Sample records for identifying carcinogenic activity

  1. Identifying occupational carcinogens: an update from the IARC Monographs.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Dana; Guha, Neela; Hall, Amy L; Straif, Kurt

    2018-05-16

    The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations. Selected agents were substances, mixtures or types of radiation classified in IARC Group 1 with 'sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity' in humans from studies of exposed workers and evidence of occupational exposure documented in the pertinent monograph. The number of known occupational carcinogens has increased over time: 47 agents were identified as known occupational carcinogens in 2017 compared with 28 in 2004. These estimates are conservative and likely underestimate the number of carcinogenic agents present in workplaces. Exposure to these agents causes a wide range of cancers; cancers of the lung and other respiratory sites, followed by skin, account for the largest proportion. The dominant routes of exposure are inhalation and dermal contact. Important progress has been made in identifying occupational carcinogens; nevertheless, there is an ongoing need for research on the causes of work-related cancer. Most workplace exposures have not been evaluated for their carcinogenic potential due to inadequate epidemiologic evidence and a paucity of quantitative exposure data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Identifying and regulating carcinogens. Background paper

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Contents include: Introduction and summary; policies for testing, assessing, and regulating carcinogens; federal agency assessment and regulation of carcinogens; the national toxicology program; agency responses to the annual report on carcinogens and NCI/NTP test results; statutory authority for regulating carcinogens; chemicals listed in annual report on carcinogens and NCI/NTP test results.

  3. Small fish models for identifying carcinogens in the aqueous environment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hawkins, W.E.; Overstreet, R.M.; Walker, W.W.

    1988-10-01

    Contaminants in water and sediments can be carcinogenic to aquatic wildlife as well as humans. Identifying those carcinogens, however, is difficult because they often occur in low concentrations and exert their effects over a large part of the life span of affected organisms. Furthermore, the carcinogens are often components of complex mixtures. Recent studies suggest that laboratory-reared fish species might be well suited for testing water-associated and other carcinogens. Here, we review the principal carcinogen exposure methods that utilize small fish species or can be adapted to utilize small fish species to detect carcinogens in aqueous environments. Emphasis is placedmore » on methods for which the end-point is tumor induction. The methods discussed are dietary exposures, skin painting, embryo microinjection, early life stage (pulse) exposures, static water exposures, flow-through exposures, and controlled field exposures. Early life stage exposures seem to have the greatest utility with regard to carcinogen sensitivity, ease of administration, disposal of test compounds, and economy of materials and effort. For certain types of carcinogens, however, long-term flow-through exposures are probably required. In summary, small fish carcinogenesis models offer an array of methodologies that can be utilized in a variety of combinations depending on compounds tested, exposure parameters employed, and end point sought.« less

  4. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscapemore » software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.« less

  5. MOUSE LIVER TUMOR DATA: ASSESSMENT OF CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant number of chemicals have been shown to be carcinogenic in mouse liver while lacking carcinogenic activity in other organs or tissues of mice or rats. The review focus on the reasons for the unique susceptibility of the mouse liver to these carcinogens, and the exten...

  6. Identifying carcinogens: the tobacco industry and regulatory politics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel M; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    The process of identifying carcinogens for purposes of health and safety regulation has been contested internationally. The U.S. government produces a "Report on Carcinogens" every two years, which lists known and likely human carcinogenic substances. In the late 1990s the tobacco industry responded to the proposed listing of secondhand smoke with a multi-part strategy. Despite industry efforts to challenge both the substance of the report and the agency procedures, environmental tobacco smoke was declared by the agency in 2000 to be a known human carcinogen. A subsequent lawsuit, launched by chemical interests but linked to the tobacco industry, failed, but it produced a particular legal precedent of judicial review that is favorable to all regulated industries. The authors argue that, in this case, tobacco industry regulation contradicts academic expectations of business regulatory victories. However, the tobacco industry's participation in the regulatory process influenced the process in favor of all regulated industry.

  7. A computational method for the identification of new candidate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Lu, Jing; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death. Based on current knowledge, one of the causes of cancer is exposure to toxic chemical compounds, including radioactive compounds, dioxin, and arsenic. The identification of new carcinogenic chemicals may warn us of potential danger and help to identify new ways to prevent cancer. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify potential carcinogenic chemicals, as well as non-carcinogenic chemicals. According to the current validated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals from the CPDB (Carcinogenic Potency Database), the candidate chemicals were searched in a weighted chemical network constructed according to chemical-chemical interactions. Then, the obtained candidate chemicals were further selected by a randomization test and information on chemical interactions and structures. The analyses identified several candidate carcinogenic chemicals, while those candidates identified as non-carcinogenic were supported by a literature search. In addition, several candidate carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals exhibit structural dissimilarity with validated carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals.

  8. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, T; Flint, Y B; Blank, M; Etkin, S; Lavi, S

    1988-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later. Images PMID:2835673

  9. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic Models of Short-Term Exposure Accurately Predict Long-Term Chemical Carcinogenicity and Identify Putative Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Gusenleitner, Daniel; Auerbach, Scott S.; Melia, Tisha; Gómez, Harold F.; Sherr, David H.; Monti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an overall decrease in incidence of and mortality from cancer, about 40% of Americans will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime, and around 20% will die of it. Current approaches to test carcinogenic chemicals adopt the 2-year rodent bioassay, which is costly and time-consuming. As a result, fewer than 2% of the chemicals on the market have actually been tested. However, evidence accumulated to date suggests that gene expression profiles from model organisms exposed to chemical compounds reflect underlying mechanisms of action, and that these toxicogenomic models could be used in the prediction of chemical carcinogenicity. Results In this study, we used a rat-based microarray dataset from the NTP DrugMatrix Database to test the ability of toxicogenomics to model carcinogenicity. We analyzed 1,221 gene-expression profiles obtained from rats treated with 127 well-characterized compounds, including genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. We built a classifier that predicts a chemical's carcinogenic potential with an AUC of 0.78, and validated it on an independent dataset from the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project consisting of 2,065 profiles from 72 compounds. Finally, we identified differentially expressed genes associated with chemical carcinogenesis, and developed novel data-driven approaches for the molecular characterization of the response to chemical stressors. Conclusion Here, we validate a toxicogenomic approach to predict carcinogenicity and provide strong evidence that, with a larger set of compounds, we should be able to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions. We found that the prediction of carcinogenicity is tissue-dependent and that the results also confirm and expand upon previous studies implicating DNA damage, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and regenerative pathology in the response to carcinogen exposure. PMID:25058030

  11. Cell-type-dependent activities of regulatory regions and E2 proteins derived from carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human alphapapillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Astrid; Straub, Elke; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2013-06-01

    A large number of studies have revealed that persistent infections with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types are necessary for the development of invasive cancer of the cervix. Recent studies have shown that not only do the major carcinogenic HPV types 16 and 18 encode E6 and E7 oncoproteins with immortalizing activity but also the very weakly or non-carcinogenic types 53, 66, 70 and 82. Currently, it is unknown whether transcriptional differences exist between these viruses that account for carcinogenicity in vivo. Therefore, we compared for the first time the activities of the upstream regulatory regions (URRs) that drive E6 and E7 expression derived from HPV16, -18, -31, -53, -66, -70 and -82 in the absence and presence of the viral E2 transcriptional regulator. URR activities in the absence of E2 varied widely and were further modulated by the cellular background. The co-expression of homologous E2 proteins resulted in repression of the URRs of only some HPV types and this varied with cell type. Activation by E2 proteins was less cell-type dependent but differed in an HPV-type-dependent manner. However, basal URR activity, repression of the URR by E2 and transcriptional activation by E2 did not correlate with HPV carcinogenicity in vivo. In summary, our data do not support the model that the transcriptional activity of human alphapapillomavirus types correlates with epidemiological risk classification.

  12. The Syrian hamster embryo cells transformation assay identifies efficiently nongenotoxic carcinogens, and can contribute to alternative, integrated testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    The long-term carcinogenesis bioassays have played a central role in protecting human health, but for ethical and practical reasons their use is dramatically diminishing and the genotoxicity short-term tests have taken the pivotal role in the pre-screening of chemical carcinogenicity. However, this strategy cannot detect nongenotoxic carcinogens. Since up to 25% of IARC human carcinogens are recognized to have nongenotoxic mechanisms of action, the risk they pose to human health cannot be disregarded, and it is urgent to fill the gap in the tools for alternative testing. In this paper, we analyze from different perspectives the ability of Cell Transformation Assays to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens, and we conclude that the Syrian hamster embryo cells test is able to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens with 80-90% efficiency, and thus, can play an important role in integrated, alternative testing strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of potential fish carcinogens in sediment from Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Balch, G.C.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Huestis, S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A carcinogenicity- and mutagenicity-directed fractionation approach was used to identify the carcinogenic compounds in contaminated sediments that are putatively responsible for the high prevalence of tumors in bottom-dwelling fish from Hamilton Harbour, Ontario. Mutagenic activity was detected with Ames tester strains (TA98, TA100) in relatively nonpolar fractions of sediment extract containing PAHs and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds (NCACs). These fractions were also carcinogenic in an in vivo carcinogenicity bioassay with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). When a more polar extract fraction was tested for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, weak mutagenic activity was detected with an O-acetyltransferase-enriched Ames tester strain (YG1024), and weak carcinogenicmore » activity was detected in the rainbow trout assay. These data indicate that PAHs in contaminated Hamilton Harbour sediments are potent fish carcinogens, but it is also evident that other organic compounds in the sediment, such as NCACs and nitroarenes, may contribute to carcinogenicity.« less

  14. Two types of putative preneoplastic lesions identified by hexosaminidase activity in whole-mounts of colons from F344 rats treated with carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Pretlow, T P; O'Riordan, M A; Spancake, K M; Pretlow, T G

    1993-06-01

    Previous studies identified as putative preneoplastic lesions 1) enzyme-altered foci in sections of methacrylate-embedded colon and 2) aberrant crypts in methylene blue-stained unembedded (whole-mount) colon and established that aberrant crypts embedded in methacrylate had enzyme alterations. We have now studied histochemically demonstrable hexosaminidase activity in unembedded or whole-mount preparations of colons from carcinogen-treated rats. These preparations have revealed two populations of crypts that are enzyme-altered: those that are morphologically altered or aberrant and those that are morphologically normal. Both populations can be quantified rigorously in less than an hour with whole-mount preparations reacted for hexosaminidase. The demonstration of phenotypic characteristics with histochemical techniques in whole-mount preparations should have wide applicability to functional studies in many normal and diseased tissues.

  15. Two types of putative preneoplastic lesions identified by hexosaminidase activity in whole-mounts of colons from F344 rats treated with carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Pretlow, T. P.; O'Riordan, M. A.; Spancake, K. M.; Pretlow, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies identified as putative preneoplastic lesions 1) enzyme-altered foci in sections of methacrylate-embedded colon and 2) aberrant crypts in methylene blue-stained unembedded (whole-mount) colon and established that aberrant crypts embedded in methacrylate had enzyme alterations. We have now studied histochemically demonstrable hexosaminidase activity in unembedded or whole-mount preparations of colons from carcinogen-treated rats. These preparations have revealed two populations of crypts that are enzyme-altered: those that are morphologically altered or aberrant and those that are morphologically normal. Both populations can be quantified rigorously in less than an hour with whole-mount preparations reacted for hexosaminidase. The demonstration of phenotypic characteristics with histochemical techniques in whole-mount preparations should have wide applicability to functional studies in many normal and diseased tissues. Images Figure 1 PMID:8506941

  16. Mutagenic activation reduces carcinogenic activity of ortho-aminoazotoluene for mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova, L P; Bogdanova, L A; Kaledin, V I

    2013-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (aromatic amine and azo stain metabolic stimulation inhibitor) reduced the hepatocarcinogenic activity of 4-aminoazobenzene and reduced that of ortho-aminoazotoluene in suckling mice. Both 4-aminoazobenzene and ortho-aminoazotoluene exhibited mutagenic activity in Ames' test in vitro on S. typhimurium TA 98 strain with activation with liver enzymes; this mutagenic activity was similarly suppressed by adding pentachlorophenol into activation medium. Induction of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes, stimulating the mutagenic activity of ortho-aminoazotoluene, suppressed its carcinogenic effect on mouse liver. Hence, ortho-aminotoluene (the initial compound), but not its mutagenic metabolites, was the direct active hepatocarcinogen for mice.

  17. Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models to Predict the Carcinogenic Potency of Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to either: (1) identify alternative toxicity measures (shorter duration) that may be used as...

  18. IARC classes 1 and 2 carcinogens are successfully identified by an alternative strategy that detects DNA-reactivity and cell transformation ability of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Tcheremenskaia, Olga

    2013-12-12

    For decades, traditional toxicology has been the ultimate source of information on the carcinogenic potential of chemicals; however with increasing demand on regulation of chemicals and decreasing resources for testing, opportunities to accept "alternative" approaches have dramatically expanded. The need for tools able to identify carcinogens in shorter times and at a lower cost in terms of animal lives and money is still an open issue, and the present strategies and regulations for carcinogenicity pre-screening do not adequately protect human health. In previous papers, we have proposed an integrated in vitro/in silico strategy that detects DNA-reactivity and tissue disorganization/disruption by chemicals, and we have shown that the combination of Salmonella and Structural Alerts for the DNA-reactive carcinogens, and in vitro cell transformation assays for nongenotoxic carcinogens permits the identification of a very large proportion (up to 95%) of rodent carcinogens, while having a considerable specificity with the rodent noncarcinogens. In the present paper we expand the previous investigation and show that this alternative strategy identifies correctly IARC Classes 1 and 2 carcinogens. If implemented, this alternative strategy can contribute to improve the protection of human health while decreasing the use of animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F; Davis, Devra Lee

    2008-11-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses-aspartame, cadmium, and toluene-suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives.

  20. The Limits of Two-Year Bioassay Exposure Regimens for Identifying Chemical Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F.; Davis, Devra Lee

    2008-01-01

    Background Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. Objectives In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Discussion Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses—aspartame, cadmium, and toluene—suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Conclusions Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives. PMID:19057693

  1. Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Yongbaek; Thai-Vu Ton; De Angelo, Anthony B.

    2006-07-15

    This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo arrays, with over 20,000 target genes, were used to evaluate o-NT- and BCA-induced RPMs, when compared to a non-transformed mesothelial cell line (Fred-PE). Analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software revealed 169 cancer-related genes that were categorized into binding activity, growth and proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and invasion and metastasis. The microarray data were validated by positive correlation with quantitative real-time RT-PCRmore » on 16 selected genes including igf1, tgfb3 and nov. Important carcinogenic pathways involved in RPM formation included insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), p38 MAPkinase, Wnt/{beta}-catenin and integrin signaling pathways. This study demonstrated that mesotheliomas in rats exposed to o-NT- and BCA were similar to mesotheliomas in humans, at least at the cellular and molecular level.« less

  2. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (SARS) AMONG MUTAGENS AND CARCINOGENS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The review is an introduction to methods for evaluating structure-activity relationships (SARs), and, in particular, to those methods that have been applied to study mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. A brief history and some background material on the earliest attempts to correla...

  3. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION: EFFICIENCY OF SHORT-TERM TESTS IN IDENTIFYING GERM CELL MUTAGENS AND PUTATIVE NONGENOTOXIC CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than a decade, mutagenicity tests have had a clearly defined role in the identification of potential human mutagens and an ancillary role in the identification of potential human carcinogens. he efficiency of short-term tests in identifying germ cell mutagens has been ex...

  4. Evaluation of a rat tracheal epithelial cell culture assay system to identify respiratory carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Steele, V.E.; Arnold, J.T.; Arnold, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate a short-term epithelial cell assay system to detect respiratory carcinogens, primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells were exposed to a series of 17 compounds and scored for morphologically transformed cell colonies 28 days later. The test compounds included known carcinogens and noncarcinogens in volatile or liquid form. Tracheal epithelial cells were isolate from F344 rats, plated onto collagen-coated dishes, and exposed to the test compounds on day 1 for 24 hours. At day 30 the cultures were fixed, stained, and scored for colonies having a density greater than 1,300 cells/mm{sup 2}. With standardized protocols, such colonies aremore » very infrequent in media and solvent control cultures. Concentration levels for each chemical were chosen over a range from nontoxic to toxic levels. Highly positive compounds in this assay included benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(l)aceanthrylene, 3-methylcholanthrene, and formaldehyde. Compounds which were negative in this assay included pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide. Examining the concordance of in vitro results with whole animal carcinogenesis studies revealed an accuracy of 88% with one false-positive and one false-negative compound. The results of these studies indicate that the rat tracheal epithelial cell assay may be useful in identifying potential respiratory carcinogens in our environment.« less

  5. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Maekawa, A; Takahashi, M; Hayashi, Y

    1990-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activities for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:2269236

  6. Aberrant activation of ubiquitin D at G2 phase and apoptosis by carcinogens that evoke cell proliferation after 28-day administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Taniai, Eriko; Yafune, Atsunori; Hayashi, Hitomi; Itahashi, Megu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that renal carcinogens examined in rats increase tubular cell proliferation and topoisomerase (Topo) IIα(+) cells. The present study was aimed at identifying early prediction markers of carcinogens after 28-day treatment in rats. Following gene expression screening by microarrays in renal tubules with renal carcinogens, immunohistochemical analysis and TUNEL-assay were performed with carcinogens targeting different organs. All renal carcinogens tested (ferric nitrilotriacetic acid, ochratoxin A (OTA), monuron, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and potassium bromate) increased tubular cells immunoreactive for minichromosome maintenance 3 (Mcm3) or ubiquitin D (Ubd) or those showing apoptosis, compared with untreated controls or non-carcinogenic renal toxicants. Carcinogens targeting the liver (thioacetamide (TAA), fenbendazole, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and methyleugenol), thyroid (sulfadimethoxine), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), forestomach (butylated hydroxyanisole), glandular stomach (catechol), and colon (chenodeoxycholic acid and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) were examined for induction of Mcm3, Ubd, Topo IIα, Ki-67 and apoptosis using non-carcinogenic toxicants as negative controls. All carcinogens increased Mcm3(+), Ubd(+), Topo IIα(+), Ki-67(+) or TUNEL(+) cells, except for hepatocarcinogen PBO and both colon carcinogens, which did not increase cell proliferation. Ubd(+) cells co-expressing Topo IIα was increased without changing phospho-Histone H3-co-expressing cell population as examined with OTA and TAA. Results revealed cooperative responses of Topo IIα, Ubd and apoptosis by carcinogens inducing high proliferation activity, irrespective of target organs, examined here after a 28-day administration. Aberrant expression of Ubd at G(2) phase and increased apoptosis reflecting aberrant cell cycle regulation may be the common feature of these carcinogens.

  7. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate--a new renal carcinogen

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kurokawa, Y.; Maekawa, A.; Takahashi, M.

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive, mainly in the bread-making process. Although adverse effects are not evident in animals fed bread-based diets made from flour treated with KBrO3, the agent is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. It has been demonstrated that KBrO3 induces renal cell tumors, mesotheliomas of the peritoneum, and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid. In addition, experiments aimed at elucidating the mode of carcinogenic action have revealed that KBrO3 is a complete carcinogen, possessing both initiating and promoting activitiesmore » for rat renal tumorigenesis. However, the potential seems to be weak in mice and hamsters. In contrast to its weak mutagenic activity in microbial assays, KBrO3 showed relatively strong potential inducing chromosome aberrations both in vitro and in vivo. Glutathione and cysteine degrade KBrO3 in vitro; in turn, the KBrO3 has inhibitory effects on inducing lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney. Active oxygen radicals generated from KBrO3 were implicated in its toxic and carcinogenic effects, especially because KBrO3 produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the rat kidney. A wide range of data from applications of various analytical methods are now available for risk assessment purposes.111 references.« less

  8. Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo a...

  9. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action.

    PubMed

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens.

  10. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens. PMID:27625608

  11. Aberrant activation of M phase proteins by cell proliferation-evoking carcinogens after 28-day administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Yafune, Atsunori; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2013-06-07

    We have previously reported that hepatocarcinogens increase liver cells expressing p21(Cip1), a G1 checkpoint protein and M phase proteins after 28-day treatment in rats. This study aimed to identify early prediction markers of carcinogens available in many target organs after 28-day treatment in rats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on Ki-67, p21(Cip1) and M phase proteins [nuclear Cdc2, phospho-Histone H3 (p-Histone H3), Aurora B and heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α)] with carcinogens targeting different organs. Carcinogens targeting thyroid (sulfadimethoxine; SDM), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), forestomach (butylated hydroxyanisole; BHA), glandular stomach (catechol; CC), and colon (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and chenodeoxycholic acid) were examined using a non-carcinogenic toxicant (caprolactam) and carcinogens targeting other organs as negative controls. All carcinogens increased Ki-67(+), nuclear Cdc2(+), p-Histone H3(+) or Aurora B(+) carcinogenic target cells, except for both colon carcinogens, which did not increase cell proliferation. On the other hand, p21(Cip1+) cells increased with SDM and CC. HP1α responded only to BHA. Results revealed carcinogens evoking cell proliferation concurrently induced cell cycle arrest at M phase or showing chromosomal instability reflecting aberration in cell cycle regulation, irrespective of target organs, after 28-day treatment. Therefore, M phase proteins may be early prediction markers of carcinogens evoking cell proliferation in many target organs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Global structure–activity relationship model for nonmutagenic carcinogens using virtual ligand-protein interactions as model descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Albert R.; Trent, John O.

    2012-01-01

    Structure–activity relationship (SAR) models are powerful tools to investigate the mechanisms of action of chemical carcinogens and to predict the potential carcinogenicity of untested compounds. We describe the use of a traditional fragment-based SAR approach along with a new virtual ligand-protein interaction-based approach for modeling of nonmutagenic carcinogens. The ligand-based SAR models used descriptors derived from computationally calculated ligand-binding affinities for learning set agents to 5495 proteins. Two learning sets were developed. One set was from the Carcinogenic Potency Database, where chemicals tested for rat carcinogenesis along with Salmonella mutagenicity data were provided. The second was from Malacarne et al. who developed a learning set of nonalerting compounds based on rodent cancer bioassay data and Ashby’s structural alerts. When the rat cancer models were categorized based on mutagenicity, the traditional fragment model outperformed the ligand-based model. However, when the learning sets were composed solely of nonmutagenic or nonalerting carcinogens and noncarcinogens, the fragment model demonstrated a concordance of near 50%, whereas the ligand-based models demonstrated a concordance of 71% for nonmutagenic carcinogens and 74% for nonalerting carcinogens. Overall, these findings suggest that expert system analysis of virtual chemical protein interactions may be useful for developing predictive SAR models for nonmutagenic carcinogens. Moreover, a more practical approach for developing SAR models for carcinogenesis may include fragment-based models for chemicals testing positive for mutagenicity and ligand-based models for chemicals devoid of DNA reactivity. PMID:22678118

  13. Global structure-activity relationship model for nonmutagenic carcinogens using virtual ligand-protein interactions as model descriptors.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Albert R; Carrasquer, C Alex; Qamar, Shahid; Maguire, Jon M; Cunningham, Suzanne L; Trent, John O

    2012-10-01

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) models are powerful tools to investigate the mechanisms of action of chemical carcinogens and to predict the potential carcinogenicity of untested compounds. We describe the use of a traditional fragment-based SAR approach along with a new virtual ligand-protein interaction-based approach for modeling of nonmutagenic carcinogens. The ligand-based SAR models used descriptors derived from computationally calculated ligand-binding affinities for learning set agents to 5495 proteins. Two learning sets were developed. One set was from the Carcinogenic Potency Database, where chemicals tested for rat carcinogenesis along with Salmonella mutagenicity data were provided. The second was from Malacarne et al. who developed a learning set of nonalerting compounds based on rodent cancer bioassay data and Ashby's structural alerts. When the rat cancer models were categorized based on mutagenicity, the traditional fragment model outperformed the ligand-based model. However, when the learning sets were composed solely of nonmutagenic or nonalerting carcinogens and noncarcinogens, the fragment model demonstrated a concordance of near 50%, whereas the ligand-based models demonstrated a concordance of 71% for nonmutagenic carcinogens and 74% for nonalerting carcinogens. Overall, these findings suggest that expert system analysis of virtual chemical protein interactions may be useful for developing predictive SAR models for nonmutagenic carcinogens. Moreover, a more practical approach for developing SAR models for carcinogenesis may include fragment-based models for chemicals testing positive for mutagenicity and ligand-based models for chemicals devoid of DNA reactivity.

  14. Use of mechanism-based structure-activity relationships analysis in carcinogenic potential ranking for drinking water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yin-Tak; Lai, David; McLain, Jennifer L; Manibusan, Mary Ko; Dellarco, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramine, and ozone react with organic and inorganic matter in water. The observations that some DBPs such as trihalomethanes (THMs), di-/trichloroacetic acids, and 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) are carcinogenic in animal studies have raised public concern over the possible adverse health effects of DBPs. To date, several hundred DBPs have been identified. To prioritize research efforts, an in-depth, mechanism-based structure-activity relationship analysis, supplemented by extensive literature search for genotoxicity and other data, was conducted for ranking the carcinogenic potential of DBPs that met the following criteria: a) detected in actual drinking water samples, b) have insufficient cancer bioassay data for risk assessment, and c) have structural features/alerts or short-term predictive assays indicative of carcinogenic potential. A semiquantitative concern rating scale of low, marginal, low-moderate, moderate, high-moderate, and high was used along with delineation of scientific rationale. Of the 209 DBPs analyzed, 20 were of priority concern with a moderate or high-moderate rating. Of these, four were structural analogs of MX and five were haloalkanes that presumably will be controlled by existing and future THM regulations. The other eleven DBPs, which included halonitriles (6), haloketones (2), haloaldehyde (1), halonitroalkane (1), and dialdehyde (1), are suitable priority candidates for future carcinogenicity testing and/or mechanistic studies. PMID:11834465

  15. Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity Data: New Initiatives to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Currents models for prediction of chemical carcinogenicity and mutagenicity rely upon a relatively small number of publicly available data resources, where the data being modeled are highly summarized and aggregated representations of the actual experimental results. A number of new initiatives are underway to improve access to existing public carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data for use in modeling, as well as to encourage new approaches to the use of data in modeling. Rodent bioassay results from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Berkeley Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) have provided the largest public data resources for building carcinogenicity prediction models to date. However, relatively few and limited representations of these data have actually informed existing models. Initiatives, such as EPA's DSSTox Database Network, offer elaborated and quality reviewed presentations of the CPDB and expanded data linkages and coverage of chemical space for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. In particular the latest published DSSTox CPDBAS structure-data file includes a number of species-specific and summary activity fields, including a species-specific normalized score for carcinogenic potency (TD50) and various weighted summary activities. These data are being incorporated into PubChem to provide broad

  16. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  17. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as ‘probable’ and ‘possible’ human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities. PMID:27748850

  18. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers (Review).

    PubMed

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as 'probable' and 'possible' human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities.

  19. In vitro screening of inhibition of PPAR-γ activity as a first step in identification of potential breast carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Kopp, T I; Lundqvist, J; Petersen, R K; Oskarsson, A; Kristiansen, K; Nellemann, C; Vogel, U

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol consumption and increased estrogen levels are major risk factors for breast cancer, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) plays an important role in alcohol-induced breast cancer. PPAR-γ activity is inhibited by ethanol, leading to increased aromatase activity and estrogen biosynthesis ultimately leading to breast cancer. If other organic solvents inhibit PPAR-γ activity, they should also lead to increased oestrogen biosynthesis and thus be potential breast carcinogens. Ten commonly used hydrophilic organic solvents were first tested in a cell-based screening assay for inhibitory effects on PPAR-γ transactivation. The chemicals shown to inhibit PPAR-γ were tested with vectors encoding PPAR-γ with deleted AB domains and only the ligand-binding domain to rule out unspecific toxicity. Next, the effects on biosynthesis of estradiol, testosterone and oestrone sulphate were measured in the H295R steroidogenesis assay after incubation with the chemicals. Ethylene glycol, ethyl acetate, and dimethyl sulphoxide inhibited PPAR-γ transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect on PPAR-γ was specific for PPAR-γ since the AB domain of PPAR-γ was required for the inhibitory effect. In the second step, ethylene glycol significantly increased production of oestradiol by 19% (p < 0.05) and ethyl acetate inhibited production of testosterone (p < 0.05). We here show that screening of 10 commonly used organic solvents for the ability to inhibit PPAR-γ transactivation followed by a well-established steroidogenesis assay for production of sex hormones in exposed H295 R cells may provide a screening tool for potential breast carcinogens. This initial screening thus identified ethylene glycol and possibly ethyl acetate as potential breast carcinogens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. In vivo transgenic bioassays and assessment of the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed Central

    Contrera, J F; DeGeorge, J J

    1998-01-01

    There is general agreement in the scientific community on the need to improve carcinogenicity testing and the assessment of human carcinogenic risk and to incorporate more information on mechanisms and modes of action into the risk assessment process. Advances in molecular biology have identified a growing number of genes such as protooncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are highly conserved across species and are associated with a wide variety of human and animal cancers. In vivo transgenic rodent models incorporating such mechanisms are used to identify mechanisms involved in tumor formation and as selective tests for carcinogens. Transgenic methods can be considered an extension of genetic manipulation by selective breeding, which long has been employed in science and agriculture. The use of two rodent species in carcinogenicity testing is especially important for identifying transspecies carcinogens. The capacity of a substance to induce neoplasia across species suggests that the mechanism(s) involved in the induction of the neoplasia are conserved and therefore may have significance for humans. Based on available information there is sufficient experience with some in vivo transgenic rodent carcinogenicity models to support their application as complementary second species studies in conjunction with a single 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study. The optional substitution of a second 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study with an alternative study such as an in vivo transgenic carcinogenicity study is part of the International Conference on Harmonization guidance S1B: Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals. This guidance is intended to be flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of possible carcinogenicity assessment models currently under consideration or models that may be developed in the future. The use of an in vivo transgenic mouse model in place of a second 2-year mouse study will improve the assessment of carcinogenic risk by contributing

  1. Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Corpet, Denis E; van den Berg, Martin; Ross, Matthew K; Christiani, David C; Beland, Frederick A; Smith, Martyn T

    2018-04-05

    Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as 'is genotoxic,' 'is immunosuppressive' or 'modulates receptor-mediated effects,' and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings. A systematic search, screening and evaluation procedure identified a broad literature encompassing multiple KCs for most (12/16) IARC Group 1 or 2A carcinogens identified in these meetings. Five carcinogens are genotoxic and induce oxidative stress, of which pentachlorophenol, hydrazine and malathion also showed additional KCs. Four others, including welding fumes, are immunosuppressive. The overall evaluation was upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic data for only two agents, tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachloroazobenzene. Both carcinogens modulate receptor-mediated effects in combination with other KCs. Fewer studies were identified for Group 2B or 3 agents, with the vast majority (17/18) showing only one or no KCs. Thus, an objective approach to identify and evaluate mechanistic studies pertinent to cancer revealed strong evidence for multiple KCs for most Group 1 or 2A carcinogens but also identified opportunities for improvement. Further development and mapping of toxicological and biomarker endpoints and pathways relevant to the KCs can advance the systematic search and evaluation of mechanistic data in carcinogen hazard identification.

  2. Estimating occupational exposure to carcinogens in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Labrèche, France; Duguay, Patrice; Ostiguy, Claude; Boucher, Alexandre; Roberge, Brigitte; Peters, Cheryl E; Demers, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    We estimated the extent of exposure to occupational carcinogens in Quebec, Canada, to help raise awareness of occupational cancers. Proportions of workers exposed to 21 recognized and 17 probable carcinogens (according to Quebec occupational health regulation and the International Agency for Research on Cancer [IARC] classification) were extracted from various sources: workplace monitoring data, research projects, a population survey, radiation protection data, exposure estimates from the Carcinogen Exposure Canada (CAREX Canada) Project database, and published exposure data. These proportions were applied to Quebec labor force data. Among the 38 studied, carcinogens with the largest proportions of exposed workers were solar radiation (6.6% of workers), night shift work/rotating shift work including nights (6.0%), diesel exhaust fumes (4.4%), wood dust (2.9%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (2.0%). More than 15 carcinogens were identified in several industrial sectors, and up to 100,000 young workers are employed in these sectors. Although crude, estimates obtained with different data sources allow identification of research and intervention priorities for cancer in Quebec. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nonmutagenic carcinogens induce intrachromosomal recombination in dividing yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, R H

    1993-12-01

    A large number of animal and human carcinogens without apparent genotoxic activity exist (nonmutagenic carcinogens) that are difficult or impossible to detect with the currently used short-term tests. Because of the association of carcinogenesis with genome rearrangement, a system selecting for intrachromosomal recombination (DEL recombination) that results in genome rearrangement has been constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because DEL recombination is under different genetic control than interchromosomal recombination and meiotic recombination, it is probably due to a different mechanism. It has been found that DEL recombination is readily inducible by 10 mutagenic carcinogens and 17 nonmutagenic carcinogens that are not detectable (false negatives) with the Ames assay. In addition, three out of four mutagens that do not cause cancer (false positives in the Ames assay) do not induce DEL recombination. DEL recombination is inducible by UV only in dividing cells but not in cells synchronized in the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle. Interchromosomal recombination, on the other hand, is inducible in G1 but not in G2. The nonmutagenic carcinogens induce DEL recombination only in actively growing cells, which may give some indication as to their mechanism. Further characterization of the mechanism involved in induction of DEL recombination may contribute to the understanding of the biological activity of nonmutagenic carcinogens.

  4. Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Corpet, Denis E; van den Berg, Martin; Ross, Matthew K; Christiani, David C; Beland, Frederick A; Smith, Martyn T

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as ‘is genotoxic,’ ‘is immunosuppressive’ or ‘modulates receptor-mediated effects,’ and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings. A systematic search, screening and evaluation procedure identified a broad literature encompassing multiple KCs for most (12/16) IARC Group 1 or 2A carcinogens identified in these meetings. Five carcinogens are genotoxic and induce oxidative stress, of which pentachlorophenol, hydrazine and malathion also showed additional KCs. Four others, including welding fumes, are immunosuppressive. The overall evaluation was upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic data for only two agents, tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachloroazobenzene. Both carcinogens modulate receptor-mediated effects in combination with other KCs. Fewer studies were identified for Group 2B or 3 agents, with the vast majority (17/18) showing only one or no KCs. Thus, an objective approach to identify and evaluate mechanistic studies pertinent to cancer revealed strong evidence for multiple KCs for most Group 1 or 2A carcinogens but also identified opportunities for improvement. Further development and mapping of toxicological and biomarker endpoints and pathways relevant to the KCs can advance the systematic search and evaluation of mechanistic data in carcinogen hazard identification. PMID:29562322

  5. Cytogenetic studies of mice chronically fed carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Director, A.E.; Ramsey, M.J.; Tucker, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    Over the past few years, we have carried out chronic feeding studies in C57BL/6 female mice. These experiments examined the effect of the chronic ingestion of a single chemical carcinogen on chromosomes. The carcinogens studied were PhIP,MeIQx, cyclophosphamide and urethane. These studies used traditional assays, such as SCEs and MN, as well as chromosome painting. In all four cases, the traditional assays showed an increase in the frequency of lesions, demonstrating that the chemicals, and/or their reactive metabolites, reached the target nuclei. This, however, seemed at odds with the data obtained from chromosome painting, which did not show an increasemore » in the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations. This discrepancy between traditional assays and chromosome painting may be due to the nature of the lesions that each assay identifies. The traditional assays tend to identify lesions on the chromatid level, where as chromosome painting identifies lesions on the chromosome level requires two or more DNA double strand breaks occurring proximally in both time and space. In other words, for exposure to a chemical carcinogen to induce an increase in chromosome aberrations as measured by chromosome painting, the chemical, or its metabolites, would have to cause a large number of double strand breaks. By applying this logic to the data obtained from the four chronic feeding studies, one can infer that the chronic ingestion of chemical carcinogens does not result in the frequent formation of double strand breaks and therefore, does not result in the frequent formation of double strand breaks and therefore, does not result in increased frequencies of stable chromosome aberrations. We must, therefore, look elsewhere for the mechanism(s) underlying carcinogenesis due to chronic exposure to chemical carcinogens.« less

  6. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  7. Genetic toxicology of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jackson, M.A.; Stack, H.F.; Waters, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The report examines a group of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens that have been cited in the published literature. Using short-term test data from the US Environmental Protection Agency/International Agency for Research on Cancer genetic activity profile (EPA/IARC GAP) database, these agents are classified on the basis of their mutagenicity emphasizing three genetic endpoints: gene mutation, chromosomal aberration and aneuploidy. On the basis of results of short-term tests for these effects, criteria was defined for evidence of mutagenicity (and nonmutagenicity) these criteria were applied in classifying the group of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens. The results from this evaluation based on the EPA/IARC GAPmore » database are presented along with a summary of the short-term test data for each chemical and the relevant carcinogenicity results from the NTP, Gene-Tox and IARC databases. The data clearly demonstrate that many of the putative nongenotoxic carcinogens that have been adequately tested in short-term bioassays induce gene or chromosomal mutations or aneuploidy.« less

  8. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    PubMed

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  9. Sucralose Non-Carcinogenicity: A Review of the Scientific and Regulatory Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Colin; Brusick, David; Cohen, Samuel M.; Hardisty, Jerry F.; Grotz, V. Lee; Williams, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulatory authorities worldwide have found the nonnutritive sweetener, sucralose, to be noncarcinogenic, based on a range of studies. A review of these and other studies found through a comprehensive search of electronic databases, using appropriate key terms, was conducted and results of that review are reported here. An overview of the types of studies relied upon by regulatory agencies to assess carcinogenicity potential is also provided as context. Physiochemical and pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic studies confirm stability under conditions of use and reveal no metabolites of carcinogenic potential. In vitro and in vivo assays reveal no confirmed genotoxic activity. Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animal models provide no evidence of carcinogenic potential for sucralose. In studies in healthy adults, sucralose was well-tolerated and without evidence of toxicity or other changes that might suggest a potential for carcinogenic effects. In summary, sucralose does not demonstrate carcinogenic activity even when exposure levels are several orders of magnitude greater than the range of anticipated daily ingestion levels. PMID:27652616

  10. Sucralose Non-Carcinogenicity: A Review of the Scientific and Regulatory Rationale.

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin; Brusick, David; Cohen, Samuel M; Hardisty, Jerry F; Grotz, V Lee; Williams, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory authorities worldwide have found the nonnutritive sweetener, sucralose, to be noncarcinogenic, based on a range of studies. A review of these and other studies found through a comprehensive search of electronic databases, using appropriate key terms, was conducted and results of that review are reported here. An overview of the types of studies relied upon by regulatory agencies to assess carcinogenicity potential is also provided as context. Physiochemical and pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic studies confirm stability under conditions of use and reveal no metabolites of carcinogenic potential. In vitro and in vivo assays reveal no confirmed genotoxic activity. Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animal models provide no evidence of carcinogenic potential for sucralose. In studies in healthy adults, sucralose was well-tolerated and without evidence of toxicity or other changes that might suggest a potential for carcinogenic effects. In summary, sucralose does not demonstrate carcinogenic activity even when exposure levels are several orders of magnitude greater than the range of anticipated daily ingestion levels.

  11. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    PubMed

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans

  12. Cell transformation and mutability of different genetic loci in mammalian cells by metabolically activated carcinogenic polycylic hydrocarbons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Huberman, E.

    1977-01-01

    Treatment of experimental animals with chemical carcinogens, including some polycyclic hydrocarbons, can result in the formation of malignant tumors. The process whereby some chemicals induce malignancy is as yet unknown. However, in a model system using mammalian cells in culture, it was possible to show that the chemical carcinogens induce malignant transformation rather than select for pre-existing tumor cells. In the process of the in vitro cell transformation, the normal cells, which have an oriented pattern of cell growth, a limited life-span in vitro, and are not tumorigenic, are converted into cells that have a hereditary random pattern of cellmore » growth, the ability to grow continuously in culture, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. This stable heritable phenotype of the transformed cells is similar to that of cells derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced tumors. Such stable heritable phenotype changes may arise from alteration in gene expression due to a somatic mutation after interaction of the carcinogen with cellular DNA. In the present experiments we have shown that metabolically activated carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons which have been shown to bind to cellular DNA induce somatic mutations at different genetic loci in mammalian cells and that there is a relationship between the degree of mutant induction and the degree of carcinogenicity of the different hydrocarbons tested.« less

  13. Reducing the use of carcinogens: the Massachusetts experience.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Molly M; Massey, Rachel I; Tenney, Heather; Harriman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Toxics use reduction (TUR) is one part of a comprehensive cancer prevention strategy. TUR emphasizes reducing the use of cancer-causing chemicals by improving manufacturing processes and identifying and adopting safer alternatives. This analysis draws on 20 years of data collected from industries reporting to the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA) program to assess trends in the use and release of chemicals associated with cancer. We used a master list of known and suspected carcinogens developed from authoritative sources and a list of carcinogens grouped by their association with 11 cancer sites to analyze trends in use and release of chemicals by industrial facilities reporting to the TURA program from 1990 to 2010. The trend analysis shows that reported use and releases of carcinogens by these Massachusetts companies have decreased dramatically over time. Reported use declined 32% from 1990 to 2010, and reported releases declined 93% from 1991 to 2010 (1991 is when additional industrial sectors, including electric utilities, were phased into the program). Particularly large reductions were achieved in the use of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and cadmium and cadmium compounds. The analysis of groups of chemicals associated with specific cancer sites shows similar trends. Important opportunities for further reductions in many carcinogens, including formaldehyde, hexavalent chromium, and a variety of halogenated compounds are identified. Continued work to minimize the use of carcinogens can help to reduce the burden of cancer in Massachusetts and elsewhere.

  14. Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

  15. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc(-/-)p53(+/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Melis, Joost P M; Speksnijder, Ewoud N; Kuiper, Raoul V; Salvatori, Daniela C F; Schaap, Mirjam M; Maas, Saskia; Robinson, Joke; Verhoef, Aart; van Benthem, Jan; Luijten, Mirjam; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-15

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed the Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chicken Fetal Liver DNA Damage and Adduct Formation by Activation-Dependent DNA-Reactive Carcinogens and Related Compounds of Several Structural Classes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary M.; Duan, Jian-Dong; Brunnemann, Klaus D.; Iatropoulos, Michael J.; Vock, Esther; Deschl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The chicken egg genotoxicity assay (CEGA), which utilizes the liver of an intact and aseptic embryo-fetal test organism, was evaluated using four activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and four structurally related less potent carcinogens or non-carcinogens. In the assay, three daily doses of test substances were administered to eggs containing 9–11-day-old fetuses and the fetal livers were assessed for two endpoints, DNA breaks using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and DNA adducts using the 32P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) assay. The effects of four carcinogens of different structures requiring distinct pathways of bioactivation, i.e., 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were compared with structurally related non-carcinogens fluorene (FLU) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) or weak carcinogens, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The four carcinogens all produced DNA breaks at microgram or low milligram total doses, whereas less potent carcinogens and non-carcinogens yielded borderline or negative results, respectively, at higher doses. AAF and B[a]P produced DNA adducts, whereas none was found with the related comparators FLU or B[e]P, consistent with comet results. DEN and NDELA were also negative for adducts, as expected in the case of DEN for an alkylating agent in the standard NPL assay. Also, AFB1 and AFB2 were negative in NPL, as expected, due to the nature of ring opened aflatoxin adducts, which are resistant to enzymatic digestion. Thus, the CEGA, using comet and NPL, is capable of detection of the genotoxicity of diverse DNA-reactive carcinogens, while not yielding false positives for non-carcinogens. PMID:24973097

  17. Chicken fetal liver DNA damage and adduct formation by activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and related compounds of several structural classes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Duan, Jian-Dong; Brunnemann, Klaus D; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Vock, Esther; Deschl, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    The chicken egg genotoxicity assay (CEGA), which utilizes the liver of an intact and aseptic embryo-fetal test organism, was evaluated using four activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and four structurally related less potent carcinogens or non-carcinogens. In the assay, three daily doses of test substances were administered to eggs containing 9-11-day-old fetuses and the fetal livers were assessed for two endpoints, DNA breaks using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and DNA adducts using the (32)P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) assay. The effects of four carcinogens of different structures requiring distinct pathways of bioactivation, i.e., 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were compared with structurally related non-carcinogens fluorene (FLU) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) or weak carcinogens, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA). The four carcinogens all produced DNA breaks at microgram or low milligram total doses, whereas less potent carcinogens and non-carcinogens yielded borderline or negative results, respectively, at higher doses. AAF and B[a]P produced DNA adducts, whereas none was found with the related comparators FLU or B[e]P, consistent with comet results. DEN and NDELA were also negative for adducts, as expected in the case of DEN for an alkylating agent in the standard NPL assay. Also, AFB1 and AFB2 were negative in NPL, as expected, due to the nature of ring opened aflatoxin adducts, which are resistant to enzymatic digestion. Thus, the CEGA, using comet and NPL, is capable of detection of the genotoxicity of diverse DNA-reactive carcinogens, while not yielding false positives for non-carcinogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P M

    1998-08-01

    Of 240 pesticides screened for carcinogenicity by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs, at least 24 (10%) produce thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Thirteen of the thyroid carcinogens also induce liver tumors, mainly in mice, and 9 chemicals produce tumors at other sites. Some mutagenic data are available on all 24 pesticides producing thyroid tumors. Mutagenicity does not seem to be a major determinant in thyroid carcinogenicity, except for possibly acetochlor; evidence is less convincing for ethylene thiourea and etridiazole. Studies on thyroid-pituitary functioning, including indications of thyroid cell growth and/or changes in thyroxine, triiodothyronine, or thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, are available on 19 pesticides. No such antithyroid information is available for etridiazole, N-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide, terbutryn, triadimefon, and trifluralin. Of the studied chemicals, only bromacil lacks antithyroid activity under study conditions. Intrathyroidal and extrathyroidal sites of action are found: amitrole, ethylene thiourea, and mancozeb are thyroid peroxidase inhibitors; and acetochlor, clofentezine, fenbuconazole, fipronil, pendimethalin, pentachloronitrobenzene, prodiamine, pyrimethanil, and thiazopyr seem to enhance the hepatic metabolism and excretion of thyroid hormone. Thus, with 12 pesticides that mode of action judgments can be made, 11 disrupt thyroid-pituitary homeostasis only; no chemical is mutagenic only; and acetochlor may have both antithyroid and some mutagenic activity. More information is needed to identify other potential antithyroid modes of thyroid carcinogenic action.

  19. Target organs in chronic bioassays of 533 chemical carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Manley, N.B.

    1991-06-01

    A compendium of carcinogenesis bioassay results organized by target organ is presented for 533 chemicals that are carcinogenic in at least one species. This compendium is based primarily on experiments in rats or mice; results in hamsters, nonhuman primates, and dogs are also reported. The compendium can be used to identify chemicals that induce tumors at particular sites, and to determine whether target sites are the same for chemicals positive in more than one species. The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), which includes results of 3969 experiments, is used in the analysis. The published CPDB includes details on each test, andmore » literature references. Chemical carcinogens are reported for 35 different target organs in rats or mice. More than 80% of the carcinogens in each of these species are positive in at least one of the 8 most frequent target sites; liver, lung, mammary gland, stomach, vascular system, kidney, hematopoietic system, and urinary bladder. An analysis is presented of how well one can predict the carcinogenic response in mice from results in rats, or vice versa. Among chemicals tested in both species, 76% of rat carcinogens are positive in mice, and 71% of mouse carcinogens are positive in rats. Prediction is less accurate to the same target site: 52% of rat carcinogens are positive in the same site in mice, and 48% of mouse carcinogens are positive in the same site in rats. The liver is the most frequent site in common between rats and mice.« less

  20. Current and emerging challenges in toxicopathology: Carcinogenic threshold of phenobarbital and proof of arsenic carcinogenicity using rat medium-term bioassays for carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fukushima, Shoji; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2005-09-01

    For the last 25 years, Prof. Nobuyuki Ito and his laboratory have focused on the development of liver medium-term bioassay system for detection of carcinogens in F344 rats utilizing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci as an end point marker. In this presentation, the outline and samples of medium-term bioassay systems were described. Furthermore, our data demonstrated the presence of a threshold for the non-genotoxic carcinogen, phenobarbital (PB), and the lack of linearity in the low-dose area of the dose-response curve, providing evidence for hormesis. In addition, the establishment and applications of multiorgan carcinogenicity bioassay (DMBDD model), used for themore » examination of the carcinogenicity of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals, are discussed. Dimethylarsinic acid, one of organic arsenics, was found to be carcinogenic in rat bladder using DMBDD model and carcinogenicity test.« less

  1. [Application of quantum-chemical methods to prediction of the carcinogenicity of chemical substances].

