dG adducts. To achieve a higher accuracy for the characterization of selected dG adducts, 1 keV collision energy in MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was used to measure the adducts. In comparison to other MS/MS techniques with lower collision energies, more extensive precursor ion dissociations were observed. The detection of the corresponding fragment ions allowed the identities of guanine, PhIP or ABP, and the position of adduction to be confirmed. Some of the fragment ions of dG-C8-PhIP have not been reported by other MS/MS techniques.

  15. Anomaly detection driven active learning for identifying suspicious tracks and events in WAMI video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David J.; Natraj, Aditya; Hockenbury, Ryler; Dunn, Katherine; Sheffler, Michael; Sullivan, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    We describe a comprehensive system for learning to identify suspicious vehicle tracks from wide-area motion (WAMI) video. First, since the road network for the scene of interest is assumed unknown, agglomerative hierarchical clustering is applied to all spatial vehicle measurements, resulting in spatial cells that largely capture individual road segments. Next, for each track, both at the cell (speed, acceleration, azimuth) and track (range, total distance, duration) levels, extreme value feature statistics are both computed and aggregated, to form summary (p-value based) anomaly statistics for each track. Here, to fairly evaluate tracks that travel across different numbers of spatial cells, for each cell-level feature type, a single (most extreme) statistic is chosen, over all cells traveled. Finally, a novel active learning paradigm, applied to a (logistic regression) track classifier, is invoked to learn to distinguish suspicious from merely anomalous tracks, starting from anomaly-ranked track prioritization, with ground-truth labeling by a human operator. This system has been applied to WAMI video data (ARGUS), with the tracks automatically extracted by a system developed in-house at Toyon Research Corporation. Our system gives promising preliminary results in highly ranking as suspicious aerial vehicles, dismounts, and traffic violators, and in learning which features are most indicative of suspicious tracks.

  16. Non-Carcinogenic Replacements for PBNA Antioxidant in PBXN-105 and PBXN- 106 Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    U~3 *y.4~;NWSY TR 801 NON-CARCINOGENIC REPLACEMENTS O ’ ~FOR PBNA ANTIOXIDANT IN PBXN -10.5 AND PBXN - 106 EXPLOSIVESo...... ............. JANUARY 1980... PBXN - 106 Explosive Plastic-Bonded Explosive % ABSSRACT (Continue on reverse olde It neceeeoey end Identify by block number) ’ Explosive mixes of PBXN -105...and PBXN - 106 were prepared using Cyanox 2246 and CAO-14 antioxidants in lieu of phenyl-beta-naphthylamine (PBNA). Specification tests, as well as

  17. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L.; Colegate, Steven M.; Brown, Ammon W.

    2016-01-01

    Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA)-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health. PMID:27916846

  18. Hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution of model and ultimate carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Helmick, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrolysis reaction of the Model Carcinogen O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in aqueous buffer (pH 7.0-10.0) proceeds by was of a nitrenium ion intermediate. The products formed from this process are predominately 2,4-dichloroaniline, and 2-hydroxy-4-chloro-pivalanilide. At pH 10-13 the rate becomes dependent upon hydroxide. The product that is formed is 4-chlorophenylhydroxylamine. 4-Chlorophenyl-hydroxylamine is formed by basic ester hydrolysis determined by an [sup 18]O GC-MS experiment. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in an aqueous diethylamine (pH 11.3) buffer gave 4-chlorophenyl-N,N-diethylhydrazine as the substitution product in a 16% yield. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydroxylamine with diethylamine gave a 1% yield of the hydrazine product. The reaction ofmore » N,N-dimethylanline and aniline with ring-substituted O-pivaloyl-N-arylhydroxylamines in MeOH generates products of nucleophilic attack on the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine derivative. The hydrolysis of the ultimate carcinogen N-(sulfonatooxy)-N-4-aminobiphenyl proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes and generates predominately a product of nucleophilic attack by chloride ion at the ortho position of the aromatic ring. A labile intermediate identified as N-acetypl-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine has been detected by NMR. This intermediate rearranges to form 4-hydroxy-3-phenylacetanilide. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine proceeds by way of two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-methoxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine also proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. Spectroscopic evidence of two diastereomeric intermediates formed from the hydrolysis of the N-benzoyl imines were tentatively identified as N-benzoyl-N-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine.« less

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette sidestream smoke particulates from a Taiwanese brand and their carcinogenic relevance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Ling; Hsieh, Dennis P H; Li, Lih-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed on cigarette sidestream smoke particulates (CSSPs) have been regarded as important contributors to lung carcinogenesis in never smokers. However, limited information is available on PAH levels in cigarette sidestream smoke. Here we determine the concentrations of 22 PAHs, including 16 US EPA priority PAHs, in CSSPs generated from a high market-share domestic brand in Taiwan. Five of the 22 PAHs are undetectable. The remaining 17 PAHs constitute about 0.022% of the total mass of CSSPs. Near one fifth of the PAH mass come from IARC group 1 and group 2 carcinogens. Carcinogenic potency is equivalent to 144 ng benzo[a]pyrene per cigarette converted according to potency equivalency factors (PEFs). The CSSP condensate could activate AhR activity and induce AhR target gene expression. High concentrations of CSSPs also exhibited AhR-independent cytotoxicity. However, mixing the 17 PAHs as the composition in the CSSP condensate could not reconstitute either capacity. Since AhR activation and cytotoxicity are important mechanisms underlying carcinogenic potency, the results suggest that other component compounds play a more active role in carcinogenesis. The approach of individual PAH profiling plus PEF conversion commonly used in risk assessment is likely to underestimate the risk caused by environmental cigarette smoke exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic alterations in spontaneous and carcinogen-induced murine melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Vladislava O; Bolshakov, Svetlana V; Walker, Christopher; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N

    2004-03-25

    We have conducted an analysis of genetic alterations in spontaneous murine melanoma cell line B16F0 and its two metastatic clones, B16F1 and B16F10 and the carcinogen-induced murine melanoma cell lines CM519, CM3205, and K1735. We found that unlike human melanomas, the murine melanoma cell lines did not have activating mutations in the Braf oncogene at exon 11 or 15. However, there were distinct patterns of alterations in the ras, Ink4a/Arf, and p53 genes in the two melanoma groups. In the spontaneous B16 melanoma cell lines, expression of p16Ink4a and p19Arf tumor suppressor proteins was lost as a consequence of a large deletion spanning Ink4a/Arf exons 1alpha, 1beta, and 2. In contrast, the carcinogen-induced melanoma cell lines expressed p16Ink4a but had inactivating mutations in either p19Arf (K1735) or p53 (CM519 and CM3205). Inactivation of p19Arf or p53 in carcinogen-induced melanomas was accompanied by constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and/or mutation-associated activation of N-ras. These results indicate that genetic alterations in p16Ink4a/p19Arf, p53 and ras-MAPK pathways can cooperate in the development of murine melanoma.

  1. Identifying the controls of wildfire activity in Namibia using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, Manuel; Le Roux, Johan; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    Despite large areas of Namibia being unaffected by fires due to aridity, substantial burning in the northern and north-eastern parts of the country is observed every year. Within the fire-affected regions, a strong spatial and inter-annual variability characterizes the dry-season fire situation. In order to understand these patterns, it appears critical to identify the causative factors behind fire occurrence and to examine their interactions in detail. Furthermore, most studies dealing with causative factor examination focus either on the local or the regional scale. However, these scales seem to be inappropriate from a management perspective, as fire-related strategic action plans are most often set up nationwide. Here, we will present an examination of the fire regimes of Namibia based on a dataset conducted by Le Roux (2011). A decade-spanning fire record (1994-2003) derived from NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery was used to generate four fire regime metrics (Burned Area, Fire Season Length, Month of Peak Fire Season, and Fire Return Period) and quantitative information on vegetation and phenology derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series. Further variables contained by this dataset are related to climate, biodiversity, and human activities. Le Roux (2011) analyzed the correlations between the fire metrics mentioned above and the predictor variables. We hypothesize that linear correlations (as estimated by correlation coefficients) simplify the interactions between response and predictor variables. For instance, moderate population densities could induce the highest number of fires, whereas the complete absence of humans lacks one major source of ignition. Around highly populated areas, in contrary, fuels are usually reduced and space is more fragmented - thus, the initiation and spread of a potential fire could as well be inhibited. From a total of over 40 explanatory variables, we will initially use

  2. Identifying and assessing views among physically-active adult gym members in Israel on dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Druker, Inbal; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Sports dietary supplements are available for sale in public places including sports clubs. Although there is uncertainty regarding their safety, many gym members who regularly work out consume them. The present study aimed to identify the approaches and perspectives of the public who work out in gyms and take dietary supplements. It examined how professionals view sports dietary supplement consumption, and how they communicate this issue to gym members. The literature discusses the prevalence of SDS use among athletes, but rarely discusses or compares between the risk perceptions of gym members, trainers, and dietitians, who represent the physically-active general public, regarding SDS. We conducted constructivist qualitative research in semi-structured one-on-one interviews ( n  = 34). We held in-depth interviews ( n  = 20) with a heterogeneous population of adult gym members who take dietary supplements, and ( n  = 14) with dietitians and fitness trainers. The main finding was a gap in risk perception of dietary supplement use between dietitians, gym members and fitness trainers. There was low risk perception among dietary supplements consumers. Trainers believed that benefits of supplement consumption exceeded risk, and therefore they did not convey a message to their clients about risk. In contrast, dietitians interviewed for this study renounced general use of sports dietary supplements and doubted whether trainers had proper nutritional knowledge to support it. Lack of awareness of risks suggests that there is a need for communication on this issue. We recommend that professionals (physicians and dietitians) be present in sports clubs that sell such products in an uncontrolled way.

