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Sample records for identifying dietary patterns

  1. Comparison of 3 methods for identifying dietary patterns associated with risk of disease.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Julia R; Kraft, Peter; McGarvey, Stephen T; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2008-12-15

    Reduced rank regression and partial least-squares regression (PLS) are proposed alternatives to principal component analysis (PCA). Using all 3 methods, the authors derived dietary patterns in Costa Rican data collected on 3,574 cases and controls in 1994-2004 and related the resulting patterns to risk of first incident myocardial infarction. Four dietary patterns associated with myocardial infarction were identified. Factor 1, characterized by high intakes of lean chicken, vegetables, fruit, and polyunsaturated oil, was generated by all 3 dietary pattern methods and was associated with a significantly decreased adjusted risk of myocardial infarction (28%-46%, depending on the method used). PCA and PLS also each yielded a pattern associated with a significantly decreased risk of myocardial infarction (31% and 23%, respectively); this pattern was characterized by moderate intake of alcohol and polyunsaturated oil and low intake of high-fat dairy products. The fourth factor derived from PCA was significantly associated with a 38% increased risk of myocardial infarction and was characterized by high intakes of coffee and palm oil. Contrary to previous studies, the authors found PCA and PLS to produce more patterns associated with cardiovascular disease than reduced rank regression. The most effective method for deriving dietary patterns related to disease may vary depending on the study goals.

  2. Associations of dietary intake patterns identified using reduced rank regression with markers of arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liese, Angela D.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Dabelea, Dana; Black, Mary Helen; Merchant, Anwar T.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are at substantially increased risk for adverse vascular outcomes, but little is known about the influence of dietary behavior on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. We aimed to identify dietary intake patterns associated with CVD risk factors and evaluate their impact on arterial stiffness (AS) measures collected thereafter in a cohort of youth with T1DM. SUBJECTS/METHODS Baseline diet data from a food frequency questionnaire and CVD risk factors (triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, systolic BP, HbA1c, C-reactive protein and waist circumference) were available for 1,153 youth aged ≥10 years with T1DM from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. A dietary intake pattern was identified using 33 food-groups as predictors and six CVD risk factors as responses in reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis. Associations of this RRR-derived dietary pattern with AS measures [augmentation index(AIx75), n=229; pulse wave velocity(PWV), n=237; and brachial distensibility(BrachD), n=228] were then assessed using linear regression. RESULTS The RRR-derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda, eggs, potatoes and high-fat meats, and low intakes of sweets/desserts and low-fat dairy; major contributors were SSB and diet soda. This pattern captured the largest variability in adverse CVD risk profile and was subsequently associated with AIx75 (β=0.47; p<0.01). The mean difference in AIx75 concentration between the highest and the lowest dietary pattern quartiles was 4.3% in fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS Intervention strategies to reduce consumption of unhealthful foods and beverages among youth with T1DM may significantly improve CVD risk profile and ultimately reduce the risk for AS. PMID:24865480

  3. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  4. Application of factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and use of factor scores to study their relationship with nutritional status of adult rural populations.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, K; Brahmam, G N V; Vijayaraghavan, K

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) among one-third of the Indian population is attributed to inadequacy of consumption of nutrients. However, considering the complexity of diets among Indians, the relationship between a particular dietary pattern and the nutritional status of the population has not been established so far. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess estimates, at district level, of diet and nutritional status in Orissa State, India. Factor analysis was used for exploring the existence of consumption pattern of food and nutrients and their relationship with the nutritional status of rural adult population. Data on 2,864 adult men and 3,525 adult women in Orissa state revealed that there exists six patterns among food-groups explaining 59% of the total variation and three patterns among nutrients that explain 73% of the total variation among both adult men and women. The discriminant function analysis revealed that, overall, 53% of the men were correctly classified as either with chronic energy deficiency (CED) or without CED. Similarly, overall, 54% of the women were correctly classified as either with CED or without CED. The sensitivity of the model was 65% for both men and women, and the specificity was 46% and 41% respectively for men and women. In the case of classification of overweight/obesity, the prediction of the model was about 75% among both men and women, along with high sensitivity. Using factor analysis, the dietary patterns were identified from the food and nutrient intake data. There exists a strong relationship between the dietary patterns and the nutritional status of rural adults. These results will help identify the community people with CED and help planners formulate nutritional interventions accordingly.

  5. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  6. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire comprised 61 questions for assessing dietary habits. A survey was administered to 320 adults (19 to 64 years old) using the dietary pattern evaluation tool and 24-hour-recall method between March and May of 2014 in Jeonbuk province and the metropolitan area. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to identify dietary behavior patterns. Nutritional analysis was conducted using CAN-Pro 4.0, and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was calculated to assess dietary quality. The correlation between dietary pattern scores and DQI-I scores was also analyzed. RESULTS The factor analysis resulted in a total of 34 questions mapped to four main dietary behavior patterns: "high fat and calorie" pattern (12 questions), "overeating/binge" pattern (nine questions), "dietary impulse" pattern (eight questions), and "unbalanced food intake" pattern (five questions). The four dietary behavior patterns were negatively correlated with DQI-I adequacy and total scores (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The dietary pattern evaluation tool developed in this study can be used to diagnose a client's dietary behavior problems and is available as a nutrition counseling tool in the field. PMID:27247727

  7. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight. RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents. CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight. PMID:26398873

  8. Dietary patterns: biomarkers and chronic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2010-04-01

    With increasing appreciation of the complexity of diets consumed by free-living individuals, there is interest in the assessment of the overall diet or dietary patterns in which multiple related dietary characteristics are considered as a single exposure. The 2 most frequently used methods to derive dietary patterns use (i) scores or indexes based on prevailing hypotheses about the role of dietary factors in disease prevention; and (ii) factors and clusters from exploration of available dietary data. A third method, a hybrid of the hypothesis-driven and data-driven methods, attempts to predict food combinations related to nutrients or biomarkers with hypothesized associations with particular health outcomes. Dietary patterns derived from the first 2 approaches have been examined in relation to nutritional and disease biomarkers and various health outcomes, and generally show the desirable dietary pattern to be consistent with prevalent beliefs about what constitutes a healthful diet. Results from observational studies suggest that the healthful dietary patterns were associated with significant but modest risk reduction (15%-30%) for all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease. Findings for various cancers have been inconsistent. The available randomized controlled intervention trials with a long-term follow-up to examine dietary patterns in relation to health outcome have generally produced null findings. Novel findings with the potential to change existing beliefs about diet and health relationships are yet to emerge from the dietary patterns research. The field requires innovation in methods to derive dietary patterns, validation of prevalent methods, and assessment of the effect of dietary measurement error on dietary patterns.

  9. Dietary patterns and the association with dietary quality among Mongolian immigrants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeryun; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Song, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jounghee; Lee, Youngmi

    2015-04-01

    Mongolian immigration into South Korea has increased rapidly over the last decade. It is important to better understand dietary patterns of immigrants because these patterns are associated with health risk. This study aimed to characterize dietary patterns of Mongolian immigrants in South Korea. Dietary intakes of 500 Mongolian adults living in South Korea were assessed using the interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall method. By cluster analysis, three dietary patterns were identified: "Mongolian" (26%), "Transitional" (43%) and "Korean" (31%). The "Korean" pattern had a favorable food intake profile, with higher intakes of healthy foods, while the other patterns had features of an unhealthy diet. There were significant differences between the dietary patterns that were related to risk for chronic diseases. Overall, subjects following the "Korean" dietary pattern showed high adherence to World Health Organization recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases, whereas the "Mongolian" and "Transitional" patterns showed low compliance. The results suggest the need for education programs targeting Mongolian immigrants who retain traditional dietary habits, to enhance their healthy food choices.

  10. Genetic susceptibility and dietary patterns in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ya-Yu; McGlynn, Katherine A; Hu, Ying; Cassidy, Anna B; Arnold, John; Engstrom, Paul F; Buetow, Kenneth H

    2003-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is the dominant risk factor for lung cancer, but only a minority of smokers ever develops tumors. Though genetic susceptibility is likely to explain some of the variability in risk, results from previous studies of genetic polymorphisms have been inconclusive. As diet may also affect the risk of lung cancer, it is possible that the degree of risk produced by smoking and genetic susceptibility varies, depending on diet. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to examine the effect of cigarette smoking, dietary patterns and variation in genes involved in phase II metabolism. A total of 254 individuals with lung cancer and 184 healthy controls were recruited for the study. To identify persons with similar dietary patterns, cluster analysis was performed using nutrient densities of four major dietary constituents: protein, carbohydrate, animal fat, and dietary fiber. Two groups of individuals were identified with distinct dietary patterns: (1) a group (n=241) with a high intake of animal fat and protein and a low intake of carbohydrates and dietary fiber (the 'unhealthy' pattern) and (2) a group (n=197) with a high intake of fiber and carbohydrate and a low intake of protein and animal fat (the 'healthy' pattern) [corrected]. On stratified analysis, several genotype/dietary pattern combinations were found to affect risk of lung cancer. Smokers who were not homozygous for the most common GSTP1 allele and had a healthy dietary pattern were at significantly lower risk than smokers who were homozygous for the GSTP1 common allele and who had an unhealthy dietary pattern (OR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04-0.57). Among smokers who were GSTM1 null, persons with a healthy dietary pattern were at lower risk than persons with an unhealthy dietary pattern (OR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21-1.01). Among smokers with an unhealthy dietary patterns, persons with a His/His genotype in the exon 3 polymorphism of EPHX1 were at significantly lower risk that persons who were

  11. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  12. Validity of Energy Intake Reports in Relation to Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shaneshin, Mahboubeh; Jessri, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    The role of under- and overreporting of energy intake in determining the dietary patterns is yet unclear, especially in the Middle Eastern countries. This study identifies the prevalence of misreporting among Tehranian women aged 18-45 years and to compare the dietary intake patterns of plausible and all energy reporters. Dietary intakes and anthropometric data were collected. FitMate™ metabolic analyzer and Goldberg equation were used in determining the under/overreporting of energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be overweight and older compared to plausible reporters. Three dietary patterns emerged for all reporters, and two were identified for plausible reporters. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was not similar to using all reporters. The proportion of underreporters was 59.3% in the mixture cluster, 30.4% in the unhealthy cluster, and 35.3% in the healthy cluster (p<0.05). Underreporting of energy intake is not uniformly distributed among dietary pattern clusters and tends to be less severe among subjects in the unhealthy cluster. Our data suggested that misreporting of energy intake might affect the dietary pattern analysis. PMID:24847591

  13. Dietary availability patterns of the brazilian macro-regions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the role of dietary patterns on the risk of chronic diseases and also in the formulation of better informed nutrition policies. Objective The development of a dietary availability patterns according to geographic regions in Brazil. Methodology The 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey was conducted in 48,470 households. Dietary availability patterns were identified by Principal Component Analysis using as a unit of analysis the survey's Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) and purchased amounts for 21 food groups. Each of the extracted dietary availability patterns was regressed on socioeconomics categories. Results There were no differences in dietary availability patterns between urban and rural areas. In all regions, a rice and beans pattern was identified. This pattern explained 15% to 28% of the variance dependent on the region of the country. In South, Southeast and Midwest regions, a mixed pattern including at least 10 food groups explaining 8% to 16% of the variance. In the North region (Amazon forest included) the first pattern was based on fish and nuts and then it was designed as regional pattern. In multiple linear regression the rice and beans pattern was associated with the presence of adolescents in the households, except for North region, whereas the presence of adolescents was associated with the Regional pattern. A mixed patterns were associated with a higher income and education (p < 0.05), except in the South region. Conclusion The rice and beans and regional dietary availability patterns, both considered healthy eating patterns are still important in the country. Brazil has taken many actions to improve nutrition as part of their public health policies, the data of the Household Budget Survey could help to recognize the different food choices in the large regions of the country. PMID:21798035

  14. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  15. Dietary patterns, approaches, and multicultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2010-04-01

    Nutrition research has traditionally focused on single nutrients in relation to health. However, recent appreciation of the complex synergistic interactions among nutrients and other food constituents has led to a growing interest in total dietary patterns. Methods of measurement include summation of food or nutrient recommendations met, such as the United States Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index; data-driven approaches--principal components (PCA) and cluster analyses--which describe actual intake patterns in the population; and, most recently, reduced rank regression, which defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain intermediate markers of disease. PCA, a form of factor analysis, derives linear combinations of foods based on their intercorrelations. Cluster analysis groups individuals into maximally differing eating patterns. These approaches have now been used in diverse populations with good reproducibility. In contrast, because it is based on associations with outcomes rather than on coherent behavioral patterns, reduced rank regression may be less reproducible, but more research is needed. However, it is likely to yield useful information for hypothesis generation. Together, the focus on dietary patterns has been fruitful in demonstrating the powerful protective associations of healthy or prudent dietary patterns, and the higher risk associations of Western or meat and refined grains patterns. The field, however, has not fully addressed the effects of diet in subpopulations, including ethnic minorities. Depending on food group coding, subdietary patterns may be obscured or artificially separated, leading to potentially misleading results. Further attention to the definition of the dietary patterns of different populations is critical to providing meaningful results. Still, dietary pattern research has great potential for use in nutrition policy, particularly as it demonstrates the importance of total diet in health

  16. Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; da Rocha Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Results: Five dietary patterns were observed: “Traditional,” “Sweetened beverages and snacks,” “Monotonous,” “Healthy” and “Egg-dairy.” A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with “Sweetened beverages and snacks” and “Egg-dairy' standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more “Traditional” standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers and red meat. The “Monotonous” pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate powder, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the “Egg-dairy” pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. PMID:26163945

  17. Dietary patterns and asthma in the E3N study

    PubMed Central

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Kauffmann, Francine; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Le Moual, Nicole; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Romieu, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to determine dietary patterns and investigate their associations with incident asthma, current asthma and frequent asthma exacerbations. Dietary habits and asthma data were collected from the large E3N study (French women, mostly teachers). Of 54,672 women followed-up in 2003, 2,634 reported ever adulthood asthma, 1,063 current asthma, 206 frequent asthma attacks (≥1/week), and 628 asthma-onset between 1993 and 2003. Using principal component analysis, three dietary patterns were identified: ‘prudent’ pattern (fruits and vegetables), ‘Western’ pattern (pizza/salty pies, dessert and cured meats) and ‘nuts and wine’ pattern. Pattern scores were categorized into tertiles and the incidence and prevalence of asthma compared between tertiles. After adjustment for confounders, no association of dietary patterns was observed with incident, ever or current asthma. The ‘Western’ pattern was associated with an increased risk of reporting frequent asthma attacks (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile [95% CI]=1.79 [1.11–3.73], p for trend=0.01). Increasing scores of the ‘nuts and wine’ pattern were associated with a decreased risk of reporting frequent asthma attacks (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile [95% CI]=0.65 [0.31,0.96], p for trend=0.02). Results suggest that overall diet could be involved in frequent asthma exacerbations, one aspect of asthma severity. PMID:18829673

  18. Cross-sectional association of dietary patterns with insulin resistance phenotypes among adults without diabets in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have linked dietary patterns which derived by cluster analysis with metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities which drive the metabolic syndrome. However, whether dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis are also associated wi...

  19. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns.

  20. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  1. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  2. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  3. Dietary Patterns and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Ying; Shu, Long; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xu-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-05

    A number of studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of pancreatic cancer. MEDLINE (provided by the National Library of Medicine) and EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) databases were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016 that identified common dietary patterns. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy patterns (odds ratio, OR = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.77-0.95; p = 0.004) and light-moderate drinking patterns (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83-0.98; p = 0.02). There was evidence of an increased risk for pancreatic cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of western-type pattern (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06-1.45; p = 0.008) and heavy drinking pattern (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10-1.48; p = 0.002). The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that healthy and light-moderate drinking patterns may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas western-type and heavy drinking patterns may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. INSIG2 variants, dietary patterns, and metabolic risk in Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Baylin, Ana; Deka, Ranjan; Tuitele, John; Viali, Satupaitea; Weeks, Daniel E.; McGarvey, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Association of insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) variants with obesity has been confirmed in several but not all follow-up studies. Differences in environmental factors across populations may mask some genetic associations and therefore gene-environment interactions should be explored. We hypothesized that the association between dietary patterns and components of the metabolic syndrome could be modified by INSIG2 variants. Subjects/Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk among 427 and 290 adults from Samoa and American Samoa (1990–95). Principal component analysis on food items from a validated FFQ was used to identify neo-traditional and modern dietary patterns. We explored gene-dietary pattern interactions with the INSIG2 variants rs9308762 and rs7566605. Results Results for American Samoans were mostly non-significant. In Samoa, the neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with lower triglycerides, BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose (all p-for-trend<0.05). The modern pattern was significantly associated with higher triglycerides, BMI, waist circumference, and lower HDL cholesterol (all p-for-trend<0.05). A significant interaction for triglycerides was found between the modern pattern and the rs9308762 polymorphism (p=0.04). Those from Samoa consuming the modern pattern have higher triglycerides if they are homozygous for the rs9308762 C allele. Conclusions The common INSIG2 rs9308762 variant was associated with poorer metabolic control and a greater sensitivity of trigylcerides to a modern dietary pattern. Environmental factors need to be taken into account when assessing genetic associations across and within populations. PMID:22968099

  5. Evaluation of dietary patterns among Norwegian postmenopausal women using plasma carotenoids as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Sakhi, Amrit K; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-02-28

    A number of studies have examined dietary patterns in various populations. However, to study to what extent such patterns capture meaningful differences in consumption of foods is of interest. In the present study, we identified important dietary patterns in Norwegian postmenopausal women (age 50-69 years, n 361), and evaluated these patterns by examining their associations with plasma carotenoids. Diet was assessed by a 253-item FFQ. These 253 food items were categorised into forty-six food groups, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. We used the partial correlation coefficient (r(adj)) and multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between the dietary patterns and the plasma carotenoids α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin. Overall, four dietary patterns were identified: the 'Western'; 'Vegetarian'; 'Continental'; 'High-protein'. The 'Western' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and total carotenoids (-0·25 ≤ r(adj) ≤ -0·13). The 'Vegetarian' dietary pattern scores were significantly positively correlated with all the plasma carotenoids (0·15 ≤ r(adj) ≤ 0·24). The 'Continental' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein and α-carotene (r(adj) = -0·13). No significant association between the 'High-protein' dietary pattern scores and the plasma carotenoids was found. In conclusion, the healthy dietary pattern, the 'Vegetarian' pattern, is associated with a more favourable profile of the plasma carotenoids than our unhealthy dietary patterns, the 'Western' and 'Continental' patterns.

  6. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3%) were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted. PMID:23006931

  7. Dietary patterns and mortality in a Chinese population123

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D; Pereira, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited research has examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality, especially in non-Western populations. Objective: We examined the association of dietary patterns with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, which included a unique ethnic population with strong Western and South Asian cultural influences. Design: We conducted a prospective data analysis of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, which included 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 y) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993–1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. The following 2 major dietary patterns were identified by using a principal components analysis: a vegetable-, fruit-, and soy-rich (VFS) pattern and a dim sum– and meat-rich (DSM) dietary pattern. Pattern scores for each participant were calculated and examined with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks by using a Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The VFS pattern was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and each cause-specific category (CVD, cancer, and respiratory) of mortality during the follow-up period. Compared with the lowest quintile of the VFS pattern, HRs for quintiles 2–5 for all-cause mortality were 0.90, 0.79, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). The DSM pattern was positively associated with CVD mortality in the whole population (HR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.40; P-trend = 0.001). Positive associations between the DSM pattern and cancer and all-cause mortality were only present in ever-smokers. In ever-smokers, relative to the first quintile, HRs for quintiles 2–5 of the DSM pattern for all-cause mortality were 1.04, 1.04, 1.13, and 1.24, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Similarly, HRs for quintiles 2–5 for cancer mortality were 1.08, 1.03, 1.25, and 1.34, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). The DSM

  8. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  9. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  10. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Jenna K.; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  11. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  12. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  13. Dietary Patterns and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Ying; Shu, Long; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xu-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of pancreatic cancer. MEDLINE (provided by the National Library of Medicine) and EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) databases were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016 that identified common dietary patterns. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy patterns (odds ratio, OR = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.77–0.95; p = 0.004) and light–moderate drinking patterns (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83–0.98; p = 0.02). There was evidence of an increased risk for pancreatic cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of western-type pattern (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06–1.45; p = 0.008) and heavy drinking pattern (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10–1.48; p = 0.002). The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that healthy and light–moderate drinking patterns may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas western-type and heavy drinking patterns may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:28067765

  14. Latent transition models to study women's changing of dietary patterns from pregnancy to 1 year postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-04-15

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000-2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them "prudent," "health conscious Western," and "Western." Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the "prudent" class than the "health conscious Western" or the "Western" class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the "health conscious Western" class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum.

  15. Dietary patterns by cluster analysis in pregnant women: relationship with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns in 7-year-old offspring.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Smith, Andrew D A C; Kac, Gilberto; Pearson, Rebecca M; Heron, Jon; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Emmett, Pauline M

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about how dietary patterns of mothers and their children track over time. The objectives of this study are to obtain dietary patterns in pregnancy using cluster analysis, to examine women's mean nutrient intakes in each cluster and to compare the dietary patterns of mothers to those of their children. Pregnant women (n = 12 195) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported their frequency of consumption of 47 foods and food groups. These data were used to obtain dietary patterns during pregnancy by cluster analysis. The absolute and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were compared between clusters. Women's dietary patterns were compared with previously derived clusters of their children at 7 years of age. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships comparing maternal and offspring clusters. Three maternal clusters were identified: 'fruit and vegetables', 'meat and potatoes' and 'white bread and coffee'. After energy adjustment women in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster had the highest mean nutrient intakes. Mothers in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster were more likely than mothers in 'meat and potatoes' (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.00; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.69-2.36) or 'white bread and coffee' (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.87-2.53) clusters to have children in a 'plant-based' cluster. However the majority of children were in clusters unrelated to their mother dietary pattern. Three distinct dietary patterns were obtained in pregnancy; the 'fruit and vegetables' pattern being the most nutrient dense. Mothers' dietary patterns were associated with but did not dominate offspring dietary patterns.

  16. Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Julia R; McGarvey, Stephen T; Kraft, Peter; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Quested, Christine; Laumoli, Tuiasina Salamo; Baylin, Ana

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic levels in the Samoan Islands. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2002-2003, dietary patterns were described among American Samoan (n = 723) and Samoan (n = 785) adults (> or =18 y) to identify neo-traditional and modern eating patterns and to relate these patterns to the presence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The neo-traditional dietary pattern, similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of local foods, including crab/lobster, coconut products, and taro, and low intake of processed foods, including potato chips and soda. The modern pattern, also similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods. The neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher serum HDL-cholesterol in American Samoa (P-trend = 0.05) and a decrease in abdominal circumference in American Samoa and Samoa (P-trend = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). An inverse association was found with metabolic syndrome, although it did not reach significance (P = 0.23 in American Samoa; P = 0.13 in Samoa). The modern pattern was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa (prevalence ratio = 1.21 for the fifth compared with first quintile; 95% CI: 0.93.1.57; P-trend = 0.05) and with increased serum triglyceride levels in both polities (P < 0.05). Reduced intake of processed foods high in refined grains and adherence to a neo-traditional eating pattern characterized by plant-based fiber, seafood, and coconut products may help to prevent growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Samoan islands.

  17. Dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with the risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun; Song, Yoon Ju

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-hour recall. Reduced rank regression was used to derive dietary patterns from 22 food groups as predictor variables and four dietary factors related to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates as response variables. Two dietary patterns were identified: 1) the balanced pattern was characterized by high intake of various kinds of foods including white rice, and 2) the rice-oriented pattern was characterized by a high intake of white rice but low intake of vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products. Both patterns had considerable amounts of total carbohydrate, but GI values differed. The rice-oriented pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia in men and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in both men and women. The balanced pattern had no overall significant association with the prevalence of dyslipidemia or diabetes, however, men with energy intake above the median showed a reduced prevalence of diabetes across quintiles of balanced pattern scores. The results show that dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia and diabetes in the Korean adult population.

  18. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05–2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern. PMID:26000248

  19. Alignment of Healthy Dietary Patterns and Environmental Sustainability: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Miriam E; Hamm, Michael W; Hu, Frank B; Abrams, Steven A; Griffin, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    To support food security for current and future generations, there is a need to understand the relation between sustainable diets and the health of a population. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated and compared different dietary patterns to better understand which foods and eating patterns have less of an environmental impact while meeting nutritional needs and promoting health. This systematic review (SR) of population-level dietary patterns and food sustainability extends and updates the SR that was conducted by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, an expert committee commissioned by the federal government to inform dietary guidance as it relates to the committee's original conclusions. In the original SR, 15 studies met the criteria for inclusion; since then, an additional 8 studies have been identified and included. The relations between dietary intake patterns and both health and environmental outcomes were compared across studies, with methodologies that included modeling, life cycle assessment, and land use analysis. Across studies, consistent evidence indicated that a dietary pattern higher in plant-based foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains) and lower in animal-based foods (especially red meat), as well as lower in total energy, is both healthier and associated with a lesser impact on the environment. This dietary pattern differs from current average consumption patterns in the United States. Our updated SR confirms and strengthens the conclusions of the original US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee SR, which found that adherence to several well-characterized dietary patterns, including vegetarian (with variations) diets, dietary guidelines-related diets, Mediterranean-style diets, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and other sustainable diet scenarios, promotes greater health and has a less negative impact on the environment than current average dietary intakes.

  20. Relationship between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms: difference by gender, and unipolar and bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Rituna; Hiraoka, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men.

  1. Relationship between maternal dietary patterns and hypospadias.

    PubMed

    de Kort, Christianne A R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Mendez, Michelle A

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the role of maternal nutrition in the development of hypospadias, which is the most common urogenital congenital anomaly. This study investigated the relationship between maternal nutrition and the risk of hypospadias, particularly focusing on maternal food patterns. We compared 471 hypospadias cases with 490 controls in the United Kingdom. A questionnaire including information on life style, occupation, usual maternal diet and dietary supplements was administered using telephone interviews. Cases and controls were compared for individual food item intake and food patterns derived by cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for income, maternal age, low birthweight, smoking and folic acid supplement use was used to assess the relationship between maternal nutrition and hypospadias. Three food patterns were created with the labels 'health conscious', 'mixed' and 'non-health conscious'. 'Non-health conscious' subjects (low frequency of consumption of yoghurt, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, fish, beans and pulses, olive oil and organic food) had a higher risk of hypospadias (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.26) compared with 'health conscious' subjects (high frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit, fresh or frozen fish, beans, pulses, soya products, olive oil and organic food), after adjustment for potential confounders. Intakes of individual foods were not strongly associated with hypospadias. We could not exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and this needs to be further investigated. We found an association between food pattern and hypospadias, with those with less health conscious food patterns having a higher risk. Further study is needed to confirm this association.

  2. Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Adults in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Zhao, Shiwen

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns represent a broader picture of food consumption, and are better correlated with a variety of health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity in Southwest China. Data from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition Survey in the province of Yunnan, Southwest China, were analyzed (n = 1604, aged 18–80 years). Dietary data were collected using the 24 h dietary recall over three consecutive days. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between dietary patterns and obesity. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as traditional, modern, and tuber according to their key components. With potential confounders adjusted, adults in the highest quartile of the modern pattern were at higher risk of general and central obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–3.48; OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.37–2.93). In contrast, adults in the highest quartile of the tuber pattern were at lower risk of general and central obesity (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.61; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.95) but at higher risk of underweight (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.20–6.45). No significant association was found between the traditional pattern and obesity. Moreover, dietary pattern differences occurred due to the differences in socio-demographic characteristics. In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern was positively, and the tuber pattern negatively, associated with general and central obesity among adults in Southwest China. PMID:27827895

  3. Health and Dietary Patterns of the Elderly in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruapula, Segametsi; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe associations among socioeconomic conditions and dietary patterns of Botswana elderly. Design: Secondary analysis from a cross-sectional nationwide survey. Participants: Subjects (N = 1086, 60-99 years old) were selected after multistage sampling. Main Outcome Measures: Dietary patterns were dependent variables; health and…

  4. Are Dietary Patterns Associated with Depression in U.S. Adults?

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Kyoung; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable determinants for and consequences of both mental and physical heath. Depression has become an increasingly important public health issue. We tested whether dietary patterns derived from food group intake are associated with depression in U.S. adults in a cross-sectional study with national population. This study included 4180 men and 4196 women aged 20-79 years in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), with complete data of one 24-h dietary recall, sociodemographics, lifestyles, and Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9) for screening depression. Two major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were investigated for their associations with presence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) by using linear and multivariate logistic regressions. One of two major patterns, labeled "Western" dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of nonwhole grain, white potatoes, cheese, meat, discretionary oil and fat, and added sugar; the second dietary pattern that was labeled "Healthy" dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, nuts and seeds. The "Western" dietary pattern was not significantly associated with depression in both men and women. The "Healthy" dietary pattern scores were inversely associated with the PHQ-9 depression scores and odd ratios (ORs) of depression after adjustment for covariates in women but not in men. The OR of depression in women with the highest quintile of "Healthy" dietary pattern scores was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.85, P < .001) compared to the lowest quintile as a reference. These findings warrant future interventions or clinical trials in elucidating causal and effect relations of depression and dietary patterns, an important public health concern.

  5. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children.Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression.Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage.Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  6. Dietary patterns of patients with advanced lung or colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Prado, Carla M M; Lieffers, Jessica R; Bergsten, Gabriella; Mourtzakis, Marina; Baracos, Vickie E; Reiman, Tony; Sawyer, Michael B; McCargar, Linda J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify dietary patterns among patients with advanced cancer. Differences between cancer groups are described, and food groups contributing higher proportions to overall caloric intake are identified. Patients with advanced cancer (n=51) were recruited from a regional cancer centre and completed a three-day dietary record. Food items were categorized according to macronutrient content. After adjustment for body weight, substantial variation in energy intake was observed (range: 13.7 to 55.4 kcal/kg/day). For 49% of patients, protein intake was below recommendations. Overall, patients consumed the largest proportion of their calories from meat (16%), other foods (11%), dessert (9%), fruit (9%), white bread (7%), and milk (7%). Only 5% of patients consumed meal replacement supplements. The results of this descriptive study provide important insights into the dietary habits of patients with advanced cancer. These insights could be translated into the development of effective recommendations for maintaining or improving health and quality of life.

  7. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis Discovered a Dietary Pattern Inversely Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yen-Li; Pan, Wen-Harn; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chen, Jen-Yang; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case–control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with multiple conditional logistic regression models, linking pattern scores and NPC risk. A high score of the PLS-DA derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruits, milk, fresh fish, vegetables, tea, and eggs ordered by loading values. We observed that one unit increase in the scores was associated with a significantly lower risk of NPC (ORadj = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60–0.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Similar results were observed among Epstein-Barr virus seropositive subjects. An NPC protective diet is indicated with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables), milk, other protein-rich foods (in particular fresh fish and eggs), and tea. This information may be used to design potential dietary regimen for NPC prevention. PMID:27249558

  8. Arsenic exposure, dietary patterns, and skin lesion risk in bangladesh: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brandon L; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Melkonian, Stephanie; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Rathouz, Paul J; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-02-01

    Dietary factors are believed to modulate arsenic toxicity, potentially influencing risk of arsenical skin lesions. The authors evaluated associations among dietary patterns, arsenic exposure, and skin lesion risk using baseline food frequency questionnaire data collected in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh (2000-2009). They identified dietary patterns and estimated dietary pattern scores using factor analysis. Scores were tested for association with incident skin lesion risk and interaction with water arsenic exposure by using ∼6 years of follow-up data (814 events among 9,677 individuals) and discrete time hazards models (adjusting for key covariates). The authors identified 3 clear dietary patterns: the "gourd and root," "vegetable," and "animal protein" patterns. The gourd and root pattern score was inversely associated with skin lesion risk (P(trend) = 0.001), with hazard ratios of 0.86, 0.73, and 0.69 for the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles. Furthermore, the association between water arsenic and skin lesion incidence was stronger among participants with low gourd and root scores (multiplicative P(interaction) < 0.001; additive P(interaction) = 0.05). The vegetable pattern and animal protein pattern showed similar but weaker associations and interactions. Eating a diet rich in gourds and root vegetables and increasing dietary diversity may reduce arsenical skin lesion risk in Bangladesh.

  9. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  10. Modest validity and fair reproducibility of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Funtikova, Anna N; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A; Fitó, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Cluster analysis is widely used to analyze dietary patterns. We aimed to analyze the validity and reproducibility of the dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We hypothesized that the dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis have fair to modest reproducibility and validity. Dietary data were collected from 107 individuals from population-based survey, by an FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and after 1 year (FFQ2), and by twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDR). Repeatability and validity were measured by comparing clusters obtained by the FFQ1 and FFQ2 and by the FFQ2 and 24-HDR (reference method), respectively. Cluster analysis identified a "fruits & vegetables" and a "meat" pattern in each dietary data source. Cluster membership was concordant for 66.7% of participants in FFQ1 and FFQ2 (reproducibility), and for 67.0% in FFQ2 and 24-HDR (validity). Spearman correlation analysis showed reasonable reproducibility, especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern, and lower validity also especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern. κ statistic revealed a fair validity and reproducibility of clusters. Our findings indicate a reasonable reproducibility and fair to modest validity of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis.

  11. Polyamine intake, dietary pattern, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kuniyasu

    2010-09-01

    In addition to general lifestyle, a number of foods and dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), are associated with lower incidences of chronic, age-related diseases, and mortality. We have shown that increased polyamine intake decreases age-associated pathology and increases longevity in mice. Several foods in the MD, such as fruits and legumes, are foods containing high amount of polyamines. Among age-associated conditions, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and individuals who adhere to a MD have a lower incidence of CVD. The possible contribution of increased polyamine intake to CVD prevention is discussed in this manuscript. Polyamines from food are distributed to all organs and tissues, and long-term intake increases polyamine concentration in blood. Because most polyamines are associated with red and white blood cells, they act to suppress synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1. Foods with anti-inflammatory properties such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to help prevent CVD. Additionally, suppression of de novo polyamine synthesis results from increased polyamines intake, normally synthesized from arginine. This in turn increases availability of arginine for synthesis of nitric oxide, which plays an important role in preserving normal vascular physiology.

  12. Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Are Related to Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nejati, Somayeh; Darabi, Samaneh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Sorayani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods In our study, 330 depressed patients (cases) and healthy people (controls) (1:2) were individually matched according to age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression were recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers went to each patient's residential area, and invited qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intake over the past year was collected using a validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by the principal components method. Binary logistic regression was used to test the effect of dietary patterns on depression. Results We identified two major dietary patterns by using factor analysis: the healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. We categorized the scores of these patterns to quartiles. After adjusting for non-depression drug use, job, marital status, children number, and body mass index, the relations of depression and quartiles of two dietary patterns are significant (p=0.04 & p=0.01, respectively). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depression in healthy dietary pattern, and higher OR for depression in unhealthy dietary pattern. Conclusion This study indicates that healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of depression. The results can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of depression. PMID:26508953

  13. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei-Fen; Shu, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Tong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Lun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of different dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among a middle-aged Chinese population remain extremely scare. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns and investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults aged 45–60 years. The present cross-sectional study includes 2560 participants who reported their dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. We used log-binomial regression analysis to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension risk. Four major dietary patterns were identified and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater prevalence ratio (PR) for hypertension (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.064–1.727; p < 0.05) in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of high-salt pattern, the highest quartile had a higher prevalence ratio for hypertension (PR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.013–1.635; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that animal food and high-salt patterns were associated with increased risk of hypertension, while traditional Chinese and western fast-food patterns were not associated with the risk of hypertension. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27120612

  14. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study)

    PubMed Central

    Galinski, Grzegorz; Lonnie, Marta; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth) study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%), high-fat foods (22.4%), and fats (21.3%). Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy) dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively), and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy) and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy) patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and vegetables

  15. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study).

