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Sample records for identifying dietary patterns

  1. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns by using metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Playdon, Mary C; Moore, Steven C; Derkach, Andriy; Reedy, Jill; Subar, Amy F; Sampson, Joshua N; Albanes, Demetrius; Gu, Fangyi; Kontto, Jukka; Lassale, Camille; Liao, Linda M; Männistö, Satu; Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Irwin, Melinda L; Mayne, Susan T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2017-02-01

    Healthy dietary patterns that conform to national dietary guidelines are related to lower chronic disease incidence and longer life span. However, the precise mechanisms involved are unclear. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns may provide tools to validate diet quality measurement and determine underlying metabolic pathways influenced by diet quality. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation of 4 diet quality indexes [the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), the WHO Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and the Baltic Sea Diet (BSD)] with serum metabolites. We evaluated dietary patterns and metabolites in male Finnish smokers (n = 1336) from 5 nested case-control studies within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and provided a fasting serum sample before study randomization (1985-1988). Metabolites were measured with the use of mass spectrometry. We analyzed cross-sectional partial correlations of 1316 metabolites with 4 diet quality indexes, adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, energy intake, education, and physical activity. We pooled estimates across studies with the use of fixed-effects meta-analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, and conducted metabolic pathway analyses. The HEI-2010, aMED, HDI, and BSD were associated with 23, 46, 23, and 33 metabolites, respectively (17, 21, 11, and 10 metabolites, respectively, were chemically identified; r-range: -0.30 to 0.20; P = 6 × 10(-15) to 8 × 10(-6)). Food-based diet indexes (HEI-2010, aMED, and BSD) were associated with metabolites correlated with most components used to score adherence (e.g., fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and unsaturated fat). HDI correlated with metabolites related to polyunsaturated fat and fiber components, but not other macro- or micronutrients (e.g., percentages of protein and cholesterol). The

  2. An application of partial least squares for identifying dietary patterns in bone health.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiffany C; Aucott, Lorna S; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2017-12-01

    In a large cohort of older women, a mechanism-driven statistical technique for assessing dietary patterns that considers a potential nutrient pathway found two dietary patterns associated with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density. A "healthy" dietary pattern was observed to be beneficial for bone mineral density. Dietary patterns represent a broader, more realistic representation of how foods are consumed, compared to individual food or nutrient analyses. Partial least-squares (PLS) is a data-reduction technique for identifying dietary patterns that maximizes correlation between foods and nutrients hypothesized to be on the path to disease, is more hypothesis-driven than previous methods, and has not been applied to the study of dietary patterns in relation to bone health. Women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (2007-2011, n = 2129, age = 66 years (2.2)) provided dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire; 37 food groups were created. We applied PLS to the 37 food groups and 9 chosen response variables (calcium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin D, protein, alcohol, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc) to identify dietary patterns associated with bone mineral density (BMD) cross-sectionally. Multivariable regression was used to assess the relationship between the retained dietary patterns and BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, adjusting for age, body mass index, physical activity level, smoking, and national deprivation category. Five dietary patterns were identified, explaining 25% of the variation in food groups and 77% in the response variables. Two dietary patterns were positively associated with lumbar spine (per unit increase in factor 2: 0.012 g/cm(2) [95% CI: 0.006, 0.01]; factor 4: 0.007 g/cm(2) [95% CI: 0.00001, 0.01]) and femoral neck (factor 2: 0.006 g/cm(2) [95% CI: 0.002, 0.01]; factor 4: 0.008 g/cm(2) [95% CI: 0.003, 0.01)]) BMD. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by high intakes of milk

  3. Comparison of 3 methods for identifying dietary patterns associated with risk of disease.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Julia R; Kraft, Peter; McGarvey, Stephen T; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2008-12-15

    Reduced rank regression and partial least-squares regression (PLS) are proposed alternatives to principal component analysis (PCA). Using all 3 methods, the authors derived dietary patterns in Costa Rican data collected on 3,574 cases and controls in 1994-2004 and related the resulting patterns to risk of first incident myocardial infarction. Four dietary patterns associated with myocardial infarction were identified. Factor 1, characterized by high intakes of lean chicken, vegetables, fruit, and polyunsaturated oil, was generated by all 3 dietary pattern methods and was associated with a significantly decreased adjusted risk of myocardial infarction (28%-46%, depending on the method used). PCA and PLS also each yielded a pattern associated with a significantly decreased risk of myocardial infarction (31% and 23%, respectively); this pattern was characterized by moderate intake of alcohol and polyunsaturated oil and low intake of high-fat dairy products. The fourth factor derived from PCA was significantly associated with a 38% increased risk of myocardial infarction and was characterized by high intakes of coffee and palm oil. Contrary to previous studies, the authors found PCA and PLS to produce more patterns associated with cardiovascular disease than reduced rank regression. The most effective method for deriving dietary patterns related to disease may vary depending on the study goals.

  4. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  5. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  6. [Analysis of dietary pattern and diabetes mellitus influencing factors identified by classification tree model in adults of Fujian].

    PubMed

    Yu, F L; Ye, Y; Yan, Y S

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To find out the dietary patterns and explore the relationship between environmental factors (especially dietary patterns) and diabetes mellitus in the adults of Fujian. Methods: Multi-stage sampling method were used to survey residents aged ≥18 years by questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory detection in 10 disease surveillance points in Fujian. Factor analysis was used to identify the dietary patterns, while logistic regression model was applied to analyze relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus, and classification tree model was adopted to identify the influencing factors for diabetes mellitus. Results: There were four dietary patterns in the population, including meat, plant, high-quality protein, and fried food and beverages patterns. The result of logistic analysis showed that plant pattern, which has higher factor loading of fresh fruit-vegetables and cereal-tubers, was a protective factor for non-diabetes mellitus. The risk of diabetes mellitus in the population at T2 and T3 levels of factor score were 0.727 (95%CI:0.561-0.943) times and 0.736 (95%CI: 0.573-0.944) times higher, respectively, than those whose factor score was in lowest quartile. Thirteen influencing factors and eleven group at high-risk for diabetes mellitus were identified by classification tree model. The influencing factors were dyslipidemia, age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, career, sex, sedentary time, abdominal adiposity, BMI, marital status, sleep time and high-quality protein pattern. Conclusion: There is a close association between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to promote healthy and reasonable diet, strengthen the monitoring and control of blood lipids, blood pressure and body weight, and have good lifestyle for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Using exploratory factor analysis of food frequency questionnaires to identify dietary patterns among Yup’ik People

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Tove K.; Austin, Melissa A.; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O’Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Boyer, Bert B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research for studies in Yup’ik people includes market foods and subsistence foods such as moose, seal, waterfowl and salmon that may be related to disease risk. Because the FFQ contains >100 food items, we sought to characterize dietary patterns more simply for use in ongoing pharmacogenomics studies. Design Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive a small number of “factors” that explain a substantial amount of the variation in the Yup’ik diet. We estimated factor scores and measured associations with demographic characteristics and biomarkers. Setting Southwest Alaska, US Subjects 358 Yup’ik people, ≥ 18 years Results We identified 3 factors that each accounted for ≥10% of the common variance: the first characterized by “processed foods” (e.g., salty snacks, sweetened cereals); the second by “fruits and vegetables” (e.g., fresh citrus, potato salad); and the third by “subsistence foods” (seal or walrus soup, non-oily fish). Participants from coastal communities had higher values for the “subsistence” factor, whereas participants from inland communities had higher values for the “fruits and vegetables” factor. A biomarker of marine intake, δ 15N, was correlated with the “subsistence” factor, whereas a biomarker of corn and sugar-cane based market food intake, δ 13C, was correlated with “processed foods”. Conclusions This exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that appear to reflect dietary patterns among Yup’ik based on associations with participant characteristics and biomarkers. These factors will be useful for chronic disease studies in this population. PMID:23290469

  8. Joint Association of Genome-Wide Association Study–Identified Susceptibility Loci and Dietary Patterns in Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma Among Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Melkonian, Stephanie C.; Daniel, Carrie R.; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Ye, Yuanqing; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wood, Christopher G.; Wu, Xifeng

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors may affect risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In an ongoing case-control study of RCC initiated in Houston, Texas, in 2002, we identified 3 empirically derived dietary patterns: “fruits and vegetables,” “American/Western,” and “Tex-Mex.” Among 659 RCC cases and 699 controls, we evaluated associations of these dietary patterns with RCC risk and whether the associations varied by obesity status, smoking status, physical activity level, history of hypertension, and genetic variants previously identified via genome-wide association studies. Among persons in the highest categories of adherence versus the lowest, the “fruits and vegetables” dietary pattern was associated with an approximately 50% lower RCC risk (Ptrend < 0.001), while “American/Western” dietary pattern scores were positively associated with a 2-fold higher risk (Ptrend < 0.001). We observed synergistic interaction between the American/Western pattern and hypertension status: The odds ratio (highest tertile vs. lowest) among persons with hypertension was 2.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 3.45), as compared with 1.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.16, 2.70) among persons without hypertension (additive Pinteraction = 0.01). A variant (rs718314) in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 2 gene (ITPR2) was found to interact with the American/Western dietary pattern in relation to RCC risk (additive Pinteraction = 0.03). ITPR2 has been shown to affect nutrient metabolism and central obesity. Dietary patterns, genetic variants, and host characteristics may individually and jointly influence susceptibility to RCC. PMID:25053674

  9. Dietary patterns and prostatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Cimino; Vincenzo, Favilla; Tommaso, Castelli; Giuseppe, Sortino; Marco, Russo; Ivana, Caldarella; Giorgio, Russo; Massimo, Madonia; Giuseppe, Morgia

    2012-01-01

    Dietary patterns play a role on prostatic diseases in association with genetic, behavioral, occupational and environmental ones. Data from reviewed literature provide evidences of a possible relationship between dietary habits and the incidence of prostate disorders, even if it is not enough to justify a widespread adoption of new dietary habits. In this review the role of dietary patterns, including the use of supplements, in the prevention and treatment of the most frequent and known prostatic diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC) was analyzed. A limited number of well designed trials were identified in which diet and dietary supplement intervention appeared to slow disease progression. Although conclusive evidences are limited, the current data suggest that a diet low in total calories and fat, high in vegetables and fruits and that body weight control could be possibly effective in preventing prostatic diseases. On the other hand care must be taken to ensure that over-consumption of dietary supplements does not occur because it may be harmful.

  10. Associations of dietary intake patterns identified using reduced rank regression with markers of arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liese, Angela D.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Dabelea, Dana; Black, Mary Helen; Merchant, Anwar T.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are at substantially increased risk for adverse vascular outcomes, but little is known about the influence of dietary behavior on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. We aimed to identify dietary intake patterns associated with CVD risk factors and evaluate their impact on arterial stiffness (AS) measures collected thereafter in a cohort of youth with T1DM. SUBJECTS/METHODS Baseline diet data from a food frequency questionnaire and CVD risk factors (triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, systolic BP, HbA1c, C-reactive protein and waist circumference) were available for 1,153 youth aged ≥10 years with T1DM from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. A dietary intake pattern was identified using 33 food-groups as predictors and six CVD risk factors as responses in reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis. Associations of this RRR-derived dietary pattern with AS measures [augmentation index(AIx75), n=229; pulse wave velocity(PWV), n=237; and brachial distensibility(BrachD), n=228] were then assessed using linear regression. RESULTS The RRR-derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda, eggs, potatoes and high-fat meats, and low intakes of sweets/desserts and low-fat dairy; major contributors were SSB and diet soda. This pattern captured the largest variability in adverse CVD risk profile and was subsequently associated with AIx75 (β=0.47; p<0.01). The mean difference in AIx75 concentration between the highest and the lowest dietary pattern quartiles was 4.3% in fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS Intervention strategies to reduce consumption of unhealthful foods and beverages among youth with T1DM may significantly improve CVD risk profile and ultimately reduce the risk for AS. PMID:24865480

  11. Practical limitations to a positive deviance approach for identifying dietary patterns compatible with the reduction of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vossenaar, M; Bermúdez, O I; Anderson, A S; Solomons, N W

    2010-08-01

    The positive deviance (PD) approach seeks to devise and promote health-promoting practices identified within the most successful member of a society. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations indicate the need for specific dietary behaviours, which may be considered impractical. Thus, it is important to demonstrate ways in which these dietary practices have been achieved from concordant individuals. The present study aimed to assess the feasibility of constructing healthy eating guides in four international settings. Adult participants from the Netherlands (n = 1052), Scotland (n = 849), Mexico (n = 790) and Guatemala (n = 873) enrolled in an international diet survey project. Participants with inadequate diets and current smokers were excluded from the analysis. Concordance with selected WCRF/AICR individual guideline components related to diet and lifestyle were evaluated. A selection of participants was made towards making a set of 14 rotating menus for a cancer-prevention healthy-eating guide. Overall concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was low in all four nations and no participants with an ideal behaviour were found. The selection of candidates for constructing 14 daily menus for a single national guide identified 51, 13 and 12 individuals concordant with 11 of 14 WCRF/AICR recommendation components in Guatemala, Scotland and Mexico, respectively, and 24 individuals concordant with eight of 14 WCRF/AICR components in the Netherlands. The basis for PD guidance for developing dietary recommendations for cancer prevention was strong across all social classes in Guatemala, marginal for Mexico and Scotland, and effectively impossible for the Netherlands.

  12. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  13. Application of factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and use of factor scores to study their relationship with nutritional status of adult rural populations.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, K; Brahmam, G N V; Vijayaraghavan, K

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) among one-third of the Indian population is attributed to inadequacy of consumption of nutrients. However, considering the complexity of diets among Indians, the relationship between a particular dietary pattern and the nutritional status of the population has not been established so far. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess estimates, at district level, of diet and nutritional status in Orissa State, India. Factor analysis was used for exploring the existence of consumption pattern of food and nutrients and their relationship with the nutritional status of rural adult population. Data on 2,864 adult men and 3,525 adult women in Orissa state revealed that there exists six patterns among food-groups explaining 59% of the total variation and three patterns among nutrients that explain 73% of the total variation among both adult men and women. The discriminant function analysis revealed that, overall, 53% of the men were correctly classified as either with chronic energy deficiency (CED) or without CED. Similarly, overall, 54% of the women were correctly classified as either with CED or without CED. The sensitivity of the model was 65% for both men and women, and the specificity was 46% and 41% respectively for men and women. In the case of classification of overweight/obesity, the prediction of the model was about 75% among both men and women, along with high sensitivity. Using factor analysis, the dietary patterns were identified from the food and nutrient intake data. There exists a strong relationship between the dietary patterns and the nutritional status of rural adults. These results will help identify the community people with CED and help planners formulate nutritional interventions accordingly.

  14. Dietary Patterns and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their clinicians seek ways to mitigate the risk of CKD progression and its associated complications. Emerging data suggest that dietary modifications may be beneficial adjuvant approaches to reducing the risk of adverse CKD outcomes. This review focuses on several different dietary patterns, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Mediterranean diets, and their kidney health benefits. We discuss how healthful dietary patterns are lower in dietary acid load and how improving diet quality may slow the progression of CKD. We also discuss some barriers that may impede socially disadvantaged individuals from following healthful diets. Dietary patterns low in dietary acid load might slow the progression of CKD. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet is yet to be established. Additional randomized controlled dietary interventions among CKD patients are needed to inform evidence-based recommendations, which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and ability to access healthful foods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  16. Acculturation and dietary patterns among residents of Surinamese origin in the Netherlands: the HELIUS dietary pattern study.

    PubMed

    Sturkenboom, Suzanne M; Dekker, Louise H; Lamkaddem, Majda; Schaap, Laura A; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Insight into the role of acculturation in dietary patterns is important to inform the development of nutrition programmes that target ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the adherence to dietary patterns within an ethnic minority population in the Netherlands varies by acculturation level compared with the host population. Cross-sectional study using data of the HELIUS study. Dietary patterns were assessed with an ethnic-specific FFQ. Acculturation was operationalized using unidimensional proxies (residence duration, age at migration and generation status) as well as on the basis of the bidimensional perspective, defined by four distinct acculturation strategies: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1370) and Surinamese (n 1727) origin. Three dietary patterns were identified: (i) 'noodle/rice dishes and white meat' (traditional Surinamese pattern); (ii) 'red meat, snacks and sweets'; and (iii) 'vegetables, fruit and nuts'. Surinamese-origin respondents adhered more to the traditional Surinamese pattern than the other dietary patterns. Neither the unidimensional proxies nor the bidimensional acculturation strategies demonstrated consistent associations with dietary patterns. The lack of consistent association between acculturation and dietary patterns in the present study indicates that dietary patterns are quite robust. Understanding the continued adherence to traditional dietary patterns when developing dietary interventions in ethnic minority groups is warranted.

  17. Maternal and child dietary patterns and their determinants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Bright I; Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Ndiokwelu, Chika; Esangbedo, Dorothy O; Ngwu, Elizabeth K; Okolo, Selina N

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the overall dietary patterns of a population is a key step in initiating appropriate nutritional interventions and policies. Studies characterising the dietary patterns of Nigerian mothers and children are lacking. Complete dietary data for 13,566 mothers and their 13,506 children were analysed from the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS), a nationally representative sample, to identify the overall maternal and child dietary patterns and to study the potential determinants of such dietary patterns. The 2008 NDHS included questions that inquired about the food items mothers and their children had consumed during the 24 h preceding the day of the interview. Factor analysis with the principal component procedure was used to construct the dietary patterns, and multiple multilevel logistic regression was used to investigate the determinants of the dietary patterns. Four ('mixed', 'traditional', 'staple foods and milk products' and 'beverages') and five ('mixed', 'selective', 'beverages and candies', 'gruels, grains and semi-solids' and 'infant formula and cereals') distinct dietary patterns were obtained for the mothers and children, respectively. The key determinants of both maternal and child dietary patterns were month of interview, religion, region of residence, maternal education, maternal occupation, wealth index and maternal body mass index. Marital status additionally predicted maternal patterns, while sex of the child, number of siblings, child's age, maternal age and place of residence additionally determined the child's patterns. This study has identified four and five different dietary patterns to characterise the dietary habits of Nigerian mothers and their children, respectively, and has shown the important socio-economic/demographic factors influencing the dietary patterns, which can guide appropriate nutritional interventions among Nigerian mothers and children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire comprised 61 questions for assessing dietary habits. A survey was administered to 320 adults (19 to 64 years old) using the dietary pattern evaluation tool and 24-hour-recall method between March and May of 2014 in Jeonbuk province and the metropolitan area. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to identify dietary behavior patterns. Nutritional analysis was conducted using CAN-Pro 4.0, and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was calculated to assess dietary quality. The correlation between dietary pattern scores and DQI-I scores was also analyzed. RESULTS The factor analysis resulted in a total of 34 questions mapped to four main dietary behavior patterns: "high fat and calorie" pattern (12 questions), "overeating/binge" pattern (nine questions), "dietary impulse" pattern (eight questions), and "unbalanced food intake" pattern (five questions). The four dietary behavior patterns were negatively correlated with DQI-I adequacy and total scores (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The dietary pattern evaluation tool developed in this study can be used to diagnose a client's dietary behavior problems and is available as a nutrition counseling tool in the field. PMID:27247727

  19. Dietary patterns and functional disability in older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Lee, Soon Young; Kim, Young Ok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Park, Sat Byul

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary patterns and disability in the Korean elderly. We used data from a cross-sectional study of 327 men and 460 women aged ≥65 years who completed the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A single 24-h dietary recall method was used to assess dietary intake and dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Functional disability was assessed by the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) scales. The association of dietary patterns with ADL and IADL disability was analyzed by logistic regression adjusting for age, marital status, education, household income, region, chronic conditions, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and energy intake. Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women: the modified traditional dietary pattern, characterized by a relatively lower consumption of white rice, but higher consumption of fruits, dairy products, and legumes, and the traditional dietary pattern, characterized by high consumption of white rice. After controlling for covariates, in men, those who engaged in modified traditional dietary pattern, compared with traditional dietary pattern, showed a lower likelihood of ADL disability (odds ratio [OR]=0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.56). In women, the modified traditional dietary pattern compared with the traditional pattern was associated with a significantly decreased risk of ADL (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.90) and IADL disability (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.28-0.72). The modified traditional dietary pattern is associated with a decreased risk of functional disability in older Korean adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight. RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents. CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight. PMID:26398873

  1. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Louise H.; Nicolaou, Mary; van Dam, Rob M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Brants, Henny A. M.; Beukers, Marja H.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254), South Asian Surinamese (n=425), and African Surinamese (n=784) participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move

  2. Dietary patterns: biomarkers and chronic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2010-04-01

    With increasing appreciation of the complexity of diets consumed by free-living individuals, there is interest in the assessment of the overall diet or dietary patterns in which multiple related dietary characteristics are considered as a single exposure. The 2 most frequently used methods to derive dietary patterns use (i) scores or indexes based on prevailing hypotheses about the role of dietary factors in disease prevention; and (ii) factors and clusters from exploration of available dietary data. A third method, a hybrid of the hypothesis-driven and data-driven methods, attempts to predict food combinations related to nutrients or biomarkers with hypothesized associations with particular health outcomes. Dietary patterns derived from the first 2 approaches have been examined in relation to nutritional and disease biomarkers and various health outcomes, and generally show the desirable dietary pattern to be consistent with prevalent beliefs about what constitutes a healthful diet. Results from observational studies suggest that the healthful dietary patterns were associated with significant but modest risk reduction (15%-30%) for all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease. Findings for various cancers have been inconsistent. The available randomized controlled intervention trials with a long-term follow-up to examine dietary patterns in relation to health outcome have generally produced null findings. Novel findings with the potential to change existing beliefs about diet and health relationships are yet to emerge from the dietary patterns research. The field requires innovation in methods to derive dietary patterns, validation of prevalent methods, and assessment of the effect of dietary measurement error on dietary patterns.

  3. Dietary patterns and the association with dietary quality among Mongolian immigrants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeryun; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Song, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jounghee; Lee, Youngmi

    2015-04-01

    Mongolian immigration into South Korea has increased rapidly over the last decade. It is important to better understand dietary patterns of immigrants because these patterns are associated with health risk. This study aimed to characterize dietary patterns of Mongolian immigrants in South Korea. Dietary intakes of 500 Mongolian adults living in South Korea were assessed using the interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall method. By cluster analysis, three dietary patterns were identified: "Mongolian" (26%), "Transitional" (43%) and "Korean" (31%). The "Korean" pattern had a favorable food intake profile, with higher intakes of healthy foods, while the other patterns had features of an unhealthy diet. There were significant differences between the dietary patterns that were related to risk for chronic diseases. Overall, subjects following the "Korean" dietary pattern showed high adherence to World Health Organization recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases, whereas the "Mongolian" and "Transitional" patterns showed low compliance. The results suggest the need for education programs targeting Mongolian immigrants who retain traditional dietary habits, to enhance their healthy food choices.

  4. Metabolomic-based identification of clusters that reflect dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine

    2017-10-01

    Classification of subjects into dietary patterns generally relies on self-reporting dietary data which are prone to error. The aim of the present study was to develop a model for objective classification of people into dietary patterns based on metabolomic data. Dietary and urinary metabolomic data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) was used in the analysis (n = 567). Two-step cluster analysis was applied to the urinary data to identify clusters. The subsequent model was used in an independent cohort to classify people into dietary patterns. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified. Cluster 1 was characterized by significantly higher intakes of breakfast cereals, low fat and skimmed milks, potatoes, fruit, fish and fish dishes (p < 0.05) representing a "healthy" cluster. Cluster 2 had significantly higher intakes of chips/processed potatoes, meat products, savory snacks and high-energy beverages (p < 0.05) representing an "unhealthy cluster". Classification was supported by significant differences in nutrient status (p < 0.05). Validation in an independent group revealed that 94% of subjects were correctly classified. The model developed was capable of classifying individuals into dietary patterns based on metabolomics data. Future applications of this approach could be developed for rapid and objective assignment of subjects into dietary patterns. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  6. Genetic susceptibility and dietary patterns in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ya-Yu; McGlynn, Katherine A; Hu, Ying; Cassidy, Anna B; Arnold, John; Engstrom, Paul F; Buetow, Kenneth H

    2003-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is the dominant risk factor for lung cancer, but only a minority of smokers ever develops tumors. Though genetic susceptibility is likely to explain some of the variability in risk, results from previous studies of genetic polymorphisms have been inconclusive. As diet may also affect the risk of lung cancer, it is possible that the degree of risk produced by smoking and genetic susceptibility varies, depending on diet. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to examine the effect of cigarette smoking, dietary patterns and variation in genes involved in phase II metabolism. A total of 254 individuals with lung cancer and 184 healthy controls were recruited for the study. To identify persons with similar dietary patterns, cluster analysis was performed using nutrient densities of four major dietary constituents: protein, carbohydrate, animal fat, and dietary fiber. Two groups of individuals were identified with distinct dietary patterns: (1) a group (n=241) with a high intake of animal fat and protein and a low intake of carbohydrates and dietary fiber (the 'unhealthy' pattern) and (2) a group (n=197) with a high intake of fiber and carbohydrate and a low intake of protein and animal fat (the 'healthy' pattern) [corrected]. On stratified analysis, several genotype/dietary pattern combinations were found to affect risk of lung cancer. Smokers who were not homozygous for the most common GSTP1 allele and had a healthy dietary pattern were at significantly lower risk than smokers who were homozygous for the GSTP1 common allele and who had an unhealthy dietary pattern (OR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04-0.57). Among smokers who were GSTM1 null, persons with a healthy dietary pattern were at lower risk than persons with an unhealthy dietary pattern (OR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21-1.01). Among smokers with an unhealthy dietary patterns, persons with a His/His genotype in the exon 3 polymorphism of EPHX1 were at significantly lower risk that persons who were

  7. Major Dietary Patterns among Female Adolescent Girls of Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Mohtadinia, J; Pourghasem-Gargari, B; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-07-01

    Increasingly nutritional experts express the necessity of research on dietary patterns to identify numerous modifiable risk factors of disease. This study was conducted to identify major dietary patterns among adolescent girls in Talaat intelligent guidance school, Tabriz, Iran. Among 257 adolescent girls aged 11-15 years, usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 162-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns in this Turkish population. We identified 6 major dietary patterns:(1) Western pattern high in pizza, meats and fruit juice; (2) Sweat junk foods pattern high in dried fruits, jams, honey and sugar; (3) Asian pattern high in legumes, potato and other vegetables; (4) Salty junk foods pattern high in carrot, puffs and potato chips and (6) Iranian traditional dietary pattern high in hydrogenated fats, garlic and broth. Our findings suggested that among the 6 major dietary patterns, Asian-like food was the healthiest one.

  8. Validity of Energy Intake Reports in Relation to Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shaneshin, Mahboubeh; Jessri, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    The role of under- and overreporting of energy intake in determining the dietary patterns is yet unclear, especially in the Middle Eastern countries. This study identifies the prevalence of misreporting among Tehranian women aged 18-45 years and to compare the dietary intake patterns of plausible and all energy reporters. Dietary intakes and anthropometric data were collected. FitMate™ metabolic analyzer and Goldberg equation were used in determining the under/overreporting of energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be overweight and older compared to plausible reporters. Three dietary patterns emerged for all reporters, and two were identified for plausible reporters. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was not similar to using all reporters. The proportion of underreporters was 59.3% in the mixture cluster, 30.4% in the unhealthy cluster, and 35.3% in the healthy cluster (p<0.05). Underreporting of energy intake is not uniformly distributed among dietary pattern clusters and tends to be less severe among subjects in the unhealthy cluster. Our data suggested that misreporting of energy intake might affect the dietary pattern analysis. PMID:24847591

  9. Dietary patterns of young, low-income US children.

    PubMed

    Knol, Linda L; Haughton, Betsy; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify dietary patterns of young, low-income US children, describe differences in diet quality between identified patterns, and make targeted food recommendations to improve diet quality. Dietary patterns were assessed using dietary variables from the Pyramid Servings Database within the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996, 1998. Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were used to validate identified dietary patterns. Two subsamples of low-income children, aged 2 to 3 years (n = 1,242) and 4 to 8 years (n = 1,506), were selected from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals data. Cluster analysis was performed to determine unique dietary patterns within the two subsamples. Linear regression analyses were used to compare energy intake, discretionary fat, added sugars, and HEI scores across cluster groups. Descriptive statistics were computed for each cluster. Cluster analysis identified six and seven distinct dietary patterns for the younger and older children, respectively. Four patterns were similar for both age groups. For the 2- to 3-year-old children, energy intake, overall HEI scores, and nine of the 10 HEI component scores differed among the four most prevalent dietary patterns. Among the older children, energy intake and six of the HEI component scores differed between the four most prevalent clusters but not overall HEI. Neither age group had a cluster of children who followed a balanced/moderate diet pattern consistent with Food Guide Pyramid recommendations. Children consuming almost every pattern identified could benefit by reducing added sugars and discretionary fat and increasing low-fat, low-sugar options from the vegetables, fruits, meat, and milk groups.

  10. Dietary patterns in Liberian refugees in Buduburam, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ross, Wilhelmenia L; Gallego-Pérez, Daniel F; Lartey, Anna; Sandow, Adam; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber

    2017-10-01

    Previous research suggests that acculturation (i.e., exposure and assimilation to local culture) is associated with changes in dietary patterns among immigrants. This study investigates this association in a refugee population using time in refugee settlement as a proxy for acculturation. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a systematic sample to (a) identify dietary patterns in Liberian refugees and Ghanaians living in or near a refugee settlement, (b) compare adherence to these dietary patterns between groups, and (c) investigate the association between acculturation and dietary patterns in Liberian refugees. Participants were Liberian and Ghanaian women with young children living in the Buduburam refugee settlement or Awutu in Ghana (n = 480; 50% Liberian; mean age 28, SD 6.3, range 16-48 years). Time in settlement was assessed by self-report; food consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; a generalized linear model was used to test the association of interest. Three distinct dietary patterns emerged: Healthy, Sweets, and Fats. Ghanaians were more adherent to the Healthy pattern than Liberians (p < 0.05). Liberians were more adherent to the Sweets and Fats patterns than Ghanaians (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in dietary pattern adherence among the Liberians based on time in settlement. Ghanaians living in Awutu were more adherent to the Healthy pattern than Ghanaians who lived in settlement (p < 0.05). Differences in dietary patterns were observed between Liberian refugees and Ghanaians. These differences were not associated with acculturation and may be related to the food environment in the settlement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sociodemographic characteristics determine dietary pattern adherence during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Freitas Vilela, Ana Amélia; de Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias; Cabral, Maria; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; Kac, Gilberto; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-05-01

    Sociodemographic factors may affect adherence to specific dietary patterns during pregnancy. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and associated factors among Brazilian pregnant women. A cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a semi-quantitative FFQ during the first postpartum week; the time frame included the second and third gestational trimesters. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy. Sociodemographic data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Multiple linear regressions were applied to test the associations between the sociodemographic factors and dietary patterns. Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2011. Postpartum women (n 327) who were 18-45 years of age and Mesquita residents. Three different dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (mainly comprising legumes, vegetables and fruits), 'mixed' (mainly comprising candy, butter and margarine, and snacks) and 'traditional' (mainly comprising beans and rice). Women with a higher monthly per capita family income (β=0·0006; 95% CI 0·0001, 0·001; P=0·011) and women of older age (β=0·021; 95% CI -0·001, 0·042; P=0·058) were more likely to adhere to the 'healthy' dietary pattern. Women with higher parity were less likely to adhere to the 'healthy' pattern (β=-0·097; 95% CI -0·184, -0·009; P=0·030) and were more likely to adhere to the 'traditional' pattern (β=0·098; 95% CI 0·021, 0·175; P=0·012). Although not statistically significant, older women were less likely to adhere to the 'mixed' (β=-0·017; 95% CI -0·037, 0·003; P=0·075) and 'traditional' (β=-0·018; 95% CI -0·037, 0·001; P=0·061) dietary patterns. Monthly per capita family income, parity and maternal age were factors associated with adherence to a healthy diet during pregnancy.

  12. Dietary patterns as predictors of prostate cancer in Jamaican men.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Maria; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall; Walker, Susan; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Bennett, Franklyn; Francis, Damian; Coard, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Studies of diet and prostate cancer have focused primarily on food and nutrients; however, dietary patterns examine the overall diet, particularly foods eaten in combination, and risk of disease. We evaluated the association of dietary patterns and prostate cancer and low- and high-grade subgroups in Jamaican men. In a case-control study, we enrolled 243 incident cases and 273 urology controls in Jamaican clinics, March 2005-July 2007. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Four food patterns were identified: a "vegetable and legume" pattern, a "fast food" pattern, a "meat" pattern, and a "refined carbohydrate" pattern. Men in the highest tertile for the refined carbohydrate pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice, pasta, sugar sweetened beverages, and sweet baked foods were at increased risk of total prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-3.87 (Ptrend = 0.029)] and low-grade disease [OR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.18-7.13 (Ptrend = 0.019)] compared with men in the lowest tertile. The vegetable and legumes pattern (healthy), meat pattern, or fast food pattern were not associated with prostate cancer risk. These data suggest a carbohydrate dietary pattern high in refined carbohydrates may be a risk factor for prostate cancer in Jamaican men.

  13. Dietary availability patterns of the brazilian macro-regions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the role of dietary patterns on the risk of chronic diseases and also in the formulation of better informed nutrition policies. Objective The development of a dietary availability patterns according to geographic regions in Brazil. Methodology The 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey was conducted in 48,470 households. Dietary availability patterns were identified by Principal Component Analysis using as a unit of analysis the survey's Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) and purchased amounts for 21 food groups. Each of the extracted dietary availability patterns was regressed on socioeconomics categories. Results There were no differences in dietary availability patterns between urban and rural areas. In all regions, a rice and beans pattern was identified. This pattern explained 15% to 28% of the variance dependent on the region of the country. In South, Southeast and Midwest regions, a mixed pattern including at least 10 food groups explaining 8% to 16% of the variance. In the North region (Amazon forest included) the first pattern was based on fish and nuts and then it was designed as regional pattern. In multiple linear regression the rice and beans pattern was associated with the presence of adolescents in the households, except for North region, whereas the presence of adolescents was associated with the Regional pattern. A mixed patterns were associated with a higher income and education (p < 0.05), except in the South region. Conclusion The rice and beans and regional dietary availability patterns, both considered healthy eating patterns are still important in the country. Brazil has taken many actions to improve nutrition as part of their public health policies, the data of the Household Budget Survey could help to recognize the different food choices in the large regions of the country. PMID:21798035

  14. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  15. Longitudinal changes in dietary patterns during adult life.

    PubMed

    Mishra, G D; McNaughton, S A; Bramwell, G D; Wadsworth, M E J

    2006-10-01

    Despite the growing interest in dietary patterns, there have been few longitudinal investigations. The objective of the present study was to extend an earlier method of dietary pattern assessment to longitudinal binary data and to assess changes in patterns over time and in relation to socio-demographic covariates. A prospective national cohort of 1265 participants completed a 5 d food diary at three time-points during their adult life (at age 36 years in 1982, 43 years in 1989 and 53 years in 1999). Factor analysis identified three dietary patterns for women (fruit, vegetables and dairy; ethnic foods and alcohol; meat, potatoes and sweet foods) and two patterns in men (ethnic foods and alcohol; mixed). Trends in dietary pattern scores were calculated using random effects models. Marked changes were found in scores for all patterns between 1989 and 1999, with only the meat, potatoes and sweet foods pattern in women recording a decline. In a multiple variable model that included the three time-points, socio-demographic variables and BMI time-dependent covariates, both non-manual social class and higher education level were also strongly associated with the consumption of more items from the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern and the mixed pattern for men (P < 0.0001) and the fruit, vegetables and dairy pattern and the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern for women (P < 0.01). In conclusion, longitudinal changes in dietary patterns and across socio-economic groups can assist with targeting public health initiatives by identifying stages during adult life when interventions to improve diet would be most beneficial to health.

  16. Dietary patterns, approaches, and multicultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2010-04-01

    Nutrition research has traditionally focused on single nutrients in relation to health. However, recent appreciation of the complex synergistic interactions among nutrients and other food constituents has led to a growing interest in total dietary patterns. Methods of measurement include summation of food or nutrient recommendations met, such as the United States Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index; data-driven approaches--principal components (PCA) and cluster analyses--which describe actual intake patterns in the population; and, most recently, reduced rank regression, which defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain intermediate markers of disease. PCA, a form of factor analysis, derives linear combinations of foods based on their intercorrelations. Cluster analysis groups individuals into maximally differing eating patterns. These approaches have now been used in diverse populations with good reproducibility. In contrast, because it is based on associations with outcomes rather than on coherent behavioral patterns, reduced rank regression may be less reproducible, but more research is needed. However, it is likely to yield useful information for hypothesis generation. Together, the focus on dietary patterns has been fruitful in demonstrating the powerful protective associations of healthy or prudent dietary patterns, and the higher risk associations of Western or meat and refined grains patterns. The field, however, has not fully addressed the effects of diet in subpopulations, including ethnic minorities. Depending on food group coding, subdietary patterns may be obscured or artificially separated, leading to potentially misleading results. Further attention to the definition of the dietary patterns of different populations is critical to providing meaningful results. Still, dietary pattern research has great potential for use in nutrition policy, particularly as it demonstrates the importance of total diet in health

  17. Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; da Rocha Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Results: Five dietary patterns were observed: “Traditional,” “Sweetened beverages and snacks,” “Monotonous,” “Healthy” and “Egg-dairy.” A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with “Sweetened beverages and snacks” and “Egg-dairy' standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more “Traditional” standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers and red meat. The “Monotonous” pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate powder, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the “Egg-dairy” pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. PMID:26163945

  18. Dietary patterns and asthma in the E3N study

    PubMed Central

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Kauffmann, Francine; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Le Moual, Nicole; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Romieu, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to determine dietary patterns and investigate their associations with incident asthma, current asthma and frequent asthma exacerbations. Dietary habits and asthma data were collected from the large E3N study (French women, mostly teachers). Of 54,672 women followed-up in 2003, 2,634 reported ever adulthood asthma, 1,063 current asthma, 206 frequent asthma attacks (≥1/week), and 628 asthma-onset between 1993 and 2003. Using principal component analysis, three dietary patterns were identified: ‘prudent’ pattern (fruits and vegetables), ‘Western’ pattern (pizza/salty pies, dessert and cured meats) and ‘nuts and wine’ pattern. Pattern scores were categorized into tertiles and the incidence and prevalence of asthma compared between tertiles. After adjustment for confounders, no association of dietary patterns was observed with incident, ever or current asthma. The ‘Western’ pattern was associated with an increased risk of reporting frequent asthma attacks (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile [95% CI]=1.79 [1.11–3.73], p for trend=0.01). Increasing scores of the ‘nuts and wine’ pattern were associated with a decreased risk of reporting frequent asthma attacks (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile [95% CI]=0.65 [0.31,0.96], p for trend=0.02). Results suggest that overall diet could be involved in frequent asthma exacerbations, one aspect of asthma severity. PMID:18829673

  19. Dietary patterns and the incidence of hyperglyacemia in China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Zhiyong; Liang, Yaqiong; Li, Jiequan

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have examined associations between dietary patterns and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, information on dietary patterns and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese populations is scarce. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns and examine their association with incident hyperglycaemia in Nanjing, China. A community-based prospective cohort study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a validated eighty-seven-item FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis. Participants were categorized into tertiles of dietary factor score for each dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and hyperglycaemia risk was analysed using multivariable linear and Cox regression. Seven communities from two urban districts in Nanjing, China. A total of 2900 of Chinese local residents aged 30 years or above, free of hyperglycaemia and other serious diseases, who participated in the baseline survey from June to September 2007 were followed up 3 years later from June to September 2010 for the development of hyperglycaemia. Fasting blood samples were collected at both baseline and 3-year follow-up surveys. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose concentration of ≥6·1 mmol/l or already taking oral hyperglycaemia agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Five major dietary patterns were identified: (i) the 'condiments' pattern; (ii) the 'animal and plant protein' pattern; (iii) the 'healthy traditional' pattern; (iv) the 'fruits, eggs and juice' pattern; and (v) the 'alcohol, milk and tea' pattern. A total of 2093 (72·2 %) individuals completed the follow-up survey and the 3-year cumulative incidence of hyperglycaemia was 7·5 % (158/2093). A 1-unit increase in the score for the 'healthy traditional' pattern was associated with a decrease of 0·054 mmol/l in fasting plasma glucose (P=0·017), while a 1-unit increase in the 'fruits, eggs and juice' pattern score was associated with an

  20. Dietary patterns of men in ALSPAC: associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, nutrient intake and comparison with women's dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Northstone, K; Emmett, P M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain distinct dietary patterns using principal components analysis (PCA) in men taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and to determine the associations with (a) the patterns derived in the study women (the men's partners), (b) socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and (c) estimated nutrient intakes. A total of 4681 men taking part in a population-based cohort study recorded their current frequency of food consumption through questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified using PCA, and scores were calculated for each pattern. A wide variety of social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were also collected through self-completion questionnaire. Four dietary patterns were established: 'health conscious', 'traditional', 'processed/confectionery' and 'semi-vegetarian'. There were relatively strong correlations and levels of agreement between the 'health conscious' and 'vegetarian' style patterns in men and women (P<0.001). Strong associations were evident between several socio-demographic variables and the dietary patterns, similar to those earlier reported in women. Finally, nutrient intakes were plausibly associated with dietary pattern scores. Distinct dietary patterns in men have been identified using PCA that are similar, but not identical to those obtained in their partners at the same time point. Researchers should always consider stratifying by gender when examining dietary patterns. This study will form the basis for further work investigating the associations between parental and child dietary patterns.