  3. Reductive Detoxication of Arylhydroxylamine Carcinogens by Human NADH Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Joseph R.; Chin, Nathaniel A.; Longlais, Brett J.; Hayes, Kristie L.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2008-01-01

    Heterocyclic and aromatic amine carcinogens are thought to lead to tumor initiation via the formation of DNA adducts, and bioactivation to arylhydroxylamine metabolites is necessary for reactivity with DNA. Carcinogenic arylhydroxylamine metabolites are cleared by a microsomal, NADH-dependent, oxygen-insensitive reduction pathway in humans, which may be a source of inter-individual variability in response to aromatic amine carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the identity of this reduction pathway in human liver. Based on our findings with structurally similar arylhydroxylamine metabolites of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesized that the reductive detoxication of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens was catalyzed by NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5). We found that reduction of the carcinogenic hydroxylamines of the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP; found in cigarette smoke) and the heterocyclic amine 2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP; found in grilled meats) was indeed catalyzed by a purified system containing only human b5R and cyt b5. Specific activities were 56 to 346-fold higher in the purified system compared to human liver microsomes (HLM), with similar Michaelis-Menten constants (Km values) in both systems. The stoichiometry for b5R and cyt b5 that yielded the highest activity in the purified system was also similar to that found in native HLM (∼1:8 to 1:10). Polyclonal antisera to either b5R or cyt b5 significantly inhibited N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (NHOH-4-ABP) reduction by 95 and 89%, respectively, and immunoreactive cyt b5 protein content in individual HLM was significantly correlated with individual reduction of both NHOH-4-ABP and N-hydroxy-PhIP (NHOH-PhIP). Finally, titration of HLM into the purified b5R/cyt b5 system did not enhance the efficiency of reduction activity. We conclude that b5R and cyt b5 are together solely capable of the reduction of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens

  4. Activity of Posaconazole and Other Antifungal Agents against Mucorales Strains Identified by Sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacers▿

    PubMed Central

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of Mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. MICs obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. Amphotericin B was the most active agent against all isolates, except for Cunninghamella and Apophysomyces isolates. Posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but Cunninghamella bertholletiae. Voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. Terbinafine showed good activity, except for Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, and Rhizomucor variabilis isolates. PMID:19171801

  5. Activity of posaconazole and other antifungal agents against Mucorales strains identified by sequencing of internal transcribed spacers.

    PubMed

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2009-04-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of Mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. MICs obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. Amphotericin B was the most active agent against all isolates, except for Cunninghamella and Apophysomyces isolates. Posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but Cunninghamella bertholletiae. Voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. Terbinafine showed good activity, except for Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, and Rhizomucor variabilis isolates.

  6. Clinical and biochemical studies support smokeless tobacco’s carcinogenic potential in the human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mallery, Susan R.; Tong, Meng; Michaels, Gregory C.; Kiyani, Amber R.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, International Agency for Cancer Research presented compelling evidence that linked smokeless tobacco use to the development of human oral cancer. While these findings imply vigorous local carcinogen metabolism, little is known regarding levels and distribution of Phase I, II and drug egress enzymes in human oral mucosa. In the study presented here, we integrated clinical data, imaging and histopathologic analyses of an oral squamous cell carcinoma that arose at the site of smokeless tobacco quid placement in a patient. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were employed to identify tumor and normal human oral mucosal smokeless tobacco-associated metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes. Human oral epithelium contains every known Phase I enzyme associated with nitrosamine oxidative bioactivation with ~2 fold inter-donor differences in protein levels. Previous studies have confirmed ~3.5 fold inter-donor variations in intraepithelial Phase II enzymes. Unlike the superficially located enzymes in non-replicating esophageal surface epithelium, IHC studies confirmed oral mucosal nitrosamine metabolizing enzymes reside in the basilar and suprabasilar region which notably is the site of ongoing keratinocyte DNA replication. Clearly, variations in product composition, nitrosamine metabolism and exposure duration will modulate clinical outcomes. The data presented here form a coherent picture consistent with the abundant experimental data that links tobacco-specific nitrosamines to human oral cancer. PMID:24265177

  7. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    PubMed

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  8. Chemical carcinogens and inhibitors of carcinogenesis in the human diet

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of cancer by chemicals as presently understood involves a series of steps, some of which require the passage of time. Many substances that are potent carcinogens in experimental animals are known to exist in nature and occur as part of the human diet. In addition, many of the substances that are known to inhibit experimental carcinogenesis also exist in the human diet. Thus, in addition to industrially produced carcinogens, humans can be presumed to have evolved in an environment that contains both carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. There is also a great deal of experimental and human epidemiologic data onmore » the influence of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates on cancer incidence rates; however, much of those data are confusing and conflicting.« less

  9. RESPIRATORY CARCINOGENICITY OF DIESEL FUEL EMISSIONS. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experiment was carried out to compare the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust particles (administered by fifteen weekly intratracheal instillations) to that of organic extracts of diesel particles, coke oven emissions, roofing tar condensate and cigarette smoke condensate. Appro...

  10. Carcinogenic N-Nitrosamines. Formation, Properties, and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukovskii, Ya L.; Melamed, D. B.

    1988-04-01

    Literature data on the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the environment, their physicochemical properties, their action on the human organism, the methods for their microanalysis, and also their content in the atmosphere, water sources, soil, and industrial agricultural and food products are described systematically and surveyed. The principal features of this comparatively new class of powerful chemical carcinogens are indicated. The bibliography includes 284 references.

  11. Hexavalent chrome: threshold concept for carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E

    1990-03-01

    Certain hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) compounds when administered via inhalation at high doses have the potential to induce lung tumors in humans and experimental animals. Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential human and animal nutrient at levels of 50 to 200 micrograms/day. Recent data have shown that the human body is able to reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+. This reduction occurs in bodily fluids such as gastric juice, epithelial lining fluid of the respiratory tract, blood, and other fluids. Secondary reduction occurs at the cellular level by the cytosol, mitochondria, and microsomes. Thus, at low levels of exposure hexavalent chromium ions are reduced before the 6+ ions can interact with DNA unless the dose is sufficient to overwhelm the body's reduction capacity. This paper summarizes the available data concerning the reducing ability of the body and formulates the steps in the mechanism of cancer induction. These steps include: (1) only certain Cr6+ compounds have the capacity to interact with cellular components; (2) Cr6+ is reduced by body fluids and excess Cr6+ enters the cell (Cr3+ is poorly absorbed across membranes); (3) cellular organelles and the cytoplasm reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+; (4) excess Cr6+ can enter the nucleus; (5) Cr6+ reduction through 5+ and 4+ to 3+ has a potential to interact with the DNA molecule; and (6) if unrepaired, this DNA damage can lead to cancer induction. On the basis of current evidence Cr6+ has a threshold for carcinogenic potential in humans that is greater than the current TLV.

  12. Involvement in Extracurricular Activities: Identifying Differences in Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; McMahon, Susan D.; Cohen, Jonathan; Thapa, Amrit

    2016-01-01

    Many youth participate in extracurricular activities, and research has linked activity participation with school engagement and academic success. Social-ecological theory suggests that the social contexts of different types of extracurricular activities may differentially affect student outcomes. Yet, there is scant research examining the relation…

  13. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-04-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals andmore » ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens.« less

  14. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. © 2013.

  15. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  16. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  17. Cell transformation assays for prediction of carcinogenic potential: state of the science and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Creton, Stuart; Aardema, Marilyn J.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Harvey, James S.; Martin, Francis L.; Newbold, Robert F.; O’Donovan, Michael R.; Pant, Kamala; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Scott, Andrew D.; Schechtman, Leonard M.; Shen, Rhine R.; Tanaka, Noriho; Yasaei, Hemad

    2012-01-01

    Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of understanding of the mechanistic basis of the assays has limited their acceptance for regulatory purposes. However, recent drivers to find alternative carcinogenicity assessment methodologies, such as the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive, have fuelled renewed interest in CTAs. Research is currently ongoing to improve the objectivity of the assays, reveal the underlying molecular changes leading to transformation and explore the use of novel cell types. The UK NC3Rs held an international workshop in November 2010 to review the current state of the art in this field and provide directions for future research. This paper outlines the key points highlighted at this meeting. PMID:21852270

  18. 30 CFR 285.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protect essential fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation... fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act? (a) If, during the conduct of your approved activities, MMS finds that essential fish habitat or...

  19. Molecular mechanism of metal-independent decomposition of lipid hydroperoxide 13-HPODE by halogenated quinoid carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hao; Huang, Chun-Hua; Mao, Li; Xia, Hai-Ying; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Shao, Jie; Shan, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2013-10-01

    Halogenated quinones are a class of carcinogenic intermediates and newly identified chlorination disinfection by-products in drinking water. 13-Hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) is the most extensively studied endogenous lipid hydroperoxide. Although it is well known that the decomposition of 13-HPODE can be catalyzed by transition metal ions, it is not clear whether halogenated quinones could enhance its decomposition independent of metal ions and, if so, what the unique characteristics and similarities are. Here we show that 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ) could markedly enhance the decomposition of 13-HPODE and formation of reactive lipid alkyl radicals such as pentyl and 7-carboxyheptyl radicals, and the genotoxic 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), through the complementary application of ESR spin trapping, HPLC-MS, and GC-MS methods. Interestingly, two chloroquinone-lipid alkoxyl conjugates were also detected and identified from the reaction between DCBQ and 13-HPODE. Analogous results were observed with other halogenated quinones. This represents the first report that halogenated quinoid carcinogens can enhance the decomposition of the endogenous lipid hydroperoxide 13-HPODE and formation of reactive lipid alkyl radicals and genotoxic HNE via a novel metal-independent nucleophilic substitution coupled with homolytic decomposition mechanism, which may partly explain their potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of thyroid C-cell carcinogenicity after chronic administration of GLP1-R agonists in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Willem van den; Emerenciana, Annette

    Increased incidence of C-cell carcinogenicity has been observed for glucagon-like-protein-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists in rodents. It is suggested that the duration of exposure is an indicator of carcinogenic potential in rodents of the different products on the market. Furthermore, the role of GLP-1-related mechanisms in the induction of C-cell carcinogenicity has gained increased attention by regulatory agencies. This study proposes an integrative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) framework to identify explanatory factors and characterize differences in carcinogenic potential of the GLP-1r agonist products. PK models for four products (exenatide QW (once weekly), exenatide BID (twice daily), liraglutide and lixisenatide) were developed using nonlinearmore » mixed effects modelling. Predicted exposure was subsequently linked to GLP-1r stimulation using in vitro GLP-1r potency data. A logistic regression model was then applied to exenatide QW and liraglutide data to assess the relationship between GLP-1r stimulation and thyroid C-cell hyperplasia incidence as pre-neoplastic predictor of a carcinogenic response. The model showed a significant association between predicted GLP-1r stimulation and C-cell hyperplasia after 2 years of treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated using lixisenatide, for which hyperplasia data were accurately described during the validation step. The use of a model-based approach provided insight into the relationship between C-cell hyperplasia and GLP-1r stimulation for all four products, which is not possible with traditional data analysis methods. It can be concluded that both pharmacokinetics (exposure) and pharmacodynamics (potency for GLP-1r) factors determine C-cell hyperplasia incidence in rodents. Our work highlights the pharmacological basis for GLP-1r agonist-induced C-cell carcinogenicity. The concept is promising for application to other drug classes. - Highlights: • An integrative PKPD model is