    PubMed

    Galinski, Grzegorz; Lonnie, Marta; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2016-12-19

    Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls' Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth) study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%), high-fat foods (22.4%), and fats (21.3%). Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the "fruit and vegetables" (considered pro-healthy) dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14-2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17-2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30-2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04-2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38-2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97-5.37, respectively), and less likely to adhere to the "fast foods and sweets" (unhealthy) and "traditional Polish" (rather unhealthy) patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the "fruit and vegetables" pattern and were uncommon in

  16. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  17. Dietary pattern and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Ma, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background The literature on the relationship between diet and asthma has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting results. People consume a combination of foods from various groups that form a dietary pattern. Studying the role of dietary patterns in asthma is an emerging area of research. The purpose of this study was to systematically review dietary patterns and asthma outcomes in adults and children, to review maternal diet and child asthma, and to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between asthma prevalence and dietary patterns in adults. Methods We searched Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge up to January 2014. Two researchers independently reviewed studies meeting the inclusion criteria using the American Dietetic Association quality criteria. A linear mixed model was used to derive the pooled effect size (95% confidence interval) for each of three dietary pattern categories (healthy, unhealthy, and neutral). Results Thirty-one studies were identified (16 cross-sectional, one case-control, 13 cohort, and one randomized controlled trial), including 12 in adults, 13 in children, five in pregnant woman–child pairs, and one in both children and pregnant woman–child pairs. Six of the 12 adult studies reported significant associations between dietary patterns and asthma outcomes (eg, ever asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second). Seven of ten studies examining the Mediterranean diet showed protective effects on child asthma and/or wheeze. Four of the six studies in mother-child pairs showed that maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy were not associated with child asthma or wheeze. The meta-analysis including six adult studies, the primary outcome of which was the prevalence of current or ever asthma, showed no association with healthy, unhealthy, or neutral dietary patterns. Conclusion The evidence suggests no association of dietary patterns with asthma prevalence in adults or of maternal diet with child asthma or

  18. Dietary Patterns, Insulin Resistance, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the Whitehall II Study

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Sarah A.; Mishra, Gita D.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern associated with insulin resistance and investigate whether this pattern was prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Analysis was based on 7,339 participants of the Whitehall II study. Dietary intake was measured using a 127-item food frequency questionnaire. We used the reduced rank regression method to determine dietary patterns using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance as the intermediate or response variable. The association between the dietary pattern identified and incidence of type 2 diabetes was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS—We identified a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of low-calorie/diet soft drinks, onions, sugar-sweetened beverages, burgers and sausages, crisps and other snacks, and white bread and low consumption of medium-/high-fiber breakfast cereals, jam, French dressing/vinaigrette, and wholemeal bread. Higher dietary pattern scores were associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio for top quartile 2.95 [95% CI 2.19–3.97]; adjusted for age, sex, and energy misreporting). This relationship was attenuated after adjustment for ethnicity, employment grade, health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity) but remained significant after further adjustment for blood pressure and BMI (1.51 [1.10–2.09]). CONCLUSIONS—A dietary pattern associated with insulin resistance predicts type 2 diabetes risk after adjustment for a range of confounders. This study adds to the evidence that dietary patterns are an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes. PMID:18390803

  19. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity and adiposity in the multi-ethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study population.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Schulz, Mandy; Moore, Charity G; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological investigations increasingly employ dietary-pattern techniques to fully integrate dietary data. The present study evaluated the relationship of dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis with measures of insulin sensitivity (SI) and adiposity in the multi-ethnic, multi-centre Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, 1992-94). Cross-sectional data from 980 middle-aged adults, of whom 67 % had normal and 33 % had impaired glucose tolerance, were analysed. Usual dietary intake was obtained by an interviewer-administered, validated food-frequency questionnaire. Outcomes included SI, fasting insulin (FI), BMI and waist circumference. The relationship of dietary patterns to log(SI+1), log(FI), BMI and waist circumference was modelled with multivariable linear regressions. Cluster analysis identified six distinct diet patterns--'dark bread', 'wine', 'fruits', 'low-frequency eaters', 'fries' and 'white bread'. The 'white bread' and the 'fries' patterns over-represented the Hispanic IRAS population predominantly from two centres, while the 'wine' and 'dark bread' groups were dominated by non-Hispanic whites. The dietary patterns were associated significantly with each of the outcomes first at the crude, clinical level (P<0.001). Furthermore, they were significantly associated with FI, BMI and waist circumference independent of age, sex, race or ethnicity, clinic, family history of diabetes, smoking and activity (P<0.004), whereas significance was lost for SI. Studying the total dietary behaviour via a pattern approach allowed us to focus both on the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of diet. The present study identified highly consistent associations of distinct dietary patterns with measures of insulin resistance and adiposity, which are risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.

  20. Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-08-17

    been a paradigm shift in nutritional epidemiology to examine associations between dietary patterns and health. Several epidemiological studies show that people following the Mediterranean style diet or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet have lower risk of CHD and lower likelihood of developing hypertension. Studies using empirical or data driven dietary patterns have frequently identified two patterns - "Healthy or Prudent" and "Western". In general, the "Healthy", compared to the "Western" pattern has been associated with more favorable biological profiles, slower progression of atherosclerosis, and reduced incidence. Evidence on changes in dietary patterns and changes in CHD risk is still emerging. With the emergence of the concept of personalized nutrition, studies are increasingly considering the role of genetic factors in the modulation of the association between nutrients and CHD. More studies of genetic variation and dietary patterns in relation to CHD are needed.

  1. Effect of Health Lifestyle Pattern on Dietary Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Halloran, Peggy; Lazovich, DeAnn; Patterson, Ruth E.; Harnack, Lisa; French, Simone; Curry, Sue J.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of lifestyle on the effectiveness of a low-intensity dietary intervention. Analysis of data from the Eating Patterns Study indicated that people who practiced certain combinations of health behaviors responded differently to the low-intensity dietary intervention. People with high-risk behaviors were the least successful in…

  2. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  3. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  4. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  5. Dietary patterns and bone mineral status in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; McCourt, Hannah J; Young, Ian S; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2012-10-28

    Studies of individual nutrients or foods have revealed much about dietary influences on bone. Multiple food or nutrient approaches, such as dietary pattern analysis, could offer further insight but research is limited and largely confined to older adults. We examined the relationship between dietary patterns, obtained by a posteriori and a priori methods, and bone mineral status (BMS; collective term for bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD)) in young adults (20-25 years; n 489). Diet was assessed by 7 d diet history and BMD and BMC were determined at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (FN). A posteriori dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis (PCA) and three a priori dietary quality scores were applied (dietary diversity score (DDS), nutritional risk score and Mediterranean diet score). For the PCA-derived dietary patterns, women in the top compared to the bottom fifth of the 'Nuts and Meat' pattern had greater FN BMD by 0·074 g/cm(2) (P = 0·049) and FN BMC by 0·40 g (P = 0·034) after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, men in the top compared to the bottom fifth of the 'Refined' pattern had lower FN BMC by 0·41 g (P = 0·049). For the a priori DDS, women in the top compared to the bottom third had lower FN BMD by 0·05 g/cm(2) after adjustments (P = 0·052), but no other relationships with BMS were identified. In conclusion, adherence to a 'Nuts and Meat' dietary pattern may be associated with greater BMS in young women and a 'Refined' dietary pattern may be detrimental for bone health in young men.

  6. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG.

  7. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet.

  8. Findings on dietary patterns in different groups of African origin undergoing nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Hélène

    2010-04-01

    In population groups undergoing nutrition transition, it is important to identify healthy and culturally relevant dietary patterns that can be promoted as a means of preventing diet-related chronic diseases. Dietary pattern analyses using data-driven methods are useful for the purpose. The central question addressed in this overview paper is whether there are culture-specific healthy eating patterns, or whether healthy diets may be more universal. Our studies on dietary patterns in population groups of African origin living in Canada (Montreal), Europe (Madrid), and West Africa (urban and rural Benin) inform the discussion. Healthy or prudent, as opposed to Western, eating patterns are identified in several cultures, including groups of African origin. It appears that a limited number of foods predict diet quality and health outcomes in various population groups; in particular, fruit and vegetables, fish, whole-grain cereal, and legumes do so on the protective side, and sweets, processed meats, fried foods, fats and oils, and salty snacks do so on the negative side. Further research on dietary patterns and their healthfulness is required in diverse food cultures. In groups of African origin, traditional diets are healthier than the nontraditional dietary patterns that have evolved with globalization, urbanization, or acculturation, although micronutrient intakes need to improve. Additionally, healthy eating patterns are only feasible if access to food is adequate.

  9. Dietary Patterns and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Butler, Lesley M.; Duval, Sue; Gross, Myron D.; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pereira, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To empirically derive dietary patterns and examine their association with incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, including 43,176 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 years), free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline (1993–1998) and followed up through 2004. Two major dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis: a vegetable, fruit, and soy-rich pattern (VFS) and a dim sum and meat-rich pattern (DSM). Pattern scores for each participant were calculated and examined with type 2 diabetes risk using Cox regression. RESULTS The associations of the two dietary patterns with diabetes risk were modified by smoking status. Neither pattern was associated with risk of diabetes in ever smokers. In never smokers, the VFS dietary pattern was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Compared with the lowest quintile of the VFS dietary pattern score, the hazard ratios (HRs) for quintiles 2–5 were 0.91, 0.82, 0.73, and 0.75 (P = 0.0005 for trend). The DSM dietary pattern was positively associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in never smokers, with HRs for quintiles 2–5 of 1.07, 1.25, 1.18, and 1.47 (P < 0.0001 for trend). CONCLUSIONS A dietary pattern with higher intake of vegetables, fruits, and soy foods was inversely associated with risk of incident type 2 diabetes, and a pattern with higher intake of dim sum, meat and processed meat, sweetened foods and beverages, and fried foods was associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese men and women in Singapore. PMID:21330641

  10. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  11. Dietary Patterns Differently Associate with Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Overweight and Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cotillard, Aurelie; Habi-Rachedi, Fatiha; Brazeilles, Rémi; Gougis, Sophie; Gausserès, Nicolas; Cani, Patrice D.; Fellahi, Soraya; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Kennedy, Sean P.; Doré, Joel; Ehrlich, Stanislav Dusko; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Rizkalla, Salwa W.; Clément, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated. Objectives We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota. Design Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women). A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group. Results Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water). This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01) a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05). Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups). Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14) and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6) in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics. Conclusion A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in overweight and obese

  12. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a “traditional food pattern,” consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork, and fish; a “fast and processed food pattern” consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar, and confectionery; a “soybean, grain, and flour food pattern”; and a “dairy, animal liver, and other animal food pattern.” These patterns explained 17.48, 9.52, 5.51, and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of “traditional Chinese food” is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes, and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver, and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors. PMID:24350217

  13. Dietary Patterns and Household Food Insecurity in Rural Populations of Kilosa District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Kinabo, Joyce; Msuya, John; Mamiro, Peter; Majili, Zahara Saidi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community. Methodology Three hundred and seven (307) randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February–May) and post harvest season (September–October) in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score. Results Four food consumption patterns namely (I) Meat and milk; (II) Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III) fish (and other sea foods), roots and tubers; (IV) Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I) Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II) Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III) Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV) Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest–seasons, respectively (P = 0.01). Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity. Conclusion Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at

  14. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2014-07-28

    Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ɛ4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline.

  15. Dietary patterns and heritability of food choice in a UK female twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Teucher, Birgit; Skinner, Jane; Skidmore, Paula M L; Cassidy, Aedin; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Hooper, Lee; Roe, Mark A; Foxall, Robert; Oyston, Sarah L; Cherkas, Lynn F; Perks, Ursula C; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2007-10-01

    To examine the contribution of genetic factors to food choice, we determined dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaires in 3262 UK female twins aged 18 to 79 years. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified (fruit and vegetable, high alcohol, traditional English, dieting, low meat) that accounted for 22% of the total variance. These patterns are similar to those found in other singleton Western populations, and were related to body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and deprivation scores. Older subjects had higher scores on the fruit and vegetable and traditional English patterns, while lower social deprivation was associated with higher scores for fruit and vegetable, and lower scores for traditional English patterns. All 5 patterns were heritable, with estimates ranging from 41% to 48%. Among individual dietary components, a strongly heritable component was identified for garlic (46%), coffee (41%), fruit and vegetable sources (49%), and red meat (39%). Our results indicate that genetic factors have an important influence in determining food choice and dietary habits in Western populations. The relatively high heritability of specific dietary components implicates taste perception as a possible target for future genetic studies.

  16. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 h-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI) status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat) was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China. PMID:26404368

  17. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    .001; OR: 0.27). We found no difference in the overall consumption of fruits and vegetables between the LC patients and controls; however, the LC patients did have a greater consumption of cooked tomatoes and cooked root vegetables (p = 0.039 for both), and the controls had more consumption of leeks (p = 0.042) and, among controls younger than 65 years, cooked beans (p = 0.037). Lemon (p = 0.037), squeezed fruit juice (p = 0.032), and watermelon (p = 0.018) were also more frequently consumed by the controls. Other differences at the micronutrient level included greater consumption by the LC patients of retinol (p = 0.044), polyunsaturated fats (p = 0.041), and linoleic acid (p = 0.008); LC patients younger than 65 years also had greater intake of riboflavin (p = 0.045). We conclude that the differences in dietary consumption patterns between LC patients and controls indicate a possible role for lifestyle modifications involving nutritional factors as a means of decreasing the risk of laryngeal cancer.

  18. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  19. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-06-08

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  20. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  1. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding “western” food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p < 0.001), while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa = 1.51; p < 0.001), seemingly in private universities (p = 0.053). Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Male university students reported a higher

  2. The impact of usual dietary patterns, selection of significant foods and cuisine choices on changing dietary fat under 'free living' conditions.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Hokman, Anita; Sebastiao, Ana; Denmeade, Sharyn; Martin, Gina; Calvert, G Dennis; Jenkins, Arthur B

    2004-01-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general population and for the management of obesity, diabetes and heart disease suggest a reduction in dietary fat, and in particular dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). In order to achieve the recommended levels, changes in food choice patterns are required. Foods are consumed in combination with other foods, and these combinations are often recognizable as cuisine patterns. In this study we examined the food choice patterns of a group of 63 adults with existing type 2 diabetes mellitus who completed a 12 month dietary intervention trial aimed at changing dietary fat under 'free living' conditions. In both lower fat (LF, 27%) and modified fat (MF, 37%E) groups, a reduction in dietary SFA and an increase in polyunsaturated fat were required, with an additional requirement to increase dietary monounsaturated fat in the MF group. The usual diets of the study sample were on average low in total fat (27%E), but high in saturated fat (12%E). Those already consuming total fat at the level concordant with their allocation (LF or MF) achieved targets faster than those with a discordant allocation, but there was no significant effect of usual diet on time of target achievement at 12 months. At 6 months, those achieving dietary fat targets had changed to low fat dairy products and leaner meats, were having more spreads, oils, and nuts and were consuming takeaway meals less than twice a week. Contributions to dietary fat shifted from takeaway foods, meat, dairy products and cakes to spreads, oils and nuts. The modified fat and low fat groups chose more Mediterranean and South East Asian cuisines respectively. In this study sample, usual dietary patterns had an initial impact on change in the diet, but identifiable changes in food choice patterns and the adoption of certain cuisines that combined foods indicative of the dietary guidelines resulted in successful achievement of dietary fat targets.

  3. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

  4. Stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Hebestreit, Antje; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-12-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in children is pivotal as the foundations of dietary habits are established starting from childhood and may track into adulthood. In 437 children (5-12years) of the ChiBS study, stress was measured by questionnaires on stressful events, emotions (happy, angry, sad, anxious) and problems (emotional, peer, conduct and hyperactivity). Data were collected on children's emotional eating behaviour and also on dietary patterns: frequency of fatty foods, sweet foods, snacks (fat and sweet), fruit and vegetables. Stressful events, negative emotions and problems were positively associated with emotional eating. Positive associations were observed between problems and both sweet and fatty foods consumption. Negative associations were observed between events and fruit and vegetables consumption. Overall, stress was associated with emotional eating and a more unhealthy dietary pattern and could thus contribute to the development of overweight, also in children. Nevertheless, emotional eating behaviour was not observed to mediate the stress-diet relation.

  5. Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Shalene H

    2014-11-01

    Dietary patterns are an important concept in dietary recommendations. The Western pattern is most commonly defined as a diet characterized by high intakes of refined grains, sugar and red meat, and has been shown to be associated with increased risks for certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, isolating the independent effects of individual foods on health outcomes is central to helping individuals choose foods to build healthier dietary patterns to which they can adhere. Red meat is a popular source of high quality protein and provides a variety of essential nutrients that improve overall diet quality. It is also a source of saturated fatty acids, which observational evidence suggests are associated with heart disease, although recent data challenge this. Several studies have shown that lean red meat can be successfully included in recommended heart-healthy dietary patterns without detriment to blood lipids. Furthermore, increased dietary protein has been shown to promote healthy body weight and composition, in part by increasing satiety, and to improve vitality and stamina.

  6. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  7. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  8. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K.; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25898417

  9. Dietary Patterns during Complementary Feeding and Later Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for healthy infant feeding provide advice on breastfeeding and complementary feeding. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) derived dietary patterns in comparison to infant feeding guidelines and by using principal components analysis (PCA). The ALSPAC cohort was recruited during pregnancy. Parent-completed questionnaires assessed diet at age 6 and 15 months. Children were weighed and measured at 7 years of age and IQ was assessed at 8 years. A complementary feeding utility index was calculated in relation to 14 feeding recommendations. High scores on the index were due to longer breastfeeding, and feeding more fruit and vegetables and less ready-prepared baby foods. The index scores were positively related to IQ and 'healthy' dietary patterns in childhood. In infancy four dietary patterns were derived from PCA at each age. Three occurred at both ages: 'HM traditional' (home-made meat, vegetables and desserts), 'discretionary' (processed adult foods) and 'RM baby foods' (commercial ready-made baby foods). A 'breastfeeding' pattern was derived at 6 months, with fruit and vegetables included. At 15 months, a 'HM contemporary' pattern included cheese, fish, nuts, legumes, fruit and vegetables. The 'discretionary' and 'RM baby foods' patterns at both ages were negatively associated, while the 'breastfeeding' and 'HM contemporary' patterns were positively associated with IQ. These results suggest that infant diet influences cognitive development in children and may set a trend for later eating patterns.

  10. Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Sang Yeun; Wang, Youfa; Lee, Sun Ju; Oh, Kyungwon; Sohn, Chun Young; Moon, Young Myoung; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-09-01

    Transitions in nutrition patterns tend to emerge through industrialization and economic development. We hypothesized that the dietary patterns among South Korean adults who were 20 years or older have changed significantly from 1998 to 2010. Herein, a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data was followed for 140601 adults. We noted changes in consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and exercise, and tested the trends across the study period. Factor and cluster analyses were used to derive dietary patterns. A decrease in traditional Korean food consumption, including cereals, vegetables (252-176 g), and Kimchi (127-82 g), occurred, whereas fruit (172-252 g), egg, and fried food intakes increased (P < .05). Total daily energy intake declined steadily from 1931 in 1998 to 1691 kcal in 2010. Carbohydrate intakes were unchanged over the study period; however, fat-derived energy intake increased slightly from 19.7% to 20.0% (P < .05). Our factor and cluster analyses identified 3 dietary patterns: "Korean" diet (rice, vegetables, and Kimchi), "Western" diet (soda, eggs, and oil), and "New" diet (low sugar and high fruit and dairy product intakes). Compared to 1998, approximately 40% of participants still followed a Korean diet in 2010. Interestingly, the popularity of the Western diet fell by approximately 20%, whereas the new diet pattern increased 2-fold over the study period. Overall, these data show secular trends in dietary patterns that included a preservation of the traditional Korean diet and the emergence of a new diet pattern, and it demonstrated a unique transition in food and nutrient intakes in Korea.

  11. Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection123

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ≥ 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables. PMID:19064519

  12. Dietary patterns associated with metabolic syndrome, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyl...

  13. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65). In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings. PMID:27754328

  14. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer recurrence and survival: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Wu, Hao; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Savas, Sevtap; Woodrow, Jennifer; Wish, Tyler; Jin, Rong; Green, Roger; Woods, Michael; Roebothan, Barbara; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Mclaughlin, John R; Campbell, Peter T; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Design Cohort study. Setting A familial CRC registry in Newfoundland. Participants 529 newly diagnosed CRC patients from Newfoundland. They were recruited from 1999 to 2003 and followed up until April 2010. Outcome measure Participants reported their dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified with factor analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were employed to estimate HR and 95% CI for association of dietary patterns with CRC recurrence and death from all causes, after controlling for covariates. Results Disease-free survival (DFS) among CRC patients was significantly worsened among patients with a high processed meat dietary pattern (the highest vs the lowest quartile HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.09). No associations were observed with the prudent vegetable or the high-sugar patterns and DFS. The association between the processed meat pattern and DFS was restricted to patients diagnosed with colon cancer (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.40) whereas the relationship between overall survival (OS) and this pattern was observed among patients with colon cancer only (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.43). Potential effect modification was noted for sex (p value for interaction 0.04, HR 3.85 for women and 1.22 for men). Conclusions The processed meat dietary pattern prior to diagnosis is associated with higher risk of tumour recurrence, metastasis and death among patients with CRC. PMID:23396503

  15. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

  16. Cross-Cultural Dietary Patterns: A College Course on Ethnically Diverse Eating Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Mary K.; Stuhldreher, Wendy L.

    1998-01-01

    A course on cross-cultural dietary patterns provides family and consumer sciences students with information about influences on ethnic diets while introducing food preparation and computer nutrient evaluation techniques. (SK)

  17. Dietary patterns and quality in West-African immigrants in Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, Hélène F; Vioque, Jesús; Gil, Augusta

    2009-01-01

    Background Eating patterns of immigrants deserve to be better documented because they may reflect the extent of acculturation and associated health risks. The study assessed dietary patterns and quality in Bubi immigrants (from Equatorial Guinea) using cluster analysis and comparing different diet quality indexes. Methods A random sample of 83 Bubi men and 130 women living in Madrid were studied. A 99-item food frequency questionnaire was administered, body weights and heights were self-reported and socio-demographic and health information was collected during interviews. Usual intakes were collapsed into 19 food groups. Cluster analysis of standardized food intakes per 1000 kcalories was performed. Dietary quality was appraised using the Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index and scores of micronutrient adequacy and prevention based on WHO/FAO recommendations. Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The 'Healthier' pattern, so confirmed by two dietary quality indexes, featured a higher consumption of fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products and bread while the 'Western' pattern included more processed meat, animal fat, and sweetened foods and drinks. One third of the subjects were in the 'Healthier' food cluster, with the same proportion of men and women. Age ≥ 30 and residence in Madrid ≥ 11 years were independently associated with the healthier diet. Consumption of traditional foods was unrelated to dietary pattern, however. Overall, Bubi diets were somewhat protective because of high intakes of fruits and vegetables and monounsaturated fat (olive oil), but not with respect to sugar, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fibre. Less than two thirds of subjects had adequate intakes of iron, calcium and folate in both dietary phenotypes. Body mass index, physical exercise, and self-reported health and cardiovascular disease condition showed no significant association with the dietary pattern. Conclusion Cluster

  18. Confounding by dietary pattern of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome the limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  19. Generalizability of dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  20. Confounding by dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  1. [Dietary patterns and associated factors among children one to six years of age in a city in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Rosangela de Leon Veleda de; Madruga, Samanta Wink; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to describe dietary patterns and to investigate associations with demographic and socioeconomic factors among children one to six years of age in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Pearson correlation was used to group different foods. Dietary patterns were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). Associations were established with the Kruskal Wallis test (α = 0.05). The study evaluated 667 children. Five dietary patterns were identified: "vegetables", "traditional" (bread, butter/margarine, rice/pasta, coffee, sugar), "sweets and sausages", "snacks" (dairy products, chocolate, cookies, and juice), and "fruits". Children of mothers with more schooling and higher income showed greater adherence to "vegetables" and "fruits". The "traditional" pattern was more common in children of mothers with less education and lower family income. The "vegetables" and "traditional" patterns showed greater variance. Families' socioeconomic status played a key role in determining children's dietary patterns.

  2. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. Methods A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Results Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation

  3. Adolescent dietary patterns and premenopausal breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Holly R.; Willett, Walter C.; Vaidya, Rita L.; Michels, Karin B.

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tissue experiences the highest rate of proliferation during adolescence representing a period of heightened susceptibility. Few prospective studies have examined adolescent diet and breast cancer, and none have examined dietary patterns. Thus, we examined the association between adolescent dietary patterns and a diet quality index, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study II among those who completed a 124-item food frequency questionnaire about their high-school diet (HS-FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Among 45204 women who completed the HS-FFQ, 863 cases of premenopausal breast cancer and 614 cases of postmenopausal cancer were diagnosed. A marginal inverse association was observed between the ‘prudent’ dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, fish and poultry, and premenopausal breast cancer. Women in fifth quintile had a multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.67–1.04) for premenopausal breast cancer (P trend = 0.07) compared with the first quintile. Scoring higher on the AHEI was borderline significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer with a HR of 0.81 (0.64–1.01) for the fifth quintile (P trend = 0.08), and this association appeared to be stronger for estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative tumors. No association was observed between the ‘Western’ pattern or the ‘fast-food’ pattern. Results were similar for each of these patterns when both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer were considered together. An overall healthy diet during adolescence, similar to the prudent dietary pattern or adherence to the AHEI, may contribute to reducing the risk of breast cancer. PMID:26905584

  4. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized

  5. Association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and health-related factors among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Haleh; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Ghaemian, Ali; Darani Zad, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics among coronary artery disease patients. In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 250 patients coronary artery disease aged ≥ 40 years old. Data collection was done using questionnaires related to sociodemographics, health-related factors, and food-frequency intake information. Three dietary patterns (traditional, western, and healthy) were obtained using principal component analysis. The result showed that dietary patterns were associated with sociodemographic and health-related factors. According to the result, all the factors were taken very seriously when planning a promotional program for healthy lifestyle in prevention of CAD.

  6. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: synthesis of findings across cohorts and relevance to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-03-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11-28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index-mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality. Thus

  7. Transitions in living arrangements are associated with changes in dietary patterns in young women.

    PubMed

    Elstgeest, Liset E M; Mishra, Gita D; Dobson, Annette J

    2012-08-01

    Household composition influences people's diet, so typical transitions in young women's lives, including cohabitation, marriage, and motherhood, might be expected to influence their subsequent dietary behavior. The objective was to examine associations between transitions in living arrangements and changes in energy intake and dietary patterns for women in their 20s and 30s using longitudinal data collected in 2003 and 2009. FFQ were collected twice from 6534 women born in 1973-1978 participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Transition groups were defined from changes in their living arrangements. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Associations between transitions in living arrangements and changes in energy intake and dietary pattern scores were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Women living with children had greater energy intake than other women initially and those who started a family had the greatest increases over time. Five similar dietary patterns were derived from both surveys. Women living in a family at both times had higher scores on the high-fat and sugar, meat, and cooked vegetables patterns and lower scores on the Mediterranean-style and fruit patterns than other women. Women starting a family increased their consumption of the high-fat and sugar, fruit, and cooked vegetables patterns. Women not living with children at both times had increased scores on the Mediterranean-style pattern and decreased scores on the high-fat and sugar and cooked vegetables patterns compared with other women. In conclusion, starting a family is associated with changes in women's diet that are mainly unhealthy.

  8. Parents' dietary patterns are significantly correlated: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify dietary patterns independently in first-time mothers and fathers, and to examine whether these patterns were correlated within families. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program using a validated FFQ in 454 pairs of first-time mothers and fathers. Education level was reported in associated questionnaires. Principal components analyses included frequencies of fifty-five food groups and were performed independently in mothers and fathers. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between dietary pattern scores. A total of four dietary patterns were identified in mothers and fathers. Of these, three dietary patterns had similar characteristics between these two populations, namely 'Fruits and vegetables', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in mothers; and 'Fruits', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in fathers. The following two additional patterns were identified: 'Cereals and sweet foods' in mothers and 'Potatoes and vegetables' in fathers. Patterns incorporating healthier food items were found to be positively associated with parent education. An inverse association with education was found for the 'High-fat foods' and 'High-energy snack and processed foods' dietary patterns. Qualitatively similar patterns between corresponding mothers and fathers were the most strongly correlated (ρ = 0·34-0·45, P < 0·001). There were some differences in dietary patterns between mothers and fathers, suggesting that it is worth deriving patterns separately when considering couples, and more generally between men and women. Exploring how these various patterns correlate within households provides important insights to guide the development and implementation of family-based interventions.

  9. Life Course Dietary Patterns and Bone Health in Later Life in a British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Ann; Kuh, Diana L; Adams, Judith E; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evidence for the contribution of individual foods and nutrients to bone health is weak. Few studies have considered hypothesis‐based dietary patterns and bone health. We investigated whether a protein‐calcium‐potassium–rich (PrCaK‐rich) dietary pattern over the adult life course, was positively associated with bone outcomes at 60 to 64 years of age. Diet diaries were collected at ages 36, 46, 53, and 60 to 64 years in 1263 participants (661 women) from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. DXA and pQCT measurements were obtained at age 60 to 64 years, including size‐adjusted bone mineral content (SA‐BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). A food‐based dietary pattern best explaining dietary calcium, potassium, and protein intakes (g/1000 kcal) was identified using reduced rank regression. Dietary pattern Z‐scores were calculated for each individual, at each time point. Individual trajectories in dietary pattern Z‐scores were modeled to summarize changes in Z‐scores over the study period. Regression models examined associations between these trajectories and bone outcomes at age 60 to 64 years, adjusting for baseline dietary pattern Z‐score and other confounders. A consistent PrCaK‐rich dietary pattern was identified within the population, over time. Mean ± SD dietary pattern Z‐scores at age 36 years and age 60 to 64 years were –0.32 ± 0.97 and 2.2 ± 1.5 (women) and –0.35 ± 0.98 and 1.7 ± 1.6 (men), respectively. Mean trajectory in dietary pattern Z‐scores ± SD was 0.07 ± 0.02 units/year. Among women, a 0.02‐SD unit/year higher trajectory in dietary pattern Z‐score over time was associated with higher SA‐BMC (spine 1.40% [95% CI, 0.30 to 2.51]; hip 1.35% [95% CI, 0.48 to 2.23]), and vBMD (radius 1.81% [95% CI, 0.13 to 3.50]) at age 60 to 64 years. No statistically significant associations were found in men. During adulthood, an increasing score for a dietary

  10. Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Qun; Shu, Long; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Yu; Xuan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Su-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45–60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination); the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day−1 in men and 10 g day−1 in women); no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5%) were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: “Traditional Chinese”, “Animal food”, “Grains-vegetables” and “High-salt” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the “Animal food” pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.063–1.724; p < 0.05) than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), compared with the lowest quartile of the “Grains-vegetables” pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618–0.977, p < 0.05). However, the “traditional Chinese” and “high-salt” dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the

  11. Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Qun; Shu, Long; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Yu; Xuan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Su-Fang

    2015-06-15

    Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45-60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination); the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day(-1) in men and 10 g day(-1) in women); no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5%) were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: "Traditional Chinese", "Animal food", "Grains-vegetables" and "High-salt" dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the "Animal food" pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.063-1.724; p < 0.05) than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), compared with the lowest quartile of the "Grains-vegetables" pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618-0.977, p < 0.05). However, the "traditional Chinese" and "high-salt" dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the "Animal food" dietary pattern was associated with

  12. Cardiovascular risk in African American women attending historically Black colleges and universities: the role of dietary patterns and food preferences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra Chaisson; Geiselman, Paula J; Broussard, Tracy

    2010-11-01

    There is a lack of data on the dietary patterns and food preferences of African American women attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). African American women have higher death rates from cardiovascular disease than White women, and the initiating events of cardiovascular disease often begin in young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns and food preferences of African American college women, which may act as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A convenience sample of 100 African American women, ages 18 to 40 years, was administered two surveys assessing food preferences and dietary patterns. The majority of the participants (65%) preferred high-fat foods, and most of the participants (87%) consumed more than 30% of their daily caloric intake from fat. There is a definite need for dietary education regarding the impact of dietary fat on cardiovascular health among college students.

  13. Dietary patterns of women are associated with incident abdominal obesity but not metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Newby, P K; Millen, Barbara E; Brown, Lisa S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fung, Teresa T

    2012-09-01

    Data on the relationship between empirical dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in prospective study designs are limited. In addition, demographic and lifestyle determinants of MetS may modify the association between dietary patterns and the syndrome. We prospectively examined the relationship between empirically derived patterns and MetS and MetS components among 1146 women in the Framingham Offspring/Spouse cohort. They were aged 25-77 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and MetS at baseline, and followed for a mean of 7 y. Five dietary patterns, Heart Healthier, Lighter Eating, Wine and Moderate Eating, Higher Fat, and Empty Calorie, were previously identified using cluster analysis from food intake collected using a FFQ. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed lower odds for abdominal obesity for Higher Fat [OR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.91)] and Wine and Moderate Eating clusters [OR = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.72)] compared with the Empty Calorie cluster. Additional adjustment for BMI somewhat attenuated these OR [Higher Fat OR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.00); Wine and Moderate Eating OR = 0.34 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.89)]. None of the clusters was associated with MetS or other MetS components. Baseline smoking status and age did not modify the relation between dietary patterns and MetS. The Higher Fat and Wine and Moderate Eating patterns showed an inverse association with abdominal obesity; certain foods might be targeted in these habitual patterns to achieve optimal dietary patterns for MetS prevention.

  14. A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Myrte J; Erler, Nicole S; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; van den Broek, Marion; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Steegers, Eric A P; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-11-12

    Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a "Vegetable, oil and fish", a "Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy", and a "Margarine, sugar and snacks" pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the "Vegetable, oil and fish" pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69) for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q)). Adherence to the "Margarine, sugar and snacks" pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99) Q4 vs. Q1). Normal weight women with higher scores on the "Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy" pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (-0.01 (95% CI -0.02; -0.00) per SD). The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG.

  15. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  16. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-08-30

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  17. Effect of Energy Under-Reporting on Secular Trends of Dietary Patterns in a Mediterranean Population

    PubMed Central

    Funtikova, Anna N.; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A.; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background Diet is an important factor in the prevention of chronic diseases. Analysis of secular trends of dietary patterns can be biased by energy under-reporting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of energy under-reporting on dietary patterns and secular trends in dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis. Design and methods Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in Spain, in 2000 and 2005, with 3058 and 6352 participants, respectively, aged 25 to 74 years. Validated questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Cluster analysis was run separately for all participants, plausible energy reporters (PER), and energy under-reporters (EUR) to define dietary patterns. Results Three clusters, “healthy”, “mixed” and “western”, were identified for both surveys. The “mixed” cluster was the predominant cluster in both surveys. Excluding EUR reduced the proportion of the “mixed” cluster up to 6.40% in the 2000 survey; this caused secular trend increase in the prevalence of the “mixed” pattern. Cross-classification analysis of all participants and PER’ data showed substantial agreement in cluster assignments: 68.7% in 2000 and 84.4% in 2005. Excluding EUR did not cause meaningful (≥15%) changes in the “healthy” pattern. It provoked changes in consumption of some food groups in the “mixed” and “western” patterns: mainly decreases of unhealthy foods within the 2000 and increases of unhealthy foods within the 2005 surveys. Secular trend effects of EUR were similar to those within the 2005 survey. Excluding EUR reversed the direction of secular trends in consumption of several food groups in PER in the “mixed” and “western” patterns. Conclusions EUR affected distribution of participants between dietary patterns within and between surveys, secular trends in food group consumption and amount of food consumed in all, but not in the “healthy” pattern. Our findings

  18. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with elevated cholesterol among the Inuit of Nunavik.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Marie-Ève; Dewailly, Eric; Lucas, Michel; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2014-08-01

    Our cross-sectional study assessed the associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Nunavik Inuit. This study was conducted as part of the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey, which included the collection of clinical measurements, plasma samples, and diet information from a food frequency questionnaire. A sample of 666 Inuit aged 18 years and older was included in our analyses. Dietary patterns were generated by principal component analysis. Multivariate general linear models adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, and other potential confounders were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors. Four distinct patterns were identified, namely the traditional, Western, nutrient-poor food, and healthy patterns. The traditional pattern showed positive associations with plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B100, LDL peak particle diameter, and oxidized LDL (all P values for trend≤0.04), but showed no association with the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio or with inflammatory biomarkers (all P values for trend ≥0.19). The nutrient-poor food pattern was positively associated with oxidized LDL (P=0.04), but inversely associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P<0.0001). The Western and healthy patterns showed no association with any CVD risk factor. Our data show that high adherence to a traditional pattern among Nunavik Inuit is not associated with important changes in CVD risk factors, with the exception of a slight elevation in cholesterol concentrations, most likely attributable to increased n-3 fatty acid intake. Dietary patterns reflecting the recent introduction of market foods in the Inuit diet appear to exert a trivial influence on CVD risk factors.