    PubMed

    Zholdikova, Z I; Kharchevnikova, N V

    2006-01-01

    A version of logical-combinatorial JSM type intelligent system was used to predict the presence and the degree of a carcinogenic effect. This version was based on combined description of chemical substances including both structural and numeric parameters. The new version allows for the fact that the toxicity and danger caused by chemical substances often depend on their biological activation in the organism. The authors substantiate classifying chemicals according to their carcinogenic activity, and illustrate the use of the system to predict the carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a model of bioactivation via the formation of diolepoxides, and the carcinogenicity of halogenated alkanes using a model of bioactivation via oxidative dehalogenation. The paper defined the boundary level of an energetic parameter, the exceeding of which correlated with the inhibition of halogenated alkanes's metabolism and the absence of carcinogenic activity.

  2. Risk-based indicators of Canadians' exposures to environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Setton, Eleanor; Hystad, Perry; Poplawski, Karla; Cheasley, Roslyn; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Keller, C Peter; Demers, Paul A

    2013-02-12

    Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food and beverages. The ability to

  3. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, was developed in support of the EPA's evaluation of a petition from the American Chemistry Council requesting to delist EGBE per the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Title III, section 112(b)(1). The position paper was a key component of the Agency's recent determination to grant this petition. It will also be used in the Agency's IRIS assessment of ethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE). An NTP (1998; 2000) study has reported some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidence of hemangiosarcomas of the liver, and some evidence of carcinogenic activity in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidence of forestomach squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas.

  4. Use of Cell Viability Assay Data Improves the Prediction Accuracy of Conventional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Models of Animal Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Rusyn, Ivan; Richard, Ann; Tropsha, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Background To develop efficient approaches for rapid evaluation of chemical toxicity and human health risk of environmental compounds, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in collaboration with the National Center for Chemical Genomics has initiated a project on high-throughput screening (HTS) of environmental chemicals. The first HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested for their effects on cell viability in six different cell lines have recently become available via PubChem. Objectives We have explored these data in terms of their utility for predicting adverse health effects of the environmental agents. Methods and results Initially, the classification k nearest neighbor (kNN) quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modeling method was applied to the HTS data only, for a curated data set of 384 compounds. The resulting models had prediction accuracies for training, test (containing 275 compounds together), and external validation (109 compounds) sets as high as 89%, 71%, and 74%, respectively. We then asked if HTS results could be of value in predicting rodent carcinogenicity. We identified 383 compounds for which data were available from both the Berkeley Carcinogenic Potency Database and NTP–HTS studies. We found that compounds classified by HTS as “actives” in at least one cell line were likely to be rodent carcinogens (sensitivity 77%); however, HTS “inactives” were far less informative (specificity 46%). Using chemical descriptors only, kNN QSAR modeling resulted in 62.3% prediction accuracy for rodent carcinogenicity applied to this data set. Importantly, the prediction accuracy of the model was significantly improved (72.7%) when chemical descriptors were augmented by HTS data, which were regarded as biological descriptors. Conclusions Our studies suggest that combining NTP–HTS profiles with conventional chemical descriptors could considerably improve the predictive power of computational approaches in toxicology. PMID

  5. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the identification of human carcinogens: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Islami, F

    2013-04-01

    The use of biological-based markers of exposure, intermediate effect, outcome, and susceptibility has become standard practice in cancer epidemiology, which has contributed to identification of several carcinogenic agents. Nevertheless, with the exception of biological agents, this contribution, in terms of providing sufficiently strong evidence as required by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs, has been modest. We discuss the overall contribution of molecular epidemiology to identification of carcinogens, with focus on IARC monographs. For many carcinogens, valid biological markers of exposure and mechanisms of actions are not available. Molecular markers are usually assessed in single biological samples, which may not represent the actual exposure or biological events related to carcinogens. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to identification of carcinogens has mainly been limited to the carcinogens acting through a genotoxic mechanism, i.e. when carcinogens induce DNA damage. A number of factors, including certain hormones and overweight/obesity, may show carcinogenic effects through nongenotoxic pathways, for which mechanisms of carcinogenicity are not well identified and their biomarkers are sparse. Longitudinal assessment of biomarkers may provide more informative data in molecular epidemiology studies. For many carcinogens and mechanistic pathways, in particular nongenotoxic carcinogenicity, valid biological markers still need to be identified.

  6. Novel naïve Bayes classification models for predicting the carcinogenicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Cao, Zhi-Xing; Li, Meng; Li, Yu-Zhi; Peng, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    The carcinogenicity prediction has become a significant issue for the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a novel prediction model of carcinogenicity of chemicals by using a naïve Bayes classifier. The established model was validated by the internal 5-fold cross validation and external test set. The naïve Bayes classifier gave an average overall prediction accuracy of 90 ± 0.8% for the training set and 68 ± 1.9% for the external test set. Moreover, five simple molecular descriptors (e.g., AlogP, Molecular weight (M W ), No. of H donors, Apol and Wiener) considered as important for the carcinogenicity of chemicals were identified, and some substructures related to the carcinogenicity were achieved. Thus, we hope the established naïve Bayes prediction model could be applied to filter early-stage molecules for this potential carcinogenicity adverse effect; and the identified five simple molecular descriptors and substructures of carcinogens would give a better understanding of the carcinogenicity of chemicals, and further provide guidance for medicinal chemists in the design of new candidate drugs and lead optimization, ultimately reducing the attrition rate in later stages of drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p <0.001), primarily among workers in the industry sector. A total of 32% of the workers in the province of Salamanca was exposed to some occupational carcinogen. Women were more exposed in the service sector and men in the agriculture and livestock sector. Nearly one third of the workers belonging to the external prevention services of the province of Salamanca, were exposed to some kind of occupational carcinogens. The most frequent being biological risks, solvent products, and silica, which were above the national mean of exposure. It is important to consider the exposure to occupational carcinogens in the implementation of interventions in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicogenomics and cancer risk assessment: a framework for key event analysis and dose-response assessment for nongenotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Bercu, Joel P; Jolly, Robert A; Flagella, Kelly M; Baker, Thomas K; Romero, Pedro; Stevens, James L

    2010-12-01

    In order to determine a threshold for nongenotoxic carcinogens, the traditional risk assessment approach has been to identify a mode of action (MOA) with a nonlinear dose-response. The dose-response for one or more key event(s) linked to the MOA for carcinogenicity allows a point of departure (POD) to be selected from the most sensitive effect dose or no-effect dose. However, this can be challenging because multiple MOAs and key events may exist for carcinogenicity and oftentimes extensive research is required to elucidate the MOA. In the present study, a microarray analysis was conducted to determine if a POD could be identified following short-term oral rat exposure with two nongenotoxic rodent carcinogens, fenofibrate and methapyrilene, using a benchmark dose analysis of genes aggregated in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes, which likely encompass key event(s) for carcinogenicity. The gene expression response for fenofibrate given to rats for 2days was consistent with its MOA and known key events linked to PPARα activation. The temporal response from daily dosing with methapyrilene demonstrated biological complexity with waves of pathways/biological processes occurring over 1, 3, and 7days; nonetheless, the benchmark dose values were consistent over time. When comparing the dose-response of toxicogenomic data to tumorigenesis or precursor events, the toxicogenomics POD was slightly below any effect level. Our results suggest that toxicogenomic analysis using short-term studies can be used to identify a threshold for nongenotoxic carcinogens based on evaluation of potential key event(s) which then can be used within a risk assessment framework. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity based on chemicals evaluated in the IARC monographs.

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, H; Tomatis, L

    1983-01-01

    The qualitative relationship between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (DNA-damaging activity), based on chemicals which are known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic to man and/or to experimental animals, is analyzed using 532 chemicals evaluated in Volumes 1-25 of the IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. About 40 compounds (industrial processes) were found to be either definitely or probably carcinogenic to man, and 130 chemicals have been adequately tested in rodents and most of them also in various short-term assays. For a comparison between the carcinogenicity of a chemical and its behavior in short-term tests, systems were selected that have a value for predicting carcinogenicity. These were divided into mutagenicity in (A) the S. typhimurium/microsome assay, (B) other submammalian systems and (C) cultured mammalian cells; (D) chromosomal abnormalities in mammalian cells; (E) DNA damage and repair; (F) cell transformation (or altered growth properties) in vitro. The following conclusions can be drawn. In the absence of studies in man, long-term animal tests are still today the only ones capable of providing evidence of the carcinogenic effect of a chemical. The development and application of an appropriate combination of short-term tests (despite current limitations) can significantly contribute to the prediction/confirmation of the carcinogenic effects of chemicals in animals/man. Confidence in positive tests results is increased when they are confirmed in multiple short-term tests using nonrepetitive end points and different activation systems. Assays to detect carcinogens which do not act via electrophiles (promoters) need to be developed. The results of a given short-term test should be interpreted in the context of other toxicological data. Increasing demand for quantitative carcinogenicity data requires further examination of whether or not there is a quantitative relationship between the potency of a

  10. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc{sup −/−}p53{sup +/−} mice

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden; Speksnijder, Ewoud N.

    2013-01-15

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed themore » Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Highlights: ► The Xpc*p53 mouse model is able to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. ► Time, animals and cost can be significantly reduced compared to the 2-year bioassay. ► Xpc*p53 mice are more advantageous for carcinogen identification than Xpa*p53 mice. ► Xpc*p53 mice exhibit a wild type response upon exposure to genotoxicants.« less

  11. In vitro cell transformation assays for an integrated, alternative assessment of carcinogenicity: a data-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The study of the chemical carcinogenesis mechanisms and the design of efficient prevention strategies and measures are of crucial importance to protect human health. The long-term carcinogenesis bioassays have played a central role in protecting human health, but for ethical and practical reasons their use is dramatically diminishing, and the genotoxicity short-term tests have taken the pivotal role in the pre-screening of carcinogenicity. However, there is evidence that this strategy is not sensitive enough to detect all genotoxic carcinogens and it cannot detect nongenotoxic carcinogens. In a previous article, we have shown that an integrated strategy consisting of the in vitro Ames and Syrian Hamster Embryo cells transformation assays, combined with structure-activity relationships, is a valid alternative to the present pre-screening strategies. Here, we expand the previous investigation by (i) including results of cell transformation assays on inorganics, together with an additional assay (Bhas 42), and (ii) considering new structural alerts for nongenotoxic carcinogenicity. We also present a new analysis on global relationships between toxicological endpoints. The new results confirm that the previously proposed integrated, alternative strategy is an efficient tool to identify both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens, with an estimated 90-95% sensitivity.

  12. Clarifying carcinogenicity of ethylbenzene

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Chan, Po; Melnick, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Ethylbenzene has been evaluated for carcinogenic activity in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed by inhalation [Chan et al 1998;Chan & NTP 1999] and in Sprague-Dawley rats after oral exposure [Maltoni et al 1985,1997]. Bioassay findings are summarized below to expand on those not stated clearly or completely in Saghir et al [2010]. Overall in these three studies animals exposed to ethylbenzene had increased tumors in rats for kidneys, testes, head [including rare neuroesthesioepitheliomas], and total malignant tumors, whilst in mice tumors incidences were increased in the lung and liver [Huff,2002]. Thus ethylbenzene was carcinogenic by two exposure routes to both sexes of two species of rodents, two strains of rats, and one strain of mice, causing collectively tumors in five different target organs and a composite of “total malignant”tumors. PMID:20723573

  13. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  14. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A mechanism-mediated model for carcinogenicity: Model content and prediction of the outcome of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays currently being conducted on 25 organic chemicals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Purdy, R.

    A hierarchical model consisting of quantitative structure-activity relationships based mainly on chemical reactivity was developed to predict the carcinogenicity of organic chemicals to rodents. The model is comprised of quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSARs based on hypothesized mechanisms of action, metabolism, and partitioning. Predictors included octanol/water partition coefficient, molecular size, atomic partial charge, bond angle strain, atomic acceptor delocalizibility, atomic radical superdelocalizibility, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy of hypothesized intermediate nitrenium ion of primary aromatic amines, difference in charge of ionized and unionized carbon-chlorine bonds, substituent size and pattern on polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, the distance between lone electron pairsmore » over a rigid structure, and the presence of functionalities such as nitroso and hydrazine. The model correctly classified 96% of the carcinogens in the training set of 306 chemicals, and 90% of the carcinogens in the test set of 301 chemicals. The test set by chance contained 84% of the positive thiocontaining chemicals. A QSAR for these chemicals was developed. This posttest set modified model correctly predicted 94% of the carcinogens in the test set. This model was used to predict the carcinogenicity of the 25 organic chemicals the U.S. National Toxicology Program was testing at the writing of this article. 12 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  16. Effect of Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice on the metabolic activation and detoxication of carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethylamine in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Szaefer, Hanna; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Oszmiański, Jan; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2009-06-10

    Chokeberry is a rich source of polyphenols, which may counteract the action of chemical carcinogens. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chokeberry juice alone or in combination with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) on phase I and phase II enzymes and DNA damage in rat liver. The forced feeding with chokeberry juice alone decreased the activities of enzymatic markers of cytochrome P450, CYP1A1 and 1A2. NDEA treatment also decreased the activity of CYP2E1 but enhanced the activity of CYP2B. Pretreatment with chokeberry juice further reduced the activity of these enzymes. Modulation of P450 enzyme activities was accompanied by the changes in the relevant proteins levels. Phase II enzymes were increased in all groups of animals tested. Chokeberry juice augmented DNA damage and aggravated the effect of NDEA. These results indicate that chokeberry may protect against liver damage; however, in combination with chemical carcinogens it might enhance their effect.

  17. Carcinogen susceptibility is regulated by genome architecture and predicts cancer mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    García-Nieto, Pablo E; Schwartz, Erin K; King, Devin A; Paulsen, Jonas; Collas, Philippe; Herrera, Rafael E; Morrison, Ashby J

    2017-10-02

    The development of many sporadic cancers is directly initiated by carcinogen exposure. Carcinogens induce malignancies by creating DNA lesions (i.e., adducts) that can result in mutations if left unrepaired. Despite this knowledge, there has been remarkably little investigation into the regulation of susceptibility to acquire DNA lesions. In this study, we present the first quantitative human genome-wide map of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the ubiquitous carcinogen in sunlight that causes skin cancer. Remarkably, the pattern of carcinogen susceptibility across the genome of primary cells significantly reflects mutation frequency in malignant melanoma. Surprisingly, DNase-accessible euchromatin is protected from UV, while lamina-associated heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery is vulnerable. Many cancer driver genes have an intrinsic increase in carcinogen susceptibility, including the BRAF oncogene that has the highest mutation frequency in melanoma. These findings provide a genome-wide snapshot of DNA injuries at the earliest stage of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, they identify carcinogen susceptibility as an origin of genome instability that is regulated by nuclear architecture and mirrors mutagenesis in cancer. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Application of bacterial reverse mutation assay for detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Kanode, Rewan; Chandra, Saurabh; Sharma, Sharad

    2017-06-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens may play a significant role in development of cancer. Currently short-term assays for mutagenicity classify genotoxic carcinogens and lack the abilities to detect epigenetic carcinogens. The need to develop an endpoint always remains to recognize potentially carcinogenic agents employing rapid and practical bioassays. For this, the present study utilized TA98 and TA1537 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium to evaluate four non-genotoxic carcinogenic agents (Coumarin, β-Myrcene, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and trans-anethole). These chemicals were tested individually and in combination with promutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in presence of metabolic activation system (S9) by plate incorporation method. Exposure to all four test chemicals revealed marked increase of revertant colonies in promutagen combined groups as compared to promutagens alone. However significantly greater fold responses were observed with 2AA combination groups (Coumarin +2AA, β-Myrcene +2AA, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate +2AA and trans-anethole +2AA) with TA98 strain as compared with TA1537, which seems to have enhanced the mutagenic response of 2AA in metabolically activated conditions. It is concluded that out of both tester strains TA98 strain of Salmonella typhimurium has the potential to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens when combined with potent promutgens either by inhibiting or modulating activities of liver microsomal enzymes biochemically which may indirectly contribute to neoplastic alterations. Further this simple, short-term alternative assay may provide rapid information during extrapolative toxicology for differentiating genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens.

  19. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) programs and the regulation of carcinogens: Methods and philosophies. Technical report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jackson, M.; Johnson, L.; Kelly, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the manner in which the EPA identifies, assesses risk for, and regulates substances determined to cause cancer in humans. The report provides an overall perspective of the carcinogen standard-setting process as it is affected by scientific, legal, and political influences. Discussed are: history and methods of carcinogen regulation; toxicological methods for determining carcinogenicity; the use of human-exposure data to regulate carcinogens; an overview of the agency's system for classifying chemical agents suspected or known to cause cancer; significant Federal court cases and decisions that have influenced attempts by Federal agencies to regulate carcinogens; and factors affecting EPAsmore » regulation of carcinogens.« less

  20. Rodent carcinogens: Setting priorities

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Stern, B.R.

    1992-10-09

    The human diet contains an enormous background of natural chemicals, such as plant pesticides and the products of cooking, that have not been a focus of carcinogenicity testing. A broadened perspective that includes these natural chemicals is necessary. A comparison of possible hazards for 80 daily exposures to rodent carcinogens from a variety of sources is presented, using an index (HERP) that relates human exposure to carcinogenic potency in rodents. A similar ordering would be expected with the use of standard risk assessment methodology for the same human exposure values. Results indicate that, when viewed against the large background ofmore » naturally occurring carcinogens in typical portions of common foods, the residues of synthetic pesticides or environmental pollutants rank low. A similar result is obtained in a separate comparison of 32 average daily exposures to natural pesticides and synthetic pesticides residues in the diet. Although the findings do not indicate that these natural dietary carcinogens are important in human cancer, they cast doubt on the relative importance for human cancer of low-dose exposures to synthetic chemicals.« less

  1. Carcinogenicity assessments of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals: a review of approved molecules and best practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Vahle, John L; Finch, Gregory L; Heidel, Shawn M; Hovland, David N; Ivens, Inge; Parker, Suezanne; Ponce, Rafael A; Sachs, Clifford; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Short, Brian; Todd, Marque D

    2010-06-01

    An important safety consideration for developing new therapeutics is assessing the potential that the therapy will increase the risk of cancer. For biotherapeutics, traditional two-year rodent bioassays are often not scientifically applicable or feasible. This paper is a collaborative effort of industry toxicologists to review past and current practice regarding carcinogenicity assessments of biotherapeutics and to provide recommendations. Publicly available information on eighty marketed protein biotherapeutics was reviewed. In this review, no assessments related to carcinogenicity or tumor growth promotion were identified for fifty-one of the eighty molecules. For the twenty-nine biotherapeutics in which assessments related to carcinogenicity were identified, various experimental approaches were employed. This review also discusses several key principles to aid in the assessment of carcinogenic potential, including (1) careful consideration of mechanism of action to identify theoretical risks, (2) careful investigation of existing data for indications of proliferative or immunosuppressive potential, and (3) characterization of any proliferative or immunosuppressive signals detected. Traditional two-year carcinogenicity assays should not be considered as the default method for assessing the carcinogenicity potential of biotherapeutics. If experimentation is considered warranted, it should be hypothesis driven and may include a variety of experimental models. Ultimately, it is important that preclinical data provide useful guidance in product labeling.

  2. Antioxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Lambert, Joshua D; Sang, Shengmin

    2009-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace), a popular beverage consumed world-wide, has been studied for its preventive effects against cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other diseases. Most of the proposed beneficial effects have been attributed to the polyphenolic compounds in tea, but the nature of these activities and the molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Tea polyphenols are known to be strong antioxidants. Prevention of oxidative stress, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, and prevention of DNA damage have been suggested as possible cancer preventive mechanisms for tea and tea polyphenols. In this chapter, we discuss these topics in the light of biotransformation and bioavailability of tea polyphenols. We also review the preventive effects of tea polyphenols in animal models of carcinogenesis and some of the possible post-initiation mechanisms of action. Finally, we discuss the effects of tea consumption on cancer risk in humans. It is our aim to raise some of the unanswered questions regarding cancer prevention by tea and to stimulate further research in this area.

  3. Carcinogens in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, J. Bradford

    1976-01-01

    Reports the presence and use of known carcinogens in Kentucky colleges, junior colleges, and high schools. Includes a listing of known carcinogens and the synonym names under which each may be labeled. (SL)

  4. Activation of nitrite. [Interaction of amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in digestive tract of animals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lijinsky, W.

    At low doses dietary nitrite has no obvious deleterious effect, even when ingested for long periods, and nitrites have been used for a long time as flavoring and coloring additives to meat and fish and as preservatives in food in which there is a danger of botulism. In recent years there has been increasing concern that one form of activation of nitrite might be related to cancer. That is the property of interaction with amino compounds to form N-nitroso compounds, which are potent chemical carcinogens. Results are reported from studies on the carcinogenic effects of nitrite and amines in rats.more » (CH)« less

  5. Carcinogens induce reversion of the mouse pink-eyed unstable mutation

    PubMed Central

    Schiestl, Robert H.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Khogali, Fathia; Carls, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    Deletions and other genome rearrangements are associated with carcinogenesis and inheritable diseases. The pink-eyed unstable (pun) mutation in the mouse is caused by duplication of a 70-kb internal fragment of the p gene. Spontaneous reversion events in homozygous pun/pun mice occur through deletion of a duplicated sequence. Reversion events in premelanocytes in the mouse embryo detected as black spots on the gray fur of the offspring were inducible by the carcinogen x-rays, ethyl methanesulfonate, methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, trichloroethylene, benzene, and sodium arsenate. The latter three carcinogens are not detectable with several in vitro or in vivo mutagenesis assays. We studied the molecular mechanism of the carcinogen-induced reversion events by cDNA analysis using reverse transcriptase–PCR method and identified the induced reversion events as deletions. DNA deletion assays may be sensitive indicators for carcinogen exposure. PMID:9114032

  6. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, A; Pulliero, A

    2014-07-01

    The first evidence that microRNA expression is early altered by exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in still healthy organisms was obtained for cigarette smoke. To date, the cumulative experimental data indicate that similar effects are caused by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropyrenes, endocrine disruptors, airborne mixtures, carcinogens in food and water, and carcinogenic drugs. Accordingly, the alteration of miRNA expression is a general mechanism that plays an important pathogenic role in linking exposure to environmental toxic agents with their pathological consequences, mainly including cancer development. This review summarizes the existing experimental evidence concerning the effects of chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. For each carcinogen, the specific microRNA alteration signature, as detected in experimental studies, is reported. These data are useful for applying microRNA alterations as early biomarkers of biological effects in healthy organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, microRNA alteration results in carcinogenesis only if accompanied by other molecular damages. As an example, microRNAs altered by chemical carcinogens often inhibits the expression of mutated oncogenes. The long-term exposure to chemical carcinogens causes irreversible suppression of microRNA expression thus allowing the transduction into proteins of mutated oncogenes. This review also analyzes the existing knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which environmental carcinogens alter microRNA expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves p53-microRNA interconnection, microRNA adduct formation, and alterations of Dicer function. On the whole, reported findings provide evidence that microRNA analysis is a molecular toxicology tool that can elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms activated by environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between molecular connectivity and carcinogenic activity: a confirmation with a new software program based on graph theory.

    PubMed Central

    Malacarne, D; Pesenti, R; Paolucci, M; Parodi, S

    1993-01-01

    For a database of 826 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity, we fragmented the structural formula of the chemicals into all possible contiguous-atom fragments with size between two and eight (nonhydrogen) atoms. The fragmentation was obtained using a new software program based on graph theory. We used 80% of the chemicals as a training set and 20% as a test set. The two sets were obtained by random sorting. From the training sets, an average (8 computer runs with independently sorted chemicals) of 315 different fragments were significantly (p < 0.125) associated with carcinogenicity or lack thereof. Even using this relatively low level of statistical significance, 23% of the molecules of the test sets lacked significant fragments. For 77% of the molecules of the test sets, we used the presence of significant fragments to predict carcinogenicity. The average level of accuracy of the predictions in the test sets was 67.5%. Chemicals containing only positive fragments were predicted with an accuracy of 78.7%. The level of accuracy was around 60% for chemicals characterized by contradictory fragments or only negative fragments. In a parallel manner, we performed eight paired runs in which carcinogenicity was attributed randomly to the molecules of the training sets. The fragments generated by these pseudo-training sets were devoid of any predictivity in the corresponding test sets. Using an independent software program, we confirmed (for the complex biological endpoint of carcinogenicity) the validity of a structure-activity relationship approach of the type proposed by Klopman and Rosenkranz with their CASE program. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8275991

  8. Carcinogenic agents in snuff.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Harley, N H; Fisenne, I; Adams, J D; Brunnemann, K D

    1986-03-01

    The oral use of snuff has been associated with an increased-risk for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. The five most popular U.S. snuff brands were analyzed for alkaloids, volatile and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), benzo[a]pyrene (CAS: 50-32-8), and polonium-210. The carcinogenic TSNA in the five snuff brands ranged from 9,600 to 289,000 ppb. These concentrations exceed the nitrosamine concentrations of other consumer products by at least 2 orders of magnitude. Polonium amounted to 0.16-1.22 pCi/g dry snuff. Trace amounts of benzo[a]pyrene (0.1-63 ppb) were indicative of contamination of the tobacco with thermal degradation products, probably due to fire curing or flue curing. The findings from this study, the biologic activity of snuff in animal models, and the epidemiologic studies on snuff use and oral cancer strongly suggest the need for reduction of carcinogens and especially of nitrosamines and polonium-210 in snuff.

  9. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in human bronchial epithelium treated with various chemical carcinogens in vitro

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ishikawa, T.; Ide, F.; Kodama, K.

    1984-07-01

    A system was developed in which organ culture of human bronchial epithelium was used in combination with autoradiography for quantitative measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in bronchial epithelial cells. Human bronchi obtained at surgery were cut into small sections and treated with various carcinogens plus (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine in short-term organ culture. Significant numbers of silver grains, indicating UDS, were detected on the nuclei of epithelial cells of human bronchi treated with carcinogens, and the numbers were proportional to the concentrations of carcinogens. In this system seven representative carcinogens induced UDS. Four active metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene, and benz(a)anthracene also weremore » found to induce very active UDS in human bronchial epithelium. These findings suggest that human bronchial epithelial cells can repair different types of DNA modification induced by chemical carcinogens.« less

  10. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  11. Mechanism-based classification of PAH mixtures to predict carcinogenic potential

    DOE PAGES

    Tilton, Susan C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; ...

    2015-04-22

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[ a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[ def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a two-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC>>BaP=Mix2=Mix3>Mix1=Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profilesmore » measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared to tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (p<0.05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. As a result, these data further provide a ‘source-to outcome’ model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.« less

  12. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  13. Novel Uses of In Vitro Data to Develop Quantitative Biological Activity Relationship Models for in Vivo Carcinogenicity Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Prachi; Povinelli, Richard J; Merrill, Stephen J; Bozdag, Serdar; Sem, Daniel S

    2015-04-01

    The availability of large in vitro datasets enables better insight into the mode of action of chemicals and better identification of potential mechanism(s) of toxicity. Several studies have shown that not all in vitro assays can contribute as equal predictors of in vivo carcinogenicity for development of hybrid Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. We propose two novel approaches for the use of mechanistically relevant in vitro assay data in the identification of relevant biological descriptors and development of Quantitative Biological Activity Relationship (QBAR) models for carcinogenicity prediction. We demonstrate that in vitro assay data can be used to develop QBAR models for in vivo carcinogenicity prediction via two case studies corroborated with firm scientific rationale. The case studies demonstrate the similarities between QBAR and QSAR modeling in: (i) the selection of relevant descriptors to be used in the machine learning algorithm, and (ii) the development of a computational model that maps chemical or biological descriptors to a toxic endpoint. The results of both the case studies show: (i) improved accuracy and sensitivity which is especially desirable under regulatory requirements, and (ii) overall adherence with the OECD/REACH guidelines. Such mechanism based models can be used along with QSAR models for prediction of mechanistically complex toxic endpoints. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Julie E.; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A.; Fahey, Jed W.; Normolle, Daniel P.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Kensler, Thomas W.; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSEs) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared to vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. PMID:27339168

  15. Carcinogen Control in the Chemical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents general and specific guidelines for handling carcinogens. Additional topics include: definition of potential occupational carcinogens; classification of carcinogens; inventory requirements; signs and labels for materials and laboratories; decontamination and disposal procedures; medical surveillance for employees working with controlled…

  16. Testing chemical carcinogenicity by using a transcriptomics HepaRG-based model?

    PubMed Central

    Doktorova, T. Y.; Yildirimman, Reha; Ceelen, Liesbeth; Vilardell, Mireia; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Ates, Gamze; Heymans, Anja; Gmuender, Hans; Bort, Roque; Corvi, Raffaella; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Li, Ruoya; Mouchet, Nicolas; Chesne, Christophe; van Delft, Joost; Kleinjans, Jos; Castell, Jose; Herwig, Ralf; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The EU FP6 project carcinoGENOMICS explored the combination of toxicogenomics and in vitro cell culture models for identifying organotypical genotoxic- and non-genotoxic carcinogen-specific gene signatures. Here the performance of its gene classifier, derived from exposure of metabolically competent human HepaRG cells to prototypical non-carcinogens (10 compounds) and hepatocarcinogens (20 compounds), is reported. Analysis of the data at the gene and the pathway level by using independent biostatistical approaches showed a distinct separation of genotoxic from non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens and non-carcinogens (up to 88 % correct prediction). The most characteristic pathway responding to genotoxic exposure was DNA damage. Interlaboratory reproducibility was assessed by blindly testing of three compounds, from the set of 30 compounds, by three independent laboratories. Subsequent classification of these compounds resulted in correct prediction of the genotoxicants. As expected, results on the non-genotoxic carcinogens and the non-carcinogens were less predictive. In conclusion, the combination of transcriptomics with the HepaRG in vitro cell model provides a potential weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of chemical substances. PMID:26417288

  17. Congenic rats with higher arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 activity exhibit greater carcinogen-induced mammary tumor susceptibility independent of carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Marcus W; Doll, Mark A; Samuelson, David J; Sanders, Mary Ann G; States, J Christopher; Hein, David W

    2017-03-31

    Recent investigations suggest role(s) of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) in breast cancer. Rat NAT2 is orthologous to human NAT1 and the gene products are functional homologs. We conducted in vivo studies using F344.WKY-Nat2 rapid/slow rats, congenic at rat Nat2 for high (rapid) and low (slow) arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity, to assess a possible role for rat NAT2 in mammary tumor susceptibility. Mammary carcinogens, methylnitrosourea (MNU) and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) neither of which is metabolized by N-acetyltransferase, were administered to assess mammary tumors. MNU was administered at 3 or 8 weeks of age. DMBA was administered at 8 weeks of age. NAT2 enzymatic activity and endogenous acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) levels were measured in tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the congenic rats. Tumor latency was shorter in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats, with statistical significance for MNU administered at 3 and 8 weeks of age (p = 0.009 and 0.050, respectively). Tumor multiplicity and incidence were higher in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats administered MNU or DMBA at 8 weeks of age (MNU, p = 0.050 and 0.035; DMBA, p = 0.004 and 0.027, respectively). Recombinant rat rapid-NAT2, as well as tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts derived from rapid NAT2 rats, catalyzed p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyl transfer and folate-dependent acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) hydrolysis at higher rates than those derived from rat slow-NAT2. Embryonic fibroblasts isolated from rapid NAT2 rats displayed lower levels of cellular AcCoA than slow NAT2 rats (p < 0.01). A novel role for rat NAT2 in mammary cancer was discovered unrelated to carcinogen metabolism, suggesting a role for human NAT1 in breast cancer.

  18. Low-Dose Carcinogenicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major deficiencies of cancer risk assessments is the lack of low-dose carcinogenicity data. Most assessments require extrapolation from high to low doses, which is subject to various uncertainties. Only 4 low-dose carcinogenicity studies and 5 low-dose biomarker/pre-n...

  19. METABOLISM, GENOTOXICITY, AND CARCINOGENICITY OF COMFREY

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P.; Fuscoe, James C.; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction. PMID:21170807

  20. The carcinogenicity of chromium

    PubMed Central

    Norseth, Tor

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds is reviewed with specific attention to the gaps in knowledge for risk estimation and research needs. The most important problems at present are whether trivalent chromium compounds cause cancer, and whether there is a difference in cancer causing effects between the soluble and the slightly soluble hexavalent compounds in the practical exposure situation. Dose estimates for risk estimation based on epidemiological investigations are also lacking. Present evidence indicates that the trivalent chromium compounds do not cause cancer although high concentrations in some in vitro systems have shown genetic toxicity. Hexavalent chromium compounds cause cancer in humans, in experimental animals and exert genetic toxicity in bacteria and in mammalian cells in vitro. Epidemiological evidence and animal experiments indicate that the slightly soluble hexavalent salts are the most potent carcinogens, but proper identification and characterization of exposure patterns in epidemiological work are lacking. Workers also tend to have mixed exposures. Soluble and slightly soluble salts are equally potent genotoxic agents in vitro. Further work for establishing dose estimates for risk evaluation in epidemiological work is important. In vitro systems should be applied for further identification of the mechanism of the carcinogenic effects, and animal experiments are urgent for comparison of the carcinogenic potency of the different hexavalent salts. Hexavalent chromium salts must be regarded as established carcinogens, and proper action should be taken in all industries with regard to such exposure. At present the carcinogenic risk to the general population caused by chromium compounds seems to be negligible, chromium in cigarettes, however, is an uncertainty in this respect. The amount of chromium and the type of chromium compounds inhaled from cigarettes is not known. PMID:7023928

  1. Selection of an in vitro carcinogenicity test for derivatives of the carcinogen hexamethylphosphoramide.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J.; Styles, J. A.; Anderson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The demonstration that hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) possesses potent carcinogenic properties has raised doubts about the safety of exposure to other phosphoric amides. In order to define a suitable short-term test with which to evaluate such analogues, the response of the Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay of Ames and cell transformation assay of Styles to HMPA and 3 selected analogues has been studied. These analogues were the related leukaemogen phosphoramide, the putative non-carcinogen, phosphoric trianilide and N.N'N''-trimethylphosphorothioic triamide, a compound of unknown and hitherto unpredictable properties. While both tests found the trianilide negative, the Ames test failed to detect phosphoramide as positive and gave an erratic and predominantly negative response to HMPA. In contrast, the transformation assay found both phosphoramide and HMPA positive. This test response profile indicates that the transformation assay is the preferred test with which to evaluate analogues of HMPA for potential carcinogenicity. Some structural requirements for potential carcinogenicity within this class of compounds are tentatively deduced. PMID:337998

  2. Mutagens and carcinogens - Occurrence and role during chemical and biological evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner-Sorolla, A.; Oro, J.

    1981-01-01

    The roles of mutagenic and carcinogenic substances in early biologic evolution is examined, along with terrestrial and extraterrestrial sources of mutagens and carcinogens. UV solar radiation is noted to have served to stimulate prebiotic life while also causing harmful effects in plants and animals. Aromatic compounds have been found in meteorites, and comprise leukemogens, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and nitrasamine precursors. Other mutagenic sources are volcanoes, and the beginning of evolution with mutagenic substances is complicated by the appearance of malignancies due to the presence of carcinogens. The atmosphere of the Precambrian period contained both mutagens and early carcinogens and, combined with volcanic activity discharges, formed an atmospheric chemical background analogous to the background ionizing radiation. Carcinogenesis is concluded to be intrinsic to nature, having initiated evolution and, eventually, cancer cells.

  3. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  4. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Health effects of coal mining and combustion: carcinogens and cofactors.

    PubMed Central

    Falk, H L; Jurgelski, W

    1979-01-01

    Some polynuclear aromatics (PNA) have been found to be potent carcinogens for all tissues and organs of experimental animals that have been exposed to them, but different dose levels are needed for these effects. They have been known for decades to cause cancer at the site of application but also at certain sites distant from the area of contact. Although some hydrocarbons are potent and complete carcinogens, the majority of related hydrocarbons was originally found to be inactive. Since they generally appear together, it was important to know more about their interaction, particularly whether they would synergize, or antagonize. The polycyclic hydrocarbons have been studied by subcutaneous injection, where they prove very potent carcinogens. They are also very active on the skin of mice where they produce cancer on prolonged application. Inhalation studies, require larger doses yielded negative results until particulate matter was introduced which facilitated the development of lung tumors. Although iron oxide dust was used initially, other dusts were also capable of enhancing the response of the tissue to benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis. This point is of importance, particularly since the inhalation of PNA in situations of air pollution or coal mining involves particulates, although of a different type. Soot is not a homogenous substance and several factors determine its properties. Soots will lose some of the absorbed chemicals during their residence in air, but they retain their PNAs for long periods of time when they reach the soil. The carcinogenicity of PNAs in the adsorbed state may be completely absent, depending on particle size of the soot and availability of eluting capability of the tissues or cells in contact with the soot. Whenever the carcinogenic polynuclear aromatics can be eluted they will be active in producing cancer if their residence is adequate. There seems to be no reason to assume that a large increase in coal combustion in the future will

  6. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Julie E; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A; Fahey, Jed W; Normolle, Daniel P; Grandis, Jennifer R; Kensler, Thomas W; Johnson, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 547-57. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Moesin Is a Biomarker for the Assessment of Genotoxic Carcinogens in Mouse Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-01-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane and glycidol are well known genotoxic carcinogens, which have been widely used in industry. To identify a specific biomarker for these carcinogens in cells, the cellular proteome of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with these compounds was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Of 50 protein spots showing a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity compared to control cells on a 2-D gel, we focused on the candidate biomarker moesin. Western analysis using monoclonal rabbit anti-moesin confirmed the identity of the protein and its increased level of expression upon exposure to the carcinogenic compounds. Moesin expression also increased in cells treated with six additional genotoxic carcinogens, verifying that moesin could serve as a biomarker to monitor phenotypic change upon exposure to genotoxic carcinogens in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. PMID:22358511

  8. Antagonistic interactions of an arsenic-containing mixture in a multiple organ carcinogenicity bioassay.

    PubMed

    Pott, W A; Benjamin, S A; Yang, R S

    1998-11-27

    Inorganic arsenic (As), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are frequently identified as groundwater contaminants near hazardous waste disposal sites. While the carcinogenicity of each of these chemicals has been extensively studied individually, little information exists regarding their carcinogenic potential in combination. Therefore, we investigated the carcinogenic promoting potential of chemical mixtures containing arsenic, DCE, VC and TCE following multiple initiator administration in a multiple organ carcinogenicity bioassay (N. Ito, T. Shirai, S. Fukushima, Medium-term bioassay for carcinogens using multiorgan models, in: N. Ito, H. Sugano (Eds.), Modification of Tumor Development in Rodents, Prog. Exp. Tumor Res., 33, 41-57, Basel, Karger, 1991). Our results reveal a dose-responsive antagonistic effect of this four-chemical mixture on the development of preneoplastic hepatic lesions (altered hepatocellular foci and glutathione S-transferase pi positive foci) as well as bronchioalveolar hyperplasia and adenoma formation.

  9. Moesin is a biomarker for the assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in mouse lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-02-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane and glycidol are well known genotoxic carcinogens, which have been widely used in industry. To identify a specific biomarker for these carcinogens in cells, the cellular proteome of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with these compounds was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Of 50 protein spots showing a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity compared to control cells on a 2-D gel, we focused on the candidate biomarker moesin. Western analysis using monoclonal rabbit anti-moesin confirmed the identity of the protein and its increased level of expression upon exposure to the carcinogenic compounds. Moesin expression also increased in cells treated with six additional genotoxic carcinogens, verifying that moesin could serve as a biomarker to monitor phenotypic change upon exposure to genotoxic carcinogens in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.

  10. Reducing carcinogens in public schools: A non-regulatory approach by a regulatory agency

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Roche, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    The New Jersey Public Employees` Occupational Safety and Health Program identified 318 public school districts that reported any of 10 selected carcinogens on their 1990 New Jersey Right to Know Survey of hazardous substances. After obtaining more information about the school districts` use of these carcinogens from a 10% random sample phone survey, a letter recommending substitution of less hazardous substances was sent to the 318 school districts. Individualized to reflect information provided by the schools in the 1990 survey, a form requesting additional information on the status of containers holding the carcinogens was also sent. There were 1,303 reportsmore » of the 10 carcinogens from the 272 (86%) school districts that completed the form. Most were disposed of (668, 51%), used completely (65, 5%), or were slated for disposal (287, 22%). This is an example of a successful project by a regulatory agency to reduce potential exposure to carcinogens in public schools. The 10 most reported carcinogens were arsenic, arsenic trioxide, asbestos, benzene, benzidine, lead chromate, sodium arsenate, sodium arsenite, sodium dichromate, and vinyl chloride.« less

  11. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated organics: Detection of some single-species/single-site carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brooks, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce DNA damage using the Microscreen prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli. Comparison of the performance characteristics of the prophage-induction and Salmonella assays to rodent carcinogenicity assays showed that the prophage-induction assay had a somewhat higher specificity than did the Salmonella assay (70% vs. 50%); sensitivity, concordance, and positive and negative predictivity were similar for the two microbial assays. The Microscreen prophage-induction assay failed to detect eight carcinogens, perhaps due to toxicity or other unknown factors; five of these eight carcinogens were detected by the Salmonella assay. However, the prophage-induction assaymore » did detect six carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella assay, and five of these were single-species, single-site carcinogens, mostly mouse liver carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens, such as the chloroethanes, produce free radicals, which may be the basis for their carcinogenicity and ability to induce prophage. The prophage-induction (or other SOS) assay may be useful in identifying some genotoxic chlorinated carcinogens that induce DNA damage that do not revert the standard Salmonella tester strains.« less

  12. Evaluating Pesticides for Carcinogenic Potential

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA reviews pesticides for potential carcinogenicity. Learn about EPA's guidelines for evaluating a chemical's potential carcinogenicity and updates to EPA's guidelines to reflect increased understanding of ways chemicals may cause cancer.

  13. Identification of EBP50 as a Specific Biomarker for Carcinogens Via the Analysis of Mouse Lymphoma Cellular Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-01-01

    To identify specific biomarkers generated upon exposure of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells to carcinogens, 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis were conducted using the cellular proteome of L5178Y cells that had been treated with the known carcinogens, 1,2-dibromoethane and O-nitrotoluene and the noncarcinogens, emodin and D-mannitol. Eight protein spots that showed a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity following carcinogen treatment compared with treatment with noncarcinogens were selected. Of the identified proteins, we focused on the candidate biomarker ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), the expression of which was specifically increased in response to treatment with the carcinogens. The expression level of EBP50 was determined by western analysis using polyclonal rabbit anti-EBP50 antibody. Further, the expression level of EBP50 was increased in cells treated with seven additional carcinogens, verifying that EBP50 could serve as a specific biomarker for carcinogens. PMID:22434383

  14. Identification of EBP50 as a specific biomarker for carcinogens via the analysis of mouse lymphoma cellular proteome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-03-01

    To identify specific biomarkers generated upon exposure of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells to carcinogens, 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis were conducted using the cellular proteome of L5178Y cells that had been treated with the known carcinogens, 1,2-dibromoethane and O-nitrotoluene and the noncarcinogens, emodin and D-mannitol. Eight protein spots that showed a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity following carcinogen treatment compared with treatment with noncarcinogens were selected. Of the identified proteins, we focused on the candidate biomarker ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), the expression of which was specifically increased in response to treatment with the carcinogens. The expression level of EBP50 was determined by western analysis using polyclonal rabbit anti-EBP50 antibody. Further, the expression level of EBP50 was increased in cells treated with seven additional carcinogens, verifying that EBP50 could serve as a specific biomarker for carcinogens.

  15. [The National Registry of Occupational Exposures to Carcinogens (SIREP): information system and results].

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The recording of occupational exposure to carcinogens is a fundamental step in order to assess exposure risk factors in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the Italian register of occupational exposures to carcinogen agents (SIREP). The core data collected in the system are: firm characteristics, worker demographics, and exposure information. Statistical descriptive analyses were performed by economic activity sector, carcinogen agent and geographic location. Currently, the information recorded regard: 12,300 firms, 130,000 workers, and 250,000 exposures. The SIREP database has been set up in order to assess, control and reduce the carcinogen risk at workplace.

  16. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a "margin of exposure" approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  17. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barlow, Susan, E-mail: suebarlow@mistral.co.u; Schlatter, Josef; Federal Office of Public Health, Consumer Protection Directorate, Stauffacherstrasse 101, CH-8004 Zuerich

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitudemore » below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.« less

  18. Quantification of the carcinogenic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in used engine oil by topical application onto the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Misfeld, J

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the substances mainly responsible for the carcinogenic effect of used engine oil from gasoline engines using topical application as a carcinogen-specific bioassay. This was performed by comparison of the tumorigenic effect of single fractions with that of an unseparated sample of the lubricating oil. The probit analysis of the results shows: 1) The used engine oil, from gasoline-driven automobiles, investigated provoked local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The incidence of carcinoma depended on the dose of the oil. 2) The fraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than three rings accounts for about 70% of the total carcinogenicity in the case of crankcase oil. This fraction constitutes only up to 1.14% by weight of the total oil sample. 3) The content of benzo(a)pyrene (216.8 mg/kg) accounts for 18% of the total carcinogenicity of the used oil. 4) Regarding the reduced carcinogenicity of the oil sample, which was reconstituted from all fractions, it seems possible that some of the carcinogenic substances were lost due to volatility, with evaporation of the solvents from the oil-fractionation processes. 5) Regarding the small effect of the PAH-free fraction, as well as the equal carcinogenic effects of the PAH-fraction (containing more than three rings) and the reconstituted oil sample, no hints for a co-carcinogenic activity were obtained.

  19. Anti-carcinogenic activity of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate-, an active anti-proliferative principal of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.).

    PubMed

    Fuke, Y; Haga, Y; Ono, H; Nomura, T; Ryoyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Synthetic 4-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MITC)(a potent inducer of phase 2 detoxification enzymes from broccoli) and 6-MITC(a potent anti-proliferative principal from wasabi) slightly inhibited the induction of mouse skin tumor in a two-stage process of carcinogenesis (initiator, 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; promotor,12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), but the effect was not significant. Both compounds, however, significantly inhibited the mutation of skin resulting from topical applications of the carcinogens. When a murine hepatoma cell line, Hepa 1c1c7, was treated with 2-,4-,6- and 8-MITCs, they augmented the induction of its quinone reductase, one of the phase 2 detoxification enzymes in a concentration dependent manner, and the 4- and 6-MITCs were much more potent on the reduction of the enzyme than the 2- and 8-MITCs. All 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs suppressed the growth of murine tumor cells, their suppressive activities being proportional to the length of their methyl residue. They were also cytotoxic to mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages which were not proliferating in vitro, indicating that the cellular targets of isothiocyanate may not be dependent upon the cell cycle. In addition, all the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs inhibited the production of nitric oxide (a potent radical carcinogen) by peritoneal macrophages.

  20. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in Australian road transport workers.

    PubMed

    Si, Si; Carey, Renee; Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah D; Driscoll, Timothy; Darcey, Ellie; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Road transport workers (RTWs) are at high risk of exposure to several occupational carcinogens. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the extent and the circumstances of exposure. As a sub-study of the Australian Work Exposures Study, this study investigated the prevalence of occupational exposure in Australian RTWs. A random sample of Australian working population was invited to a telephone interview regarding their current jobs. An automated expert-assessment procedure was applied to self-reported job-related tasks using a web-based application. 162 RTWs were included in this study. RTWs were exposed to diesel exhaust (97%), solar ultraviolet radiation (78%), environmental tobacco smoke (55%), benzene (29%), silica (15%), and asbestos (10%) at work. Besides driving on roads, vehicle maintenance-related tasks were the major source of carcinogen exposures among RTWs. Most RTWs are exposed to at least one carcinogen at work. We have identified tasks where the use of control measures could potentially reduce exposures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  2. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  3. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of potential carcinogens. 1990.112 Section... CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria for identification, classification and regulation of potential occupational carcinogens will be...

