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Sample records for identifying key characteristics

  1. Social Network Analysis Identifies Key Participants in Conservation Development.

    PubMed

    Farr, Cooper M; Reed, Sarah E; Pejchar, Liba

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of participation in private lands conservation, which is often implemented voluntarily by individual citizens and private organizations, could improve its effectiveness at combating biodiversity loss. We used social network analysis (SNA) to examine participation in conservation development (CD), a private land conservation strategy that clusters houses in a small portion of a property while preserving the remaining land as protected open space. Using data from public records for six counties in Colorado, USA, we compared CD participation patterns among counties and identified actors that most often work with others to implement CDs. We found that social network characteristics differed among counties. The network density, or proportion of connections in the network, varied from fewer than 2 to nearly 15%, and was higher in counties with smaller populations and fewer CDs. Centralization, or the degree to which connections are held disproportionately by a few key actors, was not correlated strongly with any county characteristics. Network characteristics were not correlated with the prevalence of wildlife-friendly design features in CDs. The most highly connected actors were biological and geological consultants, surveyors, and engineers. Our work demonstrates a new application of SNA to land-use planning, in which CD network patterns are examined and key actors are identified. For better conservation outcomes of CD, we recommend using network patterns to guide strategies for outreach and information dissemination, and engaging with highly connected actor types to encourage widespread adoption of best practices for CD design and stewardship.

  2. Identifying key genes in glaucoma based on a benchmarked dataset and the gene regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiao-Ling; Zhang, Meng-Hui

    2017-10-01

    The current study aimed to identify key genes in glaucoma based on a benchmarked dataset and gene regulatory network (GRN). Local and global noise was added to the gene expression dataset to produce a benchmarked dataset. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with glaucoma and normal controls were identified utilizing the Linear Models for Microarray Data (Limma) package based on benchmarked dataset. A total of 5 GRN inference methods, including Zscore, GeneNet, context likelihood of relatedness (CLR) algorithm, Partial Correlation coefficient with Information Theory (PCIT) and GEne Network Inference with Ensemble of Trees (Genie3) were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision and recall (PR) curves. The interference method with the best performance was selected to construct the GRN. Subsequently, topological centrality (degree, closeness and betweenness) was conducted to identify key genes in the GRN of glaucoma. Finally, the key genes were validated by performing reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A total of 176 DEGs were detected from the benchmarked dataset. The ROC and PR curves of the 5 methods were analyzed and it was determined that Genie3 had a clear advantage over the other methods; thus, Genie3 was used to construct the GRN. Following topological centrality analysis, 14 key genes for glaucoma were identified, including IL6 , EPHA2 and GSTT1 and 5 of these 14 key genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Therefore, the current study identified 14 key genes in glaucoma, which may be potential biomarkers to use in the diagnosis of glaucoma and aid in identifying the molecular mechanism of this disease.

  3. Key clinical features to identify girls with CDKL5 mutations.

    PubMed

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothée; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlène; Héron, Delphine; N'guyen Morel, Marie Ange; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-10-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of CDKL5-associated encephalopathy. We screened the entire coding region of CDKL5 for mutations in 183 females with encephalopathy with early seizures by denaturing high liquid performance chromatography and direct sequencing, and we identified in 20 unrelated girls, 18 different mutations including 7 novel mutations. These mutations were identified in eight patients with encephalopathy with RTT-like features, five with infantile spasms and seven with encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy. Early epilepsy with normal interictal EEG and severe hypotonia are the key clinical features in identifying patients likely to have CDKL5 mutations. Our study also indicates that these patients clearly exhibit some RTT features such as deceleration of head growth, stereotypies and hand apraxia and that these RTT features become more evident in older and ambulatory patients. However, some RTT signs are clearly absent such as the so called RTT disease profile (period of nearly normal development followed by regression with loss of acquired fine finger skill in early childhood and characteristic intensive eye communication) and the characteristic evolution of the RTT electroencephalogram. Interestingly, in addition to the overall stereotypical symptomatology (age of onset and evolution of the disease) resulting from CDKL5 mutations, atypical forms of CDKL5-related conditions have also been observed. Our data suggest that phenotypic heterogeneity does not correlate with the nature or the position of the mutations or with the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation, but most probably with the functional transcriptional and/or translational consequences of CDKL5

  4. Key Characteristics of Carcinogens as a Basis for Organizing Data on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Martyn T.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Gibbons, Catherine F.; Fritz, Jason M.; Portier, Christopher J.; Rusyn, Ivan; DeMarini, David M.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Lambert, Paul F.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Bucher, John R.; Stewart, Bernard W.; Baan, Robert A.; Cogliano, Vincent J.; Straif, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) updated the assessments of the > 100 agents classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans (IARC Monographs Volume 100, parts A–F). This exercise was complicated by the absence of a broadly accepted, systematic method for evaluating mechanistic data to support conclusions regarding human hazard from exposure to carcinogens. Objectives and Methods: IARC therefore convened two workshops in which an international Working Group of experts identified 10 key characteristics, one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. Discussion: These characteristics provide the basis for an objective approach to identifying and organizing results from pertinent mechanistic studies. The 10 characteristics are the abilities of an agent to 1) act as an electrophile either directly or after metabolic activation; 2) be genotoxic; 3) alter DNA repair or cause genomic instability; 4) induce epigenetic alterations; 5) induce oxidative stress; 6) induce chronic inflammation; 7) be immunosuppressive; 8) modulate receptor-mediated effects; 9) cause immortalization; and 10) alter cell proliferation, cell death, or nutrient supply. Conclusion: We describe the use of the 10 key characteristics to conduct a systematic literature search focused on relevant end points and construct a graphical representation of the identified mechanistic information. Next, we use benzene and polychlorinated biphenyls as examples to illustrate how this approach may work in practice. The approach described is similar in many respects to those currently being implemented by the U.S. EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System Program and the U.S. National Toxicology Program. Citation: Smith MT, Guyton KZ, Gibbons CF, Fritz JM, Portier CJ, Rusyn I, DeMarini DM, Caldwell JC, Kavlock RJ, Lambert P, Hecht SS, Bucher JR, Stewart BW, Baan R, Cogliano VJ, Straif K. 2016. Key characteristics of carcinogens as a

  5. Key Characteristics of Carcinogens as a Basis for Organizing Data on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martyn T; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Gibbons, Catherine F; Fritz, Jason M; Portier, Christopher J; Rusyn, Ivan; DeMarini, David M; Caldwell, Jane C; Kavlock, Robert J; Lambert, Paul F; Hecht, Stephen S; Bucher, John R; Stewart, Bernard W; Baan, Robert A; Cogliano, Vincent J; Straif, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    A recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) updated the assessments of the > 100 agents classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans (IARC Monographs Volume 100, parts A-F). This exercise was complicated by the absence of a broadly accepted, systematic method for evaluating mechanistic data to support conclusions regarding human hazard from exposure to carcinogens. IARC therefore convened two workshops in which an international Working Group of experts identified 10 key characteristics, one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. These characteristics provide the basis for an objective approach to identifying and organizing results from pertinent mechanistic studies. The 10 characteristics are the abilities of an agent to 1) act as an electrophile either directly or after metabolic activation; 2) be genotoxic; 3) alter DNA repair or cause genomic instability; 4) induce epigenetic alterations; 5) induce oxidative stress; 6) induce chronic inflammation; 7) be immunosuppressive; 8) modulate receptor-mediated effects; 9) cause immortalization; and 10) alter cell proliferation, cell death, or nutrient supply. We describe the use of the 10 key characteristics to conduct a systematic literature search focused on relevant end points and construct a graphical representation of the identified mechanistic information. Next, we use benzene and polychlorinated biphenyls as examples to illustrate how this approach may work in practice. The approach described is similar in many respects to those currently being implemented by the U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System Program and the U.S. National Toxicology Program. Smith MT, Guyton KZ, Gibbons CF, Fritz JM, Portier CJ, Rusyn I, DeMarini DM, Caldwell JC, Kavlock RJ, Lambert P, Hecht SS, Bucher JR, Stewart BW, Baan R, Cogliano VJ, Straif K. 2016. Key characteristics of carcinogens as a basis for organizing data on mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Environ Health

  6. A free-access online key to identify Amazonian ferns.

    PubMed

    Zuquim, Gabriela; Tuomisto, Hanna; Prado, Jefferson

    2017-01-01

    There is urgent need for more data on species distributions in order to improve conservation planning. A crucial but challenging aspect of producing high-quality data is the correct identification of organisms. Traditional printed floras and dichotomous keys are difficult to use for someone not familiar with the technical jargon. In poorly known areas, such as Amazonia, they also become quickly outdated as new species are described or ranges extended. Recently, online tools have allowed developing dynamic, interactive, and accessible keys that make species identification possible for a broader public. In order to facilitate identifying plants collected in field inventories, we developed an internet-based free-access tool to identify Amazonian fern species. We focused on ferns, because they are easy to collect and their edaphic affinities are relatively well known, so they can be used as an indicator group for habitat mapping. Our key includes 302 terrestrial and aquatic entities mainly from lowland Amazonian forests. It is a free-access key, so the user can freely choose which morphological features to use and in which order to assess them. All taxa are richly illustrated, so specimens can be identified by a combination of character choices, visual comparison, and written descriptions. The identification tool was developed in Lucid 3.5 software and it is available at http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org:8080/sandbox/keys.jsp.

  7. A free-access online key to identify Amazonian ferns

    PubMed Central

    Zuquim, Gabriela; Tuomisto, Hanna; Prado, Jefferson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is urgent need for more data on species distributions in order to improve conservation planning. A crucial but challenging aspect of producing high-quality data is the correct identification of organisms. Traditional printed floras and dichotomous keys are difficult to use for someone not familiar with the technical jargon. In poorly known areas, such as Amazonia, they also become quickly outdated as new species are described or ranges extended. Recently, online tools have allowed developing dynamic, interactive, and accessible keys that make species identification possible for a broader public. In order to facilitate identifying plants collected in field inventories, we developed an internet-based free-access tool to identify Amazonian fern species. We focused on ferns, because they are easy to collect and their edaphic affinities are relatively well known, so they can be used as an indicator group for habitat mapping. Our key includes 302 terrestrial and aquatic entities mainly from lowland Amazonian forests. It is a free-access key, so the user can freely choose which morphological features to use and in which order to assess them. All taxa are richly illustrated, so specimens can be identified by a combination of character choices, visual comparison, and written descriptions. The identification tool was developed in Lucid 3.5 software and it is available at http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org:8080/sandbox/keys.jsp. PMID:28781548

  8. Identifying Key Drivers of Return Reversal with Dynamical Bayesian Factor Graph

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuai; Tong, Yunhai; Wang, Zitian; Tan, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    In the stock market, return reversal occurs when investors sell overbought stocks and buy oversold stocks, reversing the stocks’ price trends. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify key drivers of return reversal by incorporating a comprehensive set of factors derived from different economic theories into one unified dynamical Bayesian factor graph. We then use the model to depict factor relationships and their dynamics, from which we make some interesting discoveries about the mechanism behind return reversals. Through extensive experiments on the US stock market, we conclude that among the various factors, the liquidity factors consistently emerge as key drivers of return reversal, which is in support of the theory of liquidity effect. Specifically, we find that stocks with high turnover rates or high Amihud illiquidity measures have a greater probability of experiencing return reversals. Apart from the consistent drivers, we find other drivers of return reversal that generally change from year to year, and they serve as important characteristics for evaluating the trends of stock returns. Besides, we also identify some seldom discussed yet enlightening inter-factor relationships, one of which shows that stocks in Finance and Insurance industry are more likely to have high Amihud illiquidity measures in comparison with those in other industries. These conclusions are robust for return reversals under different thresholds. PMID:27893780

  9. Identifying Key Drivers of Return Reversal with Dynamical Bayesian Factor Graph.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuai; Tong, Yunhai; Wang, Zitian; Tan, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    In the stock market, return reversal occurs when investors sell overbought stocks and buy oversold stocks, reversing the stocks' price trends. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify key drivers of return reversal by incorporating a comprehensive set of factors derived from different economic theories into one unified dynamical Bayesian factor graph. We then use the model to depict factor relationships and their dynamics, from which we make some interesting discoveries about the mechanism behind return reversals. Through extensive experiments on the US stock market, we conclude that among the various factors, the liquidity factors consistently emerge as key drivers of return reversal, which is in support of the theory of liquidity effect. Specifically, we find that stocks with high turnover rates or high Amihud illiquidity measures have a greater probability of experiencing return reversals. Apart from the consistent drivers, we find other drivers of return reversal that generally change from year to year, and they serve as important characteristics for evaluating the trends of stock returns. Besides, we also identify some seldom discussed yet enlightening inter-factor relationships, one of which shows that stocks in Finance and Insurance industry are more likely to have high Amihud illiquidity measures in comparison with those in other industries. These conclusions are robust for return reversals under different thresholds.

  10. Recurrent seascape units identify key ecological processes along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff S; Kavanaugh, Maria T; Doney, Scott C; Ducklow, Hugh W

    2018-04-10

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a bellwether of global climate change and natural laboratory for identifying interactions between climate and ecosystems. The Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) project has collected data on key ecological and environmental processes along the WAP since 1993. To better understand how key ecological parameters are changing across space and time, we developed a novel seascape classification approach based on in situ temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, nitrate + nitrite, phosphate, and silicate. We anticipate that this approach will be broadly applicable to other geographical areas. Through the application of self-organizing maps (SOMs), we identified eight recurrent seascape units (SUs) in these data. These SUs have strong fidelity to known regional water masses but with an additional layer of biogeochemical detail, allowing us to identify multiple distinct nutrient profiles in several water masses. To identify the temporal and spatial distribution of these SUs, we mapped them across the Palmer LTER sampling grid via objective mapping of the original parameters. Analysis of the abundance and distribution of SUs since 1993 suggests two year types characterized by the partitioning of chlorophyll a into SUs with different spatial characteristics. By developing generalized linear models for correlated, time-lagged external drivers, we conclude that early spring sea ice conditions exert a strong influence on the distribution of chlorophyll a and nutrients along the WAP, but not necessarily the total chlorophyll a inventory. Because the distribution and density of phytoplankton biomass can have an impact on biomass transfer to the upper trophic levels, these results highlight anticipated links between the WAP marine ecosystem and climate. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Collaboration between employers and occupational health service providers: a systematic review of key characteristics.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Atkins, Salla; Hakulinen, Hanna; Pesonen, Sanna; Uitti, Jukka

    2017-01-05

    Employees are major contributors to economic development, and occupational health services (OHS) can have an important role in supporting their health. Key to this is collaboration between employers and OHS. We reviewed the evidence regarding the characteristics of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers that is essential to construct more effective collaboration and services. A systematic review of the factors of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers was conducted. We searched five databases between January 2000 and March 2016 and back referenced included articles. Two reviewers evaluated 639 titles, 63 abstracts and 20 full articles, and agreed that six articles, all on qualitative studies, met the predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer and analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes and nine subthemes related to good collaboration were identified. The first theme included time, space and contract requirements for effective collaboration with three subthemes (i.e., key characteristics): flexible OHS/flexible contracts including tailor-made services accounting for the needs of the employer, geographical proximity of the stakeholders allowing easy access to services, and long-term contracts as collaboration develops over time. The second theme was related to characteristics of the dialogue in effective collaboration that consisted of shared goals, reciprocity, frequent contact and trust. According to the third theme the definition of roles of the stakeholders was important; OHS providers should have competence and knowledge about the workplace, become strategic partners with the employers as well as provide quality services. Although literature regarding collaboration between the employers and OHS providers was limited, we identified several key factors that contribute to effective collaboration. This information is useful in

  12. Key characteristics of specular stereo

    PubMed Central

    Muryy, Alexander A.; Fleming, Roland W.; Welchman, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Because specular reflection is view-dependent, shiny surfaces behave radically differently from matte, textured surfaces when viewed with two eyes. As a result, specular reflections pose substantial problems for binocular stereopsis. Here we use a combination of computer graphics and geometrical analysis to characterize the key respects in which specular stereo differs from standard stereo, to identify how and why the human visual system fails to reconstruct depths correctly from specular reflections. We describe rendering of stereoscopic images of specular surfaces in which the disparity information can be varied parametrically and independently of monocular appearance. Using the generated surfaces and images, we explain how stereo correspondence can be established with known and unknown surface geometry. We show that even with known geometry, stereo matching for specular surfaces is nontrivial because points in one eye may have zero, one, or multiple matches in the other eye. Matching features typically yield skew (nonintersecting) rays, leading to substantial ortho-epipolar components to the disparities, which makes deriving depth values from matches nontrivial. We suggest that the human visual system may base its depth estimates solely on the epipolar components of disparities while treating the ortho-epipolar components as a measure of the underlying reliability of the disparity signals. Reconstructing virtual surfaces according to these principles reveals that they are piece-wise smooth with very large discontinuities close to inflection points on the physical surface. Together, these distinctive characteristics lead to cues that the visual system could use to diagnose specular reflections from binocular information. PMID:25540263

  13. Supporting Educational Success for Aboriginal Students: Identifying Key Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The academic difficulties experienced by many Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) students in Canada have been well-documented. Indicators such as school persistence and post-secondary enrollment are typically far lower for Aboriginal students as a group compared to non-Aboriginal students. Identifying facilitators of success is key to…

  14. Educational Evaluation: Key Characteristics. ACER Research Series No. 102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maling-Keepes, Jillian

    A set of 13 key characteristics is presented as a framework for educational evaluation studies: (1) program's stage of development when evaluator is appointed; (2) program's openness to revision; (3) program uniformity from site to site; (4) specificity of program objectives; (5) evaluator's independence; (6) evaluator's orientation to value…

  15. The four key characteristics of interpersonal emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Niven, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Emotion researchers are increasingly interested in processes by which people influence others' feelings. Although one such process, interpersonal emotion regulation, has received particular attention in recent years, there remains confusion about exactly how to define this process. The present article aims to distinguish interpersonal emotion regulation from other, related processes by outlining its four key characteristics. Specifically, interpersonal emotion regulation is presented as a process of (i) regulation, that (ii) has an affective target, (iii) is deliberate, and (iv) has a social target. Considering these characteristics raises questions for future research concerning factors that may influence the process of interpersonal emotion regulation, why interpersonal emotion regulation sometimes fails, and whether interventions can improve people's use of interpersonal emotion regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Corpet, Denis E; van den Berg, Martin; Ross, Matthew K; Christiani, David C; Beland, Frederick A; Smith, Martyn T

    2018-04-05

    Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as 'is genotoxic,' 'is immunosuppressive' or 'modulates receptor-mediated effects,' and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings. A systematic search, screening and evaluation procedure identified a broad literature encompassing multiple KCs for most (12/16) IARC Group 1 or 2A carcinogens identified in these meetings. Five carcinogens are genotoxic and induce oxidative stress, of which pentachlorophenol, hydrazine and malathion also showed additional KCs. Four others, including welding fumes, are immunosuppressive. The overall evaluation was upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic data for only two agents, tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachloroazobenzene. Both carcinogens modulate receptor-mediated effects in combination with other KCs. Fewer studies were identified for Group 2B or 3 agents, with the vast majority (17/18) showing only one or no KCs. Thus, an objective approach to identify and evaluate mechanistic studies pertinent to cancer revealed strong evidence for multiple KCs for most Group 1 or 2A carcinogens but also identified opportunities for improvement. Further development and mapping of toxicological and biomarker endpoints and pathways relevant to the KCs can advance the systematic search and evaluation of mechanistic data in carcinogen hazard identification.

  17. Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Corpet, Denis E; van den Berg, Martin; Ross, Matthew K; Christiani, David C; Beland, Frederick A; Smith, Martyn T

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as ‘is genotoxic,’ ‘is immunosuppressive’ or ‘modulates receptor-mediated effects,’ and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings. A systematic search, screening and evaluation procedure identified a broad literature encompassing multiple KCs for most (12/16) IARC Group 1 or 2A carcinogens identified in these meetings. Five carcinogens are genotoxic and induce oxidative stress, of which pentachlorophenol, hydrazine and malathion also showed additional KCs. Four others, including welding fumes, are immunosuppressive. The overall evaluation was upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic data for only two agents, tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachloroazobenzene. Both carcinogens modulate receptor-mediated effects in combination with other KCs. Fewer studies were identified for Group 2B or 3 agents, with the vast majority (17/18) showing only one or no KCs. Thus, an objective approach to identify and evaluate mechanistic studies pertinent to cancer revealed strong evidence for multiple KCs for most Group 1 or 2A carcinogens but also identified opportunities for improvement. Further development and mapping of toxicological and biomarker endpoints and pathways relevant to the KCs can advance the systematic search and evaluation of mechanistic data in carcinogen hazard identification. PMID:29562322

  18. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    PubMed

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  19. Quantitative methods of identifying the key nodes in the illegal wildlife trade network

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nikkita Gunvant; Rorres, Chris; Joly, Damien O.; Brownstein, John S.; Boston, Ray; Levy, Michael Z.; Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to combat the illegal trade in wildlife. Here, we used network analysis and a new database, HealthMap Wildlife Trade, to identify the key nodes (countries) that support the illegal wildlife trade. We identified key exporters and importers from the number of shipments a country sent and received and from the number of connections a country had to other countries over a given time period. We used flow betweenness centrality measurements to identify key intermediary countries. We found the set of nodes whose removal from the network would cause the maximum disruption to the network. Selecting six nodes would fragment 89.5% of the network for elephants, 92.3% for rhinoceros, and 98.1% for tigers. We then found sets of nodes that would best disseminate an educational message via direct connections through the network. We would need to select 18 nodes to reach 100% of the elephant trade network, 16 nodes for rhinoceros, and 10 for tigers. Although the choice of locations for interventions should be customized for the animal and the goal of the intervention, China was the most frequently selected country for network fragmentation and information dissemination. Identification of key countries will help strategize illegal wildlife trade interventions. PMID:26080413

  20. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    PubMed

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2015-06-01

    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P < 0.05) but had no effect on overall liking (P > 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P < 0.05). Protein beverages must have desirable flavor for wide consumer appeal. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)1

    PubMed Central

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I.; Clark, Lynn G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. Methods and Results: A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). Conclusions: WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus. PMID:27144109

  2. Key for Trees of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coder, Kim D.; Wray, Paul H.

    This key is designed to help identify the most common trees found in Iowa. It is based on vegetative characteristics such as leaves, fruits, and bark and is illustrated with black and white line drawings. Since vegetative characteristics vary due to climate, age, soil fertility, and other conditions, the numerical sizes listed, such as length and…

  3. Personality Characteristics of Leaders Identifying with Different Student Subcultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Stephen R.

    This study was conducted to discover differences in personality characteristics among student leaders. The personality characteristics of presidents of campus organizations affiliated with one of four distinguishable student subcultures, identified by previous research as vocational, academic, collegiate, and nonconformist, were measured by the…

  4. Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects- Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter

    2010-06-17

    Marine wave and tidal energy technology could interact with marine resources in ways that are not well understood. As wave and tidal energy conversion projects are planned, tested, and deployed, a wide range of stakeholders will be engaged; these include developers, state and federal regulatory agencies, environmental groups, tribal governments, recreational and commercial fishermen, and local communities. Identifying stakeholders’ environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development will help developers address and minimize potential environmental effects. Identifying important concerns will also assist with streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles by the industry inmore » the U.S. today. In September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to conduct a scenario-based evaluation of emerging hydrokinetic technologies. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify and characterize environmental impacts that are likely to occur, demonstrate a process for analyzing these impacts, identify the “key” environmental concerns for each scenario, identify areas of uncertainty, and describe studies that could address that uncertainty. This process is intended to provide an objective and transparent tool to assist in decision-making for siting and selection of technology for wave and tidal energy development. RE Vision worked with H. T. Harvey & Associates, to develop a framework for identifying key environmental concerns with marine renewable technology. This report describes the results of this study. This framework was applied to varying wave and tidal power conversion technologies, scales, and locations. The following wave and tidal energy scenarios were considered: 4 wave energy generation technologies 3 tidal energy generation technologies 3 sites: Humboldt coast, California (wave); Makapu’u Point, Oahu, Hawaii (wave); and the Tacoma Narrows, Washington

  5. Key Issues in Empirically Identifying Chronically Low-Performing and Turnaround Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One of the US Department of Education's key priorities is turning around the nation's persistently low-achieving schools, yet exactly how to identify low-performing schools is a task left to state policy makers, and a myriad of definitions have been utilized. In addition, exactly how to recognize when a school begins to turn around is not well…

  6. Bibliometric Characteristics of Articles on Key Competences Indexed in ERIC from 1990 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscà Donet, Francesc; Ambròs Pallares, Alba; Burset Burillo, Sílvia

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the bibliometric characteristics of 616 journal articles on key competences indexed in ERIC in a 23-year-period following documentary analysis. This observation method allowed us to highlight key elements like the population, educational level, topics, etc. to focus whether this literature contributes towards implementing…

  7. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal - a case study from health science.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  8. Key principles of community-based natural resource management: a synthesis and interpretation of identified effective approaches for managing the commons.