  19. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  20. Dietary patterns, cognitive decline, and dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van de Rest, Ondine; Berendsen, Agnes Am; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm

    2015-03-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy between nutrients. Over the past few years, dietary patterns have increasingly been investigated to better understand the link between diet, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this systematic review we provide an overview of the literature on human studies up to May 2014 that examined the role of dietary patterns (derived both a priori as well as a posteriori) in relation to cognitive decline or dementia. The results suggest that better adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with less cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer disease, as shown by 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies, 6 of 12 longitudinal studies, 1 trial, and 3 meta-analyses. Other healthy dietary patterns, derived both a priori (e.g., Healthy Diet Indicator, Healthy Eating Index, and Program National Nutrition Santé guideline score) and a posteriori (e.g., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression), were shown to be associated with reduced cognitive decline and/or a reduced risk of dementia as shown by all 6 cross-sectional studies and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. More conclusive evidence is needed to reach more targeted and detailed guidelines to prevent or postpone cognitive decline.

  1. Dietary Patterns, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia: A Systematic Review12

    PubMed Central

    van de Rest, Ondine; Berendsen, Agnes AM; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette CPGM

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy between nutrients. Over the past few years, dietary patterns have increasingly been investigated to better understand the link between diet, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this systematic review we provide an overview of the literature on human studies up to May 2014 that examined the role of dietary patterns (derived both a priori as well as a posteriori) in relation to cognitive decline or dementia. The results suggest that better adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with less cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer disease, as shown by 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies, 6 of 12 longitudinal studies, 1 trial, and 3 meta-analyses. Other healthy dietary patterns, derived both a priori (e.g., Healthy Diet Indicator, Healthy Eating Index, and Program National Nutrition Santé guideline score) and a posteriori (e.g., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression), were shown to be associated with reduced cognitive decline and/or a reduced risk of dementia as shown by all 6 cross-sectional studies and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. More conclusive evidence is needed to reach more targeted and detailed guidelines to prevent or postpone cognitive decline. PMID:25770254

  2. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2015-11-12

    Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16-41 years) included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice", "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese", and "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood". GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation <24 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GDM, after controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake, physical activity, and log-transformed C-reactive protein (CRP). All statistical analyses accounted for the appropriate survey design and sample weights of the NHANES. Of 249 pregnant women, 34 pregnant women (14%) had GDM. Multivariable AOR (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons between the highest vs. lowest tertiles were 4.9 (1.4-17.0) for "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice" pattern, 7.5 (1.8-32.3) for "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese" pattern, and 22.3 (3.9-127.4) for "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood" pattern after controlling for maternal sociodemographic variables, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake and log

  3. An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilä, V; Vepsäläinen, H; Saloheimo, T; Gonzalez, S A; Meisel, J D; Hu, G; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dietary pattern is defined as a combination of foods and drinks and the frequency of consumption within a population. Dietary patterns are changing on a global level, which may be linked to an increased incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children living in urban regions in different parts of the world. METHODS: Participants were 7199 children (54% girls), aged 9–11 years, from 12 countries situated in all major world regions. Food consumption was assessed using a 23-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To identify dietary patterns, principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out using weekly portions as input variables. RESULTS: Both site-specific and pooled PCA resulted in two strong components. Component 1 (‘unhealthy diet pattern') included fast foods, ice cream, fried food, French fries, potato chips, cakes and sugar-sweetened sodas with >0.6 loadings. The loadings for component 2 (‘healthy diet pattern') were slightly weaker with only dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, vegetables in general, and fruits and berries reaching a >0.6 loading. The site-specific diet pattern scores had very strong correlations with the pattern scores from the pooled data: r=0.82 and 0.94 for components 1 and 2, respectively. CONCULSIONS: The results suggest that the same ‘healthier' and ‘unhealthier' foods tend to be consumed in similar combinations among 9–11-year-old children in different countries, despite variation in food culture, geographical location, ethnic background and economic development. PMID:27152179

  4. Education Attenuates the Association between Dietary Patterns and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Archana, Singh-Manoux; Marmot, Michael G.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Various foods have been shown to be associated with cognitive outcomes. As individual food items are not consumed in isolation, we examined the association between dietary patternsand cognitive function, with special attention to the role of education in this association. Methods Analyses were carried out on 4,693 stroke-free white European participants of the Whitehall II study. Two dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis: a ‘whole food’ and a ‘processed food’ pattern. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of 5 tests. Results After adjustment for demographic, behavioral and health measures, higher intake of ‘whole food’ diet was associated with lower and high consumption of ‘processed food’ with higher odds of cognitive deficit. However, adjustment for education significantly attenuated most of these associations. Conclusions Education, through its role as a powerful confounder, shapes the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive deficit in a healthy middle-aged UK cohort. PMID:19182482

  5. Dietary patterns and the phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome: the chance of ongoing pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Nicole A; Louwers, Yvonne V; Willemsen, Sten P; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Laven, Joop S E

    2017-03-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is generally considered a complex disorder caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. In a sub-cohort of women with PCOS visiting the preconception outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital with follow-up in a periconception cohort, we identified specific dietary patterns and adherence in patients with PCOS with and without hyperandrogenism and the chance of ongoing pregnancy. Food frequency questionnaires were available from 55 patients diagnosed with PCOS during follow-up in routine clinical practice, including 25 with hyperandrogenism and 30 without hyperandrogenism. Strong adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with the hyperandrogenic PCOS phenotype (Adjusted OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.99). In women with PCOS overall, a strong adherence to the healthy dietary pattern showed a three-fold higher chance of ongoing pregnancy (adjusted OR 3.38; 95% CI 1.01 to 11.36) and an association with anti-Müllerian hormone concentration (β -0.569 µg/L; 95% CI -0.97 to -0.17). The effect of this dietary pattern on the chance of ongoing pregnancy and AMH suggests causality, which needs further investigation in prospective studies in the general population.

  6. Dietary patterns associated with HbA1c and LDL cholesterol among individuals with type 1 diabetes in China

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Mendez, Michelle A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liu, Wei; Ji, Linong; Du, Shufa; Rosamond, Wayne; Popkin, Barry M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To identify dietary patterns that influence cardiometabolic risk among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study of T1D in China (n=99). Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns from a set of 20 food groups that maximized the explained variation in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Results Dietary pattern 1 was characterized by low intakes of wheat products and high-fat cakes, and high intakes of beans and pickled vegetables. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by low intakes of high-fat cakes, nuts/seeds, fish/shellfish, and teas/coffee, and high intakes of rice and eggs. Participants in the highest tertile of dietary pattern 1 had significantly (p<0.05) higher HbA1c and LDL cholesterol compared to participants in the lowest tertile: mean difference in HbA1c was 1.0 percentage point (11mmol/mol) and in LDL cholesterol was 0.36 mmol/L after adjustment for age and household income. Dietary pattern 2 was not associated with HbA1c or LDL cholesterol. Conclusions We identified a dietary pattern that is significantly related to HbA1c and LDL cholesterol. These findings provide support for behavioral strategies to prevent complications in individuals with T1D in China. PMID:25630525

  7. Associations between dietary patterns and self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Castro, Michelle Alessandra de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular disease, the important modifiable risk factor of which is diet. The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns and to test associations with self-reported hypertension and other characteristics, namely demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. Data were obtained from the population-based cross-sectional study titled Health Survey of the City of São Paulo, with a random sample of residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aged older than 20 years of both sexes (n=1,102). In 2008, a structured questionnaire with information about socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors was applied. Dietary intake was estimated by two 24-hour dietary recalls, adjusted by Multiple Source Method. Dietary patterns were obtained through exploratory principal component factor analysis. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread, white cheeses, juices, reduced-fat milk/nonfat milk), traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar), and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats). Hypertension and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, as well as the presence of health insurance, were associated with adherence to one or more identified dietary patterns. These results suggest the existence of a target audience for planning and executing public policies of food and nutrition to prevent and control hypertension.

  8. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban African-American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Improper dietary intake pattern is a risk factor for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African American adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to describe dietary intake patterns including energy, nutrient, food g...

  9. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Methods Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. Trial Registration NCT: NCT01343342 PMID:23398686

  10. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: A latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. Objective To identify patterns (or ‘classes’) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, “conscientious” food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. Design A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Participants/setting Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities metropolitan area (n=1,201) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Fast food and soda consumption; meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Statistical analyses Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. Results An eight-class solution was identified: “traditional shopper (14.9%),” “fresh food and supermarket shopper (14.1%),” “convenience shopper (18.8%),” “conscientious convenience shopper (13.8%),” “conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper (11.8%),” “conscientious fresh food shopper (6.6%),” “conscientious non-shopper (10.2%)”, and “non-shopper (9.8%).” “Fresh food and supermarket shoppers” and “conscientious fresh food shopper” had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar) while “convenience shoppers” and “conscientious convenience shoppers,” and “non-shoppers” had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than “traditional shoppers.” Conclusions These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of

  11. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Mara M.; Chang, Ellen T.; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T.; Batista, Julie L.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E.; Birmann, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997–2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns (“vegetable,” “high meat,” “fruit/low-fat dairy,” “desserts/sweets”) using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945

  12. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Metabolic Outcomes among Adult Samoans in a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongqing; Hawley, Nicola L; Thompson, Avery A; Lameko, Viali; Reupena, Muagatutia Sefuiva; McGarvey, Stephen T; Baylin, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Background: The Samoan population has been undergoing a nutrition transition toward more imported and processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle.Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary patterns in Samoa and to evaluate their associations with metabolic outcomes.Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study includes 2774 Samoan adults recruited in 2010 (1104 with metabolic syndrome compared with 1670 without). Principal component analysis on food items from a 104-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns. Adjusted least squares means of each component of metabolic syndrome were estimated by quintiles of factor scores for each dietary pattern. Metabolic syndrome status was regressed on quintiles of scores by using log-binomial models to obtain prevalence ratios.Results: We identified a modern pattern, a mixed-traditional pattern, and a mixed-modern pattern. The modern pattern included a high intake of imported and processed foods, including pizza, cheeseburgers, margarine, sugary drinks, desserts, snacks, egg products, noodles, nuts, breads, and cakes and a low intake of traditional agricultural products and fish. The mixed-traditional pattern had a high intake of neotraditional foods, including fruits, vegetables, soup, poultry, and fish, and imported and processed foods, including dairy products, breads, and cakes. The mixed-modern pattern was loaded with imported and processed foods, including pizza, cheeseburgers, red meat, egg products, noodles, and grains, but also with neotraditional foods, such as seafood and coconut. It also included a low intake of fish, tea, coffee, soup, and traditional agricultural staples. Higher adherence to the mixed-modern pattern was associated with lower abdominal circumference (P-trend < 0.0001), lower serum triglycerides (P-trend = 0.03), and higher serum HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.0003). The mixed-modern pattern was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (the highest

  13. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74) and carbohydrates (r = 0.22), those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34). After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively) and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97). Conclusions The findings of this study

  14. A prospective study of dietary patterns and cancer mortality among Blacks and Whites in the REGARDS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Pisu, Maria; Lakoski, Susan G.; Shikany, James; Goodman, Michael; Judd, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Marked racial differences exist in dietary patterns and obesity, as well as cancer mortality. This study aims to assess whether dietary patterns are associated with cancer mortality overall and by race. We identified 22,041 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Dietary patterns were categorized into: Convenience (Chinese and Mexican foods, pasta, pizza), Plant-based (fruits, vegetables), Southern (added fats, fried foods, sugar-sweetened beverages), Sweets/Fats (sugary foods) and Alcohol/Salads (alcohol, green-leafy vegetables, salad dressing). Using Cox regression, we examined the association between quartiles of dietary patterns and cancer mortality, adjusted for potential confounders, overall among all participants and stratified by race. A total of 873 cancer deaths were observed over the 10-year observation period: 582 (66.7%) in Whites and 291 (33.3%) in Blacks. Greater adherence to the Southern dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality (4th vs. 1st quartile HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.32–2.10) overall, especially among Whites (4th vs. 1st quartile HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.22–2.08). The convenience (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56–0.94) and Plant-based (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55–0.93) dietary patterns were associated with up to a 28% reduced risk of cancer mortality, but only among Whites. Greater adherence to the Southern dietary pattern increased the risk of cancer mortality, while greater adherence to the convenience and Plant-based diets reduced the risk of cancer mortality among Whites. Racial differences were observed in the association between dietary patterns and cancer mortality, but warrant further study. PMID:27459634

  15. Associations between Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk among Yup’ik Alaska Native People using Food Frequency Questionnaire Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, TK; Boyer, BB; Hopkins, S; Philip, J; Beresford, SAA; Thompson, B; Heagerty, PJ; Pomeroy, JJ; Thummel, KE; Austin, MA

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In previous analyses, we identified three dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaire data among a sample of Yup’ik Alaska Native people living in Southwest Alaska: a “subsistence foods” dietary pattern and two market-based dietary patterns “processed foods” and “fruits and vegetables”. In this analysis, we aimed to characterize the association between the dietary patterns and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors (lipids, blood pressure, glucose, adiposity). Methods and Results We used multilevel linear regression to estimate the mean of each CM risk factor, comparing participants in the 4th to the 1st quartile of each dietary pattern (n=637). Models were adjusted for age, sex, past smoking, current smoking, and physical activity. Mean log triglyceride levels were significantly higher among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the processed foods dietary pattern (β=0.11). Mean HbA1c percent was significantly lower (β=−0.08) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) mm Hg was significantly higher (β=2.87) among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the fruits and vegetables dietary pattern. Finally, mean log triglyceride levels and mean DBP mm Hg were significantly lower among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the subsistence foods dietary pattern (β=−0.10 and β=−3.99 respectively). Conclusions We found increased CM risk, as reflected by increased triglycerides, associated with eating a greater frequency of processed foods, and reduced CM risk, as reflected by lower triglycerides and DBP, associated with eating a greater frequency of subsistence foods. PMID:26607703

  16. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lafay, Lionel; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires national food consumption survey. Weight and height, leisure time physical activity, SED (television viewing), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires. Scores for lifestyle patterns were assessed with factor analysis and their relationship with OW was explored by logistic regression analysis. Two similar lifestyle patterns were identified in children aged 3-6 y and 7-11 y: "snacking and sedentary" and "varied food and physically active." The snacking and sedentary pattern was positively associated with OW in the youngest children (P-trend = 0.0161) and partly mediated the negative association of SES to OW. The varied food and physically active pattern was inversely correlated with OW in the eldest children only (P-trend = 0.0401). A third pattern called "big eaters at main meals" was derived in children aged 7-11 y and was positively correlated with OW (P-trend = 0.0165). From a public health perspective, the combinations of identifiable dietary and physical activity behaviors may be useful as a basis for recommendations on preventing OW.

  17. Socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of 'Western-like' and 'Health conscious' dietary patterns in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Bleeker, Sacha E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-01-14

    Determinants of a child's diet shortly after weaning and lactation have been relatively understudied. The aim of the present study was hence to identify common dietary patterns in toddlers and to explore parental and child indicators of these dietary patterns. The study was a population-based, prospective birth-cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Food consumption data of 2420 children aged 14 months were used. A 'Health conscious' dietary pattern characterised by pasta, fruits, vegetables, oils, legumes and fish, and a 'Western-like' dietary pattern characterised by snacks, animal fats, confectionery and sugar-containing beverages were extracted using principal component analysis. Low paternal education, low household income, parental smoking, multiparity, maternal BMI, maternal carbohydrate intake and television-watching of child were determinants of a 'Western-like' diet, whereas parental age, dietary fibre intake during pregnancy, introduction of solids after 6 months and female sex were inversely associated with a 'Western-like' diet of the child. Maternal co-morbidity, alcohol consumption during pregnancy and female sex were inversely associated with a 'Health conscious' dietary pattern of the child, while single parenthood, folic acid use and dietary fibre intake during pregnancy were positively associated. All aforementioned associations were statistically significant. In conclusion, both 'Western-like' and 'Health conscious' diets can already be identified in toddlers. Particularly, adherence to a 'Western-like' diet is associated with unfavourable lifestyle factors of the parents and child, and low socio-economic background. These findings can form a basis for future epidemiological studies regarding dietary patterns and health outcomes in young children.

  18. Updated US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns meet goals of the 2010 dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Britten, Patricia; Cleveland, Linda E; Koegel, Kristin L; Kuczynski, Kevin J; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2012-10-01

    The US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns were updated for the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to meet new nutrition goals and incorporate results of food pattern modeling requested by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used and changes in the updated patterns. Changes include renaming the Meat and Beans and Milk Groups to the Protein Foods and Dairy Groups, respectively, to be more encompassing of foods in each. Vegetable subgroups now provide more achievable intake recommendations. Calcium-fortified soymilk is now included in the Dairy Group because of its similarity to foods in that group. Increased amounts of seafoods are recommended in the Protein Foods Group, balanced by decreased amounts of meat and poultry. A limit on calories from solid fats and added sugars is included, replacing the previous discretionary calorie allowance and emphasizing the need to choose nutrient-dense forms of foods. Lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegan patterns that meet nutrition goals were created by making substitutions in the Protein Foods Group, and for vegan patterns, in the Dairy Group. Patterns identify food choices that meet nutritional needs within energy allowances and encourage choosing a variety of foods. They rely on foods in nutrient-dense forms, including a limited amount of calories from solid fats and added sugars. The Food Patterns provide a useful template for educating consumers about healthful food choices while highlighting a large gap between choices many Americans make and healthy eating patterns.

  19. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min-Shan; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; He, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xue-Ling; Lu, Jin-Hua; Li, Sheng-Hui; Wen, Xing-Xuan; Chan, Fan-Fan; Chen, Nian-Nian; Qiu, Lan; Mai, Wei-Bi; Zhang, Rui-Fang; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” (n 1026, 14.8%), “Dairy” (n 1020, 14.7%), “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” (n 799, 11.5%), “Meats” (n 1066, 15.3%), “Vegetables” (n 1383, 19.9%), and “Varied” (n 1224, 17.6%). The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” and “Varied” groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group. Compared with women in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group, those in the “Varied” group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08). These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby. PMID:27136584

  20. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    PubMed

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  1. Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Summary Although dietary patterns, specific foods, and their constituents have been linked to cancer risk, the role of dietary patterns and specific food groups in liver cancer risk has not been investigated. In the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), two cohort studies of 132 837 Chinese women and men, we evaluated the relationship between dietary patterns, food groups, and liver cancer risk. Through in-person interviews, dietary information intake over the preceding year was collected by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 10.9 (SWHS) or 5.5 (SMHS) years, 267 incident liver cancer cases were identified after the first 2 years of study enrollment. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. A vegetable-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with liver cancer; HRs (95% CIs) for the lowest to highest quartiles were: 1.00, 0.98 (0.71–1.35), 0.93 (0.67–1.29), and 0.58 (0.40–0.84); Ptrend=0.01). The association was stronger among participants with a history of chronic liver disease. Further analyses showed high intakes of celery, mushrooms, allium vegetables, composite vegetables (including asparagus lettuce and garland chrysanthemum), legumes, and legume products were associated with reduced liver cancer risk (all Ptrend<0.05). Fruit- and meat-based dietary patterns were not associated with liver cancer risk. Our study suggests that a vegetable-based dietary pattern is associated with reduced liver cancer risk. PMID:23841909

  2. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [≥150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ≥2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was

  3. Identification of dietary patterns in urban population of Argentina: study on diet-obesity relation in population-based prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; del Pilar Díaz, María; De La Quintana, Ana Gabriela; Forte, Carla Antonella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS The Córdoba Obesity and Diet Study (CODIES) was conducted in Córdoba city by using a random sample of n = 4,327 subjects between 2005 and 2012. Empirically derived dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of dietary patterns with obesity. RESULTS Four dietary patterns were identified, called “Starchy-Sugar”, “Prudent”, “Western”, and “Sugary drinks”. High scores for the “Western” pattern (with strongest factor loading on meats/eggs, processed meats, and alcohol) showed a positive association with obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67, for third versus first tertile of factor score). “Meats/Cheeses” and “Snacks/Alcohol” patterns emerged in people with obesity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that high adherence to the “Western” pattern promoted obesity in this urban population. In addition, people with obesity showed characteristic dietary patterns that differ from those identified in the overall population. PMID:27909559

  4. Dietary patterns and maternal anthropometry in HIV-infected, pregnant Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; Ban Study Team

    2015-01-14

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  5. Dietary patterns and risk of ductal carcinoma of the breast: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Aune, Dagfinn; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) shows very high incidence rates in Uruguayan women. The present factor analysis of ductal carcinoma of the breast, the most frequent histological type of this malignancy both in Uruguay and in the World, was conducted at a prepaid hospital of Montevideo, Uruguay. We identified 111 cases with ductal BC and 222 controls with normal mammograms. A factor analysis was conducted using 39 food groups, allowing retention of six factors analyzed through logistic regression in order to obtain odds ratios (OR) associated with ductal BC. The low fat and non-alcoholic beverage patterns were inversely associated (OR=0.30 and OR=0.45, respectively) with risk. Conversely, the fatty cheese pattern was positively associated (OR=4.17) as well as the fried white meat (OR=2.28) and Western patterns (OR 2.13). Ductal BC shared similar dietary risk patterns as those identified by studies not discriminating between histologic type of breast cancer.

  6. Dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study).

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangah; Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-05-28

    Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most of the studies have focused on risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than overall diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Japanese women. A total of 49 552 Japanese women were followed-up from 1995 to 1998 (5-year follow-up survey) until the end of 2012 for an average of 14·6 years. During 725 534 person-years of follow-up, 718 cases of breast cancer were identified. We identified three dietary patterns (prudent, westernised and traditional Japanese). The westernised dietary pattern was associated with a 32 % increase in breast cancer risk (hazard ratios (HR) 1·32; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·70; P trend=0·04). In particular, subjects with extreme intake of the westernised diet (quintile (Q) Q5_5th) had an 83 % increase in risk of breast cancer in contrast to those in the lowest Q1 (HR 1·83; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·68; P trend=0·01). In analyses stratified by menopausal status, postmenopausal subjects in the highest quintile of the westernised dietary pattern had a 29 % increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·76; P trend=0·04). With regard to hormone receptor status, the westernised dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positivetumours (HR 2·49; 95 % CI 1·40, 4·43; P trend<0·01). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. A westernised dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

  7. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Esophageal Cancer Mortality: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Okada, Emiko; Nakamura, Koshi; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Sakata, Kiyomi; Date, Chigusa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Several case-control studies have associated dietary patterns with esophageal cancer (EC) risk, but prospective studies are scarce. We investigated dietary pattern and EC mortality risk associations by smoking status. Participants were 26,562 40- to 79-yr-old Japanese men, who enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study between 1988 and 1990. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC mortality in nonsmokers and smokers were estimated using Cox proportional models. During follow-up (1988-2009), 132 participants died of EC. Using a baseline food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis, vegetable, animal, and dairy product food patterns were identified. EC risk decreased significantly with a higher factor score for the dairy product pattern (Ptrend = 0.042) and was more pronounced in smokers [multivariable HR (4th vs. 1st quartiles) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.09; Ptrend = 0.021]. Neither vegetable nor animal food patterns were significant overall; however, EC risk increased with a higher factor score for the animal food pattern in nonsmokers [multivariable HR (4th vs. 1st quartiles) = 6.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 30.88; Ptrend = 0.021], although the small number of events was a limitation. Our findings suggest a dairy product pattern may reduce EC risk in Japanese men, especially smokers.

  8. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population.

    PubMed

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-05-28

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P=0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P=0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics.

  9. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population

    PubMed Central

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P = 0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P = 0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics. PMID:26987270

  10. Dietary Patterns and Insomnia Symptoms in Chinese Adults: The China Kadoorie Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Du, Huaidong; Chen, Yiping; Tao, Ran; Huang, Ying; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Limited attention has been paid to the effect of dietary patterns on sleep problems. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data of 481,242 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank. A laptop-based questionnaire was administered to collect information on food intakes and insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of each insomnia symptom according to quartiles of each dietary pattern, with adjustment for potential confounders. Two major dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The traditional northern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of wheat and other staple food, whereas the modern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, fresh fruit, and dairy products. Both dietary patterns were associated with a decreased prevalence of insomnia symptoms (p for trend < 0.001); after adjustment for potential confounders, individuals who had the highest quartile score of traditional northern dietary pattern were 12%–19% less likely to have insomnia symptoms compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio: 0.81–0.88), and the corresponding values for the modern dietary pattern were 0.89–1.01. Furthermore, interactions of these two dietary patterns on insomnia symptoms were observed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between diet and insomnia. PMID:28335373

  11. Dietary Patterns and Insomnia Symptoms in Chinese Adults: The China Kadoorie Biobank.

    PubMed

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Du, Huaidong; Chen, Yiping; Tao, Ran; Huang, Ying; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2017-03-04

    Limited attention has been paid to the effect of dietary patterns on sleep problems. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data of 481,242 adults aged 30-79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank. A laptop-based questionnaire was administered to collect information on food intakes and insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of each insomnia symptom according to quartiles of each dietary pattern, with adjustment for potential confounders. Two major dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The traditional northern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of wheat and other staple food, whereas the modern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, fresh fruit, and dairy products. Both dietary patterns were associated with a decreased prevalence of insomnia symptoms (p for trend < 0.001); after adjustment for potential confounders, individuals who had the highest quartile score of traditional northern dietary pattern were 12%-19% less likely to have insomnia symptoms compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio: 0.81-0.88), and the corresponding values for the modern dietary pattern were 0.89-1.01. Furthermore, interactions of these two dietary patterns on insomnia symptoms were observed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between diet and insomnia.

  12. Dietary patterns in infancy and their associations with maternal socio-economic and lifestyle factors among 758 Japanese mother-child pairs: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    Dietary habits established in early childhood contribute to lifelong dietary pattern and the development of early risk factors for disease in adulthood. Although a large body of epidemiologic data from Western countries show that the dietary pattern of children is influenced by maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, information on this topic in non-Western countries is absolutely lacking. The present study identified dietary patterns among infants aged 16-24 months, and then examined the influence of maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics on identified dietary patterns. Subjects were 758 Japanese mother-child pairs. Dietary data of infants were collected from the mothers using a questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted from the consumption of 15 foods (times week(-1)) by cluster analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' (n = 483) and 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' (n = 275) patterns. After adjustment for all other predictors, maternal educational level, number of infants' siblings and maternal dietary patterns were independently associated with dietary patterns of infants. Infants whose mothers had a higher educational level and the 'rice, fish and vegetables' dietary pattern were less likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' pattern, whereas infants whose mothers had a higher number of children and the 'wheat product' dietary pattern were more likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' than the 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' pattern. In conclusion, the mother's socio-economic position and dietary patterns were associated with the dietary patterns of infants in the Japanese pairs as observed in the Western populations.

  13. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  14. Maternal Dietary Patterns during the Second Trimester Are Associated with Preterm Birth123

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chantel L; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology is largely unknown. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods: This prospective cohort study used data from the PIN (Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition) study (n = 3143). Dietary intake was assessed at 26–29 wk of gestation by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and patterns were derived by using factor analysis and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Associations between dietary patterns and preterm birth were assessed by logistic regression. Results: Four dietary patterns were identified from the factor analysis characterized by high intakes of the following: 1) fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, high-fiber and fortified cereals, nonfried chicken and fish, and wheat bread; 2) beans, corn, French fries, hamburgers or cheeseburgers, white potatoes, fried chicken, mixed dishes, and ice cream; 3) collard greens, coleslaw or cabbage, red and processed meats, cornbread or hushpuppies, whole milk, and vitamin C–rich drinks; and 4) shellfish, pizza, salty snacks, and refined grains. Increased odds of preterm birth were found for a diet characterized by a high consumption of collard greens, coleslaw or cabbage, red meats, fried chicken and fish, processed meats, cornbread or hushpuppies, eggs or egg biscuits, gravy, whole milk, and vitamin C–rich drinks such as Kool-Aid (Kraft Foods) and Hi-C (Minute Maid Co.) (adjusted OR for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.24). Greater adherence to the DASH diet was associated with decreased odds of preterm birth compared with women in the lowest quartile (adjusted OR for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.85). Conclusions: Diet quality during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth; thus, preconceptional and early prenatal dietary

  15. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Dahm, Christina C; Key, Timothy J; Cairns, Benjamin J; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Keogh, Ruth H; Bhaniani, Amit; McTaggart, Alison; Lentjes, Marleen AH; Mishra, Gita; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Objectives In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk. Subjects/ Methods The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within 4 UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4-to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only. Results The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing 1st tertile with 3rd 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a ‘high-alcohol’ pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98). Conclusions A ‘high-alcohol’ dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study. PMID:25052230

  16. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns. Methods Data from the fourth follow-up of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort study, Brazil, were used. A total of 2,061 young adults, whose mothers gave sociodemographic information at birth in 1978–79, provided sociodemographic and dietary data through a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–2004, when they were aged 23–25 years. Those whose caloric intake was outside of the ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2,034 individuals. The dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis followed by varimax orthogonal rotation. Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to derive prevalence ratios (PR). Results Four dietary patterns were identified: healthy, traditional Brazilian, energy-dense and bar. In the adjusted analysis, individuals with higher schooling (≥12 years) in adult life (PR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07-2.14) showed greater adherence whilst men (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93) had lower adherence to the healthy pattern. The highest adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern was found for men (PR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.04-2.80), mullatos (PR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.64), households with ≥2 members, and for those with children (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55) while individuals with higher schooling in adulthood (≥12 years) (PR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34-0.65), higher family income in adulthood (≥20 MW) (PR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99) and higher family income at birth (≥6.1 MW) showed lower adherence. The bar pattern was positively associated with male sex (PR = 2.96, 95% CI: 2.47-3.55) and low schooling (≤8 years). The energy-dense pattern was not associated with any of the variables investigated. Social mobility was associated with the

  17. Identifying patterns from one-rule-firing cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Kyun

    2011-01-01

    A new firing scheme for cellular automata in which only one rule is fired at a time produces myriad patterns. In addition to geometric patterns, natural patterns such as flowers and snow crystals were also generated. This study proposes an efficient method identifying the patterns using a minimal number of digits. Complexity of the generated patterns is discussed in terms of the shapes and colors of the patterns.

  18. Is the number of siblings associated with dietary patterns in adolescents? The 1993 birth cohort of Pelotas (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Meller, F. O.; Assunção, M. C. F.; Schäfer, A. A.; Loret de Mola, C.; Dahly, D. L.; Vaz, J. S.; Barros, F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to estimate the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns in adolescents. Prospective longitudinal study was developed using data from the birth cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, which included 5249 participants. At the 18-year-old follow-up, from 4563 individuals located, 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3%). Of these, 3751 were included in our principal component analysis of dietary patterns. Regular dietary intake of 45 food groups over the previous year was measured with a food frequency questionnaire. We identified four patterns, which accounted for 40% of the total variance in food group consumption. These were labeled “Protein and fast food”, “Fruit and vegetables”, “Common Brazilian”, and “Sweets, soft drinks, and dairy products”. Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns were performed using linear regression. The number of siblings was positively associated with a higher adherence to each dietary pattern, with the exception of the “Common Brazilian” patterns, for which there was no apparent relationship with number of siblings. The findings showed that a greater number of siblings is related to a more diverse diet in the later adolescence, which may predict better nutrient adequacy and health outcomes. PMID:28333975

  19. Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Barbaresko, Janett; Koch, Manja; Schulze, Matthias B; Nöthlings, Ute

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present literature review was to investigate and summarize the current evidence on associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of inflammation, as derived from epidemiological studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE, and a total of 46 studies were included in the review. These studies predominantly applied principal component analysis, factor analysis, reduced rank regression analysis, the Healthy Eating Index, or the Mediterranean Diet Score. No prospective observational study was found. Patterns identified by reduced rank regression as being statistically significantly associated with biomarkers of inflammation were almost all meat-based or "Western" patterns. Studies using principal component analysis or a priori-defined diet scores found that meat-based or "Western-like" patterns tended to be positively associated with biomarkers of inflammation, predominantly C-reactive protein, while vegetable- and fruit-based or "healthy" patterns tended to be inversely associated. While results of the studies were inconsistent, interventions with presumed healthy diets resulted in reductions of almost all investigated inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, prospective studies are warranted to confirm the reported findings and further analyze associations, particularly by investigating dietary patterns as risk factors for changes in inflammatory markers over time.

  20. Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Holmes, Bridget A

    2010-02-01

    The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5-11 and 12-17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. 'Healthier' patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more 'unhealthy' patterns ('snacks' and 'puddings') were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with 'healthier' patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with 'puddings' and 'snacks' in girls aged 5-11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required.

  1. The Association of Socio-Demographic Status, Lifestyle Factors and Dietary Patterns with Total Urinary Phthalates in Australian Men

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Peter Y.; Wittert, Gary A.; Taylor, Anne W.; Martin, Sean A.; Milne, Robert W.; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. Method We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Results Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5–117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (p<0.001), were positively associated with total phthalate levels. There was no significant relationship between total phthalate concentration and socio-demographic status. Conclusion Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men. PMID:25875472

  2. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern.

    PubMed

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences - life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today's challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  3. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet’s potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need. PMID:26284249

  4. Gender Differences in Dietary Patterns and Their Association with the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shu-Hong; Qiao, Nan; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Cui, Yan; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Cong; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hui; Liang, Jie; Lu, Qing; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated gender differences in dietary intake. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The food intakes of 3794 subjects enrolled by a two-stage cluster stratified sampling method were collected using a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its prevalence was 35.70% in the sample (37.67% in men and 24.67% in women). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis combined with cluster analysis and multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factorial invariance between gender groups. The dominating dietary pattern for men was the “balanced” dietary pattern (32.65%) and that for women was the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern (34.42%). For men, the “animal and fried food” dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01–1.60), after adjustment for age, marital status, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. For women, the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.24–4.14). We observed gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of MetS. For men, the “animal and fried food” dietary pattern was associated with enhancive likelihood of MetS. For women, it was the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern. PMID:27023599

  5. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of postpartum depression in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2011-04-01

    Although several nutrients and foods are suggested to be preventive against postpartum depression, all previous studies have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. In contrast, studies on dietary patterns, namely the measurement of overall diet by considering the cumulative effects of nutrient, may provide new insights into the influence of diet on postpartum depression. We prospectively examined the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of postpartum depression among 865 Japanese women. Diet was assessed with a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups (energy-adjusted food (g/d)) were extracted by factor analysis. Postpartum depression was defined as present when the subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥ 9 at 2-9 months postpartum. A total of 121 women (14·0 %) were classified as having postpartum depression. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'Healthy', 'Western' and 'Japanese' patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, neither the 'Healthy' nor the 'Japanese' pattern was related to the risk of postpartum depression. Compared with the first quartile of the 'Western' pattern, only the second quartile was independently related to a decreased risk of postpartum depression (multivariate OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·93), although no evident exposure-response associations were observed (P for trend = 0·36). The present study failed to substantiate clear associations between dietary patterns and the risk of postpartum depression. Further studies with more accurate measurements are warranted to confirm the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of postpartum depression.