  1. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary intakes and dietary patterns among pregnant women in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiaomei; Dang, Shaonong; Cheng, Yue; Qiu, Huizhen; Mi, Baibing; Jiang, Yufen; Qu, Pengfei; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Quanli; Li, Qiang; Kang, Yijun; Shen, Yuan; Yan, Hong

    2017-02-01

    To describe nutrient intakes, characterize dietary patterns and analyse their associations with sociodemographic characteristics among pregnant women in Shaanxi, China. Population-based cross-sectional survey. Twenty counties and ten districts in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China, 2013. Women (n 7462) were recruited using a stratified multistage random sampling method to report diets during pregnancy, at 0-12 months (median 3 months; 10th-90th percentile, 0-7 months) after delivery. Pregnant women had higher intakes of fat, niacin and vitamin E than the nutrient reference values, while most micronutrients such as vitamin A, folate, Ca and Zn were reportedly low. Women in the highest education, occupation and household income groups had higher nutrient intakes than those in the lowest groups. Nutrient intake differences also existed by geographic area, residence and maternal age at delivery. Three dietary patterns were identified: balanced pattern, vegetarian pattern and snacks pattern. Participants with high balanced pattern scores tended to be better educated, wealthier, 25-29 years old at delivery, working outside and living in urban areas and central Shaanxi. Women with high scores on the vegetarian pattern and snacks pattern tended to be in low balanced pattern score groups, and had lower nutrient intakes than those in the high balanced pattern score groups. The study suggested that pregnant women in Shaanxi, China had low intakes of most nutrients such as vitamin A, folate and Ca. Dietary patterns and most nutrient intakes varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Targeted programmes are needed to improve dietary intakes and dietary patterns among sociodemographically disadvantaged groups.

  3. Cross-sectional association of dietary patterns with insulin resistance phenotypes among adults without diabets in the Framingham Offspring Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several studies have linked dietary patterns which derived by cluster analysis with metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities which drive the metabolic syndrome. However, whether dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis are also associated wi...

  4. Comparison of children's dietary intake patterns with US dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brady, L M; Lindquist, C H; Herd, S L; Goran, M I

    2000-09-01

    Monitoring dietary intake patterns among children is important in order to explore and prevent the onset of adult health problems. The aim of the present study was to compare children's dietary intakes with national recommendations and to determine whether sex or ethnic differences were evident. This was done using a methodology that allows assessment of intake from the major components of the Food Guide Pyramid developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA: US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services (1992)). The sample studied included 110 African-American and Caucasian males and females (mean age 9.9 years, BMI 20.1 kg/m2) from Birmingham, AL, USA, who were participating in a study investigating the development of obesity. Dietary data were based on three 24 h recalls and food group intake was determined using the USDA Pyramid Servicing Database. The results indicated that a high percentage of subjects failed to meet the recommended number of servings from each of the food groups. For example, only 5 % and 9 % met fruit and dietary group recommendations respectively. Consumption of foods from the Pyramid 'tip' (including discretionary fat and added sugar) contributed almost 50 % of the diet. African-Americans were more likely to meet requirements for the meat group, with a higher proportion of Caucasians meeting dietary recommendations. Males were more likely to meet the vegetable group guidelines although females consumed more energy per day from discretionary fat. In conclusion, these results suggest that implementation of nutrition education programmes may be important for promoting healthy nutrition among American children.

  5. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Lucinéia de; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2014-01-01

    to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI) of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA). Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA) and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR=1.66; 95% CI=1.07-2.56), and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.35-0.91). deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  7. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines12

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  8. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  10. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  11. Healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns are related to pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Koohdani, Fariba; Mahaki, Behzad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Yavari, Parvaneh; Shaibu, Osman Mohammed; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-09-01

    Pre-diabetes increases the risk of diabetes and CVD. Several studies have investigated the relationship between food intake and pre-diabetes morbidity, but the dietary patterns of pre-diabetes subjects were not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary patterns and pre-diabetes. In this regard, 150 pre-diabetic subjects and 150 healthy controls, who attended the diabetes screening centre in Shahreza, Iran, were matched for age group and sex. The weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and blood glucose levels of all participants were measured. Dietary information was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Using factor analysis, two dietary patterns were identified: the vegetables, fruits and legumes (VFL) dietary pattern and the sweet, solid fat, meat and mayonnaise (SSMM) dietary pattern. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between pre-diabetes and dietary patterns. After adjusting for age, education, physical activity, BMI and energy intake, the VFL dietary pattern was found to be negatively associated with lower pre-diabetes (OR 0·16; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·26). Furthermore, the SSMM dietary pattern was positively associated with pre-diabetes (OR 5·45; 95 % CI 3·22, 9·23). In conclusion, the VFL dietary pattern is inversely related to pre-diabetes, whereas the SSMM dietary pattern is associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes.

  12. Empirically derived dietary patterns in relation to psychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Afshar, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-02-01

    Psychological disorders are highly prevalent worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and prevalence of psychological disorders in a large sample of Iranian adults. A cross-sectional study was done to identify dietary patterns derived from factor analysis. Dietary data were collected through the use of a validated dish-based semi-quantitative FFQ. Psychological health was examined by use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the General Health Questionnaire. The study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, within the framework of the Study on Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition (SEPAHAN). Iranian adults (n 3846) aged 20-55 years. After adjustment for potential confounders, greater adherence to the lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern was protectively associated with depression in women (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·91). Normal-weight participants in the top quintile of this dietary pattern tended to have decreased odds of anxiety compared with those in the bottom quintile (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·38, 1·00). In addition, the traditional dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression (OR=1·42; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·99) and anxiety (OR=1·56; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·42) in women. Normal-weight participants in the highest quintile of the traditional dietary pattern had greater odds for anxiety (OR=1·89; 95 % CI 1·12, 3·08) compared with those in the lowest quintile. The Western dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression in men (OR=1·73; 95 % CI 1·07, 2·81) and anxiety in normal-weight participants (OR=2·05; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·46). There was a significant increasing trend in the odds of psychological distress across increasing quintiles of the fast food dietary pattern in women (P-trend=0·02). Recommendation to increase the intake of fruits, citrus fruits, vegetables, tomato and low-fat dairy products and to reduce the intakes of snacks, high-fat dairy

  13. Dietary Patterns and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Ying; Shu, Long; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xu-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-05

    A number of studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of pancreatic cancer. MEDLINE (provided by the National Library of Medicine) and EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) databases were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016 that identified common dietary patterns. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy patterns (odds ratio, OR = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.77-0.95; p = 0.004) and light-moderate drinking patterns (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83-0.98; p = 0.02). There was evidence of an increased risk for pancreatic cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of western-type pattern (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06-1.45; p = 0.008) and heavy drinking pattern (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10-1.48; p = 0.002). The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that healthy and light-moderate drinking patterns may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas western-type and heavy drinking patterns may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. INSIG2 variants, dietary patterns, and metabolic risk in Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Baylin, Ana; Deka, Ranjan; Tuitele, John; Viali, Satupaitea; Weeks, Daniel E.; McGarvey, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Association of insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) variants with obesity has been confirmed in several but not all follow-up studies. Differences in environmental factors across populations may mask some genetic associations and therefore gene-environment interactions should be explored. We hypothesized that the association between dietary patterns and components of the metabolic syndrome could be modified by INSIG2 variants. Subjects/Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk among 427 and 290 adults from Samoa and American Samoa (1990–95). Principal component analysis on food items from a validated FFQ was used to identify neo-traditional and modern dietary patterns. We explored gene-dietary pattern interactions with the INSIG2 variants rs9308762 and rs7566605. Results Results for American Samoans were mostly non-significant. In Samoa, the neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with lower triglycerides, BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose (all p-for-trend<0.05). The modern pattern was significantly associated with higher triglycerides, BMI, waist circumference, and lower HDL cholesterol (all p-for-trend<0.05). A significant interaction for triglycerides was found between the modern pattern and the rs9308762 polymorphism (p=0.04). Those from Samoa consuming the modern pattern have higher triglycerides if they are homozygous for the rs9308762 C allele. Conclusions The common INSIG2 rs9308762 variant was associated with poorer metabolic control and a greater sensitivity of trigylcerides to a modern dietary pattern. Environmental factors need to be taken into account when assessing genetic associations across and within populations. PMID:22968099

  15. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has become a major public health concern, but the role of diet in the etiology of this syndrome is not well understood. This study investigated the association between major dietary patterns and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 municipal employees (284 men and 176 women), aged 21–67 years, who participated in a health survey at the time of periodic checkup. Dietary patterns were derived by using the principal component analysis of the consumption of 52 food and beverage items, which were assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Results Three dietary patterns were identified. Westernized breakfast pattern characterized by high intakes of bread, confectionaries, and milk and yogurt but low intakes of rice and alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.02 and 0.049, respectively). Animal food pattern characterized by high intakes of fish and shellfish, meat, processed meat, mayonnaise, and egg was not associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but was positively associated with high blood glucose (P for trend = 0.03). Healthy Japanese dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits, soy products, mushrooms, and green tea was not appreciably associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Conclusions The results suggest that westernized breakfast pattern may confer some protection against metabolic syndrome in Japanese. The causality of these associations needs to be confirmed. PMID:23537319

  16. Evaluation of dietary patterns among Norwegian postmenopausal women using plasma carotenoids as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Sakhi, Amrit K; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-02-28

    A number of studies have examined dietary patterns in various populations. However, to study to what extent such patterns capture meaningful differences in consumption of foods is of interest. In the present study, we identified important dietary patterns in Norwegian postmenopausal women (age 50-69 years, n 361), and evaluated these patterns by examining their associations with plasma carotenoids. Diet was assessed by a 253-item FFQ. These 253 food items were categorised into forty-six food groups, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. We used the partial correlation coefficient (r(adj)) and multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between the dietary patterns and the plasma carotenoids α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin. Overall, four dietary patterns were identified: the 'Western'; 'Vegetarian'; 'Continental'; 'High-protein'. The 'Western' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and total carotenoids (-0·25 ≤ r(adj) ≤ -0·13). The 'Vegetarian' dietary pattern scores were significantly positively correlated with all the plasma carotenoids (0·15 ≤ r(adj) ≤ 0·24). The 'Continental' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein and α-carotene (r(adj) = -0·13). No significant association between the 'High-protein' dietary pattern scores and the plasma carotenoids was found. In conclusion, the healthy dietary pattern, the 'Vegetarian' pattern, is associated with a more favourable profile of the plasma carotenoids than our unhealthy dietary patterns, the 'Western' and 'Continental' patterns.

  17. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3%) were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted. PMID:23006931

  18. Changes of dietary patterns during participation in a web-based weight-reduction programme.

    PubMed

    Luger, Eva; Aspalter, Rosa; Luger, Maria; Longin, Rita; Rieder, Anita; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2016-05-01

    To examine the weight-loss success associated with distinct dietary patterns and to determine changes of these dietary patterns during participation in a web-based weight-reduction programme. Factor analysis was used to identify the dietary patterns of twenty-two food groups that were administered in 14 d dietary protocols at baseline and after 3 months. Successful weight loss (≥5% of initial weight) and BMI were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the rates of weight-loss success from each dietary pattern and changing or remaining in the initial dietary pattern. A generalised linear mixed model was used to estimate the effects of changing or staying in a dietary pattern on change in BMI. Adults (n 1635) aged 18-81 years. Users of a web-based weight-reduction programme (2006-2012). Participants who aligned to a healthful dietary pattern at baseline (OR=1·8; 95% CI 1·5, 2·3) and after 3 months (OR=1·5; 95% CI 1·2, 1·9) had a greater chance of successfully losing weight. After adjusting for age, sex, initial dietary pattern and BMI, participants who started with or changed to the healthful dietary pattern had a greater chance of being successful (OR=1·4; 95% CI 1·1, 1·7) and a higher BMI reduction of 0·30 (95% CI 0·2, 0·5) kg/m(2) compared with those who started with or changed to the energy-dense or high-carbohydrate dietary pattern. A favourable healthful dietary pattern at the beginning and after 3 months was positively associated with anthropometry. However, successful weight loss was feasible in each dietary pattern.

  19. Dietary patterns and mortality in a Chinese population123

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D; Pereira, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited research has examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality, especially in non-Western populations. Objective: We examined the association of dietary patterns with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, which included a unique ethnic population with strong Western and South Asian cultural influences. Design: We conducted a prospective data analysis of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, which included 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 y) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993–1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. The following 2 major dietary patterns were identified by using a principal components analysis: a vegetable-, fruit-, and soy-rich (VFS) pattern and a dim sum– and meat-rich (DSM) dietary pattern. Pattern scores for each participant were calculated and examined with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks by using a Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The VFS pattern was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and each cause-specific category (CVD, cancer, and respiratory) of mortality during the follow-up period. Compared with the lowest quintile of the VFS pattern, HRs for quintiles 2–5 for all-cause mortality were 0.90, 0.79, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). The DSM pattern was positively associated with CVD mortality in the whole population (HR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.40; P-trend = 0.001). Positive associations between the DSM pattern and cancer and all-cause mortality were only present in ever-smokers. In ever-smokers, relative to the first quintile, HRs for quintiles 2–5 of the DSM pattern for all-cause mortality were 1.04, 1.04, 1.13, and 1.24, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Similarly, HRs for quintiles 2–5 for cancer mortality were 1.08, 1.03, 1.25, and 1.34, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). The DSM

  20. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  1. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  2. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Jenna K.; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  3. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  4. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  5. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Pei-Fen; Shu, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Tong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Lun

    2016-04-23

    Epidemiological studies of different dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among a middle-aged Chinese population remain extremely scare. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns and investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults aged 45-60 years. The present cross-sectional study includes 2560 participants who reported their dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. We used log-binomial regression analysis to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension risk. Four major dietary patterns were identified and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater prevalence ratio (PR) for hypertension (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.064-1.727; p < 0.05) in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of high-salt pattern, the highest quartile had a higher prevalence ratio for hypertension (PR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.013-1.635; p < 0.05). Our findings indicated that animal food and high-salt patterns were associated with increased risk of hypertension, while traditional Chinese and western fast-food patterns were not associated with the risk of hypertension. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  6. Dietary patterns and breast-feeding in Australian children.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Scott, Jane; Cobiac, Lynne

    2011-11-01

    To determine the dietary patterns of a national sample of 2-8-year-old Australian children and to establish whether breast-feeding is associated with dietary patterns in this age group. Cross-sectional study using 24 h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Australia. A total of 2287 children aged 2-8 years. Principal component factor analysis identified three distinct patterns. The 'Non-core food groups' pattern included food groups such as whole-fat dairy products, cheese, medium-high sugar-sweetened breakfast cereals and sweet biscuits, no fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy products and wholegrain bread/rolls. The 'Healthy, meat and vegetable' pattern included vegetables, red meat, fruit and wholegrain bread/rolls and was inversely associated with take-away foods and carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages. The 'Combination' pattern contained many food groups including candy (not chocolate based), pasta/rice products, nuts/seeds, cakes and chocolate, but no fruit or vegetables. Of the 2287 children, 2064 (89·3 %) had been breast-fed. A positive association was found between breast-feeding and the healthy, meat and vegetable pattern (r = 0·267) but not with the other two patterns. Higher scores on this pattern were also associated with younger age, lower BMI, higher birth weight, high likelihood of being in the less-disadvantaged Socio-economic Indexes for Areas category and less likelihood of the child's parents having a lower educational level. These results provide suggestive evidence that breast-feeding during infancy is associated with a healthy dietary pattern in childhood and offers a likely pathway to explain the previously reported association between breast-feeding and chronic disease.

  7. Longitudinal analysis of dietary patterns in Chinese adults from 1991 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we aimed to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence to these dietary patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We analysed dietary data collected during seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9253 adults with complete dietary data for three or more waves. Dietary intake assessment was carried out over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave, we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour and maize/coarse grains and the modern high-wheat dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy root/tuber products, fruits, eggs/egg products, soya milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern dietary pattern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat dietary pattern had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity levels were positively associated with both the dietary patterns, but the association became weaker in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China, the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat dietary pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods, is a cause of concern.

  8. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  9. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  10. Dietary Patterns and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Ying; Shu, Long; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xu-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of pancreatic cancer. MEDLINE (provided by the National Library of Medicine) and EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) databases were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016 that identified common dietary patterns. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy patterns (odds ratio, OR = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.77–0.95; p = 0.004) and light–moderate drinking patterns (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83–0.98; p = 0.02). There was evidence of an increased risk for pancreatic cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of western-type pattern (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06–1.45; p = 0.008) and heavy drinking pattern (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10–1.48; p = 0.002). The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that healthy and light–moderate drinking patterns may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas western-type and heavy drinking patterns may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:28067765

  11. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). In addition, we found a significant interaction of height with a prudent dietary pattern in relation to healthy aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society

  12. Dietary pattern and asthma in India.

    PubMed

    Poongadan, Mohammed Noufal; Gupta, Nitesh; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption pattern and asthma in Indian population. 125 asthma and corresponding age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited for the purpose of a study. A self- reported food-frequency questionnaire (NNR-Dietary Pattern in Asthma Questionnaire) comprising of 80 food and drink items, belonging to 15 groups, was developed based on routine dietary habits and ISAAC phase two and phase three questionnaires. There was no significant difference of gender, height, weight, BMI and socioeconomic status between asthma and control groups (p > 0.05). The consumption of fast food, salted snacks, fried snacks; nuts and dry fruits were significantly higher in asthmatics (p < 0.05). Similarly, there was a tendency to higher consumption of fats and oil, sugar and carbonated drink in asthmatics (p > 0.05). On the contrary, consumption of cereals, milk and milk products, non-vegetarian food, fruits and fruit juice tends to be higher in healthy controls, though neither of them could reach a statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of fast food, salted snacks, fried snacks, fats and oils nuts, dry fruits, carbonated drinks may be associated with asthma in India. Hence, it is imperative to reduce consumption and increase awareness of influence of fast food on asthma through public health policies.

  13. Latent transition models to study women's changing of dietary patterns from pregnancy to 1 year postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-04-15

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000-2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them "prudent," "health conscious Western," and "Western." Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the "prudent" class than the "health conscious Western" or the "Western" class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the "health conscious Western" class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum.

  14. Dietary patterns by cluster analysis in pregnant women: relationship with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns in 7-year-old offspring.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Smith, Andrew D A C; Kac, Gilberto; Pearson, Rebecca M; Heron, Jon; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Emmett, Pauline M

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about how dietary patterns of mothers and their children track over time. The objectives of this study are to obtain dietary patterns in pregnancy using cluster analysis, to examine women's mean nutrient intakes in each cluster and to compare the dietary patterns of mothers to those of their children. Pregnant women (n = 12 195) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported their frequency of consumption of 47 foods and food groups. These data were used to obtain dietary patterns during pregnancy by cluster analysis. The absolute and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were compared between clusters. Women's dietary patterns were compared with previously derived clusters of their children at 7 years of age. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships comparing maternal and offspring clusters. Three maternal clusters were identified: 'fruit and vegetables', 'meat and potatoes' and 'white bread and coffee'. After energy adjustment women in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster had the highest mean nutrient intakes. Mothers in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster were more likely than mothers in 'meat and potatoes' (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.00; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.69-2.36) or 'white bread and coffee' (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.87-2.53) clusters to have children in a 'plant-based' cluster. However the majority of children were in clusters unrelated to their mother dietary pattern. Three distinct dietary patterns were obtained in pregnancy; the 'fruit and vegetables' pattern being the most nutrient dense. Mothers' dietary patterns were associated with but did not dominate offspring dietary patterns.

  15. Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Julia R; McGarvey, Stephen T; Kraft, Peter; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Quested, Christine; Laumoli, Tuiasina Salamo; Baylin, Ana

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic levels in the Samoan Islands. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2002-2003, dietary patterns were described among American Samoan (n = 723) and Samoan (n = 785) adults (> or =18 y) to identify neo-traditional and modern eating patterns and to relate these patterns to the presence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The neo-traditional dietary pattern, similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of local foods, including crab/lobster, coconut products, and taro, and low intake of processed foods, including potato chips and soda. The modern pattern, also similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods. The neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher serum HDL-cholesterol in American Samoa (P-trend = 0.05) and a decrease in abdominal circumference in American Samoa and Samoa (P-trend = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). An inverse association was found with metabolic syndrome, although it did not reach significance (P = 0.23 in American Samoa; P = 0.13 in Samoa). The modern pattern was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa (prevalence ratio = 1.21 for the fifth compared with first quintile; 95% CI: 0.93.1.57; P-trend = 0.05) and with increased serum triglyceride levels in both polities (P < 0.05). Reduced intake of processed foods high in refined grains and adherence to a neo-traditional eating pattern characterized by plant-based fiber, seafood, and coconut products may help to prevent growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Samoan islands.

  16. Dietary patterns in Irish adolescents: a comparison of cluster and principal component analyses.

    PubMed

    Hearty, Áine P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Pattern analysis of adolescent diets may provide an important basis for nutritional health promotion. The aims of the present study were to examine and compare dietary patterns in adolescents using cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) and to examine the impact of the format of the dietary variables on the solutions. Analysis was based on the Irish National Teens Food Survey, in which food intake data were collected using a semi-quantitative 7 d food diary. Thirty-two food groups were created and were expressed as either g/d or percentage contribution to total energy. Dietary patterns were identified using cluster analysis (k-means) and PCA. Republic of Ireland, 2005-2006. A representative sample of 441 adolescents aged 13-17 years. Five clusters based on percentage contribution to total energy were identified, 'Healthy', 'Unhealthy', 'Rice/Pasta dishes', 'Sandwich' and 'Breakfast cereal & Main meal-type foods'. Four principal components based on g/d were identified which explained 28 % of total variance: 'Healthy foods', 'Traditional foods', 'Sandwich foods' and 'Unhealthy foods'. A 'Sandwich' and an 'Unhealthy' pattern are the main dietary patterns in this sample. Patterns derived from either cluster analysis or PCA were comparable, although it appears that cluster analysis also identifies dietary patterns not identified through PCA, such as a 'Breakfast cereal & Main meal-type foods' pattern. Consideration of the format of the dietary variable is important as it can directly impact on the patterns obtained for both cluster analysis and PCA.

  17. Dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with the risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun; Song, Yoon Ju

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-hour recall. Reduced rank regression was used to derive dietary patterns from 22 food groups as predictor variables and four dietary factors related to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates as response variables. Two dietary patterns were identified: 1) the balanced pattern was characterized by high intake of various kinds of foods including white rice, and 2) the rice-oriented pattern was characterized by a high intake of white rice but low intake of vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products. Both patterns had considerable amounts of total carbohydrate, but GI values differed. The rice-oriented pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia in men and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in both men and women. The balanced pattern had no overall significant association with the prevalence of dyslipidemia or diabetes, however, men with energy intake above the median showed a reduced prevalence of diabetes across quintiles of balanced pattern scores. The results show that dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia and diabetes in the Korean adult population.

  18. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05–2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern. PMID:26000248

  19. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Couto, E; Boffetta, P; Lagiou, P; Ferrari, P; Buckland, G; Overvad, K; Dahm, C C; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V; Trichopoulos, D; Naska, A; Benetou, V; Kaaks, R; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; von Ruesten, A; Panico, S; Pala, V; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; May, A; Peeters, P H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, F L; Lund, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Gonzalez, C A; Navarro, C; Rodríguez, L; Sánchez, M-J; Amiano, P; Barricarte, A; Hallmans, G; Johansson, I; Manjer, J; Wirfärt, E; Allen, N E; Crowe, F; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Moskal, A; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Romaguera, D; Mouw, T; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Trichopoulou, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. Methods: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142 605 men and 335 873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0–9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders. Results: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21 062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio=0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity)=0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern. Conclusion: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk. PMID:21468044

  20. Gaussian Graphical Models Identify Networks of Dietary Intake in a German Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Khalid; Buijsse, Brian; Wirth, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-03-01

    Data-reduction methods such as principal component analysis are often used to derive dietary patterns. However, such methods do not assess how foods are consumed in relation to each other. Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) are a set of novel methods that can address this issue. We sought to apply GGMs to derive sex-specific dietary intake networks representing consumption patterns in a German adult population. Dietary intake data from 10,780 men and 16,340 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were cross-sectionally analyzed to construct dietary intake networks. Food intake for each participant was estimated using a 148-item food-frequency questionnaire that captured the intake of 49 food groups. GGMs were applied to log-transformed intakes (grams per day) of 49 food groups to construct sex-specific food networks. Semiparametric Gaussian copula graphical models (SGCGMs) were used to confirm GGM results. In men, GGMs identified 1 major dietary network that consisted of intakes of red meat, processed meat, cooked vegetables, sauces, potatoes, cabbage, poultry, legumes, mushrooms, soup, and whole-grain and refined breads. For women, a similar network was identified with the addition of fried potatoes. Other identified networks consisted of dairy products and sweet food groups. SGCGMs yielded results comparable to those of GGMs. GGMs are a powerful exploratory method that can be used to construct dietary networks representing dietary intake patterns that reveal how foods are consumed in relation to each other. GGMs indicated an apparent major role of red meat intake in a consumption pattern in the studied population. In the future, identified networks might be transformed into pattern scores for investigating their associations with health outcomes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Associations between Dietary Pattern and Depression in Korean Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Ji-young; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yongsoon

    2015-12-01

    Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and depression in this population. We conducted a case-control study in a tertiary university hospital of 849 girls aged 12 to 18 years. The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2012. Participants were identified as having depression if they had scores greater than 16 on the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were obtained using validated Korean-language questionnaires. The subjects' usual dietary patterns during the past 12 months were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire published by the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among the 849 enrolled volunteers, 116 were identified as having depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 15.0 ± 1.5 years. The prevalence of girls diagnosed with depression was 13.6%. Multivariate adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of depression was significantly positively associated with the consumption of instant and processed foods and negatively associated with the intake of green vegetables and 1 to 3 servings/day of fruits, after adjusting for energy intake and menstrual regularity. Additionally, depression was negatively associated with intake of fiber, β-carotene, vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, potassium, zinc, folate, iron, and copper after adjusting for confounding variables. Consumption of fast foods including ramen noodles, hamburger, pizza, fried food, and other processed foods was associated with increased risk of depression in adolescent girls. Thus, caution is required regarding dietary choices in this population. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms: difference by gender, and unipolar and bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Rituna; Hiraoka, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men.

  3. Identifying crash patterns on roundabouts.

    PubMed

    Polders, Evelien; Daniels, Stijn; Casters, Winfried; Brijs, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Roundabouts are a type of circular intersection control generally associated with a favorable influence on traffic safety. International studies of intersections converted to roundabouts indicate a strong reduction in injury crashes, particularly for crashes with fatal or serious injuries. Nevertheless, some crashes still occur at roundabouts. The present study aims to improve the understanding of roundabout safety by identifying crash types, locations, and factors that are associated with roundabout crashes. An analysis of 399 crashes on 28 roundabouts in Flanders, Belgium, was carried out based on detailed crash descriptions; that is, crash data and collision diagrams. The crashes are sampled from police-reported crashes at roundabouts in the region of Flanders, Belgium. Collision diagrams of the registered crashes were used to distinguish 8 different crash types. The roundabout itself is divided into 11 detailed and different typical segments, according to previously established knowledge on the occurrence of crashes at roundabouts. The 8 roundabout crash types are examined by injury severity, crash location within the roundabout, type of roundabout, type of cycle facility, and type of involved road user. Four dominant crash types are identified: rear-end crashes, collisions with vulnerable road users, entering-circulating crashes, and single-vehicle collisions with the central island. Crashes with vulnerable road users and collisions with the central island are characterized by significantly higher proportions of injury crashes. About 80% of the crashes occurred on the entry lanes and the circulatory road (segments 1-4). Road users who are the most at risk to be involved in serious injury crashes at roundabouts are cyclists and moped riders. The main goal of this study was to identify and analyze dominant crash types at roundabouts by taking into account detailed information on the crash location. Some connections between certain roundabout crash types, their

  4. Alignment of Healthy Dietary Patterns and Environmental Sustainability: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Miriam E; Hamm, Michael W; Hu, Frank B; Abrams, Steven A; Griffin, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    To support food security for current and future generations, there is a need to understand the relation between sustainable diets and the health of a population. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated and compared different dietary patterns to better understand which foods and eating patterns have less of an environmental impact while meeting nutritional needs and promoting health. This systematic review (SR) of population-level dietary patterns and food sustainability extends and updates the SR that was conducted by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, an expert committee commissioned by the federal government to inform dietary guidance as it relates to the committee's original conclusions. In the original SR, 15 studies met the criteria for inclusion; since then, an additional 8 studies have been identified and included. The relations between dietary intake patterns and both health and environmental outcomes were compared across studies, with methodologies that included modeling, life cycle assessment, and land use analysis. Across studies, consistent evidence indicated that a dietary pattern higher in plant-based foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains) and lower in animal-based foods (especially red meat), as well as lower in total energy, is both healthier and associated with a lesser impact on the environment. This dietary pattern differs from current average consumption patterns in the United States. Our updated SR confirms and strengthens the conclusions of the original US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee SR, which found that adherence to several well-characterized dietary patterns, including vegetarian (with variations) diets, dietary guidelines-related diets, Mediterranean-style diets, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and other sustainable diet scenarios, promotes greater health and has a less negative impact on the environment than current average dietary intakes.

  5. Relationship between maternal dietary patterns and hypospadias.

    PubMed

    de Kort, Christianne A R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Mendez, Michelle A

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the role of maternal nutrition in the development of hypospadias, which is the most common urogenital congenital anomaly. This study investigated the relationship between maternal nutrition and the risk of hypospadias, particularly focusing on maternal food patterns. We compared 471 hypospadias cases with 490 controls in the United Kingdom. A questionnaire including information on life style, occupation, usual maternal diet and dietary supplements was administered using telephone interviews. Cases and controls were compared for individual food item intake and food patterns derived by cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for income, maternal age, low birthweight, smoking and folic acid supplement use was used to assess the relationship between maternal nutrition and hypospadias. Three food patterns were created with the labels 'health conscious', 'mixed' and 'non-health conscious'. 'Non-health conscious' subjects (low frequency of consumption of yoghurt, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, fish, beans and pulses, olive oil and organic food) had a higher risk of hypospadias (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.26) compared with 'health conscious' subjects (high frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit, fresh or frozen fish, beans, pulses, soya products, olive oil and organic food), after adjustment for potential confounders. Intakes of individual foods were not strongly associated with hypospadias. We could not exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and this needs to be further investigated. We found an association between food pattern and hypospadias, with those with less health conscious food patterns having a higher risk. Further study is needed to confirm this association.

  6. Dietary patterns and non-communicable disease risk in Indian adults: secondary analysis of Indian Migration Study data.

    PubMed

    Joy, Edward Jm; Green, Rosemary; Agrawal, Sutapa; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Haines, Andy; Dangour, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Undernutrition and non-communicable disease (NCD) are important public health issues in India, yet their relationship with dietary patterns is poorly understood. The current study identified distinct dietary patterns and their association with micronutrient undernutrition (Ca, Fe, Zn) and NCD risk factors (underweight, obesity, waist:hip ratio, hypertension, total:HDL cholesterol, diabetes). Data were from the cross-sectional Indian Migration Study, including semi-quantitative FFQ. Distinct dietary patterns were identified using finite mixture modelling; associations with NCD risk factors were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression models. India. Migrant factory workers, their rural-dwelling siblings and urban non-migrants. Participants (7067 adults) resided mainly in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Five distinct, regionally distributed, dietary patterns were identified, with rice-based patterns in the south and wheat-based patterns in the north-west. A rice-based pattern characterised by low energy consumption and dietary diversity ('Rice & low diversity') was consumed predominantly by adults with little formal education in rural settings, while a rice-based pattern with high fruit consumption ('Rice & fruit') was consumed by more educated adults in urban settings. Dietary patterns met WHO macronutrient recommendations, but some had low micronutrient contents. Dietary pattern membership was associated with several NCD risk factors. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified, supporting sub-national assessments of the implications of dietary patterns for various health, food system or environment outcomes.

  7. Dietary pattern analysis for the evaluation of dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2008-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines for the promotion of overall good health and the prevention of disease often play an important role in setting nutritional policy and in the education of the public about healthy food choices. Although much has been written about adherence to such guidelines, until recently there was no evidence on whether adherence to specific dietary guidelines is associated with better health. As an outcome variable for such analyses, we have used the incidence of major chronic disease, which includes incidence of any major cardiovascular disease, cancer, or death from any cause excluding violence. We have evaluated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans using a scoring system called the Healthy Eating Index developed by the Department of Agriculture to quantify adherence to these guidelines. We found that adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk in a population of over 100,000 US adult men and women. We also assessed whether an alternate index, which took into account the type of fat and quality of carbohydrate, would better predict risk. In contrast with the original Healthy Eating Index, adherence to the alternative index predicted lower rates of major chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease, suggesting that the Dietary Guidelines were not offering optimal dietary guidance. These analyses suggest that dietary guidelines should be evaluated for their ability to predict the occurrence of major illness, and that such analyses can help refine these guidelines.

  8. Health and Dietary Patterns of the Elderly in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruapula, Segametsi; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe associations among socioeconomic conditions and dietary patterns of Botswana elderly. Design: Secondary analysis from a cross-sectional nationwide survey. Participants: Subjects (N = 1086, 60-99 years old) were selected after multistage sampling. Main Outcome Measures: Dietary patterns were dependent variables; health and…

  9. Health and Dietary Patterns of the Elderly in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruapula, Segametsi; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe associations among socioeconomic conditions and dietary patterns of Botswana elderly. Design: Secondary analysis from a cross-sectional nationwide survey. Participants: Subjects (N = 1086, 60-99 years old) were selected after multistage sampling. Main Outcome Measures: Dietary patterns were dependent variables; health and…

  10. [Dietary patterns among preschoolers and its association with education level of the parents].

    PubMed

    Yan, S Q; Cao, H; Gu, C L; Xu, Y Q; Ni, L L; Tao, H H; Shao, T; Tao, F B

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To identify the dietary patterns among preschoolers in Ma'anshan, and to investigate its association with the education levels of the parents. Methods: A total of 16 439 children aged 3-6 were recruited from 91 kindergartens in Ma'anshan city to participate in the study. Food frequency and socio-demographic information were collected through questionnaire survey. Dietary data was collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and principal-components analysis was used to derive the dietary patterns. Ordinal multinomial logistic regression was employed to explore the association between the education level of parents and the dietary patterns. Results: Five dietary patterns- "processed" , "beverage" , "snack" , "protein" and "vegetarian" were identified. Data showed that the total variance was 48.02% and the cumulative proportion of processed reached 24.78%. Low educational level of the father was positively associated with both "beverage" (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63) and "snack" dietary pattern (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.01-1.43). Low educational level of mother was positively associated with the "processed" (OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.09-1.57) and "beverage" dietary pattern (OR=1.48, 95%CI: 1.23-1.77), and showed a negative correlation with "protein" (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.52-0.74) and "vegetarian" dietary pattern (OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.60-0.86). Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that preschoolers in Ma'anshan tend to choose unhealthy dietary pattern. Dietary pattern was directly influenced by the parents, and especially the education level of the mothers.

  11. Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Adults in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Zhao, Shiwen

    2016-11-03

    Dietary patterns represent a broader picture of food consumption, and are better correlated with a variety of health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity in Southwest China. Data from the 2010-2012 National Nutrition Survey in the province of Yunnan, Southwest China, were analyzed (n = 1604, aged 18-80 years). Dietary data were collected using the 24 h dietary recall over three consecutive days. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between dietary patterns and obesity. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as traditional, modern, and tuber according to their key components. With potential confounders adjusted, adults in the highest quartile of the modern pattern were at higher risk of general and central obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-3.48; OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.37-2.93). In contrast, adults in the highest quartile of the tuber pattern were at lower risk of general and central obesity (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.61; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.95) but at higher risk of underweight (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.20-6.45). No significant association was found between the traditional pattern and obesity. Moreover, dietary pattern differences occurred due to the differences in socio-demographic characteristics. In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern was positively, and the tuber pattern negatively, associated with general and central obesity among adults in Southwest China.

  12. Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Adults in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Zhao, Shiwen

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns represent a broader picture of food consumption, and are better correlated with a variety of health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity in Southwest China. Data from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition Survey in the province of Yunnan, Southwest China, were analyzed (n = 1604, aged 18–80 years). Dietary data were collected using the 24 h dietary recall over three consecutive days. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between dietary patterns and obesity. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as traditional, modern, and tuber according to their key components. With potential confounders adjusted, adults in the highest quartile of the modern pattern were at higher risk of general and central obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–3.48; OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.37–2.93). In contrast, adults in the highest quartile of the tuber pattern were at lower risk of general and central obesity (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.61; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.95) but at higher risk of underweight (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.20–6.45). No significant association was found between the traditional pattern and obesity. Moreover, dietary pattern differences occurred due to the differences in socio-demographic characteristics. In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern was positively, and the tuber pattern negatively, associated with general and central obesity among adults in Southwest China. PMID:27827895

  13. Are Dietary Patterns Associated with Depression in U.S. Adults?

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Kyoung; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable determinants for and consequences of both mental and physical heath. Depression has become an increasingly important public health issue. We tested whether dietary patterns derived from food group intake are associated with depression in U.S. adults in a cross-sectional study with national population. This study included 4180 men and 4196 women aged 20-79 years in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), with complete data of one 24-h dietary recall, sociodemographics, lifestyles, and Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9) for screening depression. Two major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were investigated for their associations with presence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) by using linear and multivariate logistic regressions. One of two major patterns, labeled "Western" dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of nonwhole grain, white potatoes, cheese, meat, discretionary oil and fat, and added sugar; the second dietary pattern that was labeled "Healthy" dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, nuts and seeds. The "Western" dietary pattern was not significantly associated with depression in both men and women. The "Healthy" dietary pattern scores were inversely associated with the PHQ-9 depression scores and odd ratios (ORs) of depression after adjustment for covariates in women but not in men. The OR of depression in women with the highest quintile of "Healthy" dietary pattern scores was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.85, P < .001) compared to the lowest quintile as a reference. These findings warrant future interventions or clinical trials in elucidating causal and effect relations of depression and dietary patterns, an important public health concern.