    PubMed

    Gruber, James S

    2010-01-01

    This article examines recent research on approaches to community-based environmental and natural resource management and reviews the commonalities and differences between these interdisciplinary and multistakeholder initiatives. To identify the most effective characteristics of Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), I collected a multiplicity of perspectives from research teams and then grouped findings into a matrix of organizational principles and key characteristics. The matrix was initially vetted (or "field tested") by applying numerous case studies that were previously submitted to the World Bank International Workshop on CBNRM. These practitioner case studies were then compared and contrasted with the findings of the research teams. It is hoped that the developed matrix may be useful to researchers in further focusing research, understanding core characteristics of effective and sustainable CBNRM, providing practitioners with a framework for developing new CBNRM initiatives for managing the commons, and providing a potential resource for academic institutions during their evaluation of their practitioner-focused environmental management and leadership curriculum.

  9. An investigation into the differentiating characteristics between car key burglars and regular burglars.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Rachel; Smith, Lisa L; Bond, John W

    2012-07-01

    Car key burglary has recently become the focus of empirical investigation as offenders, no longer able to steal vehicles without first obtaining their keys, resort to "burgling" target properties. Research surrounding the modus operandi of these offenses is beginning to emerge; however, little attention has been paid to investigating the characteristics of car key burglary offenders. Challenging the assumption that car key burglary offenses are perpetrated by regular burglars, this study aims to differentiate between offenders. Logistic regression analysis of 110 car key and 110 regular burglary offenders revealed that car key burglars are more likely to have previous vehicle theft convictions and are also more likely to be detected on information supplied to the police than regular burglars. Regular burglars are more likely to have previous shoplifting convictions. It was concluded that car key burglars are a distinct sample of offenders and the implications of these findings are discussed. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

  11. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  12. Key Characteristics of Successful Science Learning: The Promise of Learning by Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Yvonne G.; Lazonder, Ard W.; de Jong, Ton

    2015-01-01

    The basic premise underlying this research is that scientific phenomena are best learned by creating an external representation that complies with the complex and dynamic nature of such phenomena. Effective representations are assumed to incorporate three key characteristics: they are graphical, dynamic, and provide a pre-specified outline of the…

  13. Identifying key performance indicators for nursing and midwifery care using a consensus approach.

    PubMed

    McCance, Tanya; Telford, Lorna; Wilson, Julie; Macleod, Olive; Dowd, Audrey

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain consensus on key performance indicators that are appropriate and relevant for nursing and midwifery practice in the current policy context. There is continuing demand to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency in health and social care and to communicate this at boardroom level. Whilst there is substantial literature on the use of clinical indicators and nursing metrics, there is less evidence relating to indicators that reflect the patient experience. A consensus approach was used to identify relevant key performance indicators. A nominal group technique was used comprising two stages: a workshop involving all grades of nursing and midwifery staff in two HSC trusts in Northern Ireland (n = 50); followed by a regional Consensus Conference (n = 80). During the workshop, potential key performance indicators were identified. This was used as the basis for the Consensus Conference, which involved two rounds of consensus. Analysis was based on aggregated scores that were then ranked. Stage one identified 38 potential indicators and stage two prioritised the eight top-ranked indicators as a core set for nursing and midwifery. The relevance and appropriateness of these indicators were confirmed with nurses and midwives working in a range of settings and from the perspective of service users. The eight indicators identified do not conform to the majority of other nursing metrics generally reported in the literature. Furthermore, they are strategically aligned to work on the patient experience and are reflective of the fundamentals of nursing and midwifery practice, with the focus on person-centred care. Nurses and midwives have a significant contribution to make in determining the extent to which these indicators are achieved in practice. Furthermore, measurement of such indicators provides an opportunity to evidence of the unique impact of nursing/midwifery care on the patient experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Identifying characteristics and practices of multidisciplinary team reviews for patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Woody, Charlotte A; Baxter, Amanda J; Harris, Meredith G; Siskind, Dan J; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2018-06-01

    Multidisciplinary teams in mental health receive limited guidance, leading to inconsistent practices. We undertook a systematic review of the characteristics and practices of multidisciplinary team reviews for patients with severe mental illness or in relevant mental health service settings. Sources published since 2000 were located via academic database and web searches. Results were synthesised narratively. A total of 14 sources were analysed. Important characteristics and practices identified included routine monitoring and evaluation, good communication, equality between team members, and clear documentation practices. Success factors included defined leadership and clear team goals. Four sources described considerations for patients with complex clinical needs, including allocating sufficient time for discussion, maintaining connections with community providers, and ensuring culturally sensitive practices. No single best practice model was found, due to variations in team caseload, casemix, and resourcing levels. However, key ingredients for success were proposed. Sources were mostly descriptive; there remains a lack of evidence-based guidance regarding multidisciplinary team review characteristics and practices.

  15. Identifying key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; An, Shoukuan; Li, Junquan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by reanalyzing microarray data. Three gene expression profile datasets GSE66360, GSE34198, and GSE48060 were downloaded from GEO database. After data preprocessing, genes without heterogeneity across different platforms were subjected to differential expression analysis between the AMI group and the control group using metaDE package. P < .05 was used as the cutoff for a differentially expressed gene (DEG). The expression data matrices of DEGs were imported in ReactomeFIViz to construct a gene functional interaction (FI) network. Then, DEGs in each module were subjected to pathway enrichment analysis using DAVID. MiRNAs and transcription factors predicted to regulate target DEGs were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to verify the expression of genes. A total of 913 upregulated genes and 1060 downregulated genes were identified in the AMI group. A FI network consists of 21 modules and DEGs in 12 modules were significantly enriched in pathways. The transcription factor-miRNA-gene network contains 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p. RT-PCR validations showed that expression levels of FOXO3 and MYBL2 were significantly increased in AMI, and expression levels of hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p were obviously decreased in AMI. A total of 41 DEGs, such as SOCS3, VAPA, and COL5A2, are speculated to have roles in the pathogenesis of AMI; 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p may be involved in the regulation of the expression of these DEGs.

  16. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is

  17. Identifying key hospital service quality factors in online health communities.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain; Kim, Minki

    2015-04-07

    The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. We defined social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea's two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and

  18. A matter of definition--key elements identified in a discourse analysis of definitions of palliative care.

    PubMed

    Pastrana, T; Jünger, S; Ostgathe, C; Elsner, F; Radbruch, L

    2008-04-01

    For more than 30 years, the term "palliative care" has been used. From the outset, the term has undergone a series of transformations in its definitions and consequently in its tasks and goals. There remains a lack of consensus on a definition. The aim of this article is to analyse the definitions of palliative care in the specialist literature and to identify the key elements of palliative care using discourse analysis: a qualitative methodology. The literature search focused on definitions of the term 'palliative medicine' and 'palliative care' in the World Wide Web and medical reference books in English and German. A total of 37 English and 26 German definitions were identified and analysed. Our study confirmed the lack of a consistent meaning concerning the investigated terms, reflecting on-going discussion about the nature of the field among palliative care practitioners. Several common key elements were identified. Four main categories emerged from the discourse analysis of the definition of palliative care: target groups, structure, tasks and expertise. In addition, the theoretical principles and goals of palliative care were discussed and found to be key elements, with relief and prevention of suffering and improvement of quality of life as main goals. The identified key elements can contribute to the definition of the concept 'palliative care'. Our study confirms the importance of semantic and ethical influences on palliative care that should be considered in future research on semantics in different languages.

  19. A multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks based on channel characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhuo; Zhong, Sheng; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  20. A Multihop Key Agreement Scheme for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Channel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  1. Identifying Key Words in 9-1-1 Calls for Stroke: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher T; Wang, Baiyang; Markul, Eddie; Albarran, Frank; Rottman, Doreen; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Lindeman, Patricia; Stein-Spencer, Leslee; Weber, Joseph M; Pearlman, Kenneth S; Tataris, Katie L; Holl, Jane L; Klabjan, Diego; Prabhakaran, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Identifying stroke during a 9-1-1 call is critical to timely prehospital care. However, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) recognize stroke in less than half of 9-1-1 calls, potentially due to the words used by callers to communicate stroke signs and symptoms. We hypothesized that callers do not typically use words and phrases considered to be classical descriptors of stroke, such as focal neurologic deficits, but that a mixed-methods approach can identify words and phrases commonly used by 9-1-1 callers to describe acute stroke victims. We performed a mixed-method, retrospective study of 9-1-1 call audio recordings for adult patients with confirmed stroke who were transported by ambulance in a large urban city. Content analysis, a qualitative methodology, and computational linguistics, a quantitative methodology, were used to identify key words and phrases used by 9-1-1 callers to describe acute stroke victims. Because a caller's level of emotional distress contributes to the communication during a 9-1-1 call, the Emotional Content and Cooperation Score was scored by a multidisciplinary team. A total of 110 9-1-1 calls, received between June and September 2013, were analyzed. EMDs recognized stroke in 48% of calls, and the emotional state of most callers (95%) was calm. In 77% of calls in which EMDs recognized stroke, callers specifically used the word "stroke"; however, the word "stroke" was used in only 38% of calls. Vague, non-specific words and phrases were used to describe stroke victims' symptoms in 55% of calls, and 45% of callers used distractor words and phrases suggestive of non-stroke emergencies. Focal neurologic symptoms were described in 39% of calls. Computational linguistics identified 9 key words that were more commonly used in calls where the EMD identified stroke. These words were concordant with terms identified through qualitative content analysis. Most 9-1-1 callers used vague, non-specific, or distractor words and phrases and infrequently

  2. Genetic and Chemical Screenings Identify HDAC3 as a Key Regulator in Hepatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Li, Mushan; Liu, Xiaojian; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Yuda; Chen, Yanhao; Qiu, Yan; Zhou, Tingting; Feng, Zhuanghui; Ma, Danjun; Fang, Jing; Ying, Hao; Wang, Hui; Musunuru, Kiran; Shao, Zhen; Zhao, Yongxu; Ding, Qiurong

    2018-05-24

    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer a promising cell resource for disease modeling and transplantation. However, differentiated HLCs exhibit an immature phenotype and comprise a heterogeneous population. Thus, a better understanding of HLC differentiation will improve the likelihood of future application. Here, by taking advantage of CRISPR-Cas9-based genome-wide screening technology and a high-throughput hPSC screening platform with a reporter readout, we identified several potential genetic regulators of HLC differentiation. By using a chemical screening approach within our platform, we also identified compounds that can further promote HLC differentiation and preserve the characteristics of in vitro cultured primary hepatocytes. Remarkably, both screenings identified histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) as a key regulator in hepatic differentiation. Mechanistically, HDAC3 formed a complex with liver transcriptional factors, e.g., HNF4, and co-regulated the transcriptional program during hepatic differentiation. This study highlights a broadly useful approach for studying and optimizing hPSC differentiation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming; An, Shoukuan; Li, Junquan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study aimed to identify key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by reanalyzing microarray data. Methods: Three gene expression profile datasets GSE66360, GSE34198, and GSE48060 were downloaded from GEO database. After data preprocessing, genes without heterogeneity across different platforms were subjected to differential expression analysis between the AMI group and the control group using metaDE package. P < .05 was used as the cutoff for a differentially expressed gene (DEG). The expression data matrices of DEGs were imported in ReactomeFIViz to construct a gene functional interaction (FI) network. Then, DEGs in each module were subjected to pathway enrichment analysis using DAVID. MiRNAs and transcription factors predicted to regulate target DEGs were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to verify the expression of genes. Result: A total of 913 upregulated genes and 1060 downregulated genes were identified in the AMI group. A FI network consists of 21 modules and DEGs in 12 modules were significantly enriched in pathways. The transcription factor-miRNA-gene network contains 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p. RT-PCR validations showed that expression levels of FOXO3 and MYBL2 were significantly increased in AMI, and expression levels of hsa-miR-21–5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p were obviously decreased in AMI. Conclusion: A total of 41 DEGs, such as SOCS3, VAPA, and COL5A2, are speculated to have roles in the pathogenesis of AMI; 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p may be involved in the regulation of the expression of these DEGs. PMID:29049183

  4. Iterative key-residues interrogation of a phytase with thermostability increasing substitutions identified in directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Amol V; Roccatano, Danilo; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial phytases have attracted industrial interest as animal feed supplement due to their high activity and sufficient thermostability (required for feed pelleting). We devised an approach named KeySIDE,  an iterative Key-residues interrogation of the wild type with Substitutions Identified in Directed Evolution for improving Yersinia mollaretii phytase (Ymphytase) thermostability by combining key beneficial substitutions and elucidating their individual roles. Directed evolution yielded in a discovery of nine positions in Ymphytase and combined iteratively to identify key positions. The "best" combination (M6: T77K, Q154H, G187S, and K289Q) resulted in significantly improved thermal resistance; the residual activity improved from 35 % (wild type) to 89 % (M6) at 58 °C and 20-min incubation. Melting temperature increased by 3 °C in M6 without a loss of specific activity. Molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed reduced flexibility in the loops located next to helices (B, F, and K) which possess substitutions (Helix-B: T77K, Helix-F: G187S, and Helix-K: K289E/Q). Reduced flexibility in the loops might be caused by strengthened hydrogen bonding network (e.g., G187S and K289E/K289Q) and a salt bridge (T77K). Our results demonstrate a promising approach to design phytases in food research, and we hope that the KeySIDE might become an attractive approach for understanding of structure-function relationships of enzymes.

  5. Identifying key genes in rheumatoid arthritis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Lv, Qi; Teng, Songsong; Yu, Yinxian; Niu, Kerun; Yi, Chengqin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related genes based on microarray data using the WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) method. Two gene expression profile datasets GSE55235 (10 RA samples and 10 healthy controls) and GSE77298 (16 RA samples and seven healthy controls) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Characteristic genes were identified using metaDE package. WGCNA was used to find disease-related networks based on gene expression correlation coefficients, and module significance was defined as the average gene significance of all genes used to assess the correlation between the module and RA status. Genes in the disease-related gene co-expression network were subject to functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Characteristic genes were also mapped to the Connectivity Map to screen small molecules. A total of 599 characteristic genes were identified. For each dataset, characteristic genes in the green, red and turquoise modules were most closely associated with RA, with gene numbers of 54, 43 and 79, respectively. These genes were enriched in totally enriched in 17 Gene Ontology terms, mainly related to immune response (CD97, FYB, CXCL1, IKBKE, CCR1, etc.), inflammatory response (CD97, CXCL1, C3AR1, CCR1, LYZ, etc.) and homeostasis (C3AR1, CCR1, PLN, CCL19, PPT1, etc.). Two small-molecule drugs sanguinarine and papaverine were predicted to have a therapeutic effect against RA. Genes related to immune response, inflammatory response and homeostasis presumably have critical roles in RA pathogenesis. Sanguinarine and papaverine have a potential therapeutic effect against RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hualin; Yao, Guanrong; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability. PMID:24590051

  7. Identifying job characteristics related to employed women's breastfeeding behaviors.

    PubMed

    Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane

    2018-05-14

    For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The building blocks of a 'Liveable Neighbourhood': Identifying the key performance indicators for walking of an operational planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-11-01

    Planning policy makers are requesting clearer guidance on the key design features required to build neighbourhoods that promote active living. Using a backwards stepwise elimination procedure (logistic regression with generalised estimating equations adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development) this study identified specific design features (n=16) from an operational planning policy ("Liveable Neighbourhoods") that showed the strongest associations with walking behaviours (measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire). The interacting effects of design features on walking behaviours were also investigated. The urban design features identified were grouped into the "building blocks of a Liveable Neighbourhood", reflecting the scale, importance and sequencing of the design and implementation phases required to create walkable, pedestrian friendly developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decision tree analyses of key patient characteristics in Middle Eastern/North African and Latin American men treated with long-acting and short-acting PDE5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; El-Meliegy, Amr; Abdulwahed, Samer; Henneges, Carsten; Sorsaburu, Sebastian; Gurbuz, Sirel

    2015-02-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors have discontinuation rates as high as 60% in men with erectile dysfunction. Treatment satisfaction has been significantly associated with treatment continuation. Understanding key characteristics in terms of treatment preference, relationship, and lifestyle issues could provide direction on how to improve compliance with PDE5 inhibitor treatment globally. The objective was to identify subgroups of interest in the pooled database of two observational studies conducted in Latin America (LA) and Middle East/North Africa (MENA) exploring patient characteristics and prescription of either a long- or short-acting PDE5 inhibitor at baseline. Two identical prospective, non-interventional, observational, studies in MENA (N = 493) and LA (N = 511) treated men with an 'on demand' (pro re nata, PRN) PDE5 inhibitor (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, or lodenafil) during 6 months. In this post-hoc meta-analysis of two observational studies with equal design, pooled data were analyzed to determine patient characteristics and PDE5 inhibitor prescribed/used most likely to be associated with patient expectations, satisfaction, self-esteem, and patient-partner relationships. Decision tree analyses, with and without weighting, were used to identify and describe key features. In each analysis of patient expectations, patient-partner relationship, and self-esteem, we describe the two major subgroups at baseline for each decision tree. Analyses of patient expectations and sexual self-esteem revealed that patients prescribed long-acting PDE5 inhibitors (59%) highlighted the importance of treatment effect duration, second to partner satisfaction with treatment, while patients prescribed short-acting PDE5 inhibitors (32%) placed less importance on treatment effect duration but considerable importance on treatment effect lasting until intercourse completion. Further insights regarding patients, partner relationship characteristics, and

  10. Integrative Analysis of DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Data Identifies EPAS1 as a Key Regulator of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seungyeul; Takikawa, Sachiko; Geraghty, Patrick; Argmann, Carmen; Campbell, Joshua; Lin, Luan; Huang, Tao; Tu, Zhidong; Feronjy, Robert; Spira, Avrum; Schadt, Eric E.; Powell, Charles A.; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a complex disease. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are known to contribute to COPD risk and disease progression. Therefore we developed a systematic approach to identify key regulators of COPD that integrates genome-wide DNA methylation, gene expression, and phenotype data in lung tissue from COPD and control samples. Our integrative analysis identified 126 key regulators of COPD. We identified EPAS1 as the only key regulator whose downstream genes significantly overlapped with multiple genes sets associated with COPD disease severity. EPAS1 is distinct in comparison with other key regulators in terms of methylation profile and downstream target genes. Genes predicted to be regulated by EPAS1 were enriched for biological processes including signaling, cell communications, and system development. We confirmed that EPAS1 protein levels are lower in human COPD lung tissue compared to non-disease controls and that Epas1 gene expression is reduced in mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. As EPAS1 downstream genes were significantly enriched for hypoxia responsive genes in endothelial cells, we tested EPAS1 function in human endothelial cells. EPAS1 knockdown by siRNA in endothelial cells impacted genes that significantly overlapped with EPAS1 downstream genes in lung tissue including hypoxia responsive genes, and genes associated with emphysema severity. Our first integrative analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiles illustrates that not only does DNA methylation play a ‘causal’ role in the molecular pathophysiology of COPD, but it can be leveraged to directly identify novel key mediators of this pathophysiology. PMID:25569234

  11. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression data identifies EPAS1 as a key regulator of COPD.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seungyeul; Takikawa, Sachiko; Geraghty, Patrick; Argmann, Carmen; Campbell, Joshua; Lin, Luan; Huang, Tao; Tu, Zhidong; Foronjy, Robert F; Feronjy, Robert; Spira, Avrum; Schadt, Eric E; Powell, Charles A; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a complex disease. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are known to contribute to COPD risk and disease progression. Therefore we developed a systematic approach to identify key regulators of COPD that integrates genome-wide DNA methylation, gene expression, and phenotype data in lung tissue from COPD and control samples. Our integrative analysis identified 126 key regulators of COPD. We identified EPAS1 as the only key regulator whose downstream genes significantly overlapped with multiple genes sets associated with COPD disease severity. EPAS1 is distinct in comparison with other key regulators in terms of methylation profile and downstream target genes. Genes predicted to be regulated by EPAS1 were enriched for biological processes including signaling, cell communications, and system development. We confirmed that EPAS1 protein levels are lower in human COPD lung tissue compared to non-disease controls and that Epas1 gene expression is reduced in mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. As EPAS1 downstream genes were significantly enriched for hypoxia responsive genes in endothelial cells, we tested EPAS1 function in human endothelial cells. EPAS1 knockdown by siRNA in endothelial cells impacted genes that significantly overlapped with EPAS1 downstream genes in lung tissue including hypoxia responsive genes, and genes associated with emphysema severity. Our first integrative analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiles illustrates that not only does DNA methylation play a 'causal' role in the molecular pathophysiology of COPD, but it can be leveraged to directly identify novel key mediators of this pathophysiology.

  12. Improving Outcomes for Students with Disabilities: Identifying Characteristics of Successful Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Melissa; Tkatchov, Oran

    2017-01-01

    The common characteristics among Arizona districts and charters with high academic outcomes for student disabilities were identified in a qualitative study involving site visits and interviews. In 2014, the Arizona Department of Education examined over three years of state testing data to identify districts and charter schools that closed the…

  13. 40 CFR 261.10 - Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... characteristics of hazardous waste. 261.10 Section 261.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Criteria for Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste and for Listing Hazardous Waste § 261.10 Criteria for...

  14. 40 CFR 261.10 - Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... characteristics of hazardous waste. 261.10 Section 261.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Criteria for Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste and for Listing Hazardous Waste § 261.10 Criteria for...

  15. 40 CFR 261.10 - Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... characteristics of hazardous waste. 261.10 Section 261.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Criteria for Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste and for Listing Hazardous Waste § 261.10 Criteria for...

  16. 40 CFR 261.10 - Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... characteristics of hazardous waste. 261.10 Section 261.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Criteria for Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste and for Listing Hazardous Waste § 261.10 Criteria for...

  17. 40 CFR 261.10 - Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... characteristics of hazardous waste. 261.10 Section 261.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Criteria for Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste and for Listing Hazardous Waste § 261.10 Criteria for...

  18. Employing an ethnographic approach: key characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Glacken, Michele; McCarron, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly embracing ethnography as a useful research methodology. This paper presents an overview of some of the main characteristics we considered and the challenges encountered when using ethnography to explore the nature of communication between children and health professionals in a children's hospital. There is no consensual definition or single procedure to follow when using ethnography. This is largely attributable to the re-contextualisation of ethnography over time through diversification in and across many disciplines. Thus, it is imperative to consider some of ethnography's trademark features. To identify core trademark features of ethnography, we collated data following a scoping review of pertinent ethnographic textbooks, journal articles, attendance at ethnographic workshops and discussions with principle ethnographers. This is a methodological paper. Essentially, ethnography is a field-orientated activity that has cultural interpretations at its core, although the levels of those interpretations vary. We identified six trademark features to be considered when embracing an ethnographic approach: naturalism; context; multiple data sources; small case numbers; 'emic' and 'etic' perspectives, and ethical considerations. Ethnography has an assortment of meanings, so it is not often used in a wholly orthodox way and does not fall under the auspices of one epistemological belief. Yet, there are core criteria and trademark features that researchers should take into account alongside their particular epistemological beliefs when embracing an ethnographic inquiry. We hope this paper promotes a clearer vision of the methodological processes to consider when embarking on ethnography and creates an avenue for others to disseminate their experiences of and challenges encountered when applying ethnography's trademark features in different healthcare contexts.

  19. RM-DEMATEL: a new methodology to identify the key factors in PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yafeng; Liu, Jie; Li, Yunpeng; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Weather system is a relative complex dynamic system, the factors of the system are mutually influenced PM2.5 concentration. In this paper, a new method is proposed to quantify the influence on PM2.5 by other factors in the weather system and identify the most important factors for PM2.5 with limited resources. The relation map (RM) is used to figure out the direct relation matrix of 14 factors in PM2.5. The decision making trial and evaluation laboratory(DEMATEL) is applied to calculate the causal relationship and extent to a mutual influence of 14 factors in PM2.5. According to the ranking results of our proposed method, the most important key factors is sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(X)). In addition, the other factors, the ambient maximum temperature (T(max)), concentration of PM10, and wind direction (W(dir)), are important factors for PM2.5. The proposed method can also be applied to other environment management systems to identify key factors.

  20. A data mining paradigm for identifying key factors in biological processes using gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Zheng, Le; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Bin, Lianghua; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M; Pawelczyk, Tadeusz; Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Monika; Trzeciak, Magdalena; Leung, Donald Y M; Morasso, Maria I; Yu, Peng

    2018-06-13

    A large volume of biological data is being generated for studying mechanisms of various biological processes. These precious data enable large-scale computational analyses to gain biological insights. However, it remains a challenge to mine the data efficiently for knowledge discovery. The heterogeneity of these data makes it difficult to consistently integrate them, slowing down the process of biological discovery. We introduce a data processing paradigm to identify key factors in biological processes via systematic collection of gene expression datasets, primary analysis of data, and evaluation of consistent signals. To demonstrate its effectiveness, our paradigm was applied to epidermal development and identified many genes that play a potential role in this process. Besides the known epidermal development genes, a substantial proportion of the identified genes are still not supported by gain- or loss-of-function studies, yielding many novel genes for future studies. Among them, we selected a top gene for loss-of-function experimental validation and confirmed its function in epidermal differentiation, proving the ability of this paradigm to identify new factors in biological processes. In addition, this paradigm revealed many key genes in cold-induced thermogenesis using data from cold-challenged tissues, demonstrating its generalizability. This paradigm can lead to fruitful results for studying molecular mechanisms in an era of explosive accumulation of publicly available biological data.