  1. Validity of consumer-grade activity monitor to identify manual wheelchair propulsion in standardized activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Leving, Marika T; Horemans, Henricus L D; Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2018-01-01

    Hypoactive lifestyle contributes to the development of secondary complications and lower quality of life in wheelchair users. There is a need for objective and user-friendly physical activity monitors for wheelchair-dependent individuals in order to increase physical activity through self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback provision. To determine the validity of Activ8 Activity Monitors to 1) distinguish two classes of activities: independent wheelchair propulsion from other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities 2) distinguish five wheelchair-related classes of activities differing by the movement intensity level: sitting in a wheelchair (hands may be moving but wheelchair remains stationary), maneuvering, and normal, high speed or assisted wheelchair propulsion. Sixteen able-bodied individuals performed sixteen various standardized 60s-activities of daily living. Each participant was equipped with a set of two Activ8 Professional Activity Monitors, one at the right forearm and one at the right wheel. Task classification by the Active8 Monitors was validated using video recordings. For the overall agreement, sensitivity and positive predictive value, outcomes above 90% are considered excellent, between 70 and 90% good, and below 70% unsatisfactory. Division in two classes resulted in overall agreement of 82.1%, sensitivity of 77.7% and positive predictive value of 78.2%. 84.5% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Division in five classes resulted in overall agreement of 56.6%, sensitivity of 52.8% and positive predictive value of 51.9%. 59.8% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Activ8 system proved to be suitable for distinguishing between active wheelchair propulsion and other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities. The ability of the current system and algorithms to distinguish five various wheelchair-related activities

  2. Validity of consumer-grade activity monitor to identify manual wheelchair propulsion in standardized activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Horemans, Henricus L. D.; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; de Groot, Sonja; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2018-01-01

    Background Hypoactive lifestyle contributes to the development of secondary complications and lower quality of life in wheelchair users. There is a need for objective and user-friendly physical activity monitors for wheelchair-dependent individuals in order to increase physical activity through self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback provision. Objective To determine the validity of Activ8 Activity Monitors to 1) distinguish two classes of activities: independent wheelchair propulsion from other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities 2) distinguish five wheelchair-related classes of activities differing by the movement intensity level: sitting in a wheelchair (hands may be moving but wheelchair remains stationary), maneuvering, and normal, high speed or assisted wheelchair propulsion. Methods Sixteen able-bodied individuals performed sixteen various standardized 60s-activities of daily living. Each participant was equipped with a set of two Activ8 Professional Activity Monitors, one at the right forearm and one at the right wheel. Task classification by the Active8 Monitors was validated using video recordings. For the overall agreement, sensitivity and positive predictive value, outcomes above 90% are considered excellent, between 70 and 90% good, and below 70% unsatisfactory. Results Division in two classes resulted in overall agreement of 82.1%, sensitivity of 77.7% and positive predictive value of 78.2%. 84.5% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Division in five classes resulted in overall agreement of 56.6%, sensitivity of 52.8% and positive predictive value of 51.9%. 59.8% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Conclusions Activ8 system proved to be suitable for distinguishing between active wheelchair propulsion and other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities. The ability of the current system and algorithms to

  3. Identifying factors of activities of daily living important for cost and caregiver outcomes in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Reed, Catherine; Belger, Mark; Vellas, Bruno; Andrews, Jeffrey Scott; Argimon, Josep M; Bruno, Giuseppe; Dodel, Richard; Jones, Roy W; Wimo, Anders; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to obtain a better understanding of how different aspects of patient functioning affect key cost and caregiver outcomes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Baseline data from a prospective observational study of community-living AD patients (GERAS) were used. Functioning was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Scale. Generalized linear models were conducted to analyze the relationship between scores for total activities of daily living (ADL), basic ADL (BADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), ADL subdomains (confirmed through factor analysis) and individual ADL questions, and total societal costs, patient healthcare and social care costs, total and supervision caregiver time, and caregiver burden. Four distinct ADL subdomains were confirmed: basic activities, domestic/household activities, communication, and outside activities. Higher total societal costs were associated with impairments in all aspects of ADL, including all subdomains; patient costs were associated with total ADL and BADL, and basic activities subdomain scores. Both total and supervision caregiver hours were associated with total ADL and IADL scores, and domestic/household and outside activities subdomain scores (greater hours associated with greater functional impairments). There was no association between caregiver burden and BADL or basic activities subdomain scores. The relationship between total ADL, IADL, and the outside activities subdomain and outcomes differed between patients with mild and moderate-to-severe AD. Identification of ADL subdomains may lead to a better understanding of the association between patient function and costs and caregiver outcomes at different stages of AD, in particular the outside activities subdomain within mild AD.

  4. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  5. Use of in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis for identification of organ-specific carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Furihata, C.; Matsushima, T.

    1987-01-01

    There are still only a few in vivo short-term assay methods for predicting potential organ-specific carcinogens and mutagens in mammals, although such methods are required for evaluating the in vivo effects of in vitro mutagens. In the in vivo/in vitro UDS assay methods described here, chemicals are given to experimental animals and induction of UDS in target organs is determined by in vitro organ culture or primary cell culture in the presence of (/sup 3/H)dThd. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)dThd into DNA is measured with a liquid scintillation counter or by autoradiography. These methods have now been applied to the glandularmore » stomach, forestomach, colon, liver, kidney, pancreas, tracheal epithelium, nasal epithelium, and spermatocytes. With minor modifications, they may also be applied to other organs. The present review shows that induction of UDS in various organs correlated well with the induction of cancer in these organs. The present authors have used the present methods to identify some potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals. The present authors found that three dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, induced apparent UDS and TDS in the glandular stomach, and other groups found that 2-NT, MA6BT, and CNEt6BT induced UDS in the liver. These in vivo/in vitro UDS assays are better than in vitro UDS assay for identification of potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals and are especially useful for identifying potential mutagens and carcinogens that are specific for certain organs, such as the stomach, liver, and kidney. They are also useful for examining the potential mutagenicities and carcinogenicities of carcinogen analogs. However, these methods are not suitable for general in vivo screening because they are not yet available for all organs. 113 references.« less

  6. Evidence of carcinogenicity in humans of water-soluble nickel salts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased risks of nasal cancer and lung cancer in nickel refiners have been investigated scientifically and discussed since they were detected in the 1930s. Nickel compounds are considered to be the main cause of the cancer excess. Parts of the nickel producing industry and their consultants oppose the classification of water-soluble nickel salts as human carcinogens, and argue that the risk in exposed workers should be ascribed to other occupational exposures and smoking. Discussion Respiratory cancer risks in Welsh, Finnish, and Norwegian nickel refiners add to the evidence of carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel. In Norwegian refiners, the first epidemiological study in 1973 identified high risks of lung cancer and nasal cancer among long-term electrolysis workers. Risk analyses based on exposure estimates developed in the 1980s supported the view that water-soluble nickel compounds were central in the development of cancer. Recently, new exposure estimates were worked out for the same cohort based on personal monitoring of total nickel and chemical determination of four forms of nickel. Additional data have been collected on life-time smoking habits, and on exposure to arsenic, asbestos, sulphuric acid mists, cobalt, and occupational lung carcinogens outside the refinery. After adjustment for these potential confounding exposures in case-control analyses, the risk pattern added to the evidence of an important role of water-soluble nickel compounds as causes of lung cancer. These Norwegian cancer studies rely on national Cancer Registry data, considered close to complete from 1953 onwards; and on National Population Register data continuously updated with mortality and emigration. Canadian mortality studies--perceived to offer the strongest support to the industry position not to recognise carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel--appear to suffer from limitations in follow-up time, loss to follow-up, absence of risk analysis with individual

  7. Focusing on Teacher Learning Opportunities to Identify Potentially Productive Coaching Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Instructional improvement initiatives in many districts include instructional coaching as a primary form of job-embedded support for teachers. However, the coaching literature provides little guidance about what activities coaches should engage in with teachers to improve instruction. When researchers do propose activities, they rarely justify why…

  8. Identifying Beneficial Physical Activity during School Recess: Utility and Feasibility of the Fitbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the utility, feasibility, and reliability of Fitbit accelerometers to measure physical activity (via steps) of 15 young children simultaneously during recess. Fitbit-recorded steps per minute (SPM) were used as the primary measure to assess levels of activity in children playing in various structured…

  9. Identifying the Barriers and Facilitators to Participation in Physical Activity for Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, M.; Shields, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many children with Down syndrome do not undertake the recommended amount of daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to physical activity for this group. Methods: Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents (16 mothers, 4 fathers) of children with Down syndrome aged…

  10. Identifying the Active Surfaces of Electrochemically Tuned LiCoO 2 for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Zhiyi; Chen, Guangxu; Li, Yanbin; ...