  4. New clues on carcinogenicity-related substructures derived from mining two large datasets of chemical compounds.

    PubMed

    Golbamaki, Azadi; Benfenati, Emilio; Golbamaki, Nazanin; Manganaro, Alberto; Merdivan, Erinc; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Gini, Giuseppina

    2016-04-02

    In this study, new molecular fragments associated with genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens are introduced to estimate the carcinogenic potential of compounds. Two rule-based carcinogenesis models were developed with the aid of SARpy: model R (from rodents' experimental data) and model E (from human carcinogenicity data). Structural alert extraction method of SARpy uses a completely automated and unbiased manner with statistical significance. The carcinogenicity models developed in this study are collections of carcinogenic potential fragments that were extracted from two carcinogenicity databases: the ANTARES carcinogenicity dataset with information from bioassay on rats and the combination of ISSCAN and CGX datasets, which take into accounts human-based assessment. The performance of these two models was evaluated in terms of cross-validation and external validation using a 258 compound case study dataset. Combining R and H predictions and scoring a positive or negative result when both models are concordant on a prediction, increased accuracy to 72% and specificity to 79% on the external test set. The carcinogenic fragments present in the two models were compared and analyzed from the point of view of chemical class. The results of this study show that the developed rule sets will be a useful tool to identify some new structural alerts of carcinogenicity and provide effective information on the molecular structures of carcinogenic chemicals.

  5. Monocyclic aromatic amines as potential human carcinogens: old is new again

    PubMed Central

    Skipper, Paul L.; Kim, Min Young; Sun, H.-L. Patty; Wogan, Gerald N.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Alkylanilines are a group of chemicals whose ubiquitous presence in the environment is a result of the multitude of sources from which they originate. Exposure assessments indicate that most individuals experience lifelong exposure to these compounds. Many alkylanilines have biological activity similar to that of the carcinogenic multi-ring aromatic amines. This review provides an overview of human exposure and biological effects. It also describes recent investigations into the biochemical mechanisms of action that lead to the assessment that they are most probably more complex than those of the more extensively investigated multi-ring aromatic amines. Not only is nitrenium ion chemistry implicated in DNA damage by alkylanilines but also reactions involving quinone imines and perhaps reactive oxygen species. Recent results described here indicate that alkylanilines can be potent genotoxins for cultured mammalian cells when activated by exogenous or endogenous phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. The nature of specific DNA damage products responsible for mutagenicity remains to be identified but evidence to date supports mechanisms of activation through obligatory N-hydroxylation as well as subsequent conjugation by sulfation and/or acetylation. A fuller understanding of the mechanisms of alkylaniline genotoxicity is expected to provide important insights into the environmental and genetic origins of one or more human cancers and may reveal a substantial role for this group of compounds as potential human chemical carcinogens. PMID:19887514

  6. Key Characteristics of Carcinogens as a Basis for Organizing Data on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Martyn T.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Gibbons, Catherine F.; Fritz, Jason M.; Portier, Christopher J.; Rusyn, Ivan; DeMarini, David M.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Lambert, Paul F.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Bucher, John R.; Stewart, Bernard W.; Baan, Robert A.; Cogliano, Vincent J.; Straif, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) updated the assessments of the > 100 agents classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans (IARC Monographs Volume 100, parts A–F). This exercise was complicated by the absence of a broadly accepted, systematic method for evaluating mechanistic data to support conclusions regarding human hazard from exposure to carcinogens. Objectives and Methods: IARC therefore convened two workshops in which an international Working Group of experts identified 10 key characteristics, one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. Discussion: These characteristics provide the basis for an objective approach to identifying and organizing results from pertinent mechanistic studies. The 10 characteristics are the abilities of an agent to 1) act as an electrophile either directly or after metabolic activation; 2) be genotoxic; 3) alter DNA repair or cause genomic instability; 4) induce epigenetic alterations; 5) induce oxidative stress; 6) induce chronic inflammation; 7) be immunosuppressive; 8) modulate receptor-mediated effects; 9) cause immortalization; and 10) alter cell proliferation, cell death, or nutrient supply. Conclusion: We describe the use of the 10 key characteristics to conduct a systematic literature search focused on relevant end points and construct a graphical representation of the identified mechanistic information. Next, we use benzene and polychlorinated biphenyls as examples to illustrate how this approach may work in practice. The approach described is similar in many respects to those currently being implemented by the U.S. EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System Program and the U.S. National Toxicology Program. Citation: Smith MT, Guyton KZ, Gibbons CF, Fritz JM, Portier CJ, Rusyn I, DeMarini DM, Caldwell JC, Kavlock RJ, Lambert P, Hecht SS, Bucher JR, Stewart BW, Baan R, Cogliano VJ, Straif K. 2016. Key characteristics of carcinogens as a

  7. Key Characteristics of Carcinogens as a Basis for Organizing Data on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martyn T; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Gibbons, Catherine F; Fritz, Jason M; Portier, Christopher J; Rusyn, Ivan; DeMarini, David M; Caldwell, Jane C; Kavlock, Robert J; Lambert, Paul F; Hecht, Stephen S; Bucher, John R; Stewart, Bernard W; Baan, Robert A; Cogliano, Vincent J; Straif, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    A recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) updated the assessments of the > 100 agents classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans (IARC Monographs Volume 100, parts A-F). This exercise was complicated by the absence of a broadly accepted, systematic method for evaluating mechanistic data to support conclusions regarding human hazard from exposure to carcinogens. IARC therefore convened two workshops in which an international Working Group of experts identified 10 key characteristics, one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. These characteristics provide the basis for an objective approach to identifying and organizing results from pertinent mechanistic studies. The 10 characteristics are the abilities of an agent to 1) act as an electrophile either directly or after metabolic activation; 2) be genotoxic; 3) alter DNA repair or cause genomic instability; 4) induce epigenetic alterations; 5) induce oxidative stress; 6) induce chronic inflammation; 7) be immunosuppressive; 8) modulate receptor-mediated effects; 9) cause immortalization; and 10) alter cell proliferation, cell death, or nutrient supply. We describe the use of the 10 key characteristics to conduct a systematic literature search focused on relevant end points and construct a graphical representation of the identified mechanistic information. Next, we use benzene and polychlorinated biphenyls as examples to illustrate how this approach may work in practice. The approach described is similar in many respects to those currently being implemented by the U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System Program and the U.S. National Toxicology Program. Smith MT, Guyton KZ, Gibbons CF, Fritz JM, Portier CJ, Rusyn I, DeMarini DM, Caldwell JC, Kavlock RJ, Lambert P, Hecht SS, Bucher JR, Stewart BW, Baan R, Cogliano VJ, Straif K. 2016. Key characteristics of carcinogens as a basis for organizing data on mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Environ Health

  8. Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of cyanobacterial toxins - a review.

    PubMed

    Zegura, Bojana; Straser, Alja; Filipič, Metka

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms has increased significantly in many regions of the world in the last century due to water eutrophication. These blooms are hazardous to humans, animals, and plants due to the production of cyanotoxins, which can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). There is evidence that certain cyanobacterial toxins are genotoxic and carcinogenic; however, the mechanisms of their potential carcinogenicity are not well understood. The most frequently occurring and widespread cyanotoxins in brackish and freshwater blooms are the cyclic heptapeptides, i.e., microcystins (MCs), and the pentapeptides, i.e., nodularins (NODs). The main mechanism associated with potential carcinogenic activity of MCs and NOD is the inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to the hyperphosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is considered to be associated with their tumor-promoting activity. Apart from this, MCs and NOD induce increased formation of reactive oxygen species and, consequently, oxidative DNA damage. There is also evidence that MCs and NOD induce micronuclei, and NOD was shown to have aneugenic activity. Both cyanotoxins interfere with DNA damage repair pathways, which, along with DNA damage, is an important factor involved in the carcinogenicity of these agents. Furthermore, these toxins increase the expression of TNF-α and early-response genes, including proto-oncogenes, genes involved in the response to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Rodent studies indicate that MCs and NOD are tumor promotors, whereas NOD is thought to have also tumor-initiating activity. Another cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN), which has been neglected for a long time, is lately being increasingly found in the freshwater environment. The principal mechanism of its toxicity is the irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. It is pro

  9. Interrelationships among carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, acute toxicity, and chemical structure in a genotoxicity data base

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Benigni, R.; Andreoli, C.; Giuliani, A.

    1989-01-01

    The interrelationships among carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, acute toxicity (LD50), and a number of molecular descriptors were studied by computerized data analysis methods on the data base generated by the International Program for the Evaluation of Short-Term Test for Carcinogens (IPESTTC). With the use of statistical regression methods, three main associations were evidenced: (1) the well-known correlation between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity; (2) a correlation between mutagenicity and toxicity (LD50 ip in mice); and (3) a correlation between toxicity and a recently introduced estimator of the free energy of binding of the molecules to biological receptors. As expected on the basis of themore » large variety of chemical classes represented in the IPESTTC data base, no simple relationship between mutagenicity or carcinogenicity and chemical descriptors was found. To overcome this problem, a new pattern recognition method (REPAD), developed by us for structure-activity studies of noncongeneric chemicals, has been used. This allowed us to highlight a significant difference between the whole patterns of relationships among chemicophysical variables in the two groups to active (mutagenicity and/or carcinogenic) and inactive chemicals. This approach generated a classification rule able to correctly assign about 80% of carcinogens or mutagens.« less

  10. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  11. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies

    PubMed Central

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans. PMID:25716480

  12. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    PubMed

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans.

  13. Carcinogenicity of Disinfection By-products and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review by S.D. Richardson et al. (Mutat. Res. 636:178, 2007) presents the first analysis of the 30-year literature on the genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and occurrence of 87 disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified in drinking water. Of these, 11 are regulated by the U.S. EP...

  14. PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROPOSED CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS FOR ARSENIC.

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In contrast,
    there is no accepted experimental animal model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis.
    Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for a...

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Edible Mushrooms from Niger Delta, Nigeria: Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed

    Igbiri, Sorbari; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Ekhator, Osazuwa Clinton; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2017-02-01

    In the oil-rich Niger Delta, hydrocarbon pollution and oil spillages, gas flaring and sundry anthropogenic activities constitute sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with food contamination playing a major role in human exposure. In this study we assessed PAH levels in wild and cultivated edible mushroom species consumed by the general population from the oil producing Niger Delta, Nigeria. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs were determined by gas chromatography and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were calculated. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs ranged from 0.02 mg/kg – 3.37 mg/kg. The dietary intake of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic USEPA-16 PAHs (Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, Phenanthrene, Flourene, Flouranthene, Pyrene, Benzo[a]Anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo[a]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Flouranthene, Benzo[K]Flouranthene, Benzo[g,h,i] Perylene, Dibenz[a,h]Anthracene and Ideno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene) for adults, adolescents and seniors ranged from 0.00 – 0.05 mg/kg/day, 0.00 – 0.06 mg/kg/day and 0.00 – 0.07 mg/kg/day. The BaPeq ranged from 0.02 – 2.76 with margin of exposure MOE values of BaP ranging from 3,500,000 to 700,000, 3,500,000 and 3,500,000 to 7,000,000 for adults, adolescents and seniors indicating very insignificant health risk. The incremental lifetime cancer risk was within the safe range of 1.56x10-8 – 1.73x10-6 with the highest calculated risk found for wild Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom species from the study area. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Consequences of synergy between environmental carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Berenbaum, M.C.

    1985-12-01

    As it is generally impossible to determine dose-response relationships for carcinogens at the low concentrations in which they occur in the environment, risk-benefit considerations are by consensus based on the linear, no-threshold model, on the assumption that this represents the worst case. However, this assumption does not take into account the possibility of synergistic interactions between carcinogens. It is shown here that, as a result of such interactions, the dose-response curve for added risk due to any individual carcinogen will generally be steeper at lower doses than at higher doses, and consequently the risk at low environmental levels will bemore » higher than would be expected from a linear response. Moreover, this excess risk at low doses is shown to increase as the general level of environmental carcinogens rises and, independently of this effect, it may also increase with the number of carcinogens present.« less

  17. QSAR Study for Carcinogenic Potency of Aromatic Amines Based on GEP and MLPs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fucheng; Zhang, Anling; Liang, Hui; Cui, Lianhua; Li, Wenlian; Si, Hongzong; Duan, Yunbo; Zhai, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    A new analysis strategy was used to classify the carcinogenicity of aromatic amines. The physical-chemical parameters are closely related to the carcinogenicity of compounds. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) is a method of predicting the carcinogenicity of aromatic amine, which can reveal the relationship between carcinogenicity and physical-chemical parameters. This study accessed gene expression programming by APS software, the multilayer perceptrons by Weka software to predict the carcinogenicity of aromatic amines, respectively. All these methods relied on molecular descriptors calculated by CODESSA software and eight molecular descriptors were selected to build function equations. As a remarkable result, the accuracy of gene expression programming in training and test sets are 0.92 and 0.82, the accuracy of multilayer perceptrons in training and test sets are 0.84 and 0.74 respectively. The precision of the gene expression programming is obviously superior to multilayer perceptrons both in training set and test set. The QSAR application in the identification of carcinogenic compounds is a high efficiency method. PMID:27854309

  18. Integration of QSAR and SAR methods for the mechanistic interpretation of predictive models for carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novič, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge-based Toxtree expert system (SAR approach) was integrated with the statistically based counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN) model (QSAR approach) to contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of a carcinogenicity model for non-congeneric chemicals using Dragon descriptors and carcinogenic potency for rats as a response. The transparency of the CP ANN algorithm was demonstrated using intrinsic mapping technique specifically Kohonen maps. Chemical structures were represented by Dragon descriptors that express the structural and electronic features of molecules such as their shape and electronic surrounding related to reactivity of molecules. It was illustrated how the descriptors are correlated with particular structural alerts (SAs) for carcinogenicity with recognized mechanistic link to carcinogenic activity. Moreover, the Kohonen mapping technique enables one to examine the separation of carcinogens and non-carcinogens (for rats) within a family of chemicals with a particular SA for carcinogenicity. The mechanistic interpretation of models is important for the evaluation of safety of chemicals. PMID:24688639

  19. Environmental pollutants, diet, physical activity, body size, and breast cancer: where do we stand in research to identify opportunities for prevention?

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A; Michels, Karin B; Moysich, Kirsten B; Bernstein, Leslie; Attfield, Kathleen R; Gray, Sharon

    2007-06-15

    Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of death in US women in mid-life. Treatment has adverse effects, adding to the importance of finding modifiable risk factors. At the invitation of Susan G. Komen for the Cure, we reviewed studies of breast cancer and environmental pollutants, diet (assessed prospectively), body size, and physical activity, and animal studies that identify chemicals as potential mammary carcinogens. Databases developed in the review include information on 216 chemicals that increased mammary gland tumors in animal studies and 450 epidemiologic studies (accessible at www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and www.komen.org/environment). Exposure to potential mammary carcinogens is widespread from chemicals found in consumer products, air and drinking water pollution, food, and women's workplaces. Epidemiologic studies have included only a small number of chemicals identified as mammary carcinogens or as hormone disruptors, which may have implications for breast cancer; however, evidence is emerging for associations between breast cancer and polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organic solvents. Prospective diet studies have not revealed consistent associations with breast cancer. Improved exposure assessment methods will help advance future human studies of both diet and environmental pollutants. Studies of physical activity show that it is protective. In the same vein as evidence-based medicine, messages for patients, policymakers, and the public should support decision-making based on the strength of current evidence; such messages might address exposure reduction for some pollutants. Investments in research on environmental factors in breast cancer have potentially large public health benefits.

  20. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    11) proposed that L-proyl-tRNA synthetase could esterify N-hydroxy heterocyclic amines and that ATP was required to add the amino acid to the 16...need to be depleted of endogenous amino acids . To test this notion, tRNA synthetase substrates were removed by dialysis in one experiment, and activation...carcinogens in pyrolysates of amino acids and proteins and cooked foods: heterocyclic aromatic amines. In: Y.T. Woo (ed.) Chemical Induction of Cancer

  1. Modulation of carcinogen bioavailability by immunisation with benzo[a]pyrene-conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Grova, Nathalie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J F; Schellenberger, Mario T; Farinelle, Sophie; Muller, Claude P

    2009-06-24

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) conjugate vaccines based on ovalbumin, tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid (DT) as carrier proteins were developed to investigate the effect of specific antibodies on the bioavailability of this ubiquitous carcinogen and its metabolites. After metabolic activation of this prototype carcinogen, B[a]P forms DNA adducts which initiate chemical carcinogenesis. B[a]P-DT conjugate induced the most robust immune response. The antibodies reacted not only with B[a]P but also with the proximate carcinogen 7,8-diol-B[a]P. Antibodies modulated the bioavailability of B[a]P and its metabolic activation in a dose-dependent manner by sequestration in the blood. Our results showed that this immune prophylactic strategy influences the pharmacokinetic of B[a]P and further studies to investigate their effects on chemical carcinogenesis are warranted.

  2. Detection of rare and possibly carcinogenic human papillomavirus genotypes as single infections in invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Geraets, Daan; Alemany, Laia; Guimera, Nuria; de Sanjose, Silvia; de Koning, Maurits; Molijn, Anco; Jenkins, David; Bosch, Xavier; Quint, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types to the burden of cervical cancer has been well established. However, the role and contribution of phylogenetically related HPV genotypes and rare variants remains uncertain. In a recent global study of 8977 HPV-positive invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs), the genotype remained unidentified in 3.7% by the HPV SPF10 PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 (version 1) algorithm. The 331 ICC specimens with unknown genotype were analysed by a novel sequence methodology, using multiple selected short regions in L1. This demonstrated HPV genotypes that have infrequently or never been detected in ICC, ie HPV26, 30, 61, 67, 68, 69, 73 and 82, and rare variants of HPV16, 18, 26, 30, 34, 39, 56, 67, 68, 69, 82 and 91. These are not identified individually by LiPA25 and only to some extent by other HPV genotyping assays. Most identified genotypes have a close phylogenetic relationship with established carcinogenic HPVs and have been classified as possibly carcinogenic by IARC. Except for HPV85, all genotypes in α-species 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11 were encountered as single infections in ICCs. These species of established and possibly carcinogenic HPV types form an evolutionary clade. We have shown that the possibly carcinogenic types were detected only in squamous cell carcinomas, which were often keratinizing and diagnosed at a relatively higher mean age (55.3 years) than those associated with established carcinogenic types (50.9 years). The individual frequency of the possibly carcinogenic types in ICCs is low, but together they are associated with 2.25% of the 8338 included ICCs with a single HPV type. This fraction is greater than seven of the established carcinogenic types individually. This study provides evidence that possibly carcinogenic HPV types occur as single infections in invasive cervical cancer, strengthening the circumstantial evidence of a carcinogenic role. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and

  3. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Doak, S M; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-01-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undiluted (0.2 ml per application) to the shorn dorsal skin twice weekly for up to 78 weeks, with 48 mice in each treatment group and 96 in the untreated control group; two further groups, each of 48 mice, were similarly treated either with a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract (PCA content, 19.7% w/v) or with a low dose of benzo(a)pyrene (12.5 micrograms/ml acetone). The mice were housed individually in polypropylene cages in specified pathogen free conditions. The incidence of cutaneous and systemic tumours was determined from histological analysis of haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. The results were correlated with the PCA content of the extracts and compared with those from female mice exposed to a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract. Four of the hydrotreated extracts were carcinogenic for murine skin; the two products with the lower PCA contents were less carcinogenic than the products with the higher PCA contents and all were less carcinogenic than the commercial extract. One extract with the lowest PCA content was non-carcinogenic. Thus refining by severe hydrotreatment was an effective method of reducing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum aromatic extracts. Although other physicochemical properties may influence the biological activity of oil products, the PCA content determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction may be a useful indicator of the potential of oil products to induce cutaneous tumours in experimental animals. There was no

  6. [Carcinogenic effect of metals].

    PubMed

    Desurmont, M

    1983-09-01

    Some metals are essential oligo-elements for man. However, if the body load of these same metal derivatives becomes excessive they may be responsible for deleterious effects, particularly cytotoxic ones. Metals are divided into four categories: potent carcinogens; presumptive carcinogens with a documented cocarcinogenic effect; ascertained cocarcinogens; metals with no demonstrated carcinogenic or cocarcinogenic effect. The most common tumors induced by metals are those of the lung. Arsenic induces cancer of the lung and skin, beryllium may induce lung cancer, the effects of cobalt are dubious, cadmium can induce cancer of the lung and, above all, prostate, the role of iron is uncertain, hexavalent chrome may induce cancer of the lung and nasal fossae, nickel is responsible for cancer of lung and nasal fossae. Our understanding of metal carcinogenesis is clearly insufficient and more experimental research and epidemiologic studies addressing this subject are needed.

  7. Potential carcinogenicity of homoisoflavanoids and flavonoids from Resina sanguinis draconis (Dracaena cinnabari Balf.).

    PubMed

    Vachálková, A; Novotný, L; Nejedlíková, M; Suchý, V

    1995-01-01

    Polarographic behavior of three homoisoflavanoids and four flavanoids isolated from the dragon's blood (Resina sanguinis draconis. Dracaena cinnabari Balf.), collected at Sokotra, was investigated in aprotic solution and an index of potential carcinogenicity tg alpha was determined. Generally, homoisoflavanoids and flavanoids were reduced in two two-electron steps, the first being reversible and the second one irreversible. The parameter tg alpha values indicated that the majority of these compounds possesses no or only marginal potential carcinogenic activity. However, it was demonstrated that some structural modifications in basic flavonoid structure lead to changed electrochemical properties and a substantial increase of derivative potential carcinogenicity.

  8. Risk assessment for carcinogens under California's Proposition 65

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pease, W.S.; Zeise, L.; Kelter, A.

    1990-06-01

    Risk assessments for carcinogens are being developed through an accelerated process in California as a part of the state's implementation of Proposition 65, the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act. Estimates of carcinogenic potency made by the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) are generally similar to estimates made by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The largest differences are due to EPA's use of the maximum likelihood estimate instead of CDHS' use of the upper 95% confidence bounds on potencies derived from human data and to procedures used to correct for studies of short duration or with earlymore » mortality. Numerical limits derived from these potency estimates constitute no significant risk levels, which govern exemption from Proposition 65's discharge prohibition and warning requirements. Under Proposition 65 regulations, lifetime cancer risks less than 10(-5) are not significant and cumulative intake is not considered. Following these regulations, numerical limits for a number of Proposition 65 carcinogens that are applicable to the control of toxic discharges are less stringent than limits under existing federal water pollution control laws. Thus, existing federal limits will become the Proposition 65 levels for discharge. Chemicals currently not covered by federal and state controls will eventually be subject to discharge limitations under Proposition 65. No significant risk levels (expressed in terms of daily intake of carcinogens) also trigger warning requirements under Proposition 65 that are more extensive than existing state or federal requirements. A variety of chemical exposures from multiple sources are identified that exceed Proposition 65's no significant risk levels.« less

  9. [Risk assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects in the use of food].

    PubMed

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V

    2012-01-01

    Application of methodology for assessing the risk of diseases associated with consumption of contaminated foods, is aimed at predicting possible changes in the future and helps to create a framework for the prevention of negative effects on public health. The purpose of the study is assessment of health risks formed under the influence of chemical contaminants that pollute the food. Exponential average daily dose of receipt of chemicals in the body, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were calculated.

  10. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph, “available...

  11. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph, “available...

  12. 29 CFR 1990.121 - Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. 1990... OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.121 Candidate list of potential occupational carcinogens. (a... Potential Carcinogens or Category II Potential Carcinogens. For the purposes of this paragraph, “available...

  13. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified,more » however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures.« less

  14. [D.lgsl. 625/1994--Protection against carcinogenic agents: the obligation to educate].

    PubMed

    Fucci, P; Anselmi, E; Bracci, C; Comba, P

    1997-01-01

    According to act 626/1994, employers have the duty to inform and train workers and their representatives. The implementation of training activities requires the following points: planning the training program according to the needs of the target population, use of the methods aimed at promoting learning and the adoption of safe behaviour, setting-up of evaluation tools. The disciplines of risk perception and communication and adult training may provide useful contribution in this frame. At the light of the preliminary experiences in this field, the importance of the following items for workers, workers representatives and employers is emphasized: probabilistic causality models, role of cognitive and emotional factors in the learning process, definition of carcinogenic according to national and international organisation, meaning of TLV with respect to carcinogenic exposure, interaction between carcinogens in the case of multiple exposition, risk evaluation, preventive measures, transfer of carcinogen risk from workplace to domestic environment, due to lack of compliance with basic hygienic rules such proper use of work clothes.

  15. A novel toxicogenomics-based approach to categorize (non-)genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Mirjam M; Wackers, Paul F K; Zwart, Edwin P; Huijskens, Ilse; Jonker, Martijs J; Hendriks, Giel; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry; van de Water, Bob; Luijten, Mirjam

    2015-12-01

    Alternative methods to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens are urgently needed, as this class of carcinogens goes undetected in the current testing strategy for carcinogenicity under REACH. A complicating factor is that non-genotoxic carcinogens act through several distinctive modes of action, which makes prediction of their carcinogenic property difficult. We have recently demonstrated that gene expression profiling in primary mouse hepatocytes is a useful approach to categorize non-genotoxic carcinogens according to their modes of action. In the current study, we improved the methods used for analysis and added mouse embryonic stem cells as a second in vitro test system, because of their features complementary to hepatocytes. Our approach involved an unsupervised analysis based on the 30 most significantly up- and down-regulated genes per chemical. Mouse embryonic stem cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to a selected set of chemicals and subsequently subjected to gene expression profiling. We focused on non-genotoxic carcinogens, but also included genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens to test the robustness of this approach. Application of the optimized comparison approach resulted in improved categorization of non-genotoxic carcinogens. Mouse embryonic stem cells were a useful addition, especially for genotoxic substances, but also for detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens that went undetected by primary hepatocytes. The approach presented here is an important step forward to categorize chemicals, especially those that are carcinogenic.

  16. Identification and classification of carcinogens: procedures of the Chemical Substances Threshold Limit Value Committee, ACGIH. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

    PubMed Central

    Spirtas, R; Steinberg, M; Wands, R C; Weisburger, E K

    1986-01-01

    The Chemical Substances Threshold Limit Value Committee of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has refined its procedures for evaluating carcinogens. Types of epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence used are reviewed and a discussion is presented on how the Committee evaluates data on carcinogenicity. Although it has not been conclusively determined whether biological thresholds exist for all types of carcinogens, the Committee will continue to develop guidelines for permissible exposures to carcinogens. The Committee will continue to use the safety factor approach to setting Threshold Limit Values for carcinogens, despite its shortcomings. A compilation has been developed for lists of substances considered to be carcinogenic by several scientific groups. The Committee will use this information to help to identify and classify carcinogens for its evaluation. PMID:3752326

  17. Lactoperoxidase, an Antimicrobial Milk Protein, as a Potential Activator of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmad; Jiffri, Essam Hussain; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Beg, Mohd Amin

    2017-11-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an antimicrobial protein secreted from mammary, salivary and other mucosal glands. It is an important member of heme peroxidase enzymes and the primary peroxidase enzyme present in breast tissues. In addition to the antimicrobial properties, LPO has been shown to be associated with breast cancer etiology. Heterocyclic amines, an important class of environmental and dietary carcinogens, have been increasingly associated with breast cancer etiology. Heterocyclic amines undergo activation in breast tissue as a result of oxidation by LPO. The current study includes three important heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methy-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), that have carcinogenic activity. The structural binding characterization of IQ, MeIQx and PhIP with LPO was done using in silico approaches. Their binding pattern and interactions with LPO amino acid residues were analyzed. The three compounds bound in the distal heme cavity of LPO without replacing the important water molecule required for oxidation of substrate compounds. PhIP displayed lesser binding affinity for LPO in comparison to IQ and MeIQx. The binding mode of heterocyclic amines in distal heme cavity of LPO resembled to that of substrate binding pattern. The three heterocyclic amines are suggested to act as LPO substrate. The undisturbed water molecule present in distal heme cavity of the LPO is expected to facilitate the oxidation and activation of the three heterocyclic amines. These activated compounds may potentially bind with DNA in breast tissues forming DNA adducts and may subsequently lead to breast cancer initiation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Genomic alterations in spontaneous and carcinogen-induced murine melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Vladislava O; Bolshakov, Svetlana V; Walker, Christopher; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N

    2004-03-25

    We have conducted an analysis of genetic alterations in spontaneous murine melanoma cell line B16F0 and its two metastatic clones, B16F1 and B16F10 and the carcinogen-induced murine melanoma cell lines CM519, CM3205, and K1735. We found that unlike human melanomas, the murine melanoma cell lines did not have activating mutations in the Braf oncogene at exon 11 or 15. However, there were distinct patterns of alterations in the ras, Ink4a/Arf, and p53 genes in the two melanoma groups. In the spontaneous B16 melanoma cell lines, expression of p16Ink4a and p19Arf tumor suppressor proteins was lost as a consequence of a large deletion spanning Ink4a/Arf exons 1alpha, 1beta, and 2. In contrast, the carcinogen-induced melanoma cell lines expressed p16Ink4a but had inactivating mutations in either p19Arf (K1735) or p53 (CM519 and CM3205). Inactivation of p19Arf or p53 in carcinogen-induced melanomas was accompanied by constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and/or mutation-associated activation of N-ras. These results indicate that genetic alterations in p16Ink4a/p19Arf, p53 and ras-MAPK pathways can cooperate in the development of murine melanoma.

  19. Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment were published in the Federal Register on April 23, 1996 (Federal Register: 17960-18011) for a 120-day public review and comment period. The Proposed Guidelines are a revision of EPA's 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Ass...

  20. Emerging Issues in Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity with Implications for Structure Activity Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    In silico systems for the prediction of the ability of chemicals to induce carcinogenicity in rodents have generally relied on knowledge of the structure and physical-chemical features of the compound, as well as the mutagenic and genotoxic features of the compound in various bio...

  1. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hooper, K.; LaDou, J.; Rosenbaum, J.S.

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies suchmore » as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.« less

  2. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Hooper, K; LaDou, J; Rosenbaum, J S; Book, S A

    1992-01-01

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.

  3. Binding of environmental carcinogens to asbestos and mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, G; Pagé, M; Dumas, L

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for measuring the binding capacity of asbestos and other mineral fibres for environmental carcinogens. Benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P), nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (NAAF) were assayed in the presence of Canadian grade 4T30 chrysotile, chrysotile A, amosite, crocidolite, glass microfibres, glasswool, attapulgite, and titanium dioxide. Chrysotile binds significantly more carcinogens than the other mineral fibres. This binding assay is reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 8% and 6% respectively for inter and intra assay. The influence of pH was also studied, and there is good correlation between the carcinogen binding and the charge of the tested mineral fibres. The in vitro cytotoxicity on macrophage like cell line P388D1 and the haemolytic activity of various mineral fibres were also measured; a good correlation was found between the binding capacity and the cytotoxicity of tested mineral fibres on P388D1 cells. These results give some explanations for the reported synergism between exposure to asbestos and the smoking habits of workers. PMID:6331497

  4. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium.

    PubMed

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R R

    1980-11-01

    Occupational exposure represents the main source of human contamination by chromium. For non-occupationally exposed people the major environmental exposure to chromium occurs as a consequence of its presence in food. Chromium must be considered as an essential element. Its deficiency impairs glucose metabolism. Trivalent chromium salts are poorly absorbed through the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts because they do not cross membranes easily. Hexavalent chromium can be absorbed by the oral and pulmonary routes and probably also through the skin. After its absorption, hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to the trivalent form which is probably the only form to be found in biological material. Epidemiological studies have shown that some chromium salts (mainly the slightly soluble hexavalent salts) are carcinogens. Lung cancers have, indeed, often been reported among workers in chromate-producing industry and, to a lesser extent, in workers from the chrome-pigment industry. The first attempts to produce cancers in experimental animals by inhalation or parenteral introduction gave negative or equivocal results but, from 1960, positive results have been obtained with various chromium compounds. As for the carcinogenic activity, the mutagenicity of chromium has mainly been found with hexavalent salts. In the majority of assay systems used, trivalent chromium appears inactive. It can be considered as evident, however, that the ultimate mutagen which binds to the genetic material is the trivalent form produced intracellularly from hexavalent chromium, the apparent lack of activity of the trivalent form being due to its poor cellular uptake.

  5. Review of the carcinogenic activity of diethanolamine and evidence of choline deficiency as a plausible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hon-Wing; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Stott, William T

    2005-12-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) is a chemical used widely in a number of industries and is present in many consumer products. Studies by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have indicated that lifetime dermal exposure to DEA increased the incidence and multiplicity of liver tumors in mice, but not in rats. In addition, DEA was not carcinogenic when tested in the Tg.Ac transgenic mouse model. Short-term genotoxicity tests have yielded negative results. In view of these apparent inconsistencies, we have critically evaluated the NTP studies and other data relevant to assessing the carcinogenic potential of DEA. The available data indicate that DEA induces mouse liver tumors by a non-genotoxic mode of action that involves its ability to cause choline deficiency. The following experimental evidence supports this hypothesis. DEA decreased the hepatic choline metabolites and S-adenosylmethionine levels in mice, similar to those observed in choline-deficient mice. In contrast, DEA had no effect in the rat, a species in which it was not carcinogenic at a maximum tolerated dose level. In addition, a consistent dose-effect relationship had been established between choline deficiency and carcinogenic activity since all DEA dosages that induced tumors in the NTP studies were also shown to cause choline deficiency. DEA decreased phosphatidylcholine synthesis by blocking the cellular uptake of choline in vitro, but these events did not occur in the presence of excess choline. Finally, DEA induced transformation in the Syrian hamster embryo cells, increased S-phase DNA synthesis in mouse hepatocytes, and decreased gap junctional intracellular communication in primary cultured mouse and rat hepatocytes, but all these events were prevented with choline supplementation. Since choline is an essential nutrient in mammals, this mode of action is qualitatively applicable to humans. However, there are marked species differences in susceptibility to choline deficiency, with rats and mice being far

  6. Identification and classification of carcinogens: procedures of the Chemical Substances Threshold Limit Value Committee, ACGIH. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Spirtas, R.; Steinberg, M.; Wands, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    The Chemical Substances Threshold Limit Value Committee of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has refined its procedures for evaluating carcinogens. Types of epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence used are reviewed and a discussion is presented on how the Committee evaluates data on carcinogenicity. Although it has not been conclusively determined whether biological thresholds exist for all types of carcinogens, the Committee will continue to develop guidelines for permissible exposures to carcinogens. The Committee will continue to use the safety factor approach to setting Threshold Limit Values for carcinogens, despite its shortcomings. A compilation has been developed for lists ofmore » substances considered to be carcinogenic by several scientific groups. The Committee will use this information to help to identify and classify carcinogens for its evaluation.« less

  7. Carcinogenicity of the insulation wools: reassessment of the IARC evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Davis, J M; Douglas, D; Gruber, U F; Hoskins, J A; Ilgren, E B; Johnson, N F; Rossiter, C E; Wagner, J C

    1991-08-01

    In assessing the health evidence concerning man-made mineral fibers, the chemical composition, surface activity, durability, and size of fibers have to be taken into account. Special-purpose fine glass fibers need to be separated from the insulation wools (glass, rock, and slag wool). The epidemiological evidence is sufficient to conclude that there has been no mesothelioma risk to workers producing or using glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool. The epidemiological studies have been large and powerful, and they show no evidence of a cause-effect relationship between lung cancer and exposure to glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool fibers. There is some evidence of a small cancer hazard attached to the manufacturing process in slag wool plants 20 to 50 years ago, when asbestos was used in some products and other carcinogenic substances were present. However, this hazard is not associated with any index of exposure to slag wool itself. Animal inhalation studies of ordinary insulation wools also show that there is no evidence of hazard associated with exposure to these relatively coarse, soluble fibers. The evidence of carcinogenicity is limited to experiments with special-purpose fine durable glass fibers or experimental fibers, and only when these fibers are injected directly into the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Multiple chronic inhalation studies of these same special-purpose fine glass fibers have not produced evidence of carcinogenicity. It is suggested that the present IARC evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of insulation wools should be revised to Category 3: not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans.

  8. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a limit of 20 ppb or approximately 30 microg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB(1) is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of <1.5 microg of unknown compounds are considered TDIs. Most DNA-reactants, including acrylamide, heterocyclic amines, and alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl are below this value. Above that value, measurement of actual DNA adducts levels in either experimental animals with a risk assessment, or, when this occurs, exposed humans are needed. A number of approaches to undertake this are described including immunological, mass spectrometric and (32)P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to evaluate the results. A

  9. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jeffrey, A.M.; Williams, G.M.

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. Amore » single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), a limit of 20 ppb or {approx}30 {mu}g/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB{sub 1} is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of <1.5 {mu}g of unknown compounds are considered TDIs. Most DNA-reactants, including acrylamide, heterocyclic amines, and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl are below this value. Above that value, measurement of actual DNA adducts levels in either experimental animals with a risk assessment, or, when this occurs, exposed humans are needed. A number of approaches to undertake this are described including immunological, mass spectrometric and {sup 32}P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to

  10. Assessment of global and gene-specific DNA methylation in rat liver and kidney in response to non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ozden, Sibel, E-mail: stopuz@istanbul.edu.tr; Turgut Kara, Neslihan; Sezerman, Osman Ugur

    Altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, which is regulated in part at the level of DNA methylation, is an important event involved in non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. This may serve as a marker for early detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), methapyrilene (MPY) and male rat kidney carcinogens, d-limonene, p-dichlorobenzene (DCB), chloroform and ochratoxin A (OTA) on global and CpG island promoter methylation in their respective target tissues in rats. No significant dose-related effects on global DNA hypomethylation were observed in tissues of rats compared to vehicle controls using LC–MS/MSmore » in response to short-term non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure. Initial experiments investigating gene-specific methylation using methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, revealed partial methylation of p16 in the liver of rats treated with HCB and TCDD. However, no treatment related effects on the methylation status of Cx32, e-cadherin, VHL, c-myc, Igfbp2, and p15 were observed. We therefore applied genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays to identify alterations in gene-specific methylation. Under the conditions of our study, some genes were differentially methylated in response to MPY and TCDD, whereas d-limonene, DCB and chloroform did not induce any methylation changes. 90-day OTA treatment revealed enrichment of several categories of genes important in protein kinase activity and mTOR cell signaling process which are related to OTA nephrocarcinogenicity. - Highlights: • Studied non-genotoxic carcinogens caused no change on global DNA hypomethylation. • d-Limonene, DCB and chloroform did not show any genome-wide methylation changes. • Some genes were differentially methylated in response to MPY, TCDD and OTA. • Protein kinase

  11. Ozonation of mutagenic and carcinogenic polyaromatic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Burleson, G.R.; Caulfield, M.J.; Pollard, M.

    1979-06-01

    The Salmonella-microsome assay for mutagenesis was used to determine the effect of ozone on the mutagenesis of selected carcinogens and mutagens in water. Short periods of ozonation were shown to completely inactivate the mutagenicity of several polyaromatic amine mutagens including acriflavine, proflavine, and beta-naphthylamine. Selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also sensitive to ozonation. Kinetic studies revealed that the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene was destroyed after short periods of ozonation. To correlate loss of mutagenicity with loss of carcinogenicity, two polyaromatic hydrocarbons were treated with ozone, extracted from water with hexane, and tested for carcinogenicity in mice. When 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene andmore » 3-methyl-cholanthrene were treated with ozone, there was a substantial reduction in carcinogenicity compared to control groups treated with oxygen alone. However, a small number of tumors developed in the group of animals receiving a hexane extract of ozonated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. This activity may be due to breakdown products of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene that are not mutagenic.« less

  12. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Leadon, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light. Thymine glycols were detected using a monoclonal antibody against this product in a sensitive immunoassay. We found that thymine glycols were produced in DNA in a dose dependent manner after exposure to the carcinogens and that their production was reduced if either catalase or superoxide dismutase or both were present at the time of treatment. The efficiency of thymine glycol production following exposure to the chemical carcinogens was greater than that following equi-toxic doses of radiation. Thymine glycols were efficiently removed from the DNA of human cells following treatment with either the chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation or ultraviolet light. PMID:3477281

  13. PUBLIC SOURCES OF MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY DATA: USE IN STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    No Abstract - first paragraph of INTRODUCTION

    Publicly supported compilations of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data are available
    for a significant number and variety of environmental and industrial chemicals and, to a lesser
    extent, pharmaceutical chemicals. T...

  14. Paving asphalt products exhibit a lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Goyak, Katy O; McKee, Richard H; Minsavage, Gary D; McGowan, Claude; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Freeman, James J

    2011-10-01

    A paving asphalt and a vacuum residuum (derived from crude oil by atmospheric and subsequent vacuum distillation and used as a blend stock for asphalt) were tested in skin carcinogenesis assays in mice and in optimized Ames assays for mutagenic activity. In the skin cancer tests, each substance was applied twice weekly for 104 weeks to the clipped backs of groups of 50 male C3H mice. Neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum (30% weight/volume and 75% weight/weight in US Pharmacopeia mineral oil, respectively) produced any tumors. The positive control benzo[a]pyrene (0.05% w/v in toluene) induced tumors in 46 of 50 mice, demonstrating the effectiveness of the test method. Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 was used in the optimized Ames assay to evaluate mutagenic potential. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extractions of the substances were not mutagenic when tested up to toxic limits. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum was carcinogenic or mutagenic.

  15. On the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of automobile exhaust condensate evaluated by local application onto mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Naujack, K W; Misfeld, J; Timm, J

    1983-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify the substances chiefly responsible for the carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate using topical application onto the skin of mice. This was performed by comparing the carcinogenic effect of various fractions with that of an unseparated sample of automobile exhaust condensate, tested in 3 different doses. The probit and Weibull analysis of the result shows: (a) The condensate, emitted from a gasoline-driven automobile provokes local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence demonstrates a clear cut dose-response relationship. (b) The fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than 3 rings accounts for about 84-91% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate. This fraction represents only about 3.5% by wt of the condensate. (c) The content of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.414 mg/g) accounts for 6-7.6% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate, 15 selected PAHs for about 41%. (d) Regarding the minor effect of the PAH-free fraction (about 83% by wt), no hints for a cocarcinogenic activity were observed.

  16. Use of in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis for identification of organ-specific carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Furihata, C.; Matsushima, T.

    1987-01-01

    There are still only a few in vivo short-term assay methods for predicting potential organ-specific carcinogens and mutagens in mammals, although such methods are required for evaluating the in vivo effects of in vitro mutagens. In the in vivo/in vitro UDS assay methods described here, chemicals are given to experimental animals and induction of UDS in target organs is determined by in vitro organ culture or primary cell culture in the presence of (/sup 3/H)dThd. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)dThd into DNA is measured with a liquid scintillation counter or by autoradiography. These methods have now been applied to the glandularmore » stomach, forestomach, colon, liver, kidney, pancreas, tracheal epithelium, nasal epithelium, and spermatocytes. With minor modifications, they may also be applied to other organs. The present review shows that induction of UDS in various organs correlated well with the induction of cancer in these organs. The present authors have used the present methods to identify some potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals. The present authors found that three dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl, induced apparent UDS and TDS in the glandular stomach, and other groups found that 2-NT, MA6BT, and CNEt6BT induced UDS in the liver. These in vivo/in vitro UDS assays are better than in vitro UDS assay for identification of potential organ-specific mutagens and carcinogens in mammals and are especially useful for identifying potential mutagens and carcinogens that are specific for certain organs, such as the stomach, liver, and kidney. They are also useful for examining the potential mutagenicities and carcinogenicities of carcinogen analogs. However, these methods are not suitable for general in vivo screening because they are not yet available for all organs. 113 references.« less

  17. Small difference in carcinogenic potency between GBP nanomaterials and GBP micromaterials.

    PubMed

    Gebel, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    durations longer than 24 months. Taking the different study durations into account, the real potency differences were estimated to be twofold lower than the relative potency factors identified. In conclusion, the chronic rat inhalation studies with GBP materials indicate that the difference in carcinogenic potency between GBP nanomaterials and GBP micromaterials is low can be described by a factor of 2-2.5 referring to the dose metrics mass concentration.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1003 - 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Disposal means the safe removal of the carcinogens addressed by this section from the work environment... in an environment free of the 13 carcinogens addressed by this section. The clean change room shall... external environment. Decontamination means the inactivation of a carcinogen addressed by this section or...

  19. Carcinogen File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1978

    1978-01-01

    First in a series of bulletins designed to provide information about the problem of carcinogens in the environment is on benzo(a)pyrine. Benzo(a)pyrine is a proven cancer-causing substance that has been known for over ten years to occur in broiled sausages, gas-broiled fish and beef steak, and charcoal-broiled meat. (Author/BB)

  20. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided. PMID:12426143

  1. Biomarkers of susceptibility to chemical carcinogens: the example of non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Rachel S; Vineis, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Genetic susceptibly to suspected chemical and environmental carcinogens may modify the response to exposure. The aim of this review was to explore the issues involved in the study of gene-environment interactions, and to consider the use of susceptibility biomarkers in cancer epidemiology, using non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) as an example. PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles considering biomarkers of susceptibility to chemical, agricultural and industrial carcinogens in the aetiology of NHL. The results suggest a modifying role for genetic susceptibility to a number of occupational and environmental exposures including organochlorines, chlorinated solvents, chlordanes and benzene in the aetiology of NHL. The potential importance of these gene-environment interactions in NHL may help to explain the lack of definitive carcinogens identified to date for this malignancy. Although a large number of genetic variants and gene-environment interactions have been explored for NHL, to date replication is lacking and therefore the findings remain to be validated. These findings highlight the need for novel standardized methodologies in the study of genetic susceptibility to chemical carcinogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Identification of cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanates as direct inhibitors of the arylamine N-acetyltransferase-dependent acetylation and bioactivation of aromatic amine carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Bui, Linh-Chi; Mathieu, Cécile; Petit, Emile; Cariou, Kevin; Dodd, Robert H; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2016-02-23

    Aromatic amines (AAs) are chemicals of industrial, pharmacological and environmental relevance. Certain AAs, such as 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), are human carcinogens that require enzymatic metabolic activation to reactive chemicals to form genotoxic DNA adducts. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) that play a major role in this carcinogenic bioactivation process. Isothiocyanates (ITCs), including benzyl-ITC (BITC) and phenethyl-ITC (PEITC), are phytochemicals known to have chemopreventive activity against several aromatic carcinogens. In particular, ITCs have been shown to modify the bioactivation and subsequent mutagenicity of carcinogenic AA chemicals such as 4-ABP. However, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms by which these phytochemicals may modulate AA carcinogens bioactivation and AA-DNA damage remains poorly understood. This manuscript provides evidence indicating that ITCs can decrease the metabolic activation of carcinogenic AAs via the irreversible inhibition of NAT enzymes and subsequent alteration of the acetylation of AAs. We demonstrate that BITC and PEITC react with NAT1 and inhibit readily its acetyltransferase activity (k(i) = 200 M(-1).s(-1) and 66 M(-1).s(-1) for BITC and PEITC, respectively). Chemical labeling, docking approaches and substrate protection assays indicated that inhibition of the acetylation of AAs by NAT1 was due to the chemical modification of the enzyme active site cysteine. Moreover, analyses of AAs acetylation and DNA adducts in cells showed that BITC was able to modulate the endogenous acetylation and bioactivation of 4-ABP. In conclusion, we show that direct inhibition of NAT enzymes may be an important mechanism by which ITCs exert their chemopreventive activity towards AA chemicals.