  6. A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, Myrte J.; Erler, Nicole S.; Leermakers, Elisabeth T. M.; van den Broek, Marion; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Franco, Oscar H.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a “Vegetable, oil and fish”, a “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy”, and a “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the “Vegetable, oil and fish” pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69) for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q)). Adherence to the “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99) Q4 vs. Q1). Normal weight women with higher scores on the “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy” pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (−0.01 (95% CI −0.02; −0.00) per SD). The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG. PMID:26569303

  7. Dietary patterns using the Food Guide Pyramid groups are associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors: the multiethnic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yamamoto, Jennifer F; Sharma, Sangita; Hankin, Jean H; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2005-04-01

    Dietary patterns have been used to identify typical combinations of foods that may be associated with disease risks. We defined dietary patterns among 195,298 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles in 1993-1996. Intakes of Food Guide Pyramid groups were calculated from a quantitative FFQ for subjects of 5 ethnic groups (African Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites). Three distinct dietary patterns, "Fat and Meat," "Vegetables," and "Fruit and Milk," were identified by exploratory factor analysis with a varimax rotation and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Similar factor loadings were found for each of 10 ethnic-gender groups in stratified analyses. The odds ratios (OR) for being above the median scores for each factor were calculated. Age, gender, and ethnicity had relatively strong associations with dietary patterns whereas education showed only weak associations. BMI > or = 30 was strongly positively associated with the Fat and Meat pattern (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 2.08-2.20, vs. BMI < 25). Current smokers showed a positive association with the Fat and Meat pattern (OR = 1.67, CI: 1.62-1.72, vs. nonsmokers) and inverse associations with the Vegetables (OR = 0.66, CI: 0.64-0.68) and Fruit and Milk patterns (OR = 0.53, CI: 0.52-0.55). Physical activity was positively associated with the Vegetables and Fruit and Milk patterns but not with the Fat and Meat pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that dietary patterns are influenced by interrelated sociocultural, demographic, and other lifestyle factors and may be useful in investigations of diet-disease relations.

  8. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    PubMed Central

    de Seymour, Jamie; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Jones, Beatrix; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Shirong, Cai; Godfrey, Keith; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Conlon, Cathryn; Chong, Yap-Seng; Baker, Philip; Chong, Mary F. F.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) study—a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)) = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93). The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations. PMID:27657116

  9. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study.

    PubMed

    de Seymour, Jamie; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Jones, Beatrix; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Shirong, Cai; Godfrey, Keith; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Conlon, Cathryn; Chong, Yap-Seng; Baker, Philip; Chong, Mary F F

    2016-09-20

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) study-a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)) = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93). The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations.

  10. A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Laura K.; Jannasch, Franziska; Kröger, Janine; Bedu-Addo, George; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Reduced rank regression (RRR) is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668) dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001). The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides. PMID:26198248

  11. Using both Principal Component Analysis and Reduced Rank Regression to Study Dietary Patterns and Diabetes in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between dietary patterns and diabetes using the strengths of two methods: principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the eating patterns of the population and reduced rank regression (RRR) to derive a pattern that explains the variation in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting glucose. Design We measured diet over a 3-day period with 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory in 2006 and used it to derive PCA and RRR dietary patterns. The outcomes were measured in 2009. Setting Adults (n = 4,316) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes prevalence (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%), comparing the highest dietary pattern score quartile to the lowest, was 1.26 (0.76, 2.08) for a modern high-wheat pattern (PCA; wheat products, fruits, eggs, milk, instant noodles and frozen dumplings), 0.76 (0.49, 1.17) for a traditional southern pattern (PCA; rice, meat, poultry, and fish), and 2.37 (1.56, 3.60) for the pattern derived with RRR. By comparing the dietary pattern structures of RRR and PCA, we found that the RRR pattern was also behaviorally meaningful. It combined the deleterious effects of the modern high-wheat (high intake of wheat buns and breads, deep-fried wheat, and soy milk) with the deleterious effects of consuming the opposite of the traditional southern (low intake of rice, poultry and game, fish and seafood). Conclusions Our findings suggest that using both PCA and RRR provided useful insights when studying the association of dietary patterns with diabetes. PMID:26784586

  12. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  13. Association between dietary patterns and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lina; Li, Fei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ou, Zejin; Xu, Dingli; Tan, Wanlong; Dai, Meng

    2015-01-01

    The associations of dietary patterns with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk remain unclear. Thereby, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine potential relations between dietary patterns and CHD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 2014 for eligible prospective cohort studies regarding the relationships between common dietary patterns and CHD. Random-effects models were applied to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for the highest versus the lowest category of dietary pattern. Sensitivity analyses were conducted and publication bias was assessed using Begg or Egger’s tests. Twelve prospective cohort studies were included involving 409,780 participants and 6298 CHD cases. There was an inverse association between prudent/healthy dietary pattern and CHD risk (SRRE = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.74-0.87, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.497, I2 = 0%). Furthermore, no significant association was observed between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and risk of CHD (SRRE = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86-1.27, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.007, I2 = 61.9%). However, increased risk was detected between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and CHD in the United States (USA) (SRRE = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.82, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.930, I2 = 0%). In conclusion, our analysis provides evidence of an inverse association between prudent/healthy dietary pattern and CHD risk, and suggests null association between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and CHD. However, greater adherence to western/unhealthy pattern possibily increases by 45% the risk of CHD in USA. Further efforts are warranted to confirm these findings and clarify the role of dietary patterns and CHD risk. PMID:25785058

  14. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  15. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Cutillas-Tolín, A.; Mínguez-Alarcón, L.; Mendiola, J.; López-Espín, J.J.; Jørgensen, N.; Navarrete-Muñoz, E.M.; Torres-Cantero, A.M.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011 in Murcia Region (Spain). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Two hundred and nine healthy men aged 18–23 years were finally included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits and seafood) and a Western pattern (characterized by high intakes of processed meats, French fries and snacks). The Mediterranean pattern was positively associated with total sperm count (P, trend = 0.04). The Western pattern was positively related to the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.008). We found an inverse association between adherence to the Western pattern and sperm concentration among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.04). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As with all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. However, participants were blinded to the study outcomes thus reducing the potential influenced their report of diet. Although we adjusted for a large number of known and suspected confounders, we cannot exclude the possibility

  16. A healthy dietary pattern at midlife is associated with subsequent cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Ferry, Monique; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DP) on cognition. We evaluated the association between empirically derived DP in midlife and cognitive performance 13 y later. Dietary data were based on 24-h dietary records obtained from a subsample of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant Study. Cognitive performance was assessed via a battery of neuropsychological tests that included verbal fluency, the RI-48 cued recall test, the trail-making test, and forward and backward digit span. Three composite variables, for global cognitive function, verbal memory, and executive functioning, were built. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for baseline characteristics (age, gender, intervention group, education, alcohol and energy intake, number of dietary records, physical activity, BMI, tobacco use, self-reported memory troubles, diabetes, hypertension, and, for women, menopausal status and hormone therapy use), follow-up time, history of cardiovascular disease, and depressive symptoms. Adjusted means ± SEM of composite variables across quartiles (Q4 vs. Q1) of DP were estimated using ANCOVA. A healthy and a traditional DP were identified. In the multivariate model, the healthy pattern was associated with better global cognitive function (50.1 ± 0.7 vs. 48.9 ± 0.7; P-trend = 0.001) and verbal memory (49.7 ± 0.4 vs. 48.7 ± 0.4; P-trend = 0.01). These relationships were stronger in participants scoring below the gender-specific median values for energy intake (<2490 kcal for men and <1810 for women) than in those scoring at or above those values. Adherence to a healthy DP in middle life may help preserve global cognitive function, especially verbal memory, when total energy intake is regulated.

  17. Dental indicators of ancient dietary patterns: dental analysis in archaeology.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R

    2014-05-01

    What can the study of ancient teeth tell us about the dietary habits of our ancestors? Diet plays a prominent role in the organisation and evolution of human cultures and an increasingly diverse array of analytical techniques are available to help reconstruct diet in ancient populations. Dental palaeopathology is particularly important as it can provide direct evidence of the type of diet an individual consumed during life. Heavy occlusal tooth wear is the most frequent condition recognisable and an examination of both macro and microscopic patterns of wear can establish the differences between the hard fibrous diet typical of a hunter-gatherer, and a diet primarily consisting of softer plant foods consumed by an agriculturist. The distributions of trace elements and stable isotopes in food webs make it possible to use them as natural tracers of foodstuffs. Through a consideration of photosynthetic pathways, the ratios of the different stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen can determine which specific groups of plants and animals were dominant in the food chains of various populations - a fact that has been used to trace the spread of agriculture in ancient civilisations.

  18. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R; Northstone, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The "health-conscious" and "traditional" patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the "processed" patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the "health-conscious" patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the "processed" pattern. An "energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat" dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology.

  19. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The “health-conscious” and “traditional” patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the “processed” patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the “health-conscious” patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the “processed” pattern. An “energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat” dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology. PMID:26395343

  20. Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney disease. To lower blood pressure (BP), several lifestyle changes are recommended such as weight loss, exercise, and following a healthy diet. Investigating the effect of single nutrients may have positive results, but food is consumed as part of a whole diet, resulting in nutrient interactions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of dietary patterns on BP in adults. Studies that were published between January 1999 and June 2014 were retrieved using Scopus, Web of Science, and the MEDLINE database. Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggest that healthy dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, Nordic diet, and Mediterranean diet significantly lowered systolic BP and diastolic BP by 4.26 mm Hg and 2.38 mm Hg, respectively. These diets are rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, fish, and dairy and low in meat, sweets, and alcohol. Lifestyle factors such as exercise and weight loss in combination with dietary changes may also reduce BP. Further research is needed to establish the effect of dietary patterns on BP in different cultures other than those identified in this review. The review was registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) as CRD42015016272.

  1. Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials12

    PubMed Central

    Tapsell, Linda C; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney disease. To lower blood pressure (BP), several lifestyle changes are recommended such as weight loss, exercise, and following a healthy diet. Investigating the effect of single nutrients may have positive results, but food is consumed as part of a whole diet, resulting in nutrient interactions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of dietary patterns on BP in adults. Studies that were published between January 1999 and June 2014 were retrieved using Scopus, Web of Science, and the MEDLINE database. Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggest that healthy dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, Nordic diet, and Mediterranean diet significantly lowered systolic BP and diastolic BP by 4.26 mm Hg and 2.38 mm Hg, respectively. These diets are rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, fish, and dairy and low in meat, sweets, and alcohol. Lifestyle factors such as exercise and weight loss in combination with dietary changes may also reduce BP. Further research is needed to establish the effect of dietary patterns on BP in different cultures other than those identified in this review. The review was registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) as CRD42015016272. PMID:26773016

  2. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones

  3. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D.; Osella, Alberto R.; Eynard, Aldo R.; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence. PMID:26649040

  4. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D; Osella, Alberto R; Eynard, Aldo R; Díaz, María Del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008-2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569-5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470-3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.

  5. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Tian-Jiao; Bai, Ming-Jie

    2016-09-06

    China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001). Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05). Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.

  6. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Tian-Jiao; Bai, Ming-Jie

    2016-01-01

    China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001). Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05). Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students. PMID:27608038

  7. School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip; Briefel, Ronette; Wilson, Ander; Dodd, Allison Hedley

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment III Study to examine the dietary patterns of school meal program participants and nonparticipants and the relationship between school meal participation and children's BMI and risk of overweight or obesity. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants consumed more low nutrient energy dense…

  8. Dietary patterns of older adults: associations with biomarkers, anthropometry and nutrient intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) reflect chronic dietary exposure and thus present an optimal technique for examining diet and disease relationships in epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the DP of participants in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78.5...

  9. Visualization of Dietary Patterns and Their Associations With Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Jung; Chang, Min-Lee; Li, Tricia; Gensler, Gary; Taylor, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to visualize the relationship of predominant dietary patterns and their associations with AMD. Methods A total of 8103 eyes from 4088 participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into three groups: control (n = 2739), early AMD (n = 4599), and advanced AMD (n = 765). Using principle component analysis, two major dietary patterns and eight minor dietary patterns were characterized. Applying logistic regression in our analysis, we related dietary patterns to the prevalence of AMD. Qualitative comparative analysis by operating Boolean algebra and drawing Venn diagrams was used to visualize our findings. Results In general, the eight minor patterns were subsets or extensions of either one of the two major dietary patterns (Oriental and Western patterns) and consisted of fewer characteristic foods than the two major dietary patterns. Unlike the two major patterns, which were more strongly associated with both early and advanced AMD, none of the eight minors were associated with early AMD and only four minor patterns, including the Steak pattern (odds ratio comparing the highest to lowest quintile of the pattern score = 1.73 [95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 2.41; Ptrend = 0.02]), the Breakfast pattern (0.60 [0.44 to 0.82]; Ptrend = 0.004]), the Caribbean pattern (0.64 [0.47 to 0.89; Ptrend = 0.009]), and the Peanut pattern (0.64 [0.46 to 0.89; Ptrend = 0.03]), were significantly associated with advanced AMD. Our data also suggested several potential beneficial (peanuts, pizza, coffee, and tea) and harmful (salad dressing) foods for AMD. Conclusions Our data indicate that a diet of various healthy foods may be optimal for reducing AMD risk. The effects of some specific foods in the context of overall diet warrant further study. PMID:28253403

  10. Current Evidence on the Association of Dietary Patterns and Bone Health: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Movassagh, Elham Z; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable factor that affects bone health. Diet is a complex mixture of nutrients and foods that correlate or interact with each other. Dietary pattern approaches take into account contributions from various aspects of diet. Findings from dietary pattern studies could complement those from single-nutrient and food studies on bone health. In this study we aimed to conduct a scoping review of the literature that assessed the impact of dietary patterns (derived with the use of both a priori and data-driven approaches) on bone outcomes, including bone mineral status, bone biomarkers, osteoporosis, and fracture risk. We retrieved 49 human studies up to June 2016 from the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases. Most of these studies used a data-driven method, especially factor analysis, to derive dietary patterns. Several studies examined adherence to a variety of the a priori dietary indexes, including the Mediterranean diet score, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The bone mineral density (BMD) diet score was developed to measure adherence to a dietary pattern beneficial to bone mineral density. Findings revealed a beneficial impact of higher adherence to a "healthy" dietary pattern derived using a data-driven method, the Mediterranean diet, HEI, AHEI, Dietary Diversity Score, Diet Quality Index-International, BMD Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Korean Diet Score, on bone. In contrast, the "Western" dietary pattern and those featuring some aspects of an unhealthy diet were associated inversely with bone health. In both a priori and data-driven dietary pattern studies, a dietary pattern that emphasized the intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, poultry and fish, nuts and legumes, and low-fat dairy products and de-emphasized the intake of soft drinks, fried foods, meat and processed products, sweets and desserts, and refined grains showed a beneficial impact on bone health. Overall

  11. Association of Major Dietary Patterns with Cardio-metabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    SHADMAN, Zhaleh; AKHOUNDAN, Mahdieh; POORSOLTAN, Nooshin; LARIJANI, Bagher; QORBANI, Mostafa; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KHOSHNIAT NIKOO, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Role of dietary modifications on the treatment and management of diabetes and complications was shown by many researchers. This study was designed to examine the association of major dietary patterns with diabetes-related cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian diabetes. Methods: Totally, 525 type 2 diabetic subjects with mean age 55 ± 10 yr were included in this cross-sectional study in 2014 that followed for at least two years by the Diabetes and Metabolic disease Clinic of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Blood samples were collected after 12 h fasting for glycemic and lipid profiles. Information on the general characteristics, anthropometric, blood pressure measurements and physical activity level was collected. Dietary data were obtained by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were obtained factor analysis (principal component analysis). Results: Three major dietary patterns retained through principal component analysis: Western like (high in sweets, fast foods, carbonated drinks, red meat, mayonnaise, nuts, refined grains, potato and visceral meat), Asian like (high in vegetables, low-fat dairy, fish, poultry and egg), and Traditional like (high in high fat dairy, oils, whole grains, vegetables and fruits). Western like dietary pattern was positively associated with fasting serum glucose (P=0.05), total cholesterol (P=0.005) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.008). After extensive adjustment for potential confounders, the association of serum total cholesterol and Western like dietary pattern remained significant (P=0.03). Conclusion: Modifications in dietary pattern, especially in those who have a Western dietary pattern, may be effective in preventing or delaying diabetes-associated cardio metabolic complications. PMID:28032067

  12. Adolescent dietary patterns in Fiji and their relationships with standardized body mass index

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z). Methods This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13–18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school. Results Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption. Regular breakfast (p<0.05), morning snack (p<0.05) and lunch (p<0.05) consumption were significantly associated with lower BMI-z. Consumption of high fat/salt snacks, fried foods and confectionery was lower among participants with higher BMI-z. Conclusions This study provides important information about Fijian adolescents’ dietary patterns and associations with BMI-z. Health promotion should target reducing SSB, increasing

  13. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  14. Dietary patterns and blood pressure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, K

    1999-11-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for vascular disease, particularly among African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that providing diets with 8-10 fruits and vegetables and 2-3 low-fat dairy foods per day significantly lowered blood pressure. A recent reanalysis showed even stronger effects for African Americans. Studies are needed to translate these findings into methods of effecting dietary change in high-risk populations.

  15. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35–69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  16. Is Socioeconomic Incorporation Associated with a Healthier Diet? Dietary Patterns among Mexican-American Children

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.; Van Hook, Jennifer L.; Quiros, Susana

    2015-01-01

    With each successive generation in the United States, Mexican-origin families lose their initial dietary advantages. Focusing on children’s diets, we ask whether greater socioeconomic status (SES) can help buffer Mexican-origin children in immigrant families from negative dietary acculturation or whether it exacerbates these dietary risks. Pooling data from the 1999 to 2009 waves of the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we test whether the association between generational status and Mexican-origin children’s nutrition varies by the family’s SES. When predicting children’s overall dietary quality using the Healthy Eating Index (2010) and predicting unhealthy dietary patterns, we find stronger evidence of segmented assimilation, whereby greater family average SES is associated with better diets across generations of Mexican-origin children. High-status Mexican-origin parents appear able to buffer their children against generational dietary declines documented in the acculturation literature. PMID:26523786

  17. Patterns in Group Involvement Experiences during College: Identifying a Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether latent phenomena could be identified to classify students based on their patterns of involvement in cocurricular group experiences. The sample was comprised of 11,209 seniors from 50 institutions. A total of 4 latent factors were identified and students were classified into one of 8 latent classes. Findings offer new…

  18. A perspective on vegetarian dietary patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    The vegetarian dietary pattern is traditionally a plant-based diet that includes fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetable oils, soya, and possibly dairy products and/or eggs. Vegetarians and other populations who follow a plant-based dietary pattern enjoy longevity. Specifically, vegetarian dietary patterns have been associated with a lower risk for developing IHD, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, specific cancers, lower all-cause mortality and reduction in cause-specific mortality. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the USA is approximately 20 % and is currently increasing in developing countries in line with the obesity epidemic. The health care costs associated with the MetS are on a magnitude of 1.6 overall compared with healthy individuals, which makes it an important public health problem. Current evidence from several cross-sectional and case-control studies shows an association between consumption of a vegetarian dietary pattern and a reduced prevalence or risk of developing the MetS. There is a need for further research to be conducted, particularly prospective cohort studies to evaluate the effect of vegetarian dietary patterns on reducing the incidence of the MetS and, clinical trials should be designed to explore vegetarian dietary patterns for the reversal of the MetS in high-risk populations. This research could contribute to reduce the societal and economic burdens associated with the disorder.

  19. Maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy and fetal growth in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio; Kanzaki, Hideharu; Kitada, Mitsuyoshi; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Ishiko, Osamu; Nakai, Yuichiro; Nishio, Junko; Yamamasu, Seiichi; Yasuda, Jinsuke; Kawai, Seigo; Yanagihara, Kazumi; Wakuda, Koji; Kawashima, Tokio; Narimoto, Katsuhiko; Iwasa, Yoshihiko; Orino, Katsuhiko; Tsunetoh, Itsuo; Yoshida, Junichi; Iito, Junichi; Kaneko, Takuzi; Kamiya, Takao; Kuribayashi, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Takemura, Hideo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Oda, Hajime; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2012-05-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is an important determinant of fetal growth. Although the effects of several nutrients and foods have been well examined, little is known about the relationship of overall maternal diet in pregnancy to fetal growth, particularly in non-Western populations. We prospectively examined the relationship of maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy to neonatal anthropometric measurements at birth and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth among 803 Japanese women with live-born, singleton, term deliveries. Maternal diet in pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups (g/4184 kJ) were extracted by cluster analysis. The following three dietary patterns were identified: the 'meat and eggs' (n 326), 'wheat products', with a relatively high intake of bread, confectioneries and soft drinks (n 303), and 'rice, fish and vegetables' (n 174) patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the 'wheat products' pattern had infants with the significantly lowest birth weight (P = 0·045) and head circumference (P = 0·036) among those in the three dietary patterns. Compared with women in the 'rice, fish and vegetables' pattern, women in the 'wheat products' pattern had higher odds of having a SGA infant for weight (multivariate OR 5·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 24·4), but this was not the case for birth length or head circumference. These results suggest that a diet high in bread, confectioneries, and soft drinks and low in fish and vegetables during pregnancy might be associated with a small birth weight and an increased risk of having a SGA infant.

  20. Nutrients, foods, dietary patterns and telomere length: Update of epidemiological studies and randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Simoes, Tania-Marisa; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix

    2016-04-01

    Identifying simple strategies to prevent or delay age-associated pathologies is a major public health concern. Attrition of telomeres, chromatin structures that help maintain genome stability, leads to cell death or senescence. Thus telomere length is a reliable hallmark of biological aging and the risk of developing age-related chronic diseases through common oxidation and inflammation mechanisms. Variability in telomere shortening that is independent of chronological age suggests that it is a modifiable factor, which may be explained in part by lifestyle variables such as smoking, adiposity, physical exercise, and diet. Here we summarize data from published studies focused on nutrition (nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns) and telomere length. Research on the topic is incipient and most data comes from epidemiologic studies, often cross-sectional in design. Consistent with well-known evidence of benefit or harm for chronic age-related diseases, dietary antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich, plant-derived foods help maintain telomere length. In contrast, total and saturated fat intake and consumption of refined flour cereals, meat and meat products, and sugar-sweetened beverages relate to shorter telomeres. Data on alcohol and dairy products is controversial. There is evidence that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with longer telomeres. Randomized clinical trials are limited to seafood-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, with promising results. To fill the many gaps in our knowledge of the aging process and confirm nutrition as a useful tool to counteract biological aging more research is warranted, particularly observational studies using repeated measurements of telomere length and randomized trials of foods and dietary patterns with sequential telomere analyses.

  1. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence.

  2. Dietary patterns and anthropometric indices among Iranian women with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rashidkhani, Bahram; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Zareiy, Sanaz; Kargarnovin, Zahra

    2013-11-30

    Major depression is a common mental disorder among women. A number of studies have demonstrated the association between some nutrients and food items with depression, but the studies on the association of dietary patterns with depression, especially in the Middle East, are rare. Further, the literature examining the relationship between anthropometric status and depression are inconsistent. In this study, 45 women with major depression and 90 patients with no mental disorder participated. We collected dietary intakes by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and measured anthropometric indices (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences). Using factor analysis, two major dietary patterns were extracted: Healthy and Unhealthy. After adjusting for confounders, individuals who gained higher scores in healthy dietary pattern, had 84% lower odds of major depression; while the odds of major depression in participants who gained higher scores in unhealthy dietary pattern showed no significant association. No significant association was found between anthropometric indices and major depression. These results suggest that the healthy dietary pattern is significantly associated with lower odds of major depression in adult women. Further researches are needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Severe hypodontia: identifying patterns of human tooth agenesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Stephan P K; van Wijk, Arjen J; Prahl-Andersen, Birte

    2011-04-01

    Tooth agenesis is the most common dental anomaly. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify common patterns of tooth agenesis in a sample of 92 patients (55 females and 37 males; mean age 27.7 years) with non-syndromic severe hypodontia. The Tooth Agenesis Code (TAC) procedure was used for that purpose. The patients in this study were missing between 6 and 22 permanent teeth (mean 11.6; median 10.0; SD 4.35). In the maxilla, 47.9 (left side) and 50.0 (right side) per cent can be described using only five different patterns. The most common patterns involved agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisor and both premolars. In the mandible, 35.8 (lower left) or 43.5 (lower right) per cent can be described by five patterns, the most common of which was agenesis of all mandibular premolars. When comparing patients with and without symmetric agenesis patterns (symmetry in the upper or lower arch versus no symmetry), a Student's t-test revealed no difference in the total number of missing teeth. Common patterns of tooth agenesis were successfully identified in patients with non-syndromic severe hypodontia. The present findings may be used to develop interdisciplinary treatment protocols for the most common patterns to increase the quality of interdisciplinary treatment for patients with severe hypodontia.

  4. Dietary patterns in Asian Indians in the United States: an analysis of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, Meghana D; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

    2014-02-01

    Dietary patterns contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Asian Indians have earlier onset, more severe, and more prevalent CVD than many other racial/ethnic groups. We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in Asian Indians living in the United States and examine associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred fifty Asian Indians, aged 45 to 84 years, without known CVD, living in the San Francisco Bay, CA, area between August 2006 and October 2007 were enrolled into the Metabolic syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. A food frequency questionnaire validated in Asian Indians, fasting blood samples, and computed tomography scans were obtained for all participants. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine prevalent dietary patterns. Linear regression analyses were performed for associations between dietary patterns and metabolic factors, adjusting initially for age and sex, then additionally for BMI, income, education, metabolic equivalent of task-minutes of exercise, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified that we termed "Western," and "Vegetarian." Compared with the Western diet, the Vegetarian diet was associated with lower homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-1.12 mmol/L × mU/L; P=0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-4.77 mg/dL; P=0.09). Given that the Western and Vegetarian dietary patterns were each associated with adverse metabolic changes, healthful diet choices may help Asian Indians improve risk factors for CVD.

  5. Healthy dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer by molecular subtype.

    PubMed

    Hirko, Kelly A; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Beck, Andrew H; Tamimi, Rulla M; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-02-01

    We examined associations between dietary quality indices and breast cancer risk by molecular subtype among 100,643 women in the prospective Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohort, followed from 1984 to 2006. Dietary quality scores for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns were calculated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires collected every 2-4 years. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were defined according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), and epidermal growth factor receptor status from immunostained tumor microarrays in combination with histologic grade. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and breast cancer risk factors, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Competing risk analyses were used to assess heterogeneity by subtype. We did not observe any significant associations between the AHEI or aMED dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer by molecular subtype. However, a significantly reduced risk of HER2-type breast cancer was observed among women in 5th versus 1st quintile of the DASH dietary pattern [n = 134 cases, Q5 vs. Q1 HR (95 % CI) = 0.44 (0.25-0.77)], and the inverse trend across quintiles was significant (p trend = 0.02). We did not observe any heterogeneity in associations between AHEI (p het = 0.25), aMED (p het = 0.71), and DASH (p het = 0.12) dietary patterns and breast cancer by subtype. Adherence to the AHEI, aMED, and DASH dietary patterns was not strongly associated with breast cancer molecular subtypes.

  6. Healthy dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer by molecular subtype

    PubMed Central

    Hirko, Kelly A.; Willett, Walter C.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Beck, Andrew H.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined associations between dietary quality indices and breast cancer risk by molecular subtype among 100,643 women in the prospective Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohort, followed from 1984 to 2006. Methods Dietary quality scores for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns were calculated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires collected every 2-4 years. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were defined according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status from immunostained tumor microarrays in combination with histologic grade. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and breast cancer risk factors, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Competing risk analyses were used to assess heterogeneity by subtype. Results We did not observe any significant associations between the AHEI or aMED dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer by molecular subtype. However, a significant reduced risk of HER2-type breast cancer was observed among women in 5th vs. 1st quintile of the DASH dietary pattern (n=134 cases, Q5 vs. Q1 HR (95%CI) =0.44(0.25-0.77)), and the inverse trend across quintiles was significant (p-trend=0.02). We did not observe any heterogeneity in associations between AHEI (phet =0.25), aMED (phet =0.71) and DASH (phet =0.12) dietary patterns and breast cancer by subtype. Conclusions Adherence to the AHEI, aMED, and DASH dietary patterns was not strongly associated with breast cancer molecular subtypes. PMID:26872903

  7. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; de Andrade, Samantha Caesar; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-01-01

    The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR). In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits), while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations. PMID:27669289

  8. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis.

    PubMed

    Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; de Andrade, Samantha Caesar; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-09-23

    The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents' dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR). In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits), while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  9. Weight Changes, Exercise, and Dietary Patterns during Freshman and Sophomore Years of College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racette, Susan B.; Deusinger, Susan S.; Strube, Michael J.; Highstein, Gabrielle R.; Deusinger, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Weight gain and behavioral patterns during college may contribute to overweight and obesity in adulthood. The aims of this study were to assess weight, exercise, and dietary patterns of 764 college students (53% women, 47% men) during freshman and sophomore years. Students had their weight and height measured and completed questionnaires about…

  10. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  11. Index-based dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steck, Susan E; Guinter, Mark; Zheng, Jiali; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2015-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the United States. Various a priori dietary patterns that take into account diet complexity have been associated with CRC risk. This systematic review augments the evidence for an association between CRC risk and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and provides new evidence for a novel Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII). Human studies published in English after 31 December 2008 were reviewed. Five case-control studies and 7 prospective cohort studies conducted in the United States and Europe were identified. Five of the studies examined the MDS, 4 examined the HEI, and 4 examined the DII. Comparing highest to lowest score groups, higher MDSs were associated with an 8-54% lower CRC risk, and higher HEI scores were associated with a 20-56% lower CRC risk. More proinflammatory diet scores were associated with a 12-65% higher CRC risk compared with more anti-inflammatory diets in studies that used the DII. The results reported by sex suggested similar associations for men and women. This review builds upon the evidence supporting the association between higher overall diet quality and lower risk of CRC. Increasing scores of MDS and HEI and anti-inflammatory DII scores are characterized by high intake of plant-based foods and low intake of animal products. Future studies in more diverse populations and with consistent scoring calculations are recommended.

  12. Index-Based Dietary Patterns and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review123

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Susan E; Guinter, Mark; Zheng, Jiali; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the United States. Various a priori dietary patterns that take into account diet complexity have been associated with CRC risk. This systematic review augments the evidence for an association between CRC risk and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and provides new evidence for a novel Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII). Human studies published in English after 31 December 2008 were reviewed. Five case-control studies and 7 prospective cohort studies conducted in the United States and Europe were identified. Five of the studies examined the MDS, 4 examined the HEI, and 4 examined the DII. Comparing highest to lowest score groups, higher MDSs were associated with an 8–54% lower CRC risk, and higher HEI scores were associated with a 20–56% lower CRC risk. More proinflammatory diet scores were associated with a 12–65% higher CRC risk compared with more anti-inflammatory diets in studies that used the DII. The results reported by sex suggested similar associations for men and women. This review builds upon the evidence supporting the association between higher overall diet quality and lower risk of CRC. Increasing scores of MDS and HEI and anti-inflammatory DII scores are characterized by high intake of plant-based foods and low intake of animal products. Future studies in more diverse populations and with consistent scoring calculations are recommended. PMID:26567200

  13. A Western dietary pattern is associated with overweight and obesity in a national sample of Lebanese adolescents (13-19 years): a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Naja, Farah; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Nasreddine, Lara

    2015-12-14

    Adolescent obesity is associated with both immediate and longer-term health implications. This study aims to identify dietary patterns among a nationally representative sample of Lebanese adolescents aged between 13 and 19 years (n 446) and to assess the association of these patterns with overweight and obesity. Through face-to-face interviews, socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables were collected. Dietary intake was assessed using a sixty-one-item FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: Western and traditional Lebanese. The Western pattern was characterised by high consumption of red meat, eggs and fast-food sandwiches. The traditional Lebanese pattern reflected high intakes of fruits and vegetables, legumes and fish. Female sex and a higher maternal education level were associated with a greater adherence to the traditional Lebanese pattern. As for the Western pattern, the scores were negatively associated with crowding index, physical activity and frequency of breakfast consumption. After adjustment, subjects belonging to the 3rd tertile of the Western pattern scores had significantly higher odds of overweight compared with those belonging to the 1st tertile (OR 2·3; 95% CI 1·12, 4·73). In conclusion, two distinct dietary patterns were identified among adolescents in Lebanon: the traditional Lebanese and the Western, with the latter pattern being associated with an increased risk of overweight. The findings of this study may be used to guide the development of evidence-based preventive nutrition interventions to curb the obesity epidemic in this age group.

  14. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  15. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome--a review of epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Amanda J; Coyne, Terry; McClintock, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, and appears to be widely prevalent in both developed and developing countries. While lifestyle modification is recommended for management of the syndrome, the dietary pattern most beneficial for patients is yet to be ascertained. Original research papers from the Medline database were examined for dietary patterns that may be associated with the syndrome. Three large-scale epidemiological studies were found fitting our criteria. Dietary patterns high in fruit and vegetable content were generally found to be associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Diet patterns with high meat intake were frequently associated with components of metabolic syndrome, particularly impaired glucose tolerance. High dairy intake was generally associated with reduced risk for components of metabolic syndrome with some inconsistency in the literature regarding risk of obesity. Minimally processed cereals appeared to be associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome, while highly processed cereals with high glycaemic index are associated with higher risk. Fried foods were noticeably absent from any dietary pattern associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The conclusion of this review is that no individual dietary component could be considered wholly responsible for the association of diet with metabolic syndrome. Rather it is the overall quality of the diet that appears to offer protection against lifestyle disease such as metabolic syndrome. Further research is required into conditions, such as overweight and obesity, which may influence the effect of diet on the development of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Shu, Long; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Liao, Dan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun; Zheng, Pei-Fen

    2015-08-07

    Previous studies reported the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood, however a consistent perspective has not been established to date. Herein, we carried out this meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of CHD. MEDLINE and EBSCO were searched for relevant articles published up to April 2015. A total of 35 articles (reporting 37 original studies) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. The decreased risk of CHD was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy/prudent dietary patterns (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 0.75; p < 0.00001) and alcohol consumption (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.78; p < 0.00001). There was evidence of an increased risk of CHD in the highest compared with the lowest categories of the unhealthy/Western-type dietary patterns (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.01; p = 0.02). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that different dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of CHD.