    2017-04-18

    Identification of active sites for catalytic processes has both fundamental and technological implications for rational design of future catalysts. Herein, we study the active surfaces of layered lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) using the enhancement effect of electrochemical delithiation (De-LCO). Our theoretical results indicate that the most stable (0001) surface has a very large overpotential for OER independent of lithium content. In contrast, edge sites such as the nonpolar (1120) and polar (0112) surfaces are predicted to be highly active and dependent on (de)lithiation. The effect of lithium extraction from LCO on the surfaces andmore » their OER activities can be understood by the increase of Co 4+ sites relative to Co 3+ and by the shift of active oxygen 2p states. Experimentally, it is demonstrated that LCO nanosheets, which dominantly expose the (0001) surface show negligible OER enhancement upon delithiation. However, a noticeable increase in OER activity (~0.1 V in overpotential shift at 10 mA cm –2) is observed for the LCO nanoparticles, where the basal plane is greatly diminished to expose the edge sites, consistent with the theoretical simulations. In addition, we find that the OER activity of De-LCO nanosheets can be improved if we adopt an acid etching method on LCO to create more active edge sites, which in turn provides a strong evidence for the theoretical indication.« less

  11. Postural transitions during activities of daily living could identify frailty status – Application of wearable technology to identify frailty during unsupervised condition

    PubMed Central

    Parvaneh, Saman; Mohler, Jane; Toosizadeh, Nima; Grewal, Gurtej Singh; Najafi, Bijan

    2017-01-01

    Background Impairment of physical function is a major indicator of frailty. Functional performance tests have been shown to be useful for identification of frailty in older adults. However, these tests are often not translatable into unsupervised and remote monitoring of frailty status at home and/or community settings. Objective In this study, we explored daily postural transition quantified using a chest-worn wearable technology to identify frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Spontaneous daily physical activity was monitored over 24 hours in 120 community dwelling (age: 78±8 years) using an unobtrusive wearable sensor (PAMSys™, Biosensics LLC). Participants were classified as non-frail and pre-frail/frail using Fried’s criteria. A validated software was used to identify body postures and postural transition between each independent postural activities such as sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand. Transition from walking to sitting was further classified as quick-sitting and cautious-sitting based on presence/absence of a standing-posture pause between sitting and walking. General linear model univariate test was used for between groups comparison. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the association between sensor-derived parameters with age. Logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictors of frailty. Results According to Fried’s criteria, 63% of participants were pre-frail/frail. The total number of postural transitions, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand were, respectively, 25.2%, 30.2%, and 30.6% lower in the pre-frail/frail group when compared to non-frails (p<0.05, Cohen’s d=0.73–0.79). Furthermore, ratio of cautious-sitting was significantly higher by 6.2% in pre-frail/frail compared to non-frail (p=0.025, Cohen’s d=0.22). Total number of postural transitions and ratio of cautious-sitting also showed significant negative and positive correlations with age, respectively (r=-0

  12. Carcinogenicity of benzyl chloride, benzal chloride, benzotrichloride and benzoyl chloride in mice by skin application.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Matsushita, H; Sakabe, H; Takemoto, K

    1981-10-01

    The carcinogenicity of benzyl chloride (BYC), benzal chloride (BAC), benzotrichloride (BTC) and benzoyl chloride (BOC), which were suspected as causative agents of lung cancer and maxillary malignant lymphoma of workers employed in factories producing BOC, was examined by skin applications in female ICR mice. After rather high dose exposure, BTC exhibited leukemogenic and pulmonary tumorigenic activities as well as potent dermal carcinogenic activity. After administration of the chemicals at the dose of 2.3 microliter/animal, twice a week for 50 weeks, BTC induced 68% incidence of skin cancers and 58% incidence of pulmonary tumors (including 10% of lung carcinomas) within 399 days. Incidence of skin cancers was 58% for BAC, 15% for BYC and 10% for BOC within 560 days. Considering the extent of possible exposure of the workers to these chemicals in the working environment and the carcinogenic potency of the chemicals tested, it can be concluded that BTC was very probably responsible for causing the cancers seen int he workers employed in manufacturing BOC.

  13. A Path Analysis to Identify the Psychosocial Factors Influencing Physical Activity and Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify pathways used by psychosocial factors to influence physical activity and bone health in middle-school girls. Methods Baseline data from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study collected in 2001 to 2003 were used. IMPACT was a 1 1/2 years nutrition and physical activity intervention study designed to improve bone density in 717 middle-school girls in Texas. Structural Equations Modeling was used to examine the interrelationships and identify the direct and indirect pathways used by various psychosocial and environmental factors to influence physical activity and bone health. Results Results show that physical activity self-efficacy and social support (friend, family engagement, and encouragement in physical activity) had a significant direct and indirect influence on physical activity with participation in sports teams as the mediator. Participation in sports teams had a direct effect on both physical activity (β= 0.20, P < .05) and bone health and (β=0.13, P < .05). Conclusion The current study identified several direct and indirect pathways that psychosocial factors use to influence physical activity and bone health among adolescent girls. These findings are critical for the development of effective interventions for promoting bone health in this population. PMID:19953837

  14. A path analysis to identify the psychosocial factors influencing physical activity and bone health in middle-school girls.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela V; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H; Diamond, Pamela M; Day, R Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert C

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify pathways used by psychosocial factors to influence physical activity and bone health in middle-school girls. Baseline data from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study collected in 2001 to 2003 were used. IMPACT was a 1 1/2 years nutrition and physical activity intervention study designed to improve bone density in 717 middle-school girls in Texas. Structural Equations Modeling was used to examine the interrelationships and identify the direct and indirect pathways used by various psychosocial and environmental factors to influence physical activity and bone health. Results show that physical activity self-efficacy and social support (friend, family engagement, and encouragement in physical activity) had a significant direct and indirect influence on physical activity with participation in sports teams as the mediator. Participation in sports teams had a direct effect on both physical activity (beta = 0.20, P < .05) and bone health and (beta = 0.13, P < .05). The current study identified several direct and indirect pathways that psychosocial factors use to influence physical activity and bone health among adolescent girls. These findings are critical for the development of effective interventions for promoting bone health in this population.

  15. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  16. Periodic colonic motor activity identified by 24-h pancolonic ambulatory manometry in humans.

    PubMed

    Hagger, R; Kumar, Devinder; Benson, M; Grundy, A

    2002-06-01

    The pattern of colonic motor activity in healthy humans has not been fully elucidated to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate colorectal motor activity employing 24-h ambulant pancolonic manometry. Ten healthy volunteers (6F, 4M), aged 19-31 years were studied. Motor activity was measured using two custom-made silicone coated catheters, each with five solid-state pressure transducers. No bowel preparation or sedation was used. The study period was 24 h. A total of 232 h of recording was obtained. Sixty-three high amplitude propagated contractions were observed, median six per 24-h period. Low-amplitude colonic contractile activity showed regional and diurnal variations. Frequency of contraction was highest in the right colon [median 5.26 cpm (cycles per minute)], and transverse colon and splenic flexure (median 5.15 cpm). The interval between colonic motor complexes was shortest in the transverse colon and splenic flexure. This study introduces a new technique for the evaluation of colorectal motor activity. Subjects were studied in an ambulant setting in their own environment ensuring that this method of study is as physiological as possible. This study demonstrates that colonic motor activity has two main components: high amplitude propagated contractions and low amplitude colonic contractile activity.

  17. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  18. Pathogenic role of the eight probably/possibly carcinogenic HPV types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Halec, Gordana; Alemany, Laia; Lloveras, Belen; Schmitt, Markus; Alejo, Maria; Bosch, Franz X; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Guimerà, Nuria; Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Gissmann, Lutz; Quint, Wim; Bosch, Francesc X; de Sanjose, Silvia; Pawlita, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Eight HPV types (HPV26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82) that are phylogenetically closely related to 12 WHO-defined high-risk (HR) HPV have been rarely but consistently identified as single HPV infections in about 3% of cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues. Due to lack of biological data, these types are referred to as probable/possible (p) HR-HPV. To analyse their biological activity in direct comparison to HR-HPV types, we selected 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CxCa tissues harbouring single pHR-HPV infections (2-13 cases per type) and 266 tissues harbouring single HR-HPV (7-40 cases per type) from a worldwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Single HPV infection was verified by two genotyping methods. Presence of type-specific spliced E6*I mRNA transcripts and expression of cellular proteins indicative of HPV transformation were assessed in all cases. In 55 CxCa tissues with pHR-HPV, E6*I mRNA expression was 100%; high p16(INK4a) , 98%; low pRb, 96%; low CyD1, 93%; and low p53, 84%. Compared to HPV16 tissues as a reference, individual frequencies of these five markers did not differ significantly, either for any of the eight pHR-HPV and the 11 other HR types individually or for the groups of pHR and HR types without HPV16. We conclude that the eight pHR-HPV types, when present as a single infection in CxCa, are biologically active and affect the same cellular pathways as any of the fully recognized carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Therefore we have provided molecular evidence of carcinogenicity for types currently classified as probably/possibly carcinogenic. Although this evidence is crucial for HPV-type carcinogenicity classification, per se it is not sufficient for inclusion of these HPV types into population-wide primary and secondary prevention programmes. Such decisions have to include careful estimation of effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  19. Identifying Active Travel Behaviors in Challenging Environments Using GPS, Accelerometers, and Machine Learning Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Katherine; Godbole, Suneeta; Marshall, Simon; Lanckriet, Gert; Staudenmayer, John; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel is an important area in physical activity research, but objective measurement of active travel is still difficult. Automated methods to measure travel behaviors will improve research in this area. In this paper, we present a supervised machine learning method for transportation mode prediction from global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data. Methods: We collected a dataset of about 150 h of GPS and accelerometer data from two research assistants following a protocol of prescribed trips consisting of five activities: bicycling, riding in a vehicle, walking, sitting, and standing. We extracted 49 features from 1-min windows of this data. We compared the performance of several machine learning algorithms and chose a random forest algorithm to classify the transportation mode. We used a moving average output filter to smooth the output predictions over time. Results: The random forest algorithm achieved 89.8% cross-validated accuracy on this dataset. Adding the moving average filter to smooth output predictions increased the cross-validated accuracy to 91.9%. Conclusion: Machine learning methods are a viable approach for automating measurement of active travel, particularly for measuring travel activities that traditional accelerometer data processing methods misclassify, such as bicycling and vehicle travel. PMID:24795875

  20. Identifying typical physical activity on smartphone with varying positions and orientations.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; He, Yi; Liu, Jinlei; Li, Ye; Ayoola, Idowu

    2015-04-13

    Traditional activity recognition solutions are not widely applicable due to a high cost and inconvenience to use with numerous sensors. This paper aims to automatically recognize physical activity with the help of the built-in sensors of the widespread smartphone without any limitation of firm attachment to the human body. By introducing a method to judge whether the phone is in a pocket, we investigated the data collected from six positions of seven subjects, chose five signals that are insensitive to orientation for activity classification. Decision trees (J48), Naive Bayes and Sequential minimal optimization (SMO) were employed to recognize five activities: static, walking, running, walking upstairs and walking downstairs. The experimental results based on 8,097 activity data demonstrated that the J48 classifier produced the best performance with an average recognition accuracy of 89.6% during the three classifiers, and thus would serve as the optimal online classifier. The utilization of the built-in sensors of the smartphone to recognize typical physical activities without any limitation of firm attachment is feasible.