  14. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L; Herring, R Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. Vegetarian diets are

  15. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N.; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L.; Herring, R. Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96 354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77 659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. EXPOSURES Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64–0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95%CI, 0.65–1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47–1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59–1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65–1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40–0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62–1.37) compared with

  16. Dietary patterns with special reference to calcium intake in 2-16-year-old Urban Western Indian children.

    PubMed

    Ekbote, Veena H; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Mughal, Zulf

    2017-01-01

    It is important to establish good dietary practices in childhood that promote adequate calcium intake throughout life and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures in later life. To assess dietary patterns of 2-16-year-old children with special reference to calcium and suggest strategies and develop recipes suitable to identified patterns to increase dietary calcium intake. We studied 220 schoolchildren (2-16 years) around Pune city, India. The study duration was June 2013-July 2014. Height and weight were measured using standard protocols. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h diet recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary patterns were derived by cluster analysis in two age groups; children (2-9 years) and adolescents (10-16 years). As per the dietary patterns, calcium-rich recipes were developed. Among children, "rice-pulse" (RP) and "wheat, milk, and milk products" (WM) patterns were observed. Among adolescents, RP, "wheat, milk, and bakery" (WMB), and "mixed food" patterns were observed. Children who consumed "WM" and "WMB" patterns had greater intake of calcium (P < 0.05) than children consuming other dietary patterns. The daily calcium intake of whole group was 53% of the recommended dietary allowance. From this, 30% calcium came from milk. Each serve of the developed recipe provided an average of 254 mg of calcium. Majority of children had cereal-pulse-based dietary patterns. By replacing foods from existing dietary patterns with calcium-rich foods, the dietary calcium content may be increased in a sustainable manner.

  17. [Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shu, Long; Li, Qingyan; Li, Yingchun

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the bone density of freshmen, and to analyze the association between dietary pattern and bone mineral density (BMD). A questionnaire survey on the situation of dietary pattern was conducted in 1414 freshmen. Effective dietary survey questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements were completed for 1319 participants. Bone mass was assessed by using an Ultrasound Bone Densitometer on the right calcaneus (CM-200, Furuno Electric Corporation, Japan), and the speed of sound (SOS, m/s) was used as an indicator for bone density. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify the dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni's was used to further examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD). (1) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern (high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern (high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  18. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children.Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression.Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage.Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  19. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  20. Dietary patterns and their association with hypertension among Pakistani urban adults.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting more than 25% of adults worldwide. In Pakistan, 33% of the adult population suffers from hypertension. Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the critical role of dietary patterns in the causation, prevention and management of hypertension. There's a dearth of evidence from South Asia in this regard. The present study aimed to identify the association between dietary patterns and hypertension among 4304 low income urban adults who participated in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study in Karachi, Pakistan. Dietary information was collected by a 33- item food frequency questionnaire and 3 unique dietary patterns namely; fat and sweet, fruit and vegetable, and seafood and yogurt patterns were derived using principal component factor analyses. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between dietary patterns and hypertension. Men were more likely to have hypertension, while increase in age, and body mass index were also associated with hypertension (p<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, education, marital status, body mass index, and tobacco use; the seafood and yogurt pattern was less likely (OR=0.78: 95% CI: 0.63, 0.98; p-value 0.03) to be associated with hypertension, whereas no significant associations were seen for other two dietary patterns. These findings suggest that certain dietary patterns may be associated with hypertension among Pakistani low income urban adults.

  1. The relationship between parental modeling, eating patterns, and dietary intake among African-American parents.

    PubMed

    Tibbs, T; Haire-Joshu, D; Schechtman, K B; Brownson, R C; Nanney, M S; Houston, C; Auslander, W

    2001-05-01

    This article examines the relationship between the frequency with which African-American parents report modeling healthful dietary behaviors for their children and parental dietary intake. Cross-sectional, baseline data from a community-based dietary change study to reduce fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable consumption among African-American parents was analyzed to identify role-modeling behaviors. Subjects were 456 African-American parents who participated in a dietary change study as part of a national parent education group. Participants completed the Parental Dietary Modeling Scale, an eating patterns questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Parental modeling of healthful dietary behavior was associated with the performance low-fat eating patterns (r = 0.48; P < .001), lower dietary fat intake (r = -0.30; P < .001), and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables (r = 0.18; P < .001). The frequency with which parents model healthful dietary behaviors may be associated with parental dietary intake and may have long-term implications for the development of childhood eating patterns. Dietetics professionals need to carefully assess parents' current dietary modeling behaviors and inform parents about how performance of these general behaviors may affect their child's ultimate nutrition health.

  2. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2.

    PubMed

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Knutsen, Synnove; Beeson, W Lawrence; Fraser, Gary E

    2013-07-08

    Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. A total of 96,469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73,308 participants remained after exclusions. Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and vegan. The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. There were 2570 deaths among 73,308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82-6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01); in lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75-1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered

  3. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2

    PubMed Central

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Knutsen, Synnove; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Fraser, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. Setting Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. Participants A total of 96 469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73 308 participants remained after exclusions. Exposures Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo–vegetarian, and vegan. Main Outcome and Measure The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. Results There were 2570 deaths among 73 308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82–6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs non-vegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80–0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73–1.01); in lacto-ovo–vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82–1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69–0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75–1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. Conclusions and Relevance Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some

  4. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis Discovered a Dietary Pattern Inversely Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yen-Li; Pan, Wen-Harn; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chen, Jen-Yang; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case–control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with multiple conditional logistic regression models, linking pattern scores and NPC risk. A high score of the PLS-DA derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruits, milk, fresh fish, vegetables, tea, and eggs ordered by loading values. We observed that one unit increase in the scores was associated with a significantly lower risk of NPC (ORadj = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60–0.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Similar results were observed among Epstein-Barr virus seropositive subjects. An NPC protective diet is indicated with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables), milk, other protein-rich foods (in particular fresh fish and eggs), and tea. This information may be used to design potential dietary regimen for NPC prevention. PMID:27249558

  5. Polyamine intake, dietary pattern, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kuniyasu

    2010-09-01

    In addition to general lifestyle, a number of foods and dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), are associated with lower incidences of chronic, age-related diseases, and mortality. We have shown that increased polyamine intake decreases age-associated pathology and increases longevity in mice. Several foods in the MD, such as fruits and legumes, are foods containing high amount of polyamines. Among age-associated conditions, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and individuals who adhere to a MD have a lower incidence of CVD. The possible contribution of increased polyamine intake to CVD prevention is discussed in this manuscript. Polyamines from food are distributed to all organs and tissues, and long-term intake increases polyamine concentration in blood. Because most polyamines are associated with red and white blood cells, they act to suppress synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1. Foods with anti-inflammatory properties such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to help prevent CVD. Additionally, suppression of de novo polyamine synthesis results from increased polyamines intake, normally synthesized from arginine. This in turn increases availability of arginine for synthesis of nitric oxide, which plays an important role in preserving normal vascular physiology.

  6. Arsenic exposure, dietary patterns, and skin lesion risk in bangladesh: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brandon L; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Melkonian, Stephanie; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Rathouz, Paul J; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-02-01

    Dietary factors are believed to modulate arsenic toxicity, potentially influencing risk of arsenical skin lesions. The authors evaluated associations among dietary patterns, arsenic exposure, and skin lesion risk using baseline food frequency questionnaire data collected in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh (2000-2009). They identified dietary patterns and estimated dietary pattern scores using factor analysis. Scores were tested for association with incident skin lesion risk and interaction with water arsenic exposure by using ∼6 years of follow-up data (814 events among 9,677 individuals) and discrete time hazards models (adjusting for key covariates). The authors identified 3 clear dietary patterns: the "gourd and root," "vegetable," and "animal protein" patterns. The gourd and root pattern score was inversely associated with skin lesion risk (P(trend) = 0.001), with hazard ratios of 0.86, 0.73, and 0.69 for the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles. Furthermore, the association between water arsenic and skin lesion incidence was stronger among participants with low gourd and root scores (multiplicative P(interaction) < 0.001; additive P(interaction) = 0.05). The vegetable pattern and animal protein pattern showed similar but weaker associations and interactions. Eating a diet rich in gourds and root vegetables and increasing dietary diversity may reduce arsenical skin lesion risk in Bangladesh.

  7. Arsenic Exposure, Dietary Patterns, and Skin Lesion Risk in Bangladesh: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Brandon L.; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Melkonian, Stephanie; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Rathouz, Paul J.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Dietary factors are believed to modulate arsenic toxicity, potentially influencing risk of arsenical skin lesions. The authors evaluated associations among dietary patterns, arsenic exposure, and skin lesion risk using baseline food frequency questionnaire data collected in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh (2000–2009). They identified dietary patterns and estimated dietary pattern scores using factor analysis. Scores were tested for association with incident skin lesion risk and interaction with water arsenic exposure by using ∼6 years of follow-up data (814 events among 9,677 individuals) and discrete time hazards models (adjusting for key covariates). The authors identified 3 clear dietary patterns: the “gourd and root,” “vegetable,” and “animal protein” patterns. The gourd and root pattern score was inversely associated with skin lesion risk (Ptrend = 0.001), with hazard ratios of 0.86, 0.73, and 0.69 for the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles. Furthermore, the association between water arsenic and skin lesion incidence was stronger among participants with low gourd and root scores (multiplicative Pinteraction < 0.001; additive Pinteraction = 0.05). The vegetable pattern and animal protein pattern showed similar but weaker associations and interactions. Eating a diet rich in gourds and root vegetables and increasing dietary diversity may reduce arsenical skin lesion risk in Bangladesh. PMID:21178101

  8. AIC identifies optimal representation of longitudinal dietary variables.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, John; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Marshall, Teresa; Warren, John; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-18

    The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a well-known tool for variable selection in multivariable modeling as well as a tool to help identify the optimal representation of explanatory variables. However, it has been discussed infrequently in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of AIC in determining the optimal representation of dietary variables in a longitudinal dental study. The Iowa Fluoride Study enrolled children at birth and dental examinations were conducted at ages 5, 9, 13, and 17. Decayed or filled surfaces (DFS) trend clusters were created based on age 13 DFS counts and age 13-17 DFS increments. Dietary intake data (water, milk, 100 percent-juice, and sugar sweetened beverages) were collected semiannually using a food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to predict DFS cluster membership (n=344). Multiple approaches could be used to represent the dietary data including averaging across all collected surveys or over different shorter time periods to capture age-specific trends or using the individual time points of dietary data. AIC helped identify the optimal representation. Averaging data for all four dietary variables for the whole period from age 9.0 to 17.0 provided a better representation in the multivariable full model (AIC=745.0) compared to other methods assessed in full models (AICs=750.6 for age 9 and 9-13 increment dietary measurements and AIC=762.3 for age 9, 13, and 17 individual measurements). The results illustrate that AIC can help researchers identify the optimal way to summarize information for inclusion in a statistical model. The method presented here can be used by researchers performing statistical modeling in dental research. This method provides an alternative approach for assessing the propriety of variable representation to significance-based procedures, which could potentially lead to improved research in the dental community. © 2017 American

  9. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  10. Modest validity and fair reproducibility of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Funtikova, Anna N; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A; Fitó, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Cluster analysis is widely used to analyze dietary patterns. We aimed to analyze the validity and reproducibility of the dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We hypothesized that the dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis have fair to modest reproducibility and validity. Dietary data were collected from 107 individuals from population-based survey, by an FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and after 1 year (FFQ2), and by twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDR). Repeatability and validity were measured by comparing clusters obtained by the FFQ1 and FFQ2 and by the FFQ2 and 24-HDR (reference method), respectively. Cluster analysis identified a "fruits & vegetables" and a "meat" pattern in each dietary data source. Cluster membership was concordant for 66.7% of participants in FFQ1 and FFQ2 (reproducibility), and for 67.0% in FFQ2 and 24-HDR (validity). Spearman correlation analysis showed reasonable reproducibility, especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern, and lower validity also especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern. κ statistic revealed a fair validity and reproducibility of clusters. Our findings indicate a reasonable reproducibility and fair to modest validity of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis.

  11. Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Are Related to Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nejati, Somayeh; Darabi, Samaneh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Sorayani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods In our study, 330 depressed patients (cases) and healthy people (controls) (1:2) were individually matched according to age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression were recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers went to each patient's residential area, and invited qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intake over the past year was collected using a validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by the principal components method. Binary logistic regression was used to test the effect of dietary patterns on depression. Results We identified two major dietary patterns by using factor analysis: the healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. We categorized the scores of these patterns to quartiles. After adjusting for non-depression drug use, job, marital status, children number, and body mass index, the relations of depression and quartiles of two dietary patterns are significant (p=0.04 & p=0.01, respectively). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depression in healthy dietary pattern, and higher OR for depression in unhealthy dietary pattern. Conclusion This study indicates that healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of depression. The results can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of depression. PMID:26508953

  12. Dietary patterns and cognitive ability among 12- to 13 year-old adolescents in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Rohani, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and determine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive ability among 12- to 13 year-old Malay adolescents in the urban areas of Gombak district in Selangor, Malaysia. Data on sociodemographic background were obtained from parents. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Adolescents were interviewed on their habitual dietary intakes using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Cognitive ability was assessed using the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability in a one-to-one manner. Dietary patterns were constructed using principal component analysis based on thirty-eight food groups of the semi-quantitative FFQ. Urban secondary public schools in the district of Gombak in Selangor, Malaysia. Malay adolescents aged 12 to 13 years (n 416). The mean general cognitive ability score was 101·8 (sd 12·4). Four major dietary patterns were identified and labelled as 'refined-grain pattern', 'snack-food pattern', 'plant-based food pattern' and 'high-energy food pattern'. These dietary patterns explained 39·1 % of the variance in the habitual dietary intakes of the adolescents. The refined-grain pattern was negatively associated with processing speed, which is a construct of general cognitive ability. The high-energy food pattern was negatively associated with general cognitive ability, perceptual reasoning and processing speed. Monthly household income and parents' educational attainment were positively associated with all of the cognitive measures. In multivariate analysis, only the high-energy food pattern was found to contribute significantly towards general cognitive ability after controlling for socio-economic status. Consumption of foods in the high-energy food pattern contributed towards general cognitive ability after controlling for socio-economic status. However, the contribution was small.

  13. Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian and Non Vegetarian Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabate, Joan; Fraser, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and non vegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that may contribute to the development of disease. Objective To compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products. Design Cross-sectional study of 71751 subjects (mean age 59 years) from the Adventist-Health-Study-2. Data was collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were: non vegetarian, semi vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian and strict vegetarian. ANCOVA was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and were adjusted for age, and sex and race. BMI and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using chi-square tests and ANOVA. Results Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Non vegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, β-Carotene, and Mg than those following vegetarian dietary patterns and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2000 kcal/d with the exception of semi vegetarians that had an intake of 1713 kcal/d. Mean BMI was highest in non-vegetarians (mean; standard deviation [SD]) (28.7; [6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (24.0; [4.8]). Conclusions Nutrient profiles varied markedly between dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences can be of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:23988511

  14. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Nico S; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabate, Joan; Fraser, Gary E

    2013-12-01

    Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that can contribute to the development of disease. Our aim was to compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 71,751 subjects (mean age=59 years) from the Adventist Health Study 2. Data were collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, and strict vegetarian. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and was adjusted for age, sex, and race. Body mass index and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using χ(2) tests and analysis of variance. Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Nonvegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, beta carotene, and magnesium compared with those following vegetarian dietary patterns, and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2,000 kcal/day, with the exception of semi-vegetarians, who had an intake of 1,707 kcal/day. Mean body mass index was highest in nonvegetarians (mean=28.7 [standard deviation=6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (mean=24.0 [standard deviation=4.8]). Nutrient profiles varied markedly among dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences are of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults123

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013

  16. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei-Fen; Shu, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Tong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Lun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of different dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among a middle-aged Chinese population remain extremely scare. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns and investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults aged 45–60 years. The present cross-sectional study includes 2560 participants who reported their dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. We used log-binomial regression analysis to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension risk. Four major dietary patterns were identified and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater prevalence ratio (PR) for hypertension (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.064–1.727; p < 0.05) in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of high-salt pattern, the highest quartile had a higher prevalence ratio for hypertension (PR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.013–1.635; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that animal food and high-salt patterns were associated with increased risk of hypertension, while traditional Chinese and western fast-food patterns were not associated with the risk of hypertension. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27120612

  17. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study).

    PubMed

    Galinski, Grzegorz; Lonnie, Marta; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2016-12-19

    Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls' Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth) study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%), high-fat foods (22.4%), and fats (21.3%). Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the "fruit and vegetables" (considered pro-healthy) dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14-2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17-2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30-2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04-2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38-2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97-5.37, respectively), and less likely to adhere to the "fast foods and sweets" (unhealthy) and "traditional Polish" (rather unhealthy) patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the "fruit and vegetables" pattern and were uncommon in

  18. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study)

    PubMed Central

    Galinski, Grzegorz; Lonnie, Marta; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth) study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%), high-fat foods (22.4%), and fats (21.3%). Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy) dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively), and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy) and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy) patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and vegetables

  19. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  20. Dietary pattern and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Ma, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background The literature on the relationship between diet and asthma has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting results. People consume a combination of foods from various groups that form a dietary pattern. Studying the role of dietary patterns in asthma is an emerging area of research. The purpose of this study was to systematically review dietary patterns and asthma outcomes in adults and children, to review maternal diet and child asthma, and to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between asthma prevalence and dietary patterns in adults. Methods We searched Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge up to January 2014. Two researchers independently reviewed studies meeting the inclusion criteria using the American Dietetic Association quality criteria. A linear mixed model was used to derive the pooled effect size (95% confidence interval) for each of three dietary pattern categories (healthy, unhealthy, and neutral). Results Thirty-one studies were identified (16 cross-sectional, one case-control, 13 cohort, and one randomized controlled trial), including 12 in adults, 13 in children, five in pregnant woman–child pairs, and one in both children and pregnant woman–child pairs. Six of the 12 adult studies reported significant associations between dietary patterns and asthma outcomes (eg, ever asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second). Seven of ten studies examining the Mediterranean diet showed protective effects on child asthma and/or wheeze. Four of the six studies in mother-child pairs showed that maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy were not associated with child asthma or wheeze. The meta-analysis including six adult studies, the primary outcome of which was the prevalence of current or ever asthma, showed no association with healthy, unhealthy, or neutral dietary patterns. Conclusion The evidence suggests no association of dietary patterns with asthma prevalence in adults or of maternal diet with child asthma or

  1. Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-08-17

    been a paradigm shift in nutritional epidemiology to examine associations between dietary patterns and health. Several epidemiological studies show that people following the Mediterranean style diet or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet have lower risk of CHD and lower likelihood of developing hypertension. Studies using empirical or data driven dietary patterns have frequently identified two patterns - "Healthy or Prudent" and "Western". In general, the "Healthy", compared to the "Western" pattern has been associated with more favorable biological profiles, slower progression of atherosclerosis, and reduced incidence. Evidence on changes in dietary patterns and changes in CHD risk is still emerging. With the emergence of the concept of personalized nutrition, studies are increasingly considering the role of genetic factors in the modulation of the association between nutrients and CHD. More studies of genetic variation and dietary patterns in relation to CHD are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Health Lifestyle Pattern on Dietary Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Halloran, Peggy; Lazovich, DeAnn; Patterson, Ruth E.; Harnack, Lisa; French, Simone; Curry, Sue J.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of lifestyle on the effectiveness of a low-intensity dietary intervention. Analysis of data from the Eating Patterns Study indicated that people who practiced certain combinations of health behaviors responded differently to the low-intensity dietary intervention. People with high-risk behaviors were the least successful in…

  3. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  4. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  5. Dietary Patterns, Insulin Resistance, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the Whitehall II Study

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Sarah A.; Mishra, Gita D.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern associated with insulin resistance and investigate whether this pattern was prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Analysis was based on 7,339 participants of the Whitehall II study. Dietary intake was measured using a 127-item food frequency questionnaire. We used the reduced rank regression method to determine dietary patterns using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance as the intermediate or response variable. The association between the dietary pattern identified and incidence of type 2 diabetes was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS—We identified a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of low-calorie/diet soft drinks, onions, sugar-sweetened beverages, burgers and sausages, crisps and other snacks, and white bread and low consumption of medium-/high-fiber breakfast cereals, jam, French dressing/vinaigrette, and wholemeal bread. Higher dietary pattern scores were associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio for top quartile 2.95 [95% CI 2.19–3.97]; adjusted for age, sex, and energy misreporting). This relationship was attenuated after adjustment for ethnicity, employment grade, health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity) but remained significant after further adjustment for blood pressure and BMI (1.51 [1.10–2.09]). CONCLUSIONS—A dietary pattern associated with insulin resistance predicts type 2 diabetes risk after adjustment for a range of confounders. This study adds to the evidence that dietary patterns are an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes. PMID:18390803

  6. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity and adiposity in the multi-ethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study population.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Schulz, Mandy; Moore, Charity G; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological investigations increasingly employ dietary-pattern techniques to fully integrate dietary data. The present study evaluated the relationship of dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis with measures of insulin sensitivity (SI) and adiposity in the multi-ethnic, multi-centre Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, 1992-94). Cross-sectional data from 980 middle-aged adults, of whom 67 % had normal and 33 % had impaired glucose tolerance, were analysed. Usual dietary intake was obtained by an interviewer-administered, validated food-frequency questionnaire. Outcomes included SI, fasting insulin (FI), BMI and waist circumference. The relationship of dietary patterns to log(SI+1), log(FI), BMI and waist circumference was modelled with multivariable linear regressions. Cluster analysis identified six distinct diet patterns--'dark bread', 'wine', 'fruits', 'low-frequency eaters', 'fries' and 'white bread'. The 'white bread' and the 'fries' patterns over-represented the Hispanic IRAS population predominantly from two centres, while the 'wine' and 'dark bread' groups were dominated by non-Hispanic whites. The dietary patterns were associated significantly with each of the outcomes first at the crude, clinical level (P<0.001). Furthermore, they were significantly associated with FI, BMI and waist circumference independent of age, sex, race or ethnicity, clinic, family history of diabetes, smoking and activity (P<0.004), whereas significance was lost for SI. Studying the total dietary behaviour via a pattern approach allowed us to focus both on the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of diet. The present study identified highly consistent associations of distinct dietary patterns with measures of insulin resistance and adiposity, which are risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.

  7. Comparability of dietary patterns assessed by multiple dietary assessment methods: results from the 1946 British Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, S A; Mishra, G D; Bramwell, G; Paul, A A; Wadsworth, M E J

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of dietary patterns assessed through the use of a dietary recall and a 5-day food diary. Participants (n = 2265) of a longitudinal study of health and development completed 48-h dietary recall at interview, followed by a 5-day food diary and with the 24 h immediately preceding the interview analysed separately as a 24-h recall. Mean intakes of foods and nutrients were calculated and dietary patterns were assessed using exploratory factor analysis, using the method of principal components. Paired t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to compare the three dietary assessment methods. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified using the food diary and the 48-h recall but were less consistent on the 24-h recall. Correlations between factor scores on the 48-h recall and the food diary (r = 0.13-0.67) were higher than those between the 24-h recall and food diary (r = -0.01-0.59). The recall methods were effective at ranking subjects according to food and nutrient intakes, with the 48-h recall and food diary showing higher correlations in both males and females. This study indicates that a 48-h recall effectively characterises dietary patterns in British adults when compared to a food diary and ranks participants appropriately with respect to most nutrients and foods and is superior to a single 24-h recall. These results have implications for longitudinal studies where maximising response rates to repeat dietary assessment tools is essential.

  8. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  9. Dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Framingham women.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Pencina, Michael; Kimokoti, Ruth; Quatromoni, Paula; Nam, Byung-Ho; D'Agostino, Ralph; Meigs, James B; Ordovas, Jose; Cobain, Mark; Millen, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between habitual dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women and to identify foci for preventive nutrition interventions. Dietary patterns, nutrient intake, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and MetS risk factors were characterized in 1615 Framingham Offspring-Spouse Study (FOS) women. Dietary pattern subgroups were compared for MetS prevalence and CVD risk factor status using logistic regression and analysis of covariance. Analyses were performed overall in women and stratified on obesity status; multivariate models controlled for age, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes, and CVD risk factors. Food and nutrient profiles and overall nutritional risk of five non-overlapping habitual dietary patterns of women were identified including Heart Healthier, Lighter Eating, Wine and Moderate Eating, Higher Fat, and Empty Calories. Rates of hypertension and low high-density lipoprotein levels were high in non-obese women, but individual MetS risk factor levels were substantially increased in obese women. Overall MetS risk varied by dietary pattern and obesity status, independently of APOE and CVD risk factors. Compared with obese or non-obese women and women overall with other dietary patterns, MetS was highest in those with the Empty Calorie pattern (contrast p value: p<0.05). This research shows the independent relationship between habitual dietary patterns and MetS risk in FOS women and the influence of obesity status. High overall MetS risk and the varying prevalence of individual MetS risk factors in female subgroups emphasize the importance of preventive nutrition interventions and suggest potential benefits of targeted behavior change in both obese and non-obese women by dietary pattern.

  10. Relative validity of dietary patterns during pregnancy assessed with a food frequency questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Loy, See-Ling; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the relative validity of maternal dietary patterns derived from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A total of 162 pregnant women aged 19-40-years-old were enrolled from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Birth Cohort Study in year 2010 and 2011. The FFQ was compared with three 24-h dietary recalls (DRs). Two major dietary patterns were derived from the principle component analysis which are labeled as Healthy and Less-Healthy patterns. The Pearson correlation coefficients between FFQ and DRs for Healthy and Less-Healthy patterns were 0.59 and 0.63, respectively. At least 45% of the participants were correctly classified into the same third from the FFQ and DR for both dietary patterns. The weighted kappa showed moderate agreement for Healthy pattern while good agreement for Less-Healthy pattern between these two dietary assessment methods. Our results indicate reasonable validity of the dietary patterns identified from the FFQ in pregnant women.

  11. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG.

  12. Dietary patterns and bone mineral status in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; McCourt, Hannah J; Young, Ian S; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2012-10-28

    Studies of individual nutrients or foods have revealed much about dietary influences on bone. Multiple food or nutrient approaches, such as dietary pattern analysis, could offer further insight but research is limited and largely confined to older adults. We examined the relationship between dietary patterns, obtained by a posteriori and a priori methods, and bone mineral status (BMS; collective term for bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD)) in young adults (20-25 years; n 489). Diet was assessed by 7 d diet history and BMD and BMC were determined at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (FN). A posteriori dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis (PCA) and three a priori dietary quality scores were applied (dietary diversity score (DDS), nutritional risk score and Mediterranean diet score). For the PCA-derived dietary patterns, women in the top compared to the bottom fifth of the 'Nuts and Meat' pattern had greater FN BMD by 0·074 g/cm(2) (P = 0·049) and FN BMC by 0·40 g (P = 0·034) after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, men in the top compared to the bottom fifth of the 'Refined' pattern had lower FN BMC by 0·41 g (P = 0·049). For the a priori DDS, women in the top compared to the bottom third had lower FN BMD by 0·05 g/cm(2) after adjustments (P = 0·052), but no other relationships with BMS were identified. In conclusion, adherence to a 'Nuts and Meat' dietary pattern may be associated with greater BMS in young women and a 'Refined' dietary pattern may be detrimental for bone health in young men.

  13. A critical assessment of research needs identified by the dietary guidelines committees from 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Myers, Esther F; Khoo, Chor-San; Murphy, William; Steiber, Alison; Agarwal, Sanjiv

    2013-07-01

    The Dietary Goals for the United States were introduced in 1977 and have been followed by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) every 5 years from 1980 to 2010. The DGA provide science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committees are charged to provide updates of the DGA topics using the best available science. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committees' reports also identified 169 research gaps. To date, these gaps have not been compiled and assessed. We evaluated trends in number, topics, and specificity of research gaps by year by placing them in the following topic categories: general, chronic diseases/conditions, diet/diet pattern, food/ingredient, and nutrient-specific research gaps. Some research topics (eg, sodium and hypertension and appropriate uses of DGA) have been identified consistently across the years, some emerged in later years (eg, increasingly specific research gaps between dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease), and others appeared intermittently (eg, relationships between dietary components and cancer). These results are a call to action for all DGA stakeholders to have an immediate dialogue about how the research enterprise can best address critical research needs in a timely way to support public policy. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Jews and Arabs in the same region in Israel exhibit major differences in dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Murad, Havi; Lubin, Flora; Freedman, Laurence S; Ziv, Arnona; Alpert, Gershon; Atamna, Ahmed; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2012-12-01

    The Jewish majority and Arab minority populations in Israel exhibit disparities in nutrition-related chronic diseases, but comparative, population-based dietary studies are lacking. We evaluated ethnic differences in dietary patterns in a population-based, cross-sectional study of Arab and Jewish urban adults (n = 1104; age 25-74 y). Dietary intake was assessed with an interviewer-administered, quantified FFQ. We used principal-component analysis to identify 4 major dietary patterns: Ethnic, Healthy, Fish and Meat Dishes, and Middle Eastern Snacks and Fast Food. The Ethnic and Healthy patterns exhibited major ethnic differences. Participants in the top Ethnic intake tertile (97% Arab) had modified Mediterranean-style Arabic dietary habits, whereas those in the bottom Ethnic tertile (98% Jewish) had central/northern European-style dietary habits. The Arab participants with less strongly ethnicity-associated dietary habits were younger [OR for 10-y decrease = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.21-1.68)] and male [OR = 2.23 (95% CI: 1.53-3.25)]. Jews with less strongly ethnicity-associated dietary habits were less recent immigrants [OR = 8.97 (95% CI: 5.05-15.92)], older [OR for 10-y decrease = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69-0.92)], had post-secondary education [OR = 2.04 (95% CI: 1.06-3.94)], and reported other healthy lifestyle behaviors. In relation to the Healthy pattern, Arabs were less likely than Jews to be in the top intake tertile, but the magnitude of the difference was less in diabetic participants. Participants reporting other healthy lifestyle behaviors were more likely to have a high intake of the Healthy pattern. Substantial differences were found between Arabs and Jews in dietary patterns and suggest a need for culturally congruent dietary interventions to address nutrition-related chronic disease disparities.

  15. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were used to derive dietary patterns. Factor analysis was conducted to ascertain the dietary patterns, and analysis of covariance was fitted to assess the relation between blood profiles, body weight and adherence to dietary patterns. Three dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified, Vegetable & Poultry, Western and Semi-healthy. After control for potential confounders, body mass index (b = -0/03, p < 0.05) were negatively associated with vegetable and poultry dietary pattern. Conversely, total cholesterol (b = 0.004, p < 0.01) and fasting blood glucose (b = 0.014, p < 0.05) were positively associated with western dietary pattern. A dietary pattern labeled as semi-healthy pattern was found to be positively related to HDL-cholesterol (b = 0.006 p < 0.01). Associations between semi-healthy pattern, LDL-cholesterol (b = -0.120 p < 0.05) and waist circumference (b = -0.020, p < 0.05) were negative. Adherence to Vegetable & Poultry dietary pattern was favorably related to body weight, semi healthy related to lower LDL and higher HDL cholesterol whereas western related to higher fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol. Further studies are necessary to confirm the benefits of the dietary patterns for diabetes.

  16. A comparison of the dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis and cluster analysis in older Australians.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Maree G; Milte, Catherine M; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-02-29

    Despite increased use of dietary pattern methods in nutritional epidemiology, there have been few direct comparisons of methods. Older adults are a particularly understudied population in the dietary pattern literature. This study aimed to compare dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) in older adults and to examine their associations with socio-demographic and health behaviours. Men (n = 1888) and women (n = 2071) aged 55-65 years completed a 111-item food frequency questionnaire in 2010. Food items were collapsed into 52 food groups and dietary patterns were determined by PCA and CA. Associations between dietary patterns and participant characteristics were examined using Chi-square analysis. The standardised PCA-derived dietary patterns were compared across the clusters using one-way ANOVA. PCA identified four dietary patterns in men and two dietary patterns in women. CA identified three dietary patterns in both men and women. Men in cluster 1 (fruit, vegetables, wholegrains, fish and poultry) scored higher on PCA factor 1 (vegetable dishes, fruit, fish and poultry) and factor 4 (vegetables) compared to factor 2 (spreads, biscuits, cakes and confectionery) and factor 3 (red meat, processed meat, white-bread and hot chips) (mean, 95% CI; 0.92, 0.82-1.02 vs. 0.74, 0.63-0.84 vs. -0.43, -0.50- -0.35 vs. 0.60 0.46-0.74, respectively). Women in cluster 1 (fruit, vegetables and fish) scored highest on PCA factor 1 (fruit, vegetables and fish) compared to factor 2 (processed meat, hot chips cakes and confectionery) (1.05, 0.97-1.14 vs. -0.14, -0.21- -0.07, respectively). Cluster 3 (small eaters) in both men and women had negative factor scores for all the identified PCA dietary patterns. Those with dietary patterns characterised by higher consumption of red and processed meat and refined grains were more likely to be Australian-born, have a lower level of education, a higher BMI, smoke and did not meet physical

  17. Dietary Patterns and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Butler, Lesley M.; Duval, Sue; Gross, Myron D.; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pereira, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To empirically derive dietary patterns and examine their association with incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, including 43,176 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 years), free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline (1993–1998) and followed up through 2004. Two major dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis: a vegetable, fruit, and soy-rich pattern (VFS) and a dim sum and meat-rich pattern (DSM). Pattern scores for each participant were calculated and examined with type 2 diabetes risk using Cox regression. RESULTS The associations of the two dietary patterns with diabetes risk were modified by smoking status. Neither pattern was associated with risk of diabetes in ever smokers. In never smokers, the VFS dietary pattern was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Compared with the lowest quintile of the VFS dietary pattern score, the hazard ratios (HRs) for quintiles 2–5 were 0.91, 0.82, 0.73, and 0.75 (P = 0.0005 for trend). The DSM dietary pattern was positively associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in never smokers, with HRs for quintiles 2–5 of 1.07, 1.25, 1.18, and 1.47 (P < 0.0001 for trend). CONCLUSIONS A dietary pattern with higher intake of vegetables, fruits, and soy foods was inversely associated with risk of incident type 2 diabetes, and a pattern with higher intake of dim sum, meat and processed meat, sweetened foods and beverages, and fried foods was associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese men and women in Singapore. PMID:21330641

  18. Findings on dietary patterns in different groups of African origin undergoing nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Hélène

    2010-04-01

    In population groups undergoing nutrition transition, it is important to identify healthy and culturally relevant dietary patterns that can be promoted as a means of preventing diet-related chronic diseases. Dietary pattern analyses using data-driven methods are useful for the purpose. The central question addressed in this overview paper is whether there are culture-specific healthy eating patterns, or whether healthy diets may be more universal. Our studies on dietary patterns in population groups of African origin living in Canada (Montreal), Europe (Madrid), and West Africa (urban and rural Benin) inform the discussion. Healthy or prudent, as opposed to Western, eating patterns are identified in several cultures, including groups of African origin. It appears that a limited number of foods predict diet quality and health outcomes in various population groups; in particular, fruit and vegetables, fish, whole-grain cereal, and legumes do so on the protective side, and sweets, processed meats, fried foods, fats and oils, and salty snacks do so on the negative side. Further research on dietary patterns and their healthfulness is required in diverse food cultures. In groups of African origin, traditional diets are healthier than the nontraditional dietary patterns that have evolved with globalization, urbanization, or acculturation, although micronutrient intakes need to improve. Additionally, healthy eating patterns are only feasible if access to food is adequate.

  19. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet.