  17. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Death and Progression to ESRD in Individuals With CKD: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Muntner, Paul; Rizk, Dana V.; McClellan, William M.; Warnock, David G.; Newby, P.K.; Judd, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition is strongly linked with health outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and health outcomes in persons with CKD. Study Design Observational cohort study. Setting & Participants 3,972 participants with CKD (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or an albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g at baseline) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a prospective cohort study of 30,239 black and white adults at least 45 years of age. Predictors Five empirically derived dietary patterns identified via factor analysis: “Convenience” (Chinese and Mexican foods, pizza, other mixed dishes), “Plant-Based” (fruits, vegetables), “Sweets/Fats” (sugary foods), “Southern” (fried foods, organ meats, sweetened beverages), and “Alcohol/Salads” (alcohol, green-leafy vegetables, salad dressing). Outcomes All-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Results A total of 816 deaths and 141 ESRD events were observed over approximately 6 years of follow-up. There were no statistically significant associations of Convenience, Sweets/Fats or Alcohol/Salads pattern scores with all-cause mortality after multivariable adjustment. In Cox regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, energy intake, co-morbidities, and baseline kidney function, higher Plant-Based pattern scores (indicating greater consistency with the pattern) were associated with lower risk of mortality (HR comparing fourth to first quartile, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.61–0.97) whereas higher Southern pattern scores were associated with greater risk of mortality (HR comparing fourth to first quartile, 1.51; 95%CI, 1.19–1.92). There were no associations of dietary patterns with incident ESRD in multivariable-adjusted models. Limitations Missing dietary pattern data, potential residual confounding from lifestyle factors. Conclusions A

  18. Stable isotopes identify dietary changes associated with beak deformities in Black-Capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Handel, Colleen M.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of beak deformities of unknown etiology have recently been reported in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and other resident avian species in Alaska. We investigated the potential association between diet and beak deformities. We analyzed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in whole blood of Black-capped Chickadees captured at three semiurban sites in south-central Alaska. For dietary analysis, we included natural foods (arthropods, seeds, and berries) and anthropogenic items commonly provided in bird feeders (sunflower seeds, peanut butter, and suet). Blood samples from individuals with beak deformities exhibited lower δ15N values and more variable δ13C values than birds with normal beaks. Isotopic values of blood also differed by location for both carbon and nitrogen, but we did not detect a difference in natural dietary items across the three sites. Contributions of individual diet items differed between birds with and without beak deformities, a pattern that likely reflected reduced function of the beak. Affected birds generally consumed fewer arthropods and sunflower seeds and more peanut butter and natural seeds and berries. Although some individuals with beak deformities relied heavily on feeder foods, we did not find evidence of an anthropogenic food source shared by all affected birds. In addition, dietary differences were most pronounced for moderately to severely affected birds, which suggests that these differences are more likely to be a consequence than a cause of deformities.

  19. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  20. Dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Teresa T.; Feskanich, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the association between predominant dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years. Methods We used data from 74,540 women in the Nurses’ Health Study followed between 1980 and 2010, and 35,451 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed between 1986 and 2012 for this analysis. Health and lifestyle information was assessed every two years. Diet was assessed approximately every four years with a food frequency questionnaire. Two major dietary patterns were previously derived using principal component analysis. The Prudent pattern is characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry, and the Western pattern is characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets, and refined grains. We computed relative risks (RR) for hip fracture by dietary pattern scores using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results During follow-up, there were 1891 hip fractures in women and 596 in men. No association was observed between the Prudent or Western pattern and risk of hip fractures in either men or women. We also did not find an association among lean (BMI<25) or overweight (BMI >=25) individuals or among those with higher or lower levels of physical activity. Conclusion Neither the Prudent nor the Western dietary pattern was associated with risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women or men over 50 years of age. PMID:25731807

  1. The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Iris A; Gasevic, Danijela; Lear, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking). However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage, convenience foods

  2. The Association between Acculturation and Dietary Patterns of South Asian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Iris A.; Gasevic, Danijela; Lear, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking). However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage, convenience foods

  3. Dietary patterns analysis using data mining method. An application to data from the CYKIDS study.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Karaolis, Minas; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2012-11-01

    Data mining is a computational method that permits the extraction of patterns from large databases. We applied the data mining approach in data from 1140 children (9-13 years), in order to derive dietary habits related to children's obesity status. Rules emerged via data mining approach revealed the detrimental influence of the increased consumption of soft dinks, delicatessen meat, sweets, fried and junk food. For example, frequent (3-5 times/week) consumption of all these foods increases the risk for being obese by 75%, whereas in children who have a similar dietary pattern, but eat >2 times/week fish and seafood the risk for obesity is reduced by 33%. In conclusion patterns revealed from data mining technique refer to specific groups of children and demonstrate the effect on the risk associated with obesity status when a single dietary habit might be modified. Thus, a more individualized approach when translating public health messages could be achieved.

  4. Dietary patterns and the risk of rhinitis in primary school children: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wong, Claudie Chiu-Yi; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Zhang, Zilong; Tan, Lixing; Lau, Arthur P. S.; Lee, Albert; Yeoh, Eng Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-01-01

    This study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and rhinitis in primary school children. 1,599 students without rhinitis at baseline survey were selected from a primary school children cohort. Information on food consumption, respiratory symptoms, and confounders was collected using questionnaires. Dietary patterns were defined using principal component analysis. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The incidence of rhinitis during 12 months follow-up was 21.2%. Three patterns were extracted and labeled as pattern I, II and III. Dietary pattern II which had higher factor loadings of legumes, butter, nuts and potatoes was associated with an increased risk of rhinitis (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01–1.87) when the highest tertile of pattern score was compared to the lowest tertile, after adjusted for confounders. Besides, every 1-unit increase of score of pattern II was also associated with an increased risk of rhinitis (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05–1.35). Neither pattern I nor Pattern III was observed to be associated with risk of rhinitis. A diet with higher levels of consumption of legumes, butter, nuts and potatoes may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in primary school children. PMID:28294150

  5. Dietary patterns, food groups and telomere length: a systematic review of current studies.

    PubMed

    Rafie, N; Golpour Hamedani, S; Barak, F; Safavi, S M; Miraghajani, M

    2017-02-01

    Telomere length (TL) is recognized as a biomarker of aging and shorter telomeres are linked with shorter lifespan. Inter-individual variability in telomere length is highly heritable. However, there has been a resurgence of interest in the controversial relationship between diet and TL. Evaluating the impact of diet at the food group and dietary pattern level will provide greater insight into the effect of diet on TL dynamics, which are of significant importance in health and longevity. This article reports the first systematic review of the relation between food groups, dietary patterns and TL in human populations based on PRISMA guidelines.

  6. Role of Dietary Pattern Analysis in Determining Cognitive Status in Elderly Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Peeters, Anna; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) sample (age 60+) that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000) and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012). Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation). In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively). Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI). Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118); (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064); (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033)), the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different results were

  7. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty. PMID:23610607

  8. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty.

  9. Dietary patterns, overweight and obesity from 1961 to 2011 in the socioeconomic and political context of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Martín; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Hernández-Montoya, Dewi; Capraro, Santiago; García-García, Juan José; Soto-Estrada, Guadalupe

    2017-02-01

    To analyse the changes in eating patterns in Argentina from 1961 to 2011, and to assess changes in overweight and obesity in their socioeconomic and political context, we performed a hierarchical cluster analysis. We used the information from Food Balance Sheets of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation to identify dietary patterns of apparent consumption. Years were grouped into five patterns. The food group with the highest apparent consumption was cereals (30% of total kcal/person/day) although this decreased slightly. Meats were second and their contribution decreased by 12%. The following foods contribution increased during the period: Sugar and milk by 2% and vegetable oils by 6%. The changes observed in the number of kcal/person/day were in line with changes in real wage, and coincided with economic and political crises that Argentina experienced during that period. Changes in eating patterns allow us to interpret that they relate to the increase in overweight and obesity.

  10. Dietary Patterns and Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase in Japanese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Hara, Megumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although specific foods and nutrients have been examined as potential determinants of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations, the relationship between dietary patterns and GGT remains unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine relationships between dietary patterns and GGT concentrations, and the effects of lifestyle factors on GGT. Methods Relationships between dietary patterns and GGT were analyzed in 9803 Japanese individuals (3723 men and 6080 women age 40–69 years) without a history of liver diseases or elevated serum aminotransferase. We examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis of 46 items determined from a validated, short food frequency questionnaire. Results We defined dietary patterns as healthy, Western, seafood, bread, and dessert. The healthy pattern was inversely related to GGT in men (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.92; P < 0.01 for trend) and women (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66–1.0; P = 0.05 for trend), whereas the seafood pattern was positively related to GGT in men (OR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01–1.61; P = 0.03 for trend) and women (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 0.98–1.49; P = 0.05 for trend). Male-specific inverse associations with GGT were found for bread and dessert patterns (OR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50–0.80 and OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41–0.68, respectively; P < 0.01 for both trends). Seafood or bread patterns and alcohol consumption significantly interacted with GGT in men (P = 0.03 and <0.01 for interaction, respectively) and between the dessert pattern and body mass index or smoking habit in women (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively, for interaction). Conclusions Dietary patterns may be important determinants of GGT, and their possible clinical implications warrant further investigation. PMID:25787241

  11. Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne K.; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Andersen, Lene F.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. Objectives To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. Design This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Results Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1–3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6–43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. Conclusion The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns. PMID

  12. Dietary Patterns Predict Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Risk In Postmenopausal Women : The Women’s Health Initiative Observational Cohort Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Evidence suggests that dietary patterns predispose to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). The relationship between dietary patterns and CHD risk was assessed in postmenopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Methods: Case-co...

  13. Dietary patterns and the insulin resistance phenotype among non-diabetic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Information on the relation between dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis and insulin resistance is scarce. Objective: To compare insulin resistance phenotypes, including waist circumference, body mass index, fasting and 2-hour post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (I...

  14. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  15. The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...

  16. Integrated Analysis Identifies Interaction Patterns between Small Molecules and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Weiguo; Chen, Xin; Sun, Jiatong; Chen, Huan; Lv, Sali

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the downstream proteins in a key pathway can be potential drug targets and that the pathway can play an important role in the action of drugs. So pathways could be considered as targets of small molecules. A link map between small molecules and pathways was constructed using gene expression profile, pathways, and gene expression of cancer cell line intervened by small molecules and then we analysed the topological characteristics of the link map. Three link patterns were identified based on different drug discovery implications for breast, liver, and lung cancer. Furthermore, molecules that significantly targeted the same pathways tended to treat the same diseases. These results can provide a valuable reference for identifying drug candidates and targets in molecularly targeted therapy. PMID:25114931

  17. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora evolved novel variability, exhibiting a high correlation between relative molar size and the shape of the first molar. Studies of Bmp7-hetero-deficient mice, which may exhibit lower Bmp7 expression, suggested that Bmp7 has pleiotropic effects on these two dental traits. Its effects are consistent with the pattern of dietary adaptation observed in Carnivora, but not that observed in other carnivorous mammals. A molecular evolutionary analysis revealed that Bmp7 sequence evolved by natural selection during ursid evolution, suggesting that it plays an evolutionary role in the variation of carnivoran dentition. Using mouse experiments and a molecular evolutionary analysis, we extrapolated the causal mechanism of the hitherto enigmatic ursid dentition (larger M2 than M1 and M3). Our results demonstrate how carnivorans acquired novel dental variability that benefits their dietary divergence.

  18. Global epidemiology of obesity, vegetarian dietary patterns, and noncommunicable disease in Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Arthur, Kristen N; Orlich, Michael J; James, Wesley; Purty, Anil; Job, Jayakaran S; Rajaram, Sujatha; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    An increase in noncommunicable disease (NCD) in India has been attributed to an epidemiologic transition whereby, due to urbanization, there is an increase in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity. Accumulated biomarker data on the "Asian Indian phenotype" identify central obesity, which occurs at a lower body mass index (BMI), as a particularly potent risk factor in Asian Indians. A revised WHO case definition for obesity in India [BMI (in kg/m(2)) >25] has identified an obesity epidemic that exceeds 30% in some cities and rivals that in Western nations. This review summarizes 2 key lines of evidence: 1) the emergence of an obesity epidemic in urban and rural India and its contribution to the NCD burden and 2) the role of a "nutrition transition" in decreasing the whole plant food content of diets in India and increasing risk of obesity and NCDs. We then present new epidemiologic evidence from Asian Indians enrolled in the Adventist Health Study 2 that raises the possibility of how specific whole plant foods (eg, nuts) in a vegetarian dietary pattern could potentially prevent obesity and NCDs in a target population of >1 billion persons.

  19. Global epidemiology of obesity, vegetarian dietary patterns, and noncommunicable disease in Asian Indians1234

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramil N; Arthur, Kristen N; Orlich, Michael J; James, Wesley; Purty, Anil; Job, Jayakaran S; Rajaram, Sujatha; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-01

    An increase in noncommunicable disease (NCD) in India has been attributed to an epidemiologic transition whereby, due to urbanization, there is an increase in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity. Accumulated biomarker data on the “Asian Indian phenotype” identify central obesity, which occurs at a lower body mass index (BMI), as a particularly potent risk factor in Asian Indians. A revised WHO case definition for obesity in India [BMI (in kg/m2) >25] has identified an obesity epidemic that exceeds 30% in some cities and rivals that in Western nations. This review summarizes 2 key lines of evidence: 1) the emergence of an obesity epidemic in urban and rural India and its contribution to the NCD burden and 2) the role of a “nutrition transition” in decreasing the whole plant food content of diets in India and increasing risk of obesity and NCDs. We then present new epidemiologic evidence from Asian Indians enrolled in the Adventist Health Study 2 that raises the possibility of how specific whole plant foods (eg, nuts) in a vegetarian dietary pattern could potentially prevent obesity and NCDs in a target population of >1 billion persons. PMID:24847857

  20. Dietary patterns and their association with food and nutrient intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M B; Hoffmann, K; Kroke, A; Boeing, H

    2001-03-01

    Dietary pattern analysis has recently received growing attention, as it might be more appropriate in studies of diet-disease associations than the single food or nutrient approach that has dominated past epidemiological research. Factor analysis is a technique which is commonly used to identify dietary patterns within study populations. However, the ability of factor solutions to account for variance of food and nutrient intake has so far remained unclear. The present study therefore explored the statistical properties of dietary patterns with regard to the explained variance. Food intake of 8975 men and 13 379 women, assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire, was aggregated into forty-seven separate food groups. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis and subsequent varimax rotation. Seven factors were retained for both men and women, which accounted for about 31 % of the total variance. The explained variance was relatively high (>40 %) for cooked vegetables, sauce, meat, dessert, cake, bread other than wholemeal, raw vegetables, processed meat, high-fat cheese, butter and margarine. Factor scores were used to investigate associations between the factors and nutrient intake. The patterns accounted for relatively large proportions of variance of energy and macronutrient intake, but for less variance of alcohol and micronutrient intake, especially of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E, Ca and ascorbic acid. In addition, factors were related to age, BMI, physical activity, education, smoking and vitamin and mineral supplement use.

  1. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-12-23

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as "increased", "stable", or "decreased". The dietary patterns, termed "healthy intake", "animal food intake", and "snack intake", were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the "stable" group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern.

  2. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as “increased”, “stable”, or “decreased”. The dietary patterns, termed “healthy intake”, “animal food intake”, and “snack intake”, were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the “stable” group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern. PMID:28025537

  3. Latent class analysis is useful to classify pregnant women into dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2010-12-01

    Empirical dietary patterns are derived predominantly using principal components, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), or cluster analysis. Interestingly, latent variable models are less used despite their being more flexible to accommodate important characteristics of dietary data and despite dietary patterns being recognized as latent variables. Latent class analysis (LCA) has been shown empirically to be more appropriate to derive dietary patterns than k-means clustering but has not been compared yet to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In this article, we derived dietary patterns using EFA, CFA, and LCA on food items, tested how well the classes from LCA were characterized by the factors from CFA, and compared participants' direct classification from LCA on food items compared with 2 a posteriori classifications from factor scores. Methods were illustrated with the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study, North Carolina, 2000-2005 (n = 1285 women). From EFA and CFA, we found that food items were grouped into 4 factors: Prudent, Prudent with coffee and alcohol, Western, and Southern. From LCA, pregnant women were classified into 3 classes: Prudent, Hard core Western, and Health-conscious Western. There was high agreement between the direct classification from LCA on food items and the classification from the 2-step LCA on factor scores [κ=0.70 (95% CI = 0.66, 0.73)] despite factors explaining only 25% of the total variance. We suggest LCA on food items to study the effect for mutually exclusive classes and CFA to understand which foods are eaten in combination. When interested in both benefits, the 2-step classification using LCA on previously derived factor scores seems promising.

  4. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Practices and Birth Weight in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings. Objectives The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns, and practices and birth weight in Northern Ghana. Participant Settings A facility-based cross-sectional survey was performed in two districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. The selected districts were the Tamale Metropolis and Savelugu-Nanton District. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural populations, therefore ensuring that the distribution in social groups of the study population was similar to the entire population of the region. In all, 578 mothers who were drawing antenatal and postnatal care services were interviewed using a questionnaire, which asked the mothers about their frequency of consumption of individual foods per week since they became pregnant or when they were pregnant. Statistical Analysis We determined dietary patterns by applying a factor analysis with a varimax rotation using STATA. Multivariate analysis was used to establish association between maternal factors and dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between dietary practices and patterns and birth weight. Results Women who ate outside the home twice a week (OR = 1.6 & 95% CI; 1.1–2.45, P; 0.017) and those who practiced ‘pica’ (OR = 1.7 & 95% CI; 1.16–2.75, P; 0.008) had increased odds for low birth. Two

  5. Identifying User Interaction Patterns in E-Textbooks

    PubMed Central

    Saarinen, Santeri; Heimonen, Tomi; Turunen, Markku; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Raisamo, Roope; Erdmann, Norbert; Yrjänäinen, Sari; Keskinen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new architecture for e-textbooks which contains two navigational aids: an index and a concept map. We report results from an evaluation in a university setting with 99 students. The interaction sequences of the users were captured during the user study. We found several clusters of user interaction types in our data. Three separate user types were identified based on the interaction sequences: passive user, term clicker, and concept map user. We also discovered that with the concept map interface users started to interact with the application significantly sooner than with the index interface. Overall, our findings suggest that analysis of interaction patterns allows deeper insights into the use of e-textbooks than is afforded by summative evaluation. PMID:26605377

  6. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Clare R.; Gammon, Cheryl S.; Bandara, Dinusha K.; Grant, Cameron C.; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. PMID:27213438

  7. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand-Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors.

    PubMed

    Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B

    2016-05-19

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, 'Junk' and 'Traditional/White bread', were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, 'Health conscious' and 'Fusion/Protein', were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on 'Junk' and 'Health conscious' were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on 'Fusion/Protein' was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the 'Health conscious' dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  8. A scan statistic for identifying chromosomal patterns of SNP association.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan V; Levin, Albert M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Robertson, Henry; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association scan statistic that takes into account the complex distribution of the human genome variation in the identification of chromosomal regions with significant SNP associations. This scan statistic has wide applicability for genetic analysis, whether to identify important chromosomal regions associated with common diseases based on whole-genome SNP association studies or to identify disease susceptibility genes based on dense SNP positional candidate studies. To illustrate this method, we analyzed patterns of SNP associations on chromosome 19 in a large cohort study. Among 2,944 SNPs, we found seven regions that contained clusters of significantly associated SNPs. The average width of these regions was 35 kb with a range of 10-72 kb. We compared the scan statistic results to Fisher's product method using a sliding window approach, and detected 22 regions with significant clusters of SNP associations. The average width of these regions was 131 kb with a range of 10.1-615 kb. Given that the distances between SNPs are not taken into consideration in the sliding window approach, it is likely that a large fraction of these regions represents false positives. However, all seven regions detected by the scan statistic were also detected by the sliding window approach. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns within the seven regions were highly variable indicating that the clusters of SNP associations were not due to LD alone. The scan statistic developed here can be used to make gene-based or region-based SNP inferences about disease association.

  9. Synthesis of New Sulfated and Glucuronated Metabolites of Dietary Phenolic Compounds Identified in Human Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Almeida, A Filipa; Santos, Cláudia N; Ventura, M Rita

    2017-02-23

    (Poly)phenols are a large group of dietary compounds present in fruits and vegetables; their consumption is associated with health beneficial effects. After ingestion, (poly)phenols suffer extensive metabolization, and the identification of their metabolites is an emerging area, because these metabolites are considered the effective bioactive molecules in the human organism. However, a lack of commercially available standards has hampered the study of metabolite bioactivity and the exact structural confirmation in biological samples. New (poly)phenol metabolites previously identified in human samples after the intake of berry juice were chemically synthesized. Efficient chemical reactions were performed with moderate to excellent yields and selectivities. These new compounds could be used as standard chemicals for confirmation of the structure of metabolites in biological samples and will also allow mechanistic studies in cellular models.

  10. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Allès, Benjamin; Feron, Gilles; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP) and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women) in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish) was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women), and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men), age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women). The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol) was positively associated with BMI (men) and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women) and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock) was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men), and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts. PMID:27509523

  11. Adherence to a Vegetable-Fruit-Soy Dietary Pattern or the Alternative Healthy Eating Index Is Associated with Lower Hip Fracture Risk among Singapore Chinese12

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhaoli; Butler, Lesley M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Ang, Li-Wei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Data on overall dietary pattern and osteoporotic fracture risk from population-based cohorts are limited, especially from Asian populations. This study examined the relation between overall diet and hip fracture risk by using principal components analysis (PCA) to identify dietary pattern specific to the study population and by using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) 2010 to assess dietary quality. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a prospective population-based cohort that enrolled 63,257 Chinese men and women (including both pre- and postmenopausal women) aged 45–74 y between 1993 and 1998 in Singapore. Habitual diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns, the vegetable-fruit-soy (VFS) pattern and the meat-dim-sum (MDS) pattern, were derived by PCA. Overall dietary quality was assessed according to the AHEI 2010, which was defined a priori for chronic disease prevention. A Cox regression model was applied with adjustment for potential confounders. In both genders, higher scores for the VFS pattern and the AHEI 2010 were associated with lower risk of hip fracture in a dose-dependent manner (all P-trend ≤ 0.008). Compared with the lowest quintile, participants in the highest quintile had a 34% reduction in risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.78) for the VFS pattern and a 32% reduction in risk (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.79) for the AHEI 2010. The MDS pattern score was not associated with hip fracture risk. An Asian diet rich in plant-based foods, namely vegetables, fruit, and legumes such as soy, may reduce the risk of hip fracture. PMID:24572035

  12. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  13. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  14. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and childhood bone mass: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cole, Zoe A; Gale, Catharine R; Javaid, M Kassim; Robinson, Sian M; Law, Catherine; Boucher, Barbara J; Crozier, Sarah R; Godfrey, Keith M; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-04-01

    Maternal nutrition is a potentially important determinant of intrauterine skeletal development. Previous studies have examined the effects of individual nutrients, but the pattern of food consumption may be of greater relevance. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy and bone mass of the offspring at 9 yr of age. We studied 198 pregnant women 17-43 yr of age and their offspring at 9 yr of age. Dietary pattern was assessed using principal component analysis from a validated food frequency questionnaire. The offspring underwent measurements of bone mass using DXA at 9 yr of age. A high prudent diet score was characterized by elevated intakes of fruit, vegetables, and wholemeal bread, rice, and pasta and low intakes of processed foods. Higher prudent diet score in late pregnancy was associated with greater (p < 0.001) whole body and lumbar spine BMC and areal BMD in the offspring, after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, height, arm circumference, maternal smoking, and vitamin D status. Associations with prudent diet score in early pregnancy were weaker and nonsignificant. We conclude that dietary patterns consistent with current advice for healthy eating during pregnancy are associated with greater bone size and BMD in the offspring at 9 yr of age.

  15. The Kunming CalFit study: modeling dietary behavioral patterns using smartphone data.

    PubMed

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Bestick, Aaron; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Han, Jay; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Human behavioral interventions aimed at improving health can benefit from objective wearable sensor data and mathematical models. Smartphone-based sensing is particularly practical for monitoring behavioral patterns because smartphones are fairly common, are carried by individuals throughout their daily lives, offer a variety of sensing modalities, and can facilitate various forms of user feedback for intervention studies. We describe our findings from a smartphone-based study, in which an Android-based application we developed called CalFit was used to collect information related to young adults' dietary behaviors. In addition to monitoring dietary patterns, we were interested in understanding contextual factors related to when and where an individual eats, as well as how their dietary intake relates to physical activity (which creates energy demand) and psychosocial stress. 12 participants were asked to use CalFit to record videos of their meals over two 1-week periods, which were translated into nutrient intake by trained dietitians. During this same period, triaxial accelerometry was used to assess each subject's energy expenditure, and GPS was used to record time-location patterns. Ecological momentary assessment was also used to prompt subjects to respond to questions on their phone about their psychological state. The GPS data were processed through a web service we developed called Foodscoremap that is based on the Google Places API to characterize food environments that subjects were exposed to, which may explain and influence dietary patterns. Furthermore, we describe a modeling framework that incorporates all of these information to dynamically infer behavioral patterns that may be used for future intervention studies.

  16. The association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Pao Ying; Mitchell, Diane C; Wood, G Craig; Jensen, Gordon L; Still, Christopher D; Hartman, Terryl J

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (≥ 75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n = 270; mean ± SD age: 78.6 ± 3.9 years). Dietary data were collected from four, random, 24-hour dietary recalls over a 10-month period. Weight change was examined as: (1) 10-pound weight loss; (2) 10-pound weight gain; (3) 10% weight loss; and (4) 10% weight gain. Cluster analysis was used to derive 3 DP ("Health-conscious," "Sweets and dairy," and "Western"). Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. About 39% of participants lost at least 10 pounds during follow up. In the unadjusted model, five-year weight loss was not associated with dietary pattern. However, when stratified by gender, females who were characterized by the Sweets and Dairy and the Western DP were three and two times more likely to lose 10 pounds, respectively, compared to those in the Health-conscious DP (P < 0.05). These observations suggest that it is appropriate to recommend a Health-conscious DP for women 75 years and older who may be at risk for weight loss.

  17. A homocysteine metabolism-related dietary pattern and the risk of coronary heart disease in two independent German study populations.

    PubMed

    Weikert, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Kurt; Dierkes, Jutta; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Schulze, Matthias B; Jung, Roman; Windler, Eberhard; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-08-01

    A biomarker profile of high folate and vitamin B-12 and low plasma homocysteine concentrations reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and may be linked to diet. The objectives of the present study were to identify a food pattern related to these biomarkers and to examine its association with CHD risk. Dietary patterns related to biomarker plasma concentrations were constructed from data obtained in the Coronary Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis in Women (CORA) Study (200 cases; 255 controls) using the reduced rank regression statistical method. Risks for CHD with relation to the identified pattern were estimated in the CORA study and in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study with 157 cases of incident myocardial infarction among 26,795 participants. In these 2 German study populations, whole-grain bread, fresh fruit, olive oil, mushrooms, cruciferous vegetables, wine, and nuts contributed the most positively and fried potatoes the most negatively to a dietary pattern that was directly associated with both plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations, but inversely with plasma homocysteine. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks for CHD across increasing quintiles of the food pattern score were 1.0, 0.55, 0.52, 0.58, 0.39 (P for trend = 0.05) in the case-control sample and 1.0, 0.95, 0.75, 0.56, 0.72 (P for trend = 0.041) in the prospective study. The combination of a high intake of whole-grain bread, fresh fruit, olive oil, mushrooms, cruciferous vegetables, wine, and nuts with a low intake of fried potatoes was associated with a favorable biomarker profile of homocysteine metabolism and reduced risk of CHD.

  18. Dietary patterns are associated with plasma F2-isoprostanes in an observational cohort study of adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Sijtsma, Femke P.C.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Van Horn, Linda; Shikany, James M.; Gross, Myron D.; Mursu, Jaakko; Traber, Maret G.; Jacobs, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between individual foods or nutrients and oxidative markers have been reported. Comprehensive measures of food intake may be uniquely informative, given the complexity of oxidative systems and the possibility for antioxidant synergies. We quantified associations over a 20 y history between 3 food-based dietary patterns, summary measures of whole diet, and a plasma biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F2-isoprostanes in a cohort of Americans, aged 18–30 at year 0 (1985–86). We assessed diet at years 0, 7, and 20 through a detailed history of past-month food consumption and supplement use, and measured plasma F2-isoprostanes at years 15 and 20. We created 3 different dietary patterns: 1) a priori (“a priori diet quality score”) based on hypothesized healthy foods, 2) an empirical pattern reflecting high fruit and vegetable intake (“fruit-veg”), and 3) an empirical pattern reflecting high meat intake (“meat”). We used linear regression to estimate associations between each dietary pattern and plasma F2-isoprostanes cross-sectionally (at year 20, n=2,736) and prospectively (year 0/7 average diet and year 15/20 average F2-isoprostanes, n=2,718), adjusting for age, sex, race, total energy intake, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, physical activity, and supplement use. In multivariable-adjusted cross-sectional analysis, the a priori diet quality score and the fruit-veg diet pattern were negatively, and the meat pattern positively, associated with F2-isoprostanes (all p-values<0.001). These associations remained statistically significant in prospective analysis. Our findings suggest that a long-term adherence to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in red meat may decrease lipid peroxidation. PMID:22982044

  19. What Current Literature Tells Us about Sustainable Diets: Emerging Research Linking Dietary Patterns, Environmental Sustainability, and Economics12

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), “Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations.” Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. PMID:25593141

  20. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed.

  1. Relationships of dietary patterns with body composition in older adults differ by gender and PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Tamara B.; Houston, Denise K.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Lee, Jung Sun; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Sahyoun, Nadine R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Dietary patterns may better capture the multifaceted effects of diet on body composition than individual nutrients or foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary patterns of a cohort of older adults, and examine relationships of dietary patterns with body composition. The influence of a polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) gene was considered. Methods The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,075 older adults. Participants’ body composition and genetic variation were measured in detail. Food intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (Block Dietary Data Systems, Berkeley, CA), and dietary patterns of 1,809 participants with complete data were derived by cluster analysis. Results Six clusters were identified, including a ‘Healthy foods’ cluster characterized by higher intake of low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish and vegetables. An interaction was found between dietary patterns and PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype in relation to body composition. While Pro/Pro homozygous men and women in the ‘Healthy foods’ cluster did not differ significantly in body composition from those in other clusters, men with the Ala allele in the ‘Healthy foods’ cluster had significantly lower levels of adiposity than those in other clusters. Women with the Ala allele in the ‘Healthy foods’ cluster differed only in right thigh intermuscular fat from those in other clusters. Conclusions Relationships between diet and body composition in older adults may differ by gender and by genetic factors such as PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype. PMID:20174813

  2. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Blondin, Stacy A.; Mueller, Megan P.; Bakun, Peter J.; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Economos, Christina D.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs) among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998–2007) by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323). DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF) and (BMI) and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides) were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk. PMID:26712784

  3. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships.

  4. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  5. The Relationship of Parental Mental Health and Dietary Pattern With Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarani, Mohsen; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shafiee, Shahla; Sarkoubi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05) and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns. PMID:27218068

  6. Dietary patterns and their association with acute coronary heart disease: Lessons from the REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    Shikany et al used data from 17,418 participants in the REGARDS study, a national, population-based, longitudinal study of white and black adults aged ≥ 45 years, enrolled between 2003–2007. They examined 536 acute coronary heart disease events at follow-up (median 5.8 years) in relation to five dietary patterns (Convenience, Plant-based, Sweets, Southern, and Alcohol and Salad). After adjustment for baseline variables, the highest consumers of the Southern pattern experienced a 56% higher hazard for acute CHD. PMID:26779528

  7. Dietary Patterns and Socioeconomic Status in the Very Old: The Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R.; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with health outcomes in younger adults but there is a lack of evidence in the very old (aged 85+) on DP and their association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, health and functioning measures. Higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with healthier DP but it is not known whether these associations are sustained in the very old. Objective We aimed to (a) characterise DP in the very old and (b) assess the relationships between three SES indicators (education, occupational class and area-deprivation index [IMD]) and DP. Methods Complete dietary data at baseline (2006/07) for 793 participants in the Newcastle 85+ Study were established through 24-hr multiple pass recall. We used Two-Step clustering and 30 food groups to derive DP, and multinomial logistic regression models to assess the association with SES. Results We identified three distinct DP (characterised as ‘High Red Meat’, ‘Low Meat’, and ‘High Butter’) that varied with key sociodemographic, health and functioning measures. ‘Low Meat’ participants were more advantaged (i.e. higher education and occupational class, and lived in more affluent areas in owned homes), were least disabled, cognitively impaired, and depressed, and were more physically active than those in the other DP. After adjusting for other lifestyle factors, cognitive status and BMI, lower educational attainment remained a significant predictor of ‘High Red Meat’ and ‘High Butter’ membership compared with ‘Low Meat’ (‘High Red Meat’: OR [95% CI] for 0–9 and 10–11 years of education vs. ≥12 years: 5.28 [2.85–9.79], p<0.001 and 3.27 [1.65–6.51], p = 0.001, respectively; ‘High Butter’: 3.32 [1.89–5.82], p<0.001 and 2.83 [1.52–5.28], p = 0.001). Conclusions In this cohort of very old adults, we detected a favourable DP (‘Low Meat’), which was associated with better health and functioning and higher SES. PMID:26488497

  8. How dietary patterns could have a role in prevention, progression, or management of diabetes mellitus? Review on the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of dietary patterns in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of databases which were published in ISI, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, PubMed, Iran Medex, and MagIran was performed. “Diabetes” and “dietary pattern” were used as the keywords. Results: A total of 58 studies which aimed to focus on diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dietary pattern, and other related key words were reviewed. More than 47,447 articles were found and 46,709 entries of the extracted studies were excluded on the basis of the title and abstracts. The major dietary patterns were: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Traditional”, “Prudent”, “Unhealthy”, “Mediterranean”, “Modern”, and “Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension” (DASH) diets. Comparison of the effects of different diets revealed that dietary patterns containing fiber-rich foods have a protective role in managing diabetes mellitus. “Healthy”, “Mediterranean”, “Prudent”, and “DASH” dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of hyperglycemia. Conclusions: The adherence to the Mediterranean, Prudent, or DASH diets could control hyperglycemia. The higher intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and lower intake of red meat could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23798934

  9. A dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, and vegetable oils is associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous pregnant Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2009-06-01

    Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17-22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk.

  10. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Nasreddine, Lara; Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Czernichow, Sebastien; Itani, Leila; Naja, Farah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008–2009). Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.91). No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults. PMID:27447668

  11. Family Communication Patterns Consistent with Psychiatric Diagnosis of Identified Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Darryl Lee

    This research examined specific communication patterns in 20 schizophrenic and other family triads, through analysis of transcripts of 15-minute interactions within a systems epistemology. Families with a son or daughter diagnosed as having schizophrenia were found to emphasize two communication patterns: communication that is nebulous, confusing,…

  12. Identifying Patterns for Unsupervised Learning of Multiword Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Jose Luis; Almela, Angela; Valencia-Garcia, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    The identification of valid terms in any domain is fundamental to its computerization. For this reason, in this paper we present a method for obtaining automated morphosyntactic patterns, which will help researchers to obtain valid terms from the proposed patterns, in order to build quality ontologies for the translation from one language to…

  13. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D. A. C.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Newby, P. K.; Northstone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects 3911 children with complete data. Results There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd) in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd) in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies. PMID:25018688

  14. Is socioeconomic incorporation associated with a healthier diet? Dietary patterns among Mexican-origin children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Van Hook, Jennifer L; Quiros, Susana

    2015-12-01

    With each successive generation in the United States, Mexican-origin families lose their initial dietary advantages. Focusing on children's diets, we ask whether greater socioeconomic status (SES) can help buffer Mexican-origin children in immigrant families from negative dietary acculturation or whether it exacerbates these dietary risks. Pooling data from the 1999 to 2009 waves of the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we test whether the association between generational status and Mexican-origin children's nutrition varies by the family's SES. When predicting children's overall dietary quality using the Healthy Eating Index (2010) and predicting unhealthy dietary patterns, we find stronger evidence of segmented assimilation, whereby greater family average SES is associated with better diets across generations of Mexican-origin children. High-status Mexican-origin parents appear able to buffer their children against generational dietary declines documented in the acculturation literature.