  1. Identifying Active Travel Behaviors in Challenging Environments Using GPS, Accelerometers, and Machine Learning Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katherine; Godbole, Suneeta; Marshall, Simon; Lanckriet, Gert; Staudenmayer, John; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Active travel is an important area in physical activity research, but objective measurement of active travel is still difficult. Automated methods to measure travel behaviors will improve research in this area. In this paper, we present a supervised machine learning method for transportation mode prediction from global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data. We collected a dataset of about 150 h of GPS and accelerometer data from two research assistants following a protocol of prescribed trips consisting of five activities: bicycling, riding in a vehicle, walking, sitting, and standing. We extracted 49 features from 1-min windows of this data. We compared the performance of several machine learning algorithms and chose a random forest algorithm to classify the transportation mode. We used a moving average output filter to smooth the output predictions over time. The random forest algorithm achieved 89.8% cross-validated accuracy on this dataset. Adding the moving average filter to smooth output predictions increased the cross-validated accuracy to 91.9%. Machine learning methods are a viable approach for automating measurement of active travel, particularly for measuring travel activities that traditional accelerometer data processing methods misclassify, such as bicycling and vehicle travel.

  2. Generalized query-based active learning to identify differentially methylated regions in DNA.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Muksitul; Holder, Lawrence B; Skinner, Michael K; Cook, Diane J

    2013-01-01

    Active learning is a supervised learning technique that reduces the number of examples required for building a successful classifier, because it can choose the data it learns from. This technique holds promise for many biological domains in which classified examples are expensive and time-consuming to obtain. Most traditional active learning methods ask very specific queries to the Oracle (e.g., a human expert) to label an unlabeled example. The example may consist of numerous features, many of which are irrelevant. Removing such features will create a shorter query with only relevant features, and it will be easier for the Oracle to answer. We propose a generalized query-based active learning (GQAL) approach that constructs generalized queries based on multiple instances. By constructing appropriately generalized queries, we can achieve higher accuracy compared to traditional active learning methods. We apply our active learning method to find differentially DNA methylated regions (DMRs). DMRs are DNA locations in the genome that are known to be involved in tissue differentiation, epigenetic regulation, and disease. We also apply our method on 13 other data sets and show that our method is better than another popular active learning technique.

  3. Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

    2012-06-01

    The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed.

  4. Towards a harmonized approach for risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    The EU Scientific Committees have considered in the past the use of matematical models for human cancer risk estimation not adequately supported by the available scientific knowledge. Therefore, the advice given to risk managers was to reduce the exposure as far as possible, following the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle. However, ALARA does not allow to set priorities for risk management, as it does not take into consideration carcinogenic potency and level of human exposure. For this reason the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has identified as a priority task the development of a transparent, scientically justifiable and harmonized approach for risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens. This approach, proposed at the end of 2005, is based on the definition of the (MOE), i.e. the relationship between a given point of the dose reponse curve in the animal and human exposure. As point of comparison EFSA recommends the BMDL10, i.e. the lower limit of the confidence interval of the Benchmark Dose associated with an incidence of 10% of induced tumors. Based on current scientific knowkedge, EFSA concluded that a MOE of 10000 or greater is associated with a low risk and low priority for risk management actions. The approach proposed does not replace the ALARA. It should find application on food contaminants, process by-product, and other substances unintentionally present in food. On the other hand, it is not intended to provide a tool for the definition of tolerable intake levels for genotoxic carcinogens deliberately added to food.

  5. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal−bacterial consortia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A.; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Woyke, Tanja; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probe the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of >16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia. This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought. PMID:27357680

  6. Identifying key features of effective active learning: the effects of writing and peer discussion.

    PubMed

    Linton, Debra L; Pangle, Wiline M; Wyatt, Kevin H; Powell, Karli N; Sherwood, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. © 2014 D. L. Linton et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal-bacterial consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A.; Goudeau, Danielle

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probemore » the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of > 16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia. This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought.« less

  8. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal-bacterial consortia

    DOE PAGES

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A.; Goudeau, Danielle; ...

    2016-06-28

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probemore » the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of > 16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia. This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought.« less

  9. Network-Based Methods for Identifying Key Active Proteins in the Extracellular Electron Transfer Process in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dewu; Sun, Xiao

    2018-01-16

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can transfer electrons from the intracellular environment to the extracellular space of the cells to reduce the extracellular insoluble electron acceptors (Extracellular Electron Transfer, EET). Benefiting from this EET capability, Shewanella has been widely used in different areas, such as energy production, wastewater treatment, and bioremediation. Genome-wide proteomics data was used to determine the active proteins involved in activating the EET process. We identified 1012 proteins with decreased expression and 811 proteins with increased expression when the EET process changed from inactivation to activation. We then networked these proteins to construct the active protein networks, and identified the top 20 key active proteins by network centralization analysis, including metabolism- and energy-related proteins, signal and transcriptional regulatory proteins, translation-related proteins, and the EET-related proteins. We also constructed the integrated protein interaction and transcriptional regulatory networks for the active proteins, then found three exclusive active network motifs involved in activating the EET process-Bi-feedforward Loop, Regulatory Cascade with a Feedback, and Feedback with a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI)-and identified the active proteins involved in these motifs. Both enrichment analysis and comparative analysis to the whole-genome data implicated the multiheme c -type cytochromes and multiple signal processing proteins involved in the process. Furthermore, the interactions of these motif-guided active proteins and the involved functional modules were discussed. Collectively, by using network-based methods, this work reported a proteome-wide search for the key active proteins that potentially activate the EET process.

  10. Identifying barriers to remaining physically active after rehabilitation: differences in perception between physical therapists and older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Kathryn; Alt, Carlynn; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2014-06-01

    Cross-sectional study. To describe readiness for change and barriers to physical activity in older adults and to contrast perceptions of physical therapists and patients using the Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Regular physical activity is vital to recovery after discharge from physical therapy. Physical therapists are positioned to support change in physical activity habits for those transitioning to home care. Understanding of readiness for change and barriers to physical activity could optimize recovery. Thirteen physical therapists enrolled in the study and invited patients who met the inclusion criteria to enroll (79 patients enrolled). The physical therapists provided the ICD-9 code, the physical therapist diagnosis, and completed the Barriers to Being Active Quiz as they perceived their patients would. The enrolled patients provided demographics and filled out the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the stages-of-change scale for physical activity, and the Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Patients were predominantly in the early stages of readiness for change. Both patients and physical therapists identified lack of willpower as the primary barrier to physical activity. Patients identified lack of willpower and social influence as critical barriers more often than physical therapists, whereas physical therapists identified fear of injury and lack of time more often than their patients did. Differences between physical therapists and their patients were noted for fear of injury (z = 2.66, P = .008) and lack of time (z = 3.46, P = .001). The stage of change for physical activity impacted perception of social influence (χ2 = 9.64, P<.05), lack of willpower (χ2 = 21.91, P<.01), and lack of skill (χ2 = 12.46, P<.05). Women ranked fear of injury higher than men did (χ2 = 6.76, P<.01). Understanding readiness for change in and barriers to physical activity may allow physical therapists to better tailor intervention strategies to impact physical activity behavior change.

  11. Exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2007-04-01

    To identify and describe the exposure to selected known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry from 1970 to 2005, in order to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Background information on possible exposure was obtained through company visits, including interviewing key personnel (n = 83) and collecting monitoring reports (n = 118) and other relevant documents (n = 329). On the basis of a previous questionnaire administered to present and former offshore employees in 1998, 27 job categories were defined. This study indicated possible exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures or exposure circumstances. Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents (benzene, mineral oil mist and vapour, respirable and total dust, asbestos fibres, refractory ceramic fibres, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene). The mean exposure level of 367 personal samples of benzene was 0.037 ppm (range: less than the limit of detection to 2.6 ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03 fibres/cm3) when asbestos-containing brake bands were used in drilling draw work in 1988. Personal samples of formaldehyde in the process area ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 mg/m3. Descriptions of products containing known and suspected carcinogens, exposure sources and processes were extracted from the collected documentation and the interviews of key personnel. This study described exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for 27 job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. For a planned cohort study on cancer, quantitative estimates of exposure to benzene, and mineral oil mist and vapour might be developed. For the other agents, information in the present study can be used for further assessment of exposure, for instance, by expert judgement. More systematic exposure surveillance is needed in this industry

  12. Raman spectroscopy applied to identify metabolites in urine of physically active subjects.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Letícia Parada; Silveira, Landulfo; da Silva, Alexandre Galvão; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Rocco, Débora Dias Ferraretto Moura

    2017-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive technique suitable for biological fluids analysis. In this work, dispersive Raman spectroscopy has been employed as a rapid and nondestructive technique to detect the metabolites in urine of physically active subjects before and after vigorous 30min pedaling or running compared to sedentary subjects. For so, urine samples from 9 subjects were obtained before and immediately after physical activities and submitted to Raman spectroscopy (830nm excitation, 250mW laser power, 20s integration time) and compared to urine from 5 sedentary subjects. The Raman spectra of urine from sedentary showed peaks related to urea, creatinine, ketone bodies, phosphate and other nitrogenous compounds. These metabolic biomarkers presented peaks with different intensities in the urine of physically active individuals after exercises compared to before, measured by the intensity of selected peaks the Raman spectra, which means different concentrations after training. These peaks presented different intensity values for each subject before physical activity, also behaving differently compared to the post-training: some subjects presented increase while others decrease the intensity. Raman spectroscopy may allow the development of a rapid and non-destructive test for metabolic evaluation of the physical training in active and trained subjects using urine samples, allowing nutrition adjustment with the sport's performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preclinical Antileukemia Activity of Tramesan: A Newly Identified Bioactive Fungal Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, M R; Licchetta, R; Mirabilii, S; Scarpari, M; Parroni, A; Fabbri, A A; Cescutti, P; Reverberi, M; Fanelli, C; Tafuri, A

    2017-01-01

    Despite improvements that occurred in the last decades in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment, clinical results are still unsatisfactory. More effective therapies are required, and innovative approaches are ongoing, including the discovery of novel antileukemia natural compounds. Several studies have described the activity of extracts from mushrooms which produce compounds that exhibited immunological and antitumor activities. The latter has been demonstrated to be promoted in vitro by mushroom polysaccharides via induction of apoptosis. However, the antileukemia activity of these compounds on primary cells is still not reported. In the present study, we examined the in vitro effects of Tramesan (TR), a bioactive compound extracted from Trametes versicolor , on leukemic cell lines and primary cells. Our results demonstrated that TR induced a marked growth inhibition of leukemic cell lines and primary cells from AML patients. The antiproliferative effects of TR were associated in primary AML cells with a significant increase of apoptosis. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from healthy donors. Our data demonstrated a cytotoxic activity of TR on leukemia cells prompting further translational applications. Ongoing studies are elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying its antileukemic activity.