  1. Identifying and characterizing key nodes among communities based on electrical-circuit networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenghui; Wang, Wenxu; Di, Zengru; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks with community structures are ubiquitous in the real world. Despite many approaches developed for detecting communities, we continue to lack tools for identifying overlapping and bridging nodes that play crucial roles in the interactions and communications among communities in complex networks. Here we develop an algorithm based on the local flow conservation to effectively and efficiently identify and distinguish the two types of nodes. Our method is applicable in both undirected and directed networks without a priori knowledge of the community structure. Our method bypasses the extremely challenging problem of partitioning communities in the presence of overlapping nodes that may belong to multiple communities. Due to the fact that overlapping and bridging nodes are of paramount importance in maintaining the function of many social and biological networks, our tools open new avenues towards understanding and controlling real complex networks with communities accompanied with the key nodes.

  2. Modelling Creativity: Identifying Key Components through a Corpus-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a complex, multi-faceted concept encompassing a variety of related aspects, abilities, properties and behaviours. If we wish to study creativity scientifically, then a tractable and well-articulated model of creativity is required. Such a model would be of great value to researchers investigating the nature of creativity and in particular, those concerned with the evaluation of creative practice. This paper describes a unique approach to developing a suitable model of how creative behaviour emerges that is based on the words people use to describe the concept. Using techniques from the field of statistical natural language processing, we identify a collection of fourteen key components of creativity through an analysis of a corpus of academic papers on the topic. Words are identified which appear significantly often in connection with discussions of the concept. Using a measure of lexical similarity to help cluster these words, a number of distinct themes emerge, which collectively contribute to a comprehensive and multi-perspective model of creativity. The components provide an ontology of creativity: a set of building blocks which can be used to model creative practice in a variety of domains. The components have been employed in two case studies to evaluate the creativity of computational systems and have proven useful in articulating achievements of this work and directions for further research. PMID:27706185

  3. Modelling Creativity: Identifying Key Components through a Corpus-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Jordanous, Anna; Keller, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a complex, multi-faceted concept encompassing a variety of related aspects, abilities, properties and behaviours. If we wish to study creativity scientifically, then a tractable and well-articulated model of creativity is required. Such a model would be of great value to researchers investigating the nature of creativity and in particular, those concerned with the evaluation of creative practice. This paper describes a unique approach to developing a suitable model of how creative behaviour emerges that is based on the words people use to describe the concept. Using techniques from the field of statistical natural language processing, we identify a collection of fourteen key components of creativity through an analysis of a corpus of academic papers on the topic. Words are identified which appear significantly often in connection with discussions of the concept. Using a measure of lexical similarity to help cluster these words, a number of distinct themes emerge, which collectively contribute to a comprehensive and multi-perspective model of creativity. The components provide an ontology of creativity: a set of building blocks which can be used to model creative practice in a variety of domains. The components have been employed in two case studies to evaluate the creativity of computational systems and have proven useful in articulating achievements of this work and directions for further research.

  4. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene production wastes. (a) Effective December 19, 1994, the wastes specified in 40...

  5. Identifying local characteristic lengths governing sound wave properties in solid foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan Hoang, Minh; Perrot, Camille

    2013-02-01

    Identifying microscopic geometric properties and fluid flow through opened-cell and partially closed-cell solid structures is a challenge for material science, in particular, for the design of porous media used as sound absorbers in building and transportation industries. We revisit recent literature data to identify the local characteristic lengths dominating the transport properties and sound absorbing behavior of polyurethane foam samples by performing numerical homogenization simulations. To determine the characteristic sizes of the model, we need porosity and permeability measurements in conjunction with ligament lengths estimates from available scanning electron microscope images. We demonstrate that this description of the porous material, consistent with the critical path picture following from the percolation arguments, is widely applicable. This is an important step towards tuning sound proofing properties of complex materials.

  6. Identifying key areas for active interprofessional learning partnerships: A facilitated dialogue.

    PubMed

    Steven, Kathryn; Angus, Allyson; Breckenridge, Jenna; Davey, Peter; Tully, Vicki; Muir, Fiona

    2016-11-01

    Student and service user involvement is recognised as an important factor in creating interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. We used a team-based learning approach to bring together undergraduate health professional students, early career professionals (ECPs), public partners, volunteers, and carers to explore learning partnerships. Influenced by evaluative inquiry, this qualitative study used a free text response to allow participants to give their own opinion. A total of 153 participants (50 public partners and 103 students and professionals representing 11 healthcare professions) took part. Participants were divided into mixed groups of six (n = 25) and asked to identify areas where students, professionals, and public could work together to improve health professional education. Each group documented their discussions by summarising agreed areas and next steps. Responses were collected and transcribed for inductive content analysis. Seven key themes (areas for joint working) were identified: communication, public as partners, standards of conduct, IPE, quality improvement, education, and learning environments. The team-based learning format enabled undergraduate and postgraduate health professionals to achieve consensus with public partners on areas for IPE and collaboration. Some of our results may be context-specific but the approach is generalisable to other areas.

  7. Key Competencies: Drug and Alcohol Education. Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    This guide, designed for use with secondary school students, attempts to prevent drug and alcohol abuse among students. The Key Competencies program targets several characteristics which have been identified in addicted children: poor self image, improper sense of values, and lack of identity. For grades seven through nine, strategies are…

  8. Setting objectives for managing Key deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wagner, Tyler; Stauffer, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for the protection and management of Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) because the species is listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purpose of the ESA is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. There are a host of actions that could possibly be undertaken to recover the Key deer population, but without a clearly defined problem and stated objectives it can be difficult to compare and evaluate alternative actions. In addition, management goals and the acceptability of alternative management actions are inherently linked to stakeholders, who should be engaged throughout the process of developing a decision framework. The purpose of this project was to engage a representative group of stakeholders to develop a problem statement that captured the management problem the FWS must address with Key deer and identify objectives that, if met, would help solve the problem. In addition, the objectives were organized in a hierarchical manner (i.e., an objectives network) to show how they are linked, and measurable attributes were identified for each objective. We organized a group of people who represented stakeholders interested in and potentially affected by the management of Key deer. These stakeholders included individuals who represented local, state, and federal governments, non-governmental organizations, the general public, and local businesses. This stakeholder group met five full days over the course of an eight-week period to identify objectives that would address the following problem:“As recovery and removal from the Endangered Species list is the purpose of the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service needs a management approach that will ensure a sustainable, viable, and healthy Key deer population. Urbanization has affected the behavior and population dynamics of the Key deer and the amount and characteristics

  9. A new neuro-fuzzy training algorithm for identifying dynamic characteristics of smart dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzung Nguyen, Sy; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm, named establishing neuro-fuzzy system (ENFS), to identify dynamic characteristics of smart dampers such as magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological (ER) dampers. In the ENFS, data clustering is performed based on the proposed algorithm named partitioning data space (PDS). Firstly, the PDS builds data clusters in joint input-output data space with appropriate constraints. The role of these constraints is to create reasonable data distribution in clusters. The ENFS then uses these clusters to perform the following tasks. Firstly, the fuzzy sets expressing characteristics of data clusters are established. The structure of the fuzzy sets is adjusted to be suitable for features of the data set. Secondly, an appropriate structure of neuro-fuzzy (NF) expressed by an optimal number of labeled data clusters and the fuzzy-set groups is determined. After the ENFS is introduced, its effectiveness is evaluated by a prediction-error-comparative work between the proposed method and some other methods in identifying numerical data sets such as ‘daily data of stock A’, or in identifying a function. The ENFS is then applied to identify damping force characteristics of the smart dampers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the ENFS in identifying the damping forces of the smart dampers, the prediction errors are presented by comparing with experimental results.

  10. Assessing the role of mini-applications in predicting key performance characteristics of scientific and engineering applications

    DOE PAGES

    Barrett, R. F.; Crozier, P. S.; Doerfler, D. W.; ...

    2014-09-28

    Computational science and engineering application programs are typically large, complex, and dynamic, and are often constrained by distribution limitations. As a means of making tractable rapid explorations of scientific and engineering application programs in the context of new, emerging, and future computing architectures, a suite of miniapps has been created to serve as proxies for full scale applications. Each miniapp is designed to represent a key performance characteristic that does or is expected to significantly impact the runtime performance of an application program. In this paper we introduce a methodology for assessing the ability of these miniapps to effectively representmore » these performance issues. We applied this methodology to four miniapps, examining the linkage between them and an application they are intended to represent. Herein we evaluate the fidelity of that linkage. This work represents the initial steps required to begin to answer the question, ''Under what conditions does a miniapp represent a key performance characteristic in a full app?''« less

  11. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by... numbers F037, F038, K107-K112, K117, K118, K123-K126, K131, K132, K136, U328, U353, U359, and soil and...

  12. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by... numbers F037, F038, K107-K112, K117, K118, K123-K126, K131, K132, K136, U328, U353, U359, and soil and...

  13. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by... numbers F037, F038, K107-K112, K117, K118, K123-K126, K131, K132, K136, U328, U353, U359, and soil and...

  14. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by... numbers F037, F038, K107-K112, K117, K118, K123-K126, K131, K132, K136, U328, U353, U359, and soil and...

  15. Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

  16. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  17. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Engel, Julien; Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original multi-access electronic key for the identification of 389 tree genera occurring in French Guiana terra-firme forests, based on a set of 79 morphological characters related to vegetative, floral and fruit characters. Its purpose is to help Amazonian tree identification and to support the dissemination of botanical knowledge to non-specialists, including forest workers, students and researchers from other scientific disciplines. The electronic key is accessible with the free access software Xper ², and the database is publicly available on figshare: https://figshare.com/s/75d890b7d707e0ffc9bf (doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.2682550).

  18. What Are the Characteristics of Principals Identified As Effective by Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    This exploratory study investigated which characteristics of a principal are identified as effective by teachers in the same school setting. The data were obtained from the Schools and Staffing Study of 1988, from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The Teacher Questionnaire of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) questioned…

  19. Identifying driver characteristics influencing overtaking crashes.

    PubMed

    Mohaymany, Afshin Shariat; Kashani, Ali Tavakoli; Ranjbari, Andishe

    2010-08-01

    To identify the most important driver characteristics influencing crash-causing overtaking maneuvers on 2-lane, 2-way rural roads of Iran. Based on the crash data for rural roads of Iran over 3 years from 2006 to 2008, the classification and regression tree (CART) method combined with the quasi-induced exposure concept was applied for 4 independent variables and one target variable of "driver status" with 2 classes of at fault and not at fault. The independent variables were vehicle type, driver's age, driving license, and driving experience of the driver-the latter 2 driver characteristics are relatively new in traffic safety studies. According to the data set, 16,809 drivers were involved in 2-lane, 2-way rural roads overtaking crashes. The analysis revealed that drivers who are younger than 28 years old, whose driving license is type 2--a common driving license that is for driving with passenger car and light vehicles--and whose driving experience is less than 2 years are most probably responsible for overtaking crashes. It was indicated that vehicle type is the most important factor associated with drivers being responsible for the crashes. The results also revealed that younger drivers (18-28 years) are most likely to be at fault in overtaking crashes. Therefore, enforcement and education should be more concentrated on this age group. Due to the incompliant nature of this group, changing the type and amount of traffic fines is essential for more preventing objectives. The research also found 2 relatively new factors of driving license and driving experience to have considerable effects on drivers being at fault, such that type 2 licensed drivers are more responsible compared to type 1 (a driving license for driving with all motor vehicles, which has some age and experience requirements) licensed drivers or drivers with a special license (a driving license with special vehicle types). Moreover, drivers with less than 2 years' driving experience are more

  20. Complex adaptive systems (CAS): an overview of key elements, characteristics and application to management theory.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beverley; Herbert, Stuart Ian

    2011-01-01

    To identify key elements and characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS) relevant to implementing clinical governance, drawing on lessons from quality improvement programmes and the use of informatics in primary care. The research strategy includes a literature review to develop theoretical models of clinical governance of quality improvement in primary care organisations (PCOs) and a survey of PCOs. Complex adaptive system theories are a valuable tool to help make sense of natural phenomena, which include human responses to problem solving within the sampled PCOs. The research commenced with a survey; 76% (n16) of respondents preferred to support the implementation of clinical governance initiatives guided by outputs from general practice electronic health records. There was considerable variation in the way in which consultation data was captured, recorded and organised. Incentivised information sharing led to consensus on coding policies and models of data recording ahead of national contractual requirements. Informatics was acknowledged as a mechanism to link electronic health record outputs, quality improvement and resources. Investment in informatics was identified as a development priority in order to embed clinical governance principles in practice. Complex adaptive system theory usefully describes evolutionary change processes, providing insight into how the origins of quality assurance were predicated on rational reductionism and linearity. New forms of governance do not neutralise previous models, but add further dimensions to them. Clinical governance models have moved from deterministic and 'objective' factors to incorporate cultural aspects with feedback about quality enabled by informatics. The socio-technical lessons highlighted should inform healthcare management.

  1. Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24464994

  2. [Impedance characteristics of ear acupoints in identifying excess or deficiency syndrome of stroke].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pin; Yang, Hua-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Qin

    2010-06-01

    To explore the impedance characteristics of ear acupoints in stroke patients with excess or deficiency syndrome, and to provide basis data for objective study of the syndromes of stroke. The data of electrical characteristics of ear acupoints in stroke patients and healthy people were collected, and excess syndrome and deficiency syndrome of stroke were identified by quantifying the syndromes of stroke using scales. The differences in impedance characteristics of ear acupoints between stroke patients and healthy people were analyzed, and the differences in impedance characteristics of ear acupoints between stroke patients with excess syndrome and stroke patients with deficiency syndrome were analyzed too. The correlation among impedance characteristics of ear acupoints, stroke and the syndromes was also analyzed. There were significant differences in impedance characteristics of ear acupoints between stroke patients and healthy people (P<0.05,P<0.01). The ear acupoints CO12 (Gan) and CO13 (Pi) had a significant role in diagnosing stroke as compared with CO18 (Neifenmi), AT3.4.AH12i (Naogan), CO10 (Shen), TG2p (Shenshangxian), AH6a (Jiaogan), AT4 (Pizhixia), and CO15 (Xin). There were significant differences in impedance characteristics of ear acupoints between stroke patients with excess syndrome and stroke patients with deficiency syndrome (P<0.05, P<0.01). The ear acupoints AH6a (Jiaogan) and CO10 (Shen) played an important role in differentiation diagnosis of excess syndrome and deficiency syndrome of stroke, followed by CO18 (Neifenmi), TF4 (Shenmen) and TG2p (Shenshangxian). Some ear acupoints with diagnostic value for stroke may provide basis of objective research for stroke diagnosis as well as identifying excess syndrome and deficiency syndrome of stroke.

  3. Protocol for a thematic synthesis to identify key themes and messages from a palliative care research network.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Emma; Murphy, Tara; Larkin, Philip; Normand, Charles; Guerin, Suzanne

    2016-10-21

    Research networks that facilitate collaborative research are increasing both regionally and globally and such collaborations contribute greatly to knowledge transfer particularly in health research. The Palliative Care Research Network is an Irish-based network that seeks to create opportunities and engender a collaborative environment to encourage innovative research that is relevant for policy and practice. The current review outlines a methodology to identify cross-cutting messages to identify how dissemination outputs can be optimized to ensure that key messages from this research reaches all knowledge users. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocol guidelines will inform the search and analysis plan to ensure that the synthesis of the data is as rigorous as possible. An approach based on critical interpretative synthesis will be adapted to include a thematic synthesis for the identification of higher-order themes and messages from a body of dissemination products generated by the Palliative Care Research Network. The thematic synthesis outlined in the present protocol offers a novel method of synthesising data from a focused research network that employs a variety of dissemination materials as a means of identifying key themes and messages from a specific body of research. The high-level themes and messages will be identified from the thematic synthesis, widely disseminated and targeted towards a range of stakeholders and knowledge users such as carers, health and social care professionals, policy makers and researchers.

  4. Identifying injuries and motor vehicle collision characteristics that together are suggestive of diaphragmatic rupture.

    PubMed

    Reiff, Donald A; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse; Windham, Samuel T; Doss, Marilyn; Rue, Loring W

    2002-12-01

    Diaphragmatic rupture (DR) remains a diagnostic challenge because of the lack of an accurate test demonstrating the injury. Our purpose was to identify motor vehicle collision (MVC) characteristics and patient injuries that collectively could identify the presence of a DR. The National Automotive Sampling System was used to identify occupants involved in MVCs from 1995 to 1999 who sustained abdominal (Abbreviated Injury Scale score >or= 2) and/or thoracic injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale score >or= 2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to quantify the association between patient injuries, vehicle collision characteristics, and DR. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated to determine the ability of organ injury and MVC characteristics to correctly classify patients with and without DR. Overall, occupants sustaining a DR had a significantly higher delta-V (DeltaV) (49.8 kilometers per hour [kph] vs. 33.8 kph, p< 0.0001) and a greater degree of occupant compartment intrusion (70.6 cm vs. 48.3 cm, p< 0.0001). Specific abdominal and thoracic organ injuries were associated with DR, including thoracic aortic tears (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.2-12.5), splenic injury (OR, 8.4; 95% CI, 3.9-17.8), pelvic fractures (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.7-8.0), and hepatic injuries (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.7-10.6). Combining frontal or near-side lateral occupant compartment intrusion >or= 30 cm or DeltaV >or= 40 kph with specific organ injuries generated a sensitivity for indicating the likelihood of diaphragm injury ranging from 68% to 89%. Patients with any of the following characteristics had a sensitivity for detecting DR of 91%: splenic injury, pelvic fracture, DeltaV >or= 40 kph, or occupant compartment intrusion from any direction >or= 30 cm. Specific MVC characteristics combined with patient injuries have been identified that are highly suggestive of DR. For this subpopulation, additional invasive procedures including exploratory laparotomy, laparoscopy

  5. A Genome-wide Regulatory Network Identifies Key Transcription Factors for Memory CD8+ T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guangan; Chen, Jianzhu

    2014-01-01

    Memory CD8+ T cell development is defined by the expression of a specific set of memory signature genes (MSGs). Despite recent progress, many components of the transcriptional control of memory CD8+ T cell development are still unknown. To identify transcription factors (TFs) and their interactions in memory CD8+ T cell development, we construct a genome-wide regulatory network and apply it to identify key TFs that regulate MSGs. Most of the known TFs in memory CD8+ T cell development are rediscovered and about a dozen new TFs are also identified. Sox4, Bhlhe40, Bach2 and Runx2 are experimentally verified and Bach2 is further shown to promote both development and recall proliferation of memory CD8+ T cells through Prdm1 and Id3. Gene perturbation study identifies the mode of interactions among the TFs with Sox4 as a hub. The identified TFs and insights into their interactions should facilitate further dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying memory CD8+ T cell development. PMID:24335726

  6. Socioemotional Characteristics of Elementary School Children Identified as Exhibiting Social Leadership Qualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2009-01-01

    Elementary school teachers identified characteristics in 4 major socioemotional domains associated with children's social leadership: self-perception, social anxiety, attachment orientation with peers, and interpersonal goals and skills in close friendships. Participants were 260 4th- and 5th-grade students (126 boys, 134 girls) from 10 classes in…

  7. Identifying the key concerns of Irish persons with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-11-01

    Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in society using an inclusive research strategy for both data gathering and data analysis. A national study involving 23 focus groups and 168 persons was conducted on the island of Ireland with people with intellectual disability as co-facilitators. A thematic content analysis was undertaken of the verbatim transcripts initially by university co-researchers, and 19 themes were identified. Co-researchers with intellectual disability joined in identifying the eight core themes. These were as follows: living options, employment, relationships, citizenship, leisure time, money management, self-advocacy, and communication. The concerns are discussed within the framework of the CRPD, and implications for transforming service policy are drawn. Why we did the research In many countries, people with intellectual disability have difficulties doing things other people without disabilities do, for example to study, to get a job or to live independently. They also find that their rights are not respected under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the Convention). We did this study to Learn what are the main issues for adults with intellectual disability in Ireland. Do research with people with intellectual disability. How we did the research People with intellectual disability and their supporters worked with university researchers to plan and do the research. We met with people in groups and 168 people told us about things important to them. What we found out We found that there were very important things that people talked about in the groups. We chose the most important: living options, employment, relationships, rights, leisure, money

  8. Transition in Education: Policy Making and the Key Educational Policy Areas in the Central-European and Baltic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rado, Peter

    This report examines transition in educational systems and identifies key policy areas in Central-Eastern European countries. It summarizes policy implications of the transition process within the educational context of these countries. Chapter 1, "Transition and Education," outlines key characteristics of the transition process and…

  9. Identifying key radiogenomic associations between DCE-MRI and micro-RNA expressions for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.; Kim, Renaid

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the key radiogenomic associations for breast cancer between DCE-MRI and micro-RNA expressions is the foundation for the discovery of radiomic features as biomarkers for assessing tumor progression and prognosis. We conducted a study to analyze the radiogenomic associations for breast cancer using the TCGA-TCIA data set. The core idea that tumor etiology is a function of the behavior of miRNAs is used to build the regression models. The associations based on regression are analyzed for three study outcomes: diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The diagnosis group consists of miRNAs associated with clinicopathologic features of breast cancer and significant aberration of expression in breast cancer patients. The prognosis group consists of miRNAs which are closely associated with tumor suppression and regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. The treatment group consists of miRNAs that contribute significantly to the regulation of metastasis thereby having the potential to be part of therapeutic mechanisms. As a first step, important miRNA expressions were identified and their ability to classify the clinical phenotypes based on the study outcomes was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) as a figure-of-merit. The key mapping between the selected miRNAs and radiomic features were determined using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis within a two-loop leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. These key associations indicated a number of radiomic features from DCE-MRI to be potential biomarkers for the three study outcomes.

  10. Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

  11. Identifying Key Flavors in Strawberries Driving Liking via Internal and External Preference Mapping.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Penelope; Cicerale, Sara; Pang, Edwin; Keast, Russell

    2018-04-01

    Australian consumers desire the development of a more flavorsome Australian strawberry cultivar. To aid in the development of well-liked strawberries, the attributes driving liking need to be identified. The objective of this research is to apply Preference Mapping (PM) techniques to the descriptive profile of commercial and newly bred strawberry cultivars, together with consumer preference data to determine the flavors contributing to liking. A trained sensory panel (n = 12) used Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA®) methodology to evaluate two appearance, seven aroma, five texture, 10 flavor and 10 aftertaste attributes of three commercial strawberry cultivars and six elite breeding lines grown in Victoria, Australia. Strawberry consumers (n = 150) assessed their liking of the same strawberry cultivars. QDA® significantly discriminated strawberries on 28 of the 34 sensory attributes. There were significant differences in hedonic ratings of strawberries (F(8,714) = 11.5, P = 0.0001), with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) identifying three consumer clusters each displaying differing patterns of preference. Internal and external PM techniques were applied to the data to identify the attributes driving consumer acceptability. Sweet, berry, caramel, fruity and floral attributes were identified as most contributing to liking. Sour, citrus, green, astringent, firm and gritty attributes were conversely associated with a reduction in consumer liking. Elite Lines 2 and 6 have been identified as having the broadest appeal, satisfying between 60% and 70% of consumers in the population assessed, thus the introduction of these cultivars should satisfy the largest group of consumers in the Australian market. The results of this research could be applied to breeding programs, to ensure newly bred cultivars express characteristics that were identified as well-liked amongst consumers. In addition, this research provides evidence for marketing strawberries by

  12. IARC use of oxidative stress as key mode of action characteristic for facilitating cancer classification: Glyphosate case example illustrating a lack of robustness in interpretative implementation.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S

    2017-06-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has formulated 10 key characteristics of human carcinogens to incorporate mechanistic data into cancer hazard classifications. The analysis used glyphosate as a case example to examine the robustness of IARC's determination of oxidative stress as "strong" evidence supporting a plausible cancer mechanism in humans. The IARC analysis primarily relied on 14 human/mammalian studies; 19 non-mammalian studies were uninformative of human cancer given the broad spectrum of test species and extensive use of formulations and aquatic testing. The mammalian studies had substantial experimental limitations for informing cancer mechanism including use of: single doses and time points; cytotoxic/toxic test doses; tissues not identified as potential cancer targets; glyphosate formulations or mixtures; technically limited oxidative stress biomarkers. The doses were many orders of magnitude higher than human exposures determined in human biomonitoring studies. The glyphosate case example reveals that the IARC evaluation fell substantially short of "strong" supporting evidence of oxidative stress as a plausible human cancer mechanism, and suggests that other IARC monographs relying on the 10 key characteristics approach should be similarly examined for a lack of robust data integration fundamental to reasonable mode of action evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding.