  15. Association between dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aljefree, Najlaa; Ahmed, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews the evidence related to the association of dietary pattern with coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, and the associated risk factors among adults in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Methods A systematic review of published articles between January 1990 and March 2015 was conducted using Pro-Quest Public Health, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The term ‘dietary pattern’ refers to data derived from dietary pattern analyses and individual food component analyses. Results The search identified 15 studies. The available data in the MENA region showed that Western dietary pattern has been predominant among adults with fewer adherences to the traditional diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. The Western dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), body mass index (BMI), and hypertension. The Mediterranean diet, labelled in two studies as ‘the traditional Lebanese diet’, was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the risk of diabetes, while one study found no association between the Mediterranean diet and MetS. Two randomised controlled trials conducted in Iran demonstrated the effect of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) in reducing metabolic risk among patients with diabetes and MetS. Likewise, the consumption of dairy products was associated with decreased blood pressure and WC, while the intake of whole grains was associated with reduced WC. In addition, the high consumption of black tea was found to be associated with decreased serum lipids. The intake of fish, vegetable oils, and tea had a protective effect on CHD, whereas the intake of full-fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats was associated with an increased risk of CHD. Conclusion There appears to be a significant association of Western dietary pattern with the increased risk of CHD, strokes, and associated risk factors among adults in the MENA region

  16. Association between Dietary Patterns, Breakfast Skipping and Familial Obesity among a Sample of Egyptian Families

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between dietary patterns, behaviors and the prevalence of familial obesity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighty three families, shared as volunteers comprised of 83 mothers and 155 offspring. Anthropometric measurements were reported including height and weight. Body mass index (BMI), weight/height, and weight/height Z score were calculated. Pattern of food intake was obtained by means of dietary interview consisting of a 24 hour recall, and a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Data revealed that obesity was high among mothers reached 91.6% while obesity in the offspring was 24.5%. According to prevalence of obesity, families were divided to 4 groups, 8.43% of families were of normal weight, and 20.48% were obese. Food frequency consumption rate and food analysis revealed unhealthy food intake, especially in obese families. All groups reported high rate intake of sweets, pastries and beverage. Calories, carbohydrate, cholesterol and sodium were higher than the RDA in all mother’s groups, and adolescent group (2) compared to low daily intake of micronutrients especially calcium and vitamin D in all groups. More than half of all mothers and offspring skipped breakfast. CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggest that familial obesity increases the risk of offspring being obese, dietary habits might be involved in the development of obesity. PMID:27335589

  17. Exploring maternal patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before conception and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Bell, Erin M; Browne, Marilyn L; Druschel, Charlotte M; Romitti, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    We describe patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before and after pregnancy recognition in a cohort of women who recently gave birth. This study included 8,347 mothers of non-malformed liveborn control infants who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1997-2007. Maternal self-reported consumption of beverages (caffeinated coffee, tea, and soda) and chocolate the year before pregnancy was used to estimate caffeine intake. The proportions of prepregnancy caffeine consumption stratified by maternal characteristics are reported. In addition, patterns of reported change in consumption before and after pregnancy were examined by maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to assess factors most associated with change in consumption. About 97 % of mothers reported any caffeine consumption (average intake of 129.9 mg/day the year before pregnancy) and soda was the primary source of caffeine. The proportion of mothers reporting dietary caffeine intake of more than 300 mg/day was significantly increased among those who smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol. Most mothers stopped or decreased their caffeinated beverage consumption during pregnancy. Young maternal age and unintended pregnancy were associated with increases in consumption during pregnancy. Dietary caffeine consumption during pregnancy is still common in the US. A high level of caffeine intake was associated with known risk factors for adverse reproductive outcomes. Future studies may improve the maternal caffeine exposure assessment by acquiring additional information regarding the timing and amount of change in caffeine consumption after pregnancy recognition.

  18. Dietary patterns, metabolic markers and subjective sleep measures in resident physicians.

    PubMed

    Mota, Maria Carliana; De-Souza, Daurea Abadia; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Silva, Catarina Mendes; Araújo, Maria Bernadete Jeha; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2013-10-01

    Shiftwork is common in medical training and is necessary for 24-h hospital coverage. Shiftwork poses difficulties not only because of the loss of actual sleep hours but also because it can affect other factors related to lifestyle, such as food intake, physical activity level, and, therefore, metabolic patterns. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional and metabolic profiles of medical personnel receiving training who are participating in shiftwork. The aim of the present study was to identify the possible negative effects of food intake, anthropometric variables, and metabolic and sleep patterns of resident physicians and establish the differences between genders. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables (height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference), fasting metabolism (lipids, cortisol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], glucose, and insulin), physical activity level (Baecke questionnaire), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), and sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS). We observed a high frequency of residents who were overweight or obese (65% for men and 21% for women; p = 0.004). Men displayed significantly greater body mass index (BMI) values (p = 0.002) and self-reported weight gain after the beginning of residency (p = 0.008) than women. Poor diet was observed for both genders, including the low intake of vegetables and fruits and the high intake of sweets, saturated fat, cholesterol, and caffeine. The PSQI global scores indicated significant differences between genders (5.9 vs. 7.5 for women and men, respectively; p = 0.01). Women had significantly higher mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p < 0.005), hs-CRP (p = 0.04), and cortisol (p = 0.009) values than men. The elevated prevalence of

  19. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Tint, Mya-Thway; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), subscapular skinfold (SS), and triceps skinfold (TS) were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME)) and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1) vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR); (2) seafood-and-noodles (SfN); and (3) pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB). In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD) increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS) at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity. PMID:28025503

  20. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of male athletes in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladunni, M O; Sanusi, R A

    2013-12-20

    Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive weight reduction and inappropriate dietary practices. This study was conducted to provide information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices: Body Mass Index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF). BMI was calculated from weight and height measurements and %BF was estimated from the sum of skin-fold thickness at 4 sites (triceps, biceps, sub-scapular and supra-iliac skin-folds). Dietary pattern was assessed by food habits and food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to describe and examine relationships between variables. Mean (SD) for variables were: age; 26.09(±4.77) years, weight; 72.13(±0.45) kg, height; 1.74(±0.06)m, and BMI; 23.89(±3.34)kg/m2. Only 4(1.93%) of the participants were underweight, 39(18.84%) were overweight and 8(3.86%) obese. Mean (SD) of %BF among overweight athletes was 14.25(±3.12) and maximum %BF among overweight athletes was 21.2. A strong and positive correlation was observed between BMI and %BF and %BF increased with age among overweight athletes. About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate before sports. Foods most frequently consumed by athletes in this study were meat, fish, roots/tubers, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Milk and legumes were less frequently consumed by these athletes. Most of these athletes had nutritional status adequate for their sport activity. With regards to food habits, most of these athletes

  1. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-01-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. PMID:26225994

  2. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-07-27

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work.

  3. A methamphetamine analog (N,α-diethyl-phenylethylamine) identified in a mainstream dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and banned substances have been detected in hundreds of purportedly natural supplements. Recently, several athletes have been disqualified from competition after testing positive for the methamphetamine analog N,α-diethyl-phenylethylamine (N,α-DEPEA). Athletes have claimed they unknowingly consumed the banned stimulant in workout supplements. Three samples from different lot numbers of Craze, a workout supplement, were analyzed to detect the presence and concentration of N,α-DEPEA. Two labs independently identified N,α-DEPEA in the supplement using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer and UHPLC-quadruple-time-of-flight mass (Q-TOF) spectrometer, respectively. The identity of N,α-DEPEA was confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance and reference standards. Manufacturer recommended servings were estimated to provide 21 to 35 mg of N,α-DEPEA. N,α-DEPEA has never been studied in humans. N,α-DEPEA is a methamphetamine analog; however, its stimulant, addictive and other adverse effects in humans are entirely unknown. Regulatory agencies should act expeditiously to warn consumers and remove N,α-DEPEA from all dietary supplements.

  4. Cross-sectional association of dietary patterns with insulin-resistant phenotypes among adults without diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enju; McKeown, Nicola M; Newby, P K; Meigs, James B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Quatromoni, Paula A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-08-01

    Cluster analysis is a valuable tool for exploring the health consequences of consuming different dietary patterns. We used this approach to examine the cross-sectional relationship between dietary patterns and insulin-resistant phenotypes, including waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, 2 h post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120), HDL-cholesterol, TAG and blood pressure, using data from the fifth examination cycle of the Framingham Offspring Study. Among 2875 participants without diabetes, we identified four dietary patterns based on the predominant sources of energy: 'Fruits, Reduced Fat Dairy and Whole Grains', 'Refined Grains and Sweets', 'Beer' and 'Soda'. After adjusting for multiple comparisons and potential confounders, compared with the 'Fruits, Reduced Fat Dairy and Whole Grains' pattern, the 'Refined Grains and Sweets' pattern had significantly higher mean waist circumference (92.4 v. 90.5 cm; P = 0.008) and BMI (27.3 v. 26.6 kg/m2; P = 0.02); the 'Soda' pattern had significantly higher mean fasting insulin concentration (31.3 v. 28.0 microU/ml; P < or = 0.001); the 'Beer' pattern had significantly higher mean HDL-cholesterol concentration (1.46 v. 1.31 mmol/l; P < 0.001). No associations were observed between dietary patterns and ISI0,120, TAG, and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Our findings suggest that consumption of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and reduced-fat dairy protects against insulin-resistant phenotypes and displacing these healthy choices with refined grains, high-fat dairy, sweet baked foods, candy and sugar-sweetened soda may promote insulin-resistant phenotypes.

  5. Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.

    PubMed

    Lee, E Juanita; McBride Murry, Velma; Brody, Gene; Parker, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    A correlation study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns. Additionally, the study examined the hypothesis that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. The sample for this study included 159 African American single-mother families with a 6- to 9-year-old child living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview format. Children's cognitive ability was measured by several subscales from the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was clearly related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children.

  6. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  7. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a western country is associated with changes in dietary patterns. This could have unfavourable effects on the risk of CVD. There is limited knowledge on the food patterns, awareness and knowledge about healthy nutrition among Chinese immigrants. The objective for this study is to explore changes in food patterns, and levels of awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition by length of residence among Chinese immigrants to Canada. Methods 120 Chinese individuals born in China but currently living in Canada completed an assessment on socio-demographic characteristics, changes in dietary patterns and variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods. With ordinal logistic regression the associations between the quartiles of length of residence and dietary patterns, variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods were explored, adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index. Results More than 50% of the participants reported increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreasing the use of deep-frying after immigration. Increased awareness and knowledge about healthy foods was reported by more than 50% of the participants. Ordinal regression indicated that Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the longest, compared to Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the shortest, consumed significant greater portion sizes (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 3.11 - 31.15), dined out more frequently (OR: 15.8; 95% CI: 5.0 - 49.85), and consumed convenience foods more often (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.23 - 10.01). Conclusions Chinese immigrants reported some favourable changes in their dietary intake and greater awareness and more knowledge about healthy foods after immigration. However, an

  8. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention.

  9. Prospective associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in European children: the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) Study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Krogh, Vittorio; Hebestreit, Antje; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Reisch, Lucia; Eiben, Gabriele; Iglesia, Iris; Veidebaum, Tomas; Kourides, Yannis A; Kovacs, Eva; Huybrechts, Inge; Pigeot, Iris; Moreno, Luis A

    2015-02-14

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2-9 years old) and follow-up (4-11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time and their association with SES. We applied the K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-two food items. The following three consistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up: processed (higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy cluster at baseline and follow-up and less likely to be allocated to the sweet cluster. Migrants were more likely to be allocated to the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Applying the cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns at the two time points allowed us to identify groups of children from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds.

  10. Food and dietary pattern-based recommendations: an emerging approach to clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sievenpiper, John L; Dworatzek, Paula D N

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus have evolved considerably over the last 25 years. As major diabetes associations have focussed on the individualization of nutrition therapy, there has been a move toward a broader more flexible macronutrient distribution that emphasizes macronutrient quality over quantity. There is now a call for the integration of food- and dietary pattern-based approaches into diabetes association CPGs. The main argument has been that an approach that focuses on nutrients alone misses important nutrient interactions oversimplifying the complexity of foods and dietary patterns, both of which have been shown to have a stronger influence on disease risk than nutrients alone. Although cancer and heart associations have begun to integrate this approach into their dietary guidelines, diabetes associations have not yet adopted this approach. We provide a rationale for the adoption of this approach for The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 2013 CPGs for nutrition therapy. The systematic review for the development of these guidelines revealed emerging evidence to support the use of vegetarian, Mediterranean, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns as well as specific foods such as dietary pulses and nuts in people with diabetes. Popular and conventional weight loss diets were also found to have similar advantages in people with diabetes, although poor dietary adherence remains an issue with these diets. The CDA 2013 CPGs will support an even greater individualization of nutrition therapy for people with diabetes and appeal to a broader range of practice styles of health professionals.

  11. [The nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition: changes in dietary patterns 1961-2009 in the Mexican socioeconomic context].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Hernández-Montoya, Dewi; Silberman, Martín; Capraro, Santiago; García-García, Juan José; Soto-Estrada, Guadalupe; Sandoval-Bosh, Elvira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether there were changes in the composition of dietary patterns from 1961 to 2009, if food patterns by income level and the increase in the price of certain basic foods of the diet in the socioeconomic Mexican context, could explain the nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition. We conducted an ecological study with data from FAO balance sheets. To construct eating patterns cluster analysis was performed. Engel curves were developed with data from the 2012 INEGI ENGH survey and evolution of the relative price of some foods was calculated. The diet was defined in three dietary patterns. The increase in the total availability of energy increased from 2316 kcal/person/day in 1961 to 3146 in 2009. Dietary pattern modifications are in line with the nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition. It was observed that the energy derived from cereals and from legume (common beans) was significantly reduced, and simultaneously, the energy from sugars, animal foods and vegetable fats had a dramatic increase. Spending on food was differential according to income level. Malnutritionis mediated by the unequal distribution of income, the relatively low cost of energy-dense foods, the increased cost of nutritious foods, and limited support to agriculture.

  12. Dietary indexes, food patterns and incidence of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Adriano M.; Toledo, Estefanía; Rodriguez-Diez, Maria C.; Gea, Alfredo; Lopez-Iracheta, Roberto; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims We prospectively assessed the association between adherence to several a priori defined healthy food patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We assessed 6851 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates, initially free of any MetS-specific definition criteria, and followed-up for a median of 8.3 years. We calculated the adherence to thirteen different a priori defined food patterns or dietary indexes. MetS was classified according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) of metabolic syndrome and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI), using Poisson regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of MetS was 5.0%. Moderate adherence to the Pro-Vegetarian Diet (PVEG) was significantly associated with a lower risk for developing MetS (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59–0.97). Among women, an inverse association with the PVEG was significant not only for a moderate adherence (IRR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36–0.82), but also for higher adherence (IRR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43 –0.93). A higher adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet showed an inverse association with the MetS among participants, but only if they had low alcohol intake (RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20–0.85). Conclusions Our findings support the adoption of a PVEG dietary pattern for the reduction of MetS risk. The same statement can be applied in relation to the DASH diet, insofar a limited consumption of alcoholic beverages is also maintained. PMID:24975512

  13. Dietary Patterns of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Study Based in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Meguid, Nagwa; Anwar, Mona; Zaki, Safaa; Kandeel, Wafaa; Ahmed, Nihad; Tewfik, Ihab

    2015-01-01

    AIM: In the hope to assist in tailoring individualized nutritional therapy, this study aimed to assess the nutritional status of autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 80 autistic children, divided into two groups: group 1 (aged 3- 5 years) and group 2 (aged 6-9 years). Diagnosis was performed based on the criteria for autistic disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised and Autism Rating Scale. RESULTS: Socio-demographic data, anthropometric measurements and dietary intake patterns were recorded using a validated questionnaire. The daily intakes of calories and nutrients were converted to percentages of the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Dietary Reference Intake based on age- and gender-normalized DRIs. Plotting on the Egyptian sex-specific growth chart, BMI-z scores of both age groups were slightly overweight. Autistic children suffered inadequate intake of some micronutrients such as vitamin D and C, calcium, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, and iron, some deficiencies were highly significant especially at older age. CONCLUSIONS: Tailoring a specially designed balanced diet with appropriate micronutrient supplementation may ameliorate the severity of autism symptoms and related abnormal behaviours. PMID:27275232

  14. Food preferences and their "decision contexts" as predictors of dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Maria M; Del Campo, Maria L; Carbonetti, Adrian; Navarro, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is the usual method for estimating dietary intake in epidemiological studies. However, investigations focused only on nutrient and food intake does not show the reason why, where or how people choose certain foods and reject others. Food preference and its choosing decision helps to explain more accurately why people eat certain foods and how this freedom of choice is implemented. Thus, we decided to design and validate a Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) to be applied in adults under nutritional epidemiological studies. This FPQ was applied to 60 adults of both sexes, who lived in Córdoba, Argentina, and in the nearby cities of the Greater Córdoba region. The validity of the FPQ was estimated through the Spearman correlation coefficient and calculated by using SPSS 17.0, and the determination coefficient was also estimated. The correlation between the number of subjects who indicated a preference for a particular food or meal, and its frequency of consumption gave a result of rs=0.5 (p less 0.1), whereas the determination coefficient had a value of r2= 0.25. Thus, the dietary patterns of adult population from Córdoba were estimated by assessing food preferences. The biological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of the food decision context, in addition to their complex relations, may contribute to understand better the choice of food intake hence precluding the role of dietary practices in health and disease.

  15. Effects of providing a nutrition education program for teenagers: dietary and physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Yuen, Dorothy T W

    2009-06-01

    This study enhanced nutritional knowledge in an education program and encouraged healthy dietary habits and regular physical activity among teenagers. A total of 203 adolescents from a secondary school in Hong Kong took part in the study. Their Body Mass Index, dietary habits, and physical exercise pattern were recorded and examined before and after the health education program. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, together with the fat composition, were high among the participants before the nutrition education program. There was a marked gain in knowledge upon its completion. A follow-up action conducted 3 months later revealed positive outcomes in relation to the diet and physical activity level. The teenagers were able to take control of their health and requested the tuck shop to sell more healthy food and reduce the supply of unhealthy items. The educational initiatives in dietary habits and physical activities proved to be effective in encouraging the teenagers to eat more healthily and to adopt an active lifestyle.

  16. Identifying Acquisition Patterns of Failure Using Systems Archetypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-02

    Carnegie Mellon University What is Systems Thinking ? Systems Thinking is a method for analyzing complex systems Developed by Jay W. Forrester at MIT...results (and when) Systems Thinking teaches us that: • System behavior is greater than the sum of component behaviors • “Quick fix” solutions usually...Improving Acquisition Practice and Avoiding Patterns of Failure” will introduce the systems thinking approach, apply it to acquisition, present classic

  17. Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Correa, Pelayo; Oreggia, Fernando; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Leiva, Juan

    2005-01-01

    From 1995 to 2002, a case-control study on food groups and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Two hundred thirty cases were frequency-matched to 460 controls on age, residence, and urban/rural status. The study was restricted to men. The relationship between foods and risk of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined through: 1) individual food group analysis, 2) factor analysis, and 3) determination of empirical scores. The results were similar. Factor analysis generated 2 patterns, which were labeled as "stew" and "vegetables and fruits." The stew pattern loaded positively on boiled meat, cooked vegetables, potato, and sweet potato. This pattern was directly associated with risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer [odds ratio (OR), 3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-7.06; P value for trend=0.0002]. The vegetables and fruits factor loaded positively on raw vegetables, citrus fruits, other fruits, liver, fish, and desserts. This pattern was inversely associated with risk of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64; P value for trend=0.0008). Joint effects of high intake of risk foods and low intake of protective foods were associated with a risk of 12.0 (95% CI, 4.1-34.6). Our study confirms the important role of dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer risk and suggests that the analysis of dietary patterns is a powerful tool to investigate the links between nutrition and cancer.

  18. Dietary patterns and incident low-trauma fractures in postmenopausal women and men aged ≥50 y: a population-based cohort study2

    PubMed Central

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Barr, Susan I; Anastassiades, Tassos; Towheed, Tanveer; Goltzman, David; Morin, Suzanne; Poliquin, Suzette; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that dietary patterns are related to the risk of several adverse health outcomes, but the relation of these patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. Objective Our objective was to determine the relation between dietary patterns and incident fracture and possible mediation of this relation by body mass index, bone mineral density, or falls. Design We performed a retrospective cohort study based on the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study—a randomly selected population-based cohort. We assessed dietary patterns by using self-administered food-frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997–1999). Our primary outcome was low-trauma fracture occurring before the 10th annual follow-up (2005–2007). Results We identified 2 dietary patterns by using factor analysis. The first factor (nutrient dense) was strongly associated with intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense) was strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts. The nutrient-dense factor was associated with a reduced risk of fracture per 1 SD in men overall [hazard ratio (HR): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.08] and in women overall (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98). An age trend (P = 0.03) was observed, which yielded an HR of 0.97 in younger women (age <70 y) compared with an HR of 0.82 in older women (age ≥70 y). The associations were independent of body mass index, bone mineral density, falls, and demographic variables. The energy-dense pattern was not related to fracture. Conclusion A diet high in vegetables, fruit, and whole grains may reduce the risk of low-trauma fracture, particularly in older women. PMID:21068350

  19. Validity of the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients for assessing dietary patterns in NCAA athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    aesthetic athletes had a higher score compared to non-aesthetic female athletes for the Dessert (2.11 ± 0.11 vs. 1.88 ± 0.08), Meat (1.95 ± 0.10 vs. 1.72 ± 0.07), High-fat food (1.70 ± 0.08 vs. 1.46 ± 0.06), and Dairy (1.70 ± 0.11 vs. 1.43 ± 0.07) patterns. Conclusions REAP is a construct valid tool to assess dietary patterns in college athletes. In light of varying dietary patterns, college athletes should be evaluated for healthful and unhealthful eating behaviors. PMID:25302055

  20. The Association between Dietary Patterns and Semen Quality in a General Asian Population of 7282 Males

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chin-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chao, Jane C. -J.; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cha, Tai-Lung; Tsao, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between different dietary patterns and semen quality in a general Asian male population. Methods Cross-sectional study. Healthy Taiwanese men aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program from 2008-2013 run by a private firm were included in this study. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM) and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. A dietary questionnaire was used to categorize the participants into 5 groups: “Healthy diet”, “Western diet”, “High-carbohydrate diet”, “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” and “High-sodium diet”. Results A total of 7282 men completed the questionnaire regarding dietary pattern, and examination of anthropometric indexes was performed and laboratory data were obtained. A high intake of a “Western diet” resulted in statistically linear declines of SC and NSM (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Similarly, a greater intake of “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” was associated with a lower SC (P = 0.001). Increased intake of a “High-carbohydrate diet” was related to higher prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM (P = 0.012 and P = 0.025). Similarly, a greater intake of a “High-sodium diet” was correlated with an elevated prevalence of abnormal NSM (P = 0.035). Conclusions This study showed that a greater intake of a “Western diet” is associated with poorer SC and NSM, a “High sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks” intake is correlated with a lower SC, and high-carbohydrate food is related to elevated prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM. PMID:26218796

  1. Cultural ecology of dietary change accompanying changing activity patterns among the Shipibo

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, C.A.

    1986-12-01

    Shipibo Indians, who formed a village to establish a school and health clinic, are gradually depleting local fish and game resources. Men, recently adopting rice as a cash crop, tend to fish and hunt less than other men working only their subsistence gardens. Sale of fish and game in the village is becoming common, and pigs, once raised exclusively for sale to non-Shipibo, are now more regularly eaten and used for attracting agricultural labor. Other research has indicated that cash cropping often competes for workers' time in subsistence and so dietary change usually accompanies changing activity patterns. This paper explores the latter possibility by examining the relationship between cash cropping, wild meat procurement, and diet among the Shipibo. Time allocation and food consumption data are analyzed statistically to test a mathematical theory and model which relates indigenous work patterns to diet.

  2. Association between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in a Group or Puerto Rican Obese Adults: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltero, Sandra M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a public health problem in Puerto Rico. Dietary patterns that include high intakes of energy and sweetened drinks and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to relate dietary patterns with body composition in obese subjects. Methods Dietary patterns were evaluated using 3-day food records. Body composition was assessed by body weight, hip and waist circumferences and % body fat, and then used to classify subjects by obesity stages using BMI and by low or high risk using WHR or % body fat. The resulting comparison groups were associated with energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and sweetened drinks intake and with meal energy density and meal frequency intake. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to compare groups and Spearman correlations were used for continuous variables. Results Thirty subjects completed the study. By BMI, 30% were obese type I, 33% type II and 37% type III; by WHR, 43% were low risk and 57% high risk; by % body fat, all were high risk. Dietary patterns were similar between groups. WHR was positively correlated with fiber consumption (r=0.42; p<0.05) and CHO intake (r=0.35; p=0.057). Conclusion In this pilot study, dietary patterns appeared similar between groups and sound with nutritional recommendations; however, we observed a poor quality of the diet due to very low intakes of fruits, vegetables and fiber and high intakes of sweetened drinks. PMID:21449494

  3. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H. M.; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R.; Gibney, Michael J.; Mathers, John C.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups’ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of “Mediterranean diet” foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = −0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348). A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products. PMID:26593942

  4. Gut microbiome and dietary patterns in different Saudi populations and monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Yasir, Muhammad; Bachar, Dipankar; Azhar, Esam I.; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Bibi, Fehmida; Jiman-Fatani, Asif A.; Alawi, Maha; Bakarman, Marwan A.; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Host genetics, environment, lifestyle and proximity between hosts strongly influence the composition of the gut microbiome. To investigate the association of dietary variables with the gut microbiota, we used 16S rDNA sequencing to test the fecal microbiome of Bedouins and urban Saudis and we compared it to the gut microbiome of baboons living in close contact with Bedouins and eating their leftovers. We also analyzed fermented dairy products commonly consumed by Bedouins in order to investigate their impact on the gut microbiome of this population. We found that the gut microbiomes of westernized urban Saudis had significantly lower richness and biodiversity than the traditional Bedouin population. The gut microbiomes of baboons were more similar to that of Bedouins compared to urban Saudis, probably due the dietary overlap between baboons and Bedouins. Moreover, we found clusters that were compositionally similar to clusters identified in humans and baboons, characterized by differences in Acinetobacter, Turicibacter and Collinsella. The fermented food presented significantly more bacteria genera common to the gut microbiome of Bedouins compared to urban Saudis. These results support the hypothesis that dietary habits influence the composition of the gut microbiome. PMID:27578328

  5. Dissecting the gene network of dietary restriction to identify evolutionarily conserved pathways and new functional genes.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Daniel; Connor, Richard; Vora, Chintan; Craig, Thomas; Li, Yang; Wood, Shona; Vasieva, Olga; Shmookler Reis, Robert; Tang, Fusheng; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), limiting nutrient intake from diet without causing malnutrition, delays the aging process and extends lifespan in multiple organisms. The conserved life-extending effect of DR suggests the involvement of fundamental mechanisms, although these remain a subject of debate. To help decipher the life-extending mechanisms of DR, we first compiled a list of genes that if genetically altered disrupt or prevent the life-extending effects of DR. We called these DR-essential genes and identified more than 100 in model organisms such as yeast, worms, flies, and mice. In order for other researchers to benefit from this first curated list of genes essential for DR, we established an online database called GenDR (http://genomics.senescence.info/diet/). To dissect the interactions of DR-essential genes and discover the underlying lifespan-extending mechanisms, we then used a variety of network and systems biology approaches to analyze the gene network of DR. We show that DR-essential genes are more conserved at the molecular level and have more molecular interactions than expected by chance. Furthermore, we employed a guilt-by-association method to predict novel DR-essential genes. In budding yeast, we predicted nine genes related to vacuolar functions; we show experimentally that mutations deleting eight of those genes prevent the life-extending effects of DR. Three of these mutants (OPT2, FRE6, and RCR2) had extended lifespan under ad libitum, indicating that the lack of further longevity under DR is not caused by a general compromise of fitness. These results demonstrate how network analyses of DR using GenDR can be used to make phenotypically relevant predictions. Moreover, gene-regulatory circuits reveal that the DR-induced transcriptional signature in yeast involves nutrient-sensing, stress responses and meiotic transcription factors. Finally, comparing the influence of gene expression changes during DR on the interactomes of multiple organisms led

  6. Foods and Dietary Patterns That Are Healthy, Low-Cost, and Environmentally Sustainable: A Case Study of Optimization Modeling for New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Nghiem, Nhung; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Baker, Michael G.; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objective Global health challenges include non-communicable disease burdens, ensuring food security in the context of rising food prices, and environmental constraints around food production, e.g., greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions. We therefore aimed to consider optimized solutions to the mix of food items in daily diets for a developed country population: New Zealand (NZ). Methods We conducted scenario development and linear programming to model 16 diets (some with uncertainty). Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices, food wastage and food-specific GHG emissions. Findings This study identified daily dietary patterns that met key nutrient requirements for as little as a median of NZ$ 3.17 per day (US$ 2.41/d) (95% simulation interval [SI] = NZ$ 2.86 to 3.50/d). Diets that included “more familiar meals” for New Zealanders, increased the cost. The optimized diets also had low GHG emission profiles compared with the estimate for the ‘typical NZ diet’ e.g., 1.62 kg CO2e/d for one scenario (95%SI = 1.39 to 1.85 kg CO2e) compared with 10.1 kg CO2e/d, respectively. All of the optimized low-cost and low-GHG dietary patterns had likely health advantages over the current NZ dietary pattern, i.e., lower cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. Conclusions We identified optimal foods and dietary patterns that would lower the risk of non-communicable diseases at low cost and with low greenhouse gas emission profiles. These results could help guide central and local government decisions around which foods to focus policies on. That is which foods are most suitable for: food taxes (additions and exemptions); healthy food vouchers and subsidies; and for increased use by public institutions involved in food preparation. PMID:23544082

  7. Familial testicular germ cell tumor: no associated syndromic pattern identified

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common malignancy in young men. Familial clustering, epidemiologic evidence of increased risk with family or personal history, and the association of TGCT with genitourinary (GU) tract anomalies have suggested an underlying genetic predisposition. Linkage data have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant, single gene in familial TGCT (FTGCT) cases. Based on its association with congenital GU tract anomalies and suggestions that there is an intrauterine origin to TGCT, we hypothesized the existence of unrecognized dysmorphic features in FTGCT. Methods We evaluated 38 FTGCT individuals and 41 first-degree relatives from 22 multiple-case families with detailed dysmorphology examinations, physician-based medical history and physical examination, laboratory testing, and genitourinary imaging studies. Results The prevalence of major abnormalities and minor variants did not significantly differ between either FTGCT individuals or their first-degree relatives when compared with normal population controls, except for tall stature, macrocephaly, flat midface, and retro-/micrognathia. However, these four traits were not manifest as a constellation of features in any one individual or family. We did detect an excess prevalence of the genitourinary anomalies cryptorchidism and congenital inguinal hernia in our population, as previously described in sporadic TGCT, but no congenital renal, retroperitoneal or mediastinal anomalies were detected. Conclusions Overall, our study did not identify a constellation of dysmorphic features in FTGCT individuals, which is consistent with results of genetic studies suggesting that multiple low-penetrance genes are likely responsible for FTGCT susceptibility. PMID:24559313

  8. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: a propensity score-matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Liu, Fangfang; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Wu, Yuntang; Song, Kun; Huang, Guowei; Wang, Guolin; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-10-06

    Previous studies indicated that dietary patterns were associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known in Chinese. We design this case-control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and MS in Chinese adults. In this study, 1492 participants with MS were matched with 1492 controls using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and MS was defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statement of 2009. Higher scores for the high-protein/cholesterol pattern were associated with higher prevalence of MS. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (OR) for the extreme quartile was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.68) and the P for trend <0.01 after adjusted for the other two dietary pattern scores. We also found a moderate consumption of the balanced pattern was associated with the lowest prevalence of MS. The ORs across quartiles of the balanced pattern were 1 (reference), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68-1.02), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56-0.85), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-1.04) after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that there is a strong association between a diet rich in animal offal, animal blood, meat, and sausage and a higher prevalence of MS.

  9. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: a propensity score-matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Liu, Fangfang; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Wu, Yuntang; Song, Kun; Huang, Guowei; Wang, Guolin; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dietary patterns were associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known in Chinese. We design this case-control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and MS in Chinese adults. In this study, 1492 participants with MS were matched with 1492 controls using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and MS was defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statement of 2009. Higher scores for the high-protein/cholesterol pattern were associated with higher prevalence of MS. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (OR) for the extreme quartile was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10–1.68) and the P for trend <0.01 after adjusted for the other two dietary pattern scores. We also found a moderate consumption of the balanced pattern was associated with the lowest prevalence of MS. The ORs across quartiles of the balanced pattern were 1 (reference), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68–1.02), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56–0.85), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68–1.04) after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that there is a strong association between a diet rich in animal offal, animal blood, meat, and sausage and a higher prevalence of MS. PMID:27708414

  10. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  11. Carotenoid-rich dietary patterns during midlife and subsequent cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Ducros, Véronique; Jeandel, Claude; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2014-03-14

    Carotenoids may help to prevent the ageing of the brain. Previous findings regarding β-carotene alone are not consistent. In the present study, we evaluated the cross-time association between a carotenoid-rich dietary pattern (CDP) and subsequent cognitive performance using a sample of 2983 middle-aged adults participating in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants) study. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-9 using six neuropsychological tests, and a composite cognitive score was computed. The cognitive data were related to dietary data obtained by repeated 24 h dietary records (1994-6) and to measurements of baseline plasma concentrations of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene and cis-β-carotene). DP were extracted using the reduced rank regression method for 381 participants and then extrapolated to the whole sample using plasma carotenoid concentrations as response variables. Associations between a CDP and cognitive function measured 13 years later were estimated with ANCOVA providing mean difference values and 95 % CI across the tertiles of CDP. A correlation between CDP and consumption of orange- and green-coloured fruits and vegetables, vegetable oils and soup was observed. CDP was found to be associated with a higher composite cognitive score (mean difference 1·04, 95 % CI 0·20, 1·87, P for trend 0·02), after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors. Similar findings were obtained for scores obtained in the cued recall task, backward digit span task, trail making test and semantic fluency task (all P for trend < 0·05). Further studies ought to confirm whether a diet providing sufficient quantity and variety of coloured fruits and vegetables may contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during ageing.

  12. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.; Räsänen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intake was estimated using a cross check dietary history. In this dietary survey method, the usual food consumption pattern in the 6-12 months is estimated. A healthy diet indicator was calculated for the dietary pattern, using the World Health Organisation's guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. Vital status was verified after 20 years of follow up, and death rates were calculated. RESULTS: Dietary intake varied greatly in 1970 between the three countries. In Finland and the Netherlands the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol was high and the intake of alcohol was low; in Italy the opposite was observed. In total 1796 men (59%) died during 20 years of follow up. The healthy diet indicator was inversely associated with mortality (P for trend < 0.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the relative risk in the group with the healthiest diet indicator compared with the group with the least healthy was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.98). Estimated relative risks were essentially similar within each country. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of men aged 50-70 is associated with a 20 year, all cause mortality in different cultures. The healthy diet indicator is useful in evaluating the relation of mortality to dietary patterns. PMID:9233319

  13. Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, β-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women.