  3. Predicting carcinogenicity of diverse chemicals using probabilistic neural network modeling approaches

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, Kunwar P., E-mail: kpsingh_52@yahoo.com; Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001; Gupta, Shikha

    Robust global models capable of discriminating positive and non-positive carcinogens; and predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals in rodents were developed. The dataset of 834 structurally diverse chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) was used which contained 466 positive and 368 non-positive carcinogens. Twelve non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index and Brock–Dechert–Scheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the carcinogenicity end point in rat. Validation of the models wasmore » performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. PNN constructed using five descriptors rendered classification accuracy of 92.09% in complete rat data. The PNN model rendered classification accuracies of 91.77%, 80.70% and 92.08% in mouse, hamster and pesticide data, respectively. The GRNN constructed with nine descriptors yielded correlation coefficient of 0.896 between the measured and predicted carcinogenic potency with mean squared error (MSE) of 0.44 in complete rat data. The rat carcinogenicity model (GRNN) applied to the mouse and hamster data yielded correlation coefficient and MSE of 0.758, 0.71 and 0.760, 0.46, respectively. The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals. Both the PNN and GRNN (inter-species) models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the carcinogenicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. - Graphical abstract: Figure (a) shows classification accuracies (positive and non-positive carcinogens) in rat, mouse, hamster, and pesticide data yielded by optimal PNN model. Figure (b) shows generalization and

  4. Evidence of carcinogenicity in humans of water-soluble nickel salts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased risks of nasal cancer and lung cancer in nickel refiners have been investigated scientifically and discussed since they were detected in the 1930s. Nickel compounds are considered to be the main cause of the cancer excess. Parts of the nickel producing industry and their consultants oppose the classification of water-soluble nickel salts as human carcinogens, and argue that the risk in exposed workers should be ascribed to other occupational exposures and smoking. Discussion Respiratory cancer risks in Welsh, Finnish, and Norwegian nickel refiners add to the evidence of carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel. In Norwegian refiners, the first epidemiological study in 1973 identified high risks of lung cancer and nasal cancer among long-term electrolysis workers. Risk analyses based on exposure estimates developed in the 1980s supported the view that water-soluble nickel compounds were central in the development of cancer. Recently, new exposure estimates were worked out for the same cohort based on personal monitoring of total nickel and chemical determination of four forms of nickel. Additional data have been collected on life-time smoking habits, and on exposure to arsenic, asbestos, sulphuric acid mists, cobalt, and occupational lung carcinogens outside the refinery. After adjustment for these potential confounding exposures in case-control analyses, the risk pattern added to the evidence of an important role of water-soluble nickel compounds as causes of lung cancer. These Norwegian cancer studies rely on national Cancer Registry data, considered close to complete from 1953 onwards; and on National Population Register data continuously updated with mortality and emigration. Canadian mortality studies--perceived to offer the strongest support to the industry position not to recognise carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel--appear to suffer from limitations in follow-up time, loss to follow-up, absence of risk analysis with individual

  5. [Painting in construction and exposure to carcinogenic chemical agents: an Italian study in Lombardy].

    PubMed

    Cirla, P E; Martinotti, I; Firmi, A M; Cirla, A M

    2012-01-01

    The risk associated with exposure to chemical carcinogens (as classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer and/or the European Union), during painting activities in construction seems controversial. This study included all 43 activities of professional painting in this sector existing in the area of Cremona, in Lombardy region. The aim was to consider and promote preventive technical and medical solutions, basing on efficacy. The occupational exposure and the already adopted preventive measures were evaluated by investigations at workplaces, supported by standardized questionnaires and registrations. 860 commercial products (402 chemical substances) were classified: in 38% of cases the ingredients were not listed in the Material Safety Data Sheets (retrieved by the manufacturer). The real possibility of a risk exposure to carcinogens has been reported in a small proportion of situations. In all companies the presence of carcinogens was unrecognized or at least had not been taken into account in the risk assessment of workers.

  6. Mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and the effect of antioxidant vitamins.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Beverly A; Murphy, Jessica; Chen, James J; Desai, Varsha G; McGarrity, Lynda; Morris, Suzanne M; Casciano, Daniel A; Aidoo, Anane

    2002-01-01

    The food-derived heterocyclic amines (HCAs) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are mutagenic in the Ames test and produce tumors in laboratory animals, including monkeys. These HCAs have also been shown to induce gene mutations in vivo. To assess the antimutagenic effects of dietary antioxidant vitamins, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), on food-borne mutagenes/carcinogens, we evaluated the mutagenic activity of the compounds alone or combined with antioxidant vitamins. We utilized the rat lymphocyte mutation assay at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus. Female Fischer 344 rats treated with different doses (0, 2.5, 5.0, 25.0, and 50.0 mg/kg) of the carcinogens were sacrificed 5 wk after mutagen treatment. Although IQ and MeIQ slightly increased mutation frequency (MF) at some doses, a significant (P < 0.0009) increase in MF was found in animals exposed to MeIQx at 25 mg/kg. PhIP was the most mutagenic of the HCAs, with increases (P < 0.0001) in MF detected at all dose levels compared with controls. Because PhIP was the most mutagenic, it was selected for studies using the dietary antioxidant vitamins. Addition of antioxidant vitamins, singly or in a mixture, caused a significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in PhIP-induced Hprt MF. Vitamin E was the most effective at decreasing Hprt MF. In addition, we determined whether carcinogen metabolism would be affected by ingestion of vitamins. The activities of endogenous detoxification enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were thus examined. Intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C without the carcinogen resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in GPx activity. Also a modest increase in GPx activity was seen in animals that received the antioxidant mixture alone

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although both outdoor and indoor airs provide exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, this review shows that the level of hazard is highly variable. Outdoor air was first shown to be carcinogenic in 1942 and mutagenic in 1975; and studies examining the genotoxicity of indoor air so...

  8. Factors influencing the mutagenic activity of the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 1535 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kerklaan, P R; Bouter, S; Mohn, G R

    1984-04-01

    The colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (SMDH), a non-mutagen in the standard Ames assay, has been shown in previous experiments to become weakly mutagenic in Salmonella TA 1535 in vitro, when specific test conditions were used. The present studies were performed to determine more precisely the nature of metabolic factors and experimental conditions for optimal mutagenesis of SDMH in the same strain of Salmonella. First, it was confirmed that both the presence of rat liver S9 fractions (25 microliters/ml incubation mixture) and prolonged pre-incubation periods in liquid medium of at least 120 min were necessary to elicit SDMH mutagenesis. In contrast to results obtained with dimethylnitrosamine, which served as a model compound for the activation through oxidative, cytochrome P-450- and NADPH-dependent enzymatic processes, the activation of SDMH to mutagenic factors was not dependent on the presence of NADPH: in fact, NADPH strongly reduced the SDMH-induced mutation yields. It was also observed that growth of the indicator bacteria is an important prerequisite for mutation induction by SDMH. Aminoacetonitrile and disulfiram, two inhibitors of SDMH metabolism and carcinogenicity in mammals, also strongly inhibited SDMH mutagenesis in the present in vitro assay. It can, therefore, be concluded that (i) the right test protocol is of crucial importance for the detection of SDMH as a bacterial mutagen, and (ii) that activation pathways in vitro are (partially) different from presumed in vivo metabolism and activation.

  9. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Herceg, Zdenko

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the ‘normal’ epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing. PMID:23749751

  10. Perspectives of comparing risks of environmental carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Perera, F.; Boffetta, P.

    1988-10-19

    In 1987, investigators concluded that the risks of man-made industrial carcinogens and pesticides (outside of the workplace) are trivial compared with the risks of naturally occurring carcinogens found mostly in the diet. They used a ranking system based on human exposure and rodent potency (HERP) data to arrive at this conclusion. As a result, they recommend that regulatory agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration, base their priorities in this area on their HERP system. We analyzed the assumptions and data set upon which the HERPs were based, concluding that such a simplified approachmore » to set public health policy is inappropriate given the underlying uncertainties. However, we note that when comparisons are consistently based on estimates of average daily exposure to common carcinogens, the HERP scores of many man-made pollutants are comparable to those of naturally occurring carcinogens in the diet.158 references.« less

  11. New public QSAR model for carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the main goals of the new chemical regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) is to fulfill the gaps in data concerned with properties of chemicals affecting the human health. (Q)SAR models are accepted as a suitable source of information. The EU funded CAESAR project aimed to develop models for prediction of 5 endpoints for regulatory purposes. Carcinogenicity is one of the endpoints under consideration. Results Models for prediction of carcinogenic potency according to specific requirements of Chemical regulation were developed. The dataset of 805 non-congeneric chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDBAS) was used. Counter Propagation Artificial Neural Network (CP ANN) algorithm was implemented. In the article two alternative models for prediction carcinogenicity are described. The first model employed eight MDL descriptors (model A) and the second one twelve Dragon descriptors (model B). CAESAR's models have been assessed according to the OECD principles for the validation of QSAR. For the model validity we used a wide series of statistical checks. Models A and B yielded accuracy of training set (644 compounds) equal to 91% and 89% correspondingly; the accuracy of the test set (161 compounds) was 73% and 69%, while the specificity was 69% and 61%, respectively. Sensitivity in both cases was equal to 75%. The accuracy of the leave 20% out cross validation for the training set of models A and B was equal to 66% and 62% respectively. To verify if the models perform correctly on new compounds the external validation was carried out. The external test set was composed of 738 compounds. We obtained accuracy of external validation equal to 61.4% and 60.0%, sensitivity 64.0% and 61.8% and specificity equal to 58.9% and 58.4% respectively for models A and B. Conclusion Carcinogenicity is a particularly important endpoint and it is expected that QSAR models will not replace the human experts opinions

  12. Greek employee awareness of carcinogenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chatzis, Christos; Karvounis, Kiki; Hatziara, Panayiota; Riza, Elena; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Linos, Athena

    2004-10-01

    Occupational risk factors contribute significantly to the development of lung cancer; however, little is known about the extent to which employees are informed of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. Through a case-control study, we estimated the level of awareness among Greek employees potentially exposed to known carcinogenic substances within various occupational settings. Only 6.6% of men (n = 482) employed in occupations with potential exposure to carcinogenic substances were aware of such occupational exposures. Age, education, and residence were significantly associated with awareness. Employees having at least a secondary level of education were 3.5 times more aware than those having at most 6 years of educational training. Assessing awareness among workers potentially exposed to occupational risk factors and promoting occupational health education are important steps for increasing health and safety at the workplace.

  13. Toxico-Cheminformatics and QSPR Modeling of the Carcinogenic Potency Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report on the development of a tiered, confirmatory scheme for prediction of chemical carcinogenicity based on QSAR studies of compounds with available mutagenic and carcinogenic data. For 693 such compounds from the Carcinogenic Potency Database characterized molecular topologic...

  14. The carcinogenicity of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU).

    PubMed

    Warzok, R; Martin, J; Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H

    1983-01-01

    In long-term experiments with Hooded rats the carcinogenic potential of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU) could be demonstrated for the first time. Br-MPNU is formed also endogenously after combined administration of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-urea (Br-MPU) and sodium nitrite. After repeated intragastric administration of 0.33 mmol Br-MPU and 0.73 mmol NaNO2 per kg b.w. papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach developed in 83%. After repeated administration of 0.28 mmol Br-MPNU per kg b.w. these neoplasms were observed in 88%. The comparison of results obtained in similar experiments with 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea shows that bromine substitution led to a reduction of the carcinogenic activity. The present paper is part of a complex program studying the interrelationships between structure, physico-chemical properties, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrosoureas.

  15. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  16. DNA-REACTIVE CARCINOGENS: MODE OF ACTION AND HUMAN CANCER HAZARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been known for decades that mutagenicity plays an important role in the activity of most carcinogens. This mutagenicity can result from direct damage to DNA through a chemical being DNA-reactive or from indirect effects, such as through the production of oxygen radicals th...

  17. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Valerio, Luis G.; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.

    2007-07-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest ismore » MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200

  18. Fluorescence-based recombination assay for sensitive and specific detection of genotoxic carcinogens in human cells.

    PubMed

    Ireno, Ivanildce C; Baumann, Cindy; Stöber, Regina; Hengstler, Jan G; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    In vitro genotoxicity tests are known to suffer from several shortcomings, mammalian cell-based assays, in particular, from low specificities. Following a novel concept of genotoxicity detection, we developed a fluorescence-based method in living human cells. The assay quantifies DNA recombination events triggered by DNA double-strand breaks and damage-induced replication fork stalling predicted to detect a broad spectrum of genotoxic modes of action. To maximize sensitivities, we engineered a DNA substrate encompassing a chemoresponsive element from the human genome. Using this substrate, we screened various human tumor and non-transformed cell types differing in the DNA damage response, which revealed that detection of genotoxic carcinogens was independent of the p53 status but abrogated by apoptosis. Cell types enabling robust and sensitive genotoxicity detection were selected for the generation of reporter clones with chromosomally integrated DNA recombination substrate. Reporter cell lines were scrutinized with 21 compounds, stratified into five sets according to the established categories for identification of carcinogenic compounds: genotoxic carcinogens ("true positives"), non-genotoxic carcinogens, compounds without genotoxic or carcinogenic effect ("true negatives") and non-carcinogenic compounds, which have been reported to induce chromosomal aberrations or mutations in mammalian cell-based assays ("false positives"). Our results document detection of genotoxic carcinogens in independent cell clones and at levels of cellular toxicities <60 % with a sensitivity of >85 %, specificity of ≥90 % and detection of false-positive compounds <17 %. Importantly, through testing cyclophosphamide in combination with primary hepatocyte cultures, we additionally provide proof-of-concept for the identification of carcinogens requiring metabolic activation using this novel assay system.

  19. Annual report on carcinogens (5th)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Report on Carcinogens, prepared by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), U.S. Public Health Service, is issued by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), pursuant to Public Law 95-622 of November 9, 1978. This law requires the Secretary to publish an annual report that contains 'a list of all substances (i) which either are known to be carcinogens or which may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens and (ii) to which a significant number of persons residing in the United States are exposed;...' Annual Reports should also provide available information on the naturemore » of exposures, the estimated number of persons potentially exposed, and the extent to which the implementation of Federal regulations decreases the risk to public health from exposure to these substances.« less

  20. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  1. Use of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to measure DNA binding capacity of chemical carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gupta, R.C.; Earley, K.; Sharma, S.

    1988-05-01

    Although animal models have been used successfully to study metabolic activation and binding of carcinogens to DNA, only limited studies have been done in human systems. To circumvent the problems associated with the inaccessibility of human tissues and a lack of sensitive methods to detect DNA damage, the authors have investigated the capability of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro to metabolize carcinogens to their DNA binding species by a {sup 32}P-labeled adduct assay. Freshly isolated lymphocytes were exposed at 37{degree}C for 18 hr to 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-aminofluorene, 2-anthramine, 2-acetylaminophenanthrene, benzidine, 1-nitropyrene, 1,2-benzanthracene, triphenylene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, or benzo(a)pyrene at 30 {mu}M each,more » compounds that are shown or suspected to be carcinogenic in experimental animals. The data indicate that all test carcinogens formed readily measurable levels of DNA adducts. Analysis of exposed DNAs by {sup 32}P-labeling after digestion and adduct enrichment showed exclusively or predominantly one major adduct for all test carcinogens, except for 2-anthramine, triphenylene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, which showed two or three adducts. From 12 lymphocyte specimens studied thus far, significant interindividual variations were observed. The lymphocyte system in combination with the {sup 32}P-adduct assay may prove to be an ultrasensitive means to determine interindividual variations in the ability to biotransform carcinogens.« less

  2. EPA's evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, several international agencies have evaluated the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate. In March 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a subdivision of the World Health Organization (WHO), determined that glyphosate was a probable carcinogen (gro...

  3. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    vitro and in vivo studies have shown its toxic and carcinogenic properties; 2) the carcinogenic properties of erionite have been demonstrated, and erionite has been associated with a mesothelioma epidemic in Anatolia, Turkey. Erionite is also widespread in areas of north central USA, where it is contained in gravel paving stone, and is cause for concern due to increased commercial traffic. Numerous studies have shown that non-regulated fibrous materials pose similar health hazards to regulated "asbestos". An increase in human activities in areas where these fibrous minerals are present, such as in surficial rock and soil, will result in the generation of airborne dust, exposing people to carcinogenic fibers. The current limited regulation leads people to believe that only the six mineral fibers referred to as "asbestos" are dangerous. We propose that fibrous minerals should be regulated as a single group, as they have similar deleterious effects on the human body. Regulations would be simplified and more effective if they embrace all carcinogenic fibrous minerals.

  4. Enhancement of NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase activity by methylselenocysteine resets the circadian clock in carcinogen-treated mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Mingzhu; Guo, Wei-Ren; Park, Youngil; Kang, Hwan-Goo; Zarbl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that dietary methylselenocysteine (MSC) inhibits N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis by resetting circadian gene expression disrupted by the carcinogen at the early stage of tumorigenesis. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a circadian reporter system comprised of human mammary epithelial cells with a luciferase reporter driven by the promoter of human PERIOD 2 (PER2), a core circadian gene. In this in vitro model, NMU disrupted cellular circadian rhythm in a pattern similar to that observed with SIRT1-specific inhibitors; in contrast, MSC restored the circadian rhythms disrupted by NMU and protected against SIRT1 inhibitors. Moreover, NMU inhibited intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio and reduced NAD+-dependent SIRT1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, while MSC restored NAD+/NADH and SIRT1 activity in the NMU-treated cells, indicating that the NAD+-SIRT1 pathway was targeted by NMU and MSC. In rat mammary tissue, a carcinogenic dose of NMU also disrupted NAD+/NADH oscillations and decreased SIRT1 activity; dietary MSC restored NAD+/NADH oscillations and increased SIRT1 activity in the mammary glands of NMU-treated rats. MSC-induced SIRT1 activity was correlated with decreased acetylation of BMAL1 and increased acetylation of histone 3 lysine 9 at the Per2 promoter E-Box in mammary tissue. Changes in SIRT1 activity were temporally correlated with loss or restoration of rhythmic Per2 mRNA expression in NMU-treated or MSC-rescued rat mammary glands, respectively. Together with our previous findings, these results suggest that enhancement of NAD+-dependent SIRT1 activity contributes to the chemopreventive efficacy of MSC by restoring epigenetic regulation of circadian gene expression at early stages of mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:26544624

  5. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1990.112 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, AND REGULATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria...

  6. 29 CFR 1990.112 - Classification of potential carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1990.112 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, AND REGULATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS The Osha Cancer Policy § 1990.112 Classification of potential carcinogens. The following criteria...

  7. Carcinogenicity of benzyl chloride, benzal chloride, benzotrichloride and benzoyl chloride in mice by skin application.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Matsushita, H; Sakabe, H; Takemoto, K

    1981-10-01

    The carcinogenicity of benzyl chloride (BYC), benzal chloride (BAC), benzotrichloride (BTC) and benzoyl chloride (BOC), which were suspected as causative agents of lung cancer and maxillary malignant lymphoma of workers employed in factories producing BOC, was examined by skin applications in female ICR mice. After rather high dose exposure, BTC exhibited leukemogenic and pulmonary tumorigenic activities as well as potent dermal carcinogenic activity. After administration of the chemicals at the dose of 2.3 microliter/animal, twice a week for 50 weeks, BTC induced 68% incidence of skin cancers and 58% incidence of pulmonary tumors (including 10% of lung carcinomas) within 399 days. Incidence of skin cancers was 58% for BAC, 15% for BYC and 10% for BOC within 560 days. Considering the extent of possible exposure of the workers to these chemicals in the working environment and the carcinogenic potency of the chemicals tested, it can be concluded that BTC was very probably responsible for causing the cancers seen int he workers employed in manufacturing BOC.

  8. Fact Sheet: EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005

    FACT SHEET: EPA's GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT

    On March 29, 2005, EPA issued the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk A...

  9. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsmore » (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).« less

  10. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, D; Irigaray, P; Hardell, L; Clapp, R; Montagnier, L; Epstein, S; Sasco, A J

    2007-11-01

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment.

  11. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Belpomme, D.; Cancer Research Center, Association for Research and Treatments Against Cancer; Irigaray, P.

    2007-11-15

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicalsmore » related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment.« less

  12. Questions and Answers: EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment and Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005
    EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment
    And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life
    Exposure to Carcinogens

    Questions and Answers

    The following questions ...

  13. Too many rodent carcinogens: Mitogenesis increases mutagenesis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ames, B.N.; Gold, L.S.

    1990-08-31

    A clarification of the mechanism of carcinogenesis is developing at a rapid rate. This new understanding undermines many assumptions of current regulatory policy toward rodent carcinogens and necessitates rethinking the utility and meaning of routine animal cancer tests. At a recent watershed meeting on carcinogenesis, much evidence was presented suggesting that mitogenesis plays a dominant role in carcinogenesis. Our own rethinking of mechanism was prompted by our findings that: spontaneous DNA damage caused by endogenous oxidants is remarkably frequent and in chronic testing at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), more than half of all chemicals tested (both natural and synthetic)more » are carcinogens in rodents, and a high percentage of these carcinogens are not mutagens.« less

  14. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  15. [Occupational exposure to carcinogens: analysis of the application of the CAREX information system to Catalonia].

    PubMed

    de Grado Andrés, Adolfo; Molinero Ruiz, Emilia; van der Haar, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate occupational exposures to human carcinogens in Catalonia in 2009, taking as a reference the CAREX ESP 2007 information system, and to evaluate the suitability of extrapolating these data to Catalonia. The reference population is the number of people registered with the Social Security system in Catalonia in 2009. Carcinogens considered are those which the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified into groups 1 and 2A and are related to occupational exposures. The exposure prevalences from the CAREX ESP 2007, adapted to the Catalonian Industrial Classification (CCAE 09), were used. Technical survey reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Centers of the Catalonian local government, and related databases were consulted. The most frequent occupational exposures to human carcinogens were solar radiation, crystalline silica, diesel exhaust, radon and wood dust, although based mainly on data not considered adequate for extrapolation to Catalonia. Around 217 exposure situations for 25 carcinogens, not previously considered in CAREX ESP 2007, were identified. The estimated number of workers exposed to human carcinogens in Catalonia in 2009 based on the CAREX ESP 2007 system could differ from the real situation. Development of a CAREX CAT system that incorporates exposure data from Catalonia is recommended. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  16. Carcinogenic N-Nitrosamines. Formation, Properties, and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukovskii, Ya L.; Melamed, D. B.

    1988-04-01

    Literature data on the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the environment, their physicochemical properties, their action on the human organism, the methods for their microanalysis, and also their content in the atmosphere, water sources, soil, and industrial agricultural and food products are described systematically and surveyed. The principal features of this comparatively new class of powerful chemical carcinogens are indicated. The bibliography includes 284 references.

  17. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  18. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).
METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.
RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).
CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens

  19. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating potential...

  20. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating potential...

  1. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating potential...

  2. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carcinogens. 1990.131 Section 1990.131 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating potential...

  3. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-04-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals andmore » ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens.« less

  4. Chronic exposure to combined carcinogens enhances breast cell carcinogenesis with mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Lenora Ann; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens.

  5. Chronic Exposure to Combined Carcinogens Enhances Breast Cell Carcinogenesis with Mesenchymal and Stem-Like Cell Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Lenora Ann; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens. PMID:25372613

  6. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos.

  7. Threshold and non-threshold chemical carcinogens: A survey of the present regulatory landscape.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Ruth J; Harrison, Paul T C

    2017-08-01

    For the proper regulation of a carcinogenic material it is necessary to fully understand its mode of action, and in particular whether it demonstrates a threshold of effect. This paper explores our present understanding of carcinogenicity and the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenic response. The concepts of genotoxic and non-genotoxic and threshold and non-threshold carcinogens are fully described. We provide summary tables of the types of cancer considered to be associated with exposure to a number of carcinogens and the available evidence relating to whether carcinogenicity occurs through a threshold or non-threshold mechanism. In light of these observations we consider how different regulatory bodies approach the question of chemical carcinogenesis, looking in particular at the definitions and methodologies used to derive Occupational Exposure Levels (OELs) for carcinogens. We conclude that unless proper differentiation is made between threshold and non-threshold carcinogens, inappropriate risk management measures may be put in place - and lead also to difficulties in translating carcinogenicity research findings into appropriate health policies. We recommend that clear differentiation between threshold and non-threshold carcinogens should be made by all expert groups and regulatory bodies dealing with carcinogen classification and risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vikki; Brunetti, Vanessa; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Ashbury, Janet E; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using 32 P-postlabelling among 202 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy. Gene-diet interactions between carcinogen exposure and genetic factors relevant to biotransformation and DNA repair were also examined. Genotyping was conducting using the MassARRAY ® iPLEX ® Gold SNP Genotyping assay. PhIP and higher meat mutagenicity exposures were not associated with levels of bulky DNA adducts in colon mucosa. The XPC polymorphism (rs2228001) was found to associate with bulky DNA adduct levels, whereby genotypes conferring lower DNA repair activity were associated with higher DNA adduct levels than the normal activity genotype. Among individuals with genotypes associated with lower DNA repair (XPD, rs13181 and rs1799179) or detoxification activity (GSTP1, rs1695), higher PhIP or meat mutagenicity exposures were associated with higher DNA adduct levels. Significant interactions between the XPC polymorphism (rs2228000) and both dietary PhIP and meat mutagenicity on DNA adduct levels was observed, but associations were inconsistent with the a priori hypothesized direction of effect. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens may be associated with increased DNA damage occurring directly in the colon among genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of human cell models for assessing the carcinogenic potential of chemicals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pang Yaqin; Li Wenxue; Ma Rulin

    2008-11-01

    To develop human cell models for assessing the carcinogenic potential of chemicals, we established transgenic human cell lines and tested the sensitivity of known carcinogens using a cell transformation assay. A retroviral vector encoding an oncogenic allele of H-Ras (HBER) or c-Myc (HBEM) was introduced into human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) immortalized by SV40 large T (LT) antigen, leading to increased cell proliferation but failing to confer a transformed phenotype characterized by anchorage-independent cell growth and tumor formation of immunodeficient mice. When these pre-transformed cells were treated with nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}), we found that it shortened the latency ofmore » malignant transformation at least by 19 wk in HBER cells or 16 wk in HBEM cells compared to vector control cells. Similarly, the latency of cell transformation was shorter by 15 wk in HBER cells or 9 wk in HBEM cells when cells were treated with benzo(a)pyrenediol epoxide (BPDE). HBER cells appeared to be more sensitive to TPA, NiSO{sub 4} or BPDE-induced cell transformation compared to human embryonic kidney cells expressing H-Ras (HEKR), implying that cell-type specificity is one of important factors determining the effectiveness of the assay. Using AFB{sub 1} and BaP as the representative pro-carcinogens, we also compared the efficiency of three different metabolic conditions in mediating cell transformation. Low dose chemical induction seems to be a prospective system used for metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Our findings provided direct evidence that a genetically modified human cell transformation model can be applied to the assessment of potent carcinogens.« less

  10. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  11. On the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Tarone, Robert E

    2018-01-01

    The recent classification by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the herbicide glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen has generated considerable discussion. The classification is at variance with evaluations of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by several national and international regulatory bodies. The basis for the IARC classification is examined under the assumptions that the IARC criteria are reasonable and that the body of scientific studies determined by IARC staff to be relevant to the evaluation of glyphosate by the Monograph Working Group is sufficiently complete. It is shown that the classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen was the result of a flawed and incomplete summary of the experimental evidence evaluated by the Working Group. Rational and effective cancer prevention activities depend on scientifically sound and unbiased assessments of the carcinogenic potential of suspected agents. Implications of the erroneous classification of glyphosate with respect to the IARC Monograph Working Group deliberative process are discussed.

  12. Chemical carcinogenesis: Too many rodent carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ames, B.N.; Gold, L.S.

    1990-10-01

    The administration of chemicals at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in standard animal cancer tests is postulated to increase cell division (mitogenesis), which in turn increases rates of mutagenesis and thus carcinogenesis. The animal data are consistent with this mechanism, because a high proportion{endash}about half{endash}of all chemicals tested (whether natural or synthetic) are indeed rodent carcinogens. The authors conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures, where cell killing does not occur, the hazards to humans of rodent carcinogens may be much lower than is commonly assumed.

  13. Impact of beta-naphthoflavone on genotoxicity of food-derived carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Hodek, Petr; Krizkova, Jitka; Frei, Eva; Singh, Rajinder; Arlt, Volker M; Stiborova, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are carcinogens, which frequently occur in the human diet. Their metabolic activation to reactive species binding to DNA is mediated by cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A1 and 1A2. Thus, levels and activities of these CYPs are crucial for initiation of BaP- and PhPI-mediated carcinogenesis. Here, the effect of CYP1A1/2 induction due to their prototype flavonoid inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF), on BaP- and PhPI-derived DNA adduct formation in rats was examined. Male rats pretreated with BNF were treated with a single dose of either carcinogen by oral gavage. Nuclease P1 version of 32P-postlabeling assay and online column-switching liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry were used to detect and quantify covalent DNA adducts formed by BaP and PhIP in-vivo, respectively. Expression of CYP1A1/2 enzymes was examined by Western blot. Enzymatic activities of CYP1A1/2 were assessed using their marker substrates (ethoxyresorufin and methoxyresorufin). Treatment of rats with a single dose of BNF produced an increase in levels CYP1A1/2 and CYP1A1 proteins in liver and small intestine, respectively. An increase in CYP1A1 protein expression found in both organs correlated well with specific activities of these CYPs. The CYP1A1 expression levels and its specific activity in small intestine decreased along the length of the organ, being highest in its proximal part and lowest in its distal part. The BNF induction of CYP1A1/2 resulted in a significant increase in the formation of BaP- and PhIP-DNA adducts in liver and in the distal part of the small intestine, respectively. Thus, pretreatment of rats with BNF did not prevent the PhIP and BaP activation, but vice versa, enhanced their genotoxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that the administration of only a single dose of CYP-inducing flavonoid prior to the intake of food carcinogens may increase the risk of a tumor

  14. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  15. An analysis of pharmaceutical experience with decades of rat carcinogenicity testing: support for a proposal to modify current regulatory guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sistare, Frank D; Morton, Daniel; Alden, Carl; Christensen, Joel; Keller, Douglas; Jonghe, Sandra De; Storer, Richard D; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Kraynak, Andrew; Trela, Bruce; Bienvenu, Jean-Guy; Bjurström, Sivert; Bosmans, Vanessa; Brewster, David; Colman, Karyn; Dominick, Mark; Evans, John; Hailey, James R; Kinter, Lewis; Liu, Matt; Mahrt, Charles; Marien, Dirk; Myer, James; Perry, Richard; Potenta, Daniel; Roth, Arthur; Sherratt, Philip; Singer, Thomas; Slim, Rabih; Soper, Keith; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Stoltz, James; Turner, Oliver; Turnquist, Susan; van Heerden, Marjolein; Woicke, Jochen; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2011-06-01

    Data collected from 182 marketed and nonmarketed pharmaceuticals demonstrate that there is little value gained in conducting a rat two-year carcinogenicity study for compounds that lack: (1) histopathologic risk factors for rat neoplasia in chronic toxicology studies, (2) evidence of hormonal perturbation, and (3) positive genetic toxicology results. Using a single positive result among these three criteria as a test for outcome in the two-year study, fifty-two of sixty-six rat tumorigens were correctly identified, yielding 79% test sensitivity. When all three criteria were negative, sixty-two of seventy-six pharmaceuticals (82%) were correctly predicted to be rat noncarcinogens. The fourteen rat false negatives had two-year study findings of questionable human relevance. Applying these criteria to eighty-six additional chemicals identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as likely human carcinogens and to drugs withdrawn from the market for carcinogenicity concerns confirmed their sensitivity for predicting rat carcinogenicity outcome. These analyses support a proposal to refine regulatory criteria for conducting a two-year rat study to be based on assessment of histopathologic findings from a rat six-month study, evidence of hormonal perturbation, genetic toxicology results, and the findings of a six-month transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study. This proposed decision paradigm has the potential to eliminate over 40% of rat two-year testing on new pharmaceuticals without compromise to patient safety.

  16. Perinatal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of Styrene –Acrylonitrile Trimer, A Ground Water Contaminant

    PubMed Central

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A.; Malarkey, David E.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Gerken, Diane K.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site’s ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600 ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. PMID:24060431

  17. Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Toman, Jakub; Grosse, Yann

    2017-02-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies. The present article summarizes the carcinogenic hazard assessments of those mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins (aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and M 1 ), fumonisins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA). New information regarding the genotoxicity of OTA (formation of OTA-DNA adducts), the role of OTA in oxidative stress and the identification of epigenetic factors involved in OTA carcinogenesis-should they indeed provide strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans-could lead to the reclassification of OTA.

  18. Prediction of thyroid C-cell carcinogenicity after chronic administration of GLP1-R agonists in rodents

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brink, Willem van den; Emerenciana, Annette

    Increased incidence of C-cell carcinogenicity has been observed for glucagon-like-protein-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists in rodents. It is suggested that the duration of exposure is an indicator of carcinogenic potential in rodents of the different products on the market. Furthermore, the role of GLP-1-related mechanisms in the induction of C-cell carcinogenicity has gained increased attention by regulatory agencies. This study proposes an integrative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) framework to identify explanatory factors and characterize differences in carcinogenic potential of the GLP-1r agonist products. PK models for four products (exenatide QW (once weekly), exenatide BID (twice daily), liraglutide and lixisenatide) were developed using nonlinearmore » mixed effects modelling. Predicted exposure was subsequently linked to GLP-1r stimulation using in vitro GLP-1r potency data. A logistic regression model was then applied to exenatide QW and liraglutide data to assess the relationship between GLP-1r stimulation and thyroid C-cell hyperplasia incidence as pre-neoplastic predictor of a carcinogenic response. The model showed a significant association between predicted GLP-1r stimulation and C-cell hyperplasia after 2 years of treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated using lixisenatide, for which hyperplasia data were accurately described during the validation step. The use of a model-based approach provided insight into the relationship between C-cell hyperplasia and GLP-1r stimulation for all four products, which is not possible with traditional data analysis methods. It can be concluded that both pharmacokinetics (exposure) and pharmacodynamics (potency for GLP-1r) factors determine C-cell hyperplasia incidence in rodents. Our work highlights the pharmacological basis for GLP-1r agonist-induced C-cell carcinogenicity. The concept is promising for application to other drug classes. - Highlights: • An integrative PKPD model is

  19. Reductive Detoxication of Arylhydroxylamine Carcinogens by Human NADH Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Joseph R.; Chin, Nathaniel A.; Longlais, Brett J.; Hayes, Kristie L.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2008-01-01

    Heterocyclic and aromatic amine carcinogens are thought to lead to tumor initiation via the formation of DNA adducts, and bioactivation to arylhydroxylamine metabolites is necessary for reactivity with DNA. Carcinogenic arylhydroxylamine metabolites are cleared by a microsomal, NADH-dependent, oxygen-insensitive reduction pathway in humans, which may be a source of inter-individual variability in response to aromatic amine carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the identity of this reduction pathway in human liver. Based on our findings with structurally similar arylhydroxylamine metabolites of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesized that the reductive detoxication of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens was catalyzed by NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5). We found that reduction of the carcinogenic hydroxylamines of the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP; found in cigarette smoke) and the heterocyclic amine 2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP; found in grilled meats) was indeed catalyzed by a purified system containing only human b5R and cyt b5. Specific activities were 56 to 346-fold higher in the purified system compared to human liver microsomes (HLM), with similar Michaelis-Menten constants (Km values) in both systems. The stoichiometry for b5R and cyt b5 that yielded the highest activity in the purified system was also similar to that found in native HLM (∼1:8 to 1:10). Polyclonal antisera to either b5R or cyt b5 significantly inhibited N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (NHOH-4-ABP) reduction by 95 and 89%, respectively, and immunoreactive cyt b5 protein content in individual HLM was significantly correlated with individual reduction of both NHOH-4-ABP and N-hydroxy-PhIP (NHOH-PhIP). Finally, titration of HLM into the purified b5R/cyt b5 system did not enhance the efficiency of reduction activity. We conclude that b5R and cyt b5 are together solely capable of the reduction of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens

  20. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  1. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment provide EPA staff with guidance for developing and using risk assessments. They also provide basic information to the public about the Agency's risk assessment methods.

  2. Ochratoxin A induces rat renal carcinogenicity with limited induction of oxidative stress responses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Yu, Tao; Zhu, Liye

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has displayed nephrotoxicity and renal carcinogenicity in mammals, however, no clear mechanisms have been identified detailing the relationship between oxidative stress and these toxicities. This study was performed to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress and the renal carcinogenicity induced by OTA. Rats were treated with 70 or 210 μg/kg b.w. OTA for 4 or 13 weeks. In the rats administrated with OTA for 13 weeks, the kidney was damaged seriously. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Karyomegaly was prominent in the tubular epithelium. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was detected inmore » the outer stripe of the outer medulla in both low- and high-dose groups. OTA increased the mRNA levels of clusterin in rat kidneys. Interestingly, OTA did not significantly alter the oxidative stress level in rat liver and kidney. Yet, some indications related to proliferation and carcinogenicity were observed. A dose-related increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was observed at 4 weeks in both liver and kidney, but at 13 weeks, only in the kidney. OTA down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulated vimentin and lipocalin 2 in rat kidney at 13 weeks. The p53 gene was decreased in both liver and kidney at 13 weeks. These results suggest that OTA caused apparent kidney damage within 13 weeks but exerted limited effect on oxidative stress parameters. It implies that cell proliferation is the proposed mode of action for OTA-induced renal carcinogenicity. - Highlights: • We studied OTA toxicities in both the rat liver and kidney for 13 weeks. • OTA exerts limited effects on oxidative stress in the rat liver and kidney. • OTA induced renal carcinogenicity resulting from cell proliferation.« less

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1103 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1926.1103 Section 1926.1103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1003 - 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). 1915.1003 Section 1915.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Hazardous Substances § 1915.1003 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.). Note: The requirements applicable...

  12. Chemical carcinogens and inhibitors of carcinogenesis in the human diet

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carr, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of cancer by chemicals as presently understood involves a series of steps, some of which require the passage of time. Many substances that are potent carcinogens in experimental animals are known to exist in nature and occur as part of the human diet. In addition, many of the substances that are known to inhibit experimental carcinogenesis also exist in the human diet. Thus, in addition to industrially produced carcinogens, humans can be presumed to have evolved in an environment that contains both carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. There is also a great deal of experimental and human epidemiologic data onmore » the influence of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates on cancer incidence rates; however, much of those data are confusing and conflicting.« less

  13. Using Bioinformatic Approaches to Identify Pathways Targeted by Human Leukemogens

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reuben; Phuong, Jimmy; McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping

    2012-01-01

    We have applied bioinformatic approaches to identify pathways common to chemical leukemogens and to determine whether leukemogens could be distinguished from non-leukemogenic carcinogens. From all known and probable carcinogens classified by IARC and NTP, we identified 35 carcinogens that were associated with leukemia risk in human studies and 16 non-leukemogenic carcinogens. Using data on gene/protein targets available in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) for 29 of the leukemogens and 11 of the non-leukemogenic carcinogens, we analyzed for enrichment of all 250 human biochemical pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The top pathways targeted by the leukemogens included metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, glutathione metabolism, neurotrophin signaling pathway, apoptosis, MAPK signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling and various cancer pathways. The 29 leukemogens formed 18 distinct clusters comprising 1 to 3 chemicals that did not correlate with known mechanism of action or with structural similarity as determined by 2D Tanimoto coefficients in the PubChem database. Unsupervised clustering and one-class support vector machines, based on the pathway data, were unable to distinguish the 29 leukemogens from 11 non-leukemogenic known and probable IARC carcinogens. However, using two-class random forests to estimate leukemogen and non-leukemogen patterns, we estimated a 76% chance of distinguishing a random leukemogen/non-leukemogen pair from each other. PMID:22851955

  14. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS.

    Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  15. Genotoxic chemical carcinogens target inducible genes in vivo

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hamilton, J.W.; McCaffrey, J.; Caron, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Our laboratory is interested in whether carcinogen-induced DNA damage is distributed nonrandomly in the genome - that is, {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} to specific genes or gene regions in vivo. As an indirect measure of whether targeting occurs at the gene level, we have examined whether carcinogens differentially alter the expression of individual genes. We have compared the effects of model genotoxic carcinogens that principally induce either strand breaks, simple alkylations, bulky lesions, or DNA cross-links on the expression of several constitutive and inducible genes in a simple in vivo system, the chick embryo. Each agent was examined for its effects on genemore » expression over a 24 hour period corresponding to the period of maximal DNA damage and repair induced by each compound. The doses used in these studies represented the maximum doses that caused no overt toxicity over a 96 hour period but that induced significant levels of DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that inducible genes are targeted by chemical carcinogens. We hypothesize that such effects may be a result of DNA damage specifically altering DNA-protein interactions within the promoters of inducible genes.« less

  16. Monitoring carcinogen actions on DNA by 32P-postlabeling.

    PubMed

    Randerath, K; Randerath, E

    1990-01-01

    Among several recently developed analytical methods, 32P-postlabeling analysis is a highly sensitive method for the detection and measurement of covalent carcinogen-DNA adducts and other DNA modifications. Since the method does not require radioactive carcinogens, it is suitable for DNA of humans exposed to environmental or occupational genotoxicants. The basic procedure entails the enzymatic incorporation of 32P-label into monomeric or dimeric hydrolysis products of DNA, followed by chromatographic mapping and autoradiography of the 32P-labeled digestion products and quantitation by scintillation spectrometry. Microgram amounts of DNA are analyzed; thus the assay is well suited for limited amounts of cells or tissue. Various versions of the assay afford different sensitivities of adduct detection. Under optimal conditions, one aromatic or bulky/hydrophobic adduct in 10(8)-10(10) nucleotides can be detected and measured (corresponding to 0.3-30 amol adduct/microgram DNA or 0.1-10 nmol adduct/mol DNA-P). The assay has been successfully applied to a variety of mutagenic (genotoxic) as well as non-mutagenic carcinogens. In humans, the 32P-postlabeling assay has been applied to DNA specimens from cigarette smokers, iron foundry workers, and coke oven workers. Estimation of total aromatic adduct levels in exposed individuals gave values of 1 adduct in 10(6)-10(8) DNA nucleotides. These values are similar to the total levels of persistent adducts in tissues of animals after exposure to initiating or carcinogenic doses of authentic aromatic genotoxicants. Among the non-mutagenic carcinogens investigated are estrogens, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), choline-devoid diet, carbon tetrachloride, and peroxisome proliferators. In addition, age-dependent DNA modifications (I-compounds) are being detected by 32P-postlabeling in animals that have not been knowingly exposed to mutagens/carcinogens. I-compound profiles and levels are dependent on species, tissue, sex

  17. Combination Effects of Forty Carcinogens Administered at Low Doses to Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Shozo; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether a mixture of low doses of forty carcinogens that target different organs, including the liver, intestine, thyroid, urinary bladder, and skin, is effective for tumor induction in F344/DuCrj rats. The dose of each carcinogen in the diet was 1/50 of the TD50 value, treatment being continued for 102 weeks. Significant numbers of neoplastic nodules of the liver and follicular cell tumors of the thyroid developed in the animals exposed to the carcinogen mixture, although the question of whether the observed carcinogenic effects were synergistic or additive could not be answered. The results serve to evaluate carcinogenic risk in the search for causes of human cancer. PMID:2511179

  18. Inter-laboratory comparison of turkey in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA) of hepatocarcinogens.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, H; Brunnemann, K; Iatropoulos, M; Shpyleva, S; Lukyanova, N; Todor, I; Moore, M; Spicher, K; Chekhun, V; Tsuda, H; Williams, G

    2013-09-01

    In three independent laboratories carcinogens (diethylnitrosamine, DEN, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NNK) and non-carcinogens (N-nitrosoproline, nicotine) were evaluated in turkey eggs for in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA). Compounds were injected into aseptic fertilized eggs. After incubation for 24 days, foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH), some with a pseudoglandular structure and/or signs of compression of the surrounding tissue were observed in the fetal liver. All laboratories were able to distinguish unequivocally the hepatocarcinogen-exposed groups from those exposed to non-carcinogens or the vehicle controls, based on the pre-specified evaluation parameters: tumor-like lesions, pseudoglandular areas and FAH. In addition to focal changes, only the carcinogens induced hepatocellular karyomegaly. Lower doses of the carcinogens, which did not induce FAH, were sufficient to induce hepatocellular karyomegaly. After exposure to 4 mg DEN, gall bladder agenesis was observed in all fetuses. The IOCA may be a valuable tool for early investigative studies on carcinogenicity and since it does not use rodents may complement chronic rat or mouse bioassays. Test substances that are positive in both rodents and fertilized turkey eggs are most probably trans-species carcinogens with particular significance for humans. The good concordance observed among the three laboratories demonstrates that the IOCA is a reliable and robust method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissecting modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens in primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Mirjam M; Zwart, Edwin P; Wackers, Paul F K; Huijskens, Ilse; van de Water, Bob; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry; Jonker, Martijs J; Luijten, Mirjam

    2012-11-01

    Under REACH, the European Community Regulation on chemicals, the testing strategy for carcinogenicity is based on in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Given that non-genotoxic carcinogens are negative for genotoxicity and chronic bioassays are no longer regularly performed, this class of carcinogens will go undetected. Therefore, test systems detecting non-genotoxic carcinogens, or even better their modes of action, are required. Here, we investigated whether gene expression profiling in primary hepatocytes can be used to distinguish different modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens. For this, primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to 16 non-genotoxic carcinogens with diverse modes of action. Upon profiling, pathway analysis was performed to obtain insight into the biological relevance of the observed changes in gene expression. Subsequently, both a supervised and an unsupervised comparison approach were applied to recognize the modes of action at the transcriptomic level. These analyses resulted in the detection of three of eight compound classes, that is, peroxisome proliferators, metalloids and skin tumor promotors. In conclusion, gene expression profiles in primary hepatocytes, at least in rodent hepatocytes, appear to be useful to detect some, certainly not all, modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens.

  20. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  1. Carcinogenicity of 4-methoxyphenol and 4-methylcatechol in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, E; Hirose, M; Hagiwara, A; Takahashi, S; Ito, N

    1994-01-02

    The carcinogenic potentials of 4-methoxyphenol (4-MP) and 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), phenolic compounds which are structurally similar to the known forestomach carcinogen BHA and the glandular stomach carcinogen catechol respectively, and cause considerably enhanced cell proliferation and cytotoxicities in rat forestomach and/or glandular stomach epithelium, were examined in male and female F344 rats. Groups of 30 male and female animals were administered diets containing 2% 4-MP or 2% 4-MC for 104 weeks. Histopathological findings in the 4-MP case included atypical hyperplasias (male, 67%, female, 37%), papillomas (50%, 23%) and squamous-cell carcinomas (77%, 20%) in the forestomach. 4-MC induced forestomach papillomas (70%, 93%) and squamous-cell carcinomas (53%, 37%), also glandular stomach submucosal hyperplasias (90%, 93%), adenomas (100%, 100%) and adenocarcinomas (57%, 47%), with ulceration or erosion. The degree of differentiation of the squamous-cell carcinomas induced by 4-MP was less than with 4-MC. The present study demonstrated unequivocal forestomach carcinogenicity for 4-MP and forestomach and glandular stomach carcinogenicity for 4-MC, with cytotoxicity and cell proliferation both appearing as important factors for these non-genotoxic carcinogens.

  2. Accurate characterization of carcinogenic DNA adducts using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Charles A.; Chiu, Norman H. L.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemical carcinogens and their in vivo activated metabolites react readily with genomic DNA, and form covalently bound carcinogen-DNA adducts. Clinically, carcinogen-DNA adducts have been linked to various cancer diseases. Among the current methods for DNA adduct analysis, mass spectroscopic method allows the direct measurement of unlabeled DNA adducts. The goal of this study is to explore the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to determine the identity of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Two of the known carcinogenic DNA adducts, namely N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP) and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), were selected as our models. In MALDI-TOF MS measurements, the small matrix ion and its cluster ions did not interfere with the measurements of both selected dG adducts. To achieve a higher accuracy for the characterization of selected dG adducts, 1 keV collision energy in MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was used to measure the adducts. In comparison to other MS/MS techniques with lower collision energies, more extensive precursor ion dissociations were observed. The detection of the corresponding fragment ions allowed the identities of guanine, PhIP or ABP, and the position of adduction to be confirmed. Some of the fragment ions of dG-C8-PhIP have not been reported by other MS/MS techniques.