    PubMed

    Songhurst, Anna; Coulson, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Few universal trends in spatial patterns of wildlife crop-raiding have been found. Variations in wildlife ecology and movements, and human spatial use have been identified as causes of this apparent unpredictability. However, varying spatial patterns of spatial autocorrelation (SA) in human-wildlife conflict (HWC) data could also contribute. We explicitly explore the effects of SA on wildlife crop-raiding data in order to facilitate the design of future HWC studies. We conducted a comparative survey of raided and nonraided fields to determine key drivers of crop-raiding. Data were subsampled at different spatial scales to select independent raiding data points. The model derived from all data was fitted to subsample data sets. Model parameters from these models were compared to determine the effect of SA. Most methods used to account for SA in data attempt to correct for the change in P-values; yet, by subsampling data at broader spatial scales, we identified changes in regression estimates. We consequently advocate reporting both model parameters across a range of spatial scales to help biological interpretation. Patterns of SA vary spatially in our crop-raiding data. Spatial distribution of fields should therefore be considered when choosing the spatial scale for analyses of HWC studies. Robust key drivers of elephant crop-raiding included raiding history of a field and distance of field to a main elephant pathway. Understanding spatial patterns and determining reliable socio-ecological drivers of wildlife crop-raiding is paramount for designing mitigation and land-use planning strategies to reduce HWC. Spatial patterns of HWC are complex, determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale; therefore, studies need to be designed with an understanding of the effects of SA. Our methods are accessible to a variety of practitioners to assess the effects of SA, thereby improving the reliability of conservation management actions.

  14. Informatic analysis for hidden pulse attack exploiting spectral characteristics of optics in plug-and-play quantum key distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Heasin; Lim, Kyongchun; Oh, Junsang; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Quantum channel loopholes due to imperfect implementations of practical devices expose quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to potential eavesdropping attacks. Even though QKD systems are implemented with optical devices that are highly selective on spectral characteristics, information theory-based analysis about a pertinent attack strategy built with a reasonable framework exploiting it has never been clarified. This paper proposes a new type of trojan horse attack called hidden pulse attack that can be applied in a plug-and-play QKD system, using general and optimal attack strategies that can extract quantum information from phase-disturbed quantum states of eavesdropper's hidden pulses. It exploits spectral characteristics of a photodiode used in a plug-and-play QKD system in order to probe modulation states of photon qubits. We analyze the security performance of the decoy-state BB84 QKD system under the optimal hidden pulse attack model that shows enormous performance degradation in terms of both secret key rate and transmission distance.

  15. The "Key" Method of Identifying Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks in Introductory Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Robert Leo; Davis, Larry Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that identification keys provide an orderly strategy for the identification of igneous and metamorphic rocks in an introductory geology course. Explains the format employed in the system and includes the actual key guides for both igneous and metamorphic rocks. (ML)

  16. The Use of Key Informant Method for Identifying Children with Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Rènée; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired; of these, 1.4 million are irreversibly blind. A key challenge is to identify them early in life to benefit maximally from visual rehabilitation, and/or treatment. This aggregative review and structured literature analysis summarizes evidence of what it is about the key informant (KI) approach that works to identify children with blindness or severe visual impairment (B/SVI) in the community (for whom, to what extent, in what circumstances, in what respect, how and why). Peer-reviewed (PubMed, hand search) and grey literature (Google, World Health Organization website, academic theses, direct requests) were included, and methods and criteria used for identification, productivity (number of children referred per KI), accuracy of referrals (positive predictive value, PPV), age of children with B/SVI, KI definition, sex, information about cost and comparisons aggregated. We included 31 documents describing 22 unique KI programs. Mostly KIs identified children with B/SVI in 1-3 weeks, i.e. "campaign mode." In 60%, KIs were community volunteers, others formal health sector workers (FHSW). Around 0.02-1.56 children per KI (median = 0.25) were successfully recruited. PPV ranged from 12 to 66%. In two studies comparing FHSWs and community KIs, the latter were 8 and 10 times more productive. KIs working in campaign mode may provide an effective approach to identifying children with B/SVI in communities. Including identification of ocular problems and/or other impairments has been recommended. Research on factors that influence effectiveness and on whether KIs continue to contribute could inform programs.

  17. Key acceptability attributes of orodispersible films.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Mariagiovanna; Paudel, Amrit; Kloprogge, Frank; Hsiao, Wen Kai; Bresciani, Massimo; Gaisford, Simon; Orlu, Mine

    2018-04-01

    The features rendering orodispersible films (ODFs) patient-centric formulations are widely discussed in the scientific literature. However there is a lack of research studies exploring ODF characteristics with a potential impact on end-user acceptability. The aim of this study was to identify the key ODF characteristics affecting end-user acceptability by developing in vitro test methods for the prediction of ODFs acceptability and correlate these formulation characteristics with the data obtained from a human panel study. Four drug-free single-polymer films were prepared by solvent casting. Solutions of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVOH) 39 KDa (P1), PVOH 197 KDa (P2), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 395 KDa (C1), and CMC 725 KDa (C2) were prepared. Texture analysis and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were used to assess film tack. Petri dish and drop methods were used to assess disintegration time. A human panel of 24 healthy young adults was employed to identify end-user acceptability criteria of the four study film samples. Texture analysis data of ODF tack were not found to be in agreement with the in vivo perceived stickiness in the mouth. However, measurement of the area under the adhesive force curve obtained by DMA correlated with in vivo perceived stickiness data for all samples. The disintegration times obtained by drop method were more comparable to human panel data than the petri dish method. Hence DMA and drop methods proved to be promising methodologies for the prediction of the end-user acceptability. The type and molecular weight of the film-forming polymer had a strong influence on stickiness perception, whereas only polymeric molecular weight influenced perceived disintegration time. The human panel study showed that Participant Reported Outcomes (PROs) for the perceived stickiness in the mouth and disintegration time of test films received significantly different scores between samples, and thus were identified as the key attributes with the

  18. Preteaching Unknown Key Words with Incremental Rehearsal to Improve Reading Fluency and Comprehension with Children Identified as Reading Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Dean, Vincent J.; Foley, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that strategic preteaching activities led to improved reading fluency, but lacked studies examining the effect on reading comprehension. The current study investigated the effect of teaching unknown key words as a preteaching strategy with 20 students identified as learning disabled in basic reading skills…

  19. Bacteria and Archaea in acidic environments and a key to morphological identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.

    2000-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic acidic environments are dominated by bacteria and Archaea. As many as 86 genera or species have been identified or isolated from pH <4.5 environments. This paper reviews the worldwide literature and provide tables of morphological characteristics, habitat information and a key for light microscope identification for the non-microbiologist.

  20. Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Holistic Hospital Management with a Modified DEMATEL Approach

    PubMed Central

    Si, Sheng-Li; You, Xiao-Yue; Huang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Performance analysis is an important way for hospitals to achieve higher efficiency and effectiveness in providing services to their customers. The performance of the healthcare system can be measured by many indicators, but it is difficult to improve them simultaneously due to the limited resources. A feasible way is to identify the central and influential indicators to improve healthcare performance in a stepwise manner. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) for holistic hospital management. First, through integrating evidential reasoning approach and interval 2-tuple linguistic variables, various assessments of performance indicators provided by healthcare experts are modeled. Then, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is adopted to build an interactive network and visualize the causal relationships between the performance indicators. Finally, an empirical case study is provided to demonstrate the proposed approach for improving the efficiency of healthcare management. The results show that “accidents/adverse events”, “nosocomial infection”, ‘‘incidents/errors”, “number of operations/procedures” are significant influential indicators. Also, the indicators of “length of stay”, “bed occupancy” and “financial measures” play important roles in performance evaluation of the healthcare organization. The proposed decision making approach could be considered as a reference for healthcare administrators to enhance the performance of their healthcare institutions. PMID:28825613

  1. Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Holistic Hospital Management with a Modified DEMATEL Approach.

    PubMed

    Si, Sheng-Li; You, Xiao-Yue; Liu, Hu-Chen; Huang, Jia

    2017-08-19

    Performance analysis is an important way for hospitals to achieve higher efficiency and effectiveness in providing services to their customers. The performance of the healthcare system can be measured by many indicators, but it is difficult to improve them simultaneously due to the limited resources. A feasible way is to identify the central and influential indicators to improve healthcare performance in a stepwise manner. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) for holistic hospital management. First, through integrating evidential reasoning approach and interval 2-tuple linguistic variables, various assessments of performance indicators provided by healthcare experts are modeled. Then, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is adopted to build an interactive network and visualize the causal relationships between the performance indicators. Finally, an empirical case study is provided to demonstrate the proposed approach for improving the efficiency of healthcare management. The results show that "accidents/adverse events", "nosocomial infection", ''incidents/errors", "number of operations/procedures" are significant influential indicators. Also, the indicators of "length of stay", "bed occupancy" and "financial measures" play important roles in performance evaluation of the healthcare organization. The proposed decision making approach could be considered as a reference for healthcare administrators to enhance the performance of their healthcare institutions.

  2. A Human Proteome Array Approach to Identifying Key Host Proteins Targeted by Toxoplasma Kinase ROP18*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Hou, Yongheng; Hao, Taofang; Rho, Hee-Sool; Wan, Jun; Luan, Yizhao; Gao, Xin; Yao, Jianping; Pan, Aihua; Xie, Zhi; Qian, Jiang; Liao, Wanqin; Zhu, Heng; Zhou, Xingwang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma kinase ROP18 is a key molecule responsible for the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii; however, the mechanisms by which ROP18 exerts parasite virulence via interaction with host proteins remain limited to a small number of identified substrates. To identify a broader array of ROP18 substrates, we successfully purified bioactive mature ROP18 and used it to probe a human proteome array. Sixty eight new putative host targets were identified. Functional annotation analysis suggested that these proteins have a variety of functions, including metabolic process, kinase activity and phosphorylation, cell growth, apoptosis and cell death, and immunity, indicating a pleiotropic role of ROP18 kinase. Among these proteins, four candidates, p53, p38, UBE2N, and Smad1, were further validated. We demonstrated that ROP18 targets p53, p38, UBE2N, and Smad1 for degradation. Importantly, we demonstrated that ROP18 phosphorylates Smad1 Ser-187 to trigger its proteasome-dependent degradation. Further functional characterization of the substrates of ROP18 may enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma infection and provide new therapeutic targets. Similar strategies could be used to identify novel host targets for other microbial kinases functioning at the pathogen-host interface. PMID:28087594

  3. A mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis-associated acute kidney injury identifies key molecular pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, Shinji; Chappell, Grace A.; Iwata, Yasuhir

    Clinical data strongly indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis, an acute-on-chronic form of liver failure in patients with advanced alcoholic fibrosis. Development of targeted therapies for AKI in this setting is hampered by the lack of an animal model. To enable research into molecular drivers and novel therapies for fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI, we aimed to combine carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrosis with chronic intra-gastric alcohol feeding. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a low dose of CCl{sub 4} (0.2 ml/kg 2 × week/6 weeks) followed by alcohol intragastrically (up to 25 g/kg/day formore » 3 weeks) and with continued CCl{sub 4}. We observed that combined treatment with CCl{sub 4} and alcohol resulted in severe liver injury, more pronounced than using each treatment alone. Importantly, severe kidney injury was evident only in the combined treatment group. This mouse model reproduced distinct pathological features consistent with AKI in human alcoholic hepatitis. Transcriptomic analysis of kidneys revealed profound effects in the combined treatment group, with enrichment for damage-associated pathways, such as apoptosis, inflammation, immune-response and hypoxia. Interestingly, Havcr1 and Lcn2, biomarkers of AKI, were markedly up-regulated. Overall, this study established a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI and identified key mechanistic pathways. - Highlights: • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis • We developed a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI • This model reproduces key molecular and pathological features of human AKI • This animal model can help identify new targeted therapies for alcoholic hepatitis.« less

  4. Identifying the Key Concerns of Irish Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. Aims: This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in…

  5. Identifying Key Stakeholders in Blended Tertiary Environments: Experts' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuapawa, Kimberley

    2017-01-01

    Although key stakeholders in blended tertiary environments (BTEs) fulfil an extraordinary role in higher education, significant gaps in knowledge about their identities may be impeding the provision of stakeholder support, limiting their ability to promote effective learning and teaching. As online growth intensifies, it is critical that tertiary…

  6. Characteristics of Reticent and Disruptive Children As Identified by the Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, James R.

    The Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory was employed to identify the psychometric characteristics of reticent and disruptive children. The BCCI utilizes self-competency judgments, peer nominations, vocational interests and teacher adjectival ratings in an effort to measure the various expectations which interact in the elementary classroom. A…

  7. Integrated Analysis of Mutation Data from Various Sources Identifies Key Genes and Signaling Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lin; Tang, Ruqi; Lian, Baofeng; Zhao, Yingjun; He, Xianghuo; Xie, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a number of studies have performed genome or exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identified hundreds or even thousands of mutations in protein-coding genes. However, these studies have only focused on a limited number of candidate genes, and many important mutation resources remain to be explored. Principal Findings In this study, we integrated mutation data obtained from various sources and performed pathway and network analysis. We identified 113 pathways that were significantly mutated in HCC samples and found that the mutated genes included in these pathways contained high percentages of known cancer genes, and damaging genes and also demonstrated high conservation scores, indicating their important roles in liver tumorigenesis. Five classes of pathways that were mutated most frequently included (a) proliferation and apoptosis related pathways, (b) tumor microenvironment related pathways, (c) neural signaling related pathways, (d) metabolic related pathways, and (e) circadian related pathways. Network analysis further revealed that the mutated genes with the highest betweenness coefficients, such as the well-known cancer genes TP53, CTNNB1 and recently identified novel mutated genes GNAL and the ADCY family, may play key roles in these significantly mutated pathways. Finally, we highlight several key genes (e.g., RPS6KA3 and PCLO) and pathways (e.g., axon guidance) in which the mutations were associated with clinical features. Conclusions Our workflow illustrates the increased statistical power of integrating multiple studies of the same subject, which can provide biological insights that would otherwise be masked under individual sample sets. This type of bioinformatics approach is consistent with the necessity of making the best use of the ever increasing data provided in valuable databases, such as TCGA, to enhance the speed of deciphering human cancers. PMID:24988079

  8. Integrated analysis of mutation data from various sources identifies key genes and signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuannv; Qiu, Zhaoping; Wei, Lin; Tang, Ruqi; Lian, Baofeng; Zhao, Yingjun; He, Xianghuo; Xie, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of studies have performed genome or exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identified hundreds or even thousands of mutations in protein-coding genes. However, these studies have only focused on a limited number of candidate genes, and many important mutation resources remain to be explored. In this study, we integrated mutation data obtained from various sources and performed pathway and network analysis. We identified 113 pathways that were significantly mutated in HCC samples and found that the mutated genes included in these pathways contained high percentages of known cancer genes, and damaging genes and also demonstrated high conservation scores, indicating their important roles in liver tumorigenesis. Five classes of pathways that were mutated most frequently included (a) proliferation and apoptosis related pathways, (b) tumor microenvironment related pathways, (c) neural signaling related pathways, (d) metabolic related pathways, and (e) circadian related pathways. Network analysis further revealed that the mutated genes with the highest betweenness coefficients, such as the well-known cancer genes TP53, CTNNB1 and recently identified novel mutated genes GNAL and the ADCY family, may play key roles in these significantly mutated pathways. Finally, we highlight several key genes (e.g., RPS6KA3 and PCLO) and pathways (e.g., axon guidance) in which the mutations were associated with clinical features. Our workflow illustrates the increased statistical power of integrating multiple studies of the same subject, which can provide biological insights that would otherwise be masked under individual sample sets. This type of bioinformatics approach is consistent with the necessity of making the best use of the ever increasing data provided in valuable databases, such as TCGA, to enhance the speed of deciphering human cancers.

  9. Identifying the Family, Job, and Workplace Characteristics of Employees Who Use Work-Family Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Employs a contextual effects perspective to identify family, job, and workplace characteristics associated with the use of work-family benefits of 527 employees in 83 businesses. Determined that particular family problems predict female employee use of paid leave and mental health benefits. Summarizes that workplace size, sector, and culture are…

  10. Key Clinical Features to Identify Girls with "CDKL5" Mutations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothee; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlene; Heron, Delphine; Morel, Marie Ange N'Guyen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ("CDKL5") gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of…

  11. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  12. Characteristics of health care organizations associated with learning and development: lessons from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of health care organizations associated with an ability to learn from experiences and to develop and manage change were explored in this study. Understanding of these characteristics is necessary to identify factors influencing success in learning from the past and achieving future health care quality objectives. A literature review of the quality improvement, strategic organizational development and change management, organizational learning, and microsystems fields identified 20 organizational characteristics, grouped under (a) organizational systems, (b) key actors, and (c) change management processes. Qualitative methods, using interviews, focus group reports, and archival records, were applied to find associations between identified characteristics and 6 Swedish health care units externally evaluated as delivering high-quality care. Strong support for a characteristic was defined as units having more than 4 sources describing the characteristic as an important success factor. Eighteen characteristics had strong support from at least 2 units. The strongest evidence was found for the following: (i) key actors have long-term commitment, provide support, and make sense of ambiguous situations; (ii) organizational systems encourage employee commitment, participation, and involvement; and (iii) change management processes are employed systematically. Based on the results, a new model of "characteristics associated with learning and development in health care organizations" is proposed.

  13. Key Objectives Bank: Year 9. Key Stage 3: National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    In each sub-section of the "Framework for Teaching English: Years 7, 8 and 9," certain key objectives are identified in boldface print. These objectives are key because they signify skills or understanding which are crucial to pupils' language development. They are challenging for the age group and are important markers of progress. This…

  14. Quantum key management

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  15. [The key problems in the population exposure assessment of hazardous chemicals accidents].

    PubMed

    Pan, L J; Liu, F P; Zhang, X; Bai, X T; Shi, X M

    2016-07-06

    Serious accidents of hazardous chemicals can cause a variety of acute or chronic impairment in human health. The effects of hazardous chemicals on human health can be identified by carrying on population exposure assessment. Through analyzing the domestic and overseas population exposure assessment cases related to hazardous chemicals accidents, we summarized that the base and key of the population exposure assessment were to identify the characteristics of the chemicals , delimit the area and the population exposed to the chemicals, and collect the data of the monitored chemicals and the population health in the polluted area.

  16. In Vitro Approach To Identify Key Amino Acids in Low Susceptibility of Rabbit Prion Protein to Misfolding

    PubMed Central

    Eraña, Hasier; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R.; Harrathi, Chafik; Charco, Jorge M.; Chianini, Francesca; Dagleish, Mark P.; Ortega, Gabriel; Millet, Óscar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by an abnormally folded prion protein (PrPSc). This is capable of transforming the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into new infectious PrPSc. Interspecies prion transmissibility studies performed by experimental challenge and the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy that occurred in the late 1980s and 1990s showed that while some species (sheep, mice, and cats) are readily susceptible to TSEs, others are apparently resistant (rabbits, dogs, and horses) to the same agent. To study the mechanisms of low susceptibility to TSEs of certain species, the mouse-rabbit transmission barrier was used as a model. To identify which specific amino acid residues determine high or low susceptibility to PrPSc propagation, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), which mimics PrPC-to-PrPSc conversion with accelerated kinetics, was used. This allowed amino acid substitutions in rabbit PrP and accurate analysis of misfolding propensities. Wild-type rabbit recombinant PrP could not be misfolded into a protease-resistant self-propagating isoform in vitro despite seeding with at least 12 different infectious prions from diverse origins. Therefore, rabbit recombinant PrP mutants were designed to contain every single amino acid substitution that distinguishes rabbit recombinant PrP from mouse recombinant PrP. Key amino acid residue substitutions were identified that make rabbit recombinant PrP susceptible to misfolding, and using these, protease-resistant misfolded recombinant rabbit PrP was generated. Additional studies characterized the mechanisms by which these critical amino acid residue substitutions increased the misfolding susceptibility of rabbit PrP. IMPORTANCE Prion disorders are invariably fatal, untreatable diseases typically associated with long incubation periods and characteristic spongiform changes associated

  17. [Key effect genes responding to nerve injury identified by gene ontology and computer pattern recognition].

    PubMed

    Pan, Qian; Peng, Jin; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2012-07-01

    In order to screen out important genes from large gene data of gene microarray after nerve injury, we combine gene ontology (GO) method and computer pattern recognition technology to find key genes responding to nerve injury, and then verify one of these screened-out genes. Data mining and gene ontology analysis of gene chip data GSE26350 was carried out through MATLAB software. Cd44 was selected from screened-out key gene molecular spectrum by comparing genes' different GO terms and positions on score map of principal component. Function interferences were employed to influence the normal binding of Cd44 and one of its ligands, chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), to observe neurite extension. Gene ontology analysis showed that the first genes on score map (marked by red *) mainly distributed in molecular transducer activity, receptor activity, protein binding et al molecular function GO terms. Cd44 is one of six effector protein genes, and attracted us with its function diversity. After adding different reagents into the medium to interfere the normal binding of CSC and Cd44, varying-degree remissions of CSC's inhibition on neurite extension were observed. CSC can inhibit neurite extension through binding Cd44 on the neuron membrane. This verifies that important genes in given physiological processes can be identified by gene ontology analysis of gene chip data.

  18. Gain-of-function mutations in beet DODA2 identify key residues for betalain pigment evolution.

    PubMed

    Bean, Alexander; Sunnadeniya, Rasika; Akhavan, Neda; Campbell, Annabelle; Brown, Matthew; Lloyd, Alan

    2018-05-13

    The key enzymatic step in betalain biosynthesis involves conversion of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to betalamic acid. One class of enzymes capable of this is 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine 4,5-dioxygenase (DODA). In betalain-producing species, multiple paralogs of this gene are maintained. This study demonstrates which paralogs function in the betalain pathway and determines the residue changes required to evolve a betalain-nonfunctional DODA into a betalain-functional DODA. Functionalities of two pairs of DODAs were tested by expression in beets, Arabidopsis and yeast, and gene silencing was performed by virus-induced gene silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis identified amino acid residues essential for betalamic acid production. Beta vulgaris and Mirabilis jalapa both possess a DODA1 lineage that functions in the betalain pathway and at least one other lineage, DODA2, that does not. Site-directed mutagenesis resulted in betalain biosynthesis by a previously nonfunctional DODA, revealing key residues required for evolution of the betalain pathway. Divergent functionality of DODA paralogs, one clade involved in betalain biosynthesis but others not, is present in various Caryophyllales species. A minimum of seven amino acid residue changes conferred betalain enzymatic activity to a betalain-nonfunctional DODA paralog, providing insight into the evolution of the betalain pigment pathway in plants. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Information verification cryptosystem using one-time keys based on double random phase encoding and public-key cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2016-08-01

    A novel image encryption system based on double random phase encoding (DRPE) and RSA public-key algorithm is proposed. The main characteristic of the system is that each encryption process produces a new decryption key (even for the same plaintext), thus the encryption system conforms to the feature of the one-time pad (OTP) cryptography. The other characteristic of the system is the use of fingerprint key. Only with the rightful authorization will the true decryption be obtained, otherwise the decryption will result in noisy images. So the proposed system can be used to determine whether the ciphertext is falsified by attackers. In addition, the system conforms to the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS) due to the combination with the RSA public-key algorithm. The simulation results show that the encryption scheme has high robustness against the existing attacks.

  20. "Key Concepts in ELT": Taking Stock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Graham

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies patterns and trends within "Key Concepts in ELT", both since the inception of the feature in ELT Journal in 1993 and during the 17 years of the current editorship. After outlining the aims of the series, the article identifies key themes that have emerged over time, exploring the links between "Key Concepts" pieces and the…

  1. User-identified electronic cigarette behavioral strategies and device characteristics for cigarette smoking reduction.