  14. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants

    PubMed Central

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Results: Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01) and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01), when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu. PMID:26298652

  15. Dietary patterns in Japanese migrants to southeastern Brazil and their descendants.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, M A; Hamada, G S; de Souza, J M; Tsugane, S; Tokudome, S

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the dietary patterns of people of Japanese ancestry living in São Paulo, Brazil. Two cross-sectional surveys using a food frequency questionnaire (in 1989 and 1995) and self-administered three-day food record (only in 1995) were carried out in randomly chosen first-generation (Japan-born) and second-generation (Brazil-born) Japanese living in the city of São Paulo (n = 166), aged 40-69 years at the time of the first survey (1989). Daily intake of rice, bread, milk, fruits and coffee, and infrequent consumption of pork, green tea, black tea, tsukemono (pickled vegetables), seaweed and mushrooms were reported. The mean (+/- standard deviation) daily proportions of energy from fat among Japan-born participants were 27.2 +/- 6.7% for men and 26.2 +/- 6.7% for women. The respective figures for Brazil-born Japanese were 30.1 +/- 7.4% and 29.5 +/- 6.4%. These values were quite close to recent estimates for the general Brazilian population in metropolitan areas (about 30%), but seem to be higher than available data from Japan (25.3%). Dietary changes in this migrant population are discussed with focus on nutrients currently implicated in the etiology of major chronic diseases.

  16. [Relationship between dietary fiber intake and food intake patterns of the general population, evaluated by a regional nutrition survey].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, I; Notsu, A; Noda, H; Otsuka, Y

    1998-07-01

    This study was performed to estimate the dietary fiber intake calculated using individual food intake data and the dietary fiber tables, and to ascertain the relationship between food intake patterns and dietary fiber intake of the general population. The 805 subjects over 15 years old were obtained from the Tottori Prefecture Nutrition Survey. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The average dietary fiber intake per capita per day was 18.19 g; 18.67 g in men, and 17.81 g in women. Dietary fiber intake per energy was different among sexes and ages: women had more dietary fiber than men and the aged had more than the young. Those who had high fiber intake per energy took green vegetables, fruits, milk, soybean products, seaweed and potatoes more frequently, and did not take oil so frequently. 2. Total dietary fiber intake from 20 food-group sources was analyzed by Multiple Regression Analysis. For both men and women fruits, vegetables and soybean products mostly influenced dietary fiber intake. 3. Based on the intake of the 20 food-groups obtained from 356 men and 449 women, the correlation matrix among these foods was calculated. The correlation matrix was also submitted to a Principal Component Analysis. The result of the Principal Component Analysis told that food intake patterns were different among the levels of dietary fiber intake. Food intake patterns of men and women who had high fiber intake per energy had an eating pattern characterized by relatively more non-processed vegetable food, bread and milk. 4. The level of blood pressure was significantly related to dietary fiber intake per energy in men over 60 years old. In the hypertensive men over 60 years old, 23.3% were in the low fiber intake group, 37.2% in the middle group, and 39.5% in the high group. But in the normal blood pressure men over 60 years old, 50.0% were in the low fiber intake group, 8.3% in the middle group, and 41.7% in the high group.

  17. DASH and Mediterranean-type Dietary Patterns to Maintain Cognitive Health.

    PubMed

    Tangney, Christy C

    2014-03-01

    There is growing consensus that as the US population ages, nearly a third will experience stroke, dementia or even both. Thus, interest in the role that diet may play in preserving cognitive abilities continues to grow especially in absence of truly effective treatments for dementia, of which Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form. The purpose of this review is to examine whether two a priori dietary patterns influence the rate of cognitive decline or the onset of dementia. Evidence from neuropathology reports of those who have died with AD or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or without cognitive impairment suggests that often the pathological hallmarks of AD---amyloid deposition and presence of tangles are present along with vascular lesions. Hypertension and stroke are strongly associated with incident dementia. Thus, it is possible that lifestyle approaches designed to prevent or reduce cardiovascular risk factors, conditions or diseases may also provide added benefits for brain health.

  18. Association of Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Comparison of PCA and RRR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageot, Nicolas; Leite, Sonia; Alkerwi, Ala’a; Sisanni, Leila; Zannad, Faiez; Saverio, Stranges; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Principal component analysis is used to determine dietary behaviors of a population whereas reduced rank regression is used to construct disease-related dietary patterns. This study aimed to compare both types of DP and theirs associations with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Materiel and Methods Data were derived from the cross sectional NESCAV (Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health) study, aiming to describe the cardiovascular health of the Greater region’s population (Grand duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia (Belgium), Lorraine (France)). 2298 individuals were included for this study and dietary intake was assessed using a 134-item food frequency questionnaire. Results We found that CVRF-related patterns also reflect eating behaviours of the population. Comparing concordant food groups between both dietary pattern methods, a diet high in fruits, oleaginous and dried fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fats rich in omega 6 and tea and low in fried foods, lean and fatty meat, processed meat, ready meal, soft drink and beer was associated with lower prevalence of CVRF. In the opposite, a pattern characterized by high intakes of fried foods, meat, offal, beer, wine and aperitifs and spirits, and low intakes of cereals, sugar and sweets and soft drinks was associated with higher prevalence of CVRF. Conclusion In sum, we found that a “Prudent” and “Animal protein and alcohol” patterns were both associated with CVRF and behaviourally meaningful. Moreover, the relationships of those dietary patterns with lifestyle characteristics support the theory that food choices are part of a larger pattern of healthy lifestyle. PMID:27548287

  19. Dietary patterns of adults living in Ouagadougou and their association with overweight

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Urbanization in developing countries comes along with changes in food habits and living conditions and with an increase in overweight and associated health risks. The objective of the study was to describe dietary patterns of adults in Ouagadougou and to study their relationship with anthropometric status of the subjects. Methods A qualitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to 1,072 adults living in two contrasted districts of Ouagadougou. Dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis and described by multivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to study their association with overweight. Results The diet was mainly made of cereals, vegetables and fats from vegetable sources. The two first components of the principal component analysis were interpreted respectively as a "snacking" score and as a "modern foods" score. Both scores were positively and independently associated with the economic level of households and with food expenditures (p ≤ 0.001 for both). The "snacking" score was higher for younger people (p = 0.004), for people having a formal occupation (p = 0.006), for those never married (p = 0.005), whereas the "modern foods" score was associated with ethnic group (p = 0.032) and district of residence (p < 0.001). Thirty-six percent of women and 14.5% of men were overweight (Body Mass Index > 25 kg/m2). A higher "modern foods" score was associated with a higher prevalence of overweight when confounding factors were accounted for (OR = 1.19 [95% CI 1.03-1.36]) but there was no relationship between overweight and the "snacking" score. Conclusions Modernisation of types of foods consumed was associated with the living conditions and the environment and with an increased risk of overweight. This should be accounted for to promote better nutrition and prevent non communicable diseases. PMID:20307296

  20. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro), central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse) and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis), pulse wave velocity (PWV) with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity), nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X), physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170), carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax), and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin). Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical exercise and diet

  1. Historical development of Chinese dietary patterns and nutrition from the ancient to the modern society.

    PubMed

    Chen, J D; Xu, H

    1996-01-01

    Actually, food, diet and diet therapy germinated together with the change of meal patterns and traditional Chinese medicine from very ancient China; they appeared in an embryonic form till the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and received great importance from the governors who arranged officials to manage their diets and banquets. Moreover, food, diet and meal patterns were replenished through the Zhou, Qin, Han and Jin Dynasties and epitomized and reached thriving and prosperous standards till the Tang Dynasty. They then became perfected, developed, and formed a complete theory in the dynasties of Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing. The basis of modern nutrition was made up until the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, which was the time when natural science, including microbiology, chemistry, food industry, etc. were extended into China, yet it was not fully formed until the established of the People's Republic of China. Practicing, teaching, training and research activities started regularly in 1950. With a big population and poor economy basis, the first problem that the Chinese people has now been basically solved. Chinese nutritional scientists worked hard to find out the nutritional problems and status of the people. Through the broad-scale 'Nationwide Nutrition Survey', we now understand our main problems. On this basis, RDA, dietary goal and dietary guidance have been put forward. Although the problem of adequate food and clothing has been basically solved, the Chinese are still facing both the problem of nutrition insufficiency and nutrition excess. However, although nutrition insufficiency and deficiency still extensively exist, nutrition excess and imbalance are emerging in other sections of the population. There is still a shortage of qualified nutritional scientists and technicians, and the training of nutritionists is urgent. Food supplies, including milk, beef, green vegetables and fruit should be increased, especially for some rural and

  2. The Effect of Dietary Pattern and Body Mass Index on the Academic Performance of In-School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunsile, Seyi Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pattern and body mass index on the academic performance of in-school adolescents in Ekiti State. One hundred and twenty eight students (10-19 years) selected from three senior secondary schools in Ekiti State Nigeria, formed the participants for this study. Questionnaire was…

  3. Trend of cancer risk of Chinese inhabitants to dioxins due to changes in dietary patterns: 1980–2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Ling, Zaili; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-02-01

    Food ingestion is a major route for human exposure and body burden to dioxins. We estimated the potential influence of changes in dietary patterns in Chinese population on human health risk to 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) over the last three decades. We performed multiple modeling scenario investigations to discriminate the contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions and changes in dietary patterns to the cancer risks (CR) to dioxins. Results showed that changes in dietary patterns, featured by decreasing consumption of total grain (including all unprocessed grains) and vegetables and increasing intake of animal-derived foodstuffs, caused increasing CR from 7.3 × 10‑8 in 1980 to 1.1 × 10‑7 in 2009. Varying dietary patterns contributed 17% to the CR of Chinese population in 2009 under the fixed emission in 1980. The CR to 2,3,7,8-TCDD in urban and eastern China residents was higher considerably than those who lived in rural area and western China, attributable to higher emissions, household income, and greater intake of animal-derived foodstuffs in urban and eastern China inhabitants. On the other hand, more rapid increasing trend of the CR was found in rural residents due to their more rapid increase in the consumption of fat-dominated foods as compared with urban residents.

  4. Dietary patterns and diet quality among diverse older adults: The University of Alabama at Birmingham study of aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To characterize dietary patterns among a diverse sample of older adults (= 65 years). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Five counties in west central Alabama. Participants: Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N=416; 76.8 ± 5.2 years, 56% female, 39% African American) in the Univer...

  5. Trend of cancer risk of Chinese inhabitants to dioxins due to changes in dietary patterns: 1980–2009

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Ling, Zaili; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Food ingestion is a major route for human exposure and body burden to dioxins. We estimated the potential influence of changes in dietary patterns in Chinese population on human health risk to 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) over the last three decades. We performed multiple modeling scenario investigations to discriminate the contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions and changes in dietary patterns to the cancer risks (CR) to dioxins. Results showed that changes in dietary patterns, featured by decreasing consumption of total grain (including all unprocessed grains) and vegetables and increasing intake of animal-derived foodstuffs, caused increasing CR from 7.3 × 10−8 in 1980 to 1.1 × 10−7 in 2009. Varying dietary patterns contributed 17% to the CR of Chinese population in 2009 under the fixed emission in 1980. The CR to 2,3,7,8-TCDD in urban and eastern China residents was higher considerably than those who lived in rural area and western China, attributable to higher emissions, household income, and greater intake of animal-derived foodstuffs in urban and eastern China inhabitants. On the other hand, more rapid increasing trend of the CR was found in rural residents due to their more rapid increase in the consumption of fat-dominated foods as compared with urban residents. PMID:26912346

  6. Participation in School Physical Education and Selected Dietary Patterns among High School Students--United States, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of self-reported enrollment, attendance, and participation in school physical education, noting dietary patterns among students in grades 9-12 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Percentages of students participating varied significantly. Males participated and exercised more than females. Very few students…

  7. Racial Contrasts in Hemoglobin Levels and Dietary Patterns Related to Hematopoiesis in Children: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Racial differences in hemoglobin were explored in pre-adolescent and adolescent children. After controlling for variations in dietary patterns, race accounted for a notable proportion of hemoglobin variance in both age groups. These differences exist independently of nutrient intake and maturational changes. (Author/VM)

  8. Changing food patterns across the seasons in rural Pakistan: analysis of food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Zulfiqar, Farhad; Saboor, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study investigated variations in food patterns across the seasons in rural Pakistan through assessing the changes in food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake. It analyzed the situation using the primary information of 97 and 114 households surveyed in summer and winter respectively. Findings revealed a significant difference of households' food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake across the seasons. In the winter, households' food basket was more diverse, showing 30%, 13%, and 8% rise in food variety, dietary diversity, and caloric intake, respectively, due mainly to the changes in food choices in winter. Rural households preferred to consume items from nutritious food groups (i.e., dried fruits and nuts, oilseeds, and locally preserved foods) during the severe cold weather. However, they did not substitute significantly the items from basic food groups (i.e., cereals, vegetables and legumes, tubers, and dairy products), with those belonging to nutritious groups. Based on findings, it is concluded that food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake fluctuate across the seasons, therefore surveys of dietary patterns and calorie intake in one particular season may not be reliable, and food security status of households may not be generalized on the basis of one season survey.

  9. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Elly; Markey, Oonagh; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Givens, David Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984–1988) was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1.35: 95% CI: 1.10, 1.67) and stroke (HR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.63) incidence. DP3, characterised by higher intakes of sweet puddings and biscuits, wholegrain breakfast cereals and dairy (excluding cheese and butter) and lower alcohol intake, was associated with lower CVD (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93), coronary heart disease (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90) and stroke (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.99) incidence and a beneficial CVD profile at baseline, while DP1 with an unfavourable profile, showed no clear associations after 12 years follow-up. Dietary pattern 2 (DP2), characterised by higher intake of pulses, fish, poultry, processed/red meat, rice, pasta and vegetables, was not associated with the aforementioned outcomes. These data may provide insight for development of public health initiatives focussing on feasible changes in dietary habits. PMID:28106791

  10. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight on the longitudinal development of childhood constipation: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Escher, Johanna C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-10-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on constipation. The aim of this study was to assess whether common dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and childhood overweight are associated with constipation in childhood. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective birth cohort. Information on dietary intake was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire at the child's age of 14 months (n = 2420). The adherence scores on a 'Health conscious' and 'Western-like' diet were extracted from principal component analysis. At the age of 24, 36 and 48 months, information on constipation and sedentary behaviour, and weight and height was obtained by parental-derived questionnaires and from the child health centres, respectively. Adherence to a 'Western-like' dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of constipation up to 48 months [adjusted odds ratio (aOR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39; 1.02-1.87], which was not mediated by overweight or sedentary behaviour. Adherence to a 'Health Conscious' dietary pattern was only associated at short term, with a lower prevalence of constipation at 24 months (aOR; 95%CI: 0.65; 0.44-0.96). No association was found between overweight, sedentary behaviour and constipation. Our results suggest that specific dietary patterns in early childhood could be associated with higher or lower risks for constipation, but these effects are time-dependent. Overweight and sedentary behaviour seem to not have a major role on constipation in childhood.

  11. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053

  12. Obesity and central adiposity in Japanese immigrants: role of the Western dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sandra R G; Lerario, Daniel D G; Gimeno, Suely G A; Sanudo, Adriana; Franco, Laércio J

    2002-11-01

    We examined the association of nutritional factors with body fat deposition in a representative sample (n=530, aged 40-79 years) of first and second-generation Japanese-Brazilian population who was submitted to standardized questionnaires, including nutritional data, clinical examination and laboratory procedures. Dietary data were compared between groups of subjects defined by the presence of obesity or central adiposity. Associations of body mass index or waist circumference (dependent variables) with energy and nutrient intakes (main exposure of interest) were analyzed by multiple linear regression, with adjustment for gender, age, physical activity and generation. Groups of obese subjects and those with central adiposity consumed higher proportions of energy as fat and lower as carbohydrate than those without obesity and central adiposity (p<0.05). Stratifying by generation, second-generation was shown to take more energy as fat than the first-generation (p<0.05). In the regression models, protein intake was the only variable significantly associated with body mass index. Replacing body mass index by the waist circumference, male sex and protein intake were shown to be independent predictors of central adiposity. When second-generation was taken, total energy intake and all macronutrient intakes became significantly associated with body mass index (p<0.05) but only protein intake predicted waist circumference. We speculate that Japanese-Brazilians, genetically prone to insulin resistance, when exposed to unfavorable environment will express a number of metabolic disturbances. A deleterious dietary pattern may contribute to weight gain, was associated with abdominal fat deposition in particular a protein-rich diet, and reflected by their waist circumference. Intra-abdominal fat could be triggering insulin resistance, which would explain the increased prevalence rates of diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension seen in Japanese-Brazilians.

  13. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  14. How Do Tracking and Changes in Dietary Pattern during Adolescence Relate to the Amount of Body Fat in Early Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Lopes, Carla; Severo, Milton; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the influence of dietary patterns (DP) during adolescence on the amount of body fat in early adulthood. Objective To analyze the associations between DP tracking and changes in the period between 15 and 18 years of age and the percentage of body fat (%BF) at age 18 years. Methods We used data from 3,823 members of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Body density was measured at age 18 years by air displacement plethysmograph (BOD POD) and the %BF was calculated applying the Siri equation. Based on the estimates from the FFQ, we identified DP at ages 15 (“Varied”, “Traditional”, “Dieting” and “Processed meats”) and 18 years (“Varied”, “Traditional”, “Dieting” and “Fish, fast food and alcohol”). The DP tracking was defined as the individual’s adherence to the same DP at both ages. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression models stratified by sex. Results The mean %BF was 25.0% (95% CI: 24.7 to 25.4), significantly greater for girls than boys (p<0.001). The adherence to any DP at age 15 years was not associated with the %BF at age 18 years. However, individuals who adhered to a “Dieting” DP at age 18 years showed greater %BF (1.30 and 1.91 percentage points in boys and girls, respectively) in comparison with those who adhered to a “Varied” DP. Boys who presented tracking of a “Dieting” DP presented greater average %BF in comparison with others DP, as well as girls who changed from the “Traditional” or “Processed meats” DP to a “Dieting” DP. Conclusion These results may support public health policies and strategies focused on improving dietary habits of adolescents and young adults and preventing accumulation of body fat, especially among the adolescents with restrictive dietary habits. PMID:26907178

  15. Menu modeling with MyPyramid food patterns: incremental dietary changes lead to dramatic improvements in diet quality of menus.

    PubMed

    Hornick, Betsy A; Krester, Alison J; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2008-12-01

    The MyPyramid food guidance system provides recommended food intake patterns for members of each sex at various age and activity levels. These food intake patterns are based on recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Actual consumption patterns of American adults compared to MyPyramid recommendations indicate that substantial changes are needed to meet the goals of MyPyramid. One method for encouraging dietary change, known as the small steps approach, involves small, gradual changes to meet a desired endpoint. Menu modeling was used to evaluate the effects of gradual dietary changes on diet quality. Seven days of baseline menus were developed to model the intake of adult women aged 31 to 50 years. Incremental changes were made to each baseline menu to create a series of three transitional menus and a final target menu. Target menus met MyPyramid energy and nutrient intake goals. Diet quality was measured for each baseline, transitional, and target menu using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. The average Healthy Eating Index-2005 score for baseline menus compared to target menus increased by more than 50 points with incremental increases observed for each transitional menu. This analysis demonstrates that small, practical changes in food choices that bring consumers closer to meeting MyPyramid recommendations result in gradual and dramatic improvements in diet quality. Food and nutrition professionals can use menu modeling to provide concrete examples and specific guidance for making progressive changes in food selections to meet current dietary recommendations.

  16. Identifying recommended dietary allowances for protein and amino acids: a critique of the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report.

    PubMed

    Millward, D Joe

    2012-08-01

    The WHO/FAO/UNU (2007) report examines dietary protein and amino acid requirements for all age groups, protein requirements during pregnancy, lactation and catch-up growth in children, the implications of these requirements for developing countries and protein quality evaluation. Requirements were defined as the minimum dietary intake which satisfies the metabolic demand and achieves nitrogen equilibrium and maintenance of the body protein mass, plus the needs for growth in children and pregnancy and lactation in healthy women. Insufficient evidence was identified to enable recommendations for specific health outcomes. A meta analysis of nitrogen balance studies identifies protein requirements for adults 10 % higher than previous values with no influence of gender or age, consistent with a subsequently published comprehensive study. A new factorial model for infants and children, validated on the basis of the adequacy of breast milk protein intakes and involving a lower maintenance requirement value, no provision for saltatory growth and new estimates of protein deposition identifies lower protein requirements than in previous reports. Higher values for adult amino acid requirements, derived from a re-evaluation of nitrogen balance studies and new stable isotope studies, identify some cereal-based diets as being inadequate for lysine. The main outstanding issues relate to the biological implausibility of the very low efficiencies of protein utilisation used in the factorial models for protein requirements for all population groups especially pregnancy when requirements may be overestimated. Also considerable uncertainty remains about the design and interpretation of most of the studies used to identify amino acid requirement values.

  17. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Oggioni, C; Cena, H; Wells, J C K; Lara, J; Celis-Morales, C; Siervo, M

    2015-12-01

    Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs.

  18. Healthful Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension Among Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Zhu, Yeyi; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K; Ley, Sylvia H; Forman, John P; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James; Bowers, Katherine; Strøm, Marin; Hansen, Susanne; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-06-01

    Women who developed gestational diabetes mellitus represent a high-risk population for hypertension later in life. The role of diet in the progression of hypertension among this susceptible population is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3818 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus in the Nurses' Health Study II as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study. These women were followed-up from 1989 to 2011. Incident hypertension was identified through self-administered questionnaires that were validated previously by medical record review. Adherence scores for the alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternative Mediterranean diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension were computed for each participant. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary scores and hypertension while adjusting for major risk factors for hypertension. We documented 1069 incident hypertension cases during a median of 18.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for major risk factors for hypertension, including body mass index, alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, alternative Mediterranean diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores were significantly inversely associated with the risk of hypertension; hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval comparing the extreme quartiles (highest versus lowest) were 0.76 (0.61-0.94; P for linear trend =0.03) for AHEI score, 0.72 (0.58-0.90; P for trend =0.01) for Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension score, and 0.70 (0.56-0.88; P for trend =0.002) for alternative Mediterranean diet score. Adherence to a healthful dietary pattern was related to a lower subsequent risk of developing hypertension among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  19. Beneficial effects of the RESMENA dietary pattern on oxidative stress in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia are associated to dietary TAC and fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2013-03-27

    Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (-30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG) levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia.

  20. Beneficial Effects of the RESMENA Dietary Pattern on Oxidative Stress in Patients Suffering from Metabolic Syndrome with Hyperglycemia Are Associated to Dietary TAC and Fruit Consumption

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Zulet, M. Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (−30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG) levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia. PMID:23535332

  1. Dietary patterns associated with overweight and obesity among Brazilian schoolchildren: an approach based on the time-of-day of eating events.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; Lobo, Adriana S; Leal, Danielle B; Bellisle, France; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-12-01

    Several studies reported that the timing of eating events has critical implications in the prevention of obesity, but dietary patterns regarding the time-of-day have not been explored in children. The aim of this study was to derive latent food patterns of daily eating events and to examine their associations with overweight/obesity among schoolchildren. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 7-10-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 1232) who completed the Previous Day Food Questionnaire, illustrated with twenty-one foods/beverages in six daily eating events. Latent class analysis was used to derive dietary patterns whose association with child weight status was evaluated by multivariate multinomial regression. Four mutually exclusive latent classes of dietary patterns were identified and labelled according to the time-of-day of eating events and food intake probability (FIP): (A) higher FIP only at lunch; (B) lower FIP at all eating events; (C) higher FIP at lunch, afternoon and evening snacks; (D) lower FIP at breakfast and at evening snack, higher FIP at other meals/snacks. The percentages of children within these classes were 32·3, 48·6, 15·1 and 4·0 %, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the mean probabilities of obesity for these classes were 6 % (95 % CI 3·0, 9·0), 13 % (95 % CI 9·0, 17·0), 12 % (95 % CI 6·0, 19) and 11 % (95 % CI 5·0, 17·0), in the same order. In conclusion, the children eating traditional lunch with rice and beans as the main meal of the day (class A) had the lowest obesity risk, thus reinforcing the importance of both the food type and the time-of-day of its intake for weight status.

  2. alpha-Tocopherol intake and plasma concentration of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white elders is associated with dietary intake pattern.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Martin, Antonio; Lin, Hai; Bermudez, Odilia I; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-10-01

    alpha-Tocopherol from foods has been associated with protection against several chronic diseases and maintenance of immune function. However, most people do not meet current recommendations for intake. We examined alpha-tocopherol intake and plasma concentration in a representative sample of Puerto Rican and Dominican older adults (n = 447) and in neighborhood-matched non-Hispanic whites (n = 155). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Mean dietary intakes of alpha-tocopherol were 6 mg in both ethnicities. Only 4.7% of women and 7.9% of men met the estimated average requirement (12 mg/d) for vitamin E from food alone. Top sources of alpha-tocopherol for Hispanics included oils and milk, and for non-Hispanic whites they were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and sweet baked products. Mean plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations were 24.5 micromol/L for Hispanics and 25.8 micromol/L for non-Hispanic whites (P > 0.05). Plasma alpha-tocopherol was positively associated with alpha-tocopherol intake (P = 0.003), and significance remained after adjusting covariates and after exclusion of supplement users (P for trend = 0.008). We identified the following 5 dietary patterns by cluster analysis: 1) fruit and breakfast cereal, 2) starchy vegetables, 3) rice, 4) milk and milk products, and 5) sweets. Those following the sweets pattern had the lowest plasma alpha-tocopherol relative to those following the fruit and breakfast cereal or milk patterns (P < 0.05 for all), although they had similar intakes. A large proportion of these elders (>90%) have inadequate intake of alpha-tocopherol, and plasma concentrations were associated with intake patterns.

  3. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers.

  4. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-day diet diaries were available at age 36, 43 and 53 for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary patterns scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n=106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, and whole grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at age 43 among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at age 43 had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5.45 (2.01, 14.79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 SD unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not men. PMID:27245103

  5. The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes is a major, non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence at a global level. Type-2 diabetes results when the body does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin it produces. Type-2 diabetes is the leading cause of premature deaths. Improperly managed, it can lead to a number of health issues, including heart diseases, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve damage, leg and foot amputations, and death. Type-2 diabetes or adult-onset diabetes is most common type of diabetes, usually begins when a person is in his or her mid-50s, but diabetes is not inevitable. Minor changes in your lifestyle can greatly reduce your chances of getting this disease. Therefore, in order to prevent this condition, action should be taken regarding the modifiable factors that influence its development-lifestyle and dietary habits. However, with proper testing, treatment and lifestyle changes, healthy eating as a strategy, promote walking, exercise, and other physical activities have beneficial effects on human health and prevention or treatment of diabetes, promoting adherence to this pattern is of considerable public health importance. PMID:24741641

  6. Oral hygiene, dietary pattern and smoking habits of Bedouin (nomadic Arabs) population in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almas, K; al-Amri, M; al-Eid, A; al-Shahrani, S

    2003-09-01

    The estimated population of the Bedouins are up to two million in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but relatively little information is available about them. The aim of the study was to assess the oral hygiene dietary pattern and smoking habits of Saudi Bedouins population around Medina, Qaseen and Khamis Moshayte areas. Five hundred and twenty five Bedouins (296 male, 229 female) with the age range 2-90 years were interviewed and examined clinically over a period of four months (July to October 1998). It was found that 25% of the subjects were miswak users, 30% used miswak and tooth brush, while 26% never cleaned their teeth. Almost 50% of the subjects were regular in their oral hygiene habits. Seventy percent were rice eaters while meat and dates were second and third preference. Tea was the most common drink with 2-3 teaspoons of sugar per cup. Only ten percent were cigarette smokers and less than 5% used shisha (traditional smoking pipe). It is concluded from the study that within the surveyed Bedouin population one fourth of them never cleaned their teeth while almost the same number used miswak (Chewing stick) to clean their teeth. Rice was the most common food item, while tea with refined sugar was the most common drink. Only 15% were smoker. Further research is needed with a larger and a more representative sample of Bedouins from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  7. Dietary pattern among schoolchildren with normal nutritional status in Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-04-11

    A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of three consecutive school days) in a randomly selected group of 353 schoolchildren (188 males and 165 females) with normal nutritional status. The average age of the surveyed students was 10.5 years (CI 95%: 10.3-11.7). There were no significant differences between both sexes in mean values for calorie intake (males: 2072.7 ± 261.7 and females: 2060.9 ± 250.6) and intake of macronutrients, minerals and vitamins. Cereals (34%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) were responsible for approximately 70% of total calorie intake. Protein accounted for 20.3% of energy intake, carbohydrates for 48.8%, total fat for 30.9%, and saturated fat for 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and over two-thirds of protein intake was from animal sources. The mean intakes of calcium, iodine and Vitamins A, D and E were below recommended levels. The dietary patterns of the schoolchildren with normal nutritional status differed from the Mediterranean diet. Intakes of meat were too high and dairy products and cereals consumption was relatively limited; while that of vegetables; legumes; fruits and fish were insufficient; leading to excessive protein and fat intake from animal sources and insufficient mineral (calcium and iodine) and Vitamins A; D and E intake.

  8. The association between diet quality, dietary patterns and depression in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that diet modifies key biological factors associated with the development of depression; however, associations between diet quality and depression are not fully understood. We performed a systematic review to evaluate existing evidence regarding the association between diet quality and depression. Method A computer-aided literature search was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, January 1965 to October 2011, and a best-evidence analysis performed. Results Twenty-five studies from nine countries met eligibility criteria. Our best-evidence analyses found limited evidence to support an association between traditional diets (Mediterranean or Norwegian diets) and depression. We also observed a conflicting level of evidence for associations between (i) a traditional Japanese diet and depression, (ii) a “healthy” diet and depression, (iii) a Western diet and depression, and (iv) individuals with depression and the likelihood of eating a less healthy diet. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first review to synthesize and critically analyze evidence regarding diet quality, dietary patterns and depression. Further studies are urgently required to elucidate whether a true causal association exists. PMID:23802679

  9. A participatory assessment of dietary patterns and food behavior in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Allison; Englberger, Lois; Flores, Rafael; Lorens, Adelino; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2008-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are escalating rapidly within the Pacific region, including Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. A shift in dietary patterns from indigenous, high fiber, healthy local food to energy-dense, imported food with low nutritional value, and increased sedentary lifestyles are expediting this process. Essential to counteract this trend is an understanding of how people make food decisions. This participatory assessment utilized a quantitative and qualitative approach to capture diet patterns and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of food consumption. A structured 7-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to quantify the diets of 293 adult Pohnpeian women attending an island-wide education/disability screening program. An ethnographic approach, including in-depth interviews, informal focus groups and observations documented food behavior practices and contributed to the design of the FFQ. Of those responding to the FFQ, 96% reported eating rice frequently (3-7 days/week) whereas 75% reported eating locally grown carbohydrate foods frequently. Factors associated with culture change, including availability, affordability, convenience, and status of food items were found to determine food decisions. Food-based, culturally sensitive and innovative strategies that utilize existing resources are required to promote local food production and consumption. Prevention programs with an information, education and communication (IEC) approach are needed to provide accurate and available health and nutrition knowledge and to increase the demand for local foods. Behavior modification requires the continued collaboration of the national, state, and community organizations that partnered on this research to strategize programs in order to target individual food choices and to transform the environment to support these decisions.

  10. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  11. Impact of Denture Usage Patterns on Dietary Quality and Food Avoidance among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Savoca, Margaret R.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes older adults living in rural areas by denture status, assesses the frequency of wearing dentures during meals, and determines whether denture status or use is associated with dietary quality or the number of foods avoided. A multi-ethnic population-based sample of adults ≥60 years (N=635) in the rural US was interviewed. Survey included denture use, removing dentures before eating, and foods avoided due to oral health problems. Dietary intakes were converted into Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Sixty percent wore removable dentures of some type; 55% never, 27% sometimes, and 18% always removed dentures when eating. More frequent removal was associated with lower dietary quality and more foods avoided. Those with severe tooth loss had the lowest dietary quality and avoided the most foods. Many rural older adults wear dentures. Learning how they adapt to denture use will offer insight into their nutritional self-management and help explain differences in dietary quality. PMID:23286643

  12. Total Environmental Impact of Three Main Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Content of Animal and Plant Food

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Luciana; Berati, Marina; Candilera, Maurizio; Tettamanti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the most recent available scientific evidence, the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (USDA DG) provide information and advice for choosing a healthy diet. To compare the environmental impacts of, respectively, omnivorous (OMN), lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) and vegan (VEG) dietary patterns as suggested in the USDA DG, we analyzed the three patterns by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The presence of animal food in the diet was the main determinant of environmental impact. The major impact always stemmed from land and water use. The second largest impact came from energy use. Emission of toxic inorganic compounds into the atmosphere was the third cause of impact. Climate change and acidification/eutrophication represented other substantial impacts. PMID:28234330

  13. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states.

  14. On Identifying Useful Patterns to Analyze Products in Retail Transaction Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Unil

    Mining correlated patterns in large transaction databases is one of the essential tasks in data mining since a huge number of patterns are usually mined, but it is hard to find patterns with the correlation. The needed data analysis should be made according to the requirements of the particular real application. In previous mining approaches, patterns with the weak affinity are found even with a high minimum support. In this paper, we suggest weighted support affinity pattern mining in which a new measure, weighted support confidence (ws-confidence) is developed to identify correlated patterns with the weighted support affinity. To efficiently prune the weak affinity patterns, we prove that the ws-confidence measure satisfies the anti-monotone and cross weighted support properties which can be applied to eliminate patterns with dissimilar weighted support levels. Based on the two properties, we develop a weighted support affinity pattern mining algorithm (WSP). The weighted support affinity patterns can be useful to answer the comparative analysis queries such as finding itemsets containing items which give similar total selling expense levels with an acceptable error range α% and detecting item lists with similar levels of total profits. In addition, our performance study shows that WSP is efficient and scalable for mining weighted support affinity patterns.

  15. The mediterranean dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Greek-Cypriot women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet has long been suspected to impact on breast cancer risk. In this study we evaluated whether the degree of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern modifies breast cancer risk amongst Greek-Cypriot women. Methods Subjects included 935 cases and 817 controls, all participating in the MASTOS case-control study in Cyprus. The study was approved by the Cyprus National Bioethics Committee. Information on dietary intakes was collected using an interviewer administered 32-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Information on demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and other confounding factors was also collected. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern was assessed using two a-priory defined diet scores. In addition, dietary patterns specific to our population were derived using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between the dietary patters and breast cancer risk. Results There was no association with breast cancer risk for either score, however, higher consumptions of vegetables, fish and olive oil, were independently associated with decreased risk. In addition, the PCA derived component which included vegetables, fruit, fish and legumes was shown to significantly reduce risk of breast cancer (ORs across quartiles of increasing levels of consumption: 0.89 95%CI: 0.65-1.22, 0.64 95%CI: 0.47-0.88, 0.67 95%CI: 0.49-0.92, P trend < 0.0001), even after adjustment for relevant confounders. Conclusions Our results suggest that adherence to a diet pattern rich in vegetables, fish, legumes and olive oil may favorably influence the risk of breast cancer. This study is the first investigation of dietary effects on breast cancer risk in Cyprus, a country whose population has traditionally adhered to the Mediterranean diet. PMID:22443862

  16. Dieting status influences associations between dietary patterns and body composition in adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations between food choice and body composition in previous studies of adolescents have been inconsistent. This may be due to the body composition measures used, or these associations may be affected by the dieting status of adolescents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and body composition in adolescents, and determine if these associations are moderated by dieting status. Methods Information on food consumption and current dieting status was collected, using a web-based survey, in 681 adolescents (mean age 15.8 (SD 0.9) years) from schools in Otago, New Zealand. Non-dieters were defined as those reporting not being on a diet as they were “happy with their weight”. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to determine dietary patterns. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were examined as outcomes. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and body composition. Results PCA produced three dietary patterns: ‘Treat Foods’, ‘Fruits and Vegetables’, and ‘Basic Foods’. A standard deviation increase in ‘Basic Foods’ was associated with a 3.58% decrease in FMI (95%CI −6.14, -0.94) in the total sample. When separate sex analysis was undertaken significant negative associations were found in boys only, between the ‘Basic Food’ score and WC, WHtR, FMI, and FFMI, while the ‘Fruits and Vegetables’ pattern was negatively associated with FMI. Associations between ‘Treat Foods’ and BMI, WC, and WHtR in non-dieters were positive, while these associations were negative for all other participants. Conclusions Significant associations were found between dietary patterns and indices of both central and total adiposity, but not BMI. Therefore using only BMI measures may not be useful in this age group. Since our results were

  17. Longitudinal comparisons of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in 7- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Smith, Andrew D A C; Newby, P K; Emmett, Pauline M

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about changes in dietary patterns over time. The present study aims to derive dietary patterns using cluster analysis at three ages in children and track these patterns over time. In all, 3 d diet diaries were completed for children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at 7, 10 and 13 years. Children were grouped based on the similarities between average weight consumed (g/d) of sixty-two food groups using k-means cluster analysis. A total of four clusters were obtained at each age, with very similar patterns being described at each time point: Processed (high consumption of processed foods, chips and soft drinks), Healthy (high consumption of high-fibre bread, fruit, vegetables and water), Traditional (high consumption of meat, potatoes and vegetables) and Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings and snacks). The number of children remaining in the same cluster at different ages was reasonably high: 50 and 43% of children in the Healthy and Processed clusters, respectively, at age 7 years were in the same clusters at age 13 years. Maternal education was the strongest predictor of remaining in the Healthy cluster at each time point – children whose mothers had the highest level of education were nine times more likely to remain in that cluster compared to those with the lowest. Cluster analysis provides a simple way of examining changes in dietary patterns over time, and similar underlying patterns of diet at two ages during late childhood, that persisted through to early adolescence.