  20. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Newborn Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Starling, Anne P; Sauder, Katherine A; Kaar, Jill L; Shapiro, Allison Lb; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Background: Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy may influence offspring growth and adiposity. Specific dietary patterns associated with newborn adiposity have not been identified.Objective: We aimed to identify patterns of maternal dietary intake associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) and fasting glucose during pregnancy and to evaluate whether adherence to these patterns is associated with newborn adiposity.Methods: In the Healthy Start prospective cohort, dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed via 24-h recalls. Reduced-rank regression identified dietary patterns predictive of GWG and fasting glucose. Associations between dietary patterns and newborn fat mass, fat-free mass, and adiposity were estimated by using linear regression models among 764 ethnically diverse mother-infant pairs.Results: Two dietary patterns were identified. Pattern 1, correlated with greater GWG (r = 0.22, P < 0.01), was characterized by a higher consumption of poultry, nuts, cheese, fruits, whole grains, added sugars, and solid fats. Greater adherence to pattern 1 (upper compared with lower tertile) predicted a greater newborn fat-free mass (61 g; 95% CI: 12, 110 g) but no difference in fat mass or adiposity. Pattern 2, correlated with greater maternal fasting glucose (r = 0.16, P < 0.01), was characterized by a higher consumption of eggs, starchy vegetables, solid fats, fruits, and nonwhole grains and a lower consumption of dairy foods, dark-green vegetables, and whole grains. Greater adherence to pattern 2 was associated with a greater newborn birth weight (80 g; 95% CI: 15, 145 g), fat mass (33 g; 95% CI: 8, 59 g), and adiposity (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 1.6%).Conclusions: Among pregnant women, adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by an intake of poultry, nuts, cheese, and whole grains was associated with greater GWG but not maternal fasting glucose or newborn adiposity. Adherence to a pattern characterized by an intake of eggs, starchy vegetables, and nonwhole

  1. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  2. Dietary Patterns Differently Associate with Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Overweight and Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cotillard, Aurelie; Habi-Rachedi, Fatiha; Brazeilles, Rémi; Gougis, Sophie; Gausserès, Nicolas; Cani, Patrice D.; Fellahi, Soraya; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Kennedy, Sean P.; Doré, Joel; Ehrlich, Stanislav Dusko; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Rizkalla, Salwa W.; Clément, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated. Objectives We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota. Design Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women). A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group. Results Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water). This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01) a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05). Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups). Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14) and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6) in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics. Conclusion A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in overweight and obese

  3. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a “traditional food pattern,” consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork, and fish; a “fast and processed food pattern” consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar, and confectionery; a “soybean, grain, and flour food pattern”; and a “dairy, animal liver, and other animal food pattern.” These patterns explained 17.48, 9.52, 5.51, and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of “traditional Chinese food” is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes, and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver, and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors. PMID:24350217

  4. Dietary patterns and markers for the metabolic syndrome in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, G L; Huang, R-C; Mori, T A; Hands, B P; O'Sullivan, T A; de Klerk, N H; Beilin, L J; Oddy, W H

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as their clustering, are increasingly prevalent among adolescents. We examined dietary patterns, CVD risk factors, and the clustering of these risk factors in 1139 14-year-olds living in Western Australia. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns, 'Western' and 'Healthy', were identified using factor analysis. Associations between these dietary patterns and BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and insulin resistance were assessed using ANOVA. Cluster analysis identified a high risk group (the 'high risk metabolic cluster') with features akin to adult metabolic syndrome. Belonging to the 'high risk metabolic cluster' was examined in relation to dietary patterns using logistic regression, adjusting for aerobic fitness and socio-demographic factors. Higher 'Western' dietary pattern scores were associated with greater odds for the 'high risk metabolic cluster' (p for trend=0.02) and greater mean values for total cholesterol (p for trend=0.03), waist circumference (p for trend=0.03) and BMI (p for trend=0.02) in girls, but not boys. Scores for the 'Healthy' dietary pattern were not related to the 'high risk metabolic cluster' but were inversely associated with serum glucose in boys and girls (p for trend=0.01 and 0.04, respectively) and were positively associated with HDL-C in boys (p for trend=0.02). Dietary patterns are associated with CVD risk factors and the clustering of these risk factors in adolescence. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary transition stages based on eating patterns and diet quality among Haitians of Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Désilets, Marie-Claude; Rivard, Michèle; Shatenstein, Bryna; Delisle, Hélène

    2007-05-01

    To identify dietary transition stages based on dietary patterns of adult Haitians having lived in Montreal for various lengths of time, and to assess associated dietary quality. One hundred and eighty-one Haitians aged 25-60 years were recruited by the modified random digit dialling method. Socio-economic, diet and lifestyle variables were documented by questionnaire. Three non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted over a 3-month period. Dietary patterns were studied using cluster analysis, and their association with proportion of lifetime in Canada and with socio-economic status (SES) was examined. Diet quality criteria were micronutrient adequacy and healthfulness based on dietary recommendations of the World Health Organization. Four dietary phenotypes were identified which could roughly represent stages of dietary transition or acculturation (Traditional, Pre-Western, Western and Modern). Subjects in the 'Traditional' cluster were older and had lived for a significantly lower proportion of their lifetime in Canada; they also tended to be of lower SES. Diet quality was significantly higher in the 'Traditional' than the 'Western' type, particularly with respect to healthfulness. A significantly lower proportion of subjects complying with limited intake of total fat ( < 30%) and cholesterol ( < 45%) was observed in the 'Western' compared with other diet phenotypes. Less than 15% of all subjects consumed enough dietary fibre, irrespective of diet type. Dietary transition stages could be identified on the basis of food patterns of Haitians according to the proportion of their lifetime in Canada. Encouraging the youth to retain the traditional food culture in its positive aspects would appear relevant

  6. Dietary patterns and household food insecurity in rural populations of Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Kinabo, Joyce; Msuya, John; Mamiro, Peter; Majili, Zahara Saidi

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community. Three hundred and seven (307) randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February-May) and post harvest season (September-October) in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score. Four food consumption patterns namely (I) Meat and milk; (II) Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III) fish (and other sea foods), roots and tubers; (IV) Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I) Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II) Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III) Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV) Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest-seasons, respectively (P = 0.01). Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity. Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at alleviating household food insecurity could

  7. Dietary Patterns and Household Food Insecurity in Rural Populations of Kilosa District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Kinabo, Joyce; Msuya, John; Mamiro, Peter; Majili, Zahara Saidi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community. Methodology Three hundred and seven (307) randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February–May) and post harvest season (September–October) in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score. Results Four food consumption patterns namely (I) Meat and milk; (II) Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III) fish (and other sea foods), roots and tubers; (IV) Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I) Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II) Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III) Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV) Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest–seasons, respectively (P = 0.01). Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity. Conclusion Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at

  8. Dietary patterns in India and their association with obesity and central obesity.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B; Bowen, Liza; Bharathi, Ankalmadugu V; Vaz, Mario; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George; Kinra, Sanjay; Ebrahim, Shah

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in India, the dietary determinants of which have been studied using an 'individual food/nutrient' approach. Examining dietary patterns may provide more coherent findings, but few studies in developing countries have adopted this approach. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in an Indian population and assess their relationship with anthropometric risk factors. FFQ data from the cross-sectional sib-pair Indian Migration Study (IMS; n 7067) were used to identify dietary patterns using principal component analysis. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine associations with obesity and central obesity. The IMS was conducted at four factory locations across India: Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. The participants were rural-to-urban migrant and urban non-migrant factory workers, their rural and urban resident siblings, and their co-resident spouses. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'cereals-savoury foods' (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), 'fruit-veg-sweets-snacks' (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and 'animal-food' (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs). In adjusted analysis, positive graded associations were found between the 'animal-food' pattern and both anthropometric risk factors. Moderate intake of the 'cereals-savoury foods' pattern was associated with reduced odds of obesity and central obesity. Distinct dietary patterns were identified in a large Indian sample, which were different from those identified in previous literature. A clear 'plant food-based/animal food-based pattern' dichotomy emerged, with the latter being associated with higher odds of anthropometric risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify this relationship in India.

  9. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to Stunting among Children in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esfarjani, Fatemeh; Roustaee, Roshanak; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no information is available to link major dietary patterns to stunting during childhood, although dietary patterns are associated with chronic diseases. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between major dietary patterns and stunting in the first grade pupils of Tehran in 2009. In this case-control study, 86 stunted children (defined as height-for-age of less than the 5th percentile of CDC2000 cutoff points) were enrolled from among 3,147 first grade pupils of Tehran, selected using a multistage cluster random-sampling method. Participants for the control group (n=308) were selected randomly from non-stunted children (height-for-age more than the 5th percentile of CDC2000 cutoff points), after matching for age, sex, and area of residence. Dietary data were collected using two 24-hour dietary recalls through face-to-face interview with mothers. Factor analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. Mean consumption of dairy products (308±167 vs 382±232 g/day, p<0.05), dried fruits and nuts (2.58±9 vs 7.15±26 g/day, p<0.05) were significantly lower among stunted children than those in the control group. Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional dietary pattern’ that was dominated by bread, potato, fats, eggs, flavours, vegetables other than leafy ones, sugar, drinks, and fast food; ‘mixed dietary pattern’ that was dominated by leafy vegetables, fast foods, nuts, fats, cereals other than bread, fruits, legumes, visceral meats, sugars, eggs, and vegetables other than leafy vegetables; and ‘carbohydrate-protein pattern’ that was dominated by sweets and desserts, poultry, dairy, fruits, legumes, and visceral meats. No significant relationships were found between traditional and mixed dietary patterns and stunting. Individuals in the third quartile of carbohydrate-protein dietary pattern were less likely to be stunted compared to those in the bottom quartile (OR: 0.31, 95% CI 0

  10. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2014-07-28

    Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ɛ4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline.

  11. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Carlsen, Emma M; Bro, Rasmus; Pipper, Christian B

    2015-01-01

    It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable dietary patterns and potentially enable an early targeted preventive support.

  12. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Louise B.B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Carlsen, Emma M.; Bro, Rasmus; Pipper, Christian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. Design The two dietary patterns ‘Family Food’ and ‘Health-Conscious Food’ were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. Results A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. Conclusions Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable dietary patterns and potentially enable an early targeted preventive support. PMID:26111966

  13. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    .001; OR: 0.27). We found no difference in the overall consumption of fruits and vegetables between the LC patients and controls; however, the LC patients did have a greater consumption of cooked tomatoes and cooked root vegetables (p = 0.039 for both), and the controls had more consumption of leeks (p = 0.042) and, among controls younger than 65 years, cooked beans (p = 0.037). Lemon (p = 0.037), squeezed fruit juice (p = 0.032), and watermelon (p = 0.018) were also more frequently consumed by the controls. Other differences at the micronutrient level included greater consumption by the LC patients of retinol (p = 0.044), polyunsaturated fats (p = 0.041), and linoleic acid (p = 0.008); LC patients younger than 65 years also had greater intake of riboflavin (p = 0.045). We conclude that the differences in dietary consumption patterns between LC patients and controls indicate a possible role for lifestyle modifications involving nutritional factors as a means of decreasing the risk of laryngeal cancer.

  14. Dietary patterns throughout adult life are associated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and red cell folate.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Stephen, Alison M; Wadsworth, Mike E J

    2007-01-01

    Dietary patterns are important in the prevention of chronic disease; however, there are few studies that include repeat measures of dietary patterns. The objective of this study was to assess the relations between dietary patterns during adult life (at ages 36, 43, and 53 y) and risk factors for chronic disease at age 53 y. Participants of a longitudinal study of health completed a 5-d food diary at 3 occasions during adult life (n = 1265). Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and a pattern score was calculated from the consumption of the food items in each dietary pattern. Means and 95% CI for dietary pattern scores were calculated for each risk factor category using random effects models adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related behaviors. In women, the fruit, vegetables, and dairy pattern was inversely associated with BMI (P < 0.004), waist circumference (P = 0.0007), blood pressure (P = 0.02), and was positively associated with red cell folate (P < 0.03). The ethnic foods and alcohol pattern was also inversely associated with blood pressure (P = 0.008), whereas the meat, potatoes and sweet foods pattern was positively associated with glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.01). In men, a mixed pattern was inversely associated with waist circumference (P = 0.02) and blood pressure (P = 0.01), whereas there were no significant associations with the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern. Specific dietary patterns throughout adult life were associated with chronic disease risk factors.

  15. INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention is associated with healthier patterns of dietary exposures in infants.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Emily E; Paul, Ian M; Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether a responsive parenting (RP) intervention affects infant dietary patterns. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads (n = 291) were randomized to the Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) RP intervention or control. Curricula were delivered at nurse home visits at ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks. RP group feeding guidance advised responsive feeding, delayed introduction of solids, repeated exposure to novel foods, and age-appropriate portion sizes. Latent class analysis identified patterns of dietary exposure at 9 months. Class membership at 9 months was used to predict BMI percentile at 2 years. Five dietary patterns were identified: "Breastfed, Fruits and Vegetables," "Breastfed, Low Variety," "Formula, Fruits and Vegetables," "Formula, Low Variety," and "Formula, High Energy Density." Over 60% of infants had patterns low in fruits and vegetables or high in energy-dense foods. RP group infants were less likely than control to be in the "Formula, Low Variety" class (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.23-0.71) or "Formula, High Energy Density" class (OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.61) relative to the "Formula, Fruits and Vegetables" class. Dietary pattern at 9 months was significantly associated with BMI percentile at 2 years. While a majority of infants consumed diets low in fruits and vegetables, the INSIGHT RP intervention was associated with healthier dietary patterns. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Dietary patterns and heritability of food choice in a UK female twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Teucher, Birgit; Skinner, Jane; Skidmore, Paula M L; Cassidy, Aedin; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Hooper, Lee; Roe, Mark A; Foxall, Robert; Oyston, Sarah L; Cherkas, Lynn F; Perks, Ursula C; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2007-10-01

    To examine the contribution of genetic factors to food choice, we determined dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaires in 3262 UK female twins aged 18 to 79 years. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified (fruit and vegetable, high alcohol, traditional English, dieting, low meat) that accounted for 22% of the total variance. These patterns are similar to those found in other singleton Western populations, and were related to body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and deprivation scores. Older subjects had higher scores on the fruit and vegetable and traditional English patterns, while lower social deprivation was associated with higher scores for fruit and vegetable, and lower scores for traditional English patterns. All 5 patterns were heritable, with estimates ranging from 41% to 48%. Among individual dietary components, a strongly heritable component was identified for garlic (46%), coffee (41%), fruit and vegetable sources (49%), and red meat (39%). Our results indicate that genetic factors have an important influence in determining food choice and dietary habits in Western populations. The relatively high heritability of specific dietary components implicates taste perception as a possible target for future genetic studies.

  17. Dietary Patterns and Obesity among Chinese Adults: Results from a Household-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ronghua; Xia, Shichang; Huang, Lichun; Meng, Jia; Fang, Yueqiang; Ding, Gangqiang

    2017-05-05

    The key dietary pattern other than dietary factors influencing obesity has been reported by several large epidemiological studies. This study was carried out between 2010 and 2012 including 1613 adult residents in Zhejiang Province. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis based on 24-h dietary recall. Associations with dietary patterns and obesity were examined and adjusted for age and gender by logistic regression. Five dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis with their eigenvalues greater than 1: 'cereal, animal, and plant food', 'high protein food', 'plant food', 'poultry', and 'beverage'. After adjustment for age and gender, the 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' pattern was associated with obesity (OR = 2.924, 3.257; 95% CI = 1.147-7.463, 1.372-7.692). In conclusion, 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity. 'Cereal, animal, and plant food' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased protein and fat intake; while a 'beverage' dietary pattern may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased carbohydrate intake. The findings are valuable in targeting future nutrition education.

  18. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 h-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI) status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat) was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China. PMID:26404368

  19. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-06-08

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  20. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  1. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors

    PubMed Central

    Northstone, K; Emmett, P; Rogers, I

    2007-01-01

    Objective To obtain distinct dietary patterns in the third trimester of pregnancy using principal components analysis (PCA); to determine associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Design and methods A total of 12 053 pregnant women partaking in a population-based cohort study recorded current frequency of food consumption via questionnaire in 1991-1992. Dietary patterns identified using PCA were related to social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Results Five dietary patterns were established and labelled to best describe the types of diet being consumed in pregnancy. The ‘health conscious’ component described a diet based on salad, fruit, rice, pasta, breakfast cereals, fish, eggs, pulses, fruit juices, white meat and non-white bread. The ‘traditional’ component loaded highly on all types of vegetables, red meat and poultry. The ‘processed’ component was associated with high-fat processed foods. The ‘confectionery’ component was characterized by snack foods with high sugar content and the final ‘vegetarian’ component loaded highly on meat substitutes, pulses, nuts and herbal tea and high negative loadings were seen with red meat and poultry. There were strong associations between various socio-demographic variables and all dietary components; in particular, a ‘health conscious’ diet was positively associated with increasing education and age and non-white women. There was a negative association with increased parity, single, non-working women, those who smoked and who were overweight pre-pregnancy. Opposite associations were seen with the ‘processed’ component. Conclusions Distinct dietary patterns in pregnancy have been identified. There is clear evidence of social patterning associated with the dietary patterns, these social factors need to be accounted for in future studies using dietary patterns. This study will form the basis for further work investigating pregnancy outcome. PMID:17375108

  2. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Northstone, K; Emmett, P; Rogers, I

    2008-04-01

    To obtain distinct dietary patterns in the third trimester of pregnancy using principal components analysis (PCA); to determine associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A total of 12 053 pregnant women partaking in a population-based cohort study recorded current frequency of food consumption via questionnaire in 1991-1992. Dietary patterns identified using PCA were related to social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Five dietary patterns were established and labelled to best describe the types of diet being consumed in pregnancy. The 'health conscious' component described a diet based on salad, fruit, rice, pasta, breakfast cereals, fish, eggs, pulses, fruit juices, white meat and non-white bread. The 'traditional' component loaded highly on all types of vegetables, red meat and poultry. The 'processed' component was associated with high-fat processed foods. The 'confectionery' component was characterized by snack foods with high sugar content and the final 'vegetarian' component loaded highly on meat substitutes, pulses, nuts and herbal tea and high negative loadings were seen with red meat and poultry. There were strong associations between various socio-demographic variables and all dietary components; in particular, a 'health conscious' diet was positively associated with increasing education and age and non-white women. There was a negative association with increased parity, single, non-working women, those who smoked and who were overweight pre-pregnancy. Opposite associations were seen with the 'processed' component. Distinct dietary patterns in pregnancy have been identified. There is clear evidence of social patterning associated with the dietary patterns, these social factors need to be accounted for in future studies using dietary patterns. This study will form the basis for further work investigating pregnancy outcome.

  3. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  4. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-12-28

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  5. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal adenoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Godos, J; Bella, F; Torrisi, A; Sciacca, S; Galvano, F; Grosso, G

    2016-12-01

    Current evidence suggests that dietary patterns may play an important role in colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies exploring the association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas (a precancerous condition). Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched to retrieve eligible studies. Only studies exploring the risk or association with colorectal adenomas for the highest versus lowest category of exposure to a posteriori dietary patterns were included in the quantitative analysis. Random-effects models were applied to calculate relative risks (RRs) of colorectal adenomas for high adherence to healthy or unhealthy dietary patterns. Statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were explored. Twelve studies were reviewed. Three studies explored a priori dietary patterns using scores identifying adherence to the Mediterranean, Paleolithic and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and reported an association with decreased colorectal adenoma risk. Two studies tested the association with colorectal adenomas between a posteriori dietary patterns showing lower odds of disease related to plant-based compared to meat-based dietary patterns. Seven studies identified 23 a posteriori dietary patterns and the analysis revealed that higher adherence to healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns was significantly associated risk of colorectal adenomas (RR = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.71, 0.94 and RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 1.35, respectively) with no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of colorectal adenomas. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding “western” food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p < 0.001), while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa = 1.51; p < 0.001), seemingly in private universities (p = 0.053). Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Male university students reported a higher

  7. The impact of usual dietary patterns, selection of significant foods and cuisine choices on changing dietary fat under 'free living' conditions.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Hokman, Anita; Sebastiao, Ana; Denmeade, Sharyn; Martin, Gina; Calvert, G Dennis; Jenkins, Arthur B

    2004-01-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general population and for the management of obesity, diabetes and heart disease suggest a reduction in dietary fat, and in particular dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). In order to achieve the recommended levels, changes in food choice patterns are required. Foods are consumed in combination with other foods, and these combinations are often recognizable as cuisine patterns. In this study we examined the food choice patterns of a group of 63 adults with existing type 2 diabetes mellitus who completed a 12 month dietary intervention trial aimed at changing dietary fat under 'free living' conditions. In both lower fat (LF, 27%) and modified fat (MF, 37%E) groups, a reduction in dietary SFA and an increase in polyunsaturated fat were required, with an additional requirement to increase dietary monounsaturated fat in the MF group. The usual diets of the study sample were on average low in total fat (27%E), but high in saturated fat (12%E). Those already consuming total fat at the level concordant with their allocation (LF or MF) achieved targets faster than those with a discordant allocation, but there was no significant effect of usual diet on time of target achievement at 12 months. At 6 months, those achieving dietary fat targets had changed to low fat dairy products and leaner meats, were having more spreads, oils, and nuts and were consuming takeaway meals less than twice a week. Contributions to dietary fat shifted from takeaway foods, meat, dairy products and cakes to spreads, oils and nuts. The modified fat and low fat groups chose more Mediterranean and South East Asian cuisines respectively. In this study sample, usual dietary patterns had an initial impact on change in the diet, but identifiable changes in food choice patterns and the adoption of certain cuisines that combined foods indicative of the dietary guidelines resulted in successful achievement of dietary fat targets.

  8. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

  9. Stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Hebestreit, Antje; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-12-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in children is pivotal as the foundations of dietary habits are established starting from childhood and may track into adulthood. In 437 children (5-12years) of the ChiBS study, stress was measured by questionnaires on stressful events, emotions (happy, angry, sad, anxious) and problems (emotional, peer, conduct and hyperactivity). Data were collected on children's emotional eating behaviour and also on dietary patterns: frequency of fatty foods, sweet foods, snacks (fat and sweet), fruit and vegetables. Stressful events, negative emotions and problems were positively associated with emotional eating. Positive associations were observed between problems and both sweet and fatty foods consumption. Negative associations were observed between events and fruit and vegetables consumption. Overall, stress was associated with emotional eating and a more unhealthy dietary pattern and could thus contribute to the development of overweight, also in children. Nevertheless, emotional eating behaviour was not observed to mediate the stress-diet relation.

  10. Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Shalene H

    2014-11-01

    Dietary patterns are an important concept in dietary recommendations. The Western pattern is most commonly defined as a diet characterized by high intakes of refined grains, sugar and red meat, and has been shown to be associated with increased risks for certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, isolating the independent effects of individual foods on health outcomes is central to helping individuals choose foods to build healthier dietary patterns to which they can adhere. Red meat is a popular source of high quality protein and provides a variety of essential nutrients that improve overall diet quality. It is also a source of saturated fatty acids, which observational evidence suggests are associated with heart disease, although recent data challenge this. Several studies have shown that lean red meat can be successfully included in recommended heart-healthy dietary patterns without detriment to blood lipids. Furthermore, increased dietary protein has been shown to promote healthy body weight and composition, in part by increasing satiety, and to improve vitality and stamina.

  11. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved plasma lipid profile: the Aragon Health Workers Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Peñalvo, José L; Oliva, Belén; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Uzhova, Irina; Moreno-Franco, Belén; León-Latre, Montserrat; Ordovás, José María

    2015-04-01

    There is wide recognition of the importance of healthy eating in cardiovascular health promotion. The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns among a Spanish population, and to determine their relationship with plasma lipid profiles. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data from 1290 participants of the Aragon Workers Health Study cohort. Standardized protocols were used to collect clinical and biochemistry data. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, quantifying habitual intake over the past 12 months. The main dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The association between adherence to dietary patterns and plasma lipid levels was assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two dietary patterns were identified: a Mediterranean dietary pattern, high in vegetables, fruits, fish, white meat, nuts, and olive oil, and a Western dietary pattern, high in red meat, fast food, dairy, and cereals. Compared with the participants in the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western dietary pattern, those in the highest quintile had 4.6 mg/dL lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < .001), 8 mg/dL lower apolipoprotein A1 levels (P = .005) and a greater risk of having decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio = 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-7.5; P-trend = .03). Participants adhering to the Mediterranean dietary pattern had 3.3mg/dL higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < .001), and a ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol that was 0.43 times lower (P = .043). Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved lipid profile compared with a Western dietary pattern, which was associated with a lower odds of optimal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in this population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Major dietary patterns and their associations with overweight and obesity among Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Bahreynian, Maryam; Paknahad, Zamzam; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2013-04-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity is a major health concern. Lifestyle behaviors and diet play an important role in developing childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the association between major dietary patterns and overweight/obesity in a group of Iranian school-aged children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran with 637 elementary school-aged children. A semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intakes. Data on socio-demographic, physical activity and other lifestyle habits were collected using standard questionnaires. Obesity was determined based on national cut-offs. Factor analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. Three major dietary patterns were extracted; "Healthy," "Western," and "Sweet-Dairy." After adjusting for confounders, girls in the second quartile of healthy pattern, were more likely to be overweight (odds ratio [OR] =2.23, Confidence intervals [CI] =1.003, 4.96) compared to those in the highest quartile. Likelihood of being overweight was lower for girls in the second quartile of western dietary pattern versus the fourth quartile (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.21, 1.01). Accordingly, lower adherence to sweet and dairy pattern was associated with lower body mass index (BMI) among girls (OR = 0.42, CI = 0.21, 0.85). There was no significant relationship between western and sweet-dairy pattern with BMI among boys, however, significant association was observed between lowest and highest quartiles of healthy pattern (OR = 0.36, CI = 0.15, 0.84). We found significant associations between the three dietary patterns and obesity among girls. Only healthy pattern was related to weight status of schoolboys. Longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm these associations.

  13. The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and healthy eating among women in a Latin American city.

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Unikel, Claudia; Cortez, Irene; Cerecero, Diego

    2015-09-01

    Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward "healthy eating" could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional-modern-healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico-United States (US) border. Women 18-65 years old (n = 2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: "tortillas," "hamburgers" and "vegetables." Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the "hamburgers" pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the "vegetables" pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the "hamburgers" pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary patterns of French adults: associations with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors.

    PubMed

    Bertin, M; Touvier, M; Dubuisson, C; Dufour, A; Havard, S; Lafay, L; Volatier, J-L; Lioret, S

    2016-04-01

    Although the French eating model may differ from those of other countries, no studies to date have investigated dietary patterns in a wide age range of adults and at the national level. We aimed to identify dietary patterns (DP) of French adults and assess their associations with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors. The present study included 2624 adults (1087 men, 1537 women) aged 18-79 years from the cross-sectional national French INCA2 dietary survey. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day estimated food record. Clusters of DP were derived using principal component analysis and clustering, conjointly. Age-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between DP and correlates. Five DP were identified, namely 'traditional', 'prudent', 'diversified', 'processed' and 'sandwiches'. Men were more likely to follow a traditional diet and women the 'prudent' pattern. Members of the 'processed' and 'sandwiches' patterns were younger compared to non-members. Healthier dietary patterns were overall positively associated with a higher socio-economic position, healthier behaviours (in terms of sedentary behaviours and smoking status) and lower body mass index. Under-reporting of energy intake, restrictive diet to lose weight and dietary supplement consumption were also related to specific DP, although differentially in men and women. Associations with contextual factors (i.e. household composition, agglomeration size and region) were also observed. The identification of adults' dietary patterns and associated behaviours (all modifiable) is important for the conceptualisation of multi-behavioural programs. The additional information on social and environmental correlates is also essential for targeting the most vulnerable population groups in the context of such public health interventions. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Pan, Xiaoqun; Zhao, Jinkou; Yuan, Baojun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kok, Frans J; Shi, Zumin

    2014-09-12

    To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing records. Four dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Overweight and obesity was determined according to the Chinese cut-offs for BMI. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Of the subjects, 26.7% had high blood pressure. Subjects with overweight and obesity were more likely to have high blood pressure than those with normal weight (PR, 95% CI: 1.60, 1.40-1.87; 2.45, 2.11-2.85, respectively). Subjects with a 'traditional' dietary pattern were more likely to have high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.001), whereas those with a 'macho' or 'sweet tooth' dietary pattern were less likely to have high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). More than half of the population had salt intakes > 9 g/d, and blood pressure increased with salt intake (P for trend <0.001). Subjects with a 'traditional' dietary pattern had the highest salt intake (12.3 g/d). A traditional dietary pattern is associated with high blood pressure among the population of Jiangsu Province, which may be mainly due to high salt intake. Moreover, high BMI is an important determinant of high blood pressure. Both issues need to be addressed by lifestyle interventions.

  16. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in a Clinical Sample of Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2017-02-01

    Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake was evaluated with 4-day food records. Participants were 328 adults recruited from the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 and April 2015. Resting BP and 24-hour urine sodium and potassium were measured. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 21 food groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the extracted dietary patterns and BP. The participants' mean age was 43.6±8.0 years, mean body mass index was 32.4±4.2, and mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 124.9±14.5/73.3±9.9 mm Hg. Six major dietary patterns were identified: "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish," "milk and meat," "breads, cereals, and snacks," "cereal-based products, fats, and oils," "alcohol, eggs, and legumes," and "savoury sauces, condiments, and meat." The "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish" dietary pattern was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP (F [7,320]=15.248; P<0.0005; adjusted R(2)=0.234 and diastolic BP (F [7,320]=17.351; P<0.0005; adjusted R(2)=0.259) and sodium-to-potassium ratio (F [7,320]=6.210; P<0.0005; adjusted R(2)=0.100). A dietary pattern rich in nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish was inversely associated with blood pressure in this clinical sample. The findings suggest that current dietary guidelines are relevant to an overweight clinical population and support the value of dietary pattern analysis when exploring the diet-disease relationship. Copyright © 2017

  17. Assessing the effect of underreporting energy intake on dietary patterns and weight status.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Mitchell, Diane C; Miller, Carla; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2007-01-01

    To identify misreporting among older rural adults using a prediction algorithm and to compare dietary patterns of underreporters and plausible reporters. In this cross-sectional study, diet information was assessed by five 24-hour recalls collected over 10 months. All foods were classified into 24 food subgroups. Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were collected via home visit. Rural Pennsylvania. One hundred seventy-nine community-dwelling adults, aged 66 to 87 years. Cluster analysis. Underreporters (n=43) were more likely than plausible reporters (n=133) to be overweight and less educated but did not differ by sex. Underreporters consumed fewer servings across the majority of food groups. Two dietary patterns were determined for all and plausible reporters, in both cases one of higher and one of lower nutrient density. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was very similar to using all reporters. The correlation between energy intake and weight status was improved for plausible-reporting women, but not men. Dietary patterns of plausible reporters were generally similar to that of all reporters; however, correlations with energy intake and weight status improved for women using only plausible reporters. Individuals may not accurately report dietary intake. Those obtaining diet reports should be aware of reporting errors before making decisions about dietary adequacy.

  18. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  19. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  20. Twenty-year trends in dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland: toward healthier eating.

    PubMed

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary patterns provide a summary of dietary intake, but to our knowledge, few studies have assessed trends in dietary patterns in the population.Objective: The aim was to assess 20-y trends in dietary patterns in a representative sample of the Geneva, Switzerland, population with the consideration of age, sex, education, and generation.Design: Repeated, independent cross-sectional studies were conducted between 1993 and 2014. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by using principal components analyses.Results: Among 18,763 adults, 1 healthy ("fish and vegetables") and 2 unhealthy ("meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets") patterns were identified. Scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased in both sexes and across all age groups. The stronger increase in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a narrowing of educational differences (mean ± SD scores in 1993: -0.56 ± 1.39 compared with -0.05 ± 1.58 in low- compared with highly educated groups, respectively; P < 0.001; scores in 2014: 0.28 ± 1.64 compared with 0.24 ± 1.83, respectively; P = 0.772). Generational analysis showed that older age groups tended to show smaller changes than younger age groups: the yearly score change in "chocolate and sweets" was -0.021 (95% CI: -0.027, -0.014; P < 0.001) for the 35- to 44-y cohort compared with -0.002 (95% CI: -0.009, 0.005; P = 0.546) for the 45- to 54-y cohort.Conclusions: Three dietary patterns were identified; scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and the "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased. The stronger increases in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a smaller difference in dietary intake across the different educational

  1. A Western dietary pattern is associated with poor academic performance in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L; Oddy, Wendy H

    2015-04-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a 'Healthy' and a 'Western' dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the 'Western' dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = -13.14; 95% CI: -24.57; -1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = -19.16; 95% CI: -29.85; -8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = -17.28; 95% CI: -35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the 'Western' dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence.

  2. Dietary patterns and sleep symptoms in Japanese workers: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Nanri, Akiko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Akter, Shamima; Ito, Rie; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2015-02-01

    Experimental studies have shown that some nutrients are involved in initiating and maintaining sleep, but epidemiological evidence on overall dietary patterns and insomnia is scarce. We investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and sleep symptoms in a Japanese working population. The participants were 2025 workers, aged 18-70 years, who participated in a health survey during a periodic checkup in 2012 and 2013. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted by principal component analysis on the basis of the energy-adjusted intake of 52 food and beverage items. Sleep duration, difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, and poor quality of sleep were self-reported. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of each sleep symptom according to quartile categories of each dietary pattern with adjustment for potential confounding variables. We identified three major dietary patterns. A healthy pattern, characterized by a high intake of vegetables, mushrooms, potatoes, seaweeds, soy products, and eggs, was associated with a decreased prevalence of difficulty initiating sleep once or more a week (P for trend = 0.03); the multivariate adjusted odds ratio in the highest quartile of this score compared with the lowest was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.57-0.99). This association persisted after the exclusion of individuals with severe depressive symptoms. However, there was no significant association with difficulty initiating sleep at least three times a week. Our findings suggest that a healthy dietary pattern may be associated with difficulty initiating sleep at least once a week. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Patterns during Complementary Feeding and Later Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for healthy infant feeding provide advice on breastfeeding and complementary feeding. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) derived dietary patterns in comparison to infant feeding guidelines and by using principal components analysis (PCA). The ALSPAC cohort was recruited during pregnancy. Parent-completed questionnaires assessed diet at age 6 and 15 months. Children were weighed and measured at 7 years of age and IQ was assessed at 8 years. A complementary feeding utility index was calculated in relation to 14 feeding recommendations. High scores on the index were due to longer breastfeeding, and feeding more fruit and vegetables and less ready-prepared baby foods. The index scores were positively related to IQ and 'healthy' dietary patterns in childhood. In infancy four dietary patterns were derived from PCA at each age. Three occurred at both ages: 'HM traditional' (home-made meat, vegetables and desserts), 'discretionary' (processed adult foods) and 'RM baby foods' (commercial ready-made baby foods). A 'breastfeeding' pattern was derived at 6 months, with fruit and vegetables included. At 15 months, a 'HM contemporary' pattern included cheese, fish, nuts, legumes, fruit and vegetables. The 'discretionary' and 'RM baby foods' patterns at both ages were negatively associated, while the 'breastfeeding' and 'HM contemporary' patterns were positively associated with IQ. These results suggest that infant diet influences cognitive development in children and may set a trend for later eating patterns.

  4. Nutritional quality of dietary patterns of children: are there differences inside and outside school?

    PubMed

    Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    To describe the dietary patterns of children inside and outside school and investigate their associations with sociodemographic factors and nutritional status. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study in which children of both sexes, aged 1-6 years, attending private and public daycare centers and preschools in Brazil, were evaluated (n=2979). Demographic, socioeconomic and dietary data (weighed food records and estimated food records) were collected. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis from 36 food groups. Four dietary patterns were identified inside school, and three outside. Inside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated to low income and presented high nutritional quality. The "dual" pattern was associated with low income and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "snack" pattern was associated with children enrolled at private schools and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of added sugar and trans fat. Outside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated with high intake of saturated fat, trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of trans fats and glycemic load, whereas the "snack" pattern was associated with overweight, private schools, high income, and high intake of trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. There are differences in the nutritional quality of dietary patterns inside and outside school, and heterogeneity in adherence to these patterns were observed across regions and socioeconomic classes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. What do review papers conclude about food and dietary patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Wirfält, Elisabet; Drake, Isabel; Wallström, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Nutrients and other bioactive constituents of foods may interact with each other and the surrounding food matrix in complex ways. Therefore, associations between single nutrients and chronic disease may be difficult to identify and interpret, but when dietary patterns (DPs) are examined the combination of many food factors will be considered. An explorative literature search of published review articles was conducted to obtain a fuller understanding of current DPs in epidemiological research, to discuss pros and cons of DPs in nutrition research, and to identify results of studies linking DPs to chronic disease risk in adults. Randomized feeding trials providing the experimental diets to study participants have repeatedly demonstrated that diets based on current dietary recommendations are associated with important health benefits. Systematic reviews of feeding trials and prospective population studies of DPs and chronic disease risk reach similar conclusions regardless of the methodology used to construct DPs. However, to date only a few review articles of DP studies have followed a systematic process using independent reviewers with strict inclusion, exclusion, and study quality criteria. Diets with plenty of plants foods, fish, and seafood that preferably include vegetable oils and low-fat dairy products are associated with a lower risk of most chronic diseases. In contrast, Western-type DPs with food products low in essential nutrients and high in energy, like sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, refined cereals and solid fats (e.g. butter), and high in red and processed meats, are associated with adverse health effects. An emphasis on high-quality original research, and systematic reviews following a structured process to objectively select and judge studies, is needed in order to enforce a strong future knowledge base regarding DPs and chronic disease. PMID:23467387

  6. Dietary Patterns and Relationship to Obesity-Related Health Outcomes and Mortality in Adults 75 Years of Age or Greater

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, P.Y.; Mitchell, D.C.; Coffman, D.L.; Wood, G. Craig; Hartman, T.J.; Still, C.; Jensen, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-related health outcomes. Objective This study examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality and prevalence of obesity-related health outcomes, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), over a 5-year follow-up period in adults aged 75 years or greater. Design A longitudinal observational study with cross-sectional dietary assessment. Setting Rural Central Pennsylvania. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (N = 449; 76.5 years old; 57% female). Measurements Multiple, unannounced, 24-hour dietary recalls were used to collect dietary intake. Cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Prevalence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and MetSyn was extracted from outpatient electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes and mortality. Results ‘Sweets and Dairy’, ‘Health-Conscious’ and ‘Western’ dietary patterns were identified. Compared to the ‘Health-Conscious’ pattern, those in the ‘Sweets and Dairy’ pattern had increased odds of hypertension over the follow-up period; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.18 (1.11-4.30). No significant associations were found for CVD, diabetes mellitus, MetSyn or mortality with dietary patterns. Conclusions These findings support the potential value of healthy dietary patterns in the management of hypertension in older adults. We did not observe any other strong associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes or mortality in persons ≥ 75 years of age; thus failing to support the use of overly restrictive diet prescriptions for

  7. Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Sang Yeun; Wang, Youfa; Lee, Sun Ju; Oh, Kyungwon; Sohn, Chun Young; Moon, Young Myoung; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-09-01

    Transitions in nutrition patterns tend to emerge through industrialization and economic development. We hypothesized that the dietary patterns among South Korean adults who were 20 years or older have changed significantly from 1998 to 2010. Herein, a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data was followed for 140601 adults. We noted changes in consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and exercise, and tested the trends across the study period. Factor and cluster analyses were used to derive dietary patterns. A decrease in traditional Korean food consumption, including cereals, vegetables (252-176 g), and Kimchi (127-82 g), occurred, whereas fruit (172-252 g), egg, and fried food intakes increased (P < .05). Total daily energy intake declined steadily from 1931 in 1998 to 1691 kcal in 2010. Carbohydrate intakes were unchanged over the study period; however, fat-derived energy intake increased slightly from 19.7% to 20.0% (P < .05). Our factor and cluster analyses identified 3 dietary patterns: "Korean" diet (rice, vegetables, and Kimchi), "Western" diet (soda, eggs, and oil), and "New" diet (low sugar and high fruit and dairy product intakes). Compared to 1998, approximately 40% of participants still followed a Korean diet in 2010. Interestingly, the popularity of the Western diet fell by approximately 20%, whereas the new diet pattern increased 2-fold over the study period. Overall, these data show secular trends in dietary patterns that included a preservation of the traditional Korean diet and the emergence of a new diet pattern, and it demonstrated a unique transition in food and nutrient intakes in Korea.

  8. Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection123

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ≥ 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables. PMID:19064519

  9. Dietary Patterns in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Predict Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Mathe, Nonsikelelo; Pisa, Pedro T; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Johnson, Steven T

    2016-08-01

    Examining the diets of people living with type 2 diabetes may improve understanding of how diet affects disease progression. We derived dietary patterns in adults living with type 2 diabetes and explored associations among patterns, sociodemographic variables and cardiometabolic risk factors. Dietary patterns were derived from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in 196 adults with type 2 diabetes using principal components analysis (PCA). Multilinear regression models were fitted for the differing dietary pattern scores so as to estimate the marginal contribution of each variable explaining variations in diet. Differences in clinical variables across dietary patterns, adjusting for sex, smoking and total energy intake, were assessed. Three principal components (PCs), or patterns, were identified, explaining 56.5% of the total variance in diet: (PC1) fried foods, cakes and ice cream; (PC2) fish and vegetables; and (PC3) pasta, potatoes and breads. Female sex, current smoker and total energy were significant associated with patterns. Total energy accounted for the greatest amount of variance in each pattern (11.2% for fried foods, cakes and ice cream, 3.89% for fish and vegetables and 9.21% for pasta, potatoes and breads). After adjustment for sex, smoking and total energy, the pasta, potatoes and breads pattern was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Of the 3 distinct diet patterns characterized, the carbohydrate-based pattern was most closely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. To better understand and improve self-management by people living with type 2 diabetes through dietary modifications, further improvements in measuring and assessing diet using comparable instruments and comparisons with apparently healthy populations is required. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary patterns and successful ageing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition is a key determinant of chronic disease in later life. A systematic review was conducted of studies examining dietary patterns and quality of life, physical function, cognitive function and mental health among older adults. Literature searches in MEDLINE complete, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Complete, Ageline, Global health, PsycINFO, SCOPUS and EMBASE and hand searching from 1980 up to December 2014 yielded 1236 results. Inclusion criteria included dietary pattern assessment via dietary indices or statistical approaches, a sample of community-dwelling adults aged 45 years and over at baseline and a cross-sectional or longitudinal study design. Exclusion criteria included a single 24-h recall of diet, evaluation of single foods or nutrients, clinical or institutionalised samples and intervention studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the six-item Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. There were 34 articles (11 cross-sectional and 23 longitudinal) included with 23 studies examining dietary indices and 13 studies using empirical analysis. Most studies examined mental health (n = 10) or cognitive function (n = 18), with fewer studies examining quality of life (n = 6) and physical function (n = 8). Although dietary pattern and outcome assessment methods varied, most studies reported positive associations between a healthier diet and better health outcomes. Overall, the number of studies using dietary patterns to investigate diet and successful ageing is small, and further investigation in longitudinal studies is needed, particularly for quality-of-life outcomes. This review provides support for the importance of a healthy diet for the ageing population globally.