  3. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette sidestream smoke particulates from a Taiwanese brand and their carcinogenic relevance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Ling; Hsieh, Dennis P H; Li, Lih-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed on cigarette sidestream smoke particulates (CSSPs) have been regarded as important contributors to lung carcinogenesis in never smokers. However, limited information is available on PAH levels in cigarette sidestream smoke. Here we determine the concentrations of 22 PAHs, including 16 US EPA priority PAHs, in CSSPs generated from a high market-share domestic brand in Taiwan. Five of the 22 PAHs are undetectable. The remaining 17 PAHs constitute about 0.022% of the total mass of CSSPs. Near one fifth of the PAH mass come from IARC group 1 and group 2 carcinogens. Carcinogenic potency is equivalent to 144 ng benzo[a]pyrene per cigarette converted according to potency equivalency factors (PEFs). The CSSP condensate could activate AhR activity and induce AhR target gene expression. High concentrations of CSSPs also exhibited AhR-independent cytotoxicity. However, mixing the 17 PAHs as the composition in the CSSP condensate could not reconstitute either capacity. Since AhR activation and cytotoxicity are important mechanisms underlying carcinogenic potency, the results suggest that other component compounds play a more active role in carcinogenesis. The approach of individual PAH profiling plus PEF conversion commonly used in risk assessment is likely to underestimate the risk caused by environmental cigarette smoke exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of benzotrichloride (97-07-7). Final report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    Benzotrichloride is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B1 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is Sufficient, and the evidence from human studies is Limited. The potency factor (F) for benzotrichloride is estimated to be 58.0 (mg/kg/day)(-1), placing it in potency group 2 according to the CAG's methodology for evaluating potential carcinogens. Combining the weight-of-evidence group and the potency group, benzotrichloride is assigned a MEDIUM hazard ranking.

  6. Repression by sustained-release. beta. -glucuronidase inhibitors of chemical carcinogen-mediated induction of a marker oncofetal protein in rodents

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Walaszek, Z.; Hanausek-Walaszek, M.; Webb, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    The degree of induction of an oncofetal protein marker in rodents by selected chemical carcinogens has been correlated with changes in carcinogenicity induced by dietary D-glucaro-1,4-lactone (GL) based anticarcinogens. These potent anticarcinogens may act to increase the clearance of carcinogens as glucuronides through the inhibition of ..beta..-glucuronidase. The sustained-release forms are particularly effective, 1.5 mmol/kg of GL maintaining serum ..beta..-glucuronidase activity at or below 50% for only 1 h, while an equivalent amount of calcium glucarate (CGT) maintained this level of inhibition for over 5 h. CGT or other sustained-release inhibitors, when fed to rodents during administration of carcinogens thatmore » undergo glucuronidation, caused a marked reduction in the induction of the marker protein. For those systems where other markers of carcinogenesis were also assessed, it was determined the inhibition of marker-protein induction was quantitatively similar to both the inhibition of binding of the carcinogen to DNA and the subsequent induction of tumors in target organs. The following carcinogens were administered intraperitoneally: benzo(a)pryene; 7,12-demethylbenz(a)anthracene; 3-methylcholanthrene; 2-acetylaminofluorene; 2-naphthylamine; N-nitroso-N,N-dibutylamine; aflatoxin B1; 1-nitropyrene.« less

  7. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. © 2013.

  8. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  9. An evaluation of risk estimation procedures for mixtures of carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hwang, J.S.; Chen, J.J.

    1999-12-01

    The estimation of health risks from exposure to a mixture of chemical carcinogens is generally based on the combination of information from several available single compound studies. The current practice of directly summing the upper bound risk estimates of individual carcinogenic components as an upper bound on the total risk of a mixture is known to be generally too conservative. Gaylor and Chen (1996, Risk Analysis) proposed a simple procedure to compute an upper bound on the total risk using only the upper confidence limits and central risk estimates of individual carcinogens. The Gaylor-Chen procedure was derived based on anmore » underlying assumption of the normality for the distributions of individual risk estimates. IN this paper the authors evaluated the Gaylor-Chen approach in terms the coverages of the upper confidence limits on the true risks of individual carcinogens. In general, if the coverage probabilities for the individual carcinogens are all approximately equal to the nominal level, then the Gaylor-Chen approach should perform well. However, the Gaylor-Chen approach can be conservative or anti-conservative if some of all individual upper confidence limit estimates are conservative or anti-conservative.« less

  10. Molecular mechanism of metal-independent decomposition of lipid hydroperoxide 13-HPODE by halogenated quinoid carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hao; Huang, Chun-Hua; Mao, Li; Xia, Hai-Ying; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Shao, Jie; Shan, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2013-10-01

    Halogenated quinones are a class of carcinogenic intermediates and newly identified chlorination disinfection by-products in drinking water. 13-Hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) is the most extensively studied endogenous lipid hydroperoxide. Although it is well known that the decomposition of 13-HPODE can be catalyzed by transition metal ions, it is not clear whether halogenated quinones could enhance its decomposition independent of metal ions and, if so, what the unique characteristics and similarities are. Here we show that 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ) could markedly enhance the decomposition of 13-HPODE and formation of reactive lipid alkyl radicals such as pentyl and 7-carboxyheptyl radicals, and the genotoxic 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), through the complementary application of ESR spin trapping, HPLC-MS, and GC-MS methods. Interestingly, two chloroquinone-lipid alkoxyl conjugates were also detected and identified from the reaction between DCBQ and 13-HPODE. Analogous results were observed with other halogenated quinones. This represents the first report that halogenated quinoid carcinogens can enhance the decomposition of the endogenous lipid hydroperoxide 13-HPODE and formation of reactive lipid alkyl radicals and genotoxic HNE via a novel metal-independent nucleophilic substitution coupled with homolytic decomposition mechanism, which may partly explain their potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of thyroid C-cell carcinogenicity after chronic administration of GLP1-R agonists in rodents.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Willem; Emerenciana, Annette; Bellanti, Francesco; Della Pasqua, Oscar; van der Laan, Jan Willem

    2017-04-01

    Increased incidence of C-cell carcinogenicity has been observed for glucagon-like-protein-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists in rodents. It is suggested that the duration of exposure is an indicator of carcinogenic potential in rodents of the different products on the market. Furthermore, the role of GLP-1-related mechanisms in the induction of C-cell carcinogenicity has gained increased attention by regulatory agencies. This study proposes an integrative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) framework to identify explanatory factors and characterize differences in carcinogenic potential of the GLP-1r agonist products. PK models for four products (exenatide QW (once weekly), exenatide BID (twice daily), liraglutide and lixisenatide) were developed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Predicted exposure was subsequently linked to GLP-1r stimulation using in vitro GLP-1r potency data. A logistic regression model was then applied to exenatide QW and liraglutide data to assess the relationship between GLP-1r stimulation and thyroid C-cell hyperplasia incidence as pre-neoplastic predictor of a carcinogenic response. The model showed a significant association between predicted GLP-1r stimulation and C-cell hyperplasia after 2years of treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated using lixisenatide, for which hyperplasia data were accurately described during the validation step. The use of a model-based approach provided insight into the relationship between C-cell hyperplasia and GLP-1r stimulation for all four products, which is not possible with traditional data analysis methods. It can be concluded that both pharmacokinetics (exposure) and pharmacodynamics (potency for GLP-1r) factors determine C-cell hyperplasia incidence in rodents. Our work highlights the pharmacological basis for GLP-1r agonist-induced C-cell carcinogenicity. The concept is promising for application to other drug classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative structure carcinogenicity relationship for detecting structural alerts in nitroso-compounds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Helguera, Aliuska Morales; Molecular Simulation and Drug Design, Chemical Bioactive Center, Central University of Las Villas, Santa Clara, 54830, Villa Clara; Department of Chemistry, Central University of Las Villas, Santa Clara, 54830, Villa Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) modelling was used as a tool for predicting the carcinogenic potency of a set of 39 nitroso-compounds, which have been bioassayed in male rats by using the oral route of administration. The optimum QSAR model provided evidence of good fit and performance of predicitivity from training set. It was able to account for about 84% of the variance in the experimental activity and exhibited high values of the determination coefficients of cross validations, leave one out and bootstrapping (q{sup 2}{sub LOO} = 78.53 and q{sup 2}{sub Boot} = 74.97). Such a model wasmore » based on spectral moments weighted with Gasteiger-Marsilli atomic charges, polarizability and hydrophobicity, as well as with Abraham indexes, specifically the summation solute hydrogen bond basicity and the combined dipolarity/polarizability. This is the first study to have explored the possibility of combining Abraham solute descriptors with spectral moments. A reasonable interpretation of these molecular descriptors from a toxicological point of view was achieved by means of taking into account bond contributions. The set of relationships so derived revealed the importance of the length of the alkyl chains for determining carcinogenic potential of the chemicals analysed, and were able to explain the difference between mono-substituted and di-substituted nitrosoureas as well as to discriminate between isomeric structures with hydroxyl-alkyl and alkyl substituents in different positions. Moreover, they allowed the recognition of structural alerts in classical structures of two potent nitrosamines, consistent with their biotransformation. These results indicate that this new approach has the potential for improving carcinogenicity predictions based on the identification of structural alerts.« less

  13. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  14. Zonal differences in DNA synthesis activity and cytochrome P450 gene expression in livers of male F344 rats treated with five nongenotoxic carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Zhi-Ying; White, C.C.; He, Cheng-Yi

    1995-12-31

    Both increased cell proliferation and {open_quotes}altered{close_quotes}CYP gene expression are prominent phenomena associated with liver tumor promotion by nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. BRDU-labeled parenchymal nuclei were observed primarily in the periportal area of groups of rats, independent of nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. Treatment with each of the 5 nongenotoxic carcinogens resulted in profound alterations in CPY gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Expression of CYP1A1, 1A1/2, 3A1, 2B1/2, and 4A immunoproteins demonstrated nongenotoxic carcinogen-specific patterns in both magnitude and zonal distribution. In agreement with the CYP immunoprotein data, treatment with each of the five nongenotoxic carcinogens resulted in a uniquemore » composition of mRNAs of CYP2B1, 2B2, 2C6, 2C11, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1, which were variably increased or decreased relative to the untreated control livers, depending on the treatment. Similarly, the rate and pattern of CYP enzyme-mediated hydroxylation toward testosterone, 17{beta}-estradiol, corticosterone, and lauric acid were greatly altered by nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. Because many endogenous substrates are modulators of DNA and RNA synthesis, intracellular kinetics of endogenous substrates of CYP enzymes in the corresponding hepatocytes could contribute, at least in part, to the differences in gene expression, differentiation, and cell proliferation among the hepatocytes in the cell plate. 64 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  15. A study of tobacco carcinogenesis XLVIII. Carcinogenicity of N'-nitrosonornicotine in mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Koppang, N; Rivenson, A; Reith, A; Dahle, H K; Evensen, O; Hoffmann, D

    1992-11-01

    During tobacco processing and smoking, nicotine and nornicotine give rise to N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a highly abundant, strong carcinogen. NNN is known to exert carcinogenic activity in mice, rats and hamsters. Major target organs for NNN carcinogenicity in the rat are the esophagus and the nasal mucosa, and in the Syrian golden hamster trachea and nasal mucosa. In comparison with the rat, the mink (Mustela vison) has a markedly expanded nasal mucosa. Therefore, we explored in this study whether the mink could serve as a non-rodent model for nasal carcinogenesis using NNN as the carcinogen. Twenty random-bred mink, beginning at the age of 3 weeks, received twice weekly s.c. injections of NNN, a total dose of 11.9 mM per animal over a 38 week period. All of the 19 mink at risk developed malignant tumors of both the respiratory and the olfactory region of the nose within 3.5 years. In most animals the malignant tumors, primarily esthesioneuroepithelioma, invaded the brain. Remarkably, NNN induced no other tumors in the mink. None of the control animals developed nasal tumors nor tumors at other sites during the 3.5 years of the assay. The historical data from the farm did not reveal any spontaneous occurrence of nasal tumors in mink at any age. This study supports the concept that NNN is a proven carcinogen for multiple species of mammals and that the mink can serve as a non-rodent, non-inbred animal model for nasal carcinogenesis, especially since NNN induces only tumors in the nasal cavity in this species and not at other sites, as it does in mice, rats and hamsters.

  16. [The register of exposed workers to carcinogens: legislative framework and data analysis].

    PubMed

    Scarselli, A; Di Marzio, D; Marinaccio, A; Iavicoli, S

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the law which introduced the registration of occupational exposures to carcinogens (Legislative Decree 626/94), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention designed and implemented an information system for collecting and recording such information. The Ministry of Health Decree No 155/2007, which established the procedures for record keeping and transmission of registers of exposed workers, regulated the legislative fJamework in this field. The aim of the study was to illustrate some of the major legislative issues and toprovide summary statistics, after one year of entry into force of this Decree. The main information to record is: the carcinogenic agents used, the type of occupational exposure and data on the environmental measurements. Descriptive statistical analysis were carried out, by sector of economic activity, carcinogen agent and worker's occupation. As at 31 December 2008 the information recorded, altogether, covered: 6000 firms, 79,000 workers, 164,000 exposures and 100,000 measurements. Most of the exposures occurred in the manufacturing and construction industries and in commercial activities. Such surveillance system, established as a result of the institution of exposure registers, makes it possible to plan analytical studies, both for monitoring the effects of exposure, even at low doses, and for assessing the prevention and protection measures. It is hoped that the recent readjustment law (Legislative Decree 81/2008) will promote awareness of all subjects involved in the recording procedures (employers, physicians, local health units, research institutes, etc.), thus increasing the quality and coverage of data transmission.

  17. Role of Mutagenicity in Asbestos Fiber-Induced Carcinogenicity and Other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sarah X. L.; Jaurand, Marie-Claude; Kamp, David W.; Whysner, John; Hei, Tom K.

    2011-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of how asbestos fibers induce cancers and other diseases are not well understood. Both serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibers have been shown to induce oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, cellular toxicity and tissue injuries, genetic changes, and epigenetic alterations in target cells in vitro and tissues in vivo. Most of these mechanisms are believe to be shared by both fiber-induced cancers and noncancerous diseases. This article summarizes the findings from existing literature with a focus on genetic changes, specifically, mutagenicity of asbestos fibers. Thus far, experimental evidence suggesting the involvement of mutagenesis in asbestos carcinogenicity is more convincing than asbestos-induced fibrotic diseases. The potential contributions of mutagenicity to asbestos-induced diseases, with an emphasis on carcinogenicity, are reviewed from five aspects: (1) whether there is a mutagenic mode of action (MOA) in fiber-induced carcinogenesis; (2) mutagenicity/carcinogenicity at low dose; (3) biological activities that contribute to mutagenicity and impact of target tissue/cell type; (4) health endpoints with or without mutagenicity as a key event; and finally, (5) determinant factors of toxicity in mutagenicity. At the end of this review, a consensus statement of what is known, what is believed to be factual but requires confirmation, and existing data gaps, as well as future research needs and directions, is provided. PMID:21534089

  18. Studies on glyphosate-induced carcinogenicity in mouse skin: a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    George, Jasmine; Prasad, Sahdeo; Mahmood, Zafar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-03-10

    Glyphosate is a widely used broad spectrum herbicide, reported to induce various toxic effects in non-target species, but its carcinogenic potential is still unknown. Here we showed the carcinogenic effects of glyphosate using 2-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model and proteomic analysis. Carcinogenicity study revealed that glyphosate has tumor promoting activity. Proteomic analysis using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry showed that 22 spots were differentially expressed (>2 fold) on glyphosate, 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) application over untreated control. Among them, 9 proteins (translation elongation factor eEF-1 alpha chain, carbonic anhydrase III, annexin II, calcyclin, fab fragment anti-VEGF antibody, peroxiredoxin-2, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], stefin A3, and calgranulin-B) were common and showed similar expression pattern in glyphosate and TPA-treated mouse skin. These proteins are known to be involved in several key processes like apoptosis and growth-inhibition, anti-oxidant responses, etc. The up-regulation of calcyclin, calgranulin-B and down-regulation of superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] was further confirmed by immunoblotting, indicating that these proteins can be good candidate biomarkers for skin carcinogenesis induced by glyphosate. Altogether, these results suggested that glyphosate has tumor promoting potential in skin carcinogenesis and its mechanism seems to be similar to TPA. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational exposure limits for carcinogens--variant approaches by different countries

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cook, W.A.

    1989-09-01

    The differences in treatment of occupational exposure limits for carcinogens by 24 countries is described along with a discussion of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLV) treatment, the similar treatment of the new Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard, and the treatment by provinces of Canada. The unique listing by the Federal Republic of Germany of so-called technical guiding concentrations of a group of carcinogens is discussed with the note that Austria used this same system. Publications on justification for establishing occupational exposure limits for certain carcinogens are discussed also.

  20. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Health Assessment Document. EPA’s program and regional offices may use this assessment to inform decisions to protect human health. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia and the charge to external peer reviewers, are posted on this site.

  1. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    PubMed

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  2. On the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in volcano exhausts.

    PubMed

    Ilnitsky, A P; Belitsky, G A; Shabad, L M

    1976-05-01

    The content of benzo(a)pyrene in the juvenile ashes of the volcano Tyatya (Kunashir Island, Kuriles) and in the soil, vegetation and volcanic mud collected near volcanos in Kamchatka was studied. It was concluded that volcanic activity does not play a large role in forming the background level of this carcinogen in the human environment.

  3. Legal implications of monitoring workers for carcinogenic and mutagenic risk.

    PubMed

    Damme, C J

    1982-01-01

    Many industries have initiated testing programs designed to identify workers who are especially vulnerable to workplace assaults by carcinogenic or mutagenic agents. This paper examines a number of legal issues attendant on such programs, including disclosure and consent, confidentiality, and other potential liability-producing factors. This paper also briefly looks at the legal issues that might arise if the federal government were to mandate similar programs. Finally, the basic rationale of industrial monitoring programs is discussed within the context of the emerging legal issues.

  4. USE OF qRTPCR TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS OF BROMATE EXPOSURE IN F344 MALE RAT KIDNEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a drinking water disinfection by-product that is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. To identify potential biomarkers of carcinogenicity, male F344 rats were chronically exposed to a carcinogenic dose (400mg/l) of KBrO3 in their drinking water. Kidneys were...

  5. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-02-26

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions.

  6. Glyphosate toxicity and carcinogenicity: a review of the scientific basis of the European Union assessment and its differences with IARC.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Jose V; Court-Marques, Daniele; Tiramani, Manuela; Reich, Hermine; Pfeil, Rudolf; Istace, Frederique; Crivellente, Federica

    2017-08-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide. It is a broad spectrum herbicide and its agricultural uses increased considerably after the development of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties. Since glyphosate was introduced in 1974, all regulatory assessments have established that glyphosate has low hazard potential to mammals, however, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded in March 2015 that it is probably carcinogenic. The IARC conclusion was not confirmed by the EU assessment or the recent joint WHO/FAO evaluation, both using additional evidence. Glyphosate is not the first topic of disagreement between IARC and regulatory evaluations, but has received greater attention. This review presents the scientific basis of the glyphosate health assessment conducted within the European Union (EU) renewal process, and explains the differences in the carcinogenicity assessment with IARC. Use of different data sets, particularly on long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity in rodents, could partially explain the divergent views; but methodological differences in the evaluation of the available evidence have been identified. The EU assessment did not identify a carcinogenicity hazard, revised the toxicological profile proposing new toxicological reference values, and conducted a risk assessment for some representatives uses. Two complementary exposure assessments, human-biomonitoring and food-residues-monitoring, suggests that actual exposure levels are below these reference values and do not represent a public concern.

  7. Maximum workplace concentration values and carcinogenicity classification for mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, R; Forderkunz, S; Reuter, U; Sterzl-Eckert, H; Greim, H

    1998-01-01

    In Germany, the Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK Commission) generally sets maximum workplace concentration values (i.e., a proposed occupational exposure level [OEL]) for single substances, not for mixtures. For mixtures containing substances with a genotoxic and carcinogenic potential, the commission considered it scientifically inappropriate to establish a safe threshold. This approach is currently under discussion. Carcinogenic mixtures are categorized according to either the carcinogenicity of the mixture or the classification of the carcinogenic substances included. In regulating exposure to mixtures, an approach similar to that used by the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists is proposed: For components with the same target organ and mode of action or interfering metabolism, synergistic effects must be expected and the respective OELs must be lowered. However, if there is proof that the components act independently, the OELs of the individual compounds are not considered to be modified. In the view of the commission, calculating OELs for solvent mixtures according to their liquid phase composition is not justified, and the setting of scientifically based OELs for complex mixtures is not possible. PMID:9860883

  8. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  9. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  10. Evaluation of human health risks posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic multiple contaminants associated with consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Xinxin; Yang, Dan; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-07-01

    The present study estimated the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxic trace elements [mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As)] due to consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China, and the associated potential health risks posed by these contaminants. The health risks posed by the contaminants were assessed using a risk quotient of the fish consumption rate to the maximum allowable fish consumption rate considering the contaminants for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect endpoints. The results showed that fish consumption would not pose non-cancer risks. However, some species would cause a cancer risk. Relative risks of the contaminants were calculated to investigate the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. As a result, in view of the contaminants for carcinogenic effects, As was the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. However, when non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants were considered, Hg posed the highest risk. The risk caused by PBDEs was negligible. The results demonstrated that traditional contaminants, such as As, Hg, DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites), and PCBs, require more attention in Taihu Lake than the other target contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Foci of aberrant crypts in the colons of mice and rats exposed to carcinogens associated with foods

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tudek, B.; Bird, R.P.; Bruce, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci can be identified in the colons of rodents treated 3 wk earlier with azoxymethane, a known colon carcinogen. These crypts can easily be visualized in the unsectioned methylene blue-stained colons under light microscopy, where they are distinguished by their increased size, more prominent epithelial cells, and pericryptal space. They occur as single aberrant crypts or as two, three, or four aberrant crypts in a cluster. We compared the reported ability of carcinogens associated with the human diet to induce colon cancer with the measured rate of induction of aberrant crypts in female CF1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.more » The carcinogens used were 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, methyl nitrosourea, N-nitrosodimethylamine, benzo(a)pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido(1,2-alpha:3',2'-d)imidazole, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole. Graded doses of these compounds were given to the animals by gavage twice with a 4-day interval, and the animals were terminated 3 wk later. All colon carcinogens induced aberrant crypts in a dose-related fashion. N-Nitrosodimethylamine and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole, carcinogenic compounds that do not induce colon cancer, did not induce them. The ability of the studied compounds to induce aberrant crypts was species specific; e.g., aflatoxin B1 and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline induce about 20 times more in rats than mice. This relationship was consistent with their reported ability to induce colon cancer in these species. Results of the present study support the use of the aberrant crypt assays to screen colon-specific carcinogens and to study the process of colon carcinogenesis.« less

  12. The Regulation of Carcinogenic Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gori, Gio Batta

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that a system of relative standards be formulated which would compare utility of substances to their relative risk as carcinogens. This would define a range of use restrictions. Substances intended for specific uses would then be regulated according to these standards. (Author/RE)

  13. Theoretical and experimental approaches to possible thresholds of response in carcinogenicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The determination and utilization of the actual low dose-response relationship for chemical carcinogens has long interested toxicologists, experimental pathologists, modelers and risk assessors. To date, no unequivocal examples of carcinogenic thresholds in humans are known. Ho...

  14. Estimated prevalence of exposure to occupational carcinogens in Australia (2011-2012).

    PubMed

    Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Reid, Alison; Benke, Geza; Fritschi, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Although past studies of workplace exposures have contributed greatly to our understanding of carcinogens, significant knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual extent of exposure among current workers, with no routinely collected population-based data being available in most countries. This study, the Australian Work Exposures Study (AWES), aimed to investigate the current prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens. A random sample of men and women aged between 18 and 65, who were currently in paid employment, were invited to participate in a telephone interview collecting information about their current job and various demographic factors. Interviews were conducted using a web-based application (OccIDEAS). OccIDEAS uses the expert exposure method in which participants are asked about their job tasks and predefined algorithms are used to automatically assign exposures. Responses were obtained from 5023 eligible Australian residents, resulting in an overall response rate of 53%. 1879 respondents (37.6%) were assessed as being exposed to at least one occupational carcinogen in their current job. Extrapolation of these figures to the Australian working population suggested 3.6 million (40.3%) current workers could be exposed to carcinogens in their workplace. Exposure prevalence was highest among farmers, drivers, miners and transport workers, as well as men and those residing in regional areas. This study demonstrates a practical, web-based approach to collecting population information on occupational exposure to carcinogens and documents the high prevalence of current exposure to occupational carcinogens in the general population.

  15. Micronuclei in cord blood lymphocytes and associations with biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens and hormonally active factors, gene polymorphisms, and gene expression: the NewGeneris cohort.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Agramunt, Silvia; Anna, Lívia; Besselink, Harrie; Botsivali, Maria; Brady, Nigel J; Ceppi, Marcello; Chatzi, Leda; Chen, Bowang; Decordier, Ilse; Farmer, Peter B; Fleming, Sarah; Fontana, Vincenzo; Försti, Asta; Fthenou, Eleni; Gallo, Fabio; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Gmuender, Hans; Godschalk, Roger W; Granum, Berit; Hardie, Laura J; Hemminki, Kari; Hochstenbach, Kevin; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kovács, Katalin; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Løvik, Martinus; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Pedersen, Marie; Rydberg, Per; Schoket, Bernadette; Segerbäck, Dan; Singh, Rajinder; Sunyer, Jordi; Törnqvist, Margareta; van Loveren, Henk; van Schooten, Frederik J; Vande Loock, Kim; von Stedingk, Hans; Wright, John; Kleinjans, Jos C; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; van Delft, Joost H M

    2014-02-01

    Leukemia incidence has increased in recent decades among European children, suggesting that early-life environmental exposures play an important role in disease development. We investigated the hypothesis that childhood susceptibility may increase as a result of in utero exposure to carcinogens and hormonally acting factors. Using cord blood samples from the NewGeneris cohort, we examined associations between a range of biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and hormonally acting factors with micronuclei (MN) frequency as a proxy measure of cancer risk. Associations with gene expression and genotype were also explored. DNA and protein adducts, gene expression profiles, circulating hormonally acting factors, and GWAS (genome-wide association study) data were investigated in relation to genomic damage measured by MN frequency in lymphocytes from 623 newborns enrolled between 2006 and 2010 across Europe. Malondialdehyde DNA adducts (M1dG) were associated with increased MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes (MNBN), and exposure to androgenic, estrogenic, and dioxin-like compounds was associated with MN frequency in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNMONO), although no monotonic exposure-outcome relationship was observed. Lower frequencies of MNBN were associated with a 1-unit increase expression of PDCD11, LATS2, TRIM13, CD28, SMC1A, IL7R, and NIPBL genes. Gene expression was significantly higher in association with the highest versus lowest category of bulky and M1dG-DNA adducts for five and six genes, respectively. Gene expression levels were significantly lower for 11 genes in association with the highest versus lowest category of plasma AR CALUX® (chemically activated luciferase expression for androgens) (8 genes), ERα CALUX® (for estrogens) (2 genes), and DR CALUX® (for dioxins). Several SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) on chromosome 11 near FOLH1 significantly modified associations between androgen activity and MNBN frequency. Polymorphisms in EPHX1/2 and CYP2E1

  16. Micronuclei in Cord Blood Lymphocytes and Associations with Biomarkers of Exposure to Carcinogens and Hormonally Active Factors, Gene Polymorphisms, and Gene Expression: The NewGeneris Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Agramunt, Silvia; Anna, Lívia; Besselink, Harrie; Botsivali, Maria; Brady, Nigel J.; Ceppi, Marcello; Chatzi, Leda; Chen, Bowang; Decordier, Ilse; Farmer, Peter B.; Fleming, Sarah; Fontana, Vincenzo; Försti, Asta; Fthenou, Eleni; Gallo, Fabio; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Gmuender, Hans; Godschalk, Roger W.; Granum, Berit; Hardie, Laura J.; Hemminki, Kari; Hochstenbach, Kevin; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kovács, Katalin; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Løvik, Martinus; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Pedersen, Marie; Rydberg, Per; Schoket, Bernadette; Segerbäck, Dan; Singh, Rajinder; Sunyer, Jordi; Törnqvist, Margareta; van Loveren, Henk; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Vande Loock, Kim; von Stedingk, Hans; Wright, John; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; van Delft, Joost H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Leukemia incidence has increased in recent decades among European children, suggesting that early-life environmental exposures play an important role in disease development. Objectives: We investigated the hypothesis that childhood susceptibility may increase as a result of in utero exposure to carcinogens and hormonally acting factors. Using cord blood samples from the NewGeneris cohort, we examined associations between a range of biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and hormonally acting factors with micronuclei (MN) frequency as a proxy measure of cancer risk. Associations with gene expression and genotype were also explored. Methods: DNA and protein adducts, gene expression profiles, circulating hormonally acting factors, and GWAS (genome-wide association study) data were investigated in relation to genomic damage measured by MN frequency in lymphocytes from 623 newborns enrolled between 2006 and 2010 across Europe. Results: Malondialdehyde DNA adducts (M1dG) were associated with increased MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes (MNBN), and exposure to androgenic, estrogenic, and dioxin-like compounds was associated with MN frequency in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNMONO), although no monotonic exposure–outcome relationship was observed. Lower frequencies of MNBN were associated with a 1-unit increase expression of PDCD11, LATS2, TRIM13, CD28, SMC1A, IL7R, and NIPBL genes. Gene expression was significantly higher in association with the highest versus lowest category of bulky and M1dG–DNA adducts for five and six genes, respectively. Gene expression levels were significantly lower for 11 genes in association with the highest versus lowest category of plasma AR CALUX® (chemically activated luciferase expression for androgens) (8 genes), ERα CALUX® (for estrogens) (2 genes), and DR CALUX® (for dioxins). Several SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) on chromosome 11 near FOLH1 significantly modified associations between androgen activity and MNBN

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING AGE AND STRAIN-RELATED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE CARCINOGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Further, some strains of mice are more susceptible to chemical carcinogens than others. We have been conducting studies to understand the interactions between age and genetic background underlying these suscep...

  18. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.131 Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens. The Secretary shall establish two priority lists for regulating potential... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority lists for regulating potential occupational...

  19. Prediction of Chemical Carcinogenicity in Rodents from in vitro Genetic Toxicity Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Raymond W.; Margolin, Barry H.; Shelby, Michael D.; Zeiger, Errol; Haseman, Joseph K.; Spalding, Judson; Caspary, William; Resnick, Michael; Stasiewicz, Stanley; Anderson, Beth; Minor, Robert

    1987-05-01

    Four widely used in vitro assays for genetic toxicity were evaluated for their ability to predict the carcinogenicity of selected chemicals in rodents. These assays were mutagenesis in Salmonella and mouse lymphoma cells and chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Seventy-three chemicals recently tested in 2-year carcinogenicity studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute and the National Toxicology Program were used in this evaluation. Test results from the four in vitro assays did not show significant differences in individual concordance with the rodent carcinogenicity results; the concordance of each assay was approximately 60 percent. Within the limits of this study there was no evidence of complementarity among the four assays, and no battery of tests constructed from these assays improved substantially on the overall performance of the Salmonella assay. The in vitro assays which represented a range of three cell types and four end points did show substantial agreement among themselves, indicating that chemicals positive in one in vitro assay tended to be positive in the other in vitro assays. To help put this project into its proper context, we emphasize certain features of the study: 1) Standard protocols were used to mimic the major use of STTs worldwide--screening for mutagens and carcinogens; no attempt was made to optimize protocols for specific chemicals. 2) The 73 NTP chemicals and their 60% incidence of carcinogenicity are probably not representative of the universe of chemicals but rather reflect the recent chemical selection process for the NTP carcinogenicity assay. 3) The small, diverse group of chemicals precludes a meaningful evaluation of the predictive utility of chemical structure information. 4) The NTP is currently testing these same 73 chemicals in two in vivo STTs for chromosomal effects. 5) Complete data for an additional group of 30 to 40 NTP chemicals will be gathered on

  20. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Immunoaffinity purification of dietary heterocyclic amine carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vanderlaan, M.; Hwang, M.; Djanegara, T.

    1993-03-01

    Cooking meats produces a family of heterocyclic aromatic amines that are carcinogens in rodents and genotoxic in many short-term assays. Concern that these compounds may be human carcinogens has prompted us to develop immunochemical methods for quantifying these compounds in the human diet and for identifying the parent compounds and metabolites in urine and feces. Previously reported monoclonal antibodies to 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 6-phenyl-2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) were used to purify by immunoaffinity these known mutagens and cross-reacting structural analogs from well-done cooked beef and urine samples. Materials recovered from the immunoaffinity columns were subsequently separated by HPLC to purify the knownmore » mutagens from cross-reacting chemicals that co-purify by immunoaffinity. Immunoaffinity chromatography was found to be a rapid means of quantifying individual known mutagens, with a minimum of precolumn sample clean-up required. In addition, this procedure has yielded several new mutagens present in cooked meats that are apparently structural analogs of PhIP. Immunoaffinity techniques were also used to purify metabolites from the urine of rats and humans exposed to MeIQx or PhIP. For MeIQx-exposed rats, the combination antibodies immunoconcentrated 75% of the total urinary radioactivity. Analysis of PhIP metabolites recovered from antibody columns is facilitated by the intrinsic fluorescence of PhIP and its metabolites, providing sufficient sensitivity to monitor individuals for the levels of PhIP excreted following consumption of typical western diets. 6 refs., 3 figs.« less

  2. Influence of the physicochemical and aromatic properties on the chemical reactivity and its relation with carcinogenic and anticoagulant effect of 17β-aminoestrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Raya, Angélica; Barrientos-Salcedo, Carolina; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    2014-06-01

    Activity of steroid hormones is dependent upon a number of factors, as solubility, transport and metabolism. The functional differences caused by structural modifications could exert an influence on the chemical reactivity and biological effect. The goal of this work is to study the influence of the physicochemical and aromatic properties on the chemical reactivity and its relation with the carcinogenic risk that can associate with the anticoagulant effect of 17β-aminoestrogens using quantum-chemical descriptors at the DFT-B3LYP, BH&HLYP and M06-2X levels. The relative acidity of (H1) of the hydroxyl group increases with electron-withdrawing groups. Electron-donor groups favor the basicity. The steric hindrance of the substituents decreases the aromatic character and consequently diminution the carcinogenic effect. Density descriptors: hardness, electrophilic index, atomic charges, molecular orbitals, electrostatic potential and their geometric parameters permit analyses of the chemical reactivity and physicochemical features and to identify some reactive sites of 17β-aminoestrogens.

  3. Toxic and carcinogenic agents in dry and moist snuff.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D; Lisk, D; Fisenne, I; Brunnemann, K D

    1987-12-01

    The oral use of snuff is causatively associated with cancer of the oral cavity. Since most epidemiologic studies to date relate to the long-term use of dry snuff, which has dominated the U.S. smokeless tobacco market in the past, the concentrations of several toxic and carcinogenic agents in the three most popular dry snuff brands have been compared with those in the five most popular moist snuff brands sold in the United States. All eight samples were analyzed for nitrate, alkaloids, polyphenols, volatile carbonyl compounds, lead, cadmium, selenium, and the carcinogenic compounds benzo[a]pyrene (CAS: 50-32-8), polonium-210 (CAS: 13981-52-7), volatile N-nitrosamines (VNAs), N-nitrosodiethanolamine (CAS: 1116-54-7), and the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs). Most of the snuff brands were rich in nitrate (greater than or equal to 1.5%), total polyphenols (greater than 2%), and in nicotine (greater than or equal to 1.5%), which is the habituating factor in tobacco use. Concentrations of the VNAs were significantly above the permissible limits set for some food products; the concentrations of the TSNAs in both snuff types exceeded the levels of nitrosamines in other consumer products by at least two to three orders of magnitude. The extremely high levels of the TSNAs in snuff have remained unchanged during the last decade and present the major carcinogenic risk factor for the oral use of snuff. Polonium-210 contributes further to the carcinogenic risk associated with snuff. The chemical-analytical data presented in this study do not indicate marked differences in the carcinogenic potential of moist snuff compared to dry snuff.

  4. [Principles of establishing occupational exposure limits for carcinogens in Poland and in other EU countries].

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Czerczak, Slawomir

    2013-01-01

    The principles of determining exposure limits for carcinogens adopted in Poland, the European Union and in other selected countries of the EC are discussed in this article. Carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct health risk to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be kept at the lowest possible level. To assess health risk for carcinogens it is necessary to determine the probability of developing a disease or of death from cancer as a result of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances.

  5. Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Constable, A; Dybing, E; Müller, D J G; Schlatter, J; Slob, W; Tueting, W; van Benthem, J; Williams, G M; Wolfreys, A

    2006-10-01

    The present paper examines the particular difficulties presented by low levels of food-borne DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens, some of which may be difficult to eliminate completely from the diet, and proposes a structured approach for the evaluation of such compounds. While the ALARA approach is widely applicable to all substances in food that are both carcinogenic and genotoxic, it does not take carcinogenic potency into account and, therefore, does not permit prioritisation based on potential risk or concern. In the absence of carcinogenicity dose-response data, an assessment based on comparison with an appropriate threshold of toxicological concern may be possible. When carcinogenicity data from animal bioassays are available, a useful analysis is achieved by the calculation of margins of exposure (MOEs), which can be used to compare animal potency data with human exposure scenarios. Two reference points on the dose-response relationship that can be used for MOE calculation were examined; the T25 value, which is derived from linear extrapolation, and the BMDL10, which is derived from mathematical modelling of the dose-response data. The above approaches were applied to selected food-borne genotoxic carcinogens. The proposed approach is applicable to all substances in food that are DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens and enables the formulation of appropriate semi-quantitative advice to risk managers.

  6. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  7. Further analysis of Ames-negative rodent carcinogens that are only genotoxic in mammalian cells in vitro at concentrations exceeding 1 mM, including retesting of compounds of concern.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Fowler, Paul

    2010-11-01

    In the analysis by Parry et al. [Parry, J. M., Parry, E., Phrakonkham, P. and Corvi, R. (2010) Analysis of published data for top concentration considerations in mammalian cell genotoxicity testing. Mutagenesis, 25, 531-538], 24 rodent carcinogens that were negative in the Ames test were identified that were only positive in mammalian cell tests at concentrations between 1 and 10 mM. These carcinogens can be subdivided into four groups as follows: (1) probable non-genotoxic (non-mutagenic) carcinogens, tumour promoters or negative for genotoxicity in vivo (n=10); (2) questionable carcinogens (n=4); (3) carcinogens with a probable genotoxic mode of action (n=5); (4) compounds where carcinogenicity or in vivo genotoxicity is unknown or unclear (n=5). It is not expected that in vitro mammalian cell tests should give positive results with Group 1 chemicals. Within Groups 2-4, five chemicals were considered a low priority because they could be detected using modified conditions because genotoxicity was associated with precipitate or pH shifts or because non-standard metabolism was required. The remaining nine chemicals were therefore considered most critical in terms of detection of genotoxic activity in mammalian cells. Daminozide was also included because it may have given positive responses between 1 and 10 mM. Many of the reported studies could have given positive results only at >1 mM because 'old' protocols were followed. These 10 chemicals have therefore been retested using modern protocols. Some were negative even up to 10 mM. Others were positive at concentrations <1 mM. Only methylolacrylamide was positive at a concentration >1 mM (2 mM = 202 μg/ml). Low-molecular weight substances may therefore require concentrations >1 mM, but further work is needed. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the 10 mM upper limit in mammalian cell tests can be lowered without any loss of sensitivity in detecting genotoxic rodent carcinogens. A new limit of 1 mM or 500

  8. Activation of the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells by a chemical carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Ma, Zhan; Xu, Songtao; Hou, Jun; Hu, Yao; Yu, Yinglu; Liu, Ruilai; Chen, Zhihong; Lu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic/germ cell traits are common in malignant tumors and are thought to be involved in malignant tumor behaviors. The reasons why tumors show strong embryonic/germline traits (displaced germ cells or gametogenic programming reactivation) are controversial. Here, we show that a chemical carcinogen, 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MCA), can trigger the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells (hBMDCs). 3-MCA promoted the generation of germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs that had undergone malignant transformation, whereas similar results were not observed in the parallel hBMDC culture at the same time point. The malignant transformed hBMDCs spontaneously and more efficiently generated into germ cell-like cells even at the single-cell level. The germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs were similar to natural germ cells in many aspects, including morphology, gene expression, proliferation, migration, further development, and teratocarcinoma formation. Therefore, our results demonstrate that a chemical carcinogen can reactivate the germline phenotypes of human somatic tissue-derived cells, which might provide a novel idea to tumor biology and therapy. PMID:24998261

  9. Genome-wide screening of indicator genes for assessing the potential carcinogenic risk of Nanjing city drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Cheng, Shupei; Li, Aimin; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xuxiang

    2011-07-01

    Effects of all pollutants existing in the Nanjing city drinking water (DWNC) on mouse gene transcription levels were measured to assess the DWNC carcinogenic risks and to identify candidate indicator genes for assessing and early warning the cancer risks. Transcriptional expression levels of 14,000 hepatic genes for the treatment group mice (Mus musculus, ICR) fed with DWNC for 90 days were detected using the GeneChip(®) Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 array. The analysis indicated that the transcriptional levels of 294 genes were up-regulated and 542 ones were down-regulated. Of these genes, 12 ones identified to be involved in at least five different types of cancers were further analyzed. An interrogation by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that three (including ITGAV, CCND1 and SMAD2) of the 12 genes were mapped to pathway in cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) function annotation also showed that they were associated with the functional categories of cell cycle regulation, adhesion, apoptosis, signal transduction and so on which are closely implicated in tumorigenesis and progression. The correlations between the aberrant expressions of them and the genesis and progression of cancers have been further documented by a number of scientific researches. These results might demonstrate that the potential toxicity and carcinogenic risks were associated with DWNC. Moreover, ITGAV, CCND1 and SMAD2 were identified as the most likely candidate indicator genes for the assessment of the combined carcinogenic risk of all pollutants existing in DWNC.

  10. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    2017-02-02

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case-control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking.

  11. Comparisons of carcinogenicities of nickel compounds in rats

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Maenza, R.M.

    This study demonstrates marked differences in the incidences of sarcomas in Fischer rats within 2 years after a single im injection of 4 insoluble nickel-containing powders amorphous nickel monosulfide (NiS), nickel subsulfide (..cap alpha..Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/), partially converted nickel-iron sulfide matte, and metallic nickel. The powders (<2 ..mu..m median particle diameters) were administered in penicillin suspension, and each powder was tested at 2 dosages. Whereas ..cap alpha..Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ was highly carcinogenic, amorphous NiS did not induce any tumors. The carcinogenic potency of partially converted nickel-iron sulfide matte was less than ..cap alpha..Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ but greater than Ni powder.more » No sarcomas occurred at the injection site in two groups of control rats that received im injections of penicillin or Fe powder. The observed differences in carcinogenic potencies of ..cap alpha..Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ and amorphous NiS may provide an experimental approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis.« less

  12. Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts. Method: Published reviews and the current literature were searched for relevant articles. Results: The most consistently elevated biomarker in people exposed to SHS was 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Gluc), urinary metabolites of the tobacco specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The tobacco specificity of this biomarker as well as its clear relation to an established lung carcinogen are particularly appropriate for its application in studies of SHS exposure. Conclusion: The results of the available carcinogen derived biomarker studies provide biochemical data which support the conclusion, based on epidemiologic investigations, that SHS causes lung cancer in non-smokers. PMID:14985617

  13. Indoor air - assessment: Methods of analysis for environmental carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    The monograph describes, in a general way, published sampling procedures and analytical approaches for known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the methods described are applicable to other media or environments. In cases where there are no published methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air, methods developed for the workplace and for ambient air are included since they should be adaptable to indoor air. Known and suspected carcinogens have been grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, organic compounds, inorganic species,more » particles, and non-ionizing radiation. Some methods of assessing exposure that are not specific to any particular pollutant category are covered in a separate section. The report is the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Monographs.« less

  14. Lifetime carcinogenicity study of 1- and 2-naphthylamine in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.; Kalinowski, A. E.; Ishmael, J.; Wilson, J.; Gore, C. W.; Chart, I. S.

    1981-01-01

    Groups of male and female beagle dogs were given daily doses of 400 mg of various mixtures of naphthylamines for up to 109 months. Survivors were killed at 128 months. A variety of pathological conditions was diagnosed, but the only effect related to treatment was the induction of bladder neoplasms. All dogs which received pure 2-naphthylamine developed transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder within 34 months. Two of 8 dogs receiving 6% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed early carcinoma and 2/8 dogs receiving 0.5% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed haemangioma of the bladder. Some of the dogs receiving 1-naphthylamine (total dose 950 g) and the controls had focal cystitis or hyperplasia, but no neoplasia of the bladder. These results confirm the carcinogenicity of 2-naphthylamine to dogs. No carcinogenic effect of 1-naphthylamine was observed, indicating that it is at least 200 times less potent as a carcinogen than 2-naphthylamine. The incidence of bladder cancer in dogs fed mixtures of both naphthylamines explains why previous experimental and epidemiological studies of impure 1-naphthylamine have revealed carcinogenicity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7326199

  15. MicroRNA Responses to the Genotoxic Carcinogens Aflatoxin B1 and Benzo[a]pyrene in Human HepaRG Cells.

    PubMed

    Marrone, April K; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Beland, Frederick A; Pogribny, Igor P

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in toxicogenomics present an opportunity to develop new in vitro testing methodologies to identify human carcinogens. We have investigated microRNA expression responses to the treatment of human liver HepaRG cells with the human genotoxic carcinogens aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the structurally similar compounds aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) that exhibit minimal carcinogenic potential. We demonstrate that treatment of HepaRG cells with AFB1 or B[a]P resulted in specific changes in the expression of miRNAs as compared with their non-carcinogenic analogues, particularly in a marked over-expression of miR-410. An additional novel finding is the dose- and time-dependent inhibition of miR-122 in AFB1-treated HepaRG cells. Mechanistically, the AFB1-induced down-regulation of miR-122 was attributed to inhibition of the HNF4A/miR-122 regulatory pathway. These results demonstrate that HepaRG cells can be used to investigate miRNA responses to xenobiotic exposure, and illustrate the existence of early non-genotoxic events, in addition to a well-established genotoxic mode of action changes, in the mechanism of AFB1 and B[a]P carcinogenicity. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Carcinogens Report Adds Seven Agents.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    The National Toxicology Program has added seven new substances to its 14th Report on Carcinogens, bringing the total number in this congressionally mandated report to 248. The latest additions are the chemical trichloroethylene; cobalt metal and compounds that release cobalt ions in vivo; and five viruses, including HIV-1. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Comparison of Reversibility of Rat Forestomach Lesions Induced by Genotoxic and Non‐genotoxic Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Masataka; Hakoi, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Futakuchi, Mitsuru

    1993-01-01

    Reversibility of forestomach lesions induced by genotoxic and non‐genotoxic carcinogens was compared histopathologically. Groups of 30 to 33 male F344 rats were given dietary 0.1% 8‐nitroquinoline, dietary 0.4–0.2% 2‐(2‐furyl)‐3‐(5‐nitro‐2‐furyl)acrylamide, an intragastric dose of 20 mg/kg body weight N‐methyl‐N′‐nitro‐N‐nitrosoguanidine once a week, or 20 ppm N‐methylnitrosourethane in the drinking water as a genotoxic carcinogen, or 2% butylated hydroxyanisole, 2% caffeic acid, 2% sesamol or 2% 4‐methoxyphenol in the diet as a non‐genotoxic carcinogen for 24 weeks. Ten or 11 rats in each group were killed at week 24. Half of the remainder were maintained on basal diet alone for an additional 24 weeks and the other half were given the same chemical for 48 weeks, and then killed. Forestomach lesions induced by genotoxic carcinogens did not regress after removal of carcinogens. In contrast, simple or papillary hyperplasia (SPH), but not basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), induced by non‐genotoxic carcinogens clearly regressed after cessation of insult. SFH labeling indices in the non‐genotoxic carcinogen‐treated cases decreased after removal of the carcinogenic stimulus whereas BCH values were low irrespective of treatment. Atypical hyperplasia (AH), observed at high incidences in rats treated with genotoxic carcinogens, was also evident in animals receiving non‐genotoxic agents, even after their withdrawal, albeit at low incidences. AH labeling indices remained high even without continued insult. These results indicate that even with non‐genotoxic carcinogens, heritable alterations at the DNA level could occur during strong cell proliferation and result in AH development. This putative preneoplastic lesion might then progress to produce carcinomas. PMID:8276717

  18. Reactive oxygen species-mediated breast cell carcinogenesis enhanced by multiple carcinogens and intervened by dietary ergosterol and mimosine.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Lenora Ann; Liu, Amethyst Kar-Yin; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2015-03-01

    Most breast cancers occur sporadically due to long-term exposure to low-dose carcinogens in the diet and the environment. Specifically, smoke, polluted air, and high-temperature cooked meats comprise multiple carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). We sought to determine if these carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, and if so, whether noncytotoxic dietary agents could intervene. We demonstrated that coexposure to physiologically achievable doses of NNK, B[α]P, and PhIP (NBP) holistically enhanced initiation and progression of breast cell carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of the ERK pathway were transiently induced by NBP in each exposure, and cross talk between reinforced ROS elevation and ERK activation played an essential role in increased DNA oxidation and damage. After cumulative exposures to NBP, this cross talk contributed to enhanced initiation of cellular carcinogenesis and led to enhanced acquisition of cancer-associated properties. Using NBP-induced transient changes, such as ROS elevation and ERK pathway activation, and cancer-associated properties as targeted endpoints, we revealed, for the first time, that two less-studied dietary compounds, ergosterol and mimosine, at physiologically achievable noncytotoxic levels, were highly effective in intervention of NBP-induced cellular carcinogenesis. Combined ergosterol and mimosine were more effective than individual agents in blocking NBP-induced transient endpoints, including ROS-mediated DNA oxidation, which accounted for their preventive ability to suppress progression of NBP-induced cellular carcinogenesis. Thus, dietary components, such as mushrooms containing ergosterol and legumes containing mimosine, should be considered for affordable prevention of sporadic breast cancer associated with long-term exposure to environmental and

  19. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of metal(oid)s in tap water from Ilam city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Saha, Narottam; Ghanbari, Sahebeh; Rasouli, Milad; Miri, Ali; Avazpour, Moayed; Rahimizadeh, Aziz; Riahi, Seyed-Mohammad; Ghaderpoori, Mansour; Keramati, Hassan; Moradi, Bigard; Amanidaz, Nazak; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2018-04-20

    One of the most important pathways for exposure to metals is drinking water ingestion. Chronic or acute exposure to metals can endanger the health of the exposed population, and hence, estimation of human health risks is crucial. In the current study for the first time, the concentrations of Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb) and Cobalt (Co) in 120 collected tap water samples (2015, July-November) from Ilam city, Iran were investigated using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Also, the metal-induced carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for consumers exposed to tap drinking water were calculated. The average (range) concentrations of Hg, Zn, As, Pb and Co were defined as 0.40 ± 0.10 μg/L (ND-0.9 μg/L), 5014 ± 5707 μg/L (2900.00-5668.33 μg/L), 21.008 ± 2.876 μg/L (3.5-62 μg/L), 30.38 ± 5.56 μg/L (6-87 μg/L), and 11.34 ± 1.61 μg/L (0.1-50 μg/L), respectively. Average concentrations of all examined metals were significantly higher than WHO and national standard recommended limits. The ranking order of metals concentrations in the tap drinking water was Zn > Pb > As > Co > Hg. Except for Hg and Co, at least one age group consumers were at considerable non-carcinogenic risks induced by Zn, As and Pb [Target Hazard Quotient (THQ > 1)]. The rank order of age groups consumers based on THQ and Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was <1 years >1-9 years > 20 + years > 10-19 years. The calculated ILCR for As in all age groups were higher than 10 -3 value. All age groups of consumers in Ilam city, especially infants (<1 years) and children (1-10 years), are at considerable non-carcinogenic and carcinogenesis risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. USING PROTEOMICS TO MONITOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CELLS EXPOSED TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic properties in experimental systems. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in the environment may contribute significantly to t...