  14. Preclinical Antileukemia Activity of Tramesan: A Newly Identified Bioactive Fungal Metabolite

    PubMed Central

    Scarpari, M.; Parroni, A.; Fabbri, A. A.; Cescutti, P.; Reverberi, M.; Fanelli, C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite improvements that occurred in the last decades in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment, clinical results are still unsatisfactory. More effective therapies are required, and innovative approaches are ongoing, including the discovery of novel antileukemia natural compounds. Several studies have described the activity of extracts from mushrooms which produce compounds that exhibited immunological and antitumor activities. The latter has been demonstrated to be promoted in vitro by mushroom polysaccharides via induction of apoptosis. However, the antileukemia activity of these compounds on primary cells is still not reported. In the present study, we examined the in vitro effects of Tramesan (TR), a bioactive compound extracted from Trametes versicolor, on leukemic cell lines and primary cells. Our results demonstrated that TR induced a marked growth inhibition of leukemic cell lines and primary cells from AML patients. The antiproliferative effects of TR were associated in primary AML cells with a significant increase of apoptosis. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from healthy donors. Our data demonstrated a cytotoxic activity of TR on leukemia cells prompting further translational applications. Ongoing studies are elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying its antileukemic activity. PMID:29270245

  15. Comparison of in vivo genotoxic and carcinogenic potency to augment mode of action analysis: Case study with hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Bichteler, Anne; Rager, Julia E; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Recent analyses-highlighted by the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment-have identified a correlation between (log) estimates of a carcinogen's in vivo genotoxic potency and in vivo carcinogenic potency in typical laboratory animal models, even when the underlying data have not been matched for tissue, species, or strain. Such a correlation could have important implications for risk assessment, including informing the mode of action (MOA) of specific carcinogens. When in vivo genotoxic potency is weak relative to carcinogenic potency, MOAs other than genotoxicity (e.g., endocrine disruption or regenerative hyperplasia) may be operational. Herein, we review recent in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), following oral ingestion, in relevant tissues and species in the context of the aforementioned correlation. Potency estimates were generated using benchmark doses, or no-observable-adverse-effect-levels when data were not amenable to dose-response modeling. While the ratio between log values for carcinogenic and genotoxic potency was ≥1 for many compounds, the ratios for several Cr(VI) datasets (including in target tissue) were less than unity. In fact, the ratios for Cr(VI) clustered closely with ratios for chloroform and diethanolamine, two chemicals posited to have non-genotoxic MOAs. These findings suggest that genotoxicity may not play a major role in the cancers observed in rodents following exposure to high concentrations of Cr(VI) in drinking water-a finding consistent with recent MOA and adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analyses concerning Cr(VI). This semi-quantitative analysis, therefore, may be useful to augment traditional MOA and AOP analyses. More case examples will be needed to further explore the general applicability and validity of this approach for human health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by

  16. Prediction of thyroid C-cell carcinogenicity after chronic administration of GLP1-R agonists in rodents.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Willem; Emerenciana, Annette; Bellanti, Francesco; Della Pasqua, Oscar; van der Laan, Jan Willem

    2017-04-01

    Increased incidence of C-cell carcinogenicity has been observed for glucagon-like-protein-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists in rodents. It is suggested that the duration of exposure is an indicator of carcinogenic potential in rodents of the different products on the market. Furthermore, the role of GLP-1-related mechanisms in the induction of C-cell carcinogenicity has gained increased attention by regulatory agencies. This study proposes an integrative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) framework to identify explanatory factors and characterize differences in carcinogenic potential of the GLP-1r agonist products. PK models for four products (exenatide QW (once weekly), exenatide BID (twice daily), liraglutide and lixisenatide) were developed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Predicted exposure was subsequently linked to GLP-1r stimulation using in vitro GLP-1r potency data. A logistic regression model was then applied to exenatide QW and liraglutide data to assess the relationship between GLP-1r stimulation and thyroid C-cell hyperplasia incidence as pre-neoplastic predictor of a carcinogenic response. The model showed a significant association between predicted GLP-1r stimulation and C-cell hyperplasia after 2years of treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated using lixisenatide, for which hyperplasia data were accurately described during the validation step. The use of a model-based approach provided insight into the relationship between C-cell hyperplasia and GLP-1r stimulation for all four products, which is not possible with traditional data analysis methods. It can be concluded that both pharmacokinetics (exposure) and pharmacodynamics (potency for GLP-1r) factors determine C-cell hyperplasia incidence in rodents. Our work highlights the pharmacological basis for GLP-1r agonist-induced C-cell carcinogenicity. The concept is promising for application to other drug classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An evaluation of risk estimation procedures for mixtures of carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.S.; Chen, J.J.

    1999-12-01

    The estimation of health risks from exposure to a mixture of chemical carcinogens is generally based on the combination of information from several available single compound studies. The current practice of directly summing the upper bound risk estimates of individual carcinogenic components as an upper bound on the total risk of a mixture is known to be generally too conservative. Gaylor and Chen (1996, Risk Analysis) proposed a simple procedure to compute an upper bound on the total risk using only the upper confidence limits and central risk estimates of individual carcinogens. The Gaylor-Chen procedure was derived based on anmore » underlying assumption of the normality for the distributions of individual risk estimates. IN this paper the authors evaluated the Gaylor-Chen approach in terms the coverages of the upper confidence limits on the true risks of individual carcinogens. In general, if the coverage probabilities for the individual carcinogens are all approximately equal to the nominal level, then the Gaylor-Chen approach should perform well. However, the Gaylor-Chen approach can be conservative or anti-conservative if some of all individual upper confidence limit estimates are conservative or anti-conservative.« less

  18. Using C. elegans Forward and Reverse Genetics to Identify New Compounds with Anthelmintic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Mark D.; Mathew, Neal D.; Miller, Angela; Simpson, Mike; Au, Vinci; Garland, Stephanie; Gestin, Marie; Edgley, Mark L.; Flibotte, Stephane; Balgi, Aruna; Chiang, Jennifer; Giaever, Guri; Dean, Pamela; Tung, Audrey; Roberge, Michel; Roskelley, Calvin; Forge, Tom; Nislow, Corey; Moerman, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background The lack of new anthelmintic agents is of growing concern because it affects human health and our food supply, as both livestock and plants are affected. Two principal factors contribute to this problem. First, nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs is increasing worldwide and second, many effective nematicides pose environmental hazards. In this paper we address this problem by deploying a high throughput screening platform for anthelmintic drug discovery using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for infectious nematodes. This method offers the possibility of identifying new anthelmintics in a cost-effective and timely manner. Methods/Principal findings Using our high throughput screening platform we have identified 14 new potential anthelmintics by screening more than 26,000 compounds from the Chembridge and Maybridge chemical libraries. Using phylogenetic profiling we identified a subset of the 14 compounds as potential anthelmintics based on the relative sensitivity of C. elegans when compared to yeast and mammalian cells in culture. We showed that a subset of these compounds might employ mechanisms distinct from currently used anthelmintics by testing diverse drug resistant strains of C. elegans. One of these newly identified compounds targets mitochondrial complex II, and we used structural analysis of the target to suggest how differential binding of this compound may account for its different effects in nematodes versus mammalian cells. Conclusions/Significance The challenge of anthelmintic drug discovery is exacerbated by several factors; including, 1) the biochemical similarity between host and parasite genomes, 2) the geographic location of parasitic nematodes and 3) the rapid development of resistance. Accordingly, an approach that can screen large compound collections rapidly is required. C. elegans as a surrogate parasite offers the ability to screen compounds rapidly and, equally importantly, with specificity, thus

  19. OXIDATION OF ANTIBIOTICS IN WASTEWATER: IDENTIFYING PRODUCTS AND IMPACTS ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is hypothesized that advanced oxidation can be applied effectively and in an economically responsible manner for the removal of the antibacterial activity of antibiotics. Ultimately, this study will develop a set of recommendations for the application of advanced oxidation ...

  20. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas syringae identifies new genes, ncRNAs, and antisense activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To fully understand how bacteria respond to their environment, it is essential to assess genome-wide transcriptional activity. New high throughput sequencing technologies make it possible to query the transcriptome of an organism in an efficient unbiased manner. We applied a strand-specific method t...

  2. Using Concept Mapping to Identify Action Steps for Physical Activity Promotion in Cancer Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Sean Joseph; Zizzi, Sam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The benefits of exercise during and after cancer treatment represent research areas that have received increased attention throughout the past 2 decades. Numerous benefits have been observed for cancer survivors who are physically active, yet oncologists have been slow to incorporate exercise counseling into practice. Purpose: The…

  3. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  4. Identifying active foraminifera in the Sea of Japan using metatranscriptomic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejzerowicz, Franck; Voltsky, Ivan; Pawlowski, Jan

    2013-02-01

    Metagenetics represents an efficient and rapid tool to describe environmental diversity patterns of microbial eukaryotes based on ribosomal DNA sequences. However, the results of metagenetic studies are often biased by the presence of extracellular DNA molecules that are persistent in the environment, especially in deep-sea sediment. As an alternative, short-lived RNA molecules constitute a good proxy for the detection of active species. Here, we used a metatranscriptomic approach based on RNA-derived (cDNA) sequences to study the diversity of the deep-sea benthic foraminifera and compared it to the metagenetic approach. We analyzed 257 ribosomal DNA and cDNA sequences obtained from seven sediments samples collected in the Sea of Japan at depths ranging from 486 to 3665 m. The DNA and RNA-based approaches gave a similar view of the taxonomic composition of foraminiferal assemblage, but differed in some important points. First, the cDNA dataset was dominated by sequences of rotaliids and robertiniids, suggesting that these calcareous species, some of which have been observed in Rose Bengal stained samples, are the most active component of foraminiferal community. Second, the richness of monothalamous (single-chambered) foraminifera was particularly high in DNA extracts from the deepest samples, confirming that this group of foraminifera is abundant but not necessarily very active in the deep-sea sediments. Finally, the high divergence of undetermined sequences in cDNA dataset indicate the limits of our database and lack of knowledge about some active but possibly rare species. Our study demonstrates the capability of the metatranscriptomic approach to detect active foraminiferal species and prompt its use in future high-throughput sequencing-based environmental surveys.