  11. Dietary and lifestyle patterns in relation to high blood pressure in children: the GRECO study.

    PubMed

    Farajian, Paul; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Risvas, Grigoris; Micha, Renata; Tsioufis, Constantinos; Zampelas, Antonis

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate possible associations of dietary patterns with high blood pressure (BP) in a nationwide cross-sectional sample of 10-12 years old Greek schoolchildren. Anthropometric measurements and information on dietary (by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire) and physical activity habits were obtained from the children. BPs was measured in a single occasion using a standard protocol. Data from 2024 normal energy reporting children were included in the analysis. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. Seven dietary components (patterns) were extracted explaining 55% of the total variation in intake. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that predictors of high BP (75th percentile of SBP and/or DBP) were a pattern mainly characterized by the high consumption of cheese and red processed meat [odds ratio (OR) 1.15; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-1.30], being overweight (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.61-2.73) or obese (OR 3.84; 95% CI 2.44-6.06) and breakfast frequency (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99). After controlling for sodium intake levels, the dietary pattern did not remain a significant predictor of high BP, indicating the potential mediating effect of sodium in the association. A dietary pattern that is characterized by high cheese and red processed meat consumption increases the likelihood of having high BP in children, probably through increasing dietary sodium intake. These findings could guide future interventions or public health initiatives to prevent the increasing rates of childhood elevated BP levels.

  12. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65). In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings. PMID:27754328

  13. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods) groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90) after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population. PMID:20513246

  14. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Monma, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Iwasaki, Koh; Tomita, Naoki; Nakaya, Naoki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Takeda, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Ebihara, Satoru; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and energy intake. Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods) groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90) after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  15. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer recurrence and survival: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Wu, Hao; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Savas, Sevtap; Woodrow, Jennifer; Wish, Tyler; Jin, Rong; Green, Roger; Woods, Michael; Roebothan, Barbara; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Mclaughlin, John R; Campbell, Peter T; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Design Cohort study. Setting A familial CRC registry in Newfoundland. Participants 529 newly diagnosed CRC patients from Newfoundland. They were recruited from 1999 to 2003 and followed up until April 2010. Outcome measure Participants reported their dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified with factor analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were employed to estimate HR and 95% CI for association of dietary patterns with CRC recurrence and death from all causes, after controlling for covariates. Results Disease-free survival (DFS) among CRC patients was significantly worsened among patients with a high processed meat dietary pattern (the highest vs the lowest quartile HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.09). No associations were observed with the prudent vegetable or the high-sugar patterns and DFS. The association between the processed meat pattern and DFS was restricted to patients diagnosed with colon cancer (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.40) whereas the relationship between overall survival (OS) and this pattern was observed among patients with colon cancer only (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.43). Potential effect modification was noted for sex (p value for interaction 0.04, HR 3.85 for women and 1.22 for men). Conclusions The processed meat dietary pattern prior to diagnosis is associated with higher risk of tumour recurrence, metastasis and death among patients with CRC. PMID:23396503

  16. Designing Fuzzy Algorithms to Develop Healthy Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Golaleh; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Sarsharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Background Fuzzy logic, a mathematical approach, defines the percentage of desirability for recommended amount of food groups and describes the range of intakes, from deficiency to excess. Objectives The purpose of this research was to find the best fuzzy dietary pattern that constraints energy and nutrients by the iterative algorithm. Materials and Methods An index is derived that reflects how closely the diet of an individual meets all the nutrient requirements set by the dietary reference intake. Fuzzy pyramid pattern was applied for the energy levels from 1000 to 4000 Kcal which estimated the range of recommended servings for seven food groups including fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, milk, oils, fat and added sugar. Results The optimum (lower attention – upper attention) recommended servings per day for fruits, vegetables, grain, meat, dairy, and oils of the 2000 kcal diet were 4.06 (3.75-4.25), 6.69 (6.25-7.00), 5.69 (5.75-6.25), 4.94 (4.5-5.2), 2.75(2.50-3.00), and 2.56 (2.5-2.75), respectively. The fuzzy pattern met most recommended nutrient intake levels except for potassium and vitamin E, which were estimated at 98% and 69% of the dietary reference intake, respectively. Conclusions Using fuzzy logic provides an elegant mathematical solution for finding the optimum point of food groups in dietary pattern. PMID:24454416

  17. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

  18. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

  19. Cross-Cultural Dietary Patterns: A College Course on Ethnically Diverse Eating Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Mary K.; Stuhldreher, Wendy L.

    1998-01-01

    A course on cross-cultural dietary patterns provides family and consumer sciences students with information about influences on ethnic diets while introducing food preparation and computer nutrient evaluation techniques. (SK)

  20. Dietary patterns associated with metabolic syndrome, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyl...

  1. Prepregnancy dietary patterns and risk of pregnancy loss123

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Hauser, Russ; Williams, Paige L; Gillman, Matthew W; Penzias, Alan; Missmer, Stacey A; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two previous case-control studies observed associations between specific food groups and risk of miscarriage; however, to our knowledge, no previous studies have investigated dietary patterns and risk of pregnancy loss. Objective: We aimed to assess prepregnancy adherence to the alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (aHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), and Fertility Diet (FD) and risk of pregnancy loss. Design: Our prospective cohort study included 15,950 pregnancies reported by 11,072 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1992 and 2009. Diet was assessed every 4 y starting in 1991 by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Prepregnancy dietary pattern scores were computed as the sum of a woman's score on each pattern's predefined components. Multivariable log-binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate RRs and 95% CIs. Results: Incident spontaneous abortions and stillbirths were reported in 2756 (17.3%) and 120 (0.8%) pregnancies, respectively. None of the 3 dietary patterns were associated with risk of pregnancy loss. In the multivariable model, RR of pregnancy loss for a 1-SD increase in score was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.05) for the aMED pattern, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.05) for the aHEI-2010 pattern, and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.01) for the FD pattern. Results were consistent when pregnancy loss was classified as either a spontaneous abortion (loss at <20 wk) or a stillbirth (loss at ≥20 wk). Conclusion: Prepregnancy adherence to several dietary patterns was not associated with risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:25240079

  2. Dietary patterns and quality in West-African immigrants in Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, Hélène F; Vioque, Jesús; Gil, Augusta

    2009-01-01

    Background Eating patterns of immigrants deserve to be better documented because they may reflect the extent of acculturation and associated health risks. The study assessed dietary patterns and quality in Bubi immigrants (from Equatorial Guinea) using cluster analysis and comparing different diet quality indexes. Methods A random sample of 83 Bubi men and 130 women living in Madrid were studied. A 99-item food frequency questionnaire was administered, body weights and heights were self-reported and socio-demographic and health information was collected during interviews. Usual intakes were collapsed into 19 food groups. Cluster analysis of standardized food intakes per 1000 kcalories was performed. Dietary quality was appraised using the Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index and scores of micronutrient adequacy and prevention based on WHO/FAO recommendations. Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The 'Healthier' pattern, so confirmed by two dietary quality indexes, featured a higher consumption of fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products and bread while the 'Western' pattern included more processed meat, animal fat, and sweetened foods and drinks. One third of the subjects were in the 'Healthier' food cluster, with the same proportion of men and women. Age ≥ 30 and residence in Madrid ≥ 11 years were independently associated with the healthier diet. Consumption of traditional foods was unrelated to dietary pattern, however. Overall, Bubi diets were somewhat protective because of high intakes of fruits and vegetables and monounsaturated fat (olive oil), but not with respect to sugar, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fibre. Less than two thirds of subjects had adequate intakes of iron, calcium and folate in both dietary phenotypes. Body mass index, physical exercise, and self-reported health and cardiovascular disease condition showed no significant association with the dietary pattern. Conclusion Cluster

  3. A Western dietary pattern is associated with higher blood pressure in Iranian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hojhabrimanesh, Abdollah; Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Rahmani, Elham; Amanat, Sasan; Atefi, Masoumeh; Najafi, Maryam; Hashemzadeh, Maral; Salehi, Saedeh; Faghih, Shiva

    2017-02-01

    The dietary determinants of adolescent blood pressure (BP) are not well understood. We determined the association between major dietary patterns and BP in a sample of Iranian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample (n = 557) of Shirazi adolescents aged 12-19 years. Participants' systolic and diastolic BP was measured using a validated oscillometric BP monitor. Usual dietary intakes during the past 12 months were assessed using a valid and reproducible 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Principal component factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns based on a set of 25 predefined food groups. Overall, three major dietary patterns were identified, among which only the Western pattern (abundant in soft drinks, sweets and desserts, salt, mayonnaise, tea and coffee, salty snacks, high-fat dairy products, French fries, and red or processed meats) had a significant association with BP. After adjusting for potential confounders in the analysis of covariance models, multivariable adjusted means of the systolic and mean BP of subjects in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score were significantly higher than those in the lowest tertile (for systolic BP: mean difference 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; and for mean BP: mean difference 4.2 mmHg, P = 0.003). A similar but statistically insignificant difference was observed in terms of diastolic BP. The findings suggest that a Western dietary pattern is associated with higher BP in Iranian adolescents. However, additional large-scale prospective studies with adequate methodological quality are required to confirm these findings.

  4. Confounding by dietary pattern of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome the limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  5. Generalizability of dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  6. Confounding by dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  7. Dietary patterns related to attainment in school: the importance of early eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, L; Sabates, R; Sorhaindo, A; Rogers, I; Herrick, D; Northstone, K; Emmett, P

    2008-08-01

    To empirically test the impact of dietary intake at several time points in childhood on children's school attainment and to investigate whether any differences in school attainment between children who ate packed lunches or school meals was due to who these children were, their pre-school dietary patterns, or to what they ate at school. Using longitudinal data available in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relative importance of diet at different ages for school attainment. Three indicators of school attainment were used: at ages 4-5 entry assessments to school, at ages 6-7 Key Stage 1 national tests and at ages 10-11 Key Stage 2 national tests. These outcome variables were measured in levels as well as in changes from the previous educational stage. The key finding at age 3 was that "junk food" dietary pattern had a negative association with the level of school attainment. A weak association remained after controlling for the impact of other dietary patterns at age 3, dietary patterns at ages 4 and 7 and other confounding factors. The authors did not find evidence that eating packed lunches or eating school meals affected children's attainment, once the impact of junk food dietary pattern at age 3 was accounted for in the model. Early eating patterns have implications for attainment that appear to persist over time, regardless of subsequent changes in diet.

  8. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. Methods A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Results Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation

  9. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0

  10. [Dietary patterns and associated factors among children one to six years of age in a city in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Rosangela de Leon Veleda de; Madruga, Samanta Wink; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to describe dietary patterns and to investigate associations with demographic and socioeconomic factors among children one to six years of age in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Pearson correlation was used to group different foods. Dietary patterns were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). Associations were established with the Kruskal Wallis test (α = 0.05). The study evaluated 667 children. Five dietary patterns were identified: "vegetables", "traditional" (bread, butter/margarine, rice/pasta, coffee, sugar), "sweets and sausages", "snacks" (dairy products, chocolate, cookies, and juice), and "fruits". Children of mothers with more schooling and higher income showed greater adherence to "vegetables" and "fruits". The "traditional" pattern was more common in children of mothers with less education and lower family income. The "vegetables" and "traditional" patterns showed greater variance. Families' socioeconomic status played a key role in determining children's dietary patterns.

  11. Differences in dietary pattern between obese and eutrophic children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of energy is a decisive factor of obesity, but a simple quantitative assessment of consumption between obese and eutrophic individuals not always explains the problem, raising questions about the importance of the qualitative aspects of food. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in nutrient composition and meal patterns between eutrophic and obese schoolchildren. Methods The diet of 83 children (42 obese and 41 eutrophic), aged between 7 and 11 years of age, was assessed by two non-consecutive dietary recalls. After the software analysis of macro and micronutrients composition, the different types and amount of legumes, fruits and vegetables were analyzed to verify the dietary patterns. Results No differences were verified in energy consumption between the groups (eutrophic = 1934.2 ± 672.7 kcal, obese = 1835.8 ± 621.2 kcal). In general, children showed consumption within the recommended ranges of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The average consumption of fiber was higher in the eutrophic group (20.7 g) when compared to the obese group (14.8 g). The dietary fiber was strongly correlated with the number of servings of beans (r = 0.77), when compared to fruits (r = 0.44) and leafy vegetables (r = 0.13). It was also observed that the higher the consumption of fiber and beans, the lower the proportion of dietary fat (r = -0.22) in the diet. Generally, there was a low consumption of fiber (20.7 g = eutrophic group/14.8 g = obese group), beans (1.1 portions in the eutrophic and obese groups), fruits (0.7 portions eutrophic group and 0.6 obese group) and vegetables (1.3 eutrophic group and 1.1 obese group). Conclusions It is concluded that the obesity was more related to a dietary pattern of low intake of dietary fiber than excessive energy consumption and macronutrients imbalance. PMID:22206728

  12. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    PubMed Central

    Amani, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female) was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI), semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ), medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p < 0.05 for both). They also consumed less milk and dairy products, fresh vegetables, fruits, chicken, and nuts compared with the female controls (p < 0.03). However, these patients used to eat more full-fat cream and carbonated drinks (p < 0.05). Male patients had lower BMI (22 ± 4.7 vs 25.6 ± 4.4; p < 0.05) than their counterpart controls but there was no significant difference between their %BFs. Moreover, they used to have more full-fat cream, hydrogenated fats, less red meat and nuts compared with the male controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether

  13. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    PubMed

    Amani, Reza

    2007-05-02

    There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16-67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female) was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI), semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ), medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 +/- 3.6 vs 27.7 +/- 4.6 percent and 43.2 +/- 11.9 vs 54.5 +/- 10.7 points; respectively, p < 0.05 for both). They also consumed less milk and dairy products, fresh vegetables, fruits, chicken, and nuts compared with the female controls (p < 0.03). However, these patients used to eat more full-fat cream and carbonated drinks (p < 0.05). Male patients had lower BMI (22 +/- 4.7 vs 25.6 +/- 4.4; p < 0.05) than their counterpart controls but there was no significant difference between their %BFs. Moreover, they used to have more full-fat cream, hydrogenated fats, less red meat and nuts compared with the male controls (p < 0.05). Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease

  14. A Snack Dietary Pattern Increases the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia in Northern Chinese Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Na, Lixin; Han, Tianshu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Na, Guanqiong; Du, Shanshan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    The evidence about the effect of dietary patterns on blood cholesterol from cohort studies was very scarce. The study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with lipid profile, especially cholesterol, in a cohort in north China. Using a 1-year food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the dietary intake of 4515 adults from the Harbin People’s Health Study in 2008, aged 20-74 years. Principle component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The follow-up was completed in 2012. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of blood lipid concentrations. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low-HDL cholesterolemia. Five dietary patterns were identified (“staple food”, “vegetable, fruit and milk”, “potato, soybean and egg”, “snack”, and “meat”). The relative risk (RR) between the extreme tertiles of the snack dietary pattern scores was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.59, P = 0.004) for hypercholesterolemia, 1.39 (1.13, 1.75, P = 0.036) for hypertriglyceridemia, after adjustment for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, exercise and baseline lipid concentrations. There was a significant positive association between the snack dietary pattern scores and fasting serum total cholesterol (SRC (standardized regression coefficient) = 0.262, P = 0.025), LDL-c (SRC = 0.324, P = 0.002) and triglycerides (SRC = 0.253, P = 0.035), after adjustment for the multiple variables above. Moreover, the adjusted RR of hypertriglyceridemia between the extreme tertiles was 0.73 (0.56, 0.94, P = 0.025) for the vegetable, fruit and milk dietary pattern, and 1.86 (1.33, 2.41, P = 0.005) for the meat dietary pattern. The snack dietary pattern was a newly emerged dietary pattern in northern Chinese adults. It appears conceivable that the risk of hypercholesterolemia can be reduced by

  15. Adolescent dietary patterns and premenopausal breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Holly R.; Willett, Walter C.; Vaidya, Rita L.; Michels, Karin B.

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tissue experiences the highest rate of proliferation during adolescence representing a period of heightened susceptibility. Few prospective studies have examined adolescent diet and breast cancer, and none have examined dietary patterns. Thus, we examined the association between adolescent dietary patterns and a diet quality index, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study II among those who completed a 124-item food frequency questionnaire about their high-school diet (HS-FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Among 45204 women who completed the HS-FFQ, 863 cases of premenopausal breast cancer and 614 cases of postmenopausal cancer were diagnosed. A marginal inverse association was observed between the ‘prudent’ dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, fish and poultry, and premenopausal breast cancer. Women in fifth quintile had a multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.67–1.04) for premenopausal breast cancer (P trend = 0.07) compared with the first quintile. Scoring higher on the AHEI was borderline significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer with a HR of 0.81 (0.64–1.01) for the fifth quintile (P trend = 0.08), and this association appeared to be stronger for estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative tumors. No association was observed between the ‘Western’ pattern or the ‘fast-food’ pattern. Results were similar for each of these patterns when both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer were considered together. An overall healthy diet during adolescence, similar to the prudent dietary pattern or adherence to the AHEI, may contribute to reducing the risk of breast cancer. PMID:26905584

  16. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized

  17. Analyses of meal patterns across dietary shifts

    PubMed Central

    Treesukosol, Yada; Moran, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    The direct controls of meal size can be categorized into positive signals such as those from the oral cavity and negative signals such as postoral inhibitory cues. It follows that the relative contribution of these signals, and in turn meal pattern parameters, change across periods of high-energy diet exposure. Here, we compared daily intake and meal pattern analysis in male Sprague-Dawley rats presented a high-energy diet for 6 weeks then standard chow for ~ 1 week (HE), with those of standard chow fed controls (CHOW). These measures allow for evaluation of 1) whether there are distinct dynamic and static phases of DIO and if so, how they are characterized, 2) how meal patterns change across short and long term HE experience, and 3) ingestive behavioral changes when HE-fed animals are returned to standard chow. The HE animals showed significantly higher intake primarily driven by an increase in meal size compared to CHOW controls. This was most pronounced during the first several days of high-energy diet exposure thus characterizing the dynamic phase. Intake and meal size decreased with longer exposure to the diet but remained significantly higher than those of CHOW. Increased meal size could be driven by enhanced orosensory stimulation and/or reduced sensitivity to postoral inhibitory feedback. Distribution curves derived from histogram plots of meal size revealed both larger average meal size (right shift) and spread (standard deviation) thus it is tempting to speculate that more than one type of mechanism influences increased meal size. Meal number decreased suggesting post meal inhibitory signaling is relatively intact. However, this increase was insufficient to compensate for the increased meal size. When HE animals were switched to standard chow, daily intake and meal size decreased and eventually returned to values comparable to those of the CHOW rats. Meal number remained lower suggesting altered physiological mechanism(s) that underlie the control of

  18. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: synthesis of findings across cohorts and relevance to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-03-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11-28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index-mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality. Thus

  19. Association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and health-related factors among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Haleh; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Ghaemian, Ali; Darani Zad, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics among coronary artery disease patients. In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 250 patients coronary artery disease aged ≥ 40 years old. Data collection was done using questionnaires related to sociodemographics, health-related factors, and food-frequency intake information. Three dietary patterns (traditional, western, and healthy) were obtained using principal component analysis. The result showed that dietary patterns were associated with sociodemographic and health-related factors. According to the result, all the factors were taken very seriously when planning a promotional program for healthy lifestyle in prevention of CAD.

  20. Do dietary patterns in older men influence change in homocysteine through folate fortification? The Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Knoops, Kim T B; Spiro, Avron; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Kromhout, Daan; van Staveren, Wija A; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-10-01

    We aimed to describe the difference in B-vitamin intake and in plasma B-vitamin and homocysteine concentrations before and after folic acid fortification, in relation to dietary patterns. The Normative Aging Study (NAS) is a longitudinal study on ageing. Between 1961 and 1970, 2280 male volunteers aged 21-80 years (mean 42 years) were recruited. Dietary intake data have been collected since 1987 and assessment of plasma B vitamins and homocysteine was added in 1993. Boston, Massachusetts, USA. In the present study, 354 men who had completed at least one FFQ and one measurement of homocysteine, both before and after the fortification period, were included. Three dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: (i) a prudent pattern, with relatively high intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat milk and breakfast cereals; (ii) an unhealthy pattern, with high intakes of baked products, sweets and added fats; and (iii) a low fruit and vegetable but relatively high alcohol intake pattern. Dietary intake and plasma concentrations of folate increased significantly (P < 0.05) among all dietary patterns after the fortification period. Homocysteine tended to decrease in supplement non-users and in subjects in the high alcohol, low fruit and vegetable dietary pattern (both P = 0.08). After fortification with folic acid, folate intake and plasma folate concentration increased significantly in all dietary patterns. There was a trend towards greatest homocysteine lowering in the high alcohol, low fruit and vegetable group.

  1. Transitions in living arrangements are associated with changes in dietary patterns in young women.

    PubMed

    Elstgeest, Liset E M; Mishra, Gita D; Dobson, Annette J

    2012-08-01

    Household composition influences people's diet, so typical transitions in young women's lives, including cohabitation, marriage, and motherhood, might be expected to influence their subsequent dietary behavior. The objective was to examine associations between transitions in living arrangements and changes in energy intake and dietary patterns for women in their 20s and 30s using longitudinal data collected in 2003 and 2009. FFQ were collected twice from 6534 women born in 1973-1978 participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Transition groups were defined from changes in their living arrangements. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Associations between transitions in living arrangements and changes in energy intake and dietary pattern scores were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Women living with children had greater energy intake than other women initially and those who started a family had the greatest increases over time. Five similar dietary patterns were derived from both surveys. Women living in a family at both times had higher scores on the high-fat and sugar, meat, and cooked vegetables patterns and lower scores on the Mediterranean-style and fruit patterns than other women. Women starting a family increased their consumption of the high-fat and sugar, fruit, and cooked vegetables patterns. Women not living with children at both times had increased scores on the Mediterranean-style pattern and decreased scores on the high-fat and sugar and cooked vegetables patterns compared with other women. In conclusion, starting a family is associated with changes in women's diet that are mainly unhealthy.

  2. Zinc biofortification of rice in China: a simulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Wegmueller, Rita; Zhao, Jinkou; Kok, Frans J; Shi, Zumin

    2012-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely "traditional", "macho", "sweet tooth", and "healthy". Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the "traditional" pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the "sweet tooth" pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more "traditional" food pattern, but less for subjects with a "sweet tooth" food pattern.

  3. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Wegmueller, Rita; Zhao, Jinkou; Kok, Frans J.; Shi, Zumin

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the “traditional” pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the “sweet tooth” pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more “traditional” food pattern, but less for subjects with a “sweet tooth” food pattern. PMID:22822450

  4. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Conceição-Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da; Ruiz, Ana Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela

    2017-08-09

    There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of interest. Body image dissatisfaction was identified in 19.5% of the adolescents. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) the Western pattern was composed of sweets and sugars, soft drinks, typical dishes, pastries, fast food, beef, milk, and dairy products; (2) the Traditional pattern was composed of oils, chicken, fish, eggs, processed meat products, cereals (rice, cassava flour, pasta, etc.), baked beans, and bread; and (3) the Restrictive pattern was composed of granola, roots, vegetables, and fruit. Among overweight/obese adolescents, the data indicated a negative association of slight body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.240 [0.100; 0.576]) and moderate body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.235 [0.086; 0.645]) with the Western dietary pattern. Additionally, in this group, there was a positive association between high body image dissatisfaction and the Restrictive pattern (OR: 2.794 [1.178; 6.630]). Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western-like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk in an Urban Mexican Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns may predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk more accurately than does consumption of specific nutrients or foods. We evaluated the association between Mexican adults' dietary patterns and development of a >10% risk of 10-y CVD (using the Framingham risk score) over 7 y of follow-up. This prospective cohort study included 1196 men and women aged 20-80 y with a 10-y predicted risk <10% and without a CVD diagnosis at baseline in 2004-2007. Data on sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical history factors were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The relations between dietary patterns and predicted CVD were analyzed by using pooled logistic regression models. With the use of factor analysis, we identified 3 major dietary patterns in participants' dietary data. The "prudent" pattern was characterized by high positive loadings for the consumption of fresh fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The "meat/fish" pattern showed positive loadings for the consumption of red meat, processed meat, eggs, fats, fish, and poultry. Finally, the "refined foods" pattern featured positive loadings for corn tortillas, refined grains, soft drinks, and alcohol. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with participants in the lowest quintile of the prudent pattern, those in the highest quintile had a lower RR of 10-y CVD (RR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.79; P-trend = 0.006). In contrast, participants in the highest quintile of the refined-foods pattern had a greater risk of elevated 10-y CVD (RR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.46, 6.10; P-trend = 0.020) than did those in the lowest quintile. Finally, the meat/fish dietary pattern was not significantly associated with 10-y CVD. Our data suggest that the prudent pattern is associated with a reduced risk of 10-y CVD, whereas the refined-foods pattern may increase 10-y CVD in Mexican adults. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Obesigenic families: parents’ physical activity and dietary intake patterns predict girls’ risk of overweight

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K Krahnstoever; Birch, L Lipps

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether obesigenic families can be identified based on mothers’ and fathers’ dietary and activity patterns. METHODS A total of 197 girls and their parents were assessed when girls were 5 y old; 192 families were reassessed when girls were 7 y old. Measures of parents’ physical activity and dietary intake were obtained and entered into a cluster analysis to assess whether distinct family clusters could be identified. Girls’ skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed and were used to examine the predictive validity of the clusters. RESULTS Obesigenic and a non-obesigenic family clusters were identified. Mothers and fathers in the obesigenic cluster reported high levels of dietary intake and low levels of physical activity, while mothers and fathers in the non-obesigenic cluster reported low levels of dietary intake and high levels of activity. Girls from families in the obesigenic cluster had significantly higher BMI and skinfold thickness values at age 7 and showed significantly greater increases in BMI and skinfold thickness from ages 5 to 7 y than girls from non-obesigenic families; differences were reduced but not eliminated after controlling for parents’ BMI. CONCLUSIONS Obesigenic families, defined in terms of parents’ activity and dietary patterns, can be used predict children’s risk of obesity. PMID:12187395

  7. A comparison of dietary patterns derived by cluster and principal components analysis in a UK cohort of children.

    PubMed

    Smith, A D A C; Emmett, P M; Newby, P K; Northstone, K

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify dietary patterns in a cohort of 7-year-old children through cluster analysis, compare with patterns derived by principal components analysis (PCA), and investigate associations with sociodemographic variables. The main caregivers in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recorded dietary intakes of their children (8279 subjects) using a 94-item food frequency questionnaire. Items were then collapsed into 57 food groups. Dietary patterns were identified using k-means cluster analysis and associations with sociodemographic variables examined using multinomial logistic regression. Clusters were compared with patterns previously derived using PCA. Three distinct clusters were derived: Processed (4177 subjects), associated with higher consumption of processed foods and white bread, Plant-based (2065 subjects), characterized by higher consumption of fruit, vegetables and non-white bread, and Traditional British (2037 subjects), associated with higher consumption of meat, vegetables and full-fat milk. Membership of the Processed cluster was positively associated with girls, younger mothers, snacking and older siblings. Membership of the Plant-based cluster was associated with higher educated mothers and vegetarians. The Traditional British cluster was associated with council housing and younger siblings. The three clusters were similar to the three dietary patterns obtained through PCA; each principal component score being higher on average in the corresponding cluster. Both cluster analysis and PCA identified three dietary patterns very similar both in the foods associated with them and sociodemographic characteristics. Both methods are useful for deriving meaningful dietary patterns.

  8. The Influence of Maternal Dietary Patterns on Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain in Urban Black South African Women.

    PubMed

    Wrottesley, Stephanie V; Pisa, Pedro T; Norris, Shane A

    2017-07-11

    Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African women and explores their associations with first trimester BMI and GWG. Habitual dietary intake of 538 pregnant women was assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were depicted via principle component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI-specific GWG were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Traditional and Mixed. Western and Mixed diet patterns were associated with 35 g/week (p = 0.021) and 24 g/week (p = 0.041) higher GWG in normal weight and obese women respectively. Additionally, high intakes of a Traditional diet pattern were associated with a reduced odds of excessive weight gain in the total sample (OR: 0.81; p = 0.006) and in normal weight women (OR: 0.68; p = 0.003). Increased intake of a traditional diet pattern-high in whole grains, legumes, vegetables and traditional meats-and decreased intake of refined, high sugar and fat driven diets may reduce GWG (including risk of excessive weight gain) in urban South African women.

  9. Life Course Dietary Patterns and Bone Health in Later Life in a British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Ann; Kuh, Diana L; Adams, Judith E; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evidence for the contribution of individual foods and nutrients to bone health is weak. Few studies have considered hypothesis‐based dietary patterns and bone health. We investigated whether a protein‐calcium‐potassium–rich (PrCaK‐rich) dietary pattern over the adult life course, was positively associated with bone outcomes at 60 to 64 years of age. Diet diaries were collected at ages 36, 46, 53, and 60 to 64 years in 1263 participants (661 women) from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. DXA and pQCT measurements were obtained at age 60 to 64 years, including size‐adjusted bone mineral content (SA‐BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). A food‐based dietary pattern best explaining dietary calcium, potassium, and protein intakes (g/1000 kcal) was identified using reduced rank regression. Dietary pattern Z‐scores were calculated for each individual, at each time point. Individual trajectories in dietary pattern Z‐scores were modeled to summarize changes in Z‐scores over the study period. Regression models examined associations between these trajectories and bone outcomes at age 60 to 64 years, adjusting for baseline dietary pattern Z‐score and other confounders. A consistent PrCaK‐rich dietary pattern was identified within the population, over time. Mean ± SD dietary pattern Z‐scores at age 36 years and age 60 to 64 years were –0.32 ± 0.97 and 2.2 ± 1.5 (women) and –0.35 ± 0.98 and 1.7 ± 1.6 (men), respectively. Mean trajectory in dietary pattern Z‐scores ± SD was 0.07 ± 0.02 units/year. Among women, a 0.02‐SD unit/year higher trajectory in dietary pattern Z‐score over time was associated with higher SA‐BMC (spine 1.40% [95% CI, 0.30 to 2.51]; hip 1.35% [95% CI, 0.48 to 2.23]), and vBMD (radius 1.81% [95% CI, 0.13 to 3.50]) at age 60 to 64 years. No statistically significant associations were found in men. During adulthood, an increasing score for a dietary

  10. Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Qun; Shu, Long; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Yu; Xuan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Su-Fang

    2015-06-15

    Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45-60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination); the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day(-1) in men and 10 g day(-1) in women); no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5%) were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: "Traditional Chinese", "Animal food", "Grains-vegetables" and "High-salt" dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the "Animal food" pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.063-1.724; p < 0.05) than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), compared with the lowest quartile of the "Grains-vegetables" pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618-0.977, p < 0.05). However, the "traditional Chinese" and "high-salt" dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the "Animal food" dietary pattern was associated with

  11. Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Qun; Shu, Long; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Yu; Xuan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Su-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45–60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination); the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day−1 in men and 10 g day−1 in women); no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5%) were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: “Traditional Chinese”, “Animal food”, “Grains-vegetables” and “High-salt” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the “Animal food” pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.063–1.724; p < 0.05) than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), compared with the lowest quartile of the “Grains-vegetables” pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618–0.977, p < 0.05). However, the “traditional Chinese” and “high-salt” dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the

  12. Parents' dietary patterns are significantly correlated: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify dietary patterns independently in first-time mothers and fathers, and to examine whether these patterns were correlated within families. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program using a validated FFQ in 454 pairs of first-time mothers and fathers. Education level was reported in associated questionnaires. Principal components analyses included frequencies of fifty-five food groups and were performed independently in mothers and fathers. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between dietary pattern scores. A total of four dietary patterns were identified in mothers and fathers. Of these, three dietary patterns had similar characteristics between these two populations, namely 'Fruits and vegetables', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in mothers; and 'Fruits', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in fathers. The following two additional patterns were identified: 'Cereals and sweet foods' in mothers and 'Potatoes and vegetables' in fathers. Patterns incorporating healthier food items were found to be positively associated with parent education. An inverse association with education was found for the 'High-fat foods' and 'High-energy snack and processed foods' dietary patterns. Qualitatively similar patterns between corresponding mothers and fathers were the most strongly correlated (ρ = 0·34-0·45, P < 0·001). There were some differences in dietary patterns between mothers and fathers, suggesting that it is worth deriving patterns separately when considering couples, and more generally between men and women. Exploring how these various patterns correlate within households provides important insights to guide the development and implementation of family-based interventions.

  13. Dietary Patterns of Women Are Associated with Incident Abdominal Obesity but Not Metabolic Syndrome123

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Newby, P. K.; Millen, Barbara E.; Brown, Lisa S.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Fung, Teresa T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the relationship between empirical dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in prospective study designs are limited. In addition, demographic and lifestyle determinants of MetS may modify the association between dietary patterns and the syndrome. We prospectively examined the relationship between empirically derived patterns and MetS and MetS components among 1146 women in the Framingham Offspring/Spouse cohort. They were aged 25–77 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and MetS at baseline, and followed for a mean of 7 y. Five dietary patterns, Heart Healthier, Lighter Eating, Wine and Moderate Eating, Higher Fat, and Empty Calorie, were previously identified using cluster analysis from food intake collected using a FFQ. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed lower odds for abdominal obesity for Higher Fat [OR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.91)] and Wine and Moderate Eating clusters [OR = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.72)] compared with the Empty Calorie cluster. Additional adjustment for BMI somewhat attenuated these OR [Higher Fat OR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.00); Wine and Moderate Eating OR = 0.34 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.89)]. None of the clusters was associated with MetS or other MetS components. Baseline smoking status and age did not modify the relation between dietary patterns and MetS. The Higher Fat and Wine and Moderate Eating patterns showed an inverse association with abdominal obesity; certain foods might be targeted in these habitual patterns to achieve optimal dietary patterns for MetS prevention. PMID:22833658

  14. Dietary patterns of women are associated with incident abdominal obesity but not metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Newby, P K; Millen, Barbara E; Brown, Lisa S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fung, Teresa T

    2012-09-01

    Data on the relationship between empirical dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in prospective study designs are limited. In addition, demographic and lifestyle determinants of MetS may modify the association between dietary patterns and the syndrome. We prospectively examined the relationship between empirically derived patterns and MetS and MetS components among 1146 women in the Framingham Offspring/Spouse cohort. They were aged 25-77 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and MetS at baseline, and followed for a mean of 7 y. Five dietary patterns, Heart Healthier, Lighter Eating, Wine and Moderate Eating, Higher Fat, and Empty Calorie, were previously identified using cluster analysis from food intake collected using a FFQ. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed lower odds for abdominal obesity for Higher Fat [OR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.91)] and Wine and Moderate Eating clusters [OR = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.72)] compared with the Empty Calorie cluster. Additional adjustment for BMI somewhat attenuated these OR [Higher Fat OR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.00); Wine and Moderate Eating OR = 0.34 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.89)]. None of the clusters was associated with MetS or other MetS components. Baseline smoking status and age did not modify the relation between dietary patterns and MetS. The Higher Fat and Wine and Moderate Eating patterns showed an inverse association with abdominal obesity; certain foods might be targeted in these habitual patterns to achieve optimal dietary patterns for MetS prevention.

  15. Eating patterns, dietary quality and obesity.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, T A; Baranowski, T; Cullen, K W; Berenson, G

    2001-12-01

    Obesity among children has reached epidemic proportions. Today, an estimated one in four children in the United States is overweight. while 11% arc obese. Children who are overweight tend to remain so up to 20 years of age; in general, they have a 1.5- to twofold higher risk for becoming overweight as adults. The prevalence of overweight has increased approximately twofold in the 20-year period from 1974 to 1994, with the largest increases observed among 19- to 24-year-olds. The annual increases in weight and obesity that occurred from 1983 to 1994 were 50% higher than those from 1973 to 1982. Overweight youth are 2.4 times as likely to have a high serum total cholesterol level, and 43.5 times as likely to have three cardiovascular risk factors. Although the total energy intake of children has remained the same, and the macronutrient density of the diet has changed, the percentage of energy from fat has decreased, while that from carbohydrates and protein has increased. Children have been consuming lower amounts of fats/oils, vegetables/soups, breads/grains, mixed meats, desserts, candy, and eggs. and increasing amounts of fruits/fruit juices, beverages. poultry, snacks, condiments, and cheese. Changes in specific eating patterns may explain the increase in adiposity among children; e.g., increases have occurred in the number of meals eaten at restaurants, food availability, portion sizes, snacking and meal-skipping. Successful prevention and treatment of obesity in childhood could reduce the adult incidence of cardiovascular disease. Because substantial weight loss is difficult to maintain, the prevention of obesity by promoting healthier lifestyles should be one of our highest priorities in the new millennium.

  16. Cardiovascular risk in African American women attending historically Black colleges and universities: the role of dietary patterns and food preferences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra Chaisson; Geiselman, Paula J; Broussard, Tracy

    2010-11-01

    There is a lack of data on the dietary patterns and food preferences of African American women attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). African American women have higher death rates from cardiovascular disease than White women, and the initiating events of cardiovascular disease often begin in young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns and food preferences of African American college women, which may act as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A convenience sample of 100 African American women, ages 18 to 40 years, was administered two surveys assessing food preferences and dietary patterns. The majority of the participants (65%) preferred high-fat foods, and most of the participants (87%) consumed more than 30% of their daily caloric intake from fat. There is a definite need for dietary education regarding the impact of dietary fat on cardiovascular health among college students.

  17. Evaluation of methodologies for assessing the overall diet: dietary quality scores and dietary pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Ocké, Marga C

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims to describe different approaches for studying the overall diet with advantages and limitations. Studies of the overall diet have emerged because the relationship between dietary intake and health is very complex with all kinds of interactions. These cannot be captured well by studying single dietary components. Three main approaches to study the overall diet can be distinguished. The first method is researcher-defined scores or indices of diet quality. These are usually based on guidelines for a healthy diet or on diets known to be healthy. The second approach, using principal component or cluster analysis, is driven by the underlying dietary data. In principal component analysis, scales are derived based on the underlying relationships between food groups, whereas in cluster analysis, subgroups of the population are created with people that cluster together based on their dietary intake. A third approach includes methods that are driven by a combination of biological pathways and the underlying dietary data. Reduced rank regression defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain nutrient intakes or intermediate markers of disease. Decision tree analysis identifies subgroups of a population whose members share dietary characteristics that influence (intermediate markers of) disease. It is concluded that all approaches have advantages and limitations and essentially answer different questions. The third approach is still more in an exploration phase, but seems to have great potential with complementary value. More insight into the utility of conducting studies on the overall diet can be gained if more attention is given to methodological issues.

  18. Are clusters of dietary patterns and cluster membership stable over time? Results of a longitudinal cluster analysis study.

    PubMed

    Walthouwer, Michel Jean Louis; Oenema, Anke; Soetens, Katja; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2014-11-01

    Developing nutrition education interventions based on clusters of dietary patterns can only be done adequately when it is clear if distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived and reproduced over time, if cluster membership is stable, and if it is predictable which type of people belong to a certain cluster. Hence, this study aimed to: (1) identify clusters of dietary patterns among Dutch adults, (2) test the reproducibility of these clusters and stability of cluster membership over time, and (3) identify sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. This study had a longitudinal design with online measurements at baseline (N=483) and 6 months follow-up (N=379). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed, followed by a K-means cluster analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. At baseline and follow-up, a comparable three-cluster solution was derived, distinguishing a healthy, moderately healthy, and unhealthy dietary pattern. Male and lower educated participants were significantly more likely to have a less healthy dietary pattern. Further, 251 (66.2%) participants remained in the same cluster, 45 (11.9%) participants changed to an unhealthier cluster, and 83 (21.9%) participants shifted to a healthier cluster. Men and people living alone were significantly more likely to shift toward a less healthy dietary pattern. Distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived. Yet, cluster membership is unstable and only few sociodemographic factors were associated with cluster membership and cluster transition. These findings imply that clusters based on dietary intake may not be suitable as a basis for nutrition education interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-08-30

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  20. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  1. A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Myrte J; Erler, Nicole S; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; van den Broek, Marion; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Steegers, Eric A P; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-11-12

    Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a "Vegetable, oil and fish", a "Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy", and a "Margarine, sugar and snacks" pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the "Vegetable, oil and fish" pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69) for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q)). Adherence to the "Margarine, sugar and snacks" pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99) Q4 vs. Q1). Normal weight women with higher scores on the "Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy" pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (-0.01 (95% CI -0.02; -0.00) per SD). The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG.