    PubMed

    Soule, Eric K; Maloney, Sarah F; Guy, Mignonne C; Eissenberg, Thomas; Fagan, Pebbles

    2018-04-01

    There is limited evidence on how cigarette smokers use electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) for smoking cessation and reduction. This study used concept mapping, a participatory mixed-methods research approach, to identify ECIG use behaviors and device characteristics perceived to be associated with cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. Current ECIG users aged 18-64 were recruited from seven cities selected randomly from U.S. census tract regions. Participants were invited to complete concept mapping tasks: brainstorming, sorting and rating (n=72). During brainstorming, participants generated statements in response to a focus prompt ("A SPECIFIC WAY I HAVE USED electronic cigarettes to reduce my cigarette smoking or a SPECIFIC WAY electronic cigarettes help me reduce my cigarette smoking is…") and then sorted and rated the statements. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to generate a cluster map that was interpreted by the research team. Eight thematic clusters were identified: Convenience, Perceived Health Effects, Ease of Use, Versatility and Variety, Advantages of ECIGs over Cigarettes, Cigarette Substitutability, Reducing Harms to Self and Others, and Social Benefits. Participants generated several statements that related to specific behavioral strategies used when using ECIGs for smoking reduction/complete switching behaviors such as making rapid transitions from smoking to ECIG use or using certain ECIG liquids or devices. Former smokers rated the Perceived Health Effects cluster and several behavioral strategy statements higher than current smokers. These results help to identify ECIG use behaviors and characteristics perceived by ECIG users to aid in cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006–2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006–2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including “natural products and polymers” with nine key technical points, “fermentation industry” with twelve ones, “electrical medical equipment” with four ones, and “diagnosis, surgery” with four ones. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study could provide guidance on the development

  3. An Integrated Systems Biology Approach Identifies TRIM25 as a Key Determinant of Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Logan A; Alvarez, Mariano J; Sabio, Erich Y; Reyngold, Marsha; Makarov, Vladimir; Mukherjee, Suranjit; Lee, Ken-Wing; Desrichard, Alexis; Turcan, Şevin; Dalin, Martin G; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Chen, Shuibing; Vahdat, Linda T; Califano, Andrea; Chan, Timothy A

    2017-08-15

    At the root of most fatal malignancies are aberrantly activated transcriptional networks that drive metastatic dissemination. Although individual metastasis-associated genes have been described, the complex regulatory networks presiding over the initiation and maintenance of metastatic tumors are still poorly understood. There is untapped value in identifying therapeutic targets that broadly govern coordinated transcriptional modules dictating metastatic progression. Here, we reverse engineered and interrogated a breast cancer-specific transcriptional interaction network (interactome) to define transcriptional control structures causally responsible for regulating genetic programs underlying breast cancer metastasis in individual patients. Our analyses confirmed established pro-metastatic transcription factors, and they uncovered TRIM25 as a key regulator of metastasis-related transcriptional programs. Further, in vivo analyses established TRIM25 as a potent regulator of metastatic disease and poor survival outcome. Our findings suggest that identifying and targeting keystone proteins, like TRIM25, can effectively collapse transcriptional hierarchies necessary for metastasis formation, thus representing an innovative cancer intervention strategy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    PubMed

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying the key biophysical drivers, connectivity outcomes, and metapopulation consequences of larval dispersal in the sea.

    PubMed

    Treml, Eric A; Ford, John R; Black, Kerry P; Swearer, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Population connectivity, which is essential for the persistence of benthic marine metapopulations, depends on how life history traits and the environment interact to influence larval production, dispersal and survival. Although we have made significant advances in our understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of these individual processes, developing an approach that integrates the entire population connectivity process from reproduction, through dispersal, and to the recruitment of individuals has been difficult. We present a population connectivity modelling framework and diagnostic approach for quantifying the impact of i) life histories, ii) demographics, iii) larval dispersal, and iv) the physical seascape, on the structure of connectivity and metapopulation dynamics. We illustrate this approach using the subtidal rocky reef ecosystem of Port Phillip Bay, were we provide a broadly-applicable framework of population connectivity and quantitative methodology for evaluating the relative importance of individual factors in determining local and system outcomes. The spatial characteristics of marine population connectivity are primarily influenced by larval mortality, the duration of the pelagic larval stage, and the settlement competency characteristics, with significant variability imposed by the geographic setting and the timing of larval release. The relative influence and the direction and strength of the main effects were strongly consistent among 10 connectivity-based metrics. These important intrinsic factors (mortality, length of the pelagic larval stage, and the extent of the precompetency window) and the spatial and temporal variability represent key research priorities for advancing our understanding of the connectivity process and metapopulation outcomes.

  6. Network-Based Methods for Identifying Key Active Proteins in the Extracellular Electron Transfer Process in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dewu; Sun, Xiao

    2018-01-16

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can transfer electrons from the intracellular environment to the extracellular space of the cells to reduce the extracellular insoluble electron acceptors (Extracellular Electron Transfer, EET). Benefiting from this EET capability, Shewanella has been widely used in different areas, such as energy production, wastewater treatment, and bioremediation. Genome-wide proteomics data was used to determine the active proteins involved in activating the EET process. We identified 1012 proteins with decreased expression and 811 proteins with increased expression when the EET process changed from inactivation to activation. We then networked these proteins to construct the active protein networks, and identified the top 20 key active proteins by network centralization analysis, including metabolism- and energy-related proteins, signal and transcriptional regulatory proteins, translation-related proteins, and the EET-related proteins. We also constructed the integrated protein interaction and transcriptional regulatory networks for the active proteins, then found three exclusive active network motifs involved in activating the EET process-Bi-feedforward Loop, Regulatory Cascade with a Feedback, and Feedback with a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI)-and identified the active proteins involved in these motifs. Both enrichment analysis and comparative analysis to the whole-genome data implicated the multiheme c -type cytochromes and multiple signal processing proteins involved in the process. Furthermore, the interactions of these motif-guided active proteins and the involved functional modules were discussed. Collectively, by using network-based methods, this work reported a proteome-wide search for the key active proteins that potentially activate the EET process.

  7. In Situ Analysis of Metabolic Characteristics Reveals the Key Yeast in the Spontaneous and Solid-State Fermentation Process of Chinese Light-Style Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yu; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The in situ metabolic characteristics of the yeasts involved in spontaneous fermentation process of Chinese light-style liquor are poorly understood. The covariation between metabolic profiles and yeast communities in Chinese light-style liquor was modeled using the partial least square (PLS) regression method. The diversity of yeast species was evaluated by sequence analysis of the 26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1/D2 domains of cultivable yeasts, and the volatile compounds in fermented grains were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Eight yeast species and 58 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. The modulation of 16 of these volatile compounds was associated with variations in the yeast population (goodness of prediction [Q2] > 20%). The results showed that Pichia anomala was responsible for the characteristic aroma of Chinese liquor, through the regulation of several important volatile compounds, such as ethyl lactate, octanoic acid, and ethyl tetradecanoate. Correspondingly, almost all of the compounds associated with P. anomala were detected in a pure culture of this yeast. In contrast to the PLS regression results, however, ethyl lactate and ethyl isobutyrate were not detected in the same pure culture, which indicated that some metabolites could be generated by P. anomala only when it existed in a community with other yeast species. Furthermore, different yeast communities provided different volatile patterns in the fermented grains, which resulted in distinct flavor profiles in the resulting liquors. This study could help identify the key yeast species involved in spontaneous fermentation and provide a deeper understanding of the role of individual yeast species in the community. PMID:24727269

  8. Scholars Identify 5 Keys to Urban School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Offering a counter-narrative to the school improvement prescriptions that dominate national education debates, a new book based on 15 years of data on public elementary schools in Chicago identifies five tried-and-true ingredients that work, in combination with one another, to spur success in urban schools. The authors liken their "essential…

  9. An assessment of key health indicators among emergency medical services professionals.

    PubMed

    Studnek, Jonathan R; Bentley, Melissa; Crawford, J Mac; Fernandez, Antonio R

    2010-01-01

    were 3,394 (17.0%) individuals classified as current smokers. Finally, logistic regression analysis indicated that when controlling for work-life characteristics and age, BMI and level of physical fitness were associated with preexisting health conditions. This study was the first known baseline assessment of EMS professionals regarding the key health indicators identified by Healthy People 2010. Investigations regarding the impact of health and wellness in relation to workforce stability should be undertaken. Further research should also be conducted to identify strategies to improve the health of the EMS workforce.

  10. Characteristic glycopeptides associated with extreme human longevity identified through plasma glycoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuri; Hashii, Noritaka; Ohta, Yuki; Itakura, Yoko; Tsumoto, Hiroki; Suzuki, Junya; Takakura, Daisuke; Abe, Yukiko; Arai, Yasumichi; Toyoda, Masashi; Kawasaki, Nana; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Endo, Tamao

    2018-06-01

    Glycosylation is highly susceptible to changes of the physiological conditions, and accordingly, is a potential biomarker associated with several diseases and/or longevity. Semi-supercentenarians (SSCs; older than 105 years) are thought to be a model of human longevity. Thus, we performed glycoproteomics using plasma samples of SSCs, and identified proteins and conjugated N-glycans that are characteristic of extreme human longevity. Plasma proteins from Japanese semi-supercentenarians (SSCs, 106-109 years), aged controls (70-88 years), and young controls (20-38 years) were analysed by using lectin microarrays and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Peak area ratios of glycopeptides to corresponding normalising peptides were subjected to orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Furthermore, plasma levels of clinical biomarkers were measured. We found two lectins such as Phaseolus vulgaris, and Erythrina cristagalli (ECA), of which protein binding were characteristically increased in SSCs. Peak area ratios of ECA-enriched glycopeptides were successfully discriminated between SSCs and controls using OPLS-DA, and indicated that tri-antennary and sialylated N-glycans of haptoglobin at Asn207 and Asn211 sites were characterized in SSCs. Sialylated glycans of haptoglobin are a potential biomarker of several diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, and IgA-nephritis. However, the SSCs analysed here did not suffer from these diseases. Tri-antennary and sialylated N-glycans on haptoglobin at the Asn207 and Asn211 sites were abundant in SSCs and characteristic of extreme human longevity. We found abundant glycans in SSCs, which may be associated with human longevity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Key Terrain: Application to the Layers of Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    in the early stages and exploration into better integrating military strategies could prove beneficial to those working to develop relevant and...200 words) The concept of key terrain is a common fixture in military strategy and tactics. The emergence of cyberspace, with characteristics unseen...concept of key terrain is a common fixture in military strategy and tactics. The emergence of cyberspace, with characteristics unseen in any

  12. Partitioned key-value store with atomic memory operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    A partitioned key-value store is provided that supports atomic memory operations. A server performs a memory operation in a partitioned key-value store by receiving a request from an application for at least one atomic memory operation, the atomic memory operation comprising a memory address identifier; and, in response to the atomic memory operation, performing one or more of (i) reading a client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier and storing one or more key-value pairs from the client-side memory location in a local key-value store of the server; and (ii) obtaining one or more key-value pairs from themore » local key-value store of the server and writing the obtained one or more key-value pairs into the client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier. The server can perform functions obtained from a client-side memory location and return a result to the client using one or more of the atomic memory operations.« less

  13. Key metabolites in tissue extracts of Elliptio complanata identified using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L.; Levine, Jay F.; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Law, J. M.; Showers, William J.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    We used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to describe key metabolites of the polar metabolome of the freshwater mussel, Elliptio complanata. Principal components analysis documented variability across tissue types and river of origin in mussels collected from two rivers in North Carolina (USA). Muscle, digestive gland, mantle and gill tissues yielded identifiable but overlapping metabolic profiles. Variation in digestive gland metabolic profiles between the two mussel collection sites was characterized by differences in mono- and disaccharides. Variation in mantle tissue metabolomes appeared to be associated with sex. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a sensitive means to detect metabolites in the tissues of E. complanata and holds promise as a tool for the investigation of freshwater mussel health and physiology. PMID:27293708

  14. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    PubMed

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  15. Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities: Key Issues in the Literature and State Practice. REL 2015-086

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Elizabeth; Haas, Eric; Ferriere, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While the literature on learning disabilities and on second-language acquisition is relatively extensive within the field of education, less is known about the specific characteristics and representation of English learner students with learning disabilities. Because there are no definitive resources and processes for identifying and determining…

  16. Experimental Infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae Identify Key Factors Involved in Host-Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Eric; Bergonier, Dominique; Sagné, Eveline; Hygonenq, Marie-Claude; Ronsin, Patricia; Berthelot, Xavier; Citti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i) the development of a specific antibody response and (ii) dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma), with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs. PMID:24699671

  17. Habitat characteristics of the Silver Lake mule deer range.

    Treesearch

    J. Edward Dealy

    1971-01-01

    Twenty-one ecosystems of the Silver Lake mule deer range in northern Lake County, Oregon, are described by site, vegetation, and soil. Discussions are included on ecosystem interrelationships, habitat value for game, and habitat manipulation. A field key to ecosystems has been developed using vegetation characteristics easily identifiable on the ground.

  18. Expression Profiling of Nuclear Receptors Identifies Key Roles of NR4A Subfamily in Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hanwei; Lo, Jay H.; Kim, Ji-Young; Marsh, Erica E.; Kim, J. Julie; Ghosh, Asish K.; Bulun, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs), also known as uterine leiomyomas, are benign, fibrotic smooth muscle tumors. Although the GnRH analog leuprolide acetate that suppresses gonadal steroid hormones is used as a treatment, it has significant side effects, thereby limiting its use. Availability of more effective therapy is limited because of a lack of understanding of molecular underpinnings of the disease. Although ovarian steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone and their receptors are clearly involved, the role of other nuclear receptors (NRs) in UFs is not well defined. We used quantitative real-time PCR to systematically profile the expression of 48 NRs and identified several NRs that were aberrantly expressed in UFs. Among others, expression of NR4A subfamily members including NGFIB (NR4A1), NURR1 (NR4A2), and NOR1 (NR4A3) were dramatically suppressed in leiomyoma compared with the matched myometrium. Restoration of expression of each of these NR4A members in the primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells decreased cell proliferation. Importantly, NR4As regulate expressions of the profibrotic factors including TGFβ3 and SMAD3, and several collagens that are key components of the extracellular matrix. Finally, we identify NR4A members as targets of leuprolide acetate treatment. Together, our results implicate several NRs including the NR4A subfamily in leiomyoma etiology and identify NR4As as potential therapeutic targets for treating fibrotic diseases. PMID:23550059

  19. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles (“fingerprints”), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  20. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles ("fingerprints"), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease.

  1. Characteristics Identified for Success by Restorative Dental Science Department Chairpersons.

    PubMed

    Wee, Alvin G; Weiss, Robert O; Wichman, Christopher S; Sukotjo, Cortino; Brundo, Gerald C

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the characteristics that current chairpersons in restorative dentistry, general dentistry, prosthodontics, and operative dentistry departments in U.S. dental schools feel are most relevant in contributing to their success. The secondary aim was to determine these individuals' rankings of the importance of a listed set of characteristics for them to be successful in their position. All 82 current chairs of the specified departments were invited to respond to an electronic survey. The survey first asked respondents to list the five most essential characteristics to serve as chair of a department and to rank those characteristics based on importance. Participants were next given a list of ten characteristics in the categories of management and leadership and, without being aware of the category of each individual item, asked to rank them in terms of importance for their success. A total of 39 chairpersons completed the survey (47.6% response rate; 83.3% male and 16.2% female). In section one, the respondents reported that leadership, vision, work ethic, integrity, communication, and organization were the most essential characteristics for their success. In section two, the respondents ranked the leadership characteristics as statistically more important than the management characteristics (p<0.0001) for being successful in their positions.

  2. Public participation GIS: a method for identifying ecosystems services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Greg; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of an Internet-based public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) to identify ecosystem services in Grand County, Colorado. Specific research objectives were to examine the distribution of ecosystem services, identify the characteristics of participants in the study, explore potential relationships between ecosystem services and land use and land cover (LULC) classifications, and assess the methodological strengths and weakness of the PPGIS approach for identifying ecosystem services. Key findings include: (1) Cultural ecosystem service opportunities were easiest to identify while supporting and regulatory services most challenging, (2) participants were highly educated, knowledgeable about nature and science, and have a strong connection to the outdoors, (3) some LULC classifications were logically and spatially associated with ecosystem services, and (4) despite limitations, the PPGIS method demonstrates potential for identifying ecosystem services to augment expert judgment and to inform public or environmental policy decisions regarding land use trade-offs.

  3. Photo interpretation key to Michigan land cover/use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hudson, W. D.; Lusch, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photo interpretation keys is presented to provide a structured approach to the identification of land cover/use categories as specified in the Michigan Resource Inventory Act. The designated categories are urban and; built up lands; agricultural lands; forest land; nonforested land; water bodies; wetlands; and barren land. The keys were developed for use with medium scale (1:20,000 to 1:24,000) color infrared aerial photography. Although each key is generalized in that it relies only upon the most distinguishing photo characteristics in separating the various land cover/use categories, additional interpretation characteristics, distinguishing features and background material are given.

  4. Using ultra-low frequency waves and their characteristics to diagnose key physics of substorm onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, I. J.; Murphy, K. R.; Watt, Clare E. J.; Mann, Ian R.; Yao, Zhonghua; Kalmoni, Nadine M. E.; Forsyth, Colin; Milling, David K.

    2017-12-01

    Substorm onset is marked in the ionosphere by the sudden brightening of an existing auroral arc or the creation of a new auroral arc. Also present is the formation of auroral beads, proposed to play a key role in the detonation of the substorm, as well as the development of the large-scale substorm current wedge (SCW), invoked to carry the current diversion. Both these phenomena, auroral beads and the SCW, have been intimately related to ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves of specific frequencies as observed by ground-based magnetometers. We present a case study of the absolute and relative timing of Pi1 and Pi2 ULF wave bands with regard to a small substorm expansion phase onset. We find that there is both a location and frequency dependence for the onset of ULF waves. A clear epicentre is observed in specific wave frequencies concurrent with the brightening of the substorm onset arc and the presence of "auroral beads". At higher and lower wave frequencies, different epicentre patterns are revealed, which we conclude demonstrate different characteristics of the onset process; at higher frequencies, this epicentre may demonstrate phase mixing, and at intermediate and lower frequencies these epicentres are characteristic of auroral beads and cold plasma approximation of the "Tamao travel time" from near-earth neutral line reconnection and formation of the SCW.

  5. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants' growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., 'Photosynthesis'), GO terms (e.g., 'response to karrikin') and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology.

  6. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  7. Identifying key areas of ecosystem services potential to improve ecological management in Chongqing City, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Xiao, Qiang

    2018-03-29

    Because natural ecosystems and ecosystem services (ES) are both critical to the well-being of humankind, it is important to understand their relationships and congruence for conservation planning. Spatial conservation planning is required to set focused preservation priorities and to assess future ecological implications. This study uses the combined measures of ES models and ES potential to estimate and analyze all four groups of ecosystem services to generate opportunities to maximize ecosystem services. Subsequently, we identify the key areas of conservation priorities as future forestation and conservation hotspot zones to improve the ecological management in Chongqing City, located in the upper reaches of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Results show that ecosystem services potential is extremely obvious. Compared to ecosystem services from 2000, we determined that soil conservation could be increased by 59.11%, carbon sequestration by 129.51%, water flow regulation by 83.42%, and water purification by 84.42%. According to our prioritization results, approximately 48% of area converted to forests exhibited high improvements in all ecosystem services (categorized as hotspot-1, hotspot-2, and hotspot-3). The hotspots identified in this study can be used as an excellent surrogate for evaluation ecological engineering benefits and can be effectively applied in improving ecological management planning.

  8. Establishing Chinese medicine characteristic tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of Chinese medicine oncology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Lei; Liu, Rui; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2012-10-01

    The features and advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) in cancer comprehensive treatment have been in the spotlight of experts both at home and abroad. However, how to evaluate the effect of CM more objectively, scientifically and systematically is still the key problem of clinical trial, and also a limitation to the development and internationalization of CM oncology. The change of tumor response evaluation system in conventional medicine is gradually consistent with the features of CM clinical effect, such as they both focus on a combination of soft endpoints (i.e. quality of life, clinical benefit, etc.) and hard endpoints (i.e. tumor remission rate, time to progress, etc.). Although experts have proposed protocols of CM tumor response evaluation criteria and come to an agreement in general, divergences still exist in the importance, quantification and CM feature of the potential endpoints. Thus, establishing a CM characteristic and wildly accepted tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of CM oncology, and also provides a more convenient and scientific platform for CM international cooperation and communication.

  9. Key Elements for Judging the Quality of a Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.; Dellarco, Vicki L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many reports have been published that contain recommendations for improving the quality, transparency, and usefulness of decision making for risk assessments prepared by agencies of the U.S. federal government. A substantial measure of consensus has emerged regarding the characteristics that high-quality assessments should possess. Objective: The goal was to summarize the key characteristics of a high-quality assessment as identified in the consensus-building process and to integrate them into a guide for use by decision makers, risk assessors, peer reviewers and other interested stakeholders to determine if an assessment meets the criteria for high quality. Discussion: Most of the features cited in the guide are applicable to any type of assessment, whether it encompasses one, two, or all four phases of the risk-assessment paradigm; whether it is qualitative or quantitative; and whether it is screening level or highly sophisticated and complex. Other features are tailored to specific elements of an assessment. Just as agencies at all levels of government are responsible for determining the effectiveness of their programs, so too should they determine the effectiveness of their assessments used in support of their regulatory decisions. Furthermore, if a nongovernmental entity wishes to have its assessments considered in the governmental regulatory decision-making process, then these assessments should be judged in the same rigorous manner and be held to similar standards. Conclusions: The key characteristics of a high-quality assessment can be summarized and integrated into a guide for judging whether an assessment possesses the desired features of high quality, transparency, and usefulness. Citation: Fenner-Crisp PA, Dellarco VL. 2016. Key elements for judging the quality of a risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 124:1127–1135; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510483 PMID:26862984

  10. Shifting the Focus to Student Learning: Characteristics of Effective Teaching Practice as Identified by Experienced Pre-Service Faculty Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Nancy; Hatt, Blaine E.

    2012-01-01

    Cochrane-Smith and Power identify trends in teacher education programs with some relating to heightened teacher accountability for students' learning. In this paper we provide a model that identifies characteristics believed to be critical elements related to a teacher's conceptual focus shifting from an emphasis on their teaching to their…

  11. Characteristics of Effective Disaster Responders and Leaders: A Survey of Disaster Medical Practitioners.

    PubMed

    King, Richard V; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Fowler, Raymond L; Downs, Dana L; North, Carol S

    2016-10-01

    To identify key attributes of effective disaster/mass casualty first responders and leaders, thereby informing the ongoing development of a capable disaster health workforce. We surveyed emergency response practitioners attending a conference session, the EMS State of the Science: A Gathering of Eagles. We used open-ended questions to ask participants to describe key characteristics of successful disaster/mass casualty first responders and leaders. Of the 140 session attendees, 132 (94%) participated in the survey. All responses were categorized by using a previously developed framework. The most frequently mentioned characteristics were related to incident command/disaster knowledge, teamwork/interpersonal skills, performing one's role, and cognitive abilities. Other identified characteristics were related to communication skills, adaptability/flexibility, problem solving/decision-making, staying calm and cool under stress, personal character, and overall knowledge. The survey findings support our prior focus group conclusion that important characteristics of disaster responders and leaders are not limited to the knowledge and skills typically included in disaster training. Further research should examine the extent to which these characteristics are consistently associated with actual effective performance of disaster response personnel and determine how best to incorporate these attributes into competency models, processes, and tools for the development of an effective disaster response workforce. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4).

  12. 48 CFR 2452.237-70 - Key personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts when it is necessary for contract performance to identify the contractor's key personnel: Key... perform as follows: [List Key Personnel and/or positions, and tasks, percentage of effort, number of hours...