  1. Non-Carcinogenic Replacements for PBNA Antioxidant in PBXN-105 and PBXN- 106 Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    U~3 *y.4~;NWSY TR 801 NON-CARCINOGENIC REPLACEMENTS O ’ ~FOR PBNA ANTIOXIDANT IN PBXN -10.5 AND PBXN - 106 EXPLOSIVESo...... ............. JANUARY 1980... PBXN - 106 Explosive Plastic-Bonded Explosive % ABSSRACT (Continue on reverse olde It neceeeoey end Identify by block number) ’ Explosive mixes of PBXN -105...and PBXN - 106 were prepared using Cyanox 2246 and CAO-14 antioxidants in lieu of phenyl-beta-naphthylamine (PBNA). Specification tests, as well as

  2. Comparison of in vivo genotoxic and carcinogenic potency to augment mode of action analysis: Case study with hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Bichteler, Anne; Rager, Julia E; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Recent analyses-highlighted by the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment-have identified a correlation between (log) estimates of a carcinogen's in vivo genotoxic potency and in vivo carcinogenic potency in typical laboratory animal models, even when the underlying data have not been matched for tissue, species, or strain. Such a correlation could have important implications for risk assessment, including informing the mode of action (MOA) of specific carcinogens. When in vivo genotoxic potency is weak relative to carcinogenic potency, MOAs other than genotoxicity (e.g., endocrine disruption or regenerative hyperplasia) may be operational. Herein, we review recent in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), following oral ingestion, in relevant tissues and species in the context of the aforementioned correlation. Potency estimates were generated using benchmark doses, or no-observable-adverse-effect-levels when data were not amenable to dose-response modeling. While the ratio between log values for carcinogenic and genotoxic potency was ≥1 for many compounds, the ratios for several Cr(VI) datasets (including in target tissue) were less than unity. In fact, the ratios for Cr(VI) clustered closely with ratios for chloroform and diethanolamine, two chemicals posited to have non-genotoxic MOAs. These findings suggest that genotoxicity may not play a major role in the cancers observed in rodents following exposure to high concentrations of Cr(VI) in drinking water-a finding consistent with recent MOA and adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analyses concerning Cr(VI). This semi-quantitative analysis, therefore, may be useful to augment traditional MOA and AOP analyses. More case examples will be needed to further explore the general applicability and validity of this approach for human health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by

  3. Carcinogenicity of chromium and chemoprevention: a brief update

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuanliang; Song, Xin; Zhao, Jinshun

    2017-01-01

    Chromium has two main valence states: hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) and trivalent chromium (Cr[III]). Cr(VI), a well-established human carcinogen, can enter cells by way of a sulfate/phosphate anion-transport system, and then be reduced to lower-valence intermediates consisting of pentavalent chromium (Cr[V]), tetravalent chromium (Cr[IV]) or Cr(III) via cellular reductants. These intermediates may directly or indirectly result in DNA damage or DNA–protein cross-links. Although Cr(III) complexes cannot pass easily through cell membranes, they have the ability to accumulate around cells to induce cell-surface morphological alteration and result in cell-membrane lipid injuries via disruption of cellular functions and integrity, and finally to cause DNA damage. In recent years, more research, including in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, has been conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity/carcinogenicity induced by Cr(VI) and/or Cr(III) compounds. At the same time, various therapeutic agents, especially antioxidants, have been explored through in vitro and in vivo studies for preventing chromium-induced genotoxicity/carcinogenesis. This review aims to provide a brief update on the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) and chemoprevention with different antioxidants. PMID:28860815

  4. A carcinogenic potency database of the standardized results of animal bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Lois Swirsky; Sawyer, Charles B.; Magaw, Renae; Backman, Georganne M.; De Veciana, Margarita; Levinson, Robert; Hooper, N. Kim; Havender, William R.; Bernstein, Leslie; Peto, Richard; Pike, Malcolm C.; Ames, Bruce N.

    1984-01-01

    The preceding paper described our numerical index of carcinogenic potency, the TD50 and the statistical procedures adopted for estimating it from experimental data. This paper presents the Carcinogenic Potency Database, which includes results of about 3000 long-term, chronic experiments of 770 test compounds. Part II is a discussion of the sources of our data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. Part III is a guide to the plot of results presented in Part IV. A number of appendices are provided to facilitate use of the database. The plot includes information about chronic cancer tests in mammals, such as dose and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence, TD50 and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion and literature reference. The plot readily permits comparisons of carcinogenic potency and many other aspects of cancer tests; it also provides quantitative information about negative tests. The range of carcinogenic potency is over 10 million-fold. PMID:6525996

  5. [New perspectives in monitoring of exposures to carcinogens].

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Lotti, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Biomonitoring occupational and environmental exposures to carcinogens is a common practice and several biomarkers have been developed for risk assessment. However, in particular, because of the lack of prospective studies, the place of these biomarkers within the complex scenario of the gene-environment interactions leading to cancer cannot be defined. New opportunities and suggestions for biomonitoring exposures to carcinogens could derive from exploring the exposome, from the results of genomewide association and omic studies. Based on these premises it is possible to envisage personalized biomonitoring procedures, as those already actuated in nutrition and clinical oncology, allowing a better predictivity of biomarkers in the preventive settings.

  6. U.S. EPA framework for determining mutagenic mode of action for carcinogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (Cancer Guidelines) specify that information on a chemical's mode of action (MOA) is key to the risk assessment process. MOA determines conditions under which a chemical is considered to be carcinogenic, appropriate low dose ex...

  7. The carcinogenic action of crystalline silica: a review of the evidence supporting secondary inflammation-driven genotoxicity as a principal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Borm, Paul J A; Tran, Lang; Donaldson, Ken

    2011-10-01

    In 1987 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified crystalline silica (CS) as a probable carcinogen and in 1997 reclassified it as a Group 1 carcinogen, i.e., that there was sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in experimental animals and sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in humans. The Working Group noted that "carcinogenicity in humans was not detected in all industrial circumstances studied, carcinogenicity may be dependent on inherent characteristics of the crystalline silica or on external factors affecting its biological activity or distribution of its polymorphs." This unusual statement that the physicochemical form of the CS influences its carcinogenicity is well understood at the toxicological level and arises as a consequence of the fact that CS activity depends on the reactivity of the CS surface, which can be blocked by a number of agents. We reviewed the literature on CS genotoxicity that has been published since the 1997 monograph, with special reference to the mechanism of CS genotoxicity. The mechanism of CS genotoxicity can be primary, a result of direct interaction of CS with target cells, or indirect, as a consequence of inflammation elicited by quartz, where the inflammatory cell-derived oxidants cause the genotoxicity. The review revealed a number of papers supporting the hypothesis that the CS genotoxic and inflammatory hazard is a variable one. In an attempt to attain a quantitative basis for the potential mechanism, we carried out analysis of published data and noted a 5-fold greater dose required to reach a threshold for genotoxic effects than for proinflammatory effects in the same cell line in vitro. When we related the calculated threshold dose at the proximal alveolar region for inflammation in a published study with the threshold dose for genotoxicity in vitro, we noted that a 60-120-fold greater dose was required for direct genotoxic effects in vitro. These data strongly suggests that inflammation is

  8. Biodegradation of the metallic carcinogen hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) by an indigenously isolated bacterial strain

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Susmita

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter). Materials and Methods: Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI) without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI) were considered as Cr resistant. Results: The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI) concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. Conclusion: Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI). PMID:20976016

  9. Is benzene exposure from gasoline carcinogenic?

    PubMed

    Jamall, Ijaz S; Willhite, Calvin C

    2008-02-01

    This article questions the basis for benzene as the carcinogenic surrogate in deriving health risk-based 'clean-up levels' for gasoline-impacted soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank properties. The epidemiological evidence suggests that acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) associated with chronic occupational benzene exposure can be best described by sigmoid dose-response relationships. A review of the molecular toxicology and kinetics of benzene points to the existence of threshold mechanisms in the induction of leukemia. The toxicological and epidemiological literature on chronic exposure to unleaded gasoline indicates that the benzene exposures required to induce a measurable carcinogenic response are substantially greater than exposures likely to be encountered from exposure to gasoline at contaminated properties. Thus, assuming that theoretical cancer risks associated with exposure to benzene from gasoline reflect actual health risks associated with such environmental exposures to gasoline and using these theoretical cancer risks and cancer potency factors for benzene to dictate soil and groundwater clean up of gasoline are not scientifically defensible.

  10. Proposed changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area.

    PubMed

    Neumann, H G; Thielmann, H W; Filser, J G; Gelbke, H P; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Reuter, U; Vamvakas, S; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1997-12-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are currently classified into three categories in Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values. This classification is based on qualitative criteria and reflects essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. It is proposed that these Categories--IIIA1, IIIA2, and IIIB--be retained as Categories 1, 2, and 3, to conform with EU regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, it is now proposed that these three categories be supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not convey a significant risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. It is proposed that chemicals known to act typically by nongenotoxic mechanisms and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures be classified in Category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose-response relationships and toxicokinetics and for which risk at low doses can be assessed will be classified in Category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for Category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and Category 5 (styrene) are presented. The proposed changes in classifying carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are presented for further discussion.

  11. CORRELATION OF CARCINOGENIC POTENCY WITH MOUSE SKIN 32P-POSTLABELING AND LAC Z-MUTATION DATE FOR DMBA AN ITS K-REGION SULPHUR ISOSTERE: COMPARISON WITH ACTIVITIES OBSERVED IN STANDARD GENOTOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    6,11-Dimethylbenzo(b]naphtho[2,3-d]thiophene (S-DMBA) is one of several carcinogenic analogs of the reference mouse skin carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[alanthracene (OMBA)Demonstration of the weak carcinogenicity of S-DMBA by Tilak in 1946 established at that early stage the inadeq...

  12. A proposed framework for consistent regulation of public exposures to radionuclides and other carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kocher, D.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-12-31

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for consistent regulation of carcinogenic risks to the public based on establishing de manifestis (i.e., unacceptable) and de minimis (i.e., trivial) lifetime risks from exposure to any carcinogens at levels of about 10{sup {minus}1}--10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}4}--10{sup {minus}6}, respectively, and reduction of risks above de minimis levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). We then discuss certain differences in the way risks from exposure to radionuclides and other carcinogens currently are regulated or assessed which would need to be considered in implementing the proposed regulatory framework for all carcinogens.

  13. A proposed framework for consistent regulation of public exposures to radionuclides and other carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kocher, D.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for consistent regulation of carcinogenic risks to the public based on establishing de manifestis (i.e., unacceptable) and de minimis (i.e., trivial) lifetime risks from exposure to any carcinogens at levels of about 10{sup {minus}1}--10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}4}--10{sup {minus}6}, respectively, and reduction of risks above de minimis levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). We then discuss certain differences in the way risks from exposure to radionuclides and other carcinogens currently are regulated or assessed which would need to be considered in implementing the proposed regulatory framework for all carcinogens.

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S

    1999-02-01

    Middle distillate fuels (MDFs), which include jet fuel, kerosene, and diesel fuel, are a class of hydrocarbons distilled from crude oil at approximately 350-700 degrees F (176-371 degrees C). Although MDFs generally do not contain appreciable levels of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), they have produced weak tumorigenic responses in mouse skin characterized by low tumor yield and long latency. Recent studies demonstrated that the tumorigenic effects of these MDFs were dependent upon chronic dermal irritation. In the absence of skin irritation, tumors did not develop. Mechanistic studies suggest that straight-run MDFs containing low levels of PACs cause skin tumors through a nongenotoxic mechanism. MDFs cause chronic skin irritation and injury with repeated application to the skin. They have been found to have little or no activity in the modified Ames mutagenicity assay, lack tumor initiating activity, and are active skin tumor promoters. It has been hypothesized that the tumorigenic response to MDFs results from the promotion of preexisting, spontaneously initiated cells. Two recent studies, a one-year tumor promotion study and a two-year skin painting study, evaluated the role of skin irritation on the tumorigenic activity of MDFs in mice. MDFs were applied in pure and diluted forms to assess the effect of equal weekly doses of irritating and nonirritating test materials. The tumorigenicity of straight-run MDFs correlated to the level of skin irritation. No significant increase in tumor incidence occurred under conditions that resulted in minimal skin irritation and injury. These studies indicate that the tumorigenic activity of MDFs containing low levels of PACs is secondary to chronic skin irritation. These materials should not present a carcinogenic hazard in the absence of prolonged skin irritation.

  15. 78 FR 68849 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Update of NIOSH Carcinogen Classification and Target Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...; Docket Number NIOSH 240-A] Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin ``Update of NIOSH Carcinogen... document for public comment entitled ``Current Intelligence Bulletin: Update of NIOSH Carcinogen... obtain comments on the draft document, ``Current Intelligence Bulletin: Update of NIOSH Carcinogen...

  16. [To-day exposure to occupational carcinogens and their effects. The experience of the rubber industry, iron metallurgy, asphalt work and aviculture].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Pietro Gino

    2009-01-01

    While the progressive improvement of hygiene situations in the workplaces has taken to a reduction of chemical carcinogens exposure, in recent years in Italy the number of compensated occupational cancer resulting from carcinogens exposures of distant decades, has been increasing. Nevertheless, several experiences suggest that the proportion of occupational cancers unrecognised and not notified, as required by law, still remains important. This contribution concerns some experiences, performed between 2004-2008 by the Local Occupational Health Service (SPSAL) located in a highly industrialised province, on the working sector of rubber, iron and steel industry, the asphalt working and the poultry stock-breeders. This work concerns the following issues: - the evaluation of carcinogens exposure; - technical preventive measures and personal protection; - the level of workers' information and formation and the registration of exposed workers; - the characterization of work-related cancer. The results of the 5 years of activity allow us to underline that, in the most of 49 plants involved in the study, the carcinogens exposure evaluation and the prevention and protection measures were lacking. Information of workers was largely deficient and the registration of exposed workers was absent. A major attention to detect and to evaluate the work-related cancer has allowed us to recognize 50 new cases in the iron-steel industries and 21 new cases in a rubber industry. Although this experience concerns only few occupational fields, it provides the basis to call for a greater commitment of SPSAL addressed to companies and general practitioners to both, the promotion and surveillance of the correct procedures of carcinogens exposure evaluation and his prevention, and the active detection of occupational cancer, still missing.

  17. Evidence That the Capacity of Nongenotoxic Carcinogens to Induce Oxidative Stress Is Subject to Marked Variability

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Colin J.; Cameron, Amy R.; Chatham, Lynsey; Stanley, Lesley A.; Wolf, Charles Roland

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs and environmental chemicals which are not directly mutagenic have the capacity to increase the incidence of tumors in the liver and other tissues. For this reason, such compounds are known as nongenotoxic carcinogens. The mechanisms underlying their effects remain unclear; however, their capacity to induce oxidative stress is considered to be a critical step in the carcinogenic process, although the evidence that this is actually the case remains equivocal and sparse. We have exploited a novel heme oxygenase-1 reporter mouse to evaluate the capacity of nongenotoxic carcinogens with different mechanisms of action to induce oxidative stress in the liver in vivo. When these compounds were administered at doses reported to cause liver tumors, marked differences in activation of the reporter were observed. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and nafenopin were strong inducers of oxidative stress, whereas phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, cyproterone acetate, and WY14,643 were, at best, only very weak inducers. In the case of phenobarbital and thioacetamide, the number of LacZ-positive hepatocytes increased with time, and for the latter also with dose. The data obtained demonstrate that although some nongenotoxic carcinogens can induce oxidative stress, it is not a dominant feature of the response to these compounds. Therefore in contrast to the current models, these data suggest that oxidative stress is not a key determinant in the mechanism of nongenotoxic carcinogenesis but may contribute to the effects in a compound-specific manner. PMID:25690736

  18. Investigating the different mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens by a gene set analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jun; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Seul Ji; Lee, Jeongmi; Park, Jeong Hill; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Johan; Kwon, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Based on the process of carcinogenesis, carcinogens are classified as either genotoxic or non-genotoxic. In contrast to non-genotoxic carcinogens, many genotoxic carcinogens have been reported to cause tumor in carcinogenic bioassays in animals. Thus evaluating the genotoxicity potential of chemicals is important to discriminate genotoxic from non-genotoxic carcinogens for health care and pharmaceutical industry safety. Additionally, investigating the difference between the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens could provide the foundation for a mechanism-based classification for unknown compounds. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of HepG2 cells treated with genotoxic or non-genotoxic carcinogens and compared their mechanisms of action. To enhance our understanding of the differences in the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens, we implemented a gene set analysis using 12 compounds for the training set (12, 24, 48 h) and validated significant gene sets using 22 compounds for the test set (24, 48 h). For a direct biological translation, we conducted a gene set analysis using Globaltest and selected significant gene sets. To validate the results, training and test compounds were predicted by the significant gene sets using a prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM). Finally, we obtained 6 gene sets, including sets enriched for genes involved in the adherens junction, bladder cancer, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, peroxisome and RNA degradation. Among the 6 gene sets, the bladder cancer and p53 signaling pathway sets were significant at 12, 24 and 48 h. We also found that the DDB2, RRM2B and GADD45A, genes related to the repair and damage prevention of DNA, were consistently up-regulated for genotoxic carcinogens. Our results suggest that a gene set analysis could provide a robust tool in the investigation of the different mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and construct a more detailed

  19. Investigating the Different Mechanisms of Genotoxic and Non-Genotoxic Carcinogens by a Gene Set Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Jun; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Seul Ji; Lee, Jeongmi; Park, Jeong Hill; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Johan; Kwon, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Based on the process of carcinogenesis, carcinogens are classified as either genotoxic or non-genotoxic. In contrast to non-genotoxic carcinogens, many genotoxic carcinogens have been reported to cause tumor in carcinogenic bioassays in animals. Thus evaluating the genotoxicity potential of chemicals is important to discriminate genotoxic from non-genotoxic carcinogens for health care and pharmaceutical industry safety. Additionally, investigating the difference between the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens could provide the foundation for a mechanism-based classification for unknown compounds. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of HepG2 cells treated with genotoxic or non-genotoxic carcinogens and compared their mechanisms of action. To enhance our understanding of the differences in the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens, we implemented a gene set analysis using 12 compounds for the training set (12, 24, 48 h) and validated significant gene sets using 22 compounds for the test set (24, 48 h). For a direct biological translation, we conducted a gene set analysis using Globaltest and selected significant gene sets. To validate the results, training and test compounds were predicted by the significant gene sets using a prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM). Finally, we obtained 6 gene sets, including sets enriched for genes involved in the adherens junction, bladder cancer, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, peroxisome and RNA degradation. Among the 6 gene sets, the bladder cancer and p53 signaling pathway sets were significant at 12, 24 and 48 h. We also found that the DDB2, RRM2B and GADD45A, genes related to the repair and damage prevention of DNA, were consistently up-regulated for genotoxic carcinogens. Our results suggest that a gene set analysis could provide a robust tool in the investigation of the different mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and construct a more detailed

  20. Qualitative and quantitative approaches in the dose-response assessment of genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Shoji; Gi, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches are important issues in field of carcinogenic risk assessment of the genotoxic carcinogens. Herein, we provide quantitative data on low-dose hepatocarcinogenicity studies for three genotoxic hepatocarcinogens: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Hepatocarcinogenicity was examined by quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, which are the preneoplastic lesions in rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the endpoint carcinogenic marker in the rat liver medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay. We also examined DNA damage and gene mutations which occurred through the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. For the establishment of points of departure (PoD) from which the cancer-related risk can be estimated, we analyzed the above events by quantitative no-observed-effect level and benchmark dose approaches. MeIQx at low doses induced formation of DNA-MeIQx adducts; somewhat higher doses caused elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquanosine levels; at still higher doses gene mutations occurred; and the highest dose induced formation of GST-P positive foci. These data indicate that early genotoxic events in the pathway to carcinogenesis showed the expected trend of lower PoDs for earlier events in the carcinogenic process. Similarly, only the highest dose of IQ caused an increase in the number of GST-P positive foci in the liver, while IQ-DNA adduct formation was observed with low doses. Moreover, treatment with DEN at low doses had no effect on development of GST-P positive foci in the liver. These data on PoDs for the markers contribute to understand whether genotoxic carcinogens have a threshold for their carcinogenicity. The most appropriate approach to use in low dose-response assessment must be approved on the basis of scientific judgment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  1. Studies on carcinogenic and toxic effects of ochratoxin A in chicks.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2010-04-01

    Carcinogenic/toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) in various internal organs of Plymouth Rock chicks were determined. The number of OTA-induced neoplasms was similar in chicks given 25 ppm L-β-phenylalanine (PHE) in addition to 5 ppm OTA compared to chicks given only 5 ppm OTA, which showed that PHE cannot be used as a real protector against the carcinogenic or toxic effects of OTA in chicks. OTA was found to provoke strong degenerative changes in liver and kidneys, degenerative changes and depletion of cells in lymphoid organs, oedematous and degenerative changes in the brain, muscular haemorrhages and fatty changes in the bone marrow. The target organs for carcinogenic effect of OTA in chicks were found to be kidneys and liver.

  2. Pathogenic role of the eight probably/possibly carcinogenic HPV types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Halec, Gordana; Alemany, Laia; Lloveras, Belen; Schmitt, Markus; Alejo, Maria; Bosch, Franz X; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Guimerà, Nuria; Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Gissmann, Lutz; Quint, Wim; Bosch, Francesc X; de Sanjose, Silvia; Pawlita, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Eight HPV types (HPV26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82) that are phylogenetically closely related to 12 WHO-defined high-risk (HR) HPV have been rarely but consistently identified as single HPV infections in about 3% of cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues. Due to lack of biological data, these types are referred to as probable/possible (p) HR-HPV. To analyse their biological activity in direct comparison to HR-HPV types, we selected 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CxCa tissues harbouring single pHR-HPV infections (2-13 cases per type) and 266 tissues harbouring single HR-HPV (7-40 cases per type) from a worldwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Single HPV infection was verified by two genotyping methods. Presence of type-specific spliced E6*I mRNA transcripts and expression of cellular proteins indicative of HPV transformation were assessed in all cases. In 55 CxCa tissues with pHR-HPV, E6*I mRNA expression was 100%; high p16(INK4a) , 98%; low pRb, 96%; low CyD1, 93%; and low p53, 84%. Compared to HPV16 tissues as a reference, individual frequencies of these five markers did not differ significantly, either for any of the eight pHR-HPV and the 11 other HR types individually or for the groups of pHR and HR types without HPV16. We conclude that the eight pHR-HPV types, when present as a single infection in CxCa, are biologically active and affect the same cellular pathways as any of the fully recognized carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Therefore we have provided molecular evidence of carcinogenicity for types currently classified as probably/possibly carcinogenic. Although this evidence is crucial for HPV-type carcinogenicity classification, per se it is not sufficient for inclusion of these HPV types into population-wide primary and secondary prevention programmes. Such decisions have to include careful estimation of effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  3. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes neuronal death in mouse via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Kallol; Ghosh, Debapriya; Nazmi, Arshed; Kumawat, Kanhaiya Lal; Basu, Anirban

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked) food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our study throws light on other health hazards that such pollutants may exert.

  4. The Role of Tobacco-Derived Carcinogens in Pancreas Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lochan, Rajiv; Reeves, Helen L.; Daly, Anne K.; Charnley, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The extremely poor outcome from pancreas cancer is well known. However, its aetiology less well appreciated, and the molecular mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood. Tobacco usage is one of the strongest risk factors for this disease, and this is a completely avoidable hazard. In addition, there are well described hereditary diseases which predispose, and familial pancreas cancer. We have sought here to summarise the role of tobacco-derived carcinogens and the mode of their tumorigenic action on the pancreas. There is compelling evidence from animal and human studies (laboratory including cell line studies and epidemiologic) that tobacco derived carcinogens cause pancreas cancer. However, the manner in which they do so is not entirely apparent. There is also compelling evidence that synergism with genetic and other life-style factors—like diet obesity—results in a multifactorial causation of the disease. Ascertaining the role of tobacco carcinogens in the development of this cancer and their interaction with other risk factors will enable novel therapeutic and preventative strategies to improve outcome from this appalling malignancy. PMID:22084727

  5. OVERVIEW OF DRINKING WATER MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY AND RISK FOR BLADDER CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroacetic acid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of 2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxici...

  6. A review of biosensing techniques for detection of trace carcinogen contamination in food products.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanming; Yu, Yue; Li, Zhiliang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Carcinogen contaminations in the food chain, for example heavy metal ions, pesticides, acrylamide, and mycotoxins, have caused serious health problems. A major objective of food-safety research is the identification and prevention of exposure to these carcinogens, because of their impossible-to-reverse tumorigenic effects. However, carcinogen detection is difficult because of their trace-level presence in food. Thus, reliable and accurate separation and determination methods are essential to protect food safety and human health. This paper summarizes the state of the art in separation and determination methods for analyzing carcinogen contamination, especially the advances in biosensing methods. Furthermore, the application of promising technology including nanomaterials, imprinted polymers, and microdevices is detailed. Challenges and perspectives are also discussed.

  7. Replication of a carcinogenic nitropyrene DNA lesion by human Y-family DNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Kirouac, Kevin N.; Basu, Ashis K.; Ling, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common environmental pollutants, of which many are mutagenic and carcinogenic. 1-Nitropyrene is the most abundant nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, which causes DNA damage and is carcinogenic in experimental animals. Error-prone translesion synthesis of 1-nitropyrene–derived DNA lesions generates mutations that likely play a role in the etiology of cancer. Here, we report two crystal structures of the human Y-family DNA polymerase iota complexed with the major 1-nitropyrene DNA lesion at the insertion stage, incorporating either dCTP or dATP nucleotide opposite the lesion. Polι maintains the adduct in its active site in two distinct conformations. dCTP forms a Watson–Crick base pair with the adducted guanine and excludes the pyrene ring from the helical DNA, which inhibits replication beyond the lesion. By contrast, the mismatched dATP stacks above the pyrene ring that is intercalated in the helix and achieves a productive conformation for misincorporation. The intra-helical bulky pyrene mimics a base pair in the active site and facilitates adenine misincorporation. By structure-based mutagenesis, we show that the restrictive active site of human polη prevents the intra-helical conformation and A-base misinsertions. This work provides one of the molecular mechanisms for G to T transversions, a signature mutation in human lung cancer. PMID:23268450

  8. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt-, nickel- and copper-based nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    MAGAYE, RUTH; ZHAO, JINSHUN; BOWMAN, LINDA; DING, MIN

    2012-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry has matured and expanded at a rapid pace in the last decade, leading to the research and development of nanomaterials with enormous potential. The largest source of these nanomaterials is the transitional metals. It has been revealed that numerous properties of these nano-sized elements are not present in their bulk states. The nano size of these particles means they are easily transported into biological systems, thus, raising the question of their effects on the susceptible systems. Although advances have been made and insights have been gained on the effect of transitional metals on susceptible biological systems, there still is much ground to be covered, particularly with respect to our knowledge on the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Therefore, this review intends to summarize the current knowledge on the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of cobalt-, nickel- and copper-based nanoparticles indicated in in vitro and in vivo mammalian studies. In the present review, we briefly state the sources, use and exposure routes of these nanoparticles and summarize the current literature findings on their in vivo and in vitro genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Due to the increasing evidence of their role in carcinogenicity, we have also included studies that have reported epigenetic factors, such as abnormal apoptosis, enhanced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory effects involving these nanoparticles. PMID:23170105

  9. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  10. Interaction between carcinogenic and anti-carcinogenic trace elements in the scalp hair samples of different types of Pakistani female cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Naeemullah

    2015-01-15

    It was investigated that carcinogenic processes are linked with the imbalances of essential trace and toxic elements in body fluid and tissues of human. In this study, the relationship between carcinogenic elements, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), and anti-carcinogenic elements, selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), in the scalp hair of different female cancer patients (breast, cervix, mouth and ovarian) was studied. The scalp hair samples were collected from cancer patients and referent female subjects of the same age group and socioeconomic status. The scalp hair samples were oxidized by 65% nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide by microwave oven and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference material of human hair (BCR 397). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, and Ni were found to be significantly higher in the scalp hair samples of cancerous patients as compared to referents, while reverse results were obtained in the case of Zn and Se (p<0.01). The study revealed that low level of trace elements (Se, Zn) and high level of heavy elements (As, Cd, and Ni) were associated with increased risk of cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Moving forward in carcinogenicity assessment: Report of an EURL ECVAM/ESTIV workshop.

    PubMed

    Corvi, Raffaella; Madia, Federica; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Kasper, Peter; Rudel, Ruthann; Colacci, Annamaria; Kleinjans, Jos; Jennings, Paul

    2017-12-01

    There is an increased need to develop novel alternative approaches to the two-year rodent bioassay for the carcinogenicity assessment of substances where the rodent bioassay is still a basic requirement, as well as for those substances where animal use is banned or limited or where information gaps are identified within legislation. The current progress in this area was addressed in a EURL ECVAM- ESTIV workshop held in October 2016, in Juan les Pins. A number of initiatives were presented and discussed, including data-driven, technology-driven and pathway-driven approaches. Despite a seemingly diverse range of strategic developments, commonalities are emerging. For example, providing insight into carcinogenicity mechanisms is becoming an increasingly appreciated aspect of hazard assessment and is suggested to be the best strategy to drive new developments. Thus, now more than ever, there is a need to combine and focus efforts towards the integration of available information between sectors. Such cross-sectorial harmonisation will aid in building confidence in new approach methods leading to increased implementation and thus a decreased necessity for the two-year rodent bioassay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among workers of Arabic, Chinese and Vietnamese ancestry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Terry; Carey, Renee N; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Fritschi, Lin; Reid, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Although job-related diseases result in more deaths per year than job-related injuries, most research concerning ethnic minority workers has concerned accidents and injuries rather than disease-causing exposures such as carcinogens. We conducted a telephone-based cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among a sample of ethnic minority workers in Australia, and compared their exposure prevalence to that of a sample of the general Australian-born working population ('Australian workers'). One-third of the ethnic minority workers were exposed to at least one carcinogen at work. The likelihood of exposure to carcinogens was not significantly different from that of Australian workers, although the likelihood of exposure to individual carcinogens varied by ethnicity. Knowing the prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in the workplace in different ethnic groups will allow better targeted and informed occupational health and safety measures to be implemented where necessary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers.

  14. Exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2007-04-01

    To identify and describe the exposure to selected known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry from 1970 to 2005, in order to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Background information on possible exposure was obtained through company visits, including interviewing key personnel (n = 83) and collecting monitoring reports (n = 118) and other relevant documents (n = 329). On the basis of a previous questionnaire administered to present and former offshore employees in 1998, 27 job categories were defined. This study indicated possible exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures or exposure circumstances. Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents (benzene, mineral oil mist and vapour, respirable and total dust, asbestos fibres, refractory ceramic fibres, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene). The mean exposure level of 367 personal samples of benzene was 0.037 ppm (range: less than the limit of detection to 2.6 ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03 fibres/cm3) when asbestos-containing brake bands were used in drilling draw work in 1988. Personal samples of formaldehyde in the process area ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 mg/m3. Descriptions of products containing known and suspected carcinogens, exposure sources and processes were extracted from the collected documentation and the interviews of key personnel. This study described exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for 27 job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. For a planned cohort study on cancer, quantitative estimates of exposure to benzene, and mineral oil mist and vapour might be developed. For the other agents, information in the present study can be used for further assessment of exposure, for instance, by expert judgement. More systematic exposure surveillance is needed in this industry

  15. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Carcinogenic nitrosamines in traditional beer as the cause of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Viness; Isaacson, Charles; Mothobi, Pride; Hale, Martin; Tomar, Lomas Kumar; Tyagi, Charu; Altini, Mario; Choonara, Yahya Essop; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-09-21

    Before the 1930s, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oesophagus was almost unknown among black South Africans. From the 1930s the annual frequency rose. A dietary cause was sought, the staple diet of black people having changed from sorghum to maize (corn), with traditional beer being brewed from maize. Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in traditional beer were suggested as a cause of SCC of the oesophagus, with Fusarium moniliforme, a corn saprophyte, thought to play a role. To confirm the presence of N-nitrosamines in traditional beer and demonstrate a mechanism for the oncogenesis of oesophageal carcinoma. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography was conducted for the identification of nitrosamines in traditional beer samples, and molecular docking studies were employed to predict the affinity between N-nitrosamines and the S100A2 protein. Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines were identified in all six samples of traditional beer examined (N=18 analyses), and docking studies confirmed a high affinity of the nitrosamine N-nitrosopyrrolidone with the S100A2 protein. This may result in the altered expression of the S100A2 protein, leading to tumour progression and prognosis. It is suggested that carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in traditional beer are a major factor in the causation of SCC of the oesophagus in black South Africans. N-nitrosamines have been shown to produce cancer experimentally, but there has not been conclusive epidemiological evidence that N-nitrosamines are carcinogenic to humans. This study is the first to demonstrate the potential link between N-nitrosamines and a human tumour.

  17. Availability of epidemiologic data on humans exposed to animal carcinogens. II. Chemical uses and production volume

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Karstadt, M.; Bobal, R.

    1982-01-01

    We report further findings of a survey of manufacturers, processors, and importers of chemicals determined by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to be animal carcinogens, but whose carcinogenicity in humans was considered uncertain because of inadequate epidemiologic data. We requested epidemiologic studies from the companies marketing or using any of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens in commerce in the United States. Eighteen of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens had volumes listed of 10(6) lb/year or greater, with 8 of the 13 chemicals for which studies had been completed or are in progress in this ''high volume'' category.more » The use category with the largest number of chemicals was drugs--19 of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens were in this category. However, none of the 13 chemicals included in epidemiologic studies was a drug. Seven of the 13 chemicals included in studies were used primarily as pesticides. We received little information on dyes and dye intermediates, experimental carcinogens, and drugs, all of which are produced in relatively low volumes; these categories represent 42 of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens. Low volumes and declining usage/production appear to be barriers to performance of epidemiologic studies. Information we received suggests that sometimes the problem of low production volume may be avoided by studying users rather than production workers. Overall, however, we expect few additional epidemiologic studies of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens.« less

  18. [Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the tire industry].

    PubMed

    Sokol?kaia, N N; Krivosheeva, L V; Khesing, A Ia; Piven, V A; Kavun, S M

    1993-01-01

    The level of volatile carcinogenic N-nitrosamines (NA) was studied in the air of various technological sites of tyre production. Reported total levels of NA in air exceeded MACs set in certain countries for the same enterprises. For example, German total MAC for 12 carcinogenic NA is 1 g/m3. N-nitrosomorpholine appeared to have the highest level (91 g/m3), probably, because its derivatives are used as raw material for technological process. Relative rate of volatile NA release from rubber samples containing 4-nitrosodiphenylamine (modifier) was studied. The parameter was reported to have no influence on NA outlet in conditions simulating technological process. NA was detected by means of gas chromatography with thermal energy detector TEA 502A provided by Thermo Electron Corporation, USA. The article necessitates regulation of NA in tyre production and better rubber mixtures to control the pollution of atmosphere.

  19. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianying; Lei, Zhixin; Wu, Qin; Huang, Deyu; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2018-01-01

    Mequindox (MEQ), acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N-oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM) mice (50 mice/sex/group) were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg) for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo, and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice. PMID:29692735

  20. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianying; Lei, Zhixin; Wu, Qin; Huang, Deyu; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2018-01-01

    Mequindox (MEQ), acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N -oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM) mice (50 mice/sex/group) were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg) for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo , and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice.

  1. Morpho-chemical characterization and surface properties of carcinogenic zeolite fibers.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Michele; Giordani, Matteo; Dogan, Meral; Cangiotti, Michela; Avella, Giuseppe; Giorgi, Rodorico; Dogan, A Umran; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2016-04-05

    Erionite belonging to the zeolite family is a human health-hazard, since it was demonstrated to be carcinogenic. Conversely, offretite family zeolites were suspected carcinogenic. Mineralogical, morphological, chemical, and surface characterizations were performed on two erionites (GF1, MD8) and one offretite (BV12) fibrous samples and, for comparison, one scolecite (SC1) sample. The specific surface area analysis indicated a larger availability of surface sites for the adsorption onto GF1, while SC1 shows the lowest one and the presence of large pores in the poorly fibrous zeolite aggregates. Selected spin probes revealed a high adsorption capacity of GF1 compared to the other zeolites, but the polar/charged interacting sites were well distributed, intercalated by less polar sites (Si-O-Si). MD8 surface is less homogeneous and the polar/charged sites are more interacting and closer to each other compared to GF1. The interacting ability of BV12 surface is much lower than that found for GF1 and MD8 and the probes are trapped in small pores into the fibrous aggregates. In comparison with the other zeolites, the non-carcinogenic SC1 shows a poor interacting ability and a lower surface polarity. These results helped to clarify the chemical properties and the surface interacting ability of these zeolite fibers which may be related to their carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A proposal to improve clarity and communication in the EU Classification process for chemicals for carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Doe, J E

    2014-10-01

    There is an issue in the EU classification of substances for carcinogenicity and for reproductive or developmental toxicity which has brought difficulties to those involved in the process. The issue lies in the inability of the classification system to distinguish between carcinogens and reproductive toxicants with different levels of concern. This has its origins in the early years of toxicology when it was thought that a relatively small number of chemicals would be either carcinogens or reproductive toxicants, but this has turned out not to be the case. This can cause problems in communicating to the users of chemicals, including the public, the nature of the hazard presented by chemicals. Processes have been developed within the classification system for setting specific concentration limits which assess the degree of hazard for carcinogens and reproductive toxicants as high, medium or low. However these categories are not otherwise used in classification. It is proposed that their wider use would bring the advantages of transparency, clarity of communication, certainty of the process and would allow chemicals with a high degree of hazard to be identified and managed in an appropriate way. Copyright © 2014. The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylamide: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Carere, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, public health concerns were raised by Swedish studies showing that relatively high levels of acrylamide were formed during the frying, roasting, or baking of a variety of foods, including potatoes, cereal products and coffee at temperatures above 120 degrees C. Acrylamide possesses a range of hazardous properties, the key effects being carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. Acrylamide is clearly carcinogenic in studies in animals, in which it causes increased tumour incidence at a variety of sites. Although the mechanisms for tumour induction in experimental animals have not yet fully elucidated, the in vivo genotoxicity at gene and chromosome level in somatic and germ cells in rodents cannot be discounted from contributing to it. At this time, there is no information to indicate any significant difference between rodents and humans in sensitivity to cancer formation from acrylamide. The present available epidemiological studies of human industrial and accidental exposures have to be considered not suitable for use in the cancer risk assessment of acrylamide in food, due to several limitations. In reviewing the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylamide, the author has taken into account also the evaluations made by the IARC in 1994, the FAO/WHO in 2002 by the European Commission Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 2002 and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA) in 2005.

  4. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of the light emitted by artificial illumination systems.

    PubMed

    De Flora, Silvio

    2013-03-01

    The light delivered by artificial illumination systems, and in particular by halogen quartz bulbs, contains UVA, UVB, and UVC radiation, is genotoxic to both bacterial and human cells and is potently carcinogenic to hairless mice. Since IARC has classified UV radiation in Group 1, any source of UV light poses a carcinogenic hazard to humans. Suitable regulations would be needed in order to control the safety of the light emitted by artificial light sources.

  5. Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Mariana C.

    2012-01-01

    Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene–diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies. Abbreviations: AA African American; BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; CNV copy number variant; EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HCA heterocyclic amine; HCFA Health Care Financing Administration; LAC Los Angeles county; MAF minor allele frequency; NHW non-Hispanic White; OR odds ratio; PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PCA prostate cancer; PTGS2 prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; RDD

  6. A novel approach: chemical relational databases, and the role of the ISSCAN database on assessing chemical carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did not contain chemical structures. Concepts and technologies originated from the structure-activity relationships science have provided powerful tools to create new types of databases, where the effective linkage of chemical toxicity with chemical structure can facilitate and greatly enhance data gathering and hypothesis generation, by permitting: a) exploration across both chemical and biological domains; and b) structure-searchability through the data. This paper reviews the main public databases, together with the progress in the field of chemical relational databases, and presents the ISSCAN database on experimental chemical carcinogens.

  7. Testing electromagnetic fields for potential carcinogenic activity: a critical review of animal models.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J; Kavet, R; Rafferty, C N

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the potential of electromagnetic fields (EMF) to influence the process of carcinogenesis, it will be necessary to supplement epidemiological studies with controlled laboratory studies in animals. There are now a number of suitable assays available that focus on different histopathological forms of cancer and on different stages of carcinogenesis--induction, promotion, progression. In this review we discuss eight major systems in the context of this generalized carcinogenesis paradigm. Our aim is to bring together what is currently known about the biology of carcinogenesis in these systems in order to provide a context for evaluating EMF results as they become available. We also critically discuss EMF test results that have so far been obtained in the animal models reviewed. Most of the 19 completed studies identified were negative. However, suggestive positive results were reported in three promotion assays (in rat mammary gland, in rat liver, and in mouse skin), and in one multigeneration study in mice. Results in the rat liver assay and in the multigeneration study have only been reported in abstract form and cannot be adequately evaluated. Positive results reported in both the rat mammary gland and the mouse skin systems are of weak statistical significance and have not been independently replicated. However, it may be of interest that effects in both systems appear primarily to involve the progression stage of carcinogenesis. We suggest that more definitive conclusions as to the carcinogenic potential of EMF may require expanded test protocols that reinforce traditional carcinogenesis end points with biochemical or other parameters reflective of biological processes known to be associated with carcinogenesis in the different systems. PMID:9114279

  8. Carcinogenicity of glycidamide in B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats from a two-year drinking water exposure.

    PubMed

    Beland, Frederick A; Olson, Greg R; Mendoza, Maria C B; Marques, M Matilde; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a contaminant in baked and fried starchy foods, roasted coffee, and cigarette smoke. Previously we reported that acrylamide is a multi-organ carcinogen in B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats, and hypothesized that acrylamide is activated to an ultimate carcinogen through metabolism to the epoxide glycidamide. We have now examined the carcinogenic effects of glycidamide administered at 0, 0.0875, 0.175, 0.35 and 0.70 mM in drinking water to the same strains of rodents for two years. In male and female mice, there were significant increases in tumors of the Harderian gland, lung, forestomach, and skin. Female mice also had an increased incidence of tumors of the mammary gland and ovary. In male and female rats, there were significant increases in thyroid gland and oral cavity neoplasms and mononuclear cell leukemia. Male rats also had increases in tumors of the epididymis/testes and heart, while female rats demonstrated increases in tumors of the mammary gland, clitoral gland, and forestomach. A similar spectrum of tumors was obtained in mice and rats administered acrylamide. These data indicate that, under the conditions of these bioassays, acrylamide is efficiently metabolized to glycidamide and that the carcinogenic activity of acrylamide is due to its conversion into glycidamide. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of 4-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride (3165-93-3). Final report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    4-Chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is Sufficient, and the evidence from human studies is No Data. The potency factor (F) for 4-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride is estimated to be 0.40 (mg/kg/day)(-1), placing it in potency group 3 according to the CAG's methodology for evaluating potential carcinogens. Combining the weight-of-evidence group and the potency group, 4-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride is assigned a LOW hazard ranking.

  10. Hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution of model and ultimate carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Helmick, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrolysis reaction of the Model Carcinogen O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in aqueous buffer (pH 7.0-10.0) proceeds by was of a nitrenium ion intermediate. The products formed from this process are predominately 2,4-dichloroaniline, and 2-hydroxy-4-chloro-pivalanilide. At pH 10-13 the rate becomes dependent upon hydroxide. The product that is formed is 4-chlorophenylhydroxylamine. 4-Chlorophenyl-hydroxylamine is formed by basic ester hydrolysis determined by an [sup 18]O GC-MS experiment. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in an aqueous diethylamine (pH 11.3) buffer gave 4-chlorophenyl-N,N-diethylhydrazine as the substitution product in a 16% yield. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydroxylamine with diethylamine gave a 1% yield of the hydrazine product. The reaction ofmore » N,N-dimethylanline and aniline with ring-substituted O-pivaloyl-N-arylhydroxylamines in MeOH generates products of nucleophilic attack on the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine derivative. The hydrolysis of the ultimate carcinogen N-(sulfonatooxy)-N-4-aminobiphenyl proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes and generates predominately a product of nucleophilic attack by chloride ion at the ortho position of the aromatic ring. A labile intermediate identified as N-acetypl-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine has been detected by NMR. This intermediate rearranges to form 4-hydroxy-3-phenylacetanilide. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine proceeds by way of two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-methoxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine also proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. Spectroscopic evidence of two diastereomeric intermediates formed from the hydrolysis of the N-benzoyl imines were tentatively identified as N-benzoyl-N-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine.« less

  11. Diesel Exhaust and Lung Cancer-Aftermath of Becoming an IARC Group 1 Carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Debra T

    2018-06-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer reclassified diesel exhaust from Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) to Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) in 2012. Since then, reevaluation and reanalysis of 2 major studies (Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study and Trucking Industry Particle Study) that were influential to the International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluation have replicated the original findings and demonstrated the suitability of these epidemiologic data for the quantitative risk assessment needed to set safe exposure limits in occupational and outdoor ambient environments. The challenge now is to protect the workers and general populations in urban areas from the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust.