  2. Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Impaired Physical Function in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Struijk, Ellen A; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; López-García, Esther

    2016-10-19

    Information about nutritional risk factors of functional limitation is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the Mediterranean diet and risk of physical function impairment in older adults. We used data from 1,630 participants in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort aged ≥60 years. In 2008-2010, adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern was measured with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Study participants were followed up through 2012 to assess incident impairment in agility and mobility as well as impairment in overall physical functioning, defined as a ≥5-point decrease from baseline to follow-up in the physical component summary of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Over a median follow-up of 3.5 years, we identified 343 individuals with agility limitation, 212 with mobility limitation, and 457 with decreased overall physical functioning. No association was found between the MDS score and the likelihood of impaired agility or mobility, although a 2-point increment in the MDS score was marginally associated with lower likelihood for decreased overall physical function. Compared to individuals in the lowest tertile of the MEDAS score, those in the highest tertile showed a lower odds of agility limitation (odds ratio: 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.48; 0.94, p trend = .02), mobility limitation (odds ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.40; 0.88, p trend = .01), and decreased overall physical functioning (odds ratio: 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.45; 0.79, p trend < .001). In this prospective cohort study, a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, especially when measured with the MEDAS, was associated with a lower likelihood of physical function impairment in older adults.

  3. The effect of under-reporting of energy intake on dietary patterns and on the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease in women aged 50-69 years.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50-69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported energy intake:estimated BMR<1·10 were classified as low energy reporters (n 1133, 18 %). We examined the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic diseases by log-binomial regression, and the results are presented as prevalence ratios (PR) and CI. 'Prudent', 'Western' and 'Continental' dietary patterns were identified among all reporters and plausible reporters. The PR expressing the associations between the 'Western' and 'Prudent' dietary pattern scores and self-reported chronic diseases were consistently highest among plausible reporters except for joint/muscle/skeletal disorders. The largest difference in PR among plausible v. all reporters was found for the association between the 'Prudent' pattern and diabetes (PR for highest v. lowest tertile: PRall reporters 2·16; 95 % CI 1·50, 3·13; P trend<0·001; PRplausible reporters 2·86; 95 % CI 1·81, 4·51; P trend<0·001). In conclusion, our results suggest that under-reporting can result in systematic error that can affect the association between dietary pattern and disease. In studies of dietary patterns, investigators ought to consider reporting effect estimates both for all individuals and for plausible reporters.

  4. Dietary patterns, cognitive decline, and dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van de Rest, Ondine; Berendsen, Agnes Am; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm

    2015-03-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy between nutrients. Over the past few years, dietary patterns have increasingly been investigated to better understand the link between diet, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this systematic review we provide an overview of the literature on human studies up to May 2014 that examined the role of dietary patterns (derived both a priori as well as a posteriori) in relation to cognitive decline or dementia. The results suggest that better adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with less cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer disease, as shown by 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies, 6 of 12 longitudinal studies, 1 trial, and 3 meta-analyses. Other healthy dietary patterns, derived both a priori (e.g., Healthy Diet Indicator, Healthy Eating Index, and Program National Nutrition Santé guideline score) and a posteriori (e.g., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression), were shown to be associated with reduced cognitive decline and/or a reduced risk of dementia as shown by all 6 cross-sectional studies and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. More conclusive evidence is needed to reach more targeted and detailed guidelines to prevent or postpone cognitive decline.

  5. Dietary Patterns, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia: A Systematic Review12

    PubMed Central

    van de Rest, Ondine; Berendsen, Agnes AM; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette CPGM

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy between nutrients. Over the past few years, dietary patterns have increasingly been investigated to better understand the link between diet, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this systematic review we provide an overview of the literature on human studies up to May 2014 that examined the role of dietary patterns (derived both a priori as well as a posteriori) in relation to cognitive decline or dementia. The results suggest that better adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with less cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer disease, as shown by 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies, 6 of 12 longitudinal studies, 1 trial, and 3 meta-analyses. Other healthy dietary patterns, derived both a priori (e.g., Healthy Diet Indicator, Healthy Eating Index, and Program National Nutrition Santé guideline score) and a posteriori (e.g., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression), were shown to be associated with reduced cognitive decline and/or a reduced risk of dementia as shown by all 6 cross-sectional studies and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. More conclusive evidence is needed to reach more targeted and detailed guidelines to prevent or postpone cognitive decline. PMID:25770254

  6. Effect of Energy Under-Reporting on Secular Trends of Dietary Patterns in a Mediterranean Population

    PubMed Central

    Funtikova, Anna N.; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A.; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background Diet is an important factor in the prevention of chronic diseases. Analysis of secular trends of dietary patterns can be biased by energy under-reporting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of energy under-reporting on dietary patterns and secular trends in dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis. Design and methods Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in Spain, in 2000 and 2005, with 3058 and 6352 participants, respectively, aged 25 to 74 years. Validated questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Cluster analysis was run separately for all participants, plausible energy reporters (PER), and energy under-reporters (EUR) to define dietary patterns. Results Three clusters, “healthy”, “mixed” and “western”, were identified for both surveys. The “mixed” cluster was the predominant cluster in both surveys. Excluding EUR reduced the proportion of the “mixed” cluster up to 6.40% in the 2000 survey; this caused secular trend increase in the prevalence of the “mixed” pattern. Cross-classification analysis of all participants and PER’ data showed substantial agreement in cluster assignments: 68.7% in 2000 and 84.4% in 2005. Excluding EUR did not cause meaningful (≥15%) changes in the “healthy” pattern. It provoked changes in consumption of some food groups in the “mixed” and “western” patterns: mainly decreases of unhealthy foods within the 2000 and increases of unhealthy foods within the 2005 surveys. Secular trend effects of EUR were similar to those within the 2005 survey. Excluding EUR reversed the direction of secular trends in consumption of several food groups in PER in the “mixed” and “western” patterns. Conclusions EUR affected distribution of participants between dietary patterns within and between surveys, secular trends in food group consumption and amount of food consumed in all, but not in the “healthy” pattern. Our findings

  7. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  8. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with elevated cholesterol among the Inuit of Nunavik.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Marie-Ève; Dewailly, Eric; Lucas, Michel; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2014-08-01

    Our cross-sectional study assessed the associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Nunavik Inuit. This study was conducted as part of the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey, which included the collection of clinical measurements, plasma samples, and diet information from a food frequency questionnaire. A sample of 666 Inuit aged 18 years and older was included in our analyses. Dietary patterns were generated by principal component analysis. Multivariate general linear models adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, and other potential confounders were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors. Four distinct patterns were identified, namely the traditional, Western, nutrient-poor food, and healthy patterns. The traditional pattern showed positive associations with plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B100, LDL peak particle diameter, and oxidized LDL (all P values for trend≤0.04), but showed no association with the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio or with inflammatory biomarkers (all P values for trend ≥0.19). The nutrient-poor food pattern was positively associated with oxidized LDL (P=0.04), but inversely associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P<0.0001). The Western and healthy patterns showed no association with any CVD risk factor. Our data show that high adherence to a traditional pattern among Nunavik Inuit is not associated with important changes in CVD risk factors, with the exception of a slight elevation in cholesterol concentrations, most likely attributable to increased n-3 fatty acid intake. Dietary patterns reflecting the recent introduction of market foods in the Inuit diet appear to exert a trivial influence on CVD risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of cluster and principal component analysis techniques to derive dietary patterns in Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Hearty, Aine P; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine and compare dietary patterns in adults using cluster and factor analyses and to examine the format of the dietary variables on the pattern solutions (i.e. expressed as grams/day (g/d) of each food group or as the percentage contribution to total energy intake). Food intake data were derived from the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey 1997-9, which was a randomised cross-sectional study of 7 d recorded food and nutrient intakes of a representative sample of 1379 Irish adults aged 18-64 years. Cluster analysis was performed using the k-means algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract dietary factors. Food data were reduced to thirty-three food groups. For cluster analysis, the most suitable format of the food-group variable was found to be the percentage contribution to energy intake, which produced six clusters: 'Traditional Irish'; 'Continental'; 'Unhealthy foods'; 'Light-meal foods & low-fat milk'; 'Healthy foods'; 'Wholemeal bread & desserts'. For PCA, food groups in the format of g/d were found to be the most suitable format, and this revealed four dietary patterns: 'Unhealthy foods & high alcohol'; 'Traditional Irish'; 'Healthy foods'; 'Sweet convenience foods & low alcohol'. In summary, cluster and PCA identified similar dietary patterns when presented with the same dataset. However, the two dietary pattern methods required a different format of the food-group variable, and the most appropriate format of the input variable should be considered in future studies.

  10. Westernization of dietary patterns among young Japanese and Polish females -- a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Morinaka, Tomoko; Wozniewicz, Malgorzata; Jeszka, Jan; Bajerska, Joanna; Nowaczyk, Paulina; Sone, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the process of the westernization of eating habits is perceived to be one of the main causes of epidemics of civilization diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to assess the westernization of eating habits among 100 Japanese (aged 18-23 years) and 111 Polish female students (aged 19-25 years) of nutrition science related faculties. Food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess a dietary pattern during the four seasons of a one-year investigation. Data obtained in each season was pooled. The frequency of consumption of different foods (servings/week) between the two countries was compared and characterization of the dietary patterns of both studied populations was analyzed by factor analysis. When food consumption between the two countries was compared, apart from total meat and meat products and high-energy drink intake, significant differences were observed in all foods and food groups. Three dietary patterns were identified in both groups. Among Japanese participants, the first pattern was 'traditional Japanese', the second 'sweets and beverages', and the third 'Western', explaining 9.0%, 8.5% and 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Among Polish participants, the first pattern was 'prudent', the second 'Western', and the third 'sweets and alcoholic beverages', explaining 8.2%, 7.7%, 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Although the 'Western' dietary pattern was found in both groups, there were some differences in the remaining dietary patterns between the two countries. In the Japanese participants, significant cultural influences on habitual food intake could still be observed, and the extent of diet westernization seems to be smaller compared to the Polish participants.

  11. Education Attenuates the Association between Dietary Patterns and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Archana, Singh-Manoux; Marmot, Michael G.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Various foods have been shown to be associated with cognitive outcomes. As individual food items are not consumed in isolation, we examined the association between dietary patternsand cognitive function, with special attention to the role of education in this association. Methods Analyses were carried out on 4,693 stroke-free white European participants of the Whitehall II study. Two dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis: a ‘whole food’ and a ‘processed food’ pattern. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of 5 tests. Results After adjustment for demographic, behavioral and health measures, higher intake of ‘whole food’ diet was associated with lower and high consumption of ‘processed food’ with higher odds of cognitive deficit. However, adjustment for education significantly attenuated most of these associations. Conclusions Education, through its role as a powerful confounder, shapes the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive deficit in a healthy middle-aged UK cohort. PMID:19182482

  12. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16–41 years) included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: “high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice”, “high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese”, and “high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood”. GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation <24 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GDM, after controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake, physical activity, and log-transformed C-reactive protein (CRP). All statistical analyses accounted for the appropriate survey design and sample weights of the NHANES. Of 249 pregnant women, 34 pregnant women (14%) had GDM. Multivariable AOR (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons between the highest vs. lowest tertiles were 4.9 (1.4–17.0) for “high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice” pattern, 7.5 (1.8–32.3) for “high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese” pattern, and 22.3 (3.9–127.4) for “high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood” pattern after controlling for maternal sociodemographic variables, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight

  13. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2015-11-12

    Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16-41 years) included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice", "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese", and "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood". GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation <24 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GDM, after controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake, physical activity, and log-transformed C-reactive protein (CRP). All statistical analyses accounted for the appropriate survey design and sample weights of the NHANES. Of 249 pregnant women, 34 pregnant women (14%) had GDM. Multivariable AOR (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons between the highest vs. lowest tertiles were 4.9 (1.4-17.0) for "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice" pattern, 7.5 (1.8-32.3) for "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese" pattern, and 22.3 (3.9-127.4) for "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood" pattern after controlling for maternal sociodemographic variables, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake and log

  14. Prospective study of dietary patterns and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among US men

    PubMed Central

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Camargo, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    Background Many foods are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms or lung function. Because foods are consumed together and nutrients may interact, dietary patterns are an alternative way of characterising diet. A study was undertaken to assess the relation between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed COPD in men. Methods Data were collected from a large prospective cohort of US men (Health Professionals Follow‐up Study). Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent pattern (high intake of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grain products) and a Western pattern (high intake of refined grains, cured and red meats, desserts and French fries). Dietary patterns were categorised into quintiles and Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, smoking, pack‐years, (pack‐years)2, race/ethnicity, physician visits, US region, body mass index, physical activity, multivitamin use and energy intake. Results Between 1986 and 1998, 111 self‐reported cases of newly diagnosed COPD were identified among 42 917 men. The prudent pattern was inversely associated with the risk of newly diagnosed COPD (RR for highest vs lowest quintile 0.50 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.98), p for trend = 0.02), and the Western pattern was positively associated with the risk of newly diagnosed COPD (RR for highest vs lowest quintile 4.56 (95% CI 1.95 to 10.69), p for trend <0.001). Conclusions In men, a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fish may reduce the risk of COPD whereas a diet rich in refined grains, cured and red meats, desserts and French fries may increase the risk of COPD. PMID:17504819

  15. An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilä, V; Vepsäläinen, H; Saloheimo, T; Gonzalez, S A; Meisel, J D; Hu, G; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dietary pattern is defined as a combination of foods and drinks and the frequency of consumption within a population. Dietary patterns are changing on a global level, which may be linked to an increased incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children living in urban regions in different parts of the world. METHODS: Participants were 7199 children (54% girls), aged 9–11 years, from 12 countries situated in all major world regions. Food consumption was assessed using a 23-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To identify dietary patterns, principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out using weekly portions as input variables. RESULTS: Both site-specific and pooled PCA resulted in two strong components. Component 1 (‘unhealthy diet pattern') included fast foods, ice cream, fried food, French fries, potato chips, cakes and sugar-sweetened sodas with >0.6 loadings. The loadings for component 2 (‘healthy diet pattern') were slightly weaker with only dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, vegetables in general, and fruits and berries reaching a >0.6 loading. The site-specific diet pattern scores had very strong correlations with the pattern scores from the pooled data: r=0.82 and 0.94 for components 1 and 2, respectively. CONCULSIONS: The results suggest that the same ‘healthier' and ‘unhealthier' foods tend to be consumed in similar combinations among 9–11-year-old children in different countries, despite variation in food culture, geographical location, ethnic background and economic development. PMID:27152179

  16. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Mrigen Kr; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%). Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%), more girls (46%) were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001), those with better educated parents (P < 0.000), and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000). Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE) to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  17. A comparison of principal component analysis, partial least-squares and reduced-rank regressions in the identification of dietary patterns associated with bone mass in ageing Australians.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert; Shi, Zumin

    2017-06-12

    The relative advantages of dietary analysis methods, particularly in identifying dietary patterns associated with bone mass, have not been investigated. We evaluated principal component analysis (PCA), partial least-squares (PLS) and reduced-rank regressions (RRR) in determining dietary patterns associated with bone mass. Data from 1182 study participants (45.9% males; aged 50 years and above) from the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS) were used. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using PCA, PLS and RRR and compared based on the performance to identify plausible patterns associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC). PCA, PLS and RRR identified two, four and four dietary patterns, respectively. All methods identified similar patterns for the first two factors (factor 1, "prudent" and factor 2, "western" patterns). Three, one and none of the patterns derived by RRR, PLS and PCA were significantly associated with bone mass, respectively. The "prudent" and dairy (factor 3) patterns determined by RRR were positively and significantly associated with BMD and BMC. Vegetables and fruit pattern (factor 4) of PLS and RRR was negatively and significantly associated with BMD and BMC, respectively. RRR was found to be more appropriate in identifying more (plausible) dietary patterns that are associated with bone mass than PCA and PLS. Nevertheless, the advantage of RRR over the other two methods (PCA and PLS) should be confirmed in future studies.

  18. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in women participating in the Black Women’s Health Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Makambi, Kepher; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile

    2009-01-01

    Background: No studies have examined dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in a large cohort of African American women. Objective: We investigated the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the Black Women’s Health Study. Design: This is a prospective cohort study of 50,778 participants followed biennially from 1995 through 2007. During 443,742 person-years of follow-up, 1094 incident cases of breast cancer were identified. Factor analysis was used to derive food patterns based on 69 food variables. We used Cox regression models to obtain incident rate ratios (IRRs) for breast cancer in relation to quintiles of each of the 2 dietary patterns, with adjustment for other breast cancer risk factors. Results: Through factor analysis, we identified 2 dietary patterns: Western (refined grains, processed meat, and sweets) and prudent (whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and fish). The prudent diet was weakly associated with lower breast cancer risk overall; P for trend = 0.06. In analyses stratified by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), the prudent dietary pattern was associated with a significantly lower risk of breast cancer in women with a BMI <25 (IRR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93; P for trend = 0.01). The prudent dietary pattern was also associated with a significantly lower risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (IRR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.96; P for trend = 0.01), and we found a significant inverse association for the prudent dietary pattern and estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer (IRR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.94; P for trend <0.01). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the prudent dietary pattern may protect against breast cancer in some black women. PMID:19587089

  19. Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated to low risk of aggressive prostate cancer: MCC-Spain study.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Adela; Boldo, Elena; Amiano, Pilar; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Peiró, Rosana; Jimenez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Alguacil, Juan; Tardón, Adonina; Cecchini, Lluís; Lope, Virginia; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Mengual, Lourdes; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-08-22

    To explore the association of the previously described Western, Prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns with prostate cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness and extension. MCC-Spain is a population-based multicase-control study, carried out in 7 Spanish provinces between September 2008 and December 2013. It collected anthropometric, epidemiologic and dietary information on 754 histologically confirmed incident cases of prostate cancer and 1277 controls aged 38 to 85 years. Three previously identified dietary patterns -Western, Prudent and Mediterranean- were reconstructed using MCC-Spain data. The association between each pattern and prostate cancer risk was assessed using logistic regression models with random province-specific intercepts. Risk according to tumor aggressiveness (Gleason score grade =6 vs >6) and extension (cT1-cT2a vs cT2b-cT4) was evaluated with multinomial regression models. High adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern -rich in fruits and vegetables, but also in fish, legumes and olive oil- was specifically associated to lower risk of prostate cancer with Gleason score >6: RRRQuartile3(Q3)vsQuartile1(Q1)=0.66; 95%CI:0.46-0.96 and RRRQuartile4(Q4)vsQuartile1=0.68;95%CI:0.46-1.01;p-trend=0.023) or with higher clinical stage (cT2b-T4: RRRQuartile4vsQuartile1=0.49; 95%CI:0.25-0.96; p-trend=0.024). This association was not observed with Prudent pattern, which combines vegetables and fruits with low fat dairy products, whole grains and juices. Western pattern did not show any association with prostate cancer risk. Nutritional recommendations for prostate cancer prevention should consider whole dietary patterns instead of individual foods. We found important differences between Mediterranean dietary pattern, which was associated to lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer, and Western and Prudent dietary patterns, that had no relationship with prostate cancer risk. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  20. Dietary patterns and the phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome: the chance of ongoing pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Nicole A; Louwers, Yvonne V; Willemsen, Sten P; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Laven, Joop S E

    2017-03-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is generally considered a complex disorder caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. In a sub-cohort of women with PCOS visiting the preconception outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital with follow-up in a periconception cohort, we identified specific dietary patterns and adherence in patients with PCOS with and without hyperandrogenism and the chance of ongoing pregnancy. Food frequency questionnaires were available from 55 patients diagnosed with PCOS during follow-up in routine clinical practice, including 25 with hyperandrogenism and 30 without hyperandrogenism. Strong adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with the hyperandrogenic PCOS phenotype (Adjusted OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.99). In women with PCOS overall, a strong adherence to the healthy dietary pattern showed a three-fold higher chance of ongoing pregnancy (adjusted OR 3.38; 95% CI 1.01 to 11.36) and an association with anti-Müllerian hormone concentration (β -0.569 µg/L; 95% CI -0.97 to -0.17). The effect of this dietary pattern on the chance of ongoing pregnancy and AMH suggests causality, which needs further investigation in prospective studies in the general population.

  1. Pretreatment dietary patterns, weight status, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma prognosis.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Anna E; Peterson, Karen E; Rozek, Laura S; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Light, Emily; Chepeha, Douglas B; Hébert, James R; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Wolf, Gregory T; Duffy, Sonia A

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association of diet and weight status with head and neck cancer outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pretreatment dietary patterns and weight status are associated with head and neck cancer prognosis. This was a longitudinal study of 542 patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer who completed food-frequency questionnaires and health surveys before treatment. Clinical data were abstracted from medical records and the Social Security Death Index. Dietary patterns were identified by using principal component analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of derived dietary patterns (fit by quintiles of exposure) and weight status with time to recurrence and survival, with control for covariates. During the study period, there were 229 deaths and 184 recurrences. Two dietary patterns were identified: a whole-foods pattern (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruit, fish, poultry, and whole grains) and a Western pattern (characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, potatoes, and French fries). In multivariable analyses, significantly fewer deaths were observed in subjects most adherent to the whole-foods pattern (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01). Subjects classified as overweight or obese had significantly fewer deaths (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85; P = 0.001) and recurrences (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.95; P = 0.02) than did normal-weight or underweight subjects. Consumption of a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, fish, poultry, and whole grains and being overweight before diagnosis with head and neck cancer are associated with a better prognosis.

  2. Dietary patterns associated with HbA1c and LDL cholesterol among individuals with type 1 diabetes in China

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Mendez, Michelle A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liu, Wei; Ji, Linong; Du, Shufa; Rosamond, Wayne; Popkin, Barry M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To identify dietary patterns that influence cardiometabolic risk among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study of T1D in China (n=99). Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns from a set of 20 food groups that maximized the explained variation in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Results Dietary pattern 1 was characterized by low intakes of wheat products and high-fat cakes, and high intakes of beans and pickled vegetables. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by low intakes of high-fat cakes, nuts/seeds, fish/shellfish, and teas/coffee, and high intakes of rice and eggs. Participants in the highest tertile of dietary pattern 1 had significantly (p<0.05) higher HbA1c and LDL cholesterol compared to participants in the lowest tertile: mean difference in HbA1c was 1.0 percentage point (11mmol/mol) and in LDL cholesterol was 0.36 mmol/L after adjustment for age and household income. Dietary pattern 2 was not associated with HbA1c or LDL cholesterol. Conclusions We identified a dietary pattern that is significantly related to HbA1c and LDL cholesterol. These findings provide support for behavioral strategies to prevent complications in individuals with T1D in China. PMID:25630525

  3. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in

  4. Associations between dietary patterns and self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Castro, Michelle Alessandra de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular disease, the important modifiable risk factor of which is diet. The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns and to test associations with self-reported hypertension and other characteristics, namely demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. Data were obtained from the population-based cross-sectional study titled Health Survey of the City of São Paulo, with a random sample of residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aged older than 20 years of both sexes (n=1,102). In 2008, a structured questionnaire with information about socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors was applied. Dietary intake was estimated by two 24-hour dietary recalls, adjusted by Multiple Source Method. Dietary patterns were obtained through exploratory principal component factor analysis. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread, white cheeses, juices, reduced-fat milk/nonfat milk), traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar), and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats). Hypertension and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, as well as the presence of health insurance, were associated with adherence to one or more identified dietary patterns. These results suggest the existence of a target audience for planning and executing public policies of food and nutrition to prevent and control hypertension.

  5. Dietary patterns, food groups, and rectal cancer risk in Whites and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A.; Adair, Linda S.; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between individual foods and nutrients and colorectal cancer have been inconsistent, and few studies have examined associations between food, nutrients, dietary patterns, and rectal cancer. We examined the relationship between food groups and dietary patterns and risk of rectal cancer in non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. Methods Data were from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II and included 1520 Whites (720 cases,800 controls) and 384 African Americans (225 cases,159 controls). Diet was assessed using the Diet History Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Among Whites, non-whole grains and white potatoes were associated with elevated risk of rectal cancer, while fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish, and poultry were associated with reduced risk. In African Americans, high consumption of citrus fruit and added sugar suggested elevated risk. We identified three major dietary patterns in Whites and African Americans. The High Fat/Meat/Potatoes pattern was observed in both race groups, but was only positively associated with risk in Whites (OR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.03–3.15). The Vegetable/Fish/Poultry and Fruit/Whole-Grain/Dairy patterns in Whites had significant inverse associations with risk. In African Americans, there was a positive dose-response for the Fruit/Vegetables pattern (Ptrend <0.0001), and an inverse linear trend for the Legumes/Dairy pattern (Ptrend <0.0001). Conclusion Our findings indicate that associations of certain food groups and overall dietary patterns with rectal cancer risk differ between Whites and African Americans, highlighting the importance of examining diet and cancer relationships in racially diverse populations. PMID:19423533

  6. Dietary Patterns and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a First Nations Community.

    PubMed

    Reeds, Jacqueline; Mansuri, Sudaba; Mamakeesick, Mary; Harris, Stewart B; Zinman, Bernard; Gittelsohn, Joel; Wolever, Thomas M S; Connelly, Phillip W; Hanley, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing concern worldwide, particularly in Indigenous communities, which have undergone a marked nutrition transition characterized by reduced intakes of traditional foods and increased intakes of market foods. Few studies have assessed the relationships between differing dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes in Indigenous communities in Canada. The objective of the study was to characterize dietary patterns using factor analysis (FA) and to relate these patterns to the incidence of type 2 diabetes after 10 years of follow up in a First Nations community in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a prospective analysis of 492 participants in the SLHDP who did not have diabetes at baseline (1993 to 1995) and were followed for 10 years. A food-frequency questionnaire was administered, and FA was used to identify patterns of food consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined associations of food patterns with incident type 2 diabetes, adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders. At follow up, 86 participants had developed incident type 2 diabetes. FA revealed 3 prominent dietary patterns: Balanced Market Foods, Beef and Processed Foods and Traditional Foods. After adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, interleukin-6 and adiponectin, the Beef and Processed Foods pattern was associated with increased risk for incident type 2 diabetes (OR=1.38; 95% CI 1.02, 1.86). In contrast, the Balanced Market Foods and Traditional Foods Patterns were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes. Dietary interventions should encourage reduced consumption of unhealthful market foods, in combination with improvements in local food environments so as to increase access to healthful foods and reduce food insecurity in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PATTERNS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT USAGE IN DEMOGRAPHICALLY DIVERSE OLDER PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kishiyama, Shirley S.; Leahy, Marjorie J.; Zitzelberger, Tracy A.; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Calvert, James F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Oken, Barry S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Setting Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. Design All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. Participants 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon: 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention: and 3) 136 participants, ages 65–85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Measurements Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Results Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Conclusions Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people. PMID:15945136

  8. Identification of a dietary pattern prospectively associated with bone mass in Australian young adults.

    PubMed

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mountain, Jenny; Straker, Leon; Walsh, John P; Zhu, Kun; Oddy, Wendy H

    2015-11-01

    Relatively little is known about the relations between dietary patterns and bone health in adolescence, which is a period of substantial bone mass accrual. We derived dietary patterns that were hypothesized to be related to bone health on the basis of their protein, calcium, and potassium contents and investigated their prospective associations with bone mineral density (BMD), bone area, and bone mineral content (BMC) in a cohort of young adults. The study included 1024 young adults born to mothers who were participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Dietary information was obtained from food-frequency questionnaires at 14 and 17 y of age. Dietary patterns were characterized according to protein, calcium, and potassium intakes with the use of reduced-rank regression. BMD, bone area, and BMC were estimated with the use of a total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan at 20 y of age. We identified 2 major dietary patterns. The first pattern was positively correlated with intakes of protein, calcium, and potassium and had high factor loadings for low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and vegetables. The second pattern was positively correlated with protein intake but negatively correlated with intakes of calcium and potassium and had high factor loadings for meat, poultry, fish, and eggs. After adjustment for anthropometric, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors, a higher z score for the first pattern at 14 y of age was positively associated with BMD and BMC at 20 y of age [differences: 8.6 mg/cm(2) (95% CI: 3.0, 14.1 mg/cm(2)) and 21.9 g (95% CI: 6.5, 37.3 g), respectively, per SD increase in z score]. The z score for this same pattern at 17 y of age was not associated with bone outcomes at 20 y of age. The second pattern at 14 or 17 y of age was not associated with BMD, BMC, or bone area. A dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of protein, calcium, and potassium in midadolescence was associated with higher BMD and BMC at 20

  9. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban African-American adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Improper dietary intake pattern is a risk factor for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African American adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to describe dietary intake patterns including energy, nutrient, food g...

  10. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Cognition among Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Susan J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Greenop, Kathryn R.; Beer, Christopher; Flicker, Leon; Alfonso, Helman; Nowson, Caryl A.

    2012-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the influence of diet on cognition in the elderly. This study examined the cross-sectional association between dietary patterns and cognition in a sample of 249 people aged 65–90 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Two dietary patterns; whole and processed food; were identified using factor analysis from a 107-item; self-completed Food Frequency Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses showed that participants in the highest tertile of the processed food pattern score were more likely to have poorer cognitive functioning; in the lowest tertile of executive function (OR 2.55; 95% CI: 1.08–6.03); as assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination. In a group of older people with MCI; a diet high in processed foods was associated with some level of cognitive impairment. PMID:23201831

  11. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Methods Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. Trial Registration NCT: NCT01343342 PMID:23398686

  12. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2015-07-01

    Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. To identify patterns (or classes) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, conscientious food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area (N=1,201) participated in this study. Fast-food and soda consumption as well as meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. An eight-class solution was identified: "traditional shopper" (14.9%), "fresh food and supermarket shopper" (14.1%), "convenience shopper" (18.8%), "conscientious convenience shopper" (13.8%), "conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper" (11.8%), "conscientious fresh food shopper" (6.6%), "conscientious nonshopper" (10.2%), and "nonshopper" (9.8%). "Fresh food and supermarket shoppers" and "conscientious fresh food shoppers" had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar), whereas "convenience shoppers" and "conscientious convenience shoppers," and "nonshoppers" had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than "traditional shoppers." These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: A latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. Objective To identify patterns (or ‘classes’) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, “conscientious” food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. Design A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Participants/setting Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities metropolitan area (n=1,201) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Fast food and soda consumption; meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Statistical analyses Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. Results An eight-class solution was identified: “traditional shopper (14.9%),” “fresh food and supermarket shopper (14.1%),” “convenience shopper (18.8%),” “conscientious convenience shopper (13.8%),” “conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper (11.8%),” “conscientious fresh food shopper (6.6%),” “conscientious non-shopper (10.2%)”, and “non-shopper (9.8%).” “Fresh food and supermarket shoppers” and “conscientious fresh food shopper” had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar) while “convenience shoppers” and “conscientious convenience shoppers,” and “non-shoppers” had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than “traditional shoppers.” Conclusions These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of

  14. Dietary patterns of Australian children aged 14 and 24 months, and associations with socio-demographic factors and adiposity.

    PubMed

    Bell, L K; Golley, R K; Daniels, L; Magarey, A M

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown, in predominantly European populations, that dietary patterns are evident early in life. However, little is known about early-life dietary patterns in Australian children. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of Australian toddlers and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics and adiposity. Principal component analysis was applied to 3 days (1 × 24-h recall and 2 × 24-h record) data of 14 (n=552)- and 24 (n=493)-month-old children from two Australian studies, NOURISH and South Australian Infant Dietary Intake (SAIDI). Associations with dietary patterns were investigated using regression analyses. Two patterns were identified at both ages. At 14 months, the first pattern was characterised by fruit, grains, vegetables, cheese and nuts/seeds ('14-month core foods') and the second pattern was characterised by white bread, milk, spreads, juice and ice-cream ('basic combination'). Similarly, at 24 months the '24-month core foods' pattern included fruit, vegetables, dairy, nuts/seeds, meat and water, whereas the 'non-core foods' included white bread, spreads, sweetened beverages, snacks, chocolate and processed meat. Lower maternal age and earlier breastfeeding cessation were associated with higher 'basic combination' and 'non-core foods' pattern scores, whereas earlier and later solid introduction were associated with higher 'basic combination' and '24-month core foods' pattern scores, respectively. Patterns were not associated with body mass index (BMI) z-score. Dietary patterns reflecting core and non-core food intake are identifiable in Australian toddlers. These findings support the need to intervene early with parents to promote healthy eating in children and can inform future investigations on the effects of early diet on long-term health.

  15. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Mara M.; Chang, Ellen T.; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T.; Batista, Julie L.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E.; Birmann, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997–2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns (“vegetable,” “high meat,” “fruit/low-fat dairy,” “desserts/sweets”) using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945

  16. How do health behaviours relate to dietary practice patterns among Japanese adults?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gita D; Lee, Jung Su; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    To identify dietary practice patterns for Japanese adults and investigate the links between health behaviours and these patterns. A random sample, stratified according to area, sex, and age, of 4570 adults aged 20-80 years completed a survey conducted in 2011 in a city, in Yamagata Prefecture, Northeast Japan. Cluster analysis of 16 dietary practice items revealed four patterns labelled as: low fat, sugar, or salt; emphasis on nutrition; regular breakfast and staples; and meals not snacks. Findings from multiple linear regression analyses showed that those not engaged in habitual physical exercise had lower scores on low fat, sugar, or salt (beta coefficient -0.22: 95% confidence intervals -0.30, -0.14); emphasis on nutrition (-0.17: -0.25, -0.09); meals not snacks; (-0.38: -0.46, -0.3) that other participants. Current smokers had lower scores than never smokers on low fat, sugar, or salt (-0.23: -0.32, -0.14); emphasis on nutrition (-0.28: -0.37, -0.19); regular breakfast and staples (-0.42: -0.51, -0.33) patterns. Compared with nondrinkers, those who had reduced their consumption of alcohol had higher scores on low fat, sugar, or salt (0.19: 0.09, 0.29) and emphasis on nutrition (0.17: 0.07, 0.27). These relationships were adjusted for other dietary practice patterns, sociodemographic factors, body mass index, and the presence of major illness or pain. Findings support an integrated and targeted approach as part of public health policy by considering links between dietary practices and other health behaviours, such as habitual exercise and smoking behaviour that may facilitate changes in dietary practices.

  17. Dietary patterns of rural older adults are associated with weight and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Mitchell, Diane C; Miller, Carla K; Jensen, Gordon L

    2004-04-01

    To characterize dietary patterns of rural older adults and relate patterns to weight and nutritional status. Cross-sectional. Rural Pennsylvania. One hundred seventy-nine community-dwelling adults aged 66 to 87 years. A home visit was conducted to collect demographic, health behavior, and anthropometric data and a blood sample. Five 24-hour dietary recall were administered. Cluster analysis classified participants into dietary patterns using food subgroup servings. Chi-square, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression were used to assess differences across clusters. A low-nutrient-dense cluster (n=107), with higher intake of breads, sweet breads/desserts, dairy desserts, processed meats, eggs, and fats/oils, and a high-nutrient-dense cluster (n=72) with higher intake of cereals, dark green/yellow vegetables, other vegetables, citrus/melons/berries, fruit juices, other fruits, milks, poultry, fish, and beans, were identified. Those in the high-nutrient-dense cluster had lower energy intake; higher energy-adjusted intake of fiber, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamins B(6), B(12), and D; higher Healthy Eating Index scores; higher plasma vitamin B(12) levels; and a lower waist circumference. Those with a low-nutrient-dense dietary pattern were twice as likely to be obese, twice as likely to have low plasma vitamin B(12) levels, and three to 17 times more likely to have low nutrient intake. This study provides support for recommending a high-nutrient-dense dietary pattern for older adults. Behavioral interventions encouraging diets characterized by high-nutrient-dense foods may improve weight and nutritional status of older adults.

  18. [Dietary patterns in nursery school children from an urban environment].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A correct dietary pattern optimizes development processes and is a factor in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Attitudes and dietary habits of children, shaped by their family, nursery school and school environments, affect their dietary patterns later in their life. The aim of the study was to evaluate dietary behaviours and preferences of a group of nursery school children, based on their parents' declarations. The research was carried out in the spring on a group of 126 parents of children (66 boys and 60 girls) aged 3-6 in Krakow, based on a survey questionnaire constructed by the author. The distribution of the data was presented for the whole sample in general, due to a lack of statistically significant differences in this respect depending on the gender (P>0.05). The study has demonstrated the prevalence of the 4-5 meal-a-day dietary pattern (97.6%), though with a limited regularity (52.4%), and snacking between main meals (86.5%), usually on sweets (63.5%), fruit (56.3%) and dairy products (42.9%). Daily consumption of wholegrain cereal products was the case in 38.1% of the children, of fruit in 50.8% of the children, vegetables in 41.2%, and dairy products in 82% of the children. Fish was served to the children usually once a week (50%). Parents gave their children whole fat products more frequently than reduced fat versions (54.8% vs 45.2%). The children consumed fast food products less frequently than once a month (61.7%), while 26.4% consumed them every month and 10.3 % every week. A common mistake involved a high prevalence of sweets, which were consumed daily by 57.9% of the group. Children preferably drank fruit juices (62.7%), tea (45.2%) and mineral water (39.7%), and consumed flour products (84.1%), sweets and confectionery products (42.1%) and meat products (30.2%). Products disliked by children, according to their parents' reports, included vegetables (63.5%), milk (48.4%) and grits (34.1%). A preference for the consumption of sweets and

  19. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Metabolic Outcomes among Adult Samoans in a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongqing; Hawley, Nicola L; Thompson, Avery A; Lameko, Viali; Reupena, Muagatutia Sefuiva; McGarvey, Stephen T; Baylin, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Background: The Samoan population has been undergoing a nutrition transition toward more imported and processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle.Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary patterns in Samoa and to evaluate their associations with metabolic outcomes.Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study includes 2774 Samoan adults recruited in 2010 (1104 with metabolic syndrome compared with 1670 without). Principal component analysis on food items from a 104-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns. Adjusted least squares means of each component of metabolic syndrome were estimated by quintiles of factor scores for each dietary pattern. Metabolic syndrome status was regressed on quintiles of scores by using log-binomial models to obtain prevalence ratios.Results: We identified a modern pattern, a mixed-traditional pattern, and a mixed-modern pattern. The modern pattern included a high intake of imported and processed foods, including pizza, cheeseburgers, margarine, sugary drinks, desserts, snacks, egg products, noodles, nuts, breads, and cakes and a low intake of traditional agricultural products and fish. The mixed-traditional pattern had a high intake of neotraditional foods, including fruits, vegetables, soup, poultry, and fish, and imported and processed foods, including dairy products, breads, and cakes. The mixed-modern pattern was loaded with imported and processed foods, including pizza, cheeseburgers, red meat, egg products, noodles, and grains, but also with neotraditional foods, such as seafood and coconut. It also included a low intake of fish, tea, coffee, soup, and traditional agricultural staples. Higher adherence to the mixed-modern pattern was associated with lower abdominal circumference (P-trend < 0.0001), lower serum triglycerides (P-trend = 0.03), and higher serum HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.0003). The mixed-modern pattern was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (the highest

  20. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74) and carbohydrates (r = 0.22), those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34). After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively) and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97). Conclusions The findings of this study

  1. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Naja, Farah; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Salem, Maya; Azar, Sami T; Zeidan, Maya Nabhani; Nasreddine, Lara

    2012-12-27

    In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the "Refined Grains & Desserts" had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74) and carbohydrates (r = 0.22), those of the "Fast Food" had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34). After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively) and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97). The findings of this study demonstrate direct associations of the Refined Grains

  2. Characterising the reproducibility and reliability of dietary patterns among Yup'ik Alaska Native people.

    PubMed

    Ryman, Tove K; Boyer, Bert B; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O'Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Austin, Melissa A

    2015-02-28

    FFQ data can be used to characterise dietary patterns for diet-disease association studies. In the present study, we evaluated three previously defined dietary patterns--'subsistence foods', market-based 'processed foods' and 'fruits and vegetables'--among a sample of Yup'ik people from Southwest Alaska. We tested the reproducibility and reliability of the dietary patterns, as well as the associations of these patterns with dietary biomarkers and participant characteristics. We analysed data from adult study participants who completed at least one FFQ with the Center for Alaska Native Health Research 9/2009-5/2013. To test the reproducibility of the dietary patterns, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a hypothesised model using eighteen food items to measure the dietary patterns (n 272). To test the reliability of the dietary patterns, we used the CFA to measure composite reliability (n 272) and intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability (n 113). Finally, to test the associations, we used linear regression (n 637). All factor loadings, except one, in CFA indicated acceptable correlations between foods and dietary patterns (r>0·40), and model-fit criteria were >0·90. Composite and test-retest reliability of the dietary patterns were, respectively, 0·56 and 0·34 for 'subsistence foods', 0·73 and 0·66 for 'processed foods', and 0·72 and 0·54 for 'fruits and vegetables'. In the multi-predictor analysis, the dietary patterns were significantly associated with dietary biomarkers, community location, age, sex and self-reported lifestyle. This analysis confirmed the reproducibility and reliability of the dietary patterns in the present study population. These dietary patterns can be used for future research and development of dietary interventions in this underserved population.