  5. Role of Mutagenicity in Asbestos Fiber-Induced Carcinogenicity and Other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sarah X. L.; Jaurand, Marie-Claude; Kamp, David W.; Whysner, John; Hei, Tom K.

    2011-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of how asbestos fibers induce cancers and other diseases are not well understood. Both serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibers have been shown to induce oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, cellular toxicity and tissue injuries, genetic changes, and epigenetic alterations in target cells in vitro and tissues in vivo. Most of these mechanisms are believe to be shared by both fiber-induced cancers and noncancerous diseases. This article summarizes the findings from existing literature with a focus on genetic changes, specifically, mutagenicity of asbestos fibers. Thus far, experimental evidence suggesting the involvement of mutagenesis in asbestos carcinogenicity is more convincing than asbestos-induced fibrotic diseases. The potential contributions of mutagenicity to asbestos-induced diseases, with an emphasis on carcinogenicity, are reviewed from five aspects: (1) whether there is a mutagenic mode of action (MOA) in fiber-induced carcinogenesis; (2) mutagenicity/carcinogenicity at low dose; (3) biological activities that contribute to mutagenicity and impact of target tissue/cell type; (4) health endpoints with or without mutagenicity as a key event; and finally, (5) determinant factors of toxicity in mutagenicity. At the end of this review, a consensus statement of what is known, what is believed to be factual but requires confirmation, and existing data gaps, as well as future research needs and directions, is provided. PMID:21534089

  6. Studies on glyphosate-induced carcinogenicity in mouse skin: a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    George, Jasmine; Prasad, Sahdeo; Mahmood, Zafar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-03-10

    Glyphosate is a widely used broad spectrum herbicide, reported to induce various toxic effects in non-target species, but its carcinogenic potential is still unknown. Here we showed the carcinogenic effects of glyphosate using 2-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model and proteomic analysis. Carcinogenicity study revealed that glyphosate has tumor promoting activity. Proteomic analysis using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry showed that 22 spots were differentially expressed (>2 fold) on glyphosate, 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) application over untreated control. Among them, 9 proteins (translation elongation factor eEF-1 alpha chain, carbonic anhydrase III, annexin II, calcyclin, fab fragment anti-VEGF antibody, peroxiredoxin-2, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], stefin A3, and calgranulin-B) were common and showed similar expression pattern in glyphosate and TPA-treated mouse skin. These proteins are known to be involved in several key processes like apoptosis and growth-inhibition, anti-oxidant responses, etc. The up-regulation of calcyclin, calgranulin-B and down-regulation of superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] was further confirmed by immunoblotting, indicating that these proteins can be good candidate biomarkers for skin carcinogenesis induced by glyphosate. Altogether, these results suggested that glyphosate has tumor promoting potential in skin carcinogenesis and its mechanism seems to be similar to TPA. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence that the capacity of nongenotoxic carcinogens to induce oxidative stress is subject to marked variability.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Colin J; Cameron, Amy R; Chatham, Lynsey; Stanley, Lesley A; Wolf, Charles Roland

    2015-05-01

    Many drugs and environmental chemicals which are not directly mutagenic have the capacity to increase the incidence of tumors in the liver and other tissues. For this reason, such compounds are known as nongenotoxic carcinogens. The mechanisms underlying their effects remain unclear; however, their capacity to induce oxidative stress is considered to be a critical step in the carcinogenic process, although the evidence that this is actually the case remains equivocal and sparse. We have exploited a novel heme oxygenase-1 reporter mouse to evaluate the capacity of nongenotoxic carcinogens with different mechanisms of action to induce oxidative stress in the liver in vivo. When these compounds were administered at doses reported to cause liver tumors, marked differences in activation of the reporter were observed. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and nafenopin were strong inducers of oxidative stress, whereas phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, cyproterone acetate, and WY14,643 were, at best, only very weak inducers. In the case of phenobarbital and thioacetamide, the number of LacZ-positive hepatocytes increased with time, and for the latter also with dose. The data obtained demonstrate that although some nongenotoxic carcinogens can induce oxidative stress, it is not a dominant feature of the response to these compounds. Therefore in contrast to the current models, these data suggest that oxidative stress is not a key determinant in the mechanism of nongenotoxic carcinogenesis but may contribute to the effects in a compound-specific manner. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Can the vector space model be used to identify biological entity activities?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biological systems are commonly described as networks of entity interactions. Some interactions are already known and integrate the current knowledge in life sciences. Others remain unknown for long periods of time and are frequently discovered by chance. In this work we present a model to predict these unknown interactions from a textual collection using the vector space model (VSM), a well known and established information retrieval model. We have extended the VSM ability to retrieve information using a transitive closure approach. Our objective is to use the VSM to identify the known interactions from the literature and construct a network. Based on interactions established in the network our model applies the transitive closure in order to predict and rank new interactions. Results We have tested and validated our model using a collection of patent claims issued from 1976 to 2005. From 266,528 possible interactions in our network, the model identified 1,027 known interactions and predicted 3,195 new interactions. Iterating the model according to patent issue dates, interactions found in a given past year were often confirmed by patent claims not in the collection and issued in more recent years. Most confirmation patent claims were found at the top 100 new interactions obtained from each subnetwork. We have also found papers on the Web which confirm new inferred interactions. For instance, the best new interaction inferred by our model relates the interaction between the adrenaline neurotransmitter and the androgen receptor gene. We have found a paper that reports the partial dependence of the antiapoptotic effect of adrenaline on androgen receptor. Conclusions The VSM extended with a transitive closure approach provides a good way to identify biological interactions from textual collections. Specifically for the context of literature-based discovery, the extended VSM contributes to identify and rank relevant new interactions even if these

  9. Glyphosate toxicity and carcinogenicity: a review of the scientific basis of the European Union assessment and its differences with IARC.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Jose V; Court-Marques, Daniele; Tiramani, Manuela; Reich, Hermine; Pfeil, Rudolf; Istace, Frederique; Crivellente, Federica

    2017-08-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide. It is a broad spectrum herbicide and its agricultural uses increased considerably after the development of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties. Since glyphosate was introduced in 1974, all regulatory assessments have established that glyphosate has low hazard potential to mammals, however, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded in March 2015 that it is probably carcinogenic. The IARC conclusion was not confirmed by the EU assessment or the recent joint WHO/FAO evaluation, both using additional evidence. Glyphosate is not the first topic of disagreement between IARC and regulatory evaluations, but has received greater attention. This review presents the scientific basis of the glyphosate health assessment conducted within the European Union (EU) renewal process, and explains the differences in the carcinogenicity assessment with IARC. Use of different data sets, particularly on long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity in rodents, could partially explain the divergent views; but methodological differences in the evaluation of the available evidence have been identified. The EU assessment did not identify a carcinogenicity hazard, revised the toxicological profile proposing new toxicological reference values, and conducted a risk assessment for some representatives uses. Two complementary exposure assessments, human-biomonitoring and food-residues-monitoring, suggests that actual exposure levels are below these reference values and do not represent a public concern.

  10. Protective effects of coffee against oxidative stress induced by the tobacco carcinogen benzo[α]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Sandra; Landerer, Steffen; Reich, Julia; Strassburg, Christian P

    2017-07-01

    Coffee consumption has been epidemiologically associated with a lower risk for liver cirrhosis and cancer. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT1A) catalyze the detoxification of reactive metabolites thereby acting as indirect antioxidants. Aim of the study was to examine UGT1A regulation in response to Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) to elucidate the potentially protective effects of coffee on BaP-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. In cell culture (HepG2, KYSE70 cells) and in htgUGT1A-WT mice, UGT1A transcription was activated by BaP, while it was reduced or absent htgUGT1A-SNP (containing 10 commonly occurring UGT1A-SNPs) mice. siRNA-mediated knockdown identified aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) as mediators of BaP-induced UGT1A upregulation. Exposure to coffee led to a reduction of BaP-induced production of reactive oxygen species in vitro and in htgUGT1A-WT and -SNP mice. After UGT1A silencing by UGT1A-specific siRNA in cell culture, the coffee-mediated reduction of ROS production was significantly impaired compared to UGT1A expressing cells. A common UGT1A haplotype, prevalent in 9% (homozygous) of the White population, significantly impairs the expression of UGT1A enzymes in response to the putative tobacco carcinogen BaP and is likely to represent a significant risk factor for reduced detoxification and increased genotoxicity. Coffee was demonstrated to inhibit BaP-induced production of oxidative stress by UGT1A activation, and is therefore an attractive candidate for chemoprotection in risk groups for HCC or other tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzyme-Sensitive MR Imaging Targeting Myeloperoxidase Identifies Active Inflammation in Experimental Rabbit Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, John A.; Chen, John W.; Chen, Yuanxin; Hamilton, Amanda M.; Rodriguez, Elisenda; Reynolds, Fred; Hegele, Robert A.; Rogers, Kem A.; Querol, Manel; Bogdanov, Alexei; Weissleder, Ralph; Rutt, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Inflammation undermines the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, rendering them susceptible to acute rupture, the cataclysmic event that underlies clinical expression of this disease. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a central inflammatory enzyme secreted by activated macrophages, and is involved in multiple stages of plaque destabilization and patient outcome. We report here that a unique functional in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) agent can visualize MPO activity in atherosclerotic plaques in a rabbit model. Methods and Results We performed MR imaging of the thoracic aorta of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits fed a cholesterol (n=11) or normal (n=4) diet up to 2 hours after injection of the MPO sensor bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd) (MPO(Gd)), the conventional agent, DTPA(Gd), or an MPO (Gd) analog, bis-tyr-DTPA(Gd), as controls. Delayed MPO(Gd) images (2 hour post injection) showed focal areas of increased contrast (>2-fold) in diseased wall, but not in normal wall (p=0.84), compared to both DTPA(Gd) (n=11; p<0.001) and bis-tyr-DTPA(Gd) (n=3; p<0.05). Biochemical assays confirmed that diseased wall possessed three-fold elevated MPO activity compared to normal wall (p<0.01). Areas detected by MPO(Gd) imaging co-localized and correlated with MPO-rich areas infiltrated by macrophages on histopathological evaluations (r=0.91, p<0.0001). While macrophages were the main source of MPO, not all macrophages secreted MPO, suggesting that distinct subpopulations contribute differently to atherogenesis and supporting our functional approach. Conclusions Our study represents a unique approach in the detection of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques by examining macrophage function and the activity of an effector enzyme, to noninvasively provide both anatomic and functional information in vivo. PMID:19652086