  13. Larvae of five horticulturally important species of Chrysopodes (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): shared generic features, descriptions and keys

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia S.; Tauber, Catherine A.; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.; Tauber, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An expanded list of generic level larval characteristics is presented for Chrysopodes; it includes a reinterpretation of the mesothoracic and metathoracic structure and setation. Keys, descriptions and images of Semaphoront A (first instar) and Semaphoront B (second and third instars) are offered for identifying five species of Chrysopodes (Chrysopodes) that are commonly reported from horticultural habitats in the Neotropical region. PMID:23653514

  14. Doctors on the move: a European case study on the key characteristics of national recertification systems.

    PubMed

    Sehlbach, Carolin; Govaerts, Marjan J; Mitchell, Sharon; Rohde, Gernot G U; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Driessen, Erik W

    2018-04-17

    With increased cross-border movement, ensuring safe and high-quality healthcare has gained primacy. The purpose of recertification is to ensure quality of care through periodically attesting doctors' professional proficiency in their field. Professional migration and facilitated cross-border recognition of qualifications, however, make us question the fitness of national policies for safeguarding patient care and the international accountability of doctors. We performed document analyses and conducted 19 semistructured interviews to identify and describe key characteristics and effective components of 10 different European recertification systems, each representing one case (collective case study). We subsequently compared these systems to explore similarities and differences in terms of assessment criteria used to determine process quality. Great variety existed between countries in terms and assessment formats used, targeting cognition, competence and performance (Miller's assessment pyramid). Recertification procedures and requirements also varied significantly, ranging from voluntary participation in professional development modules to the mandatory collection of multiple performance data in a competency-based portfolio. Knowledge assessment was fundamental to recertification in most countries. Another difference concerned the stakeholders involved in the recertification process: while some systems exclusively relied on doctors' self-assessment, others involved multiple stakeholders but rarely included patients in assessment of doctors' professional competence. Differences between systems partly reflected different goals and primary purposes of recertification. Recertification systems differ substantially internationally with regard to the criteria they apply to assess doctors' competence, their aims, requirements, assessment formats and patient involvement. In the light of professional mobility and associated demands for accountability, we recommend that

  15. Doctors on the move: a European case study on the key characteristics of national recertification systems

    PubMed Central

    Govaerts, Marjan J; Mitchell, Sharon; Rohde, Gernot G U; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Driessen, Erik W

    2018-01-01

    Objectives With increased cross-border movement, ensuring safe and high-quality healthcare has gained primacy. The purpose of recertification is to ensure quality of care through periodically attesting doctors’ professional proficiency in their field. Professional migration and facilitated cross-border recognition of qualifications, however, make us question the fitness of national policies for safeguarding patient care and the international accountability of doctors. Design and setting We performed document analyses and conducted 19 semistructured interviews to identify and describe key characteristics and effective components of 10 different European recertification systems, each representing one case (collective case study). We subsequently compared these systems to explore similarities and differences in terms of assessment criteria used to determine process quality. Results Great variety existed between countries in terms and assessment formats used, targeting cognition, competence and performance (Miller’s assessment pyramid). Recertification procedures and requirements also varied significantly, ranging from voluntary participation in professional development modules to the mandatory collection of multiple performance data in a competency-based portfolio. Knowledge assessment was fundamental to recertification in most countries. Another difference concerned the stakeholders involved in the recertification process: while some systems exclusively relied on doctors’ self-assessment, others involved multiple stakeholders but rarely included patients in assessment of doctors’ professional competence. Differences between systems partly reflected different goals and primary purposes of recertification. Conclusion Recertification systems differ substantially internationally with regard to the criteria they apply to assess doctors’ competence, their aims, requirements, assessment formats and patient involvement. In the light of professional mobility and

  16. Identifying the Key Weaknesses in Network Security at Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    A new study identifies and ranks the 10 security gaps responsible for most outsider attacks on college computer networks. The list is intended to help campus system administrators establish priorities as they work to increase security. One network security expert urges that institutions utilize multiple security layers. (DB)

  17. Schizoaffective disorder diagnosed according to different diagnostic criteria--systematic literature search and meta-analysis of key clinical characteristics and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Tobias; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is viewed as a heterogeneous diagnosis among psychotic illnesses. Different diagnostic systems differ in their definition with DSM (-IIIR, -IV, and -V) providing a narrower definition than RDC and ICD-10. It is unclear whether this difference is reflected in patient samples diagnosed according to different diagnostic systems. Exploratory study based on a systematic review of studies of schizoaffective disorder samples diagnosed by either RDC and ICD-10 (group of "broad criteria") or DSM-IIIR and -IV ("narrow criteria"); comparison (by Mann-Whitney-U-tests) of key characteristics, such as age, number of hospitalizations, or scores in psychometric tests, between more broadly and more narrowly defined schizoaffective disorder samples using standard deviations as a measurement of heterogeneity as well as weighted means and percentages. To reduce selection bias only studies including schizoaffective patient samples together with affective disorder and schizophrenia samples were selected. 55 studies were included, 14 employing RDC, 4 ICD-10, 20 DSM-IIIR, and 17 DSM-IV. Thirteen characteristics were compared: patients diagnosed according to broader criteria had fewer previous hospitalizations (2.2 vs. 5.4) and were both less often male (42 vs. 51%) and married (21 vs. 40%). Heterogeneity was similar in both groups but slightly higher in RDC and ICD-10 samples than in DSM-IIIR and -IV-samples: +4% regarding demographic and clinical course data and +13% regarding psychometric tests (pooled SD). Secular trends and different designs may have confounded the results and limit generalizability. Some comparisons were underpowered. Differences in diagnostic criteria are reflected in key characteristics of samples. The association of larger heterogeneity with wider diagnostic criteria supports employing standard deviations as a measurement of heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying the characteristic of SundaParahiyangan landscape for a model of sustainable agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlan, M. Z.; Nurhayati, H. S. A.; Mugnisjah, W. Q.

    2017-10-01

    This study was an explorative study of the various forms of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Sundanese people in the context of sustainable agriculture. The qualitative method was used to identify SundaParahiyangan landscape by using Rapid Participatory Rural Appraisal throughsemi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field survey. The Landscape Characteristic Assessment and Community Sustainability Assessment were used to analyze the characteristic of landscape to achieve the sustainable agricultural landscape criteria proposed by US Department of Agriculture. The results revealed that the SundaParahiyangan agricultural landscape has a unique characteristic as a result of the long-term adaptation of agricultural society to theirlandscape through a learning process for generations. In general, this character was reflected in the typical of Sundanese’s agroecosystems such as forest garden, mixed garden, paddy field, and home garden. In addition, concept of kabuyutan is one of the TEKs related to understanding and utilization of landscape has been adapted on revitalizing the role of landscape surrounding the agroecosystem as the buffer zone by calculating and designating protected areas. To support the sustainability of production area, integrated practices of agroforestry with low-external-input and sustainable agriculture (LEISA) system can be applied in utilizing and managing agricultural resources.

  19. Integrating transcriptome and genome re-sequencing data to identify key genes and mutations affecting chicken eggshell qualities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Long; Zheng, Chuan Wei; Wang, De He; Hou, Zhuo Cheng; Ning, Zhong Hua

    2015-01-01

    Eggshell damages lead to economic losses in the egg production industry and are a threat to human health. We examined 49-wk-old Rhode Island White hens (Gallus gallus) that laid eggs having shells with significantly different strengths and thicknesses. We used HiSeq 2000 (Illumina) sequencing to characterize the chicken transcriptome and whole genome to identify the key genes and genetic mutations associated with eggshell calcification. We identified a total of 14,234 genes expressed in the chicken uterus, representing 89% of all annotated chicken genes. A total of 889 differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing low eggshell strength (LES) and normal eggshell strength (NES) genomes. The DEGs are enriched in calcification-related processes, including calcium ion transport and calcium signaling pathways as revealed by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Some important matrix proteins, such as OC-116, LTF and SPP1, were also expressed differentially between two groups. A total of 3,671,919 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 508,035 Indels were detected in protein coding genes by whole-genome re-sequencing, including 1775 non-synonymous variations and 19 frame-shift Indels in DEGs. SNPs and Indels found in this study could be further investigated for eggshell traits. This is the first report to integrate the transcriptome and genome re-sequencing to target the genetic variations which decreased the eggshell qualities. These findings further advance our understanding of eggshell calcification in the chicken uterus.

  20. The use of deconvolution techniques to identify the fundamental mixing characteristics of urban drainage structures.

    PubMed

    Stovin, V R; Guymer, I; Chappell, M J; Hattersley, J G

    2010-01-01

    Mixing and dispersion processes affect the timing and concentration of contaminants transported within urban drainage systems. Hence, methods of characterising the mixing effects of specific hydraulic structures are of interest to drainage network modellers. Previous research, focusing on surcharged manholes, utilised the first-order Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) and Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) models to characterise dispersion. However, although systematic variations in travel time as a function of discharge and surcharge depth have been identified, the first order ADE and ADZ models do not provide particularly good fits to observed manhole data, which means that the derived parameter values are not independent of the upstream temporal concentration profile. An alternative, more robust, approach utilises the system's Cumulative Residence Time Distribution (CRTD), and the solute transport characteristics of a surcharged manhole have been shown to be characterised by just two dimensionless CRTDs, one for pre- and the other for post-threshold surcharge depths. Although CRTDs corresponding to instantaneous upstream injections can easily be generated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, the identification of CRTD characteristics from non-instantaneous and noisy laboratory data sets has been hampered by practical difficulties. This paper shows how a deconvolution approach derived from systems theory may be applied to identify the CRTDs associated with urban drainage structures.

  1. Gene expression profiles analysis identifies key genes for acute lung injury in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Chuncheng; Wang, Zheng

    2014-09-26

    To identify critical genes and biological pathways in acute lung injury (ALI), a comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of patients with ALI + sepsis compared with patients with sepsis alone were performed with bioinformatic tools. GSE10474 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including a collective of 13 whole blood samples with ALI + sepsis and 21 whole blood samples with sepsis alone. After pre-treatment with robust multichip averaging (RMA) method, differential analysis was conducted using simpleaffy package based upon t-test and fold change. Hierarchical clustering was also performed using function hclust from package stats. Beisides, functional enrichment analysis was conducted using iGepros. Moreover, the gene regulatory network was constructed with information from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and then visualized by Cytoscape. A total of 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 47 up- and 81 down-regulated genes. The significantly enriched functions included negative regulation of cell proliferation, regulation of response to stimulus and cellular component morphogenesis. A total of 27 DEGs were significantly enriched in 16 KEGG pathways, such as protein digestion and absorption, fatty acid metabolism, amoebiasis, etc. Furthermore, the regulatory network of these 27 DEGs was constructed, which involved several key genes, including protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), v-src avian sarcoma (SRC) and Caveolin 2 (CAV2). PTK2, SRC and CAV2 may be potential markers for diagnosis and treatment of ALI. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5865162912987143.

  2. The Effect of Angle Restriction on the Topological Characteristics of Minicircle Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsuaga, J.; Diao, Y.; Hinson, K.

    2012-01-01

    Networks of topologically linked minicircle polymers are found in diverse natural systems and are a subject of intense research in nanotechonology. In a recent report the authors introduced a new theoretical model to study the effects of polymer density on the formation and on the topological properties of minicircle networks. Three key topological characteristics were identified in the formation and characterization of a network: the critical percolation density, the average saturation density and the mean valence of the network. In this work we report how these characteristics change when an orientation bias is imposed on the minicircles forming the network. We observe that such restrictions have significant effects on the key topological characteristics of the network. In particular while the effects of restriction of the tilting angle can be predicted we find that those of the azimuthal angle can have somewhat unexpected results.

  3. Identifying play characteristics of pre-school children with developmental coordination disorder via parental questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara; Waissman, Pola; Diamond, Gary W

    2017-06-01

    Motor coordination deficits that characterize children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affect their quality of participation. The aim of the current study was to identify play characteristics of young children with DCD, compared to those of children with typical development in three dimensions: activity and participation, environmental factors and children's impairments. Sixty-four children, aged four to six years, participated. Thirty were diagnosed as having DCD; the remaining 34 children were age, gender and socioeconomic level matched controls with typical development. The children were evaluated by the M-ABC. In addition, their parents completed a demographic questionnaire, the Children's Activity Scale for Parents (CHAS-P), the Children's Leisure Assessment Scale for preschoolers (CLASS-Pre), and My Child's Play Questionnaire (MCP). Children with DCD performed significantly poorer in each of the four play activity and participation domains: variety, frequency, sociability, and preference (CLASS-Pre). Furthermore, their environmental characteristics were significantly different (MCP). They displayed significantly inferior performance (impairments) in interpersonal interaction and executive functioning during play, in comparison to controls (MCP). Moreover, the children's motor and executive control as reflected in their daily function as well as their activities of daily living (ADL) performance level, contributed to the prediction of their global play participation. The results indicate that the use of both the CLASS-Pre and the MCP questionnaires enables the identification of unique play characteristics of pre-school children with DCD via parents' reports. A better insight into these characteristics may contribute to theoretical knowledge and clinical practice to improve the children's daily participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  5. Microarray identifies ADAM family members as key responders to TGF-beta1 in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Keating, Dominic T; Sadlier, Denise M; Patricelli, Andrea; Smith, Sinead M; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J; Doran, Peter P

    2006-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) remain elusive. Transforming Growth Factor beta 1(TGF-beta1) is a key effector cytokine in the development of lung fibrosis. We used microarray and computational biology strategies to identify genes whose expression is significantly altered in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) in response to TGF-beta1, IL-4 and IL-13 and Epstein Barr virus. A549 cells were exposed to 10 ng/ml TGF-beta1, IL-4 and IL-13 at serial time points. Total RNA was used for hybridisation to Affymetrix Human Genome U133A microarrays. Each in vitro time-point was studied in duplicate and an average RMA value computed. Expression data for each time point was compared to control and a signal log ratio of 0.6 or greater taken to identify significant differential regulation. Using normalised RMA values and unsupervised Average Linkage Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, a list of 312 extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or modulators of matrix turnover was curated via Onto-Compare and Gene-Ontology (GO) databases for baited cluster analysis of ECM associated genes. Interrogation of the dataset using ontological classification focused cluster analysis revealed coordinate differential expression of a large cohort of extracellular matrix associated genes. Of this grouping members of the ADAM (A disintegrin and Metalloproteinase domain containing) family of genes were differentially expressed. ADAM gene expression was also identified in EBV infected A549 cells as well as IL-13 and IL-4 stimulated cells. We probed pathologenomic activities (activation and functional activity) of ADAM19 and ADAMTS9 using siRNA and collagen assays. Knockdown of these genes resulted in diminished production of collagen in A549 cells exposed to TGF-beta1, suggesting a potential role for these molecules in ECM accumulation in IPF.

  6. The real maccoyii: identifying tuna sushi with DNA barcodes--contrasting characteristic attributes and genetic distances.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jacob H; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2009-11-18

    The use of DNA barcodes for the identification of described species is one of the least controversial and most promising applications of barcoding. There is no consensus, however, as to what constitutes an appropriate identification standard and most barcoding efforts simply attempt to pair a query sequence with reference sequences and deem identification successful if it falls within the bounds of some pre-established cutoffs using genetic distance. Since the Renaissance, however, most biological classification schemes have relied on the use of diagnostic characters to identify and place species. Here we developed a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I character-based key for the identification of all tuna species of the genus Thunnus, and compared its performance with distance-based measures for identification of 68 samples of tuna sushi purchased from 31 restaurants in Manhattan (New York City) and Denver, Colorado. Both the character-based key and GenBank BLAST successfully identified 100% of the tuna samples, while the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) as well as genetic distance thresholds, and neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree building performed poorly in terms of species identification. A piece of tuna sushi has the potential to be an endangered species, a fraud, or a health hazard. All three of these cases were uncovered in this study. Nineteen restaurant establishments were unable to clarify or misrepresented what species they sold. Five out of nine samples sold as a variant of "white tuna" were not albacore (T. alalunga), but escolar (Lepidocybium flavorunneum), a gempylid species banned for sale in Italy and Japan due to health concerns. Nineteen samples were northern bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) or the critically endangered southern bluefin tuna (T. maccoyii), though nine restaurants that sold these species did not state these species on their menus. The Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) requires that listed species must be

  7. The fuelbed: a key element of the Fuel Characteristic Classification System.

    Treesearch

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg; Anne Andreu; Ella Elman; Karen Kopper; Jennifer Long

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuelbed characteristics are temporally and spatially complex and can vary widely across regions. To capture this variability, we designed the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), a national system to create fuelbeds and classify those fuelbeds for their capacity to support fire and consume fuels. This paper describes the structure of the fuelbeds...

  8. A Large-Scale RNAi Screen Identifies SGK1 as a Key Survival Kinase for GBM Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shreya; Goel-Bhattacharya, Surbhi; Sengupta, Sejuti; Cochran, Brent H

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of primary malignant brain cancer and has a very poor prognosis. A subpopulation of cells known as GBM stem-like cells (GBM-SC) have the capacity to initiate and sustain tumor growth and possess molecular characteristics similar to the parental tumor. GBM-SCs are known to be enriched in hypoxic niches and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Therefore, to identify genetic determinants important for the proliferation and survival of GBM stem cells, an unbiased pooled shRNA screen of 10,000 genes was conducted under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions. A number of essential genes were identified that are required for GBM-SC growth, under either or both oxygen conditions, in two different GBM-SC lines. Interestingly, only about a third of the essential genes were common to both cell lines. The oxygen environment significantly impacts the cellular genetic dependencies as 30% of the genes required under hypoxia were not required under normoxic conditions. In addition to identifying essential genes already implicated in GBM such as CDK4, KIF11 , and RAN , the screen also identified new genes that have not been previously implicated in GBM stem cell biology. The importance of the serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) for cellular survival was validated in multiple patient-derived GBM stem cell lines using shRNA, CRISPR, and pharmacologic inhibitors. However, SGK1 depletion and inhibition has little effect on traditional serum grown glioma lines and on differentiated GBM-SCs indicating its specific importance in GBM stem cell survival. Implications: This study identifies genes required for the growth and survival of GBM stem cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and finds SGK1 as a novel potential drug target for GBM. Mol Cancer Res; 16(1); 103-14. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Integrating Transcriptome and Genome Re-Sequencing Data to Identify Key Genes and Mutations Affecting Chicken Eggshell Qualities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Zheng, Chuan Wei; Wang, De He; Hou, Zhuo Cheng; Ning, Zhong Hua

    2015-01-01

    Eggshell damages lead to economic losses in the egg production industry and are a threat to human health. We examined 49-wk-old Rhode Island White hens (Gallus gallus) that laid eggs having shells with significantly different strengths and thicknesses. We used HiSeq 2000 (Illumina) sequencing to characterize the chicken transcriptome and whole genome to identify the key genes and genetic mutations associated with eggshell calcification. We identified a total of 14,234 genes expressed in the chicken uterus, representing 89% of all annotated chicken genes. A total of 889 differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing low eggshell strength (LES) and normal eggshell strength (NES) genomes. The DEGs are enriched in calcification-related processes, including calcium ion transport and calcium signaling pathways as reveled by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Some important matrix proteins, such as OC-116, LTF and SPP1, were also expressed differentially between two groups. A total of 3,671,919 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 508,035 Indels were detected in protein coding genes by whole-genome re-sequencing, including 1775 non-synonymous variations and 19 frame-shift Indels in DEGs. SNPs and Indels found in this study could be further investigated for eggshell traits. This is the first report to integrate the transcriptome and genome re-sequencing to target the genetic variations which decreased the eggshell qualities. These findings further advance our understanding of eggshell calcification in the chicken uterus. PMID:25974068

  10. Microarray analysis identifies candidate genes for key roles in coral development

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Lauretta C; Maindonald, John; Rudd, Stephen; Hayward, David C; Saint, Robert; Miller, David J; Ball, Eldon E

    2008-01-01

    Background Anthozoan cnidarians are amongst the simplest animals at the tissue level of organization, but are surprisingly complex and vertebrate-like in terms of gene repertoire. As major components of tropical reef ecosystems, the stony corals are anthozoans of particular ecological significance. To better understand the molecular bases of both cnidarian development in general and coral-specific processes such as skeletogenesis and symbiont acquisition, microarray analysis was carried out through the period of early development – when skeletogenesis is initiated, and symbionts are first acquired. Results Of 5081 unique peptide coding genes, 1084 were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05) in comparisons between four different stages of coral development, spanning key developmental transitions. Genes of likely relevance to the processes of settlement, metamorphosis, calcification and interaction with symbionts were characterised further and their spatial expression patterns investigated using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Conclusion This study is the first large-scale investigation of developmental gene expression for any cnidarian, and has provided candidate genes for key roles in many aspects of coral biology, including calcification, metamorphosis and symbiont uptake. One surprising finding is that some of these genes have clear counterparts in higher animals but are not present in the closely-related sea anemone Nematostella. Secondly, coral-specific processes (i.e. traits which distinguish corals from their close relatives) may be analogous to similar processes in distantly related organisms. This first large-scale application of microarray analysis demonstrates the potential of this approach for investigating many aspects of coral biology, including the effects of stress and disease. PMID:19014561

  11. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants’ growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., ‘Photosynthesis’), GO terms (e.g., ‘response to karrikin’) and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577

  12. Image encryption using fingerprint as key based on phase retrieval algorithm and public key cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.

  13. Lead with Passion: Effective Leadership Characteristics as Perceived by School Administrators and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, La Tanya Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine how educators lead with passion. The study identified key characteristics in school administrators and teachers who lead effective schools. This research study analyzed whether there were any significant differences in the leadership styles of administrators and teachers. Five…

  14. Identification of the key ecological factors influencing vegetation degradation in semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone considering spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Fan, Min

    2017-11-01

    When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.

  15. Genomic profiling of Sézary Syndrome identifies alterations of key T-cell signaling and differentiation genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linghua; Ni, Xiao; Covington, Kyle R.; Yang, Betty Y.; Shiu, Jessica; Zhang, Xiang; Xi, Liu; Meng, Qingchang; Langridge, Timothy; Drummond, Jennifer; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wheeler, David A.; Duvic, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Sézary Syndrome is a rare leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma defined as erythroderma, adenopathy, and circulating atypical T-lymphocytes. It is rarely curable with poor prognosis. Here we present a multi-platform genomic analysis of 37 Sézary Syndrome patients that implicates dysregulation of the cell cycle checkpoint and T-cell signaling. Frequent somatic alterations were identified in TP53, CARD11, CCR4, PLCG1, CDKN2A, ARID1A, RPS6KA1, and ZEB1. Activating CCR4 and CARD11 mutations were detected in nearly a third of patients. ZEB1, a transcription repressor essential for T-cell differentiation, was deleted in over half of patients. IL32 and IL2RG were over-expressed in nearly all cases. Analysis of T-cell receptor Vβ and Vα expression revealed ongoing rearrangement of the receptors after the expansion of a malignant clone in one third of subjects. Our results demonstrate profound disruption of key signaling pathways in Sézary Syndrome and suggest potential targets for novel therapies. PMID:26551670

  16. Identifying key nodes in multilayer networks based on tensor decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingjie; Wang, Haitao; Zou, Xiufen

    2017-06-01

    The identification of essential agents in multilayer networks characterized by different types of interactions is a crucial and challenging topic, one that is essential for understanding the topological structure and dynamic processes of multilayer networks. In this paper, we use the fourth-order tensor to represent multilayer networks and propose a novel method to identify essential nodes based on CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition, referred to as the EDCPTD centrality. This method is based on the perspective of multilayer networked structures, which integrate the information of edges among nodes and links between different layers to quantify the importance of nodes in multilayer networks. Three real-world multilayer biological networks are used to evaluate the performance of the EDCPTD centrality. The bar chart and ROC curves of these multilayer networks indicate that the proposed approach is a good alternative index to identify real important nodes. Meanwhile, by comparing the behavior of both the proposed method and the aggregated single-layer methods, we demonstrate that neglecting the multiple relationships between nodes may lead to incorrect identification of the most versatile nodes. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology functional annotation demonstrates that the identified top nodes based on the proposed approach play a significant role in many vital biological processes. Finally, we have implemented many centrality methods of multilayer networks (including our method and the published methods) and created a visual software based on the MATLAB GUI, called ENMNFinder, which can be used by other researchers.

  17. Identifying key nodes in multilayer networks based on tensor decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dingjie; Wang, Haitao; Zou, Xiufen

    2017-06-01

    The identification of essential agents in multilayer networks characterized by different types of interactions is a crucial and challenging topic, one that is essential for understanding the topological structure and dynamic processes of multilayer networks. In this paper, we use the fourth-order tensor to represent multilayer networks and propose a novel method to identify essential nodes based on CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition, referred to as the EDCPTD centrality. This method is based on the perspective of multilayer networked structures, which integrate the information of edges among nodes and links between different layers to quantify the importance of nodes in multilayer networks. Three real-world multilayer biological networks are used to evaluate the performance of the EDCPTD centrality. The bar chart and ROC curves of these multilayer networks indicate that the proposed approach is a good alternative index to identify real important nodes. Meanwhile, by comparing the behavior of both the proposed method and the aggregated single-layer methods, we demonstrate that neglecting the multiple relationships between nodes may lead to incorrect identification of the most versatile nodes. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology functional annotation demonstrates that the identified top nodes based on the proposed approach play a significant role in many vital biological processes. Finally, we have implemented many centrality methods of multilayer networks (including our method and the published methods) and created a visual software based on the MATLAB GUI, called ENMNFinder, which can be used by other researchers.

  18. Identifying persistent and characteristic features in firearm tool marks on cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Daniel; Soons, Johannes; Thompson, Robert; Song, John

    2017-12-01

    Recent concerns about subjectivity in forensic firearm identification have motivated the development of algorithms to compare firearm tool marks that are imparted on ammunition and to generate quantitative measures of similarity. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that identifies impressed tool marks on a cartridge case that are both consistent between firings and contribute strongly to a surface similarity metric. The result is a representation of the tool mark topography that emphasizes both significant and persistent features across firings. This characteristic surface map is useful for understanding the variability and persistence of the tool marks created by a firearm and can provide improved discrimination between the comparison scores of samples fired from the same firearm and the scores of samples fired from different firearms. The algorithm also provides a convenient method for visualizing areas of similarity that may be useful in providing quantitative support for visual comparisons by trained examiners.

  19. KeySlinger and StarSlinger: Secure Key Exchange and Encrypted File Transfer on Smartphones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    format data to exchange because contact information can be exported to V- Cards using existing APIs. For these reasons it was chosen as the medium to... Card format allows customization of this field. The service provider field serves to identify the app the key is for and the username field stores the...public key data. A sample V- Card field looks like Listing 1 below. IMPP;TextSecure

  20. Court procedures for identifying problem drinkers. Volume 3, Scoring keys

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-06-01

    HSRI, under Contract FH-11-7615 with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), developed, during 1970 and 1971, a set of procedures for identifying problem drinkers. They were intended for use in court setting, such as a pre-sentenc...