  3. Dietary patterns in young adults from Timiş County.

    PubMed

    Tuţă-Sas, Ioana; Vlaicu, Brigitha; Doroftei, Sorina; Petrescu, Cristina; Fira-Mladinescu, Corneluţa; Putnoky, Salomeia; Suciu, Oana; Bagiu, R; Ursoniu, S; Serban, D

    2012-01-01

    Dietary patterns present at the age of the young adult have great probability to remain unchanged for the rest of the life and may contribute to eating disorders later in life. The aim of this study is the analysis of the intake patterns for fruits and vegetables in students from Timis County. We conducted a cross sectional study using a stratified cluster sample design to produce a representative sample of students for the Timis County. The students' sample totalized 2076 students from the universities in Timis County. A large percent of the young people participating in the study (41.9%) does not consume fresh juices. For the consumption of fresh fruits, the present results back up the international di scoveries, only 32.8% of the young people consuming fruits daily, which is a smaller percent that the medium value reported by other countries. The frequency of consumption for fruits differs according to gender, being higher for girls. For salads, the percent of young people consuming this type of foods at least once a day is 17.0%, much lower compared to 32.8% of the young people consuming fresh fruits at least once a day. The examination of the dietary patterns related to the intake of fruits and vegetables helped us to determine priority areas for future interventions.

  4. Serum carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations vary by dietary pattern among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Carithers, Teresa C.; Taylor, Herman A.; Bogle, Margaret L; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Intakes and biochemical concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols have been associated with chronic diseases. Objective To describe dietary patterns in Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants and to determine if biochemical measurements of antioxidants differ across these. Design Cross sectional analysis of data for 373 African American men and women (35–80 y), participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the JHS. Methods Dietary intake was assessed with a region specific food frequency questionnaire. Patterns were defined by cluster analysis of food groups, as percent of energy intake. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: 1) Fast food 2) Southern 3) Prudent and 4) Juice. Individuals in the Fast food pattern (n=153) had significantly lower serum concentrations of lutein plus zeaxanthin and beta cryptoxanthin; those in the Southern cluster (n=99) had significantly lower serum alpha carotene; and those in the Prudent (n=63) and Juice (n=58) clusters had significantly higher serum alpha carotene and beta cryptoxanthin (P < 0.05) relative to those in at least one other cluster (all P < 0.05). The Juice cluster also had higher serum alpha tocopherol concentrations relative to the Fast food cluster. Conclusions Diets high in fast food, snacks, soft drinks and meat were associated with relatively low concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. This pattern contained the largest number of participants, and could contribute to the extensive health disparities seen in this region. PMID:19027404

  5. Associations between Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk among Yup’ik Alaska Native People using Food Frequency Questionnaire Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, TK; Boyer, BB; Hopkins, S; Philip, J; Beresford, SAA; Thompson, B; Heagerty, PJ; Pomeroy, JJ; Thummel, KE; Austin, MA

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In previous analyses, we identified three dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaire data among a sample of Yup’ik Alaska Native people living in Southwest Alaska: a “subsistence foods” dietary pattern and two market-based dietary patterns “processed foods” and “fruits and vegetables”. In this analysis, we aimed to characterize the association between the dietary patterns and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors (lipids, blood pressure, glucose, adiposity). Methods and Results We used multilevel linear regression to estimate the mean of each CM risk factor, comparing participants in the 4th to the 1st quartile of each dietary pattern (n=637). Models were adjusted for age, sex, past smoking, current smoking, and physical activity. Mean log triglyceride levels were significantly higher among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the processed foods dietary pattern (β=0.11). Mean HbA1c percent was significantly lower (β=−0.08) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) mm Hg was significantly higher (β=2.87) among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the fruits and vegetables dietary pattern. Finally, mean log triglyceride levels and mean DBP mm Hg were significantly lower among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the subsistence foods dietary pattern (β=−0.10 and β=−3.99 respectively). Conclusions We found increased CM risk, as reflected by increased triglycerides, associated with eating a greater frequency of processed foods, and reduced CM risk, as reflected by lower triglycerides and DBP, associated with eating a greater frequency of subsistence foods. PMID:26607703

  6. Associations between diet and cardiometabolic risk among Yup'ik Alaska Native people using food frequency questionnaire dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Ryman, T K; Boyer, B B; Hopkins, S; Philip, J; Beresford, S A A; Thompson, B; Heagerty, P J; Pomeroy, J J; Thummel, K E; Austin, M A

    2015-12-01

    In previous analyses, we identified three dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaire data among a sample of Yup'ik Alaska Native people living in Southwest Alaska: a "subsistence foods" dietary pattern and two market-based dietary patterns "processed foods" and "fruits and vegetables". In this analysis, we aimed to characterize the association between the dietary patterns and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors (lipids, blood pressure, glucose, adiposity). We used multilevel linear regression to estimate the mean of each CM risk factor, comparing participants in the 4th to the 1st quartile of each dietary pattern (n = 637). Models were adjusted for age, sex, past smoking, current smoking, and physical activity. Mean log triglyceride levels were significantly higher among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the processed foods dietary pattern (β = 0.11). Mean HbA1c percent was significantly lower (β = -0.08) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) mm Hg was significantly higher (β = 2.87) among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the fruits and vegetables dietary pattern. Finally, mean log triglyceride levels and mean DBP mm Hg were significantly lower among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the subsistence foods dietary pattern (β = -0.10 and β = -3.99 respectively). We found increased CM risk, as reflected by increased triglycerides, associated with eating a greater frequency of processed foods, and reduced CM risk, as reflected by lower triglycerides and DBP, associated with eating a greater frequency of subsistence foods. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A prospective study of dietary patterns and cancer mortality among Blacks and Whites in the REGARDS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Pisu, Maria; Lakoski, Susan G.; Shikany, James; Goodman, Michael; Judd, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Marked racial differences exist in dietary patterns and obesity, as well as cancer mortality. This study aims to assess whether dietary patterns are associated with cancer mortality overall and by race. We identified 22,041 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Dietary patterns were categorized into: Convenience (Chinese and Mexican foods, pasta, pizza), Plant-based (fruits, vegetables), Southern (added fats, fried foods, sugar-sweetened beverages), Sweets/Fats (sugary foods) and Alcohol/Salads (alcohol, green-leafy vegetables, salad dressing). Using Cox regression, we examined the association between quartiles of dietary patterns and cancer mortality, adjusted for potential confounders, overall among all participants and stratified by race. A total of 873 cancer deaths were observed over the 10-year observation period: 582 (66.7%) in Whites and 291 (33.3%) in Blacks. Greater adherence to the Southern dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality (4th vs. 1st quartile HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.32–2.10) overall, especially among Whites (4th vs. 1st quartile HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.22–2.08). The convenience (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56–0.94) and Plant-based (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55–0.93) dietary patterns were associated with up to a 28% reduced risk of cancer mortality, but only among Whites. Greater adherence to the Southern dietary pattern increased the risk of cancer mortality, while greater adherence to the convenience and Plant-based diets reduced the risk of cancer mortality among Whites. Racial differences were observed in the association between dietary patterns and cancer mortality, but warrant further study. PMID:27459634

  8. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas J; Hills, Andrew P

    2014-04-10

    This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults.

  9. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lafay, Lionel; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires national food consumption survey. Weight and height, leisure time physical activity, SED (television viewing), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires. Scores for lifestyle patterns were assessed with factor analysis and their relationship with OW was explored by logistic regression analysis. Two similar lifestyle patterns were identified in children aged 3-6 y and 7-11 y: "snacking and sedentary" and "varied food and physically active." The snacking and sedentary pattern was positively associated with OW in the youngest children (P-trend = 0.0161) and partly mediated the negative association of SES to OW. The varied food and physically active pattern was inversely correlated with OW in the eldest children only (P-trend = 0.0401). A third pattern called "big eaters at main meals" was derived in children aged 7-11 y and was positively correlated with OW (P-trend = 0.0165). From a public health perspective, the combinations of identifiable dietary and physical activity behaviors may be useful as a basis for recommendations on preventing OW.

  10. Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villegas, A; Delgado-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-González, M A; De Irala-Estévez, J

    2003-02-01

    To ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort 'SUN' and to assess the association of several sociodemographic (including age and gender) and lifestyle variables with the adherence to these dietary patterns. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 3847 subjects (1587 men and 2260 women) belonging to a prospective cohort study based on self-reported questionnaires. A factor analysis based on 30 predefined food groups was conducted to ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and the adherence to these dietary patterns (measured using two scores with observed values ranging from -3.2 to +4.6 for the Western pattern and -3.1 to +5.5 for the Mediterranean pattern). Two major dietary patterns were found. The first pattern was labelled as a 'Western' dietary pattern and the other as a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. Younger subjects were more likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern; the coefficient representing the change for every 10 y increase in age was b=-0.24 (P<0.001) for men and b=-0.12 (P<0.001) for women. More physically active subjects were less likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern and more likely to follow a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. An association between a higher level of physical activity during leisure time and adherence to a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet was apparent. However, the profile of being a young, sedentary and single male was identified as the most likely to exhibit a departure from the traditional 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet and follow a 'Western' dietary pattern.

  11. Prospective study of dietary patterns and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among US women123

    PubMed Central

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Fung, Teresa T; Barr, R Graham; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Camargo, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    Background Although many foods and nutrients are associated with lung function or symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the relation between overall diet and newly diagnosed COPD is not known. Objective We assessed the relation between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed COPD in women. Design Data were collected from a large prospective cohort of US women (Nurses’ Health Study). Between 1984 and 2000, 754 self-reported confirmed cases of newly diagnosed COPD were identified among 72 043 women. With the use of principal component analysis, 2 dietary patterns were identified: a prudent pattern (fruit, vegetables, fish, whole-grain products) and a Western pattern (refined grains, cured and red meats, desserts, French fries). Patterns were categorized into quintiles, and the risk of COPD was compared between quintiles (lowest as reference) with the use of Cox proportional hazard models. Results After adjustments for 14 potential confounders, the prudent pattern was negatively associated with risk of newly diagnosed COPD [relative risk (RR) for highest compared with lowest quintile: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P for trend = 0.02] whereas the Western pattern was positively associated with risk of COPD (RR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.31; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.82; P for trend = 0.02). In contrast with findings for COPD, dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of adult-onset asthma. Conclusion In women, a negative association was found between a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and fish and the risk of COPD, whereas a positive association was found between a diet rich in refined grains, cured and red meats, desserts, and French fries and the risk of COPD. PMID:17684223

  12. Longitudinal Analysis of Dietary Patterns in Chinese Adults from 1991 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A.; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and the tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence of these patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We used seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9,253 adults with ≥3 waves complete. Diet was measured over a 3-day period with 24-hr recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified, remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern pattern was characterized by high intake of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour, corn/coarse grains; and the modern high-wheat pattern was characterized by high intake of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy roots/tubers products, fruits, eggs/eggs products, soy milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity level were positively associated with both dietary patterns, but the association became smaller in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China; the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods is cause of concern. PMID:24331247

  13. Updated US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns meet goals of the 2010 dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Britten, Patricia; Cleveland, Linda E; Koegel, Kristin L; Kuczynski, Kevin J; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2012-10-01

    The US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns were updated for the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to meet new nutrition goals and incorporate results of food pattern modeling requested by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used and changes in the updated patterns. Changes include renaming the Meat and Beans and Milk Groups to the Protein Foods and Dairy Groups, respectively, to be more encompassing of foods in each. Vegetable subgroups now provide more achievable intake recommendations. Calcium-fortified soymilk is now included in the Dairy Group because of its similarity to foods in that group. Increased amounts of seafoods are recommended in the Protein Foods Group, balanced by decreased amounts of meat and poultry. A limit on calories from solid fats and added sugars is included, replacing the previous discretionary calorie allowance and emphasizing the need to choose nutrient-dense forms of foods. Lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegan patterns that meet nutrition goals were created by making substitutions in the Protein Foods Group, and for vegan patterns, in the Dairy Group. Patterns identify food choices that meet nutritional needs within energy allowances and encourage choosing a variety of foods. They rely on foods in nutrient-dense forms, including a limited amount of calories from solid fats and added sugars. The Food Patterns provide a useful template for educating consumers about healthful food choices while highlighting a large gap between choices many Americans make and healthy eating patterns.

  14. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min-Shan; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; He, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xue-Ling; Lu, Jin-Hua; Li, Sheng-Hui; Wen, Xing-Xuan; Chan, Fan-Fan; Chen, Nian-Nian; Qiu, Lan; Mai, Wei-Bi; Zhang, Rui-Fang; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” (n 1026, 14.8%), “Dairy” (n 1020, 14.7%), “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” (n 799, 11.5%), “Meats” (n 1066, 15.3%), “Vegetables” (n 1383, 19.9%), and “Varied” (n 1224, 17.6%). The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” and “Varied” groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group. Compared with women in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group, those in the “Varied” group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08). These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby. PMID:27136584

  15. Socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of 'Western-like' and 'Health conscious' dietary patterns in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Bleeker, Sacha E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-01-14

    Determinants of a child's diet shortly after weaning and lactation have been relatively understudied. The aim of the present study was hence to identify common dietary patterns in toddlers and to explore parental and child indicators of these dietary patterns. The study was a population-based, prospective birth-cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Food consumption data of 2420 children aged 14 months were used. A 'Health conscious' dietary pattern characterised by pasta, fruits, vegetables, oils, legumes and fish, and a 'Western-like' dietary pattern characterised by snacks, animal fats, confectionery and sugar-containing beverages were extracted using principal component analysis. Low paternal education, low household income, parental smoking, multiparity, maternal BMI, maternal carbohydrate intake and television-watching of child were determinants of a 'Western-like' diet, whereas parental age, dietary fibre intake during pregnancy, introduction of solids after 6 months and female sex were inversely associated with a 'Western-like' diet of the child. Maternal co-morbidity, alcohol consumption during pregnancy and female sex were inversely associated with a 'Health conscious' dietary pattern of the child, while single parenthood, folic acid use and dietary fibre intake during pregnancy were positively associated. All aforementioned associations were statistically significant. In conclusion, both 'Western-like' and 'Health conscious' diets can already be identified in toddlers. Particularly, adherence to a 'Western-like' diet is associated with unfavourable lifestyle factors of the parents and child, and low socio-economic background. These findings can form a basis for future epidemiological studies regarding dietary patterns and health outcomes in young children.

  16. DESCRIPTION OF INDEXES BASED ON THE ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN DIETARY PATTERN: A REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ruiz, Angela; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra Hernández, Eduardo J; Amiano, Pilar; Azpiri, Mikel; Molina-Montes, Esther

    2015-11-01

    diet quality indexes are tools are aimed at quantifying the compliance to a defined dietary pattern. These indexes are a combined measure of dietary factors (food groups, foods, nutrients and ratios) and/ or lifestyles factors. The Mediterranean Diet (MD) is a dietary pattern characterized by their positive effects against chronic diseases. There have been many indexes proposed for the assessment of this dietary pattern. An evaluation of their composition and health benefits is therefore convenient. the objective is to evaluate indexes of adherence to the MD with regard to their definition, methodological issues and validation as reported in epidemiological studies. we searched in PubMed for studies that developed MD Indexes up to October 2014. a total number of 22 indexes were identified, with differences regarding the number of components (7-28), scoring (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 or 10, in case of compliance), range (0-100) and type of components (which could be food groups/foods or their combination, with nutrients). Among the positive components, fruits and vegetables were the most common and meats, among the negative components. There were also differences with regard to their composition and evaluation (e.g. criteria of moderate alcohol consumption), as well as with the scoring system (in medians, terciles or established servings). this review suggests that since there is great heterogeneity in the definition of MD. It would be therefore convenient to establish more clearly the components to be included and to establish commonly defined criteria to quantify this dietary pattern. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary patterns, digestive symptoms, and health-related quality of life in women reporting minor digestive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Bridget A; Habi-Rachedi, Fatiha; Trotin, Beatrice; Paineau, Damien; Guyonnet, Denis; Rondeau, Pascale; Flourié, Bernard; Whelan, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    Digestive symptoms are reported to result from a wide range of dietary components. Dietary pattern analysis is a useful method when considering the entire diet, rather than individual foods or nutrients, providing an opportunity to take interactions into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate, using a dietary pattern approach, the relationship between diet, digestive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women reporting minor digestive symptoms. Analysis was performed on dietary and digestive symptoms data collected in France. Women (N = 308, ages 18-60 y) reporting a bowel movement frequency within the normal range (3-21 stools/wk) but with minor digestive symptoms in the previous month were studied. Dietary data was collected using three 24-h recalls. K-means was used to divide the dietary data into clusters. The frequency of digestive symptoms (abdominal discomfort or pain, bloating, flatulence, borborygmi) and bowel movements were evaluated over a 2-wk period. HRQoL was also assessed. Four dietary clusters were identified and characterized as unhealthy, balance, healthy, and convenience. No differences were found in the frequency of digestive symptoms according to dietary cluster, except for flatulence (P = 0.030), which was more prevalent in the unhealthy and convenience clusters. No significant differences were observed in HRQoL according to dietary clusters. Results from the present study demonstrated that even within a relatively homogeneous sample of French women, distinct dietary patterns can be identified but without significant differences in digestive symptoms (except for flatulence) or HRQoL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of dietary patterns associated with obesity in a nationally representative survey of Canadian adults: application of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Wolfinger, Russell D; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-03-01

    Background: Analyzing the effects of dietary patterns is an important approach for examining the complex role of nutrition in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dietary patterns of Canadians with the use of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques, and to compare the associations of these patterns with obesity risk in individuals with and without chronic diseases (unhealthy and healthy obesity).Design: Dietary recalls from 11,748 participants (≥18 y of age) in the cross-sectional, nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used. A priori dietary pattern was characterized with the use of the previously validated 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI). Weighted partial least squares (hybrid method) was used to derive an energy-dense (ED), high-fat (HF), low-fiber density (LFD) dietary pattern with the use of 38 food groups. The associations of derived dietary patterns with disease outcomes were then tested with the use of multinomial logistic regression.Results: An ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern had high positive loadings for fast foods, carbonated drinks, and refined grains, and high negative loadings for whole fruits and vegetables (≥|0.17|). Food groups with a high loading were summed to form a simplified dietary pattern score. Moving from the first (healthiest) to the fourth (least healthy) quartiles of the ED, HF, and LFD pattern and the simplified dietary pattern scores was associated with increasingly elevated ORs for unhealthy obesity, with individuals in quartile 4 having an OR of 2.57 (95% CI: 1.75, 3.76) and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.88, 3.98), respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Individuals who adhered the most to the 2015 DGAI recommendations (quartile 4) had a 53% lower OR of unhealthy obesity (P-trend < 0.0001). The associations of dietary patterns with healthy obesity and unhealthy nonobesity were weaker, albeit

  19. Dietary pattern and oral cancer risk--a factor analysis study.

    PubMed

    Helen-Ng, Lee Ching; Razak, Ishak A; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Marhazlinda, Jamaluddin; Norain, Abdul Talib; Raja Jallaludin, Raja-Latifah; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Zain, Rosnah B

    2012-12-01

    The role of diet in cancer risk has mainly been investigated based on intake of individual food items. However, food consumption is made up of a combination of various food items. This study aims to determine the association of dietary patterns with oral cancer risk. A total of 306 matched cases and controls were recruited in this study. Data on dietary intake were obtained using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Factor analysis (FA) was performed to identify dietary patterns based on the intake of nine major food groups, resulting in four factors/components being retained. The odds ratio (OR) was computed for each component using conditional logistic regression. The first pattern labelled as 'modern' was loaded with processed foods and snacks, whereas the second pattern termed as 'prudent' was characterized by intake of fruits and vegetables. The third pattern labelled as 'traditional' consisted of beverages and starches, while the fourth pattern termed as 'combination' was loaded with intakes of dairy, fermented/salted and meat/by-products. A significant reduced risk was found for 'prudent' (OR 0.53, 95% CI = 0.28-0.98), whereas an increased risk was found for both 'combination' (OR 2.43, 95% CI = 1.33-4.45) and 'traditional' (OR 2.32, 95% CI = 1.23-4.25) patterns. However, after adjusting for risk habits of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and betel quid chewing, only 'combination' (aOR 2.99, 95% CI = 1.55-5.75) and 'traditional' (aOR 2.08, 95% CI = 1.09-3.97) patterns remained significant. Consumption in the highest tertile of 'traditional' and 'combination' patterns may induce twice and thrice the risk of oral cancer, respectively. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Dietary patterns are associated with different indexes of adiposity and obesity in an urban Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Castañón, Susana; Talavera, Juan O; Flores, Mario; Macías, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Flores, Yvonne N; Salmerón, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between dietary patterns and obesity, abdominal obesity, and high body fat proportion (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; >25% in men and >35% in women) in an urban Mexican population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with the baseline data from 6070 men and women aged 20-70 y participating in the Health Workers Cohort Study, including information on participants' socio-demographic status and physical activity collected via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 116-item FFQ. Anthropometric measures were obtained using standardized procedures. We used factor analysis to identify 3 major dietary patterns: prudent, Westernized, and high animal protein/fat. We found that participants in the highest quintile of the prudent pattern were less likely to have high-body fat proportion (OR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.98) and that participants in the highest quintile of the Westernized pattern had greater odds for obesity (OR, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.23-1.73), abdominal obesity (OR, 1.64; 95% CI: 1.37-1.96), and high-body fat proportion (OR, 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.35). Additionally, participants in the upper quintile of the high-animal protein/-fat pattern had greater odds of being obese (OR, 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06-1.42). These results indicate that the dietary patterns of Mexican adults are associated with different levels of adiposity and obesity. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these associations.

  1. Pattern visual evoked potentials for identifying malingering.

    PubMed

    Sun, I-Ting; Lee, Jong-Jer; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Kuo, Hsi-Kung

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of pattern visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in evaluating objective visual acuity (VA) and discriminating malingerers. Two hundred and forty-nine eyes of 249 patients aged 20-65 years were included. There were 147 eyes with macular diseases (group 1) and 102 eyes with optic nerve diseases (group 2). Amplitudes and latencies were analyzed and correlated with best-corrected visual acuity by a regression analysis. We found the best-correlated mode of pattern VEP, determined the relations, and then calculated the pattern VEP-estimated VA (PVEP-VA) of all 249 eyes, another 30 malingering eyes, 13 eyes with macular diseases, and 17 eyes with optic nerve diseases, and used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine a cutoff for acceptable variance between PVEP-VA and subjective VA to discriminate malingerers. The best correlation was between the amplitude of 50' checkerboard size (Amp50') and VA in every group. Significant correlation was between Amp50' and VA, where p < 0.0001 in group 1 and p = 0.020 in group 2. A logarithmic curve best fitted the correlation in the regression analysis, where y = 1.731 - 1.569x (R(2) = 0.611, p < 0.0001) in group 1 and y = 2.413 - 2.169x (R(2) = 0.531, p < 0.0001) in group 2 [x: log(Amp50'), y: PVEP-VA (logMAR)]. By using the relations and ROC curve, we determined a variance value of 0.4041 (logMAR) with 100% sensitivity and 94.0% specificity in group 1 and 0.3658 with 70.6% sensitivity and 50.5% specificity in group 2 to discriminate malingerers. The pattern VEP amplitude of 50' checkerboard size was useful to assess VA and can be helpful in discriminating malingering from real disability.

  2. Determinants of dietary patterns and diet quality during pregnancy: a systematic review with narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Ina-Merle; Borrmann, Brigitte; Grosser, Angelique; Razum, Oliver; Spallek, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    To identify determinants of diet in pregnancy, by detecting factors in our multiple-determinants life course framework that are associated with dietary patterns, quality or guideline adherence. A systematic review of observational studies, published in English or German, was conducted. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, environmental and pregnancy-related determinants were considered. Four electronic databases were searched in January 2015 and updated in April 2016 and a total of 4368 articles identified. Risk of bias was assessed using adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Scales. High- and upper-middle-income countries. Pregnant or postpartum women reporting their dietary intake during pregnancy. Seventeen publications of twelve studies were included and compared narratively due to heterogeneity. Diet in pregnancy was patterned along a social gradient and aligned with other health behaviours before and during pregnancy. Few studies investigated the influence of the social and built environment and their findings were inconsistent. Except for parity, pregnancy determinants were rarely assessed even though pregnancy is a physiologically and psychologically unique period. Various less well-researched factors such as the role of ethnicity, pregnancy intendedness, pregnancy ailments and macro-level environment were identified that need to be studied in more detail. The framework was supported by the literature identified, but more research of sound methodology is needed in order to conclusively disentangle the interplay of the different determinants. Practitioners should be aware that pregnant women who are young, have a low education or do not follow general health advice appear to be at higher risk of inadequate dietary intake.

  3. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    PubMed

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  4. Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Summary Although dietary patterns, specific foods, and their constituents have been linked to cancer risk, the role of dietary patterns and specific food groups in liver cancer risk has not been investigated. In the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), two cohort studies of 132 837 Chinese women and men, we evaluated the relationship between dietary patterns, food groups, and liver cancer risk. Through in-person interviews, dietary information intake over the preceding year was collected by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 10.9 (SWHS) or 5.5 (SMHS) years, 267 incident liver cancer cases were identified after the first 2 years of study enrollment. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. A vegetable-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with liver cancer; HRs (95% CIs) for the lowest to highest quartiles were: 1.00, 0.98 (0.71–1.35), 0.93 (0.67–1.29), and 0.58 (0.40–0.84); Ptrend=0.01). The association was stronger among participants with a history of chronic liver disease. Further analyses showed high intakes of celery, mushrooms, allium vegetables, composite vegetables (including asparagus lettuce and garland chrysanthemum), legumes, and legume products were associated with reduced liver cancer risk (all Ptrend<0.05). Fruit- and meat-based dietary patterns were not associated with liver cancer risk. Our study suggests that a vegetable-based dietary pattern is associated with reduced liver cancer risk. PMID:23841909

  5. Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai women's and men's health studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-10-01

    Although dietary patterns, specific foods, and their constituents have been linked to cancer risk, the role of dietary patterns and specific food groups in liver cancer risk has not been investigated. In the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), two cohort studies of 132 837 Chinese women and men, we evaluated the relationship between dietary patterns, food groups, and liver cancer risk. Through in-person interviews, dietary information intake over the preceding year was collected by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 10.9 (SWHS) or 5.5 (SMHS) years, 267 incident liver cancer cases were identified after the first 2 years of study enrolment. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. A vegetable-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with liver cancer; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the lowest to highest quartiles were: 1.00; 0.98 (0.71-1.35); 0.93 (0.67-1.29); and 0.58 (0.40-0.84); P(trend) = 0.01. The association was stronger among participants with a history of chronic liver disease. Further analyses showed high intakes of celery, mushrooms, allium vegetables, composite vegetables (including asparagus lettuce and garland chrysanthemum), legumes and legume products were associated with reduced liver cancer risk (all P(trend) < 0.05). Fruit- and meat-based dietary patterns were not associated with liver cancer risk. Our study suggests that a vegetable-based dietary pattern is associated with reduced liver cancer risk. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [≥150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ≥2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was

  7. Characterizing the Reproducibility and Reliability of Dietary Patterns among Yup’ik Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Tove K.; Boyer, Bert B.; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O’Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Austin, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data can be used to characterize dietary patterns for diet-disease association studies. Among a sample of Yup’ik people from Southwest Alaska, we evaluated three previously defined dietary patterns: “subsistence foods” and market-based “processed foods” and “fruits and vegetables”. We tested the reproducibility and reliability of the dietary patterns and tested associations of the patterns with dietary biomarkers and participant characteristics. We analyzed data from adult study participants who completed at least one FFQ with the Center for Alaska Native Health Research 9/2009–5/2013. To test reproducibility we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a hypothesized model using 18 foods to measure the dietary patterns (n=272). To test the reliability of the dietary patterns, we used CFA to measure the composite reliability (n=272) and intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability (n=113). Finally, to test associations we used linear regression (n=637). All CFA factor loadings, except one, indicated acceptable correlations between foods and dietary patterns (r > 0.40) and model fit criteria were greater than 0.90. Composite and test-retest reliability of dietary patterns were respectively 0.56 and 0.34 for subsistence foods, 0.73 and 0.66 for processed foods, and 0.72 and 0.54 for fruits and vegetables. In the multi-predictor analysis, dietary patterns were significantly associated with dietary biomarkers, community location, age, sex, and self-reported lifestyle. This analysis confirmed the reproducibility and reliability of the dietary patterns in this study population. These dietary patterns can be used for future research and development of dietary interventions in this underserved population. PMID:25656871

  8. Dietary patterns and risk of ductal carcinoma of the breast: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Aune, Dagfinn; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) shows very high incidence rates in Uruguayan women. The present factor analysis of ductal carcinoma of the breast, the most frequent histological type of this malignancy both in Uruguay and in the World, was conducted at a prepaid hospital of Montevideo, Uruguay. We identified 111 cases with ductal BC and 222 controls with normal mammograms. A factor analysis was conducted using 39 food groups, allowing retention of six factors analyzed through logistic regression in order to obtain odds ratios (OR) associated with ductal BC. The low fat and non-alcoholic beverage patterns were inversely associated (OR=0.30 and OR=0.45, respectively) with risk. Conversely, the fatty cheese pattern was positively associated (OR=4.17) as well as the fried white meat (OR=2.28) and Western patterns (OR 2.13). Ductal BC shared similar dietary risk patterns as those identified by studies not discriminating between histologic type of breast cancer.

  9. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and dietary patterns: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McDermott, M S; Oliver, M; Simnadis, T; Beck, E J; Coltman, T; Iverson, D; Caputi, P; Sharma, R

    2015-12-01

    Promoting adherence to healthy dietary patterns is a critical public health issue. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) allow programme designers to identify antecedents of dietary patterns and design effective interventions. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between TPB variables and dietary patterns. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate average correlations. Meta-regression was used to test the impact of moderator variables. In total, 22 reports met the inclusion criteria. Attitudes had the strongest association with intention (r+=0.61) followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC, r+=0.46) and subjective norm (r+=0.35). The association between intention and behaviour was r+=0.47, and between PBC and behaviour r+=0.32. Moderator analyses revealed that younger participants had stronger PBC-behaviour associations than older participants had, and studies recording participants' perceptions of behaviour reported significantly higher intention-behaviour associations than did those using less subjective measures. TPB variables were found to have medium to large associations with both intention and behaviour that were robust to the influence of key moderators. Recommendations for future research include further examination of the moderation of TPB variables by age and gender and the use of more valid measures of eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary patterns and maternal anthropometry in HIV-infected, pregnant Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; Ban Study Team

    2015-01-14

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  11. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Esophageal Cancer Mortality: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Okada, Emiko; Nakamura, Koshi; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Sakata, Kiyomi; Date, Chigusa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Several case-control studies have associated dietary patterns with esophageal cancer (EC) risk, but prospective studies are scarce. We investigated dietary pattern and EC mortality risk associations by smoking status. Participants were 26,562 40- to 79-yr-old Japanese men, who enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study between 1988 and 1990. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC mortality in nonsmokers and smokers were estimated using Cox proportional models. During follow-up (1988-2009), 132 participants died of EC. Using a baseline food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis, vegetable, animal, and dairy product food patterns were identified. EC risk decreased significantly with a higher factor score for the dairy product pattern (Ptrend = 0.042) and was more pronounced in smokers [multivariable HR (4th vs. 1st quartiles) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.09; Ptrend = 0.021]. Neither vegetable nor animal food patterns were significant overall; however, EC risk increased with a higher factor score for the animal food pattern in nonsmokers [multivariable HR (4th vs. 1st quartiles) = 6.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 30.88; Ptrend = 0.021], although the small number of events was a limitation. Our findings suggest a dairy product pattern may reduce EC risk in Japanese men, especially smokers.

  12. Identification of dietary patterns in urban population of Argentina: study on diet-obesity relation in population-based prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Del Pilar Díaz, María; De La Quintana, Ana Gabriela; Forte, Carla Antonella; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2016-12-01

    In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity. The Córdoba Obesity and Diet Study (CODIES) was conducted in Córdoba city by using a random sample of n = 4,327 subjects between 2005 and 2012. Empirically derived dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of dietary patterns with obesity. Four dietary patterns were identified, called "Starchy-Sugar", "Prudent", "Western", and "Sugary drinks". High scores for the "Western" pattern (with strongest factor loading on meats/eggs, processed meats, and alcohol) showed a positive association with obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67, for third versus first tertile of factor score). "Meats/Cheeses" and "Snacks/Alcohol" patterns emerged in people with obesity. The findings suggest that high adherence to the "Western" pattern promoted obesity in this urban population. In addition, people with obesity showed characteristic dietary patterns that differ from those identified in the overall population.

  13. Identification of dietary patterns in urban population of Argentina: study on diet-obesity relation in population-based prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; del Pilar Díaz, María; De La Quintana, Ana Gabriela; Forte, Carla Antonella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS The Córdoba Obesity and Diet Study (CODIES) was conducted in Córdoba city by using a random sample of n = 4,327 subjects between 2005 and 2012. Empirically derived dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of dietary patterns with obesity. RESULTS Four dietary patterns were identified, called “Starchy-Sugar”, “Prudent”, “Western”, and “Sugary drinks”. High scores for the “Western” pattern (with strongest factor loading on meats/eggs, processed meats, and alcohol) showed a positive association with obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67, for third versus first tertile of factor score). “Meats/Cheeses” and “Snacks/Alcohol” patterns emerged in people with obesity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that high adherence to the “Western” pattern promoted obesity in this urban population. In addition, people with obesity showed characteristic dietary patterns that differ from those identified in the overall population. PMID:27909559

  14. Dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study).

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangah; Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-05-28

    Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most of the studies have focused on risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than overall diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Japanese women. A total of 49 552 Japanese women were followed-up from 1995 to 1998 (5-year follow-up survey) until the end of 2012 for an average of 14·6 years. During 725 534 person-years of follow-up, 718 cases of breast cancer were identified. We identified three dietary patterns (prudent, westernised and traditional Japanese). The westernised dietary pattern was associated with a 32 % increase in breast cancer risk (hazard ratios (HR) 1·32; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·70; P trend=0·04). In particular, subjects with extreme intake of the westernised diet (quintile (Q) Q5_5th) had an 83 % increase in risk of breast cancer in contrast to those in the lowest Q1 (HR 1·83; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·68; P trend=0·01). In analyses stratified by menopausal status, postmenopausal subjects in the highest quintile of the westernised dietary pattern had a 29 % increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·76; P trend=0·04). With regard to hormone receptor status, the westernised dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positivetumours (HR 2·49; 95 % CI 1·40, 4·43; P trend<0·01). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. A westernised dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

  15. Dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular deaths among middle-aged Japanese: JACC Study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Iso, H; Date, C; Kikuchi, S; Watanabe, Y; Wada, Y; Inaba, Y; Tamakoshi, A

    2013-06-01

    Little evidence showed the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease among Japanese. The objective of this study was to examine whether dietary patterns are associated with cardiovascular disease among middle-aged Japanese. At baseline (1988-1990), 26,598 men and 37,439 women aged 40-79 years enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study. During the follow-up through 2003, 578 men and 499 women died from stroke, and 272 men and 207 women died from coronary heart disease. We identified three major dietary patterns, 'vegetable', 'animal food' and 'dairy product', by factor analysis for both sexes. The multivariable hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of mortality from total cardiovascular disease in the highest versus lowest quintiles of the vegetable pattern were 0.93 (0.78-1.13), p for trend=0.73 for men and 0.82 (0.67-1.00), p for trend=0.04 for women. The respective HRs of mortality from stroke in the highest versus lowest quintiles of the dairy product pattern were 0.65 (0.49-0.86), p for trend=0.01 for men and 0.70 (0.51-0.97), p for trend=0.02 for women, and those of total cardiovascular disease were 0.89 (0.74-1.08), p for trend=0.23 for men and 0.76 (0.61-0.94), p for trend=0.01 for women. The animal food pattern was not associated with mortality from stroke, coronary heart disease or total cardiovascular disease for either sex. We found that 'vegetable' and 'dairy product' patterns were associated with lower morality from cardiovascular disease, while the 'animal food' pattern was not associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population

    PubMed Central

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P = 0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P = 0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics. PMID:26987270

  17. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population.

    PubMed

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-05-28

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P=0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P=0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics.

  18. Identifying patterns from one-rule-firing cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Kyun

    2011-01-01

    A new firing scheme for cellular automata in which only one rule is fired at a time produces myriad patterns. In addition to geometric patterns, natural patterns such as flowers and snow crystals were also generated. This study proposes an efficient method identifying the patterns using a minimal number of digits. Complexity of the generated patterns is discussed in terms of the shapes and colors of the patterns.