  12. Genetic Screening in C. Elegans Identifies Rho-GTPAse Activating Protein 6 as Novel HERG Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Potet, Franck; Petersen, Christina I.; Boutaud, Olivier; Shuai, Wen; Stepanovic, Svetlana Z.; Balser, Jeffrey R.; Kupershmidt, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) constitutes the pore forming subunit of IKr, a K+ current involved in repolarization of the cardiac action potential. While mutations in HERG predispose patients to cardiac arrhythmias (Long QT syndrome; LQTS), altered function of HERG regulators are undoubtedly LQTS risk factors. We have combined RNA interference with behavioral screening in Caenorhabditis elegans to detect genes that influence function of the HERG homolog, UNC-103. One such gene encodes the worm ortholog of the rho-GTPase activating protein 6 (ARHGAP6). In addition to its GAP function, ARHGAP6 induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and activates phospholipase C (PLC). Here we show that IKr recorded in cells co-expressing HERG and ARHGAP6 was decreased by 43% compared to HERG alone. Biochemical measurements of cell-surface associated HERG revealed that ARHGAP6 reduced membrane expression of HERG by 35%, which correlates well with the reduction in current. In an atrial myocyte cell line, suppression of endogenous ARHGAP6 by virally transduced shRNA led to a 53 % enhancement of IKr. ARHGAP6 effects were maintained when we introduced a dominant negative rho-GTPase, or ARHGAP6 devoid of rhoGAP function, indicating ARHGAP6 regulation of HERG is independent of rho activation. However, ARHGAP6 lost effectiveness when PLC was inhibited. We further determined that ARHGAP6 effects are mediated by a consensus SH3 binding domain within the C-terminus of HERG, although stable ARHGAP6-HERG complexes were not observed. These data link a rhoGAP-activated PLC pathway to HERG membrane expression and implicate this family of proteins as candidate genes in disorders involving HERG. PMID:19038263

  13. High aldehyde dehydrogenase activity identifies cancer stem cells in human cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity characterizes a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in several malignancies. To clarify whether ALDH can be used as a marker of cervical cancer stem cells (CCSCs), ALDHhigh and ALDHlow cells were sorted from 4 cervical cancer cell lines and 5 primary tumor xenografts and examined for CSC characteristics. Here, we demonstrate that cervical cancer cells with high ALDH activity fulfill the functional criteria for CSCs: (1) ALDHhigh cells, unlike ALDHlow cells, are highly tumorigenic in vivo; (2) ALDHhigh cells can give rise to both ALDHhigh and ALDHlow cells in vitro and in vivo, thereby establishing a cellular hierarchy; and (3) ALDHhigh cells have enhanced self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Additionally, ALDHhigh cervical cancer cells are more resistant to cisplatin treatment than ALDHlow cells. Finally, expression of the stem cell self-renewal-associated transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and BMI1 is elevated in ALDHhigh cervical cancer cells. Taken together, our data indicated that high ALDH activity may represent both a functional marker for CCSCs and a target for novel cervical cancer therapies. PMID:24318570

  14. A Genomics-Based Approach Identifies a Thioviridamide-Like Compound with Selective Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Frattaruolo, Luca; Lacret, Rodney; Cappello, Anna Rita; Truman, Andrew W

    2017-11-17

    Thioviridamide is a structurally novel ribosomally synthesized and post-translational modified peptide (RiPP) produced by Streptomyces olivoviridis NA005001. It is characterized by a structure that features a series of thioamide groups and possesses potent antiproliferative activity in cancer cell lines. Its unusual structure allied to its promise as an anticancer compound led us to investigate the diversity of thioviridamide-like pathways across sequenced bacterial genomes. We have isolated and characterized three diverse members of this family of natural products. This characterization is supported by transformation-associated recombination cloning and heterologous expression of one of these compounds, thiostreptamide S4. Our work provides an insight into the diversity of this rare class of compound and indicates that the unusual N-terminus of thioviridamide is not introduced biosynthetically but is instead introduced during acetone extraction. A detailed analysis of the biological activity of one of the newly discovered compounds, thioalbamide, indicates that it is highly cytotoxic to cancer cells, while exhibiting significantly less activity toward a noncancerous epithelial cell line.

  15. Indoor air - assessment: Methods of analysis for environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    The monograph describes, in a general way, published sampling procedures and analytical approaches for known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the methods described are applicable to other media or environments. In cases where there are no published methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air, methods developed for the workplace and for ambient air are included since they should be adaptable to indoor air. Known and suspected carcinogens have been grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, organic compounds, inorganic species,more » particles, and non-ionizing radiation. Some methods of assessing exposure that are not specific to any particular pollutant category are covered in a separate section. The report is the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Monographs.« less

  16. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Health Assessment Document. EPA’s program and regional offices may use this assessment to inform decisions to protect human health. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia and the charge to external peer reviewers, are posted on this site.

  17. Identifying key areas for active interprofessional learning partnerships: A facilitated dialogue.

    PubMed

    Steven, Kathryn; Angus, Allyson; Breckenridge, Jenna; Davey, Peter; Tully, Vicki; Muir, Fiona

    2016-11-01

    Student and service user involvement is recognised as an important factor in creating interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. We used a team-based learning approach to bring together undergraduate health professional students, early career professionals (ECPs), public partners, volunteers, and carers to explore learning partnerships. Influenced by evaluative inquiry, this qualitative study used a free text response to allow participants to give their own opinion. A total of 153 participants (50 public partners and 103 students and professionals representing 11 healthcare professions) took part. Participants were divided into mixed groups of six (n = 25) and asked to identify areas where students, professionals, and public could work together to improve health professional education. Each group documented their discussions by summarising agreed areas and next steps. Responses were collected and transcribed for inductive content analysis. Seven key themes (areas for joint working) were identified: communication, public as partners, standards of conduct, IPE, quality improvement, education, and learning environments. The team-based learning format enabled undergraduate and postgraduate health professionals to achieve consensus with public partners on areas for IPE and collaboration. Some of our results may be context-specific but the approach is generalisable to other areas.

  18. High-content screening identifies kinase inhibitors that overcome venetoclax resistance in activated CLL cells.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Sina; Ylanko, Jarkko; Shi, Yonghong; Hariharan, Santosh; Oakes, Christopher C; Brauer, Patrick M; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan C; Leber, Brian; Spaner, David E; Andrews, David W

    2016-08-18

    Novel agents such as the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199) are changing treatment paradigms for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but important problems remain. Although some patients exhibit deep and durable responses to venetoclax as a single agent, other patients harbor subpopulations of resistant leukemia cells that mediate disease recurrence. One hypothesis for the origin of resistance to venetoclax is by kinase-mediated survival signals encountered in proliferation centers that may be unique for individual patients. An in vitro microenvironment model was developed with primary CLL cells that could be incorporated into an automated high-content microscopy-based screen of kinase inhibitors (KIs) to identify agents that may improve venetoclax therapy in a personalized manner. Marked interpatient variability was noted for which KIs were effective; nevertheless, sunitinib was identified as the most common clinically available KI effective in overcoming venetoclax resistance. Examination of the underlying mechanisms indicated that venetoclax resistance may be induced by microenvironmental signals that upregulate antiapoptotic Bcl-xl, Mcl-1, and A1, which can be counteracted more efficiently by sunitinib than by ibrutinib or idelalisib. Although patient-specific drug responses are common, for many patients, combination therapy with sunitinib may significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of venetoclax. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. High-content screening identifies kinase inhibitors that overcome venetoclax resistance in activated CLL cells

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, Sina; Ylanko, Jarkko; Shi, Yonghong; Hariharan, Santosh; Oakes, Christopher C.; Brauer, Patrick M.; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan C.; Leber, Brian; Spaner, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Novel agents such as the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199) are changing treatment paradigms for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but important problems remain. Although some patients exhibit deep and durable responses to venetoclax as a single agent, other patients harbor subpopulations of resistant leukemia cells that mediate disease recurrence. One hypothesis for the origin of resistance to venetoclax is by kinase-mediated survival signals encountered in proliferation centers that may be unique for individual patients. An in vitro microenvironment model was developed with primary CLL cells that could be incorporated into an automated high-content microscopy-based screen of kinase inhibitors (KIs) to identify agents that may improve venetoclax therapy in a personalized manner. Marked interpatient variability was noted for which KIs were effective; nevertheless, sunitinib was identified as the most common clinically available KI effective in overcoming venetoclax resistance. Examination of the underlying mechanisms indicated that venetoclax resistance may be induced by microenvironmental signals that upregulate antiapoptotic Bcl-xl, Mcl-1, and A1, which can be counteracted more efficiently by sunitinib than by ibrutinib or idelalisib. Although patient-specific drug responses are common, for many patients, combination therapy with sunitinib may significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of venetoclax. PMID:27297795

  20. Influence of the physicochemical and aromatic properties on the chemical reactivity and its relation with carcinogenic and anticoagulant effect of 17β-aminoestrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Raya, Angélica; Barrientos-Salcedo, Carolina; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    2014-06-01

    Activity of steroid hormones is dependent upon a number of factors, as solubility, transport and metabolism. The functional differences caused by structural modifications could exert an influence on the chemical reactivity and biological effect. The goal of this work is to study the influence of the physicochemical and aromatic properties on the chemical reactivity and its relation with the carcinogenic risk that can associate with the anticoagulant effect of 17β-aminoestrogens using quantum-chemical descriptors at the DFT-B3LYP, BH&HLYP and M06-2X levels. The relative acidity of (H1) of the hydroxyl group increases with electron-withdrawing groups. Electron-donor groups favor the basicity. The steric hindrance of the substituents decreases the aromatic character and consequently diminution the carcinogenic effect. Density descriptors: hardness, electrophilic index, atomic charges, molecular orbitals, electrostatic potential and their geometric parameters permit analyses of the chemical reactivity and physicochemical features and to identify some reactive sites of 17β-aminoestrogens.