  12. Formation and Repair of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived Bulky DNA Adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Hang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts play a central role in chemical carcinogenesis. The analysis of formation and repair of smoking-related DNA adducts remains particularly challenging as both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to smoke are repetitively under attack from complex mixtures of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N -nitrosamines. The bulky DNA adducts, which usually have complex structure, are particularly important because of their biological relevance. Several known cellular DNA repair pathways have been known to operate in human cells on specific types of bulky DNA adducts, for example, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and direct reversal involving O 6 -alkylguaninemore » DNA alkyltransferase or AlkB homologs. Understanding the mechanisms of adduct formation and repair processes is critical for the assessment of cancer risk resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, and ultimately for developing strategies of cancer prevention. This paper highlights the recent progress made in the areas concerning formation and repair of bulky DNA adducts in the context of tobacco carcinogen-associated genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.« less

  13. Towards a harmonized approach for risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    The EU Scientific Committees have considered in the past the use of matematical models for human cancer risk estimation not adequately supported by the available scientific knowledge. Therefore, the advice given to risk managers was to reduce the exposure as far as possible, following the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle. However, ALARA does not allow to set priorities for risk management, as it does not take into consideration carcinogenic potency and level of human exposure. For this reason the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has identified as a priority task the development of a transparent, scientically justifiable and harmonized approach for risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens. This approach, proposed at the end of 2005, is based on the definition of the (MOE), i.e. the relationship between a given point of the dose reponse curve in the animal and human exposure. As point of comparison EFSA recommends the BMDL10, i.e. the lower limit of the confidence interval of the Benchmark Dose associated with an incidence of 10% of induced tumors. Based on current scientific knowkedge, EFSA concluded that a MOE of 10000 or greater is associated with a low risk and low priority for risk management actions. The approach proposed does not replace the ALARA. It should find application on food contaminants, process by-product, and other substances unintentionally present in food. On the other hand, it is not intended to provide a tool for the definition of tolerable intake levels for genotoxic carcinogens deliberately added to food.

  14. Destruction of carcinogenic and mutagenic N-nitrosamides in laboratory wastes.

    PubMed

    Lunn, G; Sansone, E B; Andrews, A W; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Michelon, J; Brouet, I; Keefer, L K

    1984-01-01

    The chemical degradation of five N-nitrosamides used widely for the experimental induction of cancer has been studied with the goal of identifying, and experimentally validating, reliable methods that can be recommended for the destruction of carcinogenic N-nitrosoureas and related compounds in laboratory wastes. Although data are not yet complete, preliminary evidence indicates that none of the five methods studied thus far is ideal for hazard-control purposes. Decomposition with 1 mol/L potassium hydroxide solution destroyed the N-nitrosamides, but generated diazoalkanes, which are carcinogenic, toxic and potentially explosive. Treatment with strong acid in the presence of sulfamic acid or iron filings completely decomposed all N-nitrosamides without forming diazoalkanes, but failed in the presence of solvents which were immiscible with water. Cleavage with hydrogen bromide in glacial acetic acid proceeded to a point of maximum degradation, following which gradual reformation of the N-nitrosamide was observed; this resynthesis could be avoided by carefully bubbling nitrogen through the reaction mixture, but degradation was slow or failed completely in the presence of hydroxylic solvents. Permanganate oxidation was effective in sulfuric acid solution, but was incomplete when an alcohol or dimethyl sulfoxide was present. Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA1535, TA1530 and TA100, which detect base-pair substitutions in DNA, detected mutagenic degradation products in each of the destruction methods, with the exception of the hydrobromic acid/acetic acid procedure.

  15. Discriminating between adaptive and carcinogenic liver hypertrophy in rat studies using logistic ridge regression analysis of toxicogenomic data: The mode of action and predictive models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujie; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Morita, Osamu; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Chemical exposure often results in liver hypertrophy in animal tests, characterized by increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and/or cell proliferation. While most of these changes are considered adaptive responses, there is concern that they may be associated with carcinogenesis. In this study, we have employed a toxicogenomic approach using a logistic ridge regression model to identify genes responsible for liver hypertrophy and hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis and to develop a predictive model for assessing hypertrophy-inducing compounds. Logistic regression models have previously been used in the quantification of epidemiological risk factors. DNA microarray data from the Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System were used to identify hypertrophy-related genes that are expressed differently in hypertrophy induced by carcinogens and non-carcinogens. Data were collected for 134 chemicals (72 non-hypertrophy-inducing chemicals, 27 hypertrophy-inducing non-carcinogenic chemicals, and 15 hypertrophy-inducing carcinogenic compounds). After applying logistic ridge regression analysis, 35 genes for liver hypertrophy (e.g., Acot1 and Abcc3) and 13 genes for hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis (e.g., Asns and Gpx2) were selected. The predictive models built using these genes were 94.8% and 82.7% accurate, respectively. Pathway analysis of the genes indicates that, aside from a xenobiotic metabolism-related pathway as an adaptive response for liver hypertrophy, amino acid biosynthesis and oxidative responses appear to be involved in hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis. Early detection and toxicogenomic characterization of liver hypertrophy using our models may be useful for predicting carcinogenesis. In addition, the identified genes provide novel insight into discrimination between adverse hypertrophy associated with carcinogenesis and adaptive hypertrophy in risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel Strategy to Predict Carcinogenicity of Antiparasitics Based on a Combination of DNA Lesions and Bacterial Mutagenicity Tests

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianying; Lei, Zhixin; Zhu, Feng; Ihsan, Awais; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to commercialization is requested by regulatory agencies. The bacterial mutagenicity test was considered having the highest accuracy of carcinogenic prediction. However, some evidences suggest that it always results in false-positive responses when the bacterial mutagenicity test is used to predict carcinogenicity. Along with major changes made to the International Committee on Harmonization guidance on genotoxicity testing [S2 (R1)], the old data (especially the cytotgenetic data) may not meet current guidelines. This review provides a compendium of retrievable results of genotoxicity and animal carcinogenicity of 136 antiparasitics. Neither genotoxicity nor carcinogenicity data is available for 84 (61.8%), while 52 (38.2%) have been evaluated in at least one genotoxicity or carcinogenicity study, and only 20 (14.7%) in both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies. Among 33 antiparasitics with at least one old result in in vitro genotoxicity, 15 (45.5%) are in agreement with the current ICH S2 (R1) guidance for data acceptance. Compared with other genotoxicity assays, the DNA lesions can significantly increase the accuracy of prediction of carcinogenicity. Together, a combination of DNA lesion and bacterial tests is a more accurate way to predict carcinogenicity. PMID:29170735

  17. An Analysis of the Role of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Carcinogenicity of Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Buddy G.; Borschke, August J.; Doolittle, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture consisting of more than 4500 chemicals, including several tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). TSNA typically form in tobacco during the post-harvest period, with some fraction being transferred into mainstream smoke when a cigarette is burned during use. The most studied of the TSNA is 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). NNK has been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Studies examining the carcinogenicity of NNK frequently are conducted by injecting rodents with a single dose of 2.5 to 10 μmol of pure NNK; the amount of NNK contained in all of the mainstream smoke from about 3700 to 14,800 typical U.S. cigarettes. Extrapolated to a 70-kg smoker, the carcinogenic dose of pure NNK administered to rodents would be equivalent to the amount of NNK in all of the mainstream smoke of 22 to 87 million typical U.S. cigarettes. Furthermore, extrapolating results from rodent studies based on a single injection of pure NNK to establish a causative role for NNK in the carcinogenicity of chronic tobacco smoke exposure in humans is not consistent with basic pharmacological and toxicological principles. For example, such an approach fails to consider the effect of other smoke constituents upon the toxicity of NNK. In vitro studies demonstrate that nicotine, cotinine, and aqueous cigarette “tar” extract (ACTE) all inhibit the mutagenic activity of NNK. In vivo studies reveal that the formation of pulmonary DNA adducts in mice injected with NNK is inhibited by the administration of cotinine and mainstream cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke has been shown to modulate the metabolism of NNK, providing a mechanism for the inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke and cigarette smoke constituents on NNK-induced tumorigenesis. NNK-related pulmonary DNA adducts have not been detected in rodents exposed to cigarette smoke, nor has the toxicity of tobacco smoke or tobacco smoke condensate containing marked reductions in TSNA

  18. RESPIRATORY CARCINOGENICITY OF DIESEL FUEL EMISSIONS. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experiment was carried out to compare the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust particles (administered by fifteen weekly intratracheal instillations) to that of organic extracts of diesel particles, coke oven emissions, roofing tar condensate and cigarette smoke condensate. Appro...

  19. Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) administered by drinking water to B6C3F1 mice showed no carcinogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jayoung; Han, Beom Seok; Cho, Wan-Seob; Choi, Mina; Ha, Chang-Su; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Kim, Yong-Bum; Son, Woo-Chan; Kim, Choong-Yong

    2010-09-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (or 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol, 3-MCPD) is a well-known food processing contaminant found in a wide range of foods and ingredients. It has been classified as non-genotoxic carcinogen but its carcinogenic potential in the rodents has been controversial. The carcinogenicity to B6C3F1 mice by drinking water administration was assessed over a period of 104 weeks. Three groups, each comprising 50 male and 50 female mice received 3-MCPD at dosages of 30, 100 or 300 ppm up to Day 100 and 200 ppm onward (4.2, 14.3 and 33.0 mg/kg for males; 3.7, 12.2, and 31.0 mg/kg for females), were allocated. Survival was good, with at least 80% of males and 72% of females in each group surviving 104 weeks. Body weights and body weight gain were decreased in males and females receiving 200 ppm. Water and food consumptions of both sexes at 300/200 ppm were lowered. Emaciated or crouching position was observed for animals of both sexes exposed to 200 ppm. There were some differences in hematology and serum biochemistry compared with controls, although there was no histopathological evidence to support those changes. Histopathological examination did not reveal any neoplastic or non-neoplastic findings attributable to treatment with 3-MCPD. It is concluded that drinking water administration of 3-MCPD for 104 weeks revealed no evidence of carcinogenic potential.

  20. Comparative statistical analysis of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of uranium in groundwater samples from different regions of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Saini, Komal; Singh, Parminder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-12-01

    LED flourimeter has been used for microanalysis of uranium concentration in groundwater samples collected from six districts of South West (SW), West (W) and North East (NE) Punjab, India. Average value of uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab is observed to be higher than WHO, USEPA recommended safe limit of 30µgl -1 as well as AERB proposed limit of 60µgl -1 . Whereas, for W and NE region of Punjab, average level of uranium concentration was within AERB recommended limit of 60µgl -1 . Average value observed in SW Punjab is around 3-4 times the value observed in W Punjab, whereas its value is more than 17 times the average value observed in NE region of Punjab. Statistical analysis of carcinogenic as well as non carcinogenic risks due to uranium have been evaluated for each studied district. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Approaches to chemoprevention of lung cancer based on carcinogens in tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S S

    1997-01-01

    Chemoprevention may be one way to prevent lung cancer in smokers who are motivated to quit but cannot stop. The approach to chemoprevention of lung cancer described in this article is based on an understanding of the lung carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The available data indicate that the compounds in cigarette smoke most likely involved in the induction of lung cancer in humans are the complex of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons typified by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). A large number of compounds are now available that inhibit lung tumorigenesis by B[a]P or NNK in rodents. Inhibition of NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and inhibition of B[a]P-induced lung carcinogenesis by benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) are discussed as examples. Studies with PEITC in rodents clearly demonstrate that it inhibits NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis by inhibiting the metabolic activation of NNK. Similar changes appear to occur in humans according to data generated in smokers who ate watercress, a source of PEITC. It is likely that mixtures of chemopreventive agents with activity against carcinogens in tobacco smoke, such as NNK and B[a]P, will be useful in chemoprevention of lung cancer in smokers. Furthermore, there is a need to develop suppressing agents for lung cancer that might be applicable in both smokers and ex-smokers. PMID:9255587

  2. Cell transformation assays for prediction of carcinogenic potential: state of the science and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Creton, Stuart; Aardema, Marilyn J.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Harvey, James S.; Martin, Francis L.; Newbold, Robert F.; O’Donovan, Michael R.; Pant, Kamala; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Scott, Andrew D.; Schechtman, Leonard M.; Shen, Rhine R.; Tanaka, Noriho; Yasaei, Hemad

    2012-01-01

    Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of understanding of the mechanistic basis of the assays has limited their acceptance for regulatory purposes. However, recent drivers to find alternative carcinogenicity assessment methodologies, such as the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive, have fuelled renewed interest in CTAs. Research is currently ongoing to improve the objectivity of the assays, reveal the underlying molecular changes leading to transformation and explore the use of novel cell types. The UK NC3Rs held an international workshop in November 2010 to review the current state of the art in this field and provide directions for future research. This paper outlines the key points highlighted at this meeting. PMID:21852270

  3. To the application of the emission Mössbauer and positron annihilation spectroscopies for detection of carcinogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokov, A. V.; Byakov, V. M.; Kulikov, L. A.; Perfiliev, Yu. D.; Stepanov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Being the main cause of cancer, almost all chemical carcinogens are strong electrophiles, that is, they have a high affinity for the electron. We have shown that positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is able to detect chemical carcinogens by their inhibition of positronium (Ps) formation in liquid media. Electrophilic carcinogens intercept thermalized track electrons, which are precursors of Ps, and as a result, when they are present Ps atom does not practically form. Available biophysical data seemingly indicate that frozen solutions model better an intracellular medium than the liquid ones. So it is reasonable to use emission Mössbauer spectroscopy (EMS) to detect chemical carcinogens, measuring the yield of 57Fe2+ions formed in reactions of Auger electrons and other secondary electrons they produced with 57Fe3+. These reactions are similar to the Ps formation process in the terminal part the positron track: e++ e- =>Ps. So EMS and PALS are complementary methods for detection of carcinogenic compounds.

  4. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    R Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...

  5. Environmental exposure to human carcinogens in teenagers and the association with DNA damage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Franken, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.franken@vito.be

    Background: We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents. Material and methods: Six hundred 14–15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Personal exposure to potentially carcinogenic compounds was measured in urine, namely: chromium, cadmium, nickel, 1-hydroxypyrene as a proxy for exposure to other carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), t,t-muconic acid asmore » a metabolite of benzene, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), organophosphate pesticide metabolites, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. In blood, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 118 and 156, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were analyzed. Levels of methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in hair. Multiple linear regression models were used to establish exposure-response relationships. Results: Biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and urinary chromium were associated with higher levels of both 8-OHdG in urine and DNA damage detected by the alkaline comet assay. Concentrations of 8-OHdG in urine increased in relation with increasing concentrations of urinary t,t-muconic acid, cadmium, nickel, 2,5-DCP, and DEHP metabolites. Increased concentrations of PFOA in blood were associated with higher levels of DNA damage measured by the alkaline comet assay, whereas DDT was associated in the same direction with the Fpg-modified comet assay. Inverse associations were observed between blood arsenic, hair MeHg, PCB 156 and HCB, and urinary 8-OHdG. The latter exposure biomarkers were also associated with higher fish intake. Urinary

  6. [Integrated use of data bases to map manufacturing processes involving exposure to carcinogens in the Piedmont Region: the example of formaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Falcone, U; Gilardi, Luisella; Pasqualini, O; Santoro, S; Coffano, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to carcinogens is still widespread in working environments. For the purpose of defining priority of interventions, it is necessary to estimate the number and the geographic distribution of workers potentially exposed to carcinogens. It could therefore be useful to test the use of tools and information sources already available in order to map the distribution of exposure to carcinogens. Formaldehyde is suggested as an example of an occupational carcinogen in this study. The study aimed at verifying and investigating the potential of 3 integrated databases: MATline, CAREX, and company databases resulting from occupational accident and disease claims (INAIL), in order to estimate the number of workers exposed to formaldehyde and map their distribution in the Piedmont Region. The list of manufacturing processes involving exposure to formaldehyde was sorted by MIATline; for each process the number of firms and employees were obtained from the INAIL archives. By applying the prevalence of exposed workers obtained with CAREX, an estimate of exposure for each process was determined. A map of the distribution of employees associated with a specific process was produced using ArcView GIS software. It was estimated that more than 13,000 employees are exposed to formaldehyde in the Piedmont Region. The manufacture of furniture was identified as the process with the highest number of workers exposed to formaldehyde (3,130),followed by metal workers (2,301 exposed) and synthetic resin processing (1,391 exposed). The results obtained from the integrated use of databases provide a basis for defining priority of preventive interventions required in the industrial processes involving exposure to carcinogens in the Piedmont Region.

  7. Theoretical Calculation of the Uv-Vis Spectral Band Locations of Pahs with Unknown Syntheses Procedures and Prospective Carcinogenic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ona-Ruales, Jorge Oswaldo; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara

    2017-06-01

    Annellation Theory and ZINDO/S semiempirical calculations have been used for the calculation of the locations of maximum absorbance (LMA) of the Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) of 31 C_{34}H_{16} PAHs (molecular mass 424 Da) with unknown protocols of synthesis. The presence of benzo[a]pyrene bay-like regions and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene fjord-like regions in several of the structures that could be linked to an enhancement of the biological behavior and carcinogenic activity stresses the importance of C_{34}H_{16} PAHs in fields like molecular biology and cancer research. In addition, the occurrence of large PAHs in oil asphaltenes exemplifies the importance of these calculations for the characterization of complex systems. The C_{34}H_{16} PAH group is the largest molecular mass group of organic compounds analyzed so far following the Annellation Theory and ZINDO/S methodology. Future analysis using the same approach will provide evidence regarding the LMA of other high molecular mass PAHs.

  8. The impact of low-dose carcinogens and environmental disruptors on tissue invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ochieng, Josiah; Nangami, Gladys N.; Ogunkua, Olugbemiga; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Koturbash, Igor; Odero-Marah, Valerie; McCawley, Lisa; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Luqmani, Yunus; Chen, Zhenbang; Papagerakis, Silvana; Wolf, Gregory T.; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P.; Brown, Dustin G.; Colacci, Annamaria; Hamid, Roslida A.; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K.; Amedei, Amedeo; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Bisson, William H.; Eltom, Sakina E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to stimulate new ideas regarding low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens and their potential to promote invasion and metastasis. Whereas a number of chapters in this review are devoted to the role of low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens in the promotion of invasion and metastasis in specific tumors such as breast and prostate, the overarching theme is the role of low-dose carcinogens in the progression of cancer stem cells. It is becoming clearer that cancer stem cells in a tumor are the ones that assume invasive properties and colonize distant organs. Therefore, low-dose contaminants that trigger epithelial–mesenchymal transition, for example, in these cells are of particular interest in this review. This we hope will lead to the collaboration between scientists who have dedicated their professional life to the study of carcinogens and those whose interests are exclusively in the arena of tissue invasion and metastasis. PMID:26106135

  9. Exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify and describe the exposure to selected known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry from 1970 to 2005, in order to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Methods Background information on possible exposure was obtained through company visits, including interviewing key personnel (n = 83) and collecting monitoring reports (n = 118) and other relevant documents (n = 329). On the basis of a previous questionnaire administered to present and former offshore employees in 1998, 27 job categories were defined. Results This study indicated possible exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures or exposure circumstances. Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents (benzene, mineral oil mist and vapour, respirable and total dust, asbestos fibres, refractory ceramic fibres, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene). The mean exposure level of 367 personal samples of benzene was 0.037 ppm (range: less than the limit of detection to 2.6 ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03 fibres/cm3) when asbestos‐containing brake bands were used in drilling draw work in 1988. Personal samples of formaldehyde in the process area ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 mg/m3. Descriptions of products containing known and suspected carcinogens, exposure sources and processes were extracted from the collected documentation and the interviews of key personnel. Conclusions This study described exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for 27 job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. For a planned cohort study on cancer, quantitative estimates of exposure to benzene, and mineral oil mist and vapour might be developed. For the other agents, information in the present study can be used for further assessment of exposure, for instance, by expert judgement. More

  10. Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays from molecular structure using inductive logic programming

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    King, R.D.; Srinivasan, A.

    1996-10-01

    The machine learning program Progol was applied to the problem of forming the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for a set of compounds tested for carcinogenicity in rodent bioassays by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP). Progol is the first inductive logic programming (ILP) algorithm to use a fully relational method for describing chemical structure in SARs, based on using atoms and their bond connectivities. Progol is well suited to forming SARs for carcinogenicity as it is designed to produce easily understandable rules (structural alerts) for sets of noncongeneric compounds. The Progol SAR method was tested by prediction of a set ofmore » compounds that have been widely predicted by other SAR methods (the compounds used in the NTP`s first round of carcinogenesis predictions). For these compounds no method (human or machine) was significantly more accurate than Progol. Progol was the most accurate method that did not use data from biological tests on rodents (however, the difference in accuracy is not significant). The Progol predictions were based solely on chemical structure and the results of tests for Salmonella mutagenicity. Using the full NTP database, the prediction accuracy of Progol was estimated to be 63% ({+-}3%) using 5-fold cross validation. A set of structural alerts for carcinogenesis was automatically generated and the chemical rationale for them investigated-these structural alerts are statistically independent of the Salmonella mutagenicity. Carcinogenicity is predicted for the compounds used in the NTP`s second round of carcinogenesis predictions. The results for prediction of carcinogenesis, taken together with the previous successful applications of predicting mutagenicity in nitroaromatic compounds, and inhibition of angiogenesis by suramin analogues, show that Progol has a role to play in understanding the SARs of cancer-related compounds. 29 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  11. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.

    PubMed

    Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including 32P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.

  12. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Weisburger, J.H.; Williams, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventative approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryoticmore » Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including {sup 32}P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.« less

  13. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  14. An Alternative to Formaldehyde. Avoiding the Carcinogenic Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrations in which glyoxal may be substituted for formaldehyde, a known carcinogen, are presented. An acid-base clock reaction and a copper mirror on the inside of a test tube are described. Directions for the demonstrations and safety precautions are included. (KR)

  15. Chemistry of mutagens and carcinogens in broiled food.

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, the following subjects are important areas in studies on mutagens and carcinogens in broiled foods. In addition to heterocyclic amines which need microsomal activation, the structural elucidation of more labile direct-acting mutagens is necessary. It is known that there are still various unknown minor mutagens in broiled foods. Although the structural characterization of such compounds is more difficult, it is important since they might be hazardous in spite of their low mutagenicity. A more feasible and easier method for quantitative analysis of mutagens, in addition to HPLC and GC/MS methods presently employed, must be developed. The mechanism of formation of mutagens by broiling of food should be studied. An effective chemical method to prevent formation of mutagens or to destroy them, once formed, should be developed. PMID:3757944

  16. A high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based method for detecting the mutational fingerprint of carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Li, Haiqing; Yoon, Jae-In; Zheng, Albert; Gao, Hanlin; Tommasi, Stella

    2012-08-01

    Many carcinogens leave a unique mutational fingerprint in the human genome. These mutational fingerprints manifest as specific types of mutations often clustering at certain genomic loci in tumor genomes from carcinogen-exposed individuals. To develop a high-throughput method for detecting the mutational fingerprint of carcinogens, we have devised a cost-, time- and labor-effective strategy, in which the widely used transgenic Big Blue mouse mutation detection assay is made compatible with the Roche/454 Genome Sequencer FLX Titanium next-generation sequencing technology. As proof of principle, we have used this novel method to establish the mutational fingerprints of three prominent carcinogens with varying mutagenic potencies, including sunlight ultraviolet radiation, 4-aminobiphenyl and secondhand smoke that are known to be strong, moderate and weak mutagens, respectively. For verification purposes, we have compared the mutational fingerprints of these carcinogens obtained by our newly developed method with those obtained by parallel analyses using the conventional low-throughput approach, that is, standard mutation detection assay followed by direct DNA sequencing using a capillary DNA sequencer. We demonstrate that this high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based method is highly specific and sensitive to detect the mutational fingerprints of the tested carcinogens. The method is reproducible, and its accuracy is comparable with that of the currently available low-throughput method. In conclusion, this novel method has the potential to move the field of carcinogenesis forward by allowing high-throughput analysis of mutations induced by endogenous and/or exogenous genotoxic agents.

  17. [Carcinogenic effects of diesel emission: an epidemiological review].

    PubMed

    Szadkowska-Stańczyk, I; Ruszkowska, J

    2000-01-01

    The results of recent epidemiological studies and meta-analysis relating to carcinogenic effects of diesel emissions in exposed populations were reviewed. Statistical, but still not causal association between risk of lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel emissions was found in a great number of studies under review. Long-term exposure to diesel exhausts (> 20 years) increases by 30-40% lung cancer risk in workers of the transport industry: truck drivers, diesel engine mechanics, locomotive engineers and brakesmen. The results are inconsistent among heavy equipment operators, bus drivers and miners. Relative risk of lung cancer among workers occupationally exposed to diesel emission may be comparable with that of environmental tobacco smoke. Further research is also needed in the area of carcinogenic mechanisms, and biomarkers of exposure should be developed and validated before reliable quantitative estimates of risk of harmful effects to the human health in occupational setting are made.

  18. Aroclor 1254 increases the genotoxicity of several carcinogens to liver primary cell cultures

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Lopez-Revilla, R.; Villa-Trevino, S.

    1985-01-01

    The genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals was evaluated in liver primary cell cultures (LPCC) from untreated and Aroclor 1254 (Ar) pretreated rats. Hepatocytes were isolated from partially hepatectomized rats and their DNA was labeled in vitro with (/sup 3/H) dThd; the molecular weight of single-stranded DNA was determined by alkaline sucrose sedimentation. Two parameters of DNA damage were defined: 1) the mean effective dose (ED50), i.e., the carcinogen concentration that decreased the DNA molecular weight to half the original, and 2) the DNA breaking potency (DBP), i.e., the number of breaks per DNA molecule produced by 2 hmore » exposure to 1mM concentration of the chemical. Two hours exposure of LPCC from untreated rats to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) (6.8-340..mu..M) and to the precarcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.05-0.33 mM) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (0.45-16 mM) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the molecular weight of DNA. Pretreatment of rats with Ar decreased significantly the sedimentation velocity of DNA and increased five, three, and two times the DBP of MNNG, BaP, and DMN, respectively. These results show that Ar-pretreatment of rats increases the genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals and suggest that Ar might increase the genotoxicity of chemical carcinogens perhaps by enhancing their metabolic activation, by producing direct genotoxic effects, or both. Our results also emphasize the carcinogenic risk that the environmental pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls might represent to humans.« less

  19. Environmental exposure to human carcinogens in teenagers and the association with DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Franken, Carmen; Koppen, Gudrun; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Govarts, Eva; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Loots, Ilse; Nelen, Vera; Sioen, Isabelle; Nawrot, Tim S; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Boonen, Francis; Ooms, Daniëlla; Wevers, Mai; Jacobs, Griet; Covaci, Adrian; Schettgen, Thomas; Schoeters, Greet

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents. Six hundred 14-15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Personal exposure to potentially carcinogenic compounds was measured in urine, namely: chromium, cadmium, nickel, 1-hydroxypyrene as a proxy for exposure to other carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), t,t-muconic acid as a metabolite of benzene, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), organophosphate pesticide metabolites, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. In blood, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 118 and 156, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were analyzed. Levels of methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in hair. Multiple linear regression models were used to establish exposure-response relationships. Biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and urinary chromium were associated with higher levels of both 8-OHdG in urine and DNA damage detected by the alkaline comet assay. Concentrations of 8-OHdG in urine increased in relation with increasing concentrations of urinary t,t-muconic acid, cadmium, nickel, 2,5-DCP, and DEHP metabolites. Increased concentrations of PFOA in blood were associated with higher levels of DNA damage measured by the alkaline comet assay, whereas DDT was associated in the same direction with the Fpg-modified comet assay. Inverse associations were observed between blood arsenic, hair MeHg, PCB 156 and HCB, and urinary 8-OHdG. The latter exposure biomarkers were also associated with higher fish intake. Urinary nickel and t,t-muconic acid were inversely associated

  20. Evidence that the capacity of nongenotoxic carcinogens to induce oxidative stress is subject to marked variability.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Colin J; Cameron, Amy R; Chatham, Lynsey; Stanley, Lesley A; Wolf, Charles Roland

    2015-05-01

    Many drugs and environmental chemicals which are not directly mutagenic have the capacity to increase the incidence of tumors in the liver and other tissues. For this reason, such compounds are known as nongenotoxic carcinogens. The mechanisms underlying their effects remain unclear; however, their capacity to induce oxidative stress is considered to be a critical step in the carcinogenic process, although the evidence that this is actually the case remains equivocal and sparse. We have exploited a novel heme oxygenase-1 reporter mouse to evaluate the capacity of nongenotoxic carcinogens with different mechanisms of action to induce oxidative stress in the liver in vivo. When these compounds were administered at doses reported to cause liver tumors, marked differences in activation of the reporter were observed. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and nafenopin were strong inducers of oxidative stress, whereas phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, cyproterone acetate, and WY14,643 were, at best, only very weak inducers. In the case of phenobarbital and thioacetamide, the number of LacZ-positive hepatocytes increased with time, and for the latter also with dose. The data obtained demonstrate that although some nongenotoxic carcinogens can induce oxidative stress, it is not a dominant feature of the response to these compounds. Therefore in contrast to the current models, these data suggest that oxidative stress is not a key determinant in the mechanism of nongenotoxic carcinogenesis but may contribute to the effects in a compound-specific manner. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Source apportionment of the carcinogenic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated to airborne PM10 by a PMF model.

    PubMed

    Callén, M S; Iturmendi, A; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2014-02-01

    In order to perform a study of the carcinogenic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaP-eq) concentration was calculated and modelled by a receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF). Nineteen PAH associated to airborne PM10 of Zaragoza, Spain, were quantified during the sampling period 2001-2009 and used as potential variables by the PMF model. Afterwards, multiple linear regression analysis was used to quantify the potential sources of BaP-eq. Five sources were obtained as the optimal solution and vehicular emission was identified as the main carcinogenic source (35 %) followed by heavy-duty vehicles (28 %), light-oil combustion (18 %), natural gas (10 %) and coal combustion (9 %). Two of the most prevailing directions contributing to this carcinogenic character were the NE and N directions associated with a highway, industrial parks and a paper factory. The lifetime lung cancer risk exceeded the unit risk of 8.7 x 10(-5) per ng/m(3) BaP in both winter and autumn seasons and the most contributing source was the vehicular emission factor becoming an important issue in control strategies.

  2. Carcinogenic Effects of Benzene: An Update (Draft Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major issue addressed in this document involves the nature and magnitude of the risk of cancer to humans exposed to low levels of benzene. Occupational studies continue to provide the bulk of evidence of benzenes carcinogenicity. Workers are exposed at much higher levels than...

  3. UPPER BOUND RISK ESTIMATES FOR MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The excess cancer risk that might result from exposure to a mixture of chemical carcinogens usually is estimated with data from experiments conducted on individual chemicals. An upper bound on the total excess risk is estimated commonly by summing individual upper bound risk esti...

  4. Discriminating between adaptive and carcinogenic liver hypertrophy in rat studies using logistic ridge regression analysis of toxicogenomic data: The mode of action and predictive models

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Shujie; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Morita, Osamu

    Chemical exposure often results in liver hypertrophy in animal tests, characterized by increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and/or cell proliferation. While most of these changes are considered adaptive responses, there is concern that they may be associated with carcinogenesis. In this study, we have employed a toxicogenomic approach using a logistic ridge regression model to identify genes responsible for liver hypertrophy and hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis and to develop a predictive model for assessing hypertrophy-inducing compounds. Logistic regression models have previously been used in the quantification of epidemiological risk factors. DNA microarray data from the Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System weremore » used to identify hypertrophy-related genes that are expressed differently in hypertrophy induced by carcinogens and non-carcinogens. Data were collected for 134 chemicals (72 non-hypertrophy-inducing chemicals, 27 hypertrophy-inducing non-carcinogenic chemicals, and 15 hypertrophy-inducing carcinogenic compounds). After applying logistic ridge regression analysis, 35 genes for liver hypertrophy (e.g., Acot1 and Abcc3) and 13 genes for hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis (e.g., Asns and Gpx2) were selected. The predictive models built using these genes were 94.8% and 82.7% accurate, respectively. Pathway analysis of the genes indicates that, aside from a xenobiotic metabolism-related pathway as an adaptive response for liver hypertrophy, amino acid biosynthesis and oxidative responses appear to be involved in hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis. Early detection and toxicogenomic characterization of liver hypertrophy using our models may be useful for predicting carcinogenesis. In addition, the identified genes provide novel insight into discrimination between adverse hypertrophy associated with carcinogenesis and adaptive hypertrophy in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Hypertrophy (H) and hypertrophic

  5. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population

    PubMed Central

    De Matteis, Sara; Consonni, Dario; Lubin, Jay H; Tucker, Margaret; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel CH; Kromhout, Hans; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E; Pesatori, Angela C; Wacholder, Sholom; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. Methods We applied a new job–exposure matrix (JEM) to translate lifetime work histories, collected by personal interview and coded into standard job titles, into never, low and high exposure levels for six known/suspected occupational lung carcinogens in the Environment and Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) population-based case–control study, conducted in Lombardy region, Italy, in 2002–05. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in men (1537 cases and 1617 controls), by logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders, including smoking and co-exposure to JEM carcinogens. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated as impact measure. Results Men showed an increased lung cancer risk even at low exposure to asbestos (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.42–2.18), crystalline silica (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.00–1.71) and nickel–chromium (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.90–1.53); risk increased with exposure level. For polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an increased risk (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 0.99–2.70) was found only for high exposures. The PAFs for any exposure to asbestos, silica and nickel–chromium were 18.1, 5.7 and 7.0%, respectively, equivalent to an overall PAF of 22.5% (95% CI: 14.1–30.0). This corresponds to about 1016 (95% CI: 637–1355) male lung cancer cases/year in Lombardy. Conclusions These findings support the substantial role of selected occupational carcinogens on lung cancer burden, even at low exposures, in a general population. PMID:22467291

  6. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Sara; Consonni, Dario; Lubin, Jay H; Tucker, Margaret; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel Ch; Kromhout, Hans; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E; Pesatori, Angela C; Wacholder, Sholom; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. We applied a new job-exposure matrix (JEM) to translate lifetime work histories, collected by personal interview and coded into standard job titles, into never, low and high exposure levels for six known/suspected occupational lung carcinogens in the Environment and Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) population-based case-control study, conducted in Lombardy region, Italy, in 2002-05. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in men (1537 cases and 1617 controls), by logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders, including smoking and co-exposure to JEM carcinogens. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated as impact measure. Men showed an increased lung cancer risk even at low exposure to asbestos (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.42-2.18), crystalline silica (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.00-1.71) and nickel-chromium (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.90-1.53); risk increased with exposure level. For polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an increased risk (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 0.99-2.70) was found only for high exposures. The PAFs for any exposure to asbestos, silica and nickel-chromium were 18.1, 5.7 and 7.0%, respectively, equivalent to an overall PAF of 22.5% (95% CI: 14.1-30.0). This corresponds to about 1016 (95% CI: 637-1355) male lung cancer cases/year in Lombardy. These findings support the substantial role of selected occupational carcinogens on lung cancer burden, even at low exposures, in a general population.

  7. Competitive inhibition of carcinogen-activating CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes by a standardized complex mixture of PAH extracted from coal tar

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mahadevan, B.; Marston, C.P.; Luch, A.

    2007-03-15

    A complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) extracted from coal tar, the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1597, was recently shown to decrease the levels of DNA binding of the 2 strong carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene (DBP) in the human mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MCF-7. The present study was designed to further elucidate the biochemical mechanisms involved in this inhibition process. We examined the effects of SRM 1597 on the metabolic activation of BP and DBP toward DNA-binding derivatives in Chinese hamster cells expressing either human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 or CYP1B1. The data obtained from biochemical experiments revealedmore » that SRM 1597 competitively inhibited the activity of both human enzymes as analyzed by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation assays. While the Michaelis-Menten constant (K-M) was {lt} 0.4 {mu}M in the absence of SRM 1597, this value increased up to 1.12 (CYP1A1) or 4.45 {mu}M (CYP1B1) in the presence of 0.1 {mu} g/ml SRM 1597. Hence the inhibitory effects of the complex mixture on human CYP1B1 were much stronger when compared to human CYP1A1 Taken together, the decreases in PAH-DNA adduct formation on co-treatment with SRM 1597 revealed inhibitory effects on the CYP enzymes that convert carcinogenic PAH into DNA-binding metabolites. The implications for the tumorigenicity of complex environmental PAR mixtures are discussed.« less

  8. Carcinogenicity bioassays of vinyl chloride monomer: a model of risk assessment on an experimental basis.

    PubMed Central

    Maltoni, C; Lefemine, G; Ciliberti, A; Cotti, G; Carretti, D

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented regarding the final results of the Bentivoglio (Bologna) project on long-term carcinogenicity bioassays of vinyl chloride (VC). The experimental project studied the effects of the monomer, administered by different routes, concentrations and schedules of treatment, to animals (near 7000) of different species, strains, sex and age. To our knowledge this is the largest experimental carcinogenicity study performed on a single compound by a single institution. The results indicate that VC is a multipotential carcinogen, affecting a variety of organs and tissues. In the experimental conditions studied, the neoplastic effects of the monomer were also detected at low doses. The experimental and biological factors greatly affect the neoplastic response to VC. Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays are, at present, a unique tool for the identification and quantification of environmental and occupational risks. Precise and highly standardized experimental procedures are needed to obtain data for risk assessment. PMID:6800782

  9. Aneuploidy: a common and early evidence-based biomarker for carcinogens and reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Mandrioli, Daniele; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Perry, Melissa J

    2016-10-12

    Aneuploidy, defined as structural and numerical aberrations of chromosomes, continues to draw attention as an informative effect biomarker for carcinogens and male reproductive toxicants. It has been well documented that aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer. Aneuploidies in oocytes and spermatozoa contribute to infertility, pregnancy loss and a number of congenital abnormalities, and sperm aneuploidy is associated with testicular cancer. It is striking that several carcinogens induce aneuploidy in somatic cells, and also adversely affect the chromosome compliment of germ cells. In this paper we review 1) the contributions of aneuploidy to cancer, infertility, and developmental abnormalities; 2) techniques for assessing aneuploidy in precancerous and malignant lesions and in sperm; and 3) the utility of aneuploidy as a biomarker for integrated chemical assessments of carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity.

  10. A high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based method for detecting the mutational fingerprint of carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Li, Haiqing; Yoon, Jae-In; Zheng, Albert; Gao, Hanlin; Tommasi, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Many carcinogens leave a unique mutational fingerprint in the human genome. These mutational fingerprints manifest as specific types of mutations often clustering at certain genomic loci in tumor genomes from carcinogen-exposed individuals. To develop a high-throughput method for detecting the mutational fingerprint of carcinogens, we have devised a cost-, time- and labor-effective strategy, in which the widely used transgenic Big Blue® mouse mutation detection assay is made compatible with the Roche/454 Genome Sequencer FLX Titanium next-generation sequencing technology. As proof of principle, we have used this novel method to establish the mutational fingerprints of three prominent carcinogens with varying mutagenic potencies, including sunlight ultraviolet radiation, 4-aminobiphenyl and secondhand smoke that are known to be strong, moderate and weak mutagens, respectively. For verification purposes, we have compared the mutational fingerprints of these carcinogens obtained by our newly developed method with those obtained by parallel analyses using the conventional low-throughput approach, that is, standard mutation detection assay followed by direct DNA sequencing using a capillary DNA sequencer. We demonstrate that this high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based method is highly specific and sensitive to detect the mutational fingerprints of the tested carcinogens. The method is reproducible, and its accuracy is comparable with that of the currently available low-throughput method. In conclusion, this novel method has the potential to move the field of carcinogenesis forward by allowing high-throughput analysis of mutations induced by endogenous and/or exogenous genotoxic agents. PMID:22735701

  11. Human gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori and bracken carcinogens: A connecting hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Calcagno-Pissarelli, María Pía; Naya, Marlene; Ávila-Núñez, Jorge Luis; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E

    2016-03-01

    Long term infection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) virulent strains is a key factor in the genesis of human gastric cancer, and so are certain dietary proinflammatory and genotoxic compounds. Carcinogenic bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) is one of these. Toxins from this plant are consumed as bracken culinary preparations, through milk and meat of bracken-exposed livestock, and drain waters from bracken swards. Bracken toxin ptaquiloside (PtQ), a suspected human carcinogen, elicits complex responses in animals leading to death. PtQ and Hp might cooperate in gastric pathologies. This paper presents an hypothesis on PtQ-Hp association leading to the enhancement of carcinogenesis in the human gastric environment that might explain the high gastric cancer incidence and death rates among Hp-infected people living in bracken zones at two levels: (1) The macroscopic scale comprising the flow of PtQ in the human diet. (2) the microscopic scale encompassing (A) gastric luminal medium; (B) gastric mucus structure and mucin degradation elicited by Hp; (C) bacterial pH gradient modification of the gastric mucosa that favors PtQ survival and its penetration into epithelial tissue; (D) combined PtQ/Hp effects on gastric immune and inflammatory responses; (E) PtQ-Hp complementary activity at selected cell signaling cascades and genome disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MATline: a job-exposure matrix for carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Luisella; Falcone, Umberto; Santoro, Silvano; Coffano, Elena

    2008-01-01

    MATline is a tool that can be used to predict which industrial processes can be expected to involve the use of a substance that is considered carcinogenic as documented in the literature. The database includes agents carrying risk phrases R45, R49 and R40 according to the method of classification adopted by the EU and/or agents in categories 1, 2A and 2B as classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Each agent is associated with a list of industrial processes coded according to the tariff headings used by the National Institute of Insurance against Occupational Injuries and Diseases (Istituto Nazionale per l'Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro, INAIL). The main sources of information are the IARC Monographs and databases available through the National Library of Medicine's TOXNET portal. The matrix currently includes 600 carcinogenic agents, 23 classes of agents and some 7000 links between agents and industrial processes. MATline can be viewed on the www.dors.it website.

  13. The impact of low-dose carcinogens and environmental disruptors on tissue invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ochieng, Josiah; Nangami, Gladys N; Ogunkua, Olugbemiga; Miousse, Isabelle R; Koturbash, Igor; Odero-Marah, Valerie; McCawley, Lisa J; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Luqmani, Yunus; Chen, Zhenbang; Papagerakis, Silvana; Wolf, Gregory T; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P; Brown, Dustin G; Colacci, Anna Maria; Hamid, Roslida A; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K; Amedei, Amedeo; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Bisson, William H; Eltom, Sakina E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to stimulate new ideas regarding low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens and their potential to promote invasion and metastasis. Whereas a number of chapters in this review are devoted to the role of low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens in the promotion of invasion and metastasis in specific tumors such as breast and prostate, the overarching theme is the role of low-dose carcinogens in the progression of cancer stem cells. It is becoming clearer that cancer stem cells in a tumor are the ones that assume invasive properties and colonize distant organs. Therefore, low-dose contaminants that trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transition, for example, in these cells are of particular interest in this review. This we hope will lead to the collaboration between scientists who have dedicated their professional life to the study of carcinogens and those whose interests are exclusively in the arena of tissue invasion and metastasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Carcinogenicity of Embedded Tungsten Alloys in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    year carcinogenicity (Aim 1) and serial euthanasia (Aim 2) studies were analyzed for metal content using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry...inductively coupled- plasma mass spectrometer (PQ ExCell ICPMS System, ThermoElemental, Franklin, MA) equipped with a Cetac ASX500 Autosampler. High...Metal analysis using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry showed that both the tungsten/nickel/cobalt and tungsten/nickel/iron

  15. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence. PMID:8499796

  16. Tumor susceptibility in two mouse strains with varying doses of carcinogen

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bernfeld, P.; Homburger, F.

    Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene to C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J mice at four dose levels over a 1:125 range resulted in a practically equal tumor response in both strains at all dose levels. Using a different method of carcinogen administration, a reversal of tumor susceptibility was found when varying the dose of carcinogen, a phenomenon not observed by us. Our study suggests that Prehn and Lawler's results may have been influenced, at least in part, by the practice of the latter authors to exclude data of substantial numbers of tumor-free mice from the evaluation. (JMT)

  17. The cooked meat-derived mammary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine promotes invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Sandra N; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2011-01-11

    The cooked meat derived genotoxic carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induces cancer of the colon, prostate and mammary gland when fed to rats. Epidemiology studies link these tumours to a Western diet and exposure to heterocyclic amines such as PhIP. We have shown that PhIP is also potently estrogenic and have proposed that this hormonal activity contributes to its target site carcinogenicity. We now postulate that the estrogenic properties of PhIP influence metastatic potential. We have used an in vitro assay for cell invasion based upon digestion and migration through a reconstituted basement membrane model. Zymography and immunoblotting were used to confirm PhIP-mediated changes associated with induction of the invasive phenotype. Treatment of the mammary cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D with PhIP induces cells to digest and migrate through a reconstituted basement membrane. The response was dose dependent, observed at sub-nanomolar concentrations of PhIP and was inhibited by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. The PhIP-induced invasive phenotype was associated with expression of cathepsin D, cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase activity. These findings emphasise the range and potency of the biological activities associated with this cooked meat product and mechanistically support the tissue-specific carcinogenicity of the chemical. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-induced adrenomedullin mediates cigarette smoke carcinogenicity in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Shankavaram, Uma; Rao, Mahadev; Datrice, Nicole; Scott, Atay; Aparicio, Marta; Camphausen, Kevin A.; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.; Chang, Han; Lin, Pinpin; Schrump, David S.; Garantziotis, Stavros; Cuttitta, Frank; Zudaire, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a leading cause of death worldwide. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is partially responsible for tobacco-induced carcinogenesis although the underlying mechanisms involving early effector genes have yet to be determined. Here, we report that adrenomedullin (ADM) significantly contributes to the carcinogenicity of tobacco activated AHR. CS and AHR activating ligands induced ADM in vitro and in vivo but not in AHR-deficient fibroblasts and mice. Ectopic transfection of AHR rescued ADM expression in AHR−/− fibroblasts while AHR blockage with siRNA in wild type cells significantly decreased ADM expression. AHR regulates ADM expression through two intronic xenobiotic response elements located close to the start codon in the ADM gene. Using tissue microarrays we showed that ADM and AHR were coupregulated in lung tumor biopsies from smoker patients. Microarray metaanalysis of 304 independent microarray experiments showed that ADM is elevated in smokers and smokers with cancer. Additionally, ADM coassociated with a subset of AHR responsive genes and efficiently differentiated patients with lung cancer from non-smokers. In a novel preclinical model of CS-induced tumor progression, host exposure to CS extracts significantly elevated tumor ADM while systemic treatment with the ADM antagonist NSC16311 efficiently blocked tobacco-induced tumor growth. In conclusion, ADM significantly contributes the carcinogenic effect of AHR and tobacco combustion products. We suggest that therapeutics targeting the AHR/ADM axis may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of tobacco-induced pulmonary malignancies. PMID:22993405

  19. Decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in rat liver with subchronic exposure to genotoxic carcinogens riddelliine and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Lian, Christine Guo; Xu, Shuyun; Guo, Weimin; Yan, Jian; Frank, Maximilian Y M; Liu, Robert; Liu, Cynthia; Chen, Ying; Murphy, George F; Chen, Tao

    2015-11-01

    The level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) converted by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family is decreased in cancers. However, whether 5-hmC level is perturbed in early stages of carcinogenesis caused by genotoxic carcinogens is not defined. 5-hmC levels and TET2 expression were measured in liver of rats treated with genotoxic carcinogens, riddelliine, or aristolochic acid. Levels of 5-hmC and TET2 expression decreased in the liver of the carcinogens-treated rats. Loss of 5-hmC correlates well with documented induction of genetic mutations by the carcinogens, suggesting that TET2-mediated 5-hydroxymethylation plays an epigenetic role in early state of carcinogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Decrease of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Rat Liver with Subchronic Exposure to Genotoxic Carcinogens Riddelliine and Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Christine Guo; Xu, Shuyun; Guo, Weimin; Yan, Jian; Frank, Maximilian Y M; Liu, Robert; Liu, Cynthia; Chen, Ying; Murphy, George F.; Chen, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) converted by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family is decreased in cancers. However, whether 5-hmC level is perturbed in early stages of carcinogenesis caused by genotoxic carcinogens is not defined. 5-hmC levels and TET2 expression were measured in liver of rats treated with genotoxic carcinogens, riddelliine, or aristolochic acid. Levels of 5-hmC and TET2 expression decreased in the liver of the carcinogens-treated rats. Loss of 5-hmC correlates well with documented induction of genetic mutations by the carcinogens, suggesting that TET2-mediated 5-hydroxymethylation plays an epigenetic role in early state of carcinogenesis. PMID:25154389

  1. Enzymes oxidizing the azo dye 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol (Sudan I) and their contribution to its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Marie; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Frei, Eva; Hodek, Petr; Martinek, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    Sudan I [1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthol, C.I. Solvent Yellow 14] is an industrial dye, which was found as a contaminant in numerous foods in several European countries. Because Sudan I has been assigned by the IARC as a Category 3 carcinogen, the European Union decreed that it cannot be utilized as food colorant in any European country. Sudan I induces the malignancies in liver and urinary bladder of rats and mice. This carcinogen has also been found to be a potent mutagen, contact allergen and sensitizer, and exhibits clastogenic properties. The oxidation of Sudan I increases its toxic effects and leads to covalent adducts in DNA. Identification of enzymatic systems that contribute to Sudan I oxidative metabolism to reactive intermediates generating such covalent DNA adducts on the one hand, and to the detoxification of this carcinogen on the other, is necessary to evaluate susceptibility to this toxicant. This review summarizes the identification of such enzymes and the molecular mechanisms of oxidation reactions elucidated to date. Human and animal cytochrome P450 (CYP) and peroxidases are capable of oxidizing Sudan I. Of the CYP enzymes, CYP1A1 is most important both in Sudan I detoxification and its bio-activation. Ring-hydroxylated metabolites and a dimer of this carcinogen were found as detoxification products of Sudan I generated with CYPs and peroxidases, respectively. Oxidative bio-activation of this azo dye catalyzed by CYPs and peroxidases leads to generation of proximate genotoxic metabolites (the CYP-catalyzed formation of the benzenediazonium cation and the peroxidase-mediated generation of one-electron oxidation products), which covalently modify DNA both in vitro and in vivo. The predominant DNA adduct generated with the benzenediazonium cation was characterized to be 8-(phenylazo)guanine. The Sudan I radical species mediated by peroxidases reacts with the -NH2 group in (deoxy)guanosine, generating the 4-[(deoxy)guanosin-N(2)-yl]Sudan I product. Sudan I

  2. Evaluating the mechanistic evidence and key data gaps in assessing the potential carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, Eileen D.; Jaurand, Marie-Claude; Møller, Peter; Morimoto, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Sargent, Linda M.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Fubini, Bice; Kane, Agnes B.