  19. Dietary Patterns and Insomnia Symptoms in Chinese Adults: The China Kadoorie Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Du, Huaidong; Chen, Yiping; Tao, Ran; Huang, Ying; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Limited attention has been paid to the effect of dietary patterns on sleep problems. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data of 481,242 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank. A laptop-based questionnaire was administered to collect information on food intakes and insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of each insomnia symptom according to quartiles of each dietary pattern, with adjustment for potential confounders. Two major dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The traditional northern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of wheat and other staple food, whereas the modern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, fresh fruit, and dairy products. Both dietary patterns were associated with a decreased prevalence of insomnia symptoms (p for trend < 0.001); after adjustment for potential confounders, individuals who had the highest quartile score of traditional northern dietary pattern were 12%–19% less likely to have insomnia symptoms compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio: 0.81–0.88), and the corresponding values for the modern dietary pattern were 0.89–1.01. Furthermore, interactions of these two dietary patterns on insomnia symptoms were observed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between diet and insomnia. PMID:28335373

  20. Dietary Patterns and Insomnia Symptoms in Chinese Adults: The China Kadoorie Biobank.

    PubMed

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Du, Huaidong; Chen, Yiping; Tao, Ran; Huang, Ying; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2017-03-04

    Limited attention has been paid to the effect of dietary patterns on sleep problems. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data of 481,242 adults aged 30-79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank. A laptop-based questionnaire was administered to collect information on food intakes and insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of each insomnia symptom according to quartiles of each dietary pattern, with adjustment for potential confounders. Two major dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The traditional northern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of wheat and other staple food, whereas the modern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, fresh fruit, and dairy products. Both dietary patterns were associated with a decreased prevalence of insomnia symptoms (p for trend < 0.001); after adjustment for potential confounders, individuals who had the highest quartile score of traditional northern dietary pattern were 12%-19% less likely to have insomnia symptoms compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio: 0.81-0.88), and the corresponding values for the modern dietary pattern were 0.89-1.01. Furthermore, interactions of these two dietary patterns on insomnia symptoms were observed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between diet and insomnia.

  1. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  2. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  3. Maternal Dietary Patterns during the Second Trimester Are Associated with Preterm Birth123

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chantel L; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology is largely unknown. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods: This prospective cohort study used data from the PIN (Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition) study (n = 3143). Dietary intake was assessed at 26–29 wk of gestation by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and patterns were derived by using factor analysis and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Associations between dietary patterns and preterm birth were assessed by logistic regression. Results: Four dietary patterns were identified from the factor analysis characterized by high intakes of the following: 1) fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, high-fiber and fortified cereals, nonfried chicken and fish, and wheat bread; 2) beans, corn, French fries, hamburgers or cheeseburgers, white potatoes, fried chicken, mixed dishes, and ice cream; 3) collard greens, coleslaw or cabbage, red and processed meats, cornbread or hushpuppies, whole milk, and vitamin C–rich drinks; and 4) shellfish, pizza, salty snacks, and refined grains. Increased odds of preterm birth were found for a diet characterized by a high consumption of collard greens, coleslaw or cabbage, red meats, fried chicken and fish, processed meats, cornbread or hushpuppies, eggs or egg biscuits, gravy, whole milk, and vitamin C–rich drinks such as Kool-Aid (Kraft Foods) and Hi-C (Minute Maid Co.) (adjusted OR for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.24). Greater adherence to the DASH diet was associated with decreased odds of preterm birth compared with women in the lowest quartile (adjusted OR for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.85). Conclusions: Diet quality during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth; thus, preconceptional and early prenatal dietary

  4. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Dahm, Christina C; Key, Timothy J; Cairns, Benjamin J; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Keogh, Ruth H; Bhaniani, Amit; McTaggart, Alison; Lentjes, Marleen AH; Mishra, Gita; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Objectives In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk. Subjects/ Methods The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within 4 UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4-to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only. Results The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing 1st tertile with 3rd 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a ‘high-alcohol’ pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98). Conclusions A ‘high-alcohol’ dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study. PMID:25052230

  5. Using both principal component analysis and reduced rank regression to study dietary patterns and diabetes in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association between dietary patterns and diabetes using the strengths of two methods: principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the eating patterns of the population and reduced rank regression (RRR) to derive a pattern that explains the variation in glycated Hb (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting glucose. We measured diet over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory in 2006 and used it to derive PCA and RRR dietary patterns. The outcomes were measured in 2009. Adults (n 4316) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes prevalence (HbA1c≥6·5 %), comparing the highest dietary pattern score quartile with the lowest, was 1·26 (95 % CI 0·76, 2·08) for a modern high-wheat pattern (PCA; wheat products, fruits, eggs, milk, instant noodles and frozen dumplings), 0·76 (95 % CI 0·49, 1·17) for a traditional southern pattern (PCA; rice, meat, poultry and fish) and 2·37 (95 % CI 1·56, 3·60) for the pattern derived with RRR. By comparing the dietary pattern structures of RRR and PCA, we found that the RRR pattern was also behaviourally meaningful. It combined the deleterious effects of the modern high-wheat pattern (high intakes of wheat buns and breads, deep-fried wheat and soya milk) with the deleterious effects of consuming the opposite of the traditional southern pattern (low intakes of rice, poultry and game, fish and seafood). Our findings suggest that using both PCA and RRR provided useful insights when studying the association of dietary patterns with diabetes.

  6. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns. Methods Data from the fourth follow-up of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort study, Brazil, were used. A total of 2,061 young adults, whose mothers gave sociodemographic information at birth in 1978–79, provided sociodemographic and dietary data through a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–2004, when they were aged 23–25 years. Those whose caloric intake was outside of the ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2,034 individuals. The dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis followed by varimax orthogonal rotation. Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to derive prevalence ratios (PR). Results Four dietary patterns were identified: healthy, traditional Brazilian, energy-dense and bar. In the adjusted analysis, individuals with higher schooling (≥12 years) in adult life (PR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07-2.14) showed greater adherence whilst men (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93) had lower adherence to the healthy pattern. The highest adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern was found for men (PR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.04-2.80), mullatos (PR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.64), households with ≥2 members, and for those with children (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55) while individuals with higher schooling in adulthood (≥12 years) (PR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34-0.65), higher family income in adulthood (≥20 MW) (PR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99) and higher family income at birth (≥6.1 MW) showed lower adherence. The bar pattern was positively associated with male sex (PR = 2.96, 95% CI: 2.47-3.55) and low schooling (≤8 years). The energy-dense pattern was not associated with any of the variables investigated. Social mobility was associated with the

  7. Dietary patterns in infancy and their associations with maternal socio-economic and lifestyle factors among 758 Japanese mother-child pairs: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    Dietary habits established in early childhood contribute to lifelong dietary pattern and the development of early risk factors for disease in adulthood. Although a large body of epidemiologic data from Western countries show that the dietary pattern of children is influenced by maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, information on this topic in non-Western countries is absolutely lacking. The present study identified dietary patterns among infants aged 16-24 months, and then examined the influence of maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics on identified dietary patterns. Subjects were 758 Japanese mother-child pairs. Dietary data of infants were collected from the mothers using a questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted from the consumption of 15 foods (times week(-1)) by cluster analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' (n = 483) and 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' (n = 275) patterns. After adjustment for all other predictors, maternal educational level, number of infants' siblings and maternal dietary patterns were independently associated with dietary patterns of infants. Infants whose mothers had a higher educational level and the 'rice, fish and vegetables' dietary pattern were less likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' pattern, whereas infants whose mothers had a higher number of children and the 'wheat product' dietary pattern were more likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' than the 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' pattern. In conclusion, the mother's socio-economic position and dietary patterns were associated with the dietary patterns of infants in the Japanese pairs as observed in the Western populations.

  8. Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Barbaresko, Janett; Koch, Manja; Schulze, Matthias B; Nöthlings, Ute

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present literature review was to investigate and summarize the current evidence on associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of inflammation, as derived from epidemiological studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE, and a total of 46 studies were included in the review. These studies predominantly applied principal component analysis, factor analysis, reduced rank regression analysis, the Healthy Eating Index, or the Mediterranean Diet Score. No prospective observational study was found. Patterns identified by reduced rank regression as being statistically significantly associated with biomarkers of inflammation were almost all meat-based or "Western" patterns. Studies using principal component analysis or a priori-defined diet scores found that meat-based or "Western-like" patterns tended to be positively associated with biomarkers of inflammation, predominantly C-reactive protein, while vegetable- and fruit-based or "healthy" patterns tended to be inversely associated. While results of the studies were inconsistent, interventions with presumed healthy diets resulted in reductions of almost all investigated inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, prospective studies are warranted to confirm the reported findings and further analyze associations, particularly by investigating dietary patterns as risk factors for changes in inflammatory markers over time.

  9. Is the number of siblings associated with dietary patterns in adolescents? The 1993 birth cohort of Pelotas (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Meller, F O; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; Loret de Mola, C; Dahly, D L; Vaz, J S; Barros, F C

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to estimate the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns in adolescents. Prospective longitudinal study was developed using data from the birth cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, which included 5249 participants. At the 18-year-old follow-up, from 4563 individuals located, 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3%). Of these, 3751 were included in our principal component analysis of dietary patterns. Regular dietary intake of 45 food groups over the previous year was measured with a food frequency questionnaire. We identified four patterns, which accounted for 40% of the total variance in food group consumption. These were labeled "Protein and fast food", "Fruit and vegetables", "Common Brazilian", and "Sweets, soft drinks, and dairy products". Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns were performed using linear regression. The number of siblings was positively associated with a higher adherence to each dietary pattern, with the exception of the "Common Brazilian" patterns, for which there was no apparent relationship with number of siblings. The findings showed that a greater number of siblings is related to a more diverse diet in the later adolescence, which may predict better nutrient adequacy and health outcomes.

  10. Is the number of siblings associated with dietary patterns in adolescents? The 1993 birth cohort of Pelotas (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Meller, F. O.; Assunção, M. C. F.; Schäfer, A. A.; Loret de Mola, C.; Dahly, D. L.; Vaz, J. S.; Barros, F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to estimate the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns in adolescents. Prospective longitudinal study was developed using data from the birth cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, which included 5249 participants. At the 18-year-old follow-up, from 4563 individuals located, 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3%). Of these, 3751 were included in our principal component analysis of dietary patterns. Regular dietary intake of 45 food groups over the previous year was measured with a food frequency questionnaire. We identified four patterns, which accounted for 40% of the total variance in food group consumption. These were labeled “Protein and fast food”, “Fruit and vegetables”, “Common Brazilian”, and “Sweets, soft drinks, and dairy products”. Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns were performed using linear regression. The number of siblings was positively associated with a higher adherence to each dietary pattern, with the exception of the “Common Brazilian” patterns, for which there was no apparent relationship with number of siblings. The findings showed that a greater number of siblings is related to a more diverse diet in the later adolescence, which may predict better nutrient adequacy and health outcomes. PMID:28333975

  11. Dietary Patterns, Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiankang; Hickson, DeMarc A; Musani, Solomon K; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Carithers, Teresa C.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Fox, Caroline S.; Taylor, Herman A.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary behavior is an important lifestyle factor to impact an individual’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the influence of specific dietary factors on CVD risk for African Americans remains unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1775 participants from Jackson Heart Study (JHS) Exam 2 (between 2006 and 2009) who were free of hypertension, diabetes and CVD at the baseline (between 2001 and 2004). Dietary intakes were documented using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns were identified: a “southern”, a “fast food” and a “prudent” pattern. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and alcohol status, education level and physical activity, high “southern” pattern score was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for high abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (OR:1.80, 95%CI:1.1–3.0, p=0.02), hypertension (OR:1.42, 95%CI:1.1–1.9, p=0.02), diabetes (OR:2.03, 95%CI:1.1–3.9, p=0.03) and metabolic syndrome (OR:2.16, 95%CI:1.3–3.6, p=0.004). Similar associations were also observed in the “fast food” pattern (p ranges 0.03–0.0001). The “prudent” pattern was significantly associated, in a protective direction, with hypertension (OR 0.69, 95%CI 0.5–0.9, p=0.02). In conclusion, dietary patterns, especially the “southern” pattern, identified from a regional specific FFQ in this Deep South African Americans, are correlated with abdominal VAT and cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:23592674

  12. Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Holmes, Bridget A

    2010-02-01

    The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5-11 and 12-17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. 'Healthier' patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more 'unhealthy' patterns ('snacks' and 'puddings') were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with 'healthier' patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with 'puddings' and 'snacks' in girls aged 5-11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required.

  13. The association of socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors and dietary patterns with total urinary phthalates in Australian men.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peter Y; Wittert, Gary A; Taylor, Anne W; Martin, Sean A; Milne, Robert W; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5-117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (p<0.001), were positively associated with total phthalate levels. There was no significant relationship between total phthalate concentration and socio-demographic status. Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men.

  14. The Association of Socio-Demographic Status, Lifestyle Factors and Dietary Patterns with Total Urinary Phthalates in Australian Men

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Peter Y.; Wittert, Gary A.; Taylor, Anne W.; Martin, Sean A.; Milne, Robert W.; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. Method We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Results Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5–117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (p<0.001), were positively associated with total phthalate levels. There was no significant relationship between total phthalate concentration and socio-demographic status. Conclusion Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men. PMID:25875472

  15. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet’s potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need. PMID:26284249

  16. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern.

    PubMed

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences - life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today's challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  17. Food group sources of nutrients in the dietary patterns of the DASH-Sodium trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Aickin, Mikel; Champagne, Catherine; Craddick, Shirley; Sacks, Frank M; McCarron, Phyllis; Most-Windhauser, Marlene M; Rukenbrod, Fran; Haworth, Lauren

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify major food group sources of several essential nutrients in the two dietary patterns used in the DASH-Sodium trial: a control diet and the DASH dietary pattern. The DASH-Sodium trial was a multicenter, randomized, controlled-feeding trial comparing the effects of three levels of sodium and two dietary patterns on blood pressure. Nutrient contents of all the menus for both the control and the DASH diets were analyzed and examined for their dietary sources from 13 food groups. Contributions of all foods within each food group to each nutrient were averaged then weighted to reflect the actual distribution of energy levels in the study. Nutrient contents across the three sodium levels are very similar within each diet. Refined grains and whole grains are the major energy sources for the control and the DASH diet, providing 35% and 23% to the total intake, respectively. Nutrient-dense whole grains contributed greatly, ranging from 11% to 46%, to the higher intakes of protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and folate in the DASH diet. Vegetables, in addition to being a good source for fiber, vitamins A, C, E, and folate, also contributed an average of 15% to the intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium in the DASH diet. Differences in nutrient contents between the control and the DASH diets were accomplished by varying the selection of food items (eg, refined grains vs whole grains) and quantities of certain food groups (eg, less red meats and higher amounts of fruits and vegetables). The DASH dietary pattern recommends four to five servings of fruits; four to five servings of vegetables; two to three servings of low-fat dairy products; seven to eight servings of grain products (preferably whole grains); two or less servings of meats, poultry, and fish per day; and four to five servings of nuts, seeds, and legumes per week for a 2,000 kcal diet. Each of these food groups contributes critical nutrients across various

  18. Gender Differences in Dietary Patterns and Their Association with the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shu-Hong; Qiao, Nan; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Cui, Yan; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Cong; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hui; Liang, Jie; Lu, Qing; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated gender differences in dietary intake. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The food intakes of 3794 subjects enrolled by a two-stage cluster stratified sampling method were collected using a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its prevalence was 35.70% in the sample (37.67% in men and 24.67% in women). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis combined with cluster analysis and multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factorial invariance between gender groups. The dominating dietary pattern for men was the “balanced” dietary pattern (32.65%) and that for women was the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern (34.42%). For men, the “animal and fried food” dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01–1.60), after adjustment for age, marital status, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. For women, the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.24–4.14). We observed gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of MetS. For men, the “animal and fried food” dietary pattern was associated with enhancive likelihood of MetS. For women, it was the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern. PMID:27023599

  19. A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, Myrte J.; Erler, Nicole S.; Leermakers, Elisabeth T. M.; van den Broek, Marion; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Franco, Oscar H.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a “Vegetable, oil and fish”, a “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy”, and a “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the “Vegetable, oil and fish” pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69) for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q)). Adherence to the “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99) Q4 vs. Q1). Normal weight women with higher scores on the “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy” pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (−0.01 (95% CI −0.02; −0.00) per SD). The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG. PMID:26569303

  20. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of postpartum depression in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2011-04-01

    Although several nutrients and foods are suggested to be preventive against postpartum depression, all previous studies have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. In contrast, studies on dietary patterns, namely the measurement of overall diet by considering the cumulative effects of nutrient, may provide new insights into the influence of diet on postpartum depression. We prospectively examined the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of postpartum depression among 865 Japanese women. Diet was assessed with a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups (energy-adjusted food (g/d)) were extracted by factor analysis. Postpartum depression was defined as present when the subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥ 9 at 2-9 months postpartum. A total of 121 women (14·0 %) were classified as having postpartum depression. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'Healthy', 'Western' and 'Japanese' patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, neither the 'Healthy' nor the 'Japanese' pattern was related to the risk of postpartum depression. Compared with the first quartile of the 'Western' pattern, only the second quartile was independently related to a decreased risk of postpartum depression (multivariate OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·93), although no evident exposure-response associations were observed (P for trend = 0·36). The present study failed to substantiate clear associations between dietary patterns and the risk of postpartum depression. Further studies with more accurate measurements are warranted to confirm the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of postpartum depression.

  1. Dietary patterns using the Food Guide Pyramid groups are associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors: the multiethnic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yamamoto, Jennifer F; Sharma, Sangita; Hankin, Jean H; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2005-04-01

    Dietary patterns have been used to identify typical combinations of foods that may be associated with disease risks. We defined dietary patterns among 195,298 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles in 1993-1996. Intakes of Food Guide Pyramid groups were calculated from a quantitative FFQ for subjects of 5 ethnic groups (African Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites). Three distinct dietary patterns, "Fat and Meat," "Vegetables," and "Fruit and Milk," were identified by exploratory factor analysis with a varimax rotation and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Similar factor loadings were found for each of 10 ethnic-gender groups in stratified analyses. The odds ratios (OR) for being above the median scores for each factor were calculated. Age, gender, and ethnicity had relatively strong associations with dietary patterns whereas education showed only weak associations. BMI > or = 30 was strongly positively associated with the Fat and Meat pattern (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 2.08-2.20, vs. BMI < 25). Current smokers showed a positive association with the Fat and Meat pattern (OR = 1.67, CI: 1.62-1.72, vs. nonsmokers) and inverse associations with the Vegetables (OR = 0.66, CI: 0.64-0.68) and Fruit and Milk patterns (OR = 0.53, CI: 0.52-0.55). Physical activity was positively associated with the Vegetables and Fruit and Milk patterns but not with the Fat and Meat pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that dietary patterns are influenced by interrelated sociocultural, demographic, and other lifestyle factors and may be useful in investigations of diet-disease relations.

  2. Patterns of dietary supplement use among college students.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Marriott, Bernadette P; Williams, Christianna; Judelson, Daniel A; Glickman, Ellen L; Geiselman, Paula J; Dotson, Laura; Mahoney, Caroline R

    2015-10-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are popular in many countries but little data are available on their use by sub-populations such as college students. Since students share a variety of characteristics and similar lifestyles, their DS use may differ from the general population. This study assessed DS use, factors associated with DS use, and reasons for use among U.S. college students. College students (N = 1248) at 5 U.S. universities were surveyed. Survey questions included descriptive demographics, types and frequency of DS used, reasons for use and money spent on supplements. Supplements were classified using standard criteria. Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between demographic and lifestyle factors and DS use. Sixty-six percent of college students surveyed used DS at least once a week, while 12% consumed 5 or more supplements a week. Forty-two percent used multivitamins/multiminerals, 18% vitamin C, 17% protein/amino acids and 13% calcium at least once a week. Factors associated with supplement use included dietary patterns, exercise, and tobacco use. Students used supplements to promote general health (73%), provide more energy (29%), increase muscle strength (20%), and enhance performance (19%). College students appear more likely to use DS than the general population and many use multiple types of supplements weekly. Habits established at a young age persist throughout life. Therefore, longitudinal research should be conducted to determine whether patterns of DS use established early in adulthood are maintained throughout life. Adequate scientific justification for widespread use of DS in healthy, young populations is lacking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Do dietary patterns in older age influence the development of cancer and cardiovascular disease: A longitudinal study of ageing.

    PubMed

    Nobbs, Harriet M; Yaxley, Alison; Thomas, Jolene; Delaney, Christopher; Koczwara, Bogda; Luszcz, Mary; Miller, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    The association between diet and cancer, and diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established in younger adults, however limited evidence exists to demonstrate that these associations persist for older adults, particularly in the context of dietary patterns. To investigate whether the dominant dietary patterns identified in a cohort of older adults are predictive of cancer or CVD development. This study was a secondary analysis of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA). The ALSA is a multi-dimensional population based study of human ageing which commenced in 1992 with 2087 participants aged 65 years or more. Data from a 170-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline in 1992 to 1034 older adults free from cancer and CVD was explored using factor analysis to identify dominant dietary patterns, being those patterns which comprise foods commonly consumed by the sample. Pooled logistic regression from data available at baseline, 2 and 8 years of follow-up was used to determine whether any associations existed between dietary patterns and development of or death from cancer or CVD. Five dominant dietary patterns were identified and labelled 'discretionary choices and breads and cereals', 'vegetable and fruit', 'white meat and milk products', 'breads and cereals, sweet bakery goods and milk products' and 'red meat and protein alternatives'. None of the dominant dietary patterns demonstrated a significant overall trend for the development of or death from cancer or CVD with the exception of the 'red meat and protein alternatives' pattern where an increased risk of cancer development or death was observed with adjustment for age, gender, smoking, overweight and obesity and total number of comorbidities (tertile 2: OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.07; tertile 3: OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.87-1.90). These results suggest that the development of or death from cancer and CVD may be independent of most dietary patterns in those who are free of either

  4. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study.

    PubMed

    de Seymour, Jamie; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Jones, Beatrix; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Shirong, Cai; Godfrey, Keith; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Conlon, Cathryn; Chong, Yap-Seng; Baker, Philip; Chong, Mary F F

    2016-09-20

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) study-a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)) = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93). The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations.

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    PubMed Central

    de Seymour, Jamie; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Jones, Beatrix; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Shirong, Cai; Godfrey, Keith; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Conlon, Cathryn; Chong, Yap-Seng; Baker, Philip; Chong, Mary F. F.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) study—a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)) = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93). The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations. PMID:27657116

  6. A Healthy Dietary Pattern Reduces Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanlai; Li, Zhenxiang; Li, Jianning; Li, Zengjun; Han, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diet and nutrients play an important role in cancer development and progress; a healthy dietary pattern has been found to be associated with several types of cancer. However, the association between a healthy eating pattern and lung cancer risk is still unclear. Objective: Therefore, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to evaluate whether a healthy eating pattern might reduce lung cancer risk. Methods: We identified relevant studies from the PubMed and Embase databases up to October 2015, and the relative risks were extracted and combined by the fixed-effects model when no substantial heterogeneity was observed; otherwise, the random-effects model was employed. Subgroup and publication bias analyses were also performed. Results: Finally, eight observational studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of healthy dietary pattern was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.75–0.86), and no significant heterogeneity was detected. The relative risks (RRs) for non-smokers, former smokers and current smokers were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.63–1.27), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62–0.89) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79–0.93), respectively. The results remained stable in subgroup analyses by other confounders and sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower lung cancer risk, and they provide more beneficial evidence for changing the diet pattern in the general population. PMID:26959051

  7. Using both Principal Component Analysis and Reduced Rank Regression to Study Dietary Patterns and Diabetes in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between dietary patterns and diabetes using the strengths of two methods: principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the eating patterns of the population and reduced rank regression (RRR) to derive a pattern that explains the variation in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting glucose. Design We measured diet over a 3-day period with 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory in 2006 and used it to derive PCA and RRR dietary patterns. The outcomes were measured in 2009. Setting Adults (n = 4,316) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes prevalence (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%), comparing the highest dietary pattern score quartile to the lowest, was 1.26 (0.76, 2.08) for a modern high-wheat pattern (PCA; wheat products, fruits, eggs, milk, instant noodles and frozen dumplings), 0.76 (0.49, 1.17) for a traditional southern pattern (PCA; rice, meat, poultry, and fish), and 2.37 (1.56, 3.60) for the pattern derived with RRR. By comparing the dietary pattern structures of RRR and PCA, we found that the RRR pattern was also behaviorally meaningful. It combined the deleterious effects of the modern high-wheat (high intake of wheat buns and breads, deep-fried wheat, and soy milk) with the deleterious effects of consuming the opposite of the traditional southern (low intake of rice, poultry and game, fish and seafood). Conclusions Our findings suggest that using both PCA and RRR provided useful insights when studying the association of dietary patterns with diabetes. PMID:26784586

  8. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating dietary patterns, including the DASH diet, and their relationship with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes may help to understand the role of dairy products (low fat or full fat) in these conditions. Our aim is to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adults and compare them with the (DASH) diet quality score in terms of their associations with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-the ELSA-Brasil study. The ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study comprising 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). Standardized interviews and exams were carried out, including an OGTT. We analyzed baseline data for 10,010 subjects. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multivariable logistic regression investigated associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes and multivariable linear regression with components of metabolic syndrome. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that greater adherence to the Common Brazilian meal pattern (white rice, beans, beer, processed and fresh meats), was associated with higher frequencies of newly diagnosed diabetes, metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except HDL-C. Participants with greater intake of a Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts pattern presented less newly diagnosed diabetes. An inverse association was also seen between the DASH Diet pattern and the metabolic syndrome, blood pressure and waist circumference. Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy pattern was associated with more prevalence of both outcomes, and higher fasting glucose, HDL-C, waist circumference (among men) and lower blood pressure. Vegetables/fruit dietary pattern did not protect against metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes but was associated with lower waist circumference. The inverse associations found for the dietary pattern

  9. A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Laura K.; Jannasch, Franziska; Kröger, Janine; Bedu-Addo, George; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Reduced rank regression (RRR) is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668) dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001). The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides. PMID:26198248

  10. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  11. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  12. Association between dietary patterns and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lina; Li, Fei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ou, Zejin; Xu, Dingli; Tan, Wanlong; Dai, Meng

    2015-01-01

    The associations of dietary patterns with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk remain unclear. Thereby, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine potential relations between dietary patterns and CHD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 2014 for eligible prospective cohort studies regarding the relationships between common dietary patterns and CHD. Random-effects models were applied to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for the highest versus the lowest category of dietary pattern. Sensitivity analyses were conducted and publication bias was assessed using Begg or Egger’s tests. Twelve prospective cohort studies were included involving 409,780 participants and 6298 CHD cases. There was an inverse association between prudent/healthy dietary pattern and CHD risk (SRRE = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.74-0.87, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.497, I2 = 0%). Furthermore, no significant association was observed between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and risk of CHD (SRRE = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86-1.27, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.007, I2 = 61.9%). However, increased risk was detected between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and CHD in the United States (USA) (SRRE = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.82, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.930, I2 = 0%). In conclusion, our analysis provides evidence of an inverse association between prudent/healthy dietary pattern and CHD risk, and suggests null association between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and CHD. However, greater adherence to western/unhealthy pattern possibily increases by 45% the risk of CHD in USA. Further efforts are warranted to confirm these findings and clarify the role of dietary patterns and CHD risk. PMID:25785058

  13. Nutrition in transition: dietary patterns of rural Amazonian women during a period of economic change.

    PubMed

    Piperata, Barbara A; Ivanova, Sofia A; Da-gloria, Pedro; Veiga, Gonçalo; Polsky, Analise; Spence, Jennifer E; Murrieta, Rui S S

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between economic change (wage labor, retirement, and the Bolsa Família program) and dietary patterns in the rural Amazon and to determine the extent to which these changes followed the pattern of the nutrition transition. The study was longitudinal. The weighed-inventory method and economic interviews were used to collect data on dietary intake and household economics in a sample of 30 and 52 women in 2002 and 2009, respectively. Twenty of the women participated in both years and make-up the longitudinal sub-sample. Comparative statistics were used to identify changes in dietary patterns over time and multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between economics, subsistence strategies, and diet. There was a significant decline in kcal (P < 0.01) and carbohydrate (P < 0.01) but no change in protein intake over time in both the larger and smaller, longitudinal subsample. The percent of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat purchased increased in the larger and longitudinal samples (P ≤ 0.02) and there was an increase in refined carbohydrate and processed, fatty-meat consumption over time. The abandonment of manioc gardens was associated with increased dependence on purchased food (P = 0.03) while receipt of the Bolsa Família was associated with increased protein intake and adequacy (P = 0.02). The dietary changes observed are only in partial agreement with predictions of the nutrition transition literature. The relationship between the economic and diet changes was shaped by the local context which should be considered when implementing CCT programs, like the Bolsa Família. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Link, Lilli B; Canchola, Alison J; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A; Stram, Daniel O; Ursin, Giske; Horn-Ross, Pamela L

    2013-12-01

    Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most studies have examined risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than measures of overall diet. This study aimed to evaluate dietary patterns and their relation to breast cancer risk in a large cohort of women. Data from 91,779 women in the California Teachers Study cohort were analyzed, including data from 4140 women with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer made between 1995 and 2009. Five predominant dietary patterns were identified by using principal components factor analysis: a plant-based diet, high in fruit and vegetables; a high-protein, high-fat diet, high in meats, eggs, fried foods, and high-fat condiments; a high-carbohydrate diet, high in convenience foods, pasta, and bread products; an ethnic diet, high in legumes, soy-based foods, rice, and dark-green leafy vegetables; and a salad and wine diet, high in lettuce, fish, wine, low-fat salad dressing, and coffee and tea. The plant-based pattern was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest consumption quintile; P-trend = 0.003); risk reduction was greater for estrogen receptor-negative progesterone receptor-negative (ER-PR-) tumors (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.91; P-trend = 0.03). The salad and wine pattern was associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive tumors (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.49); this effect was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for alcohol consumption. The finding that greater consumption of a plant-based dietary pattern is associated with a reduced breast cancer risk, particularly for ER-PR- tumors, offers a potential avenue for prevention.

  15. Association of maternal characteristics and behaviours with 4-year-old children's dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Durão, Catarina; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the association of family and maternal characteristics with preschool children's dietary patterns. Trained interviewers evaluated subsample 3422 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal, 2005-2006). Maternal characteristics and behaviours (exercise, smoking habits, diet and child-feeding practices) and family characteristics were evaluated. Maternal diet was classified by a dietary score, and children's dietary patterns were identified by latent class analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by multinomial regression models. The analysis was based on a framework with four conceptual levels: maternal socio-economic position (SEP) at 12 years, maternal socio-economic and demographic characteristics at child's delivery, family characteristics and maternal behaviours at child's 4 years. Three dietary patterns were identified in children: high in energy-dense foods (EDF); low in foods typically consumed at main meals and intermediate in snacks (Snacking); higher in healthy foods; and lower in unhealthy ones (Healthier, reference). Lower maternal SEP had an overall effect on children's diet (low vs. high SEP; EDF, OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.42-2.18; Snacking, OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.27-2.35), while maternal education was directly associated with it (≤9 vs. >12 schooling years, EDF, OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.70-2.81; Snacking, OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.82-3.55). Children whose mothers had worse dietary score were significantly more likely to follow unhealthier patterns (first vs. fourth quartile; EDF, OR = 9.94, 95% CI: 7.35-13.44, P-trend < 0.001; Snacking, OR = 4.21, 95% CI: 2.94-6.05, P-trend < 0.001). Maternal diet was the key factor associated with children's diet, above and beyond socio-economic and demographic characteristics, accounting for one-third of the determination coefficient of the fully adjusted model. At preschool age

  16. Association of dietary patterns with serum adipokines among Japanese: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kashino, Ikuko; Nanri, Akiko; Kurotani, Kayo; Akter, Shamima; Yasuda, Kazuki; Sato, Masao; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2015-06-11

    Diet may influence disease risk by modulating adipokines. Although some foods and nutrients have been linked to circulating adipokine levels, little is known about the role of dietary patterns on adipokines. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a working population. The subjects were 509 employees (296 men and 213 women), aged 20 to 65 years, of two municipal offices. Serum adipokines were measured using a Luminex suspension bead-based multiplexed array. Dietary patterns were derived by using principal component analysis of the consumption of 52 food and beverage items, which were ascertained by a validated diet history questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between dietary pattern scores and adipokine concentrations, with adjustment for potential confounders. Three major dietary patterns were extracted: a Japanese, a Westernized breakfast, and a meat food patterns. Of these, we found significant, inverse associations of the Westernized breakfast pattern, which was characterized by higher intake of confectioneries, bread, and milk and yogurt but lower intake of alcoholic beverages and rice, with serum leptin and PAI-1 concentrations in a fully adjusted model (P for trend = 0.04 for both leptin and PAI-1). The other adipokines were not significantly associated with any dietary pattern. The Westernized breakfast dietary pattern may be associated with lower circulating levels of leptin and PAI-1.

  17. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany--associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Richter, Almut; Heidemann, Christin; Schulze, Matthias B; Roosen, Jutta; Thiele, Silke; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-03-22

    The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away

  19. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Schene, Aart H; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Jeanne H; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-09-01

    To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study and included 4969 individuals aged 18-70 years. Diet was assessed using four ethnic-specific FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived using reduced rank regression with mono- and disaccharides, saturated fat and total fat as response variables. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptoms by using continuous scores and depressed mood (identified using the cut-off point: PHQ-9 sum score ≥10). The Netherlands. Three dietary patterns were identified; an HSHF dietary pattern (including chocolates, red meat, added sugars, high-fat dairy products, fried foods, creamy sauces), an HS dietary pattern (including sugar-sweetened beverages, added sugars, fruit (juices)) and an HF dietary pattern (including high-fat dairy products, butter). When comparing extreme quartiles, consumption of an HSHF dietary pattern was associated with more depressive symptoms (Q1 v. Q4: β=0·18, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·30, P=0·001) and with higher odds of depressed mood (Q1 v. Q4: OR=2·36, 95 % CI 1·19, 4·66, P=0·014). No associations were found between consumption of the remaining dietary patterns and depressive symptoms. Higher consumption of an HSHF dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms and with depressed mood. Our findings reinforce the idea that the focus should be on dietary patterns that are high in both sugar and saturated fat.

  20. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  1. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Cutillas-Tolín, A.; Mínguez-Alarcón, L.; Mendiola, J.; López-Espín, J.J.; Jørgensen, N.; Navarrete-Muñoz, E.M.; Torres-Cantero, A.M.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011 in Murcia Region (Spain). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Two hundred and nine healthy men aged 18–23 years were finally included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits and seafood) and a Western pattern (characterized by high intakes of processed meats, French fries and snacks). The Mediterranean pattern was positively associated with total sperm count (P, trend = 0.04). The Western pattern was positively related to the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.008). We found an inverse association between adherence to the Western pattern and sperm concentration among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.04). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As with all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. However, participants were blinded to the study outcomes thus reducing the potential influenced their report of diet. Although we adjusted for a large number of known and suspected confounders, we cannot exclude the possibility

  2. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men.

    PubMed

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J; López-Espín, J J; Jørgensen, N; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; Torres-Cantero, A M; Chavarro, J E

    2015-12-01

    Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive potential. The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011 in Murcia Region (Spain). Two hundred and nine healthy men aged 18-23 years were finally included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits and seafood) and a Western pattern (characterized by high intakes of processed meats, French fries and snacks). The Mediterranean pattern was positively associated with total sperm count (P, trend = 0.04). The Western pattern was positively related to the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.008). We found an inverse association between adherence to the Western pattern and sperm concentration among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.04). As with all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. However, participants were blinded to the study outcomes thus reducing the potential influenced their report of diet. Although we adjusted for a large number of known and suspected confounders, we cannot exclude the possibility of residual confounding or chance findings. This study was carried out on healthy and young men, so it is difficult to predict whether and how the observed differences in semen quality translate

  3. Exploring dietary patterns, obesity and sources of bias: the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP).

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Maria; Lissner, Lauren; Hörnell, Agneta; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Weinehall, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Dietary patterns capture the overall diet and thereby provide information on how nutrients are consumed in combinations, and have been suggested to be a better method than studying single nutrients. The present study explored the relationship between dietary patterns at baseline and incidence of obesity at 10-year follow-up in women. A longitudinal study using baseline measurements from 1992-1996, including food intake, medication, heredity, socio-economic status, lifestyle and measured body composition, and follow-up data collected in 2002-2006 including measured body composition. Data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) in Sweden. A total of 6545 initially non-obese women aged 30-50 years. Among women reporting plausible energy intakes, the 'Fruit and vegetables cluster' predicted the highest incidence of obesity (OR = 1·76, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·76; P = 0·015) compared with women in the other food pattern groups combined. When adjusting for metabolic factors and BMI at baseline, the risk for obesity in the 'Fruit and vegetables cluster' was attenuated to non-significance. In contrast, high intake of fruit per se was associated with a decreased risk of developing obesity (OR = 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·91; P = 0·010). Dietary pattern groups identified by cluster analysis are likely to reflect characteristics in addition to diet, including lifestyle, previous and current health status and risk factors for future disease, whereas intake of fruit per se was a stable indicator and less affected by baseline characteristics. These results underscore the need for complementary methods in understanding diet-disease relationships.

  4. Dental indicators of ancient dietary patterns: dental analysis in archaeology.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R

    2014-05-01

    What can the study of ancient teeth tell us about the dietary habits of our ancestors? Diet plays a prominent role in the organisation and evolution of human cultures and an increasingly diverse array of analytical techniques are available to help reconstruct diet in ancient populations. Dental palaeopathology is particularly important as it can provide direct evidence of the type of diet an individual consumed during life. Heavy occlusal tooth wear is the most frequent condition recognisable and an examination of both macro and microscopic patterns of wear can establish the differences between the hard fibrous diet typical of a hunter-gatherer, and a diet primarily consisting of softer plant foods consumed by an agriculturist. The distributions of trace elements and stable isotopes in food webs make it possible to use them as natural tracers of foodstuffs. Through a consideration of photosynthetic pathways, the ratios of the different stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen can determine which specific groups of plants and animals were dominant in the food chains of various populations - a fact that has been used to trace the spread of agriculture in ancient civilisations.

  5. Dietary Pattern of Schoolgoing Adolescents in Urban Baroda, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Baxi, R.K.; Mazumdar, V.S.; Shobha, Misra; Mehta, K.G.; Mansi, Diwanji; Ekta, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Diet plays a very important role in growth and development of adolescents, during which the development of healthy eating habits is of supreme importance. There is a dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in this age-group. The study assessed the food habits, food preferences, and dietary pattern of schoolgoing urban adolescents in Baroda, India. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this study. A quantitative survey was carried out using a pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire among 1,440 students from class 6 to 12 in 7 English medium and 23 Gujarati medium schools. Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls, were held, along with 5 focus group discussions with teachers of Gujarati and English medium schools. Nearly 80% of adolescents had consumed regular food, like dal, rice, chapati, and vegetables, including green leafy vegetables. Nearly 50% of them had consumed chocolates, and about one-third consumed fast foods. Nearly 60% of adolescents had their breakfast daily while the remaining missed taking breakfast daily. Nearly one-third of adolescents were missing a meal once or twice a week. A large majority had consumed regular foods. However, more than half of them had consumed chocolates, soft drinks, and over one-third had taken fast foods. PMID:24592590

  6. Dietary pattern of schoolgoing adolescents in urban Baroda, India.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, P V; Patel, Sangita V; Baxi, R K; Mazumdar, V S; Shobha, Misra; Mehta, K G; Mansi, Diwanji; Ekta, Modi

    2013-12-01

    Diet plays a very important role in growth and development of adolescents, during which the development of healthy eating habits is of supreme importance. There is a dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in this age-group. The study assessed the food habits, food preferences, and dietary pattern of schoolgoing urban adolescents in Baroda, India. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this study. A quantitative survey was carried out using a pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire among 1,440 students from class 6 to 12 in 7 English medium and 23 Gujarati medium schools. Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls, were held, along with 5 focus group discussions with teachers of Gujarati and English medium schools. Nearly 80% of adolescents had consumed regular food, like dal, rice, chapati, and vegetables, including green leafy vegetables. Nearly 50% of them had consumed chocolates, and about one-third consumed fast foods. Nearly 60% of adolescents had their breakfast daily while the remaining missed taking breakfast daily. Nearly one-third of adolescents were missing a meal once or twi