  18. Semisynthetic Studies Identify Mitochondria Poisons from Botanical Dietary Supplements – Geranyloxycoumarins from Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2013-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1–2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3–8), (+)-9′-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 μg mL−1, respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11–15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6′ linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 μM). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 μM, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors. PMID:23434131

  19. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seungyoun; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Willett, Walter C.; Wang, Molin; Wu, Tianying; Jensen, Majken; Hankinson, Susan E.; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2016-01-01

    Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP), a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED)) and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses’ Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations (p-trend ≤ 0.04), but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p-trend ≤ 0.05). However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood. PMID:27657128

  20. Association between home and school food environments and dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Vepsäläinen, H; Mikkilä, V; Erkkola, M; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the roles of home and school environments on dietary patterns among children from 12 countries differing widely in geographic region and levels of human and economic development. Methods: The sample included a total of 6685 (54% girls) 9–11-year-old children. Parents/guardians reported the availability of certain foods in the home, and trained researchers performed school audits recording the availability of foods for sale at schools. Foods were then divided into wholesome (nutrient-dense) and empty-calorie (nutrient-poor) foods and scored according to their availability. Children reported if their school provided school lunch and how many times during the last week they had eaten meals prepared away from home and school. Via principal components analysis, data-driven dietary pattern scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Multilevel models were used to study the associations between home and school food environments (wholesome and empty-calorie foods) and dietary patterns (healthy and unhealthy diet pattern scores). Results: For low unhealthy diet pattern scores, low availability of empty-calorie foods at home was found to be more important than high availability of wholesome foods. More meals eaten outside home and school were associated with the higher unhealthy diet pattern scores. The availability of wholesome foods at home was positively associated with the healthy diet pattern scores. Food availability at school was not associated with the dietary patterns. Conclusions: In this sample, the home food environment was more significant than the school food environment in predicting the dietary patterns. The availability of empty-calorie foods was associated with the unhealthy dietary pattern even when the availability of wholesome foods at home was high. Meals prepared away from home contributed to the unhealthy dietary pattern. Therefore, parents should be encouraged to limit the availability of empty

  1. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    PubMed

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers.

  2. 76 FR 15225 - Incorporating the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Into the Proposed School Meal Patterns

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... under consumed in the United States, including dietary fiber, folate, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins... health benefits. Therefore, this document requests the public to: 1. Consider the impact of the new...

  3. Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Wood, Adrian D; Strachan, Anna A; Thies, Frank; Aucott, Lorna S; Reid, David M; Hardcastle, Antonia C; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Simpson, William G; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary modification may affect inflammatory processes and protect against chronic disease. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns, circulating carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations, and biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in a 10-year longitudinal study of Scottish postmenopausal women. Diet was assessed by FFQ during 1997-2000 (n 3237, mean age 54·8 (SD 2·2) years). Participants (n 2130, mean age 66·0 (SD 2·2) years) returned during 2007-11 for follow-up. Diet was assessed by FFQ (n 1682) and blood was collected for the analysis of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6, serum amyloid A, E-selectin, lipid profile and dietary biomarkers (carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol). Dietary pattern and dietary biomarker (serum carotenoid) components were generated by principal components analysis. A past 'prudent' dietary pattern predicted serum concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 (which decreased across the quintiles of the dietary pattern; P= 0·002 and P= 0·001, respectively; ANCOVA). Contemporary dietary patterns were also associated with inflammatory biomarkers. The concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased across the quintiles of the 'prudent' dietary pattern (P= 0·030 and P= 0·006, respectively). hs-CRP concentration increased across the quintiles of a 'meat-dominated' dietary pattern (P= 0·001). Inflammatory biomarker concentrations decreased markedly across the quintiles of carotenoid component score (P< 0·001 for hs-CRP and IL-6, and P= 0·016 for E-selectin; ANCOVA). Prudent dietary pattern and carotenoid component scores were negatively associated with serum hs-CRP concentration (unstandardised β for prudent component: -0·053, 95% CI -0·102, -0·003; carotenoid component: -0·183, 95% CI -0·233, -0·134) independent of study covariates. A prudent dietary pattern (which reflects a diet high in the intakes of fish, yogurt, pulses, rice, pasta and wine, in addition to fruit

  4. Dietary patterns: a novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function in older individuals.

    PubMed

    Allès, B; Samieri, C; Féart, C; Jutand, M-A; Laurin, D; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2012-12-01

    Cognitive decline may lead to dementia whose most frequent cause is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the many potential risk factors of cognitive decline and AD, diet raises increasing interest. Most studies considered diet in the frame of a single nutrient approach with inconsistent results. A novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function is the use of dietary patterns. The aim of the present review was to update and complete the body of knowledge about dietary patterns in relationship with various cognitive outcomes in the elderly. Two approaches can be used: a priori and a posteriori patterns. A priori patterns are defined by the adhesion to a pre-defined healthy diet using a score such as the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) score, the Healthy Eating Index, the Canadian Healthy Eating Index, the French National Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé) Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), the Recommended Food Score (RFS) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). MeDi score, RFS, PNNS-GS and DASH have been associated with lower risks of cognitive impairment, cognitive decline, and dementia or AD. Principal components analysis, reduced rank regression and clustering methods allow the identification of 'healthy' patterns associated with lower risk of cognitive decline. However, some studies did not report any associations with cognitive outcomes and results are discordant especially regarding MeDi and the risk of dementia. Several methodological challenges should be overcome to provide a higher level of evidence supporting the development of nutritional policies to prevent cognitive decline and AD.

  5. Spanish Mediterranean diet and other dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: case–control EpiGEICAM study

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, A; Pollán, M; Buijsse, B; Ruiz, A; Casas, A M; Baena-Cañada, J M; Lope, V; Antolín, S; Ramos, M; Muñoz, M; Lluch, A; de Juan-Ferré, A; Jara, C; Jimeno, M A; Rosado, P; Díaz, E; Guillem, V; Carrasco, E; Pérez-Gómez, B; Vioque, J; Boeing, H; Martín, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are solid findings regarding the detrimental effect of alcohol consumption, the existing evidence on the effect of other dietary factors on breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and risk of BC in Spanish women, stratifying by menopausal status and tumour subtype, and to compare the results with those of Alternate Healthy Index (AHEI) and Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED). Methods: We recruited 1017 incident BC cases and 1017 matched healthy controls of similar age (±5 years) without a history of BC. The association between ‘a priori' and ‘a posteriori' developed dietary patterns and BC in general and according to menopausal status and intrinsic tumour subtypes (ER+/PR+ and HER2− HER2+ and ER−/PR− and HER2−) was evaluated using logistic and multinomial regression models. Results: Adherence to the Western dietary pattern was related to higher risk of BC (OR for the top vs the bottom quartile 1.46 (95% CI 1.06–2.01)), especially in premenopausal women (OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.14–2.67). In contrast, the Mediterranean pattern was related to a lower risk (OR for the top quartile vs the bottom quartile 0.56 (95% CI 0.40–0.79)). Although the deleterious effect of the Western pattern was similarly observed in all tumour subtypes, the protective effect of our Mediterranean pattern was stronger for triple-negative tumours (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.15–0.66 and Pheterogeneity=0.04). No association was found between adherence to the Prudent pattern and BC risk. The associations between ‘a priori' indices and BC risk were less marked (OR for the top vs the bottom quartile of AHEI=0.69; 95% CI 0.51–0.94 and aMED=0.74; 95% CI 0.46–1.18)). Conclusions: Our results confirm the harmful effect of a Western diet on BC risk, and add new evidence on the benefits of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, oily fish and vegetable oils for preventing all BC subtypes

  6. Associations between dietary patterns and flow cytometry-measured biomarkers of inflammation and cellular activation in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid Artery MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Matijevic, Nena; Follis, Jack L.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Background Specific foods and overall dietary patterns are associated with soluble biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial activation. However, no large epidemiological studies have evaluated relationships between such dietary factors and cell-specific markers of activation and inflammation as measured by flow cytometry. Methods Cell aggregates and multiple platelet and leukocyte markers were quantified by flow cytometry in fresh whole blood from 1,101 white adults participating in the Carotid Artery MRI study, a subset of the larger Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Two dietary patterns (“Healthy” and “Western”) were empirically-derived via principal components analysis using data collected by food frequency questionnaire. Cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and flow cytometry-measured biomarkers were evaluated, adjusting for demographics and lifestyle factors, including medications use. Results After multivariable adjustment, monocyte lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), monocyte toll-like receptor-2, and platelet glycoprotein IIb (CD41) showed inverse associations with the Healthy dietary pattern (p = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.01, respectively). In contrast, the Western dietary pattern was positively associated with CD41 and platelet-granulocyte aggregates (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). Independent of other dietary factors, alcohol consumption was inversely associated with levels of pan leukocyte marker (CD45), P-selectin (CD62P) on PLA1 and on PLA2 platelets, and platelet-monocyte, platelet-granulocyte, and platelet-lymphocyte aggregates. Conclusion Dietary patterns and alcohol intake were each cross-sectionally associated with select markers of cellular activation and inflammation measured by flow cytometry. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that holistic measures of dietary intake are associated with inflammation. PMID:20537646

  7. Identifying typical patterns of vulnerability: A 5-step approach based on cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sietz, Diana; Lüdeke, Matthias; Kok, Marcel; Lucas, Paul; Carsten, Walther; Janssen, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Specific processes that shape the vulnerability of socio-ecological systems to climate, market and other stresses derive from diverse background conditions. Within the multitude of vulnerability-creating mechanisms, distinct processes recur in various regions inspiring research on typical patterns of vulnerability. The vulnerability patterns display typical combinations of the natural and socio-economic properties that shape a systems' vulnerability to particular stresses. Based on the identification of a limited number of vulnerability patterns, pattern analysis provides an efficient approach to improving our understanding of vulnerability and decision-making for vulnerability reduction. However, current pattern analyses often miss explicit descriptions of their methods and pay insufficient attention to the validity of their groupings. Therefore, the question arises as to how do we identify typical vulnerability patterns in order to enhance our understanding of a systems' vulnerability to stresses? A cluster-based pattern recognition applied at global and local levels is scrutinised with a focus on an applicable methodology and practicable insights. Taking the example of drylands, this presentation demonstrates the conditions necessary to identify typical vulnerability patterns. They are summarised in five methodological steps comprising the elicitation of relevant cause-effect hypotheses and the quantitative indication of mechanisms as well as an evaluation of robustness, a validation and a ranking of the identified patterns. Reflecting scale-dependent opportunities, a global study is able to support decision-making with insights into the up-scaling of interventions when available funds are limited. In contrast, local investigations encourage an outcome-based validation. This constitutes a crucial step in establishing the credibility of the patterns and hence their suitability for informing extension services and individual decisions. In this respect, working at

  8. Combining suppressive subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarrays to identify dietary phosphorus-responsive genes of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) kidney.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jennifer; Gravel, Catherine; Koko, Gabriel Koffi D; Robert, Claude; Vandenberg, Grant W

    2010-03-01

    Phosphorus (P)-responsive genes and how they regulate renal adaptation to phosphorous-deficient diets in animals, including fish, are not well understood. RNA abundance profiling using cDNA microarrays is an efficient approach to study nutrient-gene interactions and identify these dietary P-responsive genes. To test the hypothesis that dietary P-responsive genes are differentially expressed in fish fed varying P levels, rainbow trout were fed a practical high-P diet (R20: 0.96% P) or a low-P diet (R0: 0.38% P) for 7 weeks. The differentially-expressed genes between dietary groups were identified and compared from the kidney by combining suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) with cDNA microarray analysis. A number of genes were confirmed by real-time PCR, and correlated with plasma and bone P concentrations. Approximately 54 genes were identified as potential dietary P-responsive after 7 weeks on a diet deficient in P according to cDNA microarray analysis. Of 18 selected genes, 13 genes were confirmed to be P-responsive at 7 weeks by real-time PCR analysis, including: iNOS, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II , alpha-globin I, beta-globin, ATP synthase, hyperosmotic protein 21, COL1A3, Nkef, NDPK, glucose phosphate isomerase 1, Na+/H+ exchange protein and GDP dissociation inhibitor 2. Many of these dietary P-responsive genes responded in a moderate way (R0/R20 ratio: <2-3 or >0.5) and in a transient manner to dietary P limitation. In summary, renal adaptation to dietary P deficiency in trout involves changes in the expression of several genes, suggesting a profile of metabolic stress, since many of these differentially-expressed candidates are associated with the cellular adaptative responses.

  9. Nutritional Assessment for Primary School Children in Tehran: An Evaluation of Dietary Pattern with Emphasis on Snacks and Meals Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. Methods: A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. Results: All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Conclusions: Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children. PMID:24932393

  10. The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and mortality among men and women with cardiovascular disease123

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Li, Tricia Y; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Shanshan; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of the Mediterranean diet among individuals with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in men and women with CVD from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and the Nurses’ Health Study. Design: This study included 6137 men and 11,278 women with myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, coronary bypass, and coronary angioplasty. Diet was first assessed in 1986 for men and in 1980 for women with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then repeatedly every 2–4 y. Cumulative consumption was calculated with all available FFQs from the diagnosis of CVD to the end of the follow-up in 2008. Results: During a median follow-up of 7.7 y (IQR: 4.2–11.8) for men and 5.8 y (IQR: 3.8–8.0) for women, we documented 1982 deaths (1142 from CVD and 344 from cancer) among men and 1468 deaths (666 from CVD and 197 from cancer) among women. In multivariable Cox regression models, the pooled RR of all-cause mortality from a comparison of the top with the bottom quintiles of the aMED score was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.91; P-trend < 0.001). The corresponding pooled RR for CVD mortality was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.09; P-trend = 0.30), for cancer mortality was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.11; P-trend = 0.10), and for other causes was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.97; P-trend = 0.01). A 2-point increase in adherence to the aMED score was associated with a 7% (95% CI: 3%, 11%) reduction in the risk of total mortality. Conclusion: Adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern was associated with lower all-cause mortality in individuals with CVD. PMID:24172306

  11. Analysis of evolutionary conservation patterns and their influence on identifying protein functional sites.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chun; Noguchi, Tamotsu; Yamana, Hayato

    2014-10-01

    Evolutionary conservation information included in position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) has been widely adopted by sequence-based methods for identifying protein functional sites, because all functional sites, whether in ordered or disordered proteins, are found to be conserved at some extent. However, different functional sites have different conservation patterns, some of them are linear contextual, some of them are mingled with highly variable residues, and some others seem to be conserved independently. Every value in PSSMs is calculated independently of each other, without carrying the contextual information of residues in the sequence. Therefore, adopting the direct output of PSSM for prediction fails to consider the relationship between conservation patterns of residues and the distribution of conservation scores in PSSMs. In order to demonstrate the importance of combining PSSMs with the specific conservation patterns of functional sites for prediction, three different PSSM-based methods for identifying three kinds of functional sites have been analyzed. Results suggest that, different PSSM-based methods differ in their capability to identify different patterns of functional sites, and better combining PSSMs with the specific conservation patterns of residues would largely facilitate the prediction.

  12. Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

  13. Bayesian Procedures for Identifying Aberrant Response-Time Patterns in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Guo, Fanmin

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify aberrant response-time patterns on educational and psychological tests, it is important to be able to separate the speed at which the test taker operates from the time the items require. A lognormal model for response times with this feature was used to derive a Bayesian procedure for detecting aberrant response times.…

  14. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p < 0.001, model 3), but not with triacylglycerol. In addition, high intake of vegi-fruit dietary pattern (Q5) was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but not with high-density lipoprotein, while high consumption of meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but negatively related with triacylglycerol in Q3 level and no association with C-reactive protein. Conclusion A negative association was observed between Taiwanese or vegi-fruit dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk

  15. Dietary patterns and risk of oral cancer: a factor analysis study of a population in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Amtha, Rahmi; Zain, Rosnah; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Basuki, Bastaman; Roeslan, Boedi Oetomo; Gautama, Walta; Purwanto, Denni Joko

    2009-08-01

    A matched case-control, hospital-based study of oral cancer was conducted in Jakarta population. The sample included 81 cases and 162 controls. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between dietary pattern and oral cancer in a Jakarta population using factor analysis. Dietary data were collected using food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was performed on 15 food groups resulting in four principle factors/components being retained. The first factor "preferred" was characterized by fast food, fermented food, canned food, snacks high in fat and sugar, cooked and raw vegetables, and seafood. The second factor labeled "combination" was loaded by the intake of dairy product, red meat, white meat and fruits. The third factor labeled "chemical related was loaded by processed food and monosodium glutamate and the fourth principle component consisted of drinks and grain was labeled as "traditional". The conditional logistic regression was done using STATA 8 to obtain the odds ratio (OR) of highest tertile of each component retained from factor analysis and the ORs were then adjusted with risk habits. The consumption the highest tertile of the "preferred" pattern increased the risk of oral cancer by two-times compared to the lowest tertile of consumption [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-4.50]. The chemical related" pattern showed higher risk of about threefold (aOR=2.56; 95% CI=1.18-5.54), while the "traditional" pattern showed an increased of risk by twofold (aOR=2.04; 95% CI=1.01-4.41). In contrast, the "combination" pattern displayed protective effects in relation to oral cancer (aOR=0.50; 95% CI=0.24-1.00). This finding suggests that factor analysis may be useful to determine the diet pattern of a big set of food type and establish the correlation with oral cancer.

  16. Dentists’ Dietary Perception and Practice Patterns in a Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries are largely preventable, and epidemiological evidence for a relationship between diet and oral health is abundant. To date, however, dentists’ perceptions about the role of diet and dentists’ practice patterns regarding diet counseling have not been clarified. Objective The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine discordance between dentists’ perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual provision of diet counseling to patients, and (2) identify dentists’ characteristics associated with their provision of diet counseling. Design The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey in Japan. Participants The study queried dentists working in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan (JDPBRN), which aims to allow dentists to investigate research questions and share experiences and expertise (n = 282). Measurement Dentists were asked about their perceptions on the importance of diet and their practice patterns regarding diet counseling, as well as patient, practice, and dentist background data. Results The majority of participants (n = 116, 63%) recognized that diet is “more important” to oral health. However, among participants who think diet is “more important” (n = 116), only 48% (n = 56) provide diet counseling to more than 20% of their patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that several variables were associated with providing diet counseling; dentist gender, practice busyness, percentage of patients interested in caries prevention, caries risk assessment, and percentage of patients who receive blood pressure screening. Conclusions Some discordance exists between dentists’ perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual practice pattern regarding diet counseling to patients. Reducing this discordance may require additional

  17. Using soil moisture and spatial yield patterns to identify subsurface flow pathways.

    PubMed

    Gish, T J; Walthall, C L; Daughtry, C S T; Kung, K-J S

    2005-01-01

    Subsurface soil water dynamics can influence crop growth and the fate of surface-applied fertilizers and pesticides. Recently, a method was proposed using only ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and digital elevation maps (DEMs) to identify locations where subsurface water converged into discrete pathways. For this study, the GPR protocol for identifying horizontal subsurface flow pathways was extended to a 3.2-ha field, uncertainty is discussed, and soil moisture and yield patterns are presented as confirming evidence of the extent of the subsurface flow pathways. Observed soil water contents supported the existence of discrete preferential funnel flow processes occurring near the GPR-identified preferential flow pathways. Soil moisture also played a critical role in the formation of corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield patterns with yield spatial patterns being similar for mild and severe drought conditions. A buffer zone protocol was introduced that allowed the impact of subsurface flow pathways on corn grain yield to be quantified. Results indicate that when a GPR-identified subsurface clay layer was within 2 m of the soil surface, there was a beneficial impact on yield during a drought year. Furthermore, the buffer zone analysis demonstrated that corn grain yields decreased as the horizontal distance from the GPR-identified subsurface flow pathways increased during a drought year. Averaged real-time soil moisture contents at 0.1 m also decreased with increasing distance from the GPR-identified flow pathways. This research suggests that subsurface flow pathways exist and influence soil moisture and corn grain yield patterns.

  18. ‘Mediterranean’ dietary pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Karen; Hartley, Louise; Clarke, Aileen; Thorogood, Margaret; Stranges, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness of dietary advice to follow a Mediterranean style diet or the provision of foods relevant to the Mediterranean diet for the primary prevention of CVD. PMID:25267918

  19. Feasibility of recruiting families into a heart disease prevention program based on dietary patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, an...

  20. Global dietary patterns and diets in childhood: implications for health outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article provides an overview of child feeding recommendations and how these relate to actual practice and dietary adequacy, primarily in developing countries. From birth to 6 months, recommendations focus on optimal breastfeeding practices, although these are still suboptimal in about one third...

  1. Dietary Patterns in Infancy and Cognitive and Neuropsychological Function in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; Martyn, Christopher N.; Marriott, Lynne D.; Limond, Jennifer; Crozier, Sarah; Inskip, Hazel M.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Trials in developing countries suggest that improving young children's diet may benefit cognitive development. Whether dietary composition influences young children's cognition in developed countries is unclear. Although many studies have examined the relation between type of milk received in infancy and subsequent cognition, there has…

  2. The Effects of the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial Intervention on Dietary Patterns in Obese Pregnant Women Participating in a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Angela C.; Schneeberger, Caroline; Seed, Paul T.; Barr, Suzanne; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT) behavioral intervention on dietary patterns in obese pregnant women. METHODS Dietary patterns were derived from Food Frequency Questionnaires using principal component analysis in 183 UPBEAT pilot study participants. RESULTS Two unhealthy dietary patterns, processed and traditional, predominantly characterized by foods high in sugar and fat, improved [processed −0.54 (−0.92 to −0.16), P = 0.006 and traditional −0.83 (−1.20 to −0.45), P < 0.001] following the intervention, while a cultural pattern that was found to be associated with the Black African/Caribbean participants did not change [−0.10 (−0.46 to 0.26), P = 0.589]. CONCLUSION Unhealthy dietary patterns are evident in obese pregnant women. The UPBEAT intervention was effective in improving maternal dietary patterns; however, obese pregnant women from minority ethnic groups may be less receptive to intervention. PMID:27385914

  3. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  4. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend < 0.01). PCA identified "healthy" patterns for all periods, but none was associated with the outcomes (P trend > 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  5. Healthful dietary patterns and long-term weight change among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Deirdre K.; Zhang, Cuilin; Chavarro, Jorge; Olsen, Sjurdur; Bao, Wei; Bjerregaard, Anne Ahrendt; Fung, Teresa T.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective Diet represents a key strategy for the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), although effective dietary patterns to prevent weight gain in the long-term are largely unknown. We sought to evaluate whether improvement in overall diet quality is associated with less long-term weight gain among high risk women with prior GDM. Subjects/Methods Women with a history of GDM (N=3 397) were followed from 1991 to 2011, or until diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or other chronic disease. Usual diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire every 4 years from which we calculated the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (aHEI-2010), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern scores. Weight, lifestyle, and health-related outcomes were self-reported every 2 years. We estimated the change in dietary score with change in body weight using linear regression models adjusting for age, baseline body-mass index, baseline and simultaneous change in physical activity and smoking status, and other risk factors. Results Women were followed up to 20 years, gaining an average 1.9 kg (SD=7.0) per 4-year period. Women in the highest quintile (Q5) of diet change (most improvement in quality) gained significantly less weight per 4-year period than the lowest quintile (Q1; decrease in quality), independent of other risk factors (4-year weight change, aHEI-2010: Q5=1.30 kg vs. Q1=3.27 kg; AMED: Q5=0.94 kg vs. Q1=2.56 kg, DASH: Q5=0.64 kg vs. Q1=2.75 kg). Significant effect modification by BMI (p-interactions <0.001) indicated a greater magnitude of weight change among women with a higher baseline BMI for all three patterns. Conclusions Increased diet quality was associated with less weight gain, independent of other lifestyle factors. Postpartum recommendations on diet quality may provide one strategy to prevent long-term weight gain in this high risk

  6. Using the Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) to identify practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Beehler, Gregory P; Funderburk, Jennifer S; King, Paul R; Wade, Michael; Possemato, Kyle

    2015-12-01

    Primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI) is growing in popularity. To determine program success, it is essential to know if PC-MHI services are being delivered as intended. The investigation examines responses to the Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) to explore PC-MHI provider practice patterns. Latent class analysis was used to identify clusters of PC-MHI providers based on their self-report of adherence on the PPAQ. Analysis revealed five provider clusters with varying levels of adherence to PC-MHI model components. Across clusters, adherence was typically lowest in relation to collaboration with other primary care staff. Clusters also differed significantly in regard to provider educational background and psychotherapy approach, level of clinic integration, and previous PC-MHI training. The PPAQ can be used to identify PC-MHI provider practice patterns that have relevance for future clinical effectiveness studies, development of provider training, and quality improvement initiatives.

  7. Multivariate analysis of dietary patterns in 939 Swiss adults: sociodemographic parameters and alcohol consumption profiles.

    PubMed

    Gex-Fabry, M; Raymond, L; Jeanneret, O

    1988-09-01

    A dietary survey of 939 Swiss adults, randomly selected from the population of Geneva and its surrounding communities, was performed according to the history method. A factor analysis, using average weekly intakes for 33 food variables, reveals three principal components of the diet: satiating capacity, healthfulness and culinary complexity. These characteristics, together with the energy content of the diet, were analysed for differences according to sex, age, relative weight index, birthplace, marital status and occupation. All of these sociodemographic variables influence some dimension of dietary habits. Alcohol consumption is positively associated with satiating, protein rich diets, but energy intake from foods does not significantly differ between various groups of abstainers and drinkers. Although the energy contribution of alcoholic beverages is globally additive, we suggest that cultural and societal norms may modulate the relationship of alcohol and diet.

  8. Differences in Dietary Patterns among College Students According to Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong; Zhong, Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors surveyed 557 undergraduate students aged 18-56 years to assess weight status, health behaviors, and dietary variety. Methods: They used body mass index (BMI) to divide students into 4 weight categories: underweight (BMI less than 19 kg/m2), healthy weight (19 kg/m2 to 24.99 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 to…

  9. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  10. Feasibility of Recruiting Families into a Heart Disease Prevention Program Based on Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Tracy L.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Spratt, Neil J.; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, and program acceptability. Families were recruited into a pilot parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of a three month evidence-based dietary intervention, based on the Mediterranean and Portfolio diets. Feasibility was assessed by recruitment and retention rates, change in diet by food frequency questionnaire, and program acceptability by qualitative interviews and program evaluation. Twenty one families were enrolled over 16 months, with fourteen families (n = 42 individuals) completing the study. Post-program dietary changes in the intervention group included small daily increases in vegetable serves (0.8 ± 1.3) and reduced usage of full-fat milk (−21%), cheese (−12%) and meat products (−17%). Qualitative interviews highlighted beneficial changes in food purchasing habits. Future studies need more effective methods of recruitment to engage families in the intervention. Once engaged, families made small incremental improvements in their diets. Evaluation indicated that feedback on diet and CVD risk factors, dietetic counselling and the resources provided were appropriate for a program of this type. PMID:26308048

  11. Feasibility of Recruiting Families into a Heart Disease Prevention Program Based on Dietary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Thompson, Deborah I; Spratt, Neil J; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2015-08-21

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, and program acceptability. Families were recruited into a pilot parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of a three month evidence-based dietary intervention, based on the Mediterranean and Portfolio diets. Feasibility was assessed by recruitment and retention rates, change in diet by food frequency questionnaire, and program acceptability by qualitative interviews and program evaluation. Twenty one families were enrolled over 16 months, with fourteen families (n = 42 individuals) completing the study. Post-program dietary changes in the intervention group included small daily increases in vegetable serves (0.8 ± 1.3) and reduced usage of full-fat milk (-21%), cheese (-12%) and meat products (-17%). Qualitative interviews highlighted beneficial changes in food purchasing habits. Future studies need more effective methods of recruitment to engage families in the intervention. Once engaged, families made small incremental improvements in their diets. Evaluation indicated that feedback on diet and CVD risk factors, dietetic counselling and the resources provided were appropriate for a program of this type.

  12. Autres pays, autres coeurs? Dietary patterns, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease in Belfast and Toulouse.

    PubMed

    Evans, A E; Ruidavets, J B; McCrum, E E; Cambou, J P; McClean, R; Douste-Blazy, P; McMaster, D; Bingham, A; Patterson, C C; Richard, J L

    1995-07-01

    The WHO MONICA project monitors trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease to relate classical risk factor changes to trends in incidence rates. The Belfast and Toulouse MONICA centres have also collaborated in dietary studies. Both centres have validated incidence and attack rates for ischaemic heart disease using coronary event registration. These data confirm that the disease in middle-aged men is between three and four times as common in Belfast as in Toulouse. Risk factor surveys show some differences between the centres, but the overall risks assessed by two multiple logistic function scoring systems were identical. A weighed dietary survey revealed no important difference in macronutrient intake, although carbohydrate and saturated fat intake in Belfast was significantly higher. Protein, dietary cholesterol and polyunsaturated fat, particularly linoleic acid intake, was significantly higher in Toulouse, as was consumption of wine, cheese, fruit and vegetables, but not potatoes. The Northern Irish diet is typically Northern European, but although the diet in Toulouse has some features of the Mediterranean diet, it is not appreciably different from that in Belfast in terms of total fat intake. Major differences are present for several food items, and in general these differences add support to the antioxidant hypothesis.

  13. Blood donation, being Asian, and a history of iron deficiency are stronger predictors of iron deficiency than dietary patterns in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Matthys, Christophe; Coad, Jane; Jones, Beatrix; Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L) in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82); P < 0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20); P < 0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13); P = 0.016], a "milk and yoghurt" dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93); P = 0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68); P = 0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a "meat and vegetable" dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50); P = 0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a "milk and yoghurt" dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a "meat and vegetable" dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  14. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kathryn L.; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Heath, Anne-Louise M.; Coad, Jane; Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L) in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82); P < 0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20); P < 0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13); P = 0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93); P = 0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68); P = 0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50); P = 0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children. PMID:25006582

  15. A narratological methodology for identifying archetypal story patterns in autobiographical narratives.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Based on Jung's definition of archetype the concept 'archetypal story pattern' is developed as well as a research method drawing on narrative analysis and biographical research to identify these archetypal story patterns in life stories. Jung pointed out that personal myths, archetypal patterns found, e.g., in mythology, can govern the life course of individuals unconsciously. In the Theory of Narrative Identity comparable concepts have been mentioned but were never fully developed. In my research I try to combine Jung's concept of the archetype with the elaborated methodology of narrative analysis. Archetypes can manifest as narratives and the identity construction of a person via narrating the life story can be influenced or even totally structured by archetypal stories which give a specific form as well as a specific meaning to the person's identity. The method of extracting an underlying archetypal pattern from an autobiographical narrative is demonstrated. The results of the research on 20 autobiographical interviews and the inherent archetypal patterns are summarized. The major aim of this paper is to describe in detail the application of a well established method of the social sciences on a key concept of Jungian psychology to show that these concepts can be integrated into recent research frameworks of academic sciences. On the other hand it shows that Jungian concepts can be investigated through established and well defined research methods in empirical research settings.

  16. Identifying type I excitability using dynamics of stochastic neural firing patterns.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bing; Gu, Huaguang

    2012-12-01

    The stochastic firing patterns are simulated near saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant cycle corresponding to type I excitability in stochastic Morris-Lecar model. In absence of external periodic signal, the stochastic firing manifests continuous distribution in ISI histogram (ISIH), whose amplitude at first increases sharply and then decreases exponentially. In presence of the external periodic signal, stochastic firing patterns appear as two cases of integer multiple firing with multiple discrete peaks in ISIH. One manifests perfect exponential decay in all peaks and the other imperfect exponential decay except a lower first peak. These stochastic firing patterns simulated with or without external periodic signal can be demonstrated in the experiments on rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The exponential decay laws in the multiple peaks are also acquired using probability analysis method. The perfect decay law is determined by the independent characteristic within the firing while the imperfect decay law is from the inhibitory effect. In addition, the stochastic firing patterns corresponding to type I excitability are compared to those of type II excitability. The results not only reveal the dynamics of stochastic firing patterns with or without external signal corresponding to type I excitability, but also provide practical indicators to availably identify type I excitability.

  17. Joint spatial modeling to identify shared patterns among chronic related potentially preventable hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations (PPH) are used to evaluate access of territorially delimited populations to high quality ambulatory care. A common geographic pattern of several PPH would reflect the performance of healthcare providers. This study is aimed at modeling jointly the geographical variation in six chronic PPH conditions in one Spanish Autonomous Community for describing common and discrepant patterns, and to assess the relative weight of the common pattern on each condition. Methods Data on the 39,970 PPH hospital admissions for diabetes short term complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, dehydration, angina admission and adult asthma, between 2007 and 2009 were extracted from the Hospital Discharge Administrative Databases and assigned to one of the 240 Basic Health Zones. Rates and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios per geographic unit were estimated. The spatial analysis was carried out jointly for PPH conditions using Shared Component Models (SCM). Results The component shared by the six PPH conditions explained about the 36% of the variability of each PPH condition, ranging from the 25.9 for dehydration to 58.7 for COPD. The geographical pattern found in the latent common component identifies territorial clusters with particularly high risk. The specific risk pattern that each isolated PPH does not share with the common pattern for all six conditions show many non-significant areas for most PPH, but with some exceptions. Conclusions The geographical distribution of the risk of the PPH conditions is captured in a 36% by a unique latent pattern. The SCM modeling may be useful to evaluate healthcare system performance. PMID:24899214

  18. Factors influencing the dietary response to a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern in healthy women from the Quebec City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; Lamarche, Benoît; Lemieux, Simone

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and baseline food habits on the dietary response to a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern and maintenance of dietary modifications in 73 healthy women. The 12-week nutritional intervention in free-living conditions consisted of two group courses and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. A follow-up visit was performed 12 weeks after the end of the intervention (week 24). A Mediterranean dietary score was derived from a food frequency questionnaire, administered at 0, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Marital status, socioeconomic level, educational level and household size did not seem to influence the dietary response, whereas women without children followed more closely dietary advice than women with children (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-10.0). Planning food purchases in function of weekly discounts was also associated with better dietary response to the intervention (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.8). Nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern was effective in modifying food habits of healthy women. The fact of having children or not and food purchase habits seem to influence the response to a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern.

  19. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applie