    2016-01-01

    In an evaluation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the IARC Monograph 111, the Mechanisms Subgroup was tasked with assessing the strength of evidence on the potential carcinogenicity of CNTs in humans. The mechanistic evidence was considered to be not strong enough to alter the evaluations based on the animal data. In this paper, we provide an extended, in-depth examination of the in vivo and in vitro experimental studies according to current hypotheses on the carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and fibers. We cite additional studies of CNTs that were not available at the time of the IARC meeting in October 2014, and extend our evaluation to include carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Finally, we identify key data gaps and suggest research needs to reduce uncertainty. The focus of this review is on the cancer risk to workers exposed to airborne CNT or CNF during the production and use of these materials. The findings of this review, in general, affirm those of the original evaluation on the inadequate or limited evidence of carcinogenicity for most types of CNTs and CNFs at this time, and possible carcinogenicity of one type of CNT (MWCNT-7). The key evidence gaps to be filled by research include: investigation of possible associations between in vitro and early-stage in vivo events that may be predictive of lung cancer or mesothelioma, and systematic analysis of dose–response relationships across materials, including evaluation of the influence of physico-chemical properties and experimental factors on the observation of nonmalignant and malignant endpoints. PMID:27537422

  3. Metallic Nickel Nanoparticles May Exhibit Higher Carcinogenic Potential than Fine Particles in JB6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Linda; Zou, Baobo; Mao, Guochuan; Xu, Jin; Castranova, Vincent; Zhao, Jinshun; Ding, Min

    2014-01-01

    While numerous studies have described the pathogenic and carcinogenic effects of nickel compounds, little has been done on the biological effects of metallic nickel. Moreover, the carcinogenetic potential of metallic nickel nanoparticles is unknown. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) have been shown to play pivotal roles in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is considered to be one of the steps leading to the neoplastic state. The present study examines effects of metallic nickel fine and nanoparticles on tumor promoter or suppressor gene expressions as well as on cell transformation in JB6 cells. Our results demonstrate that metallic nickel nanoparticles caused higher activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, and a greater decrease of p53 transcription activity than fine particles. Western blot indicates that metallic nickel nanoparticles induced a higher level of protein expressions for R-Ras, c-myc, C-Jun, p65, and p50 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, both metallic nickel nano- and fine particles increased anchorage-independent colony formation in JB6 P+ cells in the soft agar assay. These results imply that metallic nickel fine and nanoparticles are both carcinogenetic in vitro in JB6 cells. Moreover, metallic nickel nanoparticles may exhibit higher carcinogenic potential, which suggests that precautionary measures should be taken in the use of nickel nanoparticles or its compounds in nanomedicine. PMID:24691273

  4. Carcinogenicity and Immunotoxicity of Embedded Depleted Uranium and Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy in Rodents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Embedded Depleted Uranium and Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy in Rodents PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John F. Kalinich, Ph.D...Carcinogenicity and Immunotoxicity of Embedded Depleted Uranium and Heavy- Metal Tungsten Alloy in Rodents 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-01-1-0821 5c...ABSTRACT This study investigated the carcinogenic and immunotoxic potential of embedded fragments of depleted uranium (DU) and a heavy-metal tungsten

  5. Potential carcinogenic hazards of non-regulated disinfection by-products: haloquinones, halo-cyclopentene and cyclohexene derivatives, N-halamines, halonitriles, and heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Bull, Richard J; Reckhow, David A; Li, Xingfang; Humpage, Andrew R; Joll, Cynthia; Hrudey, Steve E

    2011-08-15

    Drinking water disinfectants react with natural organic material (NOM) present in source waters used for drinking water to produce a wide variety of by-products. Several hundred disinfections by-products (DBPs) have been identified, but none have been identified with sufficient carcinogenic potency to account for the cancer risks projected from epidemiological studies. In a search for DBPs that might fill this risk gap, the present study projected reactions of chlorine and chloramine that could occur with substructures present in NOM to produce novel by-products. A review of toxicological data on related compounds, supplemented by use of a quantitative structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) program TOPKAT®) identified chemicals with a high probability of being chronically toxic and/or carcinogenic among 489 established and novel DBPs. Classes of DBPs that were specifically examined were haloquinones (HQs), related halo-cyclopentene and cyclohexene (HCP&H) derivatives, halonitriles (HNs), organic N-chloramines (NCls), haloacetamides (HAMs), and nitrosamines (NAs). A review of toxicological data available for quinones suggested that HQs and HCP&H derivatives appeared likely to be of health concern and were predicted to have chronic lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) in the low μg/kg day range. Several HQs were predicted to be carcinogenic. Some have now been identified in drinking water. The broader class of HNs was explored by considering current toxicological data on haloacetonitriles and extending this to halopropionitriles. 2,2-dichloropropionitrile has been identified in drinking water at low concentrations, as well as the more widely recognized haloacetonitriles. The occurrence of HAMs has been previously documented. The very limited toxicological data on HAMs suggests that this class would have toxicological potencies similar to the dihaloacetic acids. Organic N-halamines are also known to be produced in drinking water treatment and have

  6. USE OF GENE PROFILING TO DIFFERENTIATE A CARCINOGENIC FROM A NONCARCINOGENIC ALDEHYDE IN THE RAT NOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Formaldehyde (FA) is cytotoxic and is carcinogenic to the rat nasal respiratory epithelium producing tumors after twelve months of exposure. In contrast, glutaraldehyde (GA) is also cytotoxic but not carcinogenic to nasal epithelium after 2 yrs of exposure. Other...

  7. A Mode-of-Action Approach for the Identification of Genotoxic Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Lya G.; van Benthem, Jan; Johnson, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing between clastogens and aneugens is vital in cancer risk assessment because the default assumption is that clastogens and aneugens have linear and non-linear dose-response curves, respectively. Any observed non-linearity must be supported by mode of action (MOA) analyses where biological mechanisms are linked with dose-response evaluations. For aneugens, the MOA has been well characterised as disruptors of mitotic machinery where chromosome loss via micronuclei (MN) formation is an accepted endpoint used in risk assessment. In this study we performed the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and immunofluorescence mitotic machinery visualisation in human lymphoblastoid (AHH-1) and Chinese Hamster fibroblast (V79) cell lines after treatment with the aneugen 17-β-oestradiol (E2). Results were compared to previously published data on bisphenol-A (BPA) and Rotenone data. Two concentration-response approaches (the threshold-[Td] and benchmark-dose [BMD] approaches) were applied to derive a point of departure (POD) for in vitro MN induction. BMDs were also derived from the most sensitive carcinogenic endpoint. Ranking comparisons of the PODs from the in vitro MN and the carcinogenicity studies demonstrated a link between these two endpoints for BPA, E2 and Rotenone. This analysis was extended to include 5 additional aneugens, 5 clastogens and 3 mutagens and further concentration and dose-response correlations were observed between PODs from the in vitro MN and carcinogenicity. This approach is promising and may be further extended to other genotoxic carcinogens, where MOA and quantitative information from the in vitro MN studies could be used in a quantitative manner to further inform cancer risk assessment. PMID:23675539

  8. Carcinogen-induced mutations in the mouse c-Ha-ras gene provide evidence of multiple pathways for tumor progression.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K; Buchmann, A; Balmain, A

    1990-01-01

    A number of mouse skin tumors initiated by the carcinogens N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), methylnitrosourea (MNU), 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA), and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) have been shown to contain activated Ha-ras genes. In each case, the point mutations responsible for activation have been characterized. Results presented demonstrate the carcinogen-specific nature of these ras mutations. For each initiating agent, a distinct spectrum of mutations is observed. Most importantly, the distribution of ras gene mutations is found to differ between benign papillomas and carcinomas, suggesting that molecular events occurring at the time of initiation influence the probability with which papillomas progress to malignancy. This study provides molecular evidence in support of the existence of subsets of papillomas with differing progression frequencies. Thus, the alkylating agents MNNG and MNU induced exclusively G ---- A transitions at codon 12, with this mutation being found predominantly in papillomas. MCA initiation produced both codon 13 G ---- T and codon 61 A ---- T transversions in papillomas; only the G ---- T mutation, however, was found in carcinomas. These findings provide strong evidence that the mutational activation of Ha-ras occurs as a result of the initiation process and that the nature of the initiating event can affect the probability of progression to malignancy. Images PMID:2105486

  9. Carcinogenicity of airborne combustion products observed in subcutaneous tissue and lungs of laboratory rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Pott, F; Stöber, W

    1983-01-01

    Most air pollution in West Germany is caused by combustion products. Particulate organic matter released by incomplete combustion is suspected to contribute to the "urban factor" of lung cancer frequency in urban-industrial centers. The carcinogenic potential of single components, groups of compounds and total source emissions of combustion processes was investigated in laboratory animals by subcutaneous injection, intratracheal instillation or inhalation. Tests by subcutaneous injection of condensates of automobile exhaust, extracts of coal furnace emissions and of airborne particles and different fractions of these extracts showed that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with four to six benzene rings have the strongest experimental carcinogenicity. However, polar compounds (heterocyclic nitrogen-containing PAH, phenols, and others) also show remarkable carcinogenic potency. There were large differences between the dose-response relationships of several PAHs. In the subcutaneous tissue, benzo(a)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene are the most carcinogenic of the tested airborne PAHs. Furthermore, they can induce high tumor rates in the lung after subcutaneous injection in newborn mice and after intratracheal instillation of mice or hamsters. The tumor rate of benzo(a)pyrene did not further increase after simultaneous instillation of carbon black, but lead chloride may have a promoting effect. Far more than 100 PAHs are found in the urban atmosphere. However, because of the remarkable similarity of the PAH profiles in the examined samples, it may be sufficient to measure just a few stable PAHs in the urban air in order to facilitate an assessment of the carcinogenic potency of the PAH content in the atmosphere. To examine the carcinogenic or cocarcinogenic effects of gas and vapor emissions, studies with a two-phase model were carried out: phase 1 relates to the induction of a basic tumor rate in the lung by a well known carcinogen, while phase 2 is

  10. Carcinogenicity of airborne combustion products observed in subcutaneous tissue and lungs of laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Pott, F; Stöber, W

    1983-01-01

    Most air pollution in West Germany is caused by combustion products. Particulate organic matter released by incomplete combustion is suspected to contribute to the "urban factor" of lung cancer frequency in urban-industrial centers. The carcinogenic potential of single components, groups of compounds and total source emissions of combustion processes was investigated in laboratory animals by subcutaneous injection, intratracheal instillation or inhalation. Tests by subcutaneous injection of condensates of automobile exhaust, extracts of coal furnace emissions and of airborne particles and different fractions of these extracts showed that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with four to six benzene rings have the strongest experimental carcinogenicity. However, polar compounds (heterocyclic nitrogen-containing PAH, phenols, and others) also show remarkable carcinogenic potency. There were large differences between the dose-response relationships of several PAHs. In the subcutaneous tissue, benzo(a)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene are the most carcinogenic of the tested airborne PAHs. Furthermore, they can induce high tumor rates in the lung after subcutaneous injection in newborn mice and after intratracheal instillation of mice or hamsters. The tumor rate of benzo(a)pyrene did not further increase after simultaneous instillation of carbon black, but lead chloride may have a promoting effect. Far more than 100 PAHs are found in the urban atmosphere. However, because of the remarkable similarity of the PAH profiles in the examined samples, it may be sufficient to measure just a few stable PAHs in the urban air in order to facilitate an assessment of the carcinogenic potency of the PAH content in the atmosphere. To examine the carcinogenic or cocarcinogenic effects of gas and vapor emissions, studies with a two-phase model were carried out: phase 1 relates to the induction of a basic tumor rate in the lung by a well known carcinogen, while phase 2 is

  11. The Effect of Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes and Carcinogen Metabolizers on Leukocyte Telomere Length: A Cohort of Healthy Spanish Smokers.

    PubMed

    Verde, Zoraida; Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Chicharro, Luis; Resano, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Ignacio; Rodríguez González-Moro, Jose Miguel; Bandrés, Fernando; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Santiago, Catalina

    2016-04-01

    Smoking implies exposure to carcinogenic agents that causes DNA damage, which could be suspected to enhance telomere attrition. To protect and deal with DNA damage, cells possess mechanisms that repair and neutralize harmful substances. Polymorphisms altering DNA repair capacity or carcinogen metabolism may lead to synergistic effects with tobacco carcinogen-induced shorter telomere length independently of cancer interaction. The aim of this study was to explore the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and several genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and carcinogen metabolizers in a cohort of healthy smokers. We evaluated the effect of six genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P1A1 (Ile462Val), XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), APEX1 (Asp148Glu), XRCC3 (Thr241Met), and XPD (Asp312Asn; Lys751Gln) on LTL in a cohort of 145 healthy smokers in addition to smoking habits. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between XRCC1 399Gln allele and shorter telomere length (OR = 5.03, 95% CI = 1.08% to 23.36%). There were not association between the rest of polymorphisms analyzed and LTL. Continuous exposure to tobacco could overwhelm the DNA repair machinery, making the effect of the polymorphisms that reduce repair capacity more pronounced. Analyzing the function of smoking-induced DNA-repair genes and LTL is an important goal in order to identify therapeutic targets to treat smoking-induced diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Different induction of LPA receptors by chemical liver carcinogens regulates cellular functions of liver epithelial WB-F344 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirane, Miku; Ishii, Shuhei; Tomimatsu, Ayaka; Fukushima, Kaori; Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2016-11-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via LPA receptors (LPA 1 to LPA 6 ) mediates a variety of cellular functions, including cell motility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LPA receptors on cell motile activity during multi-stage hepatocarcinogenesis in rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells treated with chemical liver carcinogens. Cells were treated with a initiator (N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)) and three promoters (phenobarbital (PB), okadaic acid (OA) and clofibrate) every 24 h for 2 days. Cell motile activity was elevated by DEN, correlating with Lpar3 expression. PB, OA, and clofibrate elevated Lpar1 expression and inhibited cell motile activity. To evaluate the effects of long-term treatment on cell motility, cells were treated with DEN and/or PB for at least 6 months. Lpar3 expression and cell motile activity were significantly elevated by the long-term DEN treatment with or without further PB treatment. In contrast, long-term PB treatment with or without further DEN elevated Lpar1 expression and inhibited cell motility. When the synthesis of extracellular LPA was blocked by a potent ATX inhibitor S32826 before cell motility assay, the cell motility induced by DEN and PB was markedly suppressed. These results suggest that activation of the different LPA receptors may regulate the biological functions of cells treated with chemical carcinogens. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lunasin-aspirin combination against NIH/3T3 cells transformation induced by chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; de Lumen, Ben O

    2011-06-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistage process involving a number of molecular pathways sensitive to intervention. Chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural and/or synthetic substances to block, reverse, or retard the process of carcinogenesis. To achieve greater inhibitory effects on cancer cells, combination of two or more chemopreventive agents is commonly considered as a better preventive and/or therapeutic strategy. Lunasin is a promising cancer preventive peptide identified in soybean and other seeds. Its efficacy has been demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo models. This peptide has been found to inhibit human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation, suppressing cell cycle progress and inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, lunasin potentiates the effects on these cells of different synthetic and natural compounds, such as aspirin and anacardic acid. This study explored the role of lunasin, alone and in combination with aspirin and anacardic acid on cell proliferation and foci formation of transformed NIH/3T3 cells induced by chemical carcinogens 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene or 3-methylcholanthrene. The results revealed that lunasin, acting as a single agent, inhibits cell proliferation and foci formation. When combined with aspirin, these effects were significantly increased, indicating that this combination might be a promising strategy to prevent/treat cancer induced by chemical carcinogens.

  14. Evaluation of the carcinogenic risks at the influence of POPs.

    PubMed

    Nazhmetdinova, Aiman; Kassymbayev, Adlet; Chalginbayeva, Altinay

    2017-12-20

    Kazakhstan is included in the list of environmentally vulnerable countries and Kyzylorda oblast in particular. This is due to its geographical, spatial and temporal and socioeconomic features. As part of the program "Integrated approaches in the management of public health in the Aral region", we have carried out an expertise on many samples of natural environments and products. Samples were selected in accordance with sampling procedures according to regulatory documents by specialists of the Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory. It is accredited by the State Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for compliance with ST RK ISO/IEC 17025-2007 "General requirements for the competence of test and calibration laboratories". Gas chromatograph was used for the determination of residues of organochlorine pesticides. For the determination of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyl was conducted on the gas chromatomass spectrometer with quadruple detector produce by Agilent Company, USA. To assess the risk, we carried out the mathematical calculations according to the risk of chemicals polluting (No P 2.1.10.1920-04, Russia). Calculation of the carcinogenic risk was carried out with the use of data on the size of the exposure and meanings of carcinogenic potential factors (slope factor and unit risk). The evaluation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), based on the previous results of the research concerning water, soil and food products, was held in five population settlements in Kyzylorda oblast villages: Ayteke bi, Zhalagash, Zhosaly, Shieli and Aralsk town. Pollution with the POPs in the environmental objects by means of exposition and evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to human health is confirmed by the data of the statistical reporting about some morbidity in Kyzylorda oblast, such as skin diseases and subcutaneous tissue, endocrine system diseases, pregnancy complications etc. The received levels of carcinogenic risks, which were first carried out in the Republic of

  15. Airborne emissions of carcinogens and respiratory sensitizers during thermal processing of plastics.

    PubMed

    Unwin, John; Coldwell, Matthew R; Keen, Chris; McAlinden, John J

    2013-04-01

    Thermoplastics may contain a wide range of additives and free monomers, which themselves may be hazardous substances. Laboratory studies have shown that the thermal decomposition products of common plastics can include a number of carcinogens and respiratory sensitizers, but very little information exists on the airborne contaminants generated during actual industrial processing. The aim of this work was to identify airborne emissions during thermal processing of plastics in real-life, practical applications. Static air sampling was conducted at 10 industrial premises carrying out compounding or a range of processes such as extrusion, blown film manufacture, vacuum thermoforming, injection moulding, blow moulding, and hot wire cutting. Plastics being processed included polyvinyl chloride, polythene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. At each site, static sampling for a wide range of contaminants was carried out at locations immediately adjacent to the prominent fume-generating processes. The monitoring data indicated the presence of few carcinogens at extremely low concentrations, all less than 1% of their respective WEL (Workplace Exposure Limit). No respiratory sensitizers were detected at any sites. The low levels of process-related fume detected show that the control strategies, which employed mainly forced mechanical general ventilation and good process temperature control, were adequate to control the risks associated with exposure to process-related fume. This substantiates the advice given in the Health and Safety Executive's information sheet No 13, 'Controlling Fume During Plastics Processing', and its broad applicability in plastics processing in general.

  16. Medical follow-up of workers exposed to lung carcinogens: French evidence-based and pragmatic recommendations.

    PubMed

    Delva, Fleur; Margery, Jacques; Laurent, François; Petitprez, Karine; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-14

    The aim of this work was to establish recommendations for the medical follow-up of workers currently or previously exposed to lung carcinogens. A critical synthesis of the literature was conducted. Occupational lung carcinogenic substances were listed and classified according to their level of lung cancer risk. A targeted screening protocol was defined. A clinical trial, National Lung Screnning Trial (NLST), showed the efficacy of chest CAT scan (CT) screening for populations of smokers aged 55-74 years with over 30 pack-years of exposure who had stopped smoking for less than 15 years. To propose screening in accordance with NLST criteria, and to account for occupational risk factors, screening among smokers and former smokers needs to consider the types of occupational exposure for which the risk level is at least equivalent to the risk of the subjects included in the NLST. The working group proposes an algorithm that estimates the relative risk of each occupational lung carcinogen, taking into account exposure to tobacco, based on available data from the literature. Given the lack of data on bronchopulmonary cancer (BPC) screening in occupationally exposed workers, the working group proposed implementing a screening experiment for bronchopulmonary cancer in subjects occupationally exposed or having been occupationally exposed to lung carcinogens who are confirmed as having high risk factors for BPC. A specific algorithm is proposed to determine the level of risk of BPC, taking into account the different occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking at the individual level.

  17. Genetic determinants in the metabolism of bladder carcinogens in relation to risk of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Chan, Kenneth K.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Castelao, J.Esteban; Watson, Mary A.; Bell, Douglas A.; Wang, Renwei; Yu, Mimi C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetically determined factors that alter the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens can influence an individual’s susceptibility to bladder cancer. The associations between the genotypes of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTP1, GSTT1 and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 and the phenotypes of NAT2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and bladder cancer risk were examined in a case–control study involving 731 bladder cancer patients and 740 control subjects in Los Angeles County, California. Individual null/low-activity genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 were associated with a 19–48% increase in odds ratio (OR) of bladder cancer. The strongest association was noted for GSTM1 [OR for the null genotype = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19–1.83]. When the three GST genes were examined together, there was a monotonic, statistically significant association between increasing number of null/low-activity genotypes and risk (P for trend = 0.002). OR (95% CI) for one and two or more null/low-activity GST genotypes was 1.42 (1.12–1.81) and 1.71 (1.25–2.34), respectively, relative to the absence of null/low-activity GST genotype. NAT2 slow acetylation was associated with doubled risk of bladder cancer among individuals with known high exposures to carcinogenic arylamines (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.12–3.69, P = 0.02). The effect of NAT2 slow acetylation was even stronger in the presence of two or more null/low-activity GST genotypes. There were no associations between bladder cancer risk and NAT1 genotype or CYP1A2 phenotype. PMID:18544563

  18. Cyclodextrin-enhanced extraction and energy transfer of carcinogens in complex oil environments.

    PubMed

    Serio, Nicole; Chanthalyma, Chitapom; Prignano, Lindsey; Levine, Mindy

    2013-11-27

    Reported herein is the use of γ-cyclodextrin for two tandem functions: (a) the extraction of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil samples into aqueous solution and (b) the promotion of highly efficient energy transfer from the newly extracted PAHs to a high-quantum-yield fluorophore. The extraction proceeded in moderate to good efficiencies, and the resulting cyclodextrin-promoted energy transfer led to a new, brightly fluorescent signal in aqueous solution. The resulting dual-function system (extraction followed by energy transfer) has significant relevance in the environmental detection and cleanup of oil-spill-related carcinogens.

  19. Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Mosby, Terezie T; Cosgrove, Maeve; Sarkardei, Samiramis; Platt, Karl L; Kaina, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    There is no doubt that diet is one of the main modifiable risk factors for many degenerative diseases, including cancer. More than 30% of adult cancers can be prevented or delayed by diet, being physically active and having a healthy body weight. Plant-based foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, a favorable omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio, and fish consumption have a protective effect against cancer. On the contrary, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, high intake of red and processed meat, high intake of sodium, alcohol consumption, a diet rich in refined carbohydrates, and a high intake of total fat may increase risk of cancer. Furthermore, calorie restriction and having a body/mass index on the lower end of the normal range can significantly decrease or delay the onset of cancers. Most studies were performed on adults and thus the role of diet in childhood cancer is less well-understood. In the past, diet was not considered to play any role in its etiology in children. However, nowadays there is a growing body of evidence that prolonged and frequent breastfeeding, the maternal diet during pregnancy and vitamin intake during pregnancy, may impart benefit for reduced cancer risk in children. Usually, decades of healthy dietary habits are needed to see significant difference in cancer risk. Therefore, diet choices and diet preparation starting early in life deserve more attention. Here we review data focusing on which dietary factors, including food-borne carcinogens, affect the onset of cancers in adults and stress out the potential role of diet in childhood cancer prevention.

  20. INSIGHTS INTO THE CARCINOGENIC MODE OF ACTION OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    That arsenic can induce cancer in humans has been known since the late 17th century, yet how arsenic induces cancer has been the subject of numerous scientific publications. Various modes of action (MOA) have been proposed for arsenic's carcinogenicity. In this paper we review o...

  1. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus and transgenic rodent gene mutation tests to detect rodent carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Hamada, Shuichi; Masumura, Kenichi; Wakata, Akihiro; Maniwa, Jiro; Takasawa, Hironao; Yasunaga, Katsuaki; Hashizume, Tsuneo; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-05-01

    Sensitivity and/or specificity of the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus (MN) and transgenic rodent mutation (TGR) tests to detect rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens were investigated. The Carcinogenicity and Genotoxicity eXperience (CGX) dataset created by Kirkland et al. was used for the carcinogenicity and in vitro genotoxicity data, i.e., Ames and chromosome aberration (CA) tests. Broad literature surveys were conducted to gather in vivo MN or TGR test data to add to the CGX dataset. Genotoxicity data in vitro were also updated slightly. Data on 379 chemicals (293 carcinogens and 86 non-carcinogens) were available for the in vivo MN test; sensitivity, specificity or concordances were calculated as 41.0%, 60.5% or 45.4%, respectively. For the TGR test, data on 80 chemicals (76 carcinogens and 4 non-carcinogens) were available; sensitivity was calculated as 72.4%. Based on the recent guidance on genotoxicity testing strategies, performance (sensitivity/specificity) of the following combinations was calculated; Ames+in vivo MN (68.7%/45.3%), Ames+TGR (83.8%/not calculated (nc)), Ames+in vitro CA+in vivo MN (80.8%/21.3%), Ames+in vitro CA+TGR (89.1%/nc), Ames+in vivo MN+TGR (87.5%/nc), Ames+in vitro CA+in vivo MN+TGR (89.3%/nc). Relatively good balance in performance was shown by the Ames+in vivo MN in comparison with Ames+in vitro CA (74.3%/37.5%). Ames+TGR and Ames+in vivo MN+TGR gave even higher sensitivity, but the specificity could not be calculated (too few TGR data on non-carcinogens). This indicates that in vivo MN and TGR tests are both useful as in vivo tests to detect rodent carcinogens. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Individual susceptibility to occupational carcinogens: the evidence from biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies].

    PubMed

    Pavanello, S; Clonfero, E

    2004-01-01

    (Chileans > Caucasians; Japanese > Americans) and gender (women > men), have still not been clearly characterized and these are also reported in this paper. It is clear from the above that genetic differences underlie individual susceptibility to lung cancer, whether caused by exposure to tobacco smoke or to occupational carcinogens like PAHs. Some of these indicators of exposure/individual susceptibility can be evaluated in groups at high risk of occupational lung cancer, such as coke-oven and aluminium workers and those exposed to coal tar fumes and soot, etc., with the aim of identifying subjects who are susceptible due to the high concentrations of carcinogens found in their working environment.

  3. A Review of the Carcinogenic Potential of Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Seachrist, Darcie D; Bonk, Kristen W.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Prins, Gail S.; Soto, Ana M.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    The estrogenic properties of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous synthetic monomer that can leach into the food and water supply, have prompted considerable research into exposure-associated health risks in humans. Endocrine-disrupting properties of BPA suggest it may impact developmental plasticity during early life, predisposing individuals to disease at doses below the oral reference dose (RfD) established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1982. Herein, we review the current in vivo literature evaluating the carcinogenic properties of BPA. We conclude that there is substantial evidence from rodent studies indicating that early-life BPA exposures below the RfD lead to increased susceptibility to mammary and prostate cancer. Based on the definitions of “carcinogen” put forth by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program, we propose that BPA may be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the breast and prostate due to its tumor promoting properties. PMID:26493093

  4. Carcinogenicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes: challenging issue on hazard assessment.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Shoji; Kasai, Tatsuya; Umeda, Yumi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Sasaki, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2018-01-25

    This report reviews the carcinogenicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in experimental animals, concentrating on MWNT-7, a straight fibrous MWCNT. MWCNTs were administered to mice and rats by intraperitoneal injection, intrascrotal injection, subcutaneous injection, intratracheal instillation and inhalation. Intraperitoneal injection of MWNT-7 induced peritoneal mesothelioma in mice and rats. Intrascrotal injection induced peritoneal mesothelioma in rats. Intratracheal instillation of MWCNT-N (another straight fibrous MWCNT) induced both lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma in rats. In the whole body inhalation studies, in mice MWNT-7 promoted methylcholanthrene-initiated lung carcinogenesis. In rats, inhalation of MWNT-7 induced lung carcinoma and lung burdens of MWNT-7 increased with increasing concentration of airborne MWNT-7 and increasing duration of exposure. Straight, fibrous MWCNTs exerted carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Phagocytosis of MWCNT fibers by macrophages was very likely to be a principle factor in MWCNT lung carcinogenesis. Using no-observed-adverse-effect level-based approach, we calculated that the occupational exposure limit (OEL) of MWNT-7 for cancer protection is 0.15 μg/m 3 for a human worker. Further studies on the effects of the shape and size of MWCNT fibers and mode of action on the carcinogenicity are required.

  5. Low-dose carcinogenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f ]quinoline in rats: Evidence for the existence of no-effect levels and a mechanism involving p21(Cip / WAF1).

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Nakae, Dai; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Hirose, Masao; Totsuka, Yukari; Tatematsu, Masae; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of the low amounts of genotoxic carcinogens present in food is of pressing concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine the carcinogenicity of low doses of the dietary genotoxic carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and to investigate mechanisms by which IQ exerts its carcinogenic effects. A total of 1595 male F344 rats were divided into seven groups and administered with IQ at doses of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 p.p.m. in the diet for 16 weeks. We found that IQ doses of 1 p.p.m. and below did not induce preneoplastic lesions in either the liver or the colon, while IQ doses of 10 and 100 p.p.m. induced preneoplastic lesions in both of these organs. These results demonstrate the presence of no-effect levels of IQ for both liver and colon carcinogenicity in rats. The finding that p21(Cip/WAF1) was significantly induced in the liver at doses well below those required for IQ mediated carcinogenic effects suggests that induction of p21(Cip/WAF1) is one of the mechanisms responsible for the observed no-effect of low doses of IQ. Furthermore, IQ administration caused significant induction of CYP1A2 at doses of 0.01-10 p.p.m., but administration of 100 p.p.m. IQ induced CYP1A1 rather than CYP1A2. This result indicates the importance of dosage when interpreting data on the carcinogenicity and metabolic activation of IQ. Overall, our results suggest the existence of no-effect levels for the carcinogenicity of this genotoxic compound. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. 4-Aminobiphenyl Downregulation of NAT2 Acetylator Genotype–Dependent N- and O-acetylation of Aromatic and Heterocyclic Amine Carcinogens in Primary Mammary Epithelial Cell Cultures from Rapid and Slow Acetylator Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Felicia A.; Xiao, Gong H.; Hein, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens present in the diet and in cigarette smoke induce breast tumors in rats. N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzymes have important roles in their metabolic activation and deactivation. Human epidemiological studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms in NAT1 and/or NAT2 modify breast cancer risk in women exposed to these carcinogens. p-Aminobenzoic acid (selective for rat NAT2) and sulfamethazine (SMZ; selective for rat NAT1) N-acetyltransferase catalytic activities were both expressed in primary cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells. PABA, 2-aminofluorene, and 4-aminobiphenyl N-acetyltransferase and N-hydroxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine and N-hydroxy-2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline O-acetyltransferase activities were two- to threefold higher in mammary epithelial cell cultures from rapid than slow acetylator rats. In contrast, SMZ (a rat NAT1-selective substrate) N-acetyltransferase activity did not differ between rapid and slow acetylators. Rat mammary cells cultured in the medium supplemented 24 h with 10μM ABP showed downregulation in the N-and O-acetylation of all substrates tested except for the NAT1-selective substrate SMZ. This downregulation was comparable in rapid and slow NAT2 acetylators. These studies clearly show NAT2 acetylator genotype–dependent N- and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens in rat mammary epithelial cell cultures to be subject to downregulation by the arylamine carcinogen ABP. PMID:18842621

  7. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY -PRODUCTS (DBP) W AS LESS THAN ADDITIVE.

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may under or over represent the actual biological res...

  8. Asian Americans and disproportionate exposure to carcinogenic hazardous air pollutants: A national study.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated disparate exposures to carcinogenic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in neighborhoods with high densities of Black and Hispanic residents in the US. Asians are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the US, yet they have been underemphasized in previous studies of environmental health and injustice. This cross-sectional study investigated possible disparities in residential exposure to carcinogenic HAPs among Asian Americans, including Asian American subgroups in the US (including all 50 states and the District of Columbia, n = 71,208 US census tracts) using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. In an unadjusted analysis, Chinese and Korean Americans experience the highest mean cancer risks from HAPs, followed by Blacks. The aggregated Asian category ranks just below Blacks and above Hispanics, in terms of carcinogenic HAP risk. Multivariate models adjusting for socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that an increase in proportion of Asian residents in census tracts is associated with significantly greater cancer risk from HAPs. Neighborhoods with higher proportions (as opposed to lower proportions) of Chinese, Korean, and South Asian residents have significantly greater cancer risk burdens relative to Whites. Tracts with higher concentrations of Asians speaking a non-English language and Asians that are US-born have significantly greater cancer risk burdens. Asian Americans experience substantial residential exposure to carcinogenic HAPs in US census tracts and in the US more generally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prioritization of Louisiana Parishes based on Industrial Releases of Known or Suspected Carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Katner, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the geographic distribution of carcinogen releases by Louisiana industries to prioritize areas for regulatory oversight, research and monitoring, and to promote clinician awareness and vigilance. Data on estimated industry releases for the period between 1996 and 2011 were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory. Chemicals associated with cancers of the prostate, lung, bladder, kidney, breast and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were identified. The Risk Screening Environmental Indicators model was used to derive measures or model scores based on chemical toxicity, fate and transport, and population characteristics. Parishes, chemicals, industries and media generating the highest model scores were identified. Parishes with the highest model scores were East Baton Rouge, Calcasieu, Caddo and St. John the Baptist. Clinicians should carefully monitor cancer cases in these areas, and if patients reside near or work in industry, an occupational and environmental history should be considered.

  10. Investigating the Mechanisms of Action and the Identification of Breast Carcinogens by Computational Analysis of Female Rodent Carcinogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    QSAR in Environmental Researth was accepted and published in April of 2005. The manuscript described the cat -SAR program in detail. We note the...analysis of this data yielded a very good model. As such, this was a suitable dataset on which to develop and test the cat -SAR program. A copy of the...developed and validated (i.e., a-c) as planned in MCASE and then with the cat -SAR program. We have also updated rodent carcinogenicity models so that

  11. Consumption of organic meat does not diminish the carcinogenic potential associated with the intake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown an epidemiological link between meat consumption and the incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that this relationship may be motivated by the presence of carcinogenic contaminants on it. Among the most frequently detected contaminants in meat are several types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and it is well known that many of them are carcinogenic. On the other hand, an increasing number of consumers choose to feed on what are perceived as healthier foods. Thus, the number of consumers of organic food is growing. However, environmental contamination by POPs is ubiquitous, and it is therefore unlikely that the practices of organic food production are able to prevent this contamination. To test this hypothesis, we acquired 76 samples of meat (beef, chicken, and lamb) of two modes of production (organic and conventional) and quantified their levels of 33 carcinogenic POPs. On this basis, we determined the human meat-related daily dietary exposure to these carcinogens using as a model a population with a high consumption of meat, such as the Spanish population. The maximum allowable meat consumption for this population and the carcinogenic risk quotients associated with the current pattern of consumption were calculated. As expected, no sample was completely free of carcinogenic contaminants, and the differences between organically and conventionally produced meats were minimal. According to these results, the current pattern of meat consumption exceeded the maximum limits, which are set according to the levels of contaminations, and this is associated with a relevant carcinogenic risk. Strikingly, the consumption of organically produced meat does not diminish this carcinogenic risk, but on the contrary, it seems to be even higher, especially that associated with lamb consumption.

  12. Human Microdosing with Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of Dibenzo[ def,p ]chrysene and Metabolites by UPLC Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Madeen, Erin P.; Ognibene, Ted J.; Corley, Richard A.

    Metabolism is a key health risk factor following exposures to pro-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), an IARC classified 2A probable human carcinogen. Human exposure to PAHs occurs primarily from the diet in non-smokers. However, little data is available on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans of high molecular weight PAHs (≥4 aromatic rings), including DBC. We previously determined the pharmacokinetics of DBC in human volunteers orally administered a micro-dose (29 ng; 5 nCi) of [14C]-DBC by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis of total [14C] in plasma and urine. In the current study, we utilized a novelmore » “moving wire” interface between ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and AMS to detect and quantify parent DBC and its major metabolites. The major [14C] product identified in plasma was unmetabolized [14C]-DBC itself, (Cmax= 18.5 ± 15.9 fg/mL, Tmax= 2.1 ± 1.0 h), whereas the major metabolite was identified as [14C]-(+/-)-DBC-11,12-diol (Cmax= 2.5 ± 1.3 fg/mL, Tmax= 1.8 h). Several minor species of [14C]-DBC metabolites were also detected for which no reference standards were available. Free and conjugated metabolites were detected in urine with [14C]-(+/-)-DBC-11,12,13,14-tetraol isomers identified as the major metabolites, 56.3% of which were conjugated (Cmax= 35.8 ± 23.0 pg/pool, Tmax= 6-12 h pool). [14C]-DBC-11,12-diol, of which 97.5% was conjugated, was also identified in urine (Cmax= 29.4 ± 11.6 pg/pool, Tmax= 6-12 h pool). Parent [14C]-DBC was not detected in urine. This is the first dataset to assess metabolite profiles and associated pharmacokinetics of a carcinogenic PAH in human volunteers at an environmentally relevant dose, providing the data necessary for translation of high dose animal models to humans for translation of environmental health risk assessment.« less

  13. Application of the two-stage clonal expansion model in characterizing the joint effect of exposure to two carcinogens

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zielinski, J.M.; Krewski, D.

    1992-12-31

    In this paper, we describe application of the two-stage clonal expansion model to characterize the joint effect of exposure to two carcinogens. This biologically based model of carcinogenesis provides a useful framework for the quantitative description of carcinogenic risks and for defining agents that act as initiators, promoters, and completers. Depending on the mechanism of action, the agent-specific relative risk following exposure to two carcinogens can be additive, multiplicative, or supramultiplicative, with supra-additive relative risk indicating a synergistic effect between the two agents. Maximum-likelihood methods for fitting the two-stage clonal expansion model with intermittent exposure to two carcinogens are describedmore » and illustrated, using data on lung-cancer mortality among Colorado uranium miners exposed to both radon and tobacco smoke.« less

  14. DIRECT-ACTING, DNA-DAMAGING AS (III)-METHYLATED SPECIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A CARCINOGENIC MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct-acting, DNA-damaging As (III)-methylated species: implications for a carcinogenic . mechanism of action of arsenicals

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs, arsenite and arsenate) has been thought to act as a carcinogen without reacting directly with DNA; neither iAs nor the As(...

  15. Biological monitoring of carcinogens: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Lotti, Marcello

    2012-04-01

    Biomonitoring exposures to carcinogens is common practice and a variety of biomarkers have been developed to assess both exposures and biochemical/biological effects. However, their clinical and preventive relevance is still uncertain. The understanding of cancer as a genetic disease has dramatically evolved during last decades, showing that cancer cell types acquire their characteristics with different strategies, time frames and microenvironments. Therefore, the place of current biomarkers within this complex scenario of gene-environment interactions leading to cancer cannot be defined. Reasons are manifold. Most studies assessed cancer risk on a group basis through snapshots taken at unknown time-points of the postulated chain of events. Little attention has been paid to the variety and variability of exposures, and no prospective study validated the indicators of biochemical/biological effects. New opportunities and suggestions for biomonitoring exposures to carcinogens could derive from exploring the exposome that combines exposures from all sources both external and internal. The discovery of new biomarkers and the identification of relevant gene-specific pathways could be achieved through metabolomic and genome-wide studies. In conclusion, it is possible to envisage personalized biomonitoring procedures, such as those already implemented in the context of nutrition and clinical oncology.

  16. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In December 2016, EPA finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. EPA’s evaluation was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices in October 2016, before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science discussion materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the EPA’s Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide, are posted on this site. Note: No major science comments were received on the Interagency Science Discussion Draft. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia and the charge to external peer reviewers, are posted on this site.

  17. A core in vitro genotoxicity battery comprising the Ames test plus the in vitro micronucleus test is sufficient to detect rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Reeve, Lesley; Gatehouse, David; Vanparys, Philippe

    2011-03-18

    In vitro genotoxicity testing needs to include tests in both bacterial and mammalian cells, and be able to detect gene mutations, chromosomal damage and aneuploidy. This may be achieved by a combination of the Ames test (detects gene mutations) and the in vitro micronucleus test (MNvit), since the latter detects both chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy. In this paper we therefore present an analysis of an existing database of rodent carcinogens and a new database of in vivo genotoxins in terms of the in vitro genotoxicity tests needed to detect their in vivo activity. Published in vitro data from at least one test system (most were from the Ames test) were available for 557 carcinogens and 405 in vivo genotoxins. Because there are fewer publications on the MNvit than for other mammalian cell tests, and because the concordance between the MNvit and the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CAvit) test is so high for clastogenic activity, positive results in the CAvit test were taken as indicative of a positive result in the MNvit where there were no, or only inadequate data for the latter. Also, because Hprt and Tk loci both detect gene-mutation activity, a positive Hprt test was taken as indicative of a mouse-lymphoma Tk assay (MLA)-positive, where there were no data for the latter. Almost all of the 962 rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins were detected by an in vitro battery comprising Ames+MNvit. An additional 11 carcinogens and six in vivo genotoxins would apparently be detected by the MLA, but many of these had not been tested in the MNvit or CAvit tests. Only four chemicals emerge as potentially being more readily detected in MLA than in Ames+MNvit--benzyl acetate, toluene, morphine and thiabendazole--and none of these are convincing cases to argue for the inclusion of the MLA in addition to Ames+MNvit. Thus, there is no convincing evidence that any genotoxic rodent carcinogens or in vivo genotoxins would remain undetected in an in vitro test battery

  18. ANALYSIS OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD TUMOR PROMOTION ACTIVITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a high estimated cancer potency in animals which has been reasoned to imply that TCDD might be carcinogenic to man. The animal cancer data show that TCDD can act in a solitary manner causing tumors without the participation of other known factors. owever, there exist animal cancer data indicating that TCDD can act as a tumor-promoting compound. This analysis examines which type of carcinogen and which mechanism best characterize TCDD cancer activity. It is suggested that TCDD acts by a hormonal mechanism to cause cancer in solitary manner, at low doses, in two species, and in a number of different organs, including rare sites. These observations in toto characterize TCDD as a complete carcinogen, which by definition encompasses both initiation and promotion carcinogenic activities. This analysis examines which type of carcinogen and which mechanism best characterize TCDD cancer activity. It is suggested that TCDD acts by a hormonal mechanism to cause cancer in solitary manner, at low doses, in two species, and in a number of different organs, including rare sites

  19. Influence of red wine pomace seasoning and high-oxygen atmosphere storage on carcinogens formation in barbecued beef patties.

    PubMed

    García-Lomillo, Javier; Viegas, Olga; Gonzalez-SanJose, Maria L; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) are carcinogenic compounds formed in barbecued meat. Conditions that reduce their formation are of major interest. This study aims to evaluate the influence of red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS) and high-oxygen atmosphere storage on the formation of PAHs and HAs in barbecued beef patties. In general, the levels of PAHs and HAs quantified were low. The storage (9days) promoted higher formation of PAHs in control patties without increase of HAs. RWPS patties cooked at preparation day presented higher levels of PAHs and HAs than control. Nevertheless, RWPS patties cooked after storage presented lower levels of PAHs and HAs than control. ABTS assay pointed out that higher radical scavenging activity may be related to with lower PAHs or HAs formation. In conclusion, RWPS can be an interesting ingredient to inhibit the formation of cooking carcinogens in barbecued patties stored at high-oxygen atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Agaritine purified from Agaricus blazei Murrill exerts anti-tumor activity against leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Endo, Masahiro; Beppu, Hidehiko; Akiyama, Hidehiko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Kawamoto, Yasuko; Shimpo, Kan; Sumiya, Toshimitu; Koike, Takaaki; Matsui, Taei

    2010-07-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are a common folk remedy against carcinoma. The active ingredients, polysaccharides and protein-polysaccharide complexes containing beta-glucan, have been isolated and shown to have indirect tumor-suppressing activity via an immunological activation. The diffusible fraction of a hot-water extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) powder was fractionated by HPLC based on the anti-tumor activity against leukemic cells in vitro. The structure of the anti-tumor substance was determined by NMR and MS analyses. We purified a tumorcidal substance from the diffusible fraction of ABM and identified it as agaritine, beta-N-(gamma-l(+)-glutamyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl) phenylhydrazine, having a molecular mass of 267 Da. This compound inhibited the proliferation of leukemic cell lines such as U937, MOLT4, HL60 and K562 with IC(50) values of 2.7, 9.4, 13.0, and 16.0 microg/mL, respectively, but showed no significant effect on normal lymphatic cells at concentrations up to 40 microg/mL. Although agaritine has been suspected of having genotoxic or carcinogenic properties, agaritine did not activate the umu gene of Salmonella, which reacts to carcinogens. The results indicate that agaritine from ABM has direct anti-tumor activity against leukemic tumor cells in vitro. This is in contrast to the carcinogenic activity previously ascribed to this compound. Our results also show that this activity is distinct from that of beta-glucan, which indirectly suppresses proliferation of tumor cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.