  1. Decoding and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis to Identify Which Reader and Assessment Characteristics Influence the Strength of the Relationship in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, J. Ricardo; Cain, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the relative importance of decoding skills to reading comprehension in reading development and to identify which reader characteristics and reading assessment characteristics contribute to differences in the decoding and reading comprehension correlation. A meta-analysis of 110 studies…

  2. Cemento-osseous dysplasia of the jaw bones: key radiographic features

    PubMed Central

    Alsufyani, NA; Lam, EWN

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess possible diagnostic differences between general dentists (GPs) and oral and maxillofacial radiologists (RGs) in the identification of pathognomonic radiographic features of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) and its interpretation. Methods Using a systematic objective survey instrument, 3 RGs and 3 GPs reviewed 50 image sets of COD and similarly appearing entities (dense bone island, cementoblastoma, cemento-ossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, complex odontoma and sclerosing osteitis). Participants were asked to identify the presence or absence of radiographic features and then to make an interpretation of the images. Results RGs identified a well-defined border (odds ratio (OR) 6.67, P < 0.05); radiolucent periphery (OR 8.28, P < 0.005); bilateral occurrence (OR 10.23, P < 0.01); mixed radiolucent/radiopaque internal structure (OR 10.53, P < 0.01); the absence of non-concentric bony expansion (OR 7.63, P < 0.05); and the association with anterior and posterior teeth (OR 4.43, P < 0.05) as key features of COD. Consequently, RGs were able to correctly interpret 79.3% of COD cases. In contrast, GPs identified the absence of root resorption (OR 4.52, P < 0.05) and the association with anterior and posterior teeth (OR 3.22, P = 0.005) as the only key features of COD and were able to correctly interpret 38.7% of COD cases. Conclusions There are statistically significant differences between RGs and GPs in the identification and interpretation of the radiographic features associated with COD (P < 0.001). We conclude that COD is radiographically discernable from other similarly appearing entities only if the characteristic radiographic features are correctly identified and then correctly interpreted. PMID:21346079

  3. Cemento-osseous dysplasia of the jaw bones: key radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Alsufyani, N A; Lam, E W N

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess possible diagnostic differences between general dentists (GPs) and oral and maxillofacial radiologists (RGs) in the identification of pathognomonic radiographic features of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) and its interpretation. Using a systematic objective survey instrument, 3 RGs and 3 GPs reviewed 50 image sets of COD and similarly appearing entities (dense bone island, cementoblastoma, cemento-ossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, complex odontoma and sclerosing osteitis). Participants were asked to identify the presence or absence of radiographic features and then to make an interpretation of the images. RGs identified a well-defined border (odds ratio (OR) 6.67, P < 0.05); radiolucent periphery (OR 8.28, P < 0.005); bilateral occurrence (OR 10.23, P < 0.01); mixed radiolucent/radiopaque internal structure (OR 10.53, P < 0.01); the absence of non-concentric bony expansion (OR 7.63, P < 0.05); and the association with anterior and posterior teeth (OR 4.43, P < 0.05) as key features of COD. Consequently, RGs were able to correctly interpret 79.3% of COD cases. In contrast, GPs identified the absence of root resorption (OR 4.52, P < 0.05) and the association with anterior and posterior teeth (OR 3.22, P = 0.005) as the only key features of COD and were able to correctly interpret 38.7% of COD cases. There are statistically significant differences between RGs and GPs in the identification and interpretation of the radiographic features associated with COD (P < 0.001). We conclude that COD is radiographically discernable from other similarly appearing entities only if the characteristic radiographic features are correctly identified and then correctly interpreted.

  4. Identifying key sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, through the use of local and global sensitivity analysis tools, and contributes to an in-depth understanding of wastewater treatment modelling by revealing critical parameters and parameter interactions. One-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis is used to screen model parameters and identify those with significant individual effects on three performance indicators: total greenhouse gas emissions, effluent quality and operational cost. Sobol's method enables identification of parameters with significant higher order effects and of particular parameter pairs to which model outputs are sensitive. Use of a variance-based global sensitivity analysis tool to investigate parameter interactions enables identification of important parameters not revealed in one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis. These interaction effects have not been considered in previous studies and thus provide a better understanding wastewater treatment plant model characterisation. It was found that uncertainty in modelled nitrous oxide emissions is the primary contributor to uncertainty in total greenhouse gas emissions, due largely to the interaction effects of three nitrogen conversion modelling parameters. The higher order effects of these parameters are also shown to be a key source of uncertainty in effluent quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep Learning Identifies High-z Galaxies in a Central Blue Nugget Phase in a Characteristic Mass Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Primack, J. R.; Dekel, A.; Koo, D. C.; Lapiner, S.; Ceverino, D.; Simons, R. C.; Snyder, G. F.; Bernardi, M.; Chen, Z.; Domínguez-Sánchez, H.; Lee, C. T.; Margalef-Bentabol, B.; Tuccillo, D.

    2018-05-01

    We use machine learning to identify in color images of high-redshift galaxies an astrophysical phenomenon predicted by cosmological simulations. This phenomenon, called the blue nugget (BN) phase, is the compact star-forming phase in the central regions of many growing galaxies that follows an earlier phase of gas compaction and is followed by a central quenching phase. We train a convolutional neural network (CNN) with mock “observed” images of simulated galaxies at three phases of evolution— pre-BN, BN, and post-BN—and demonstrate that the CNN successfully retrieves the three phases in other simulated galaxies. We show that BNs are identified by the CNN within a time window of ∼0.15 Hubble times. When the trained CNN is applied to observed galaxies from the CANDELS survey at z = 1–3, it successfully identifies galaxies at the three phases. We find that the observed BNs are preferentially found in galaxies at a characteristic stellar mass range, 109.2–10.3 M ⊙ at all redshifts. This is consistent with the characteristic galaxy mass for BNs as detected in the simulations and is meaningful because it is revealed in the observations when the direct information concerning the total galaxy luminosity has been eliminated from the training set. This technique can be applied to the classification of other astrophysical phenomena for improved comparison of theory and observations in the era of large imaging surveys and cosmological simulations.

  6. The Real maccoyii: Identifying Tuna Sushi with DNA Barcodes – Contrasting Characteristic Attributes and Genetic Distances

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of DNA barcodes for the identification of described species is one of the least controversial and most promising applications of barcoding. There is no consensus, however, as to what constitutes an appropriate identification standard and most barcoding efforts simply attempt to pair a query sequence with reference sequences and deem identification successful if it falls within the bounds of some pre-established cutoffs using genetic distance. Since the Renaissance, however, most biological classification schemes have relied on the use of diagnostic characters to identify and place species. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we developed a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I character-based key for the identification of all tuna species of the genus Thunnus, and compared its performance with distance-based measures for identification of 68 samples of tuna sushi purchased from 31 restaurants in Manhattan (New York City) and Denver, Colorado. Both the character-based key and GenBank BLAST successfully identified 100% of the tuna samples, while the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) as well as genetic distance thresholds, and neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree building performed poorly in terms of species identification. A piece of tuna sushi has the potential to be an endangered species, a fraud, or a health hazard. All three of these cases were uncovered in this study. Nineteen restaurant establishments were unable to clarify or misrepresented what species they sold. Five out of nine samples sold as a variant of “white tuna” were not albacore (T. alalunga), but escolar (Lepidocybium flavorunneum), a gempylid species banned for sale in Italy and Japan due to health concerns. Nineteen samples were northern bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) or the critically endangered southern bluefin tuna (T. maccoyii), though nine restaurants that sold these species did not state these species on their menus. Conclusions/Significance The Convention on International Trade

  7. Fast image matching algorithm based on projection characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Yue, Xiaobo; Zhou, Lijun

    2011-06-01

    Based on analyzing the traditional template matching algorithm, this paper identified the key factors restricting the speed of matching and put forward a brand new fast matching algorithm based on projection. Projecting the grayscale image, this algorithm converts the two-dimensional information of the image into one-dimensional one, and then matches and identifies through one-dimensional correlation, meanwhile, because of normalization has been done, when the image brightness or signal amplitude increasing in proportion, it could also perform correct matching. Experimental results show that the projection characteristics based image registration method proposed in this article could greatly improve the matching speed, which ensuring the matching accuracy as well.

  8. Facilitators to promoting health in schools: is school health climate the key?

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Jennifer F; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K; Drzal, Nicholas B; Liu, Hui

    2014-02-01

    Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the coordinated school health team at each school. Barriers included budgetary constraints leading to low prioritization of health initiatives; availability of unhealthy competitive foods; and perceptions that students would not eat healthy foods. Schools had made improvements to foods and increased nutrition education. Support from administrators, teamwork among staff, and acknowledging student preferences facilitated positive changes. Schools with a key set of characteristics, (presence of a coordinated school health team, nutrition policies, and a school health champion) made more improvements. The set of key characteristics identified in successful schools may represent a school's health climate. While models of school climate have been utilized in the educational field in relation to academic outcomes, a health-specific model of school climate would be useful in guiding school health practitioners and researchers and may improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving student dietary intake and other health behaviors. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  9. Facilitators to Promoting Health in Schools: Is School Health Climate the Key?*

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Jennifer F.; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K.; Drzal, Nicholas B.; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. METHODS Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the coordinated school health team at each school. RESULTS Barriers included budgetary constraints leading to low prioritization of health initiatives; availability of unhealthy competitive foods; and perceptions that students would not eat healthy foods. Schools had made improvements to foods and increased nutrition education. Support from administrators, teamwork among staff, and acknowledging student preferences facilitated positive changes. Schools with a key set of characteristics, (presence of a coordinated school health team, nutrition policies, and a school health champion) made more improvements. CONCLUSIONS The set of key characteristics identified in successful schools may represent a school’s health climate. While models of school climate have been utilized in the educational field in relation to academic outcomes, a health-specific model of school climate would be useful in guiding school health practitioners and researchers and may improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving student dietary intake and other health behaviors. PMID:25099428

  10. In-Silico Integration Approach to Identify a Key miRNA Regulating a Gene Network in Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colaprico, Antonio; Bontempi, Gianluca; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2018-01-01

    Like other cancer diseases, prostate cancer (PC) is caused by the accumulation of genetic alterations in the cells that drives malignant growth. These alterations are revealed by gene profiling and copy number alteration (CNA) analysis. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that also microRNAs have an important role in PC development. Despite efforts to profile PC, the alterations (gene, CNA, and miRNA) and biological processes that correlate with disease development and progression remain partially elusive. Many gene signatures proposed as diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer poorly overlap. The identification of co-expressed genes, that are functionally related, can identify a core network of genes associated with PC with a better reproducibility. By combining different approaches, including the integration of mRNA expression profiles, CNAs, and miRNA expression levels, we identified a gene signature of four genes overlapping with other published gene signatures and able to distinguish, in silico, high Gleason-scored PC from normal human tissue, which was further enriched to 19 genes by gene co-expression analysis. From the analysis of miRNAs possibly regulating this network, we found that hsa-miR-153 was highly connected to the genes in the network. Our results identify a four-gene signature with diagnostic and prognostic value in PC and suggest an interesting gene network that could play a key regulatory role in PC development and progression. Furthermore, hsa-miR-153, controlling this network, could be a potential biomarker for theranostics in high Gleason-scored PC. PMID:29562723

  11. Identifying passivated dynamic force microscopy tips on H:Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Peter; Jarvis, Sam; Woolley, Richard; Sweetman, Adam; Kantorovich, Lev; Pakes, Chris; Moriarty, Philip

    2012-06-01

    The chemical reactivity of the tip plays a central role in image formation in dynamic force microscopy, but in very many cases the state of the probe is a key experimental unknown. We show here that an H-terminated and thus chemically unreactive tip can be readily identified via characteristic imaging and spectroscopic (F(z)) signatures, including, in particular, contrast inversion, on hydrogen-passivated Si(100). We determine the tip apex termination by comparing site-specific difference force curves with the results of density functional theory, providing a clear protocol for the identification of chemically unreactive tips on silicon surfaces.

  12. Effect of the Key Mixture Parameters on Shrinkage of Reactive Powder Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixtures are reported to have excellent mechanical and durability characteristics. However, such concrete mixtures having high amount of cementitious materials may have high early shrinkage causing cracking of concrete. In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the simultaneous effects of three key mixture parameters on shrinkage of the RPC mixtures. Considering three different levels of the three key mixture factors, a total of 27 mixtures of RPC were prepared according to 33 factorial experiment design. The specimens belonging to all 27 mixtures were monitored for shrinkage at different ages over a total period of 90 days. The test results were plotted to observe the variation of shrinkage with time and to see the effects of the key mixture factors. The experimental data pertaining to 90-day shrinkage were used to conduct analysis of variance to identify significance of each factor and to obtain an empirical equation correlating the shrinkage of RPC with the three key mixture factors. The rate of development of shrinkage at early ages was higher. The water to binder ratio was found to be the most prominent factor followed by cement content with the least effect of silica fume content. PMID:25050395

  13. Effect of the key mixture parameters on shrinkage of reactive powder concrete.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Zubair, Ahmed; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixtures are reported to have excellent mechanical and durability characteristics. However, such concrete mixtures having high amount of cementitious materials may have high early shrinkage causing cracking of concrete. In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the simultaneous effects of three key mixture parameters on shrinkage of the RPC mixtures. Considering three different levels of the three key mixture factors, a total of 27 mixtures of RPC were prepared according to 3(3) factorial experiment design. The specimens belonging to all 27 mixtures were monitored for shrinkage at different ages over a total period of 90 days. The test results were plotted to observe the variation of shrinkage with time and to see the effects of the key mixture factors. The experimental data pertaining to 90-day shrinkage were used to conduct analysis of variance to identify significance of each factor and to obtain an empirical equation correlating the shrinkage of RPC with the three key mixture factors. The rate of development of shrinkage at early ages was higher. The water to binder ratio was found to be the most prominent factor followed by cement content with the least effect of silica fume content.

  14. Key ingredients of anti-stigma programs for health care providers: a data synthesis of evaluative studies.

    PubMed

    Knaak, Stephanie; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B

    2014-10-01

    As part of its ongoing effort to combat stigma against mental illness among health care providers, the Mental Health Commission of Canada partnered with organizations conducting anti-stigma interventions. Our objective was to evaluate program effectiveness and to better understand what makes some programs more effective than others. Our paper reports the elements of these programs found to be most strongly associated with favourable outcomes. Our study employed a multi-phased, mixed-methods design. First, a grounded theory qualitative study was undertaken to identify key program elements. Next, each program (n = 22) was coded according to the presence or absence of the identified key program ingredients. Then, random-effects, meta-regression modelling was used to examine the association between program outcomes and the key ingredients. The qualitative analysis led to a 6-ingredient model of key program elements. Results of the quantitative analysis showed that programs that included all 6 of these ingredients performed significantly better than those that did not. Individual analyses of each of the 6 ingredients showed that including multiple forms of social contact and emphasizing recovery were characteristics of the most effective programs. The results provide a validation of a 6-ingredient model of key program elements for anti-stigma programming for health care providers. Emphasizing recovery and including multiple types of social contact are of particular importance for maximizing the effectiveness of anti-stigma programs for health care providers.

  15. Preceptor skills and characteristics: considerations for preceptor education.

    PubMed

    Shinners, Jean S; Franqueiro, Tammy

    2015-05-01

    The onboarding and retention of new graduate RNs continues to be a critical focus for both nursing as a profession and for health care organizations. A comprehensive residency program, with preceptor engagement playing a key role, is essential to the success of these new nurses in transition. With a focus on preceptor education, this article provides an analysis of the preceptor experience from the perspective of new graduate RNs and how their feedback provided the foundation for preceptor education. The article outlines opinions and recommendations for preceptor development, provided by a convenience sample of new graduate nurses from a multisite, postresidency evaluation survey. The purpose of the analysis was two-fold: (a) to identify preceptor skills and characteristics for presentation at the 2nd annual American Academy for Preceptor Advancement conference and (b) to ensure that the identified skills and characteristics provide the foundation for preceptor education in a national residency program. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  17. Towards an Analysis of Review Article in Applied Linguistics: Its Classes, Purposes and Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Ali Sorayyaei; Hashim, Azirah

    2014-01-01

    The classes, purposes and characteristics associated with the review article in the field of applied linguistics were analyzed. The data were collected from a randomly selected corpus of thirty two review articles from a discipline-related key journal in applied linguistics. The findings revealed that different sub-genres can be identified within…

  18. Identification of the key odorants in Tahitian cured vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) by GC-MS and an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The key odorants of Tahitian vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) were characterized by a sensory evaluation, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantification, and aroma reconstitution. Vanillin and anisaldehyde were identified in the same highest flavor dilution (FD) factor as the most characteristic odor-active compounds in Tahitian vanilla beans, followed by anisyl alcohol and anisyl acetate. Vanillin and anisyl alcohol were by far the most abundant odorants present with the highest concentration in the beans, followed by acetic acid, anisaldehyde, and anisyl acetate. A sensory evaluation of Tahitian vanilla beans and its reconstitute aroma concentrate characterized both samples as similar. These results indicated vanillin, anisaldehyde, anisyl alcohol, and anisyl acetate to be the key odorants in Tahitian vanilla beans. 3-Methylnonane-2,4-dione were identified for the first time in vanilla beans. β-Damascenone and phenylacetic acid were identified for the first time in Tahitian vanilla beans.

  19. Incremental Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Further Characterizing Hypodense Mediastinal and Paracardiac Lesions Identified on Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Gange, Chris; Sahin, Hakan; Chaturvedi, Apeksha

    2018-01-01

    Mediastinal and paracardiac lesions are usually first diagnosed on a chest radiograph or echocardiogram. Often, a computed tomography is obtained to further delineate these lesions. CT may be suboptimal for evaluation of enhancement characteristics and direct extension into the adjacent mediastinal structures. With its intrinsic superior soft-tissue characterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can better delineate these lesions, their internal tissue characteristics, and identify adhesion/invasion into adjacent structures. This pictorial essay provides a brief synopsis of the key MRI sequences and their utility in further characterizing mediastinal and paracardiac lesions. PMID:29619281

  20. Identifying molecular markers associated with stigma characteristics in rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stigma characteristics play essential roles in hybrid seed production of rice and marker-assisted breeding plays essential role because they are quantitatively inherited with single-flowered perfect spikelet. Ninety four accessions originated from 47 countries were selected from the USDA rice core c...

  1. On the security of a simple three-party key exchange protocol without server's public keys.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, Minkyu; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients' passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  2. On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server's Public Keys

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, Minkyu; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients' passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol. PMID:25258723

  3. Socioemotional characteristics of elementary school children identified as exhibiting social leadership qualities.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2009-03-01

    Elementary school teachers identified characteristics in 4 major socioemotional domains associated with children's social leadership: self-perception, social anxiety, attachment orientation with peers, and interpersonal goals and skills in close friendships. Participants were 260 4th- and 5th-grade students (126 boys, 134 girls) from 10 classes in a school in northern Israel. Social leadership skills were associated with positive self-perceptions in various domains, low social anxiety, secure orientation to peers, higher levels of relationship-maintenance goal, lower levels of revenge goal in close friendships, and-unexpectedly-lower levels of accommodation as a strategy to solve conflicts with a friend. Positive self-concept and attachment security were indirectly associated with leadership qualities through their significant association with prosocial orientation skills. The authors discuss these findings as reflecting an internalization of positive model of self and positive model of others in children who exhibit social leadership qualities. The authors also discuss implications of these qualities for school and class ecology, as well as the importance of culture.

  4. Identifying protein complex by integrating characteristic of core-attachment into dynamic PPI network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianjun; Yi, Li; Jiang, Xingpeng; He, Tingting; Yang, Jincai; Xie, Wei; Hu, Po; Hu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    How to identify protein complex is an important and challenging task in proteomics. It would make great contribution to our knowledge of molecular mechanism in cell life activities. However, the inherent organization and dynamic characteristic of cell system have rarely been incorporated into the existing algorithms for detecting protein complexes because of the limitation of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data produced by high throughput techniques. The availability of time course gene expression profile enables us to uncover the dynamics of molecular networks and improve the detection of protein complexes. In order to achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel algorithm DCA (Dynamic Core-Attachment). It detects protein-complex core comprising of continually expressed and highly connected proteins in dynamic PPI network, and then the protein complex is formed by including the attachments with high adhesion into the core. The integration of core-attachment feature into the dynamic PPI network is responsible for the superiority of our algorithm. DCA has been applied on two different yeast dynamic PPI networks and the experimental results show that it performs significantly better than the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of prediction accuracy, hF-measure and statistical significance in biology. In addition, the identified complexes with strong biological significance provide potential candidate complexes for biologists to validate.

  5. Hospital-based transfusion error tracking from 2005 to 2010: identifying the key errors threatening patient transfusion safety.

    PubMed

    Maskens, Carolyn; Downie, Helen; Wendt, Alison; Lima, Ana; Merkley, Lisa; Lin, Yulia; Callum, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of transfusion errors occurring at a large teaching hospital and aims to determine key errors that are threatening transfusion safety, despite implementation of safety measures. Errors were prospectively identified from 2005 to 2010. Error data were coded on a secure online database called the Transfusion Error Surveillance System. Errors were defined as any deviation from established standard operating procedures. Errors were identified by clinical and laboratory staff. Denominator data for volume of activity were used to calculate rates. A total of 15,134 errors were reported with a median number of 215 errors per month (range, 85-334). Overall, 9083 (60%) errors occurred on the transfusion service and 6051 (40%) on the clinical services. In total, 23 errors resulted in patient harm: 21 of these errors occurred on the clinical services and two in the transfusion service. Of the 23 harm events, 21 involved inappropriate use of blood. Errors with no harm were 657 times more common than events that caused harm. The most common high-severity clinical errors were sample labeling (37.5%) and inappropriate ordering of blood (28.8%). The most common high-severity error in the transfusion service was sample accepted despite not meeting acceptance criteria (18.3%). The cost of product and component loss due to errors was $593,337. Errors occurred at every point in the transfusion process, with the greatest potential risk of patient harm resulting from inappropriate ordering of blood products and errors in sample labeling. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks (CME).

  6. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    PubMed

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p < 0.001), via the person's perceived stress. Confusion, however, did not fit the preferred model. This study confirms that stress is a necessary link in the pathway between certain identified, established and significant psychological factors and key fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia.

  7. A multi-resolution analysis of lidar-DTMs to identify geomorphic processes from characteristic topographic length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Characteristic length scales are often present in topography, and they reflect the driving geomorphic processes. The wide availability of high resolution lidar Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) allows us to measure such characteristic scales, but new methods of topographic analysis are needed in order to do so. Here, we explore how transitions in probability distributions (pdfs) of topographic variables such as (log(area/slope)), defined as topoindex by Beven and Kirkby[1979], can be measured by Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) of lidar DTMs [Stark and Stark, 2001; Sangireddy et al.,2012] and used to infer dominant geomorphic processes such as non-linear diffusion and critical shear. We show this correlation between dominant geomorphic processes to characteristic length scales by comparing results from a landscape evolution model to natural landscapes. The landscape evolution model MARSSIM Howard[1994] includes components for modeling rock weathering, mass wasting by non-linear creep, detachment-limited channel erosion, and bedload sediment transport. We use MARSSIM to simulate steady state landscapes for a range of hillslope diffusivity and critical shear stresses. Using the MRA approach, we estimate modal values and inter-quartile ranges of slope, curvature, and topoindex as a function of resolution. We also construct pdfs at each resolution and identify and extract characteristic scale breaks. Following the approach of Tucker et al.,[2001], we measure the average length to channel from ridges, within the GeoNet framework developed by Passalacqua et al.,[2010] and compute pdfs for hillslope lengths at each scale defined in the MRA. We compare the hillslope diffusivity used in MARSSIM against inter-quartile ranges of topoindex and hillslope length scales, and observe power law relationships between the compared variables for simulated landscapes at steady state. We plot similar measures for natural landscapes and are able to qualitatively infer the dominant geomorphic

  8. Eight Key Facets of Small Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    1980-01-01

    Identifies eight key facets of small business management and suggests activities that may be used to assist in their development. The key facets are (1) product or service, (2) competition, (3) marketing strategies, (4) personnel needs, (5) equipment and facility needs, (6) finances, (7) planning, and (8) entrepreneurship. (JOW)

  9. Identification and characteristics of victims of violence identified by emergency physicians, triage nurses, and the police

    PubMed Central

    Howe, A; Crilly, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were threefold—to evaluate the identification and characteristics of victims of assault who attend an accident and emergency (A&E) department; to compare the total number of assaults recorded in the A&E department with the number recorded by the police; and to assess a system for collecting the location and method of assault. Setting: The A&E department of Chorley and South Ribble Hospital Trust, Lancashire, England. Methods: A three month prospective study was performed. Victims of violence recorded on computer by doctors at discharge were compared with those identified at initial nurse triage. A comparison of police data with the A&E data relating to Chorley residents was performed. Additional information on the method and location of assault was also collected. Results: During the period 305 (2.6%) of the patients attending A&E were identified as having been assaulted. Of the 305 individuals, 236 (77%) were identified by a doctor while 173 (57%) such patients were identified by a triage nurse. A&E identified twice the number of assaults involving Chorley residents as the police. Both men and women were most likely to have been injured on the street (44% and 37% respectively), although a greater proportion of women were injured at home (24%) than men (10%). The majority of injuries were sustained by blows from fists, feet, and heads (73%). Conclusions: A&E doctors identify significantly more patients as the victims of violence than do nurses at triage. Using A&E data identifies assaulted individuals not identified by the police. Computer systems can be used in A&E to provide a more complete picture of the occurrence of violence in the community. PMID:12460971

  10. Quantum key distribution without the wavefunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestegge, Gerd

    A well-known feature of quantum mechanics is the secure exchange of secret bit strings which can then be used as keys to encrypt messages transmitted over any classical communication channel. It is demonstrated that this quantum key distribution allows a much more general and abstract access than commonly thought. The results include some generalizations of the Hilbert space version of quantum key distribution, but are based upon a general nonclassical extension of conditional probability. A special state-independent conditional probability is identified as origin of the superior security of quantum key distribution; this is a purely algebraic property of the quantum logic and represents the transition probability between the outcomes of two consecutive quantum measurements.

  11. Use of a scenario-neutral approach to identify the key hydro-meteorological attributes that impact runoff from a natural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Danlu; Westra, Seth; Maier, Holger R.

    2017-11-01

    Scenario-neutral approaches are being used increasingly for assessing the potential impact of climate change on water resource systems, as these approaches allow the performance of these systems to be evaluated independently of climate change projections. However, practical implementations of these approaches are still scarce, with a key limitation being the difficulty of generating a range of plausible future time series of hydro-meteorological data. In this study we apply a recently developed inverse stochastic generation approach to support the scenario-neutral analysis, and thus identify the key hydro-meteorological variables to which the system is most sensitive. The stochastic generator simulates synthetic hydro-meteorological time series that represent plausible future changes in (1) the average, extremes and seasonal patterns of rainfall; and (2) the average values of temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH) and wind speed (uz) as variables that drive PET. These hydro-meteorological time series are then fed through a conceptual rainfall-runoff model to simulate the potential changes in runoff as a function of changes in the hydro-meteorological variables, and runoff sensitivity is assessed with both correlation and Sobol' sensitivity analyses. The method was applied to a case study catchment in South Australia, and the results showed that the most important hydro-meteorological attributes for runoff were winter rainfall followed by the annual average rainfall, while the PET-related meteorological variables had comparatively little impact. The high importance of winter rainfall can be related to the winter-dominated nature of both the rainfall and runoff regimes in this catchment. The approach illustrated in this study can greatly enhance our understanding of the key hydro-meteorological attributes and processes that are likely to drive catchment runoff under a changing climate, thus enabling the design of tailored climate impact assessments to specific

  12. Hillslope characterization: Identifying key controls on local-scale plant communities' distribution using remote sensing and subsurface data fusion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Steltzer, H.; Wilmer, C.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous watershed systems are characterized by extreme heterogeneity in hydrological and pedological properties that influence biotic activities, plant communities and their dynamics. To gain predictive understanding of how ecosystem and watershed system evolve under climate change, it is critical to capture such heterogeneity and to quantify the effect of key environmental variables such as topography, and soil properties. In this study, we exploit advanced geophysical and remote sensing techniques - coupled with machine learning - to better characterize and quantify the interactions between plant communities' distribution and subsurface properties. First, we have developed a remote sensing data fusion framework based on the random forest (RF) classification algorithm to estimate the spatial distribution of plant communities. The framework allows the integration of both plant spectral and structural information, which are derived from multispectral satellite images and airborne LiDAR data. We then use the RF method to evaluate the estimated plant community map, exploiting the subsurface properties (such as bedrock depth, soil moisture and other properties) and geomorphological parameters (such as slope, curvature) as predictors. Datasets include high-resolution geophysical data (electrical resistivity tomography) and LiDAR digital elevation maps. We demonstrate our approach on a mountain hillslope and meadow within the East River watershed in Colorado, which is considered to be a representative headwater catchment in the Upper Colorado Basin. The obtained results show the existence of co-evolution between above and below-ground processes; in particular, dominant shrub communities in wet and flat areas. We show that successful integration of remote sensing data with geophysical measurements allows identifying and quantifying the key environmental controls on plant communities' distribution, and provides insights into their potential changes in the future

  13. Identifying individual- and population-level characteristics that influence rates of risky alcohol consumption in regional communities.

    PubMed

    Breen, Courtney; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D'Este, Catherine; Mattick, Richard P; Gilmour, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    To examine the extent to which individual- and community- level characteristics account for differences in risky alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2,977 randomly selected individuals from 20 regional communities in NSW, Australia. Individuals drinking at harmful levels on the AUDIT and for risk of harm in the short term and long-term were identified. Multi-level modelling of the correlates of risky alcohol consumption at the individual and community level was conducted. There were differences between communities in alcohol consumption patterns. Being male, unmarried and reporting worse health were significant individual-level correlates for drinking at levels for risk of harm in the long term. The number of GPs (+) and police (-) were significant community characteristics. Being younger (≤25), unmarried, Australian born and with a larger income was associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term and harmful drinking on the AUDIT. The number of hotels and clubs was positively associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term. Rates of risky drinking vary significantly between communities and both individual and community characteristics are significantly associated with risky alcohol consumption. A combination of individual- and population-level interventions, tailored to the risk profile of individual communities, is most likely to be optimally effective. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Genome-wide expression profiling analysis to identify key genes in the anti-HIV mechanism of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lijie; Wang, Yunqi; Li, Yi; Dong, Ya; Yang, Aimin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhang, Rongqiang

    2018-07-01

    Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were performed to explore the key biomarkers in response to HIV infection of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. The numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of HIV infected individuals were analyzed and the GEO database (GSE6740) was screened for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Gene Ontology enrichment, KEGG pathway analyses, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to identify the key pathway and core proteins in anti-HIV virus process of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Finally, we analyzed the expressions of key proteins in HIV-infected T cells (GSE6740 dataset) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) (GSE511 dataset). 1) CD4 + T cells counts and ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells decreased while CD8 + T cells counts increased in HIV positive individuals; 2) 517 DEGs were found in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at acute and chronic stage with the criterial of P-value <0.05 and fold change (FC) ≥2; 3) In acute HIV infection, type 1 interferon (IFN-1) pathway might played a critical role in response to HIV infection of T cells. The main biological processes of the DEGs were response to virus and defense response to virus. At chronic stage, ISG15 protein, in conjunction with IFN-1 pathway might play key roles in anti-HIV responses of CD4 + T cells; and 4) The expression of ISG15 increased in both T cells and PBMCs after HIV infection. Gene expression profile of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells changed significantly in HIV infection, in which ISG15 gene may play a central role in activating the natural antiviral process of immune cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Making processes reliable: a validated pubmed search strategy for identifying new or emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Varela-Lema, Leonora; Punal-Riobóo, Jeanette; Acción, Beatriz Casal; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García, Marisa López

    2012-10-01

    Horizon scanning systems need to handle a wide range of sources to identify new or emerging health technologies. The objective of this study is to develop a validated Medline bibliographic search strategy (PubMed search engine) to systematically identify new or emerging health technologies. The proposed Medline search strategy combines free text terms commonly used in article titles to denote innovation within index terms that make reference to the specific fields of interest. Efficacy was assessed by running the search over a period of 1 year (2009) and analyzing its retrieval performance (number and characteristics). For comparison purposes, all article abstracts published during 2009 in six preselected key research journals and eight high impact surgery journals were scanned. Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of relevant new or emerging technologies published in key journals that would be identified in the search strategy within the first 2 years of publication. The search yielded 6,228 abstracts of potentially new or emerging technologies. Of these, 459 were classified as new or emerging (383 truly new or emerging and 76 new indications). The scanning of 12,061 journal abstracts identified 35 relevant new or emerging technologies. Of these, twenty-nine were located within the Medline search strategy during the first 2 years of publication (sensitivity = 83 percent). The current search strategy, validated against key journals, has demonstrated to be effective for horizon scanning. Even though it can require adaptations depending on the scope of the horizon scanning system, it could serve to simplify and standardize scanning processes.

  16. Characteristics and Prognosis of Pacemaker-Identified New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Japanese People.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Ishigami, Tomoaki; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Hosoda, Junya; Iguchi, Kouhei; Matsushita, Hirooki; Taguchi, Yuka; Horiguchi, Yoriko; Kimura, Kazuo

    2017-05-25

    The characteristics and prognosis of implanted pacemaker-identified new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in Japanese people has not been well evaluated.Methods and Results:A total of 395 consecutive patients with newly implanted pacemakers were retrospectively analyzed between January 2010 and December 2015 at Yokohama City University Hospital. Patients with a prior history of AF, VVI mode pacemaker, congenital heart disease, severe valvular heart disease, and cardiovascular surgery before pacemaker implantation were excluded. Among the remaining patients, 44 (21.3%) developed new AF during follow-up (mean follow-up, 1,115±651 days; range, 9-2,176 days). Patients with new-onset AF had a significantly higher CHADS 2 score (2.09±1.27 vs. 1.31±1.08, P<0.001) and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score (3.00±1.39 vs. 2.26±1.19, P<0.001) compared with those without new-onset AF. On Cox regression analysis only age at implantation was significantly correlated with new-onset AF. Interestingly, the incidence of hospitalization due to heart failure was significantly higher in the new-onset AF than in the without new-onset AF group. A total of 21.3% of pacemaker-implanted patients with high CHADS 2 and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc scores developed new-onset AF during a mean follow-up of 3.1 years; and pacemaker-identified AF was associated with an increased risk of worsening heart failure.

  17. A Pilot Study Using a Web Survey to Identify Characteristics That Influence Hypogonadal Men to Initiate Testosterone Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Seftel, Allen D; Ruff, Dustin D; Muram, David

    2018-05-01

    Men with hypogonadism (HG) who choose testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may have distinct characteristics that provide insight as to why they may/may not initiate therapy. The aim of the current study was to identify trends in patient characteristics and attitudes in men diagnosed with HG who initiated TRT (TRT+) compared with men who were diagnosed with HG but did not initiate TRT (TRT-). The market research-based online survey conducted between 2012 and 2013 included patients from a Federated Sample, a commercially available panel of patients with diverse medical conditions. The current analysis was composed of two groups: TRT+ ( n = 155) and TRT- ( n = 157). Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and attitudes toward HG and TRT were examined as potential predictors of primary adherence in men with HG; cohorts were compared by using Fisher's exact test. Significant associations among sexual orientation, relationship status, educational level, presence of comorbid erectile dysfunction, area of residence, and TRT initiation were present ( p ≤ .05). College-educated, heterosexual, married men with comorbid erectile dysfunction living in suburban and urban areas were more likely to initiate treatment. The most bothersome symptoms reported were lack of energy (90% vs. 81%, p = .075), decreased strength and endurance (86% vs. 76%, p = .077), and deterioration in work performance (52% vs. 31%, p = .004); lack of energy prompted men to seek help. Patients (48%) in the TRT+ group were more knowledgeable regarding HG as compared with TRT- respondents (14%, p < .001), and most men obtained their information from a health care professional (89% vs. 82%, p = .074). The current analysis identified distinct demographic and clinical characteristics and attitudes among TRT users compared with men who were diagnosed with HG yet remained untreated.

  18. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    is not a simple task. Furthermore, because the US system of soil taxonomy is not applied universally, its utility as a means for effectively describing soil characteristics to readers in other countries is limited. Finally, and most importantly, even at the finest level of soil classification there are often large within-taxa variations in critical properties that can determine ecosystem responses to drivers such as climate and land-use change.

  19. Identifying small depressional wetlands and using a topographic position index to infer hydroperiod regimes for pond-breeding amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Jeffrey W.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Barichivich, William J.; Walls, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Small, seasonal pools and temporary ponds (<4.0 ha) are the most numerous and biologically diverse wetlands in many natural landscapes. Thus, accurate determination of their numbers and spatial characteristics is beneficial for conservation and management of biodiversity associated with these freshwater systems. We examined the utility of a topographic position index (TPI) landscape classification to identify and classify depressional wetlands. We also assessed relationships between topographic characteristics and ponded duration of known wetlands to allow hydrological characteristics to be extended to non-monitored locations in similar landscapes. Our results indicate that this approach was successful at identifying wetlands, but did have higher errors of commission (10%) than omission (5%). Additionally, the TPI procedure provided a reasonable means to correlate general ponded duration characteristics (long/short) with wetland topography. Although results varied by hydrologic class, permanent/long ponded duration wetlands were more often classified correctly (80%) than were short ponded duration wetlands (67%). However, classification results were improved to 100 and 75% for permanent/long and short ponded duration wetlands, respectively, by removing wetlands occurring on an abrupt marine terrace that erroneously inflated pond topographic characteristics. Our study presents an approach for evaluating wetland suitability for species or guilds that are associated with key habitat characteristics, such as hydroperiod.

  20. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  1. Key volatile compounds in red koji-shochu, a Monascus-fermented product, and their formation steps during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Yen Yen Sally; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Keiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Futagami, Taiki; Tamaki, Hisanori; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Takamine, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    Red koji, which refers the solid culture grown koji mold on the steamed rice, is one of the ingredients of Asian fermented foods including the Japanese spirit shochu. This study was aimed at elucidating the characteristic flavor and key volatile compounds of red koji-shochu as well as the mechanism of their formation. Sensory evaluation showed that red koji-shochu has the distinctive flavors cheese, sour, milky, and oily. Fifteen key volatile compounds of red koji-shochu were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, and by comparison between red koji-shochu and white koji-shochu, as another typical shochu. The mash analysis revealed that ketone compounds and short-chain acids derive from red koji. Furthermore, although other key compounds were produced by yeast, it is highly likely that their concentrations were affected directly or indirectly by the high activities of protease and lipase in red koji. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global Sensitivity Analysis of OnGuard Models Identifies Key Hubs for Transport Interaction in Stomatal Dynamics1[CC-BY

    PubMed Central

    Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere; Griffiths, Howard

    2017-01-01

    The physical requirement for charge to balance across biological membranes means that the transmembrane transport of each ionic species is interrelated, and manipulating solute flux through any one transporter will affect other transporters at the same membrane, often with unforeseen consequences. The OnGuard systems modeling platform has helped to resolve the mechanics of stomatal movements, uncovering previously unexpected behaviors of stomata. To date, however, the manual approach to exploring model parameter space has captured little formal information about the emergent connections between parameters that define the most interesting properties of the system as a whole. Here, we introduce global sensitivity analysis to identify interacting parameters affecting a number of outputs commonly accessed in experiments in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The analysis highlights synergies between transporters affecting the balance between Ca2+ sequestration and Ca2+ release pathways, notably those associated with internal Ca2+ stores and their turnover. Other, unexpected synergies appear, including with the plasma membrane anion channels and H+-ATPase and with the tonoplast TPK K+ channel. These emergent synergies, and the core hubs of interaction that they define, identify subsets of transporters associated with free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration that represent key targets to enhance plant performance in the future. They also highlight the importance of interactions between the voltage regulation of the plasma membrane and tonoplast in coordinating transport between the different cellular compartments. PMID:28432256

  3. Patient Characteristics Predicting Readmission Among Individuals Hospitalized for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Melissa; Murtaugh, Christopher M.; Shah, Shivani; Barrón-Vaya, Yolanda; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Peng, Timothy R.; Zhu, Carolyn W.; Feldman, Penny H.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is difficult to manage and increasingly common with many individuals experiencing frequent hospitalizations. Little is known about patient factors consistently associated with hospital readmission. A literature review was conducted to identify heart failure patient characteristics, measured before discharge, that contribute to variation in hospital readmission rates. Database searches yielded 950 potential articles, of which 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Patient characteristics generally have a very modest effect on all-cause or heart failure–related readmission within 7 to 180 days of index hospital discharge. A range of cardiac diseases and other comorbidities only minimally increase readmission rates. No single patient characteristic stands out as a key contributor across multiple studies underscoring the challenge of developing successful interventions to reduce readmissions. Interventions may need to be general in design with the specific intervention depending on each patient's unique clinical profile. PMID:26180045

  4. Habitat characteristics provide insights of carbon storage in seagrass meadows.

    PubMed

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S; Lovelock, Catherine E; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M; Cortés, Jorge

    2018-02-16

    Seagrass meadows provide multiple ecosystem services, yet they are among the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Because of their role as carbon sinks, protection and restoration of seagrass meadows contribute to climate change mitigation. Blue Carbon strategies aim to enhance CO 2 sequestration and avoid greenhouse gasses emissions through the management of coastal vegetated ecosystems, including seagrass meadows. The implementation of Blue Carbon strategies requires a good understanding of the habitat characteristics that influence C org sequestration. Here, we review the existing knowledge on Blue Carbon research in seagrass meadows to identify the key habitat characteristics that influence C org sequestration in seagrass meadows, those factors that threaten this function and those with unclear effects. We demonstrate that not all seagrass habitats have the same potential, identify research priorities and describe the implications of the results found for the implementation and development of efficient Blue Carbon strategies based on seagrass meadows. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace: Identifying Internet e-cigarette marketing characteristics and regulatory gaps.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Miner, Angela; Cuomo, Raphael E

    2015-11-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market is maturing into a billion-dollar industry. Expansion includes new channels of access not sufficiently assessed, including Internet sales of e-cigarettes. This study identifies unique e-cigarette Internet vendor characteristics, including geographic location, promotional strategies, use of social networking, presence/absence of age verification, and consumer warning representation. We performed structured Internet search engine queries and used inclusion/exclusion criteria to identify e-cigarette vendors. We then conducted content analysis of characteristics of interest. Our examination yielded 57 e-cigarette Internet vendors including 54.4% (n=31) that sold exclusively online. The vast majority of websites (96.5%, n=55) were located in the U.S. Vendors used a variety of sales promotion strategies to market e-cigarettes including 70.2% (n=40) that used more than one social network service (SNS) and 42.1% (n=24) that used more than one promotional sales strategies. Most vendors (68.4%, n=39) displayed one or more health warnings on their website, but often displayed them in smaller font or in their terms and conditions. Additionally, 35.1% (n=20) of vendors did not have any detectable age verification process. E-cigarette Internet vendors are actively engaged in various promotional activities to increase the appeal and presence of their products online. In the absence of FDA regulations specific to the Internet, the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace is likely to grow. This digital environment poses unique challenges requiring targeted policy-making including robust online age verification, monitoring of SNS marketing, and greater scrutiny of certain forms of marketing promotional practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying epibenthic habitats on the Seco de los Olivos Seamount: Species assemblages and environmental characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Torriente, A.; Serrano, A.; Fernández-Salas, L. M.; García, M.; Aguilar, R.

    2018-05-01

    High habitat diversity was observed on the Seco de los Olivos Seamount (SW Mediterranean Sea), a Site of Community Importance belonging to the Spanish marine Natura 2000 Network. Thirteen epibenthic habitats were identified by analysing 55 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) transects from 76 m to 700 m depth and derived data from multibeam bathymetry and high resolution seismic profiles. Habitat identification was based on a combination of assemblages of habitat-forming species and the environmental characteristics supporting their distribution. Depth and slope were identified as the main significant factors structuring epibenthic assemblages. The high diversity and patchiness of habitats found on the Seco de los Olivos Seamount can be explained by the high environmental variability resulting from its wide geomorphologic diversity, where flat summits, steep flanks, rocky outcrops and sedimentary moats are combined. The distribution of benthic habitats at this seamount is likely a combination of suitable ecological conditions, local recruitment, feeding strategies and attachment mechanisms. Knowledge on the occurrence of habitats in areas of natural importance is crucial to species and habitats conservation and to develop proper monitoring and management programs aimed at fulfilling European regulation requirements.

  7. A Linnaeus NG (TM) interactive key to the Lithocolletinae of North-West Europe aimed at accelerating the accumulation of reliable biodiversity data (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Haren, Merel M; Schermer, Maarten; Pieterse, Sander; van Nieukerken, Erik J

    2014-01-01

    We present an interactive key that is available online through any web browser without the need to install any additional software, making it an easily accessible tool for the larger public. The key can be found at http://identify.naturalis.nl/lithocolletinae. The key includes all 86 North-West European Lithocolletinae, a subfamily of smaller moths ("micro-moths") that is commonly not treated in field guides. The user can input data on several external morphological character systems in addition to distribution, host plant and even characteristics of the larval feeding traces to reach an identification. We expect that this will enable more people to contribute with reliable observation data on this group of moths and alleviate the workload of taxonomic specialists, allowing them to focus on other new keys or taxonomic work.

  8. Characteristic face: a key indicator for direct diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions in Chinese velocardiofacial syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dandan; Chen, Yang; Xu, Chen; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zheng, Fengyun; Ma, Duan; Wang, Guomin

    2013-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a disease in human with an expansive phenotypic spectrum and diverse genetic mechanisms mainly associated with copy number variations (CNVs) on 22q11.2 or other chromosomes. However, the correlations between CNVs and phenotypes remain ambiguous. This study aims to analyze the types and sizes of CNVs in VCFS patients, to define whether correlations exist between CNVs and clinical manifestations in Chinese VCFS patients. In total, 55 clinically suspected Chinese VCFS patients and 100 normal controls were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The data from MLPA and all the detailed clinical features of the objects were documented and analyzed. A total of 44 patients (80.0%) were diagnosed with CNVs on 22q11.2. Among them, 43 (78.2%) presented with 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, of whom 40 (93.0%) had typical 3-Mb deletion, and 3 (7.0%) exhibited proximal 1.5-Mb deletion; no patient was found with atypical deletion on 22q11.2. One patient (1.8%) presented with a 3-Mb duplication mapping to the typical 3-Mb region on 22q11.2, while none of the chromosomal abnormalities in the MLPA kit were found in the other 11 patients and 100 normal controls. All the 43 patients with 22q11.2 deletions displayed characteristic face and palatal anomalies; 37 of them (86.0%) had cognitive or behavioral disorders, and 23 (53.5%) suffered from immune deficiencies; 10 patients (23.3%) manifested congenital heart diseases. Interestingly, all patients with the characteristic face had 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, but no difference in phenotypic spectrum was observed between 3-Mb and 1.5-Mb deletions. Our data suggest that the characteristic face can be used as a key indicator for direct diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions in Chinese VCFS patients.

  9. LitMiner and WikiGene: identifying problem-related key players of gene regulation using publication abstracts.

    PubMed

    Maier, Holger; Döhr, Stefanie; Grote, Korbinian; O'Keeffe, Sean; Werner, Thomas; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Schneider, Ralf

    2005-07-01

    The LitMiner software is a literature data-mining tool that facilitates the identification of major gene regulation key players related to a user-defined field of interest in PubMed abstracts. The prediction of gene-regulatory relationships is based on co-occurrence analysis of key terms within the abstracts. LitMiner predicts relationships between key terms from the biomedical domain in four categories (genes, chemical compounds, diseases and tissues). Owing to the limitations (no direction, unverified automatic prediction) of the co-occurrence approach, the primary data in the LitMiner database represent postulated basic gene-gene relationships. The usefulness of the LitMiner system has been demonstrated recently in a study that reconstructed disease-related regulatory networks by promoter modelling that was initiated by a LitMiner generated primary gene list. To overcome the limitations and to verify and improve the data, we developed WikiGene, a Wiki-based curation tool that allows revision of the data by expert users over the Internet. LitMiner (http://andromeda.gsf.de/litminer) and WikiGene (http://andromeda.gsf.de/wiki) can be used unrestricted with any Internet browser.

  10. Auditing and Mapping Key Skills within University Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Scott, Eileen M.; Cochrane, A. Clive; Lee, Maria; Ryles, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Universities are encouraged to embed key skills in their undergraduate curricula, yet there is often little support on how to identify skills development and progression. This paper describes a tool that facilitates colleagues in auditing key skills and career/employability skills within individual modules and mapping these skills across degree…

  11. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  12. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  13. [Key informers. When and How?].

    PubMed

    Martín González, R

    2009-03-01

    When information obtained through duly designed and developed studies is not available, the solution to certain problems that affect the population or that respond to certain questions may be approached by using the information and experience provided by the so-called key informer. The key informer is defined as a person who is in contact with the community or with the problem to be studied, who is considered to have good knowledge of the situation and therefore who is considered an expert. The search for consensus is the basis to obtain information through the key informers. The techniques used have different characteristics based on whether the experts chosen meet together or not, whether they are guided or not, whether they interact with each other or not. These techniques include the survey, the Delphi technique, the nominal group technique, brainwriting, brainstorming, the Phillips 66 technique, the 6-3-5 technique, the community forum and the community impressions technique. Information provided by key informers through the search for consensus is relevant when this is not available or cannot be obtained by other methods. It has permitted the analysis of the existing neurological care model, elaboration of recommendations on visit times for the out-patient neurological care, and the elaboration of guidelines and recommendations for the management of prevalent neurological problems.

  14. Key Skills and Competencies. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on key skills and competencies and human resource development (HRD). "Career Related Competencies" (Marinka A.C.T. Kuijpers) reports findings from surveys completed by Dutch employees who identified these issues: self-reflection is more important than career control; age and gender influence attitude…

  15. Identifying Program Characteristics for Preparing Pre-Service Teachers for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Educating pre-service teachers to develop multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills for teaching diverse students is a major responsibility of teacher education program coordinators and teacher educators. Numerous studies have discussed and explored the characteristics of teacher preparation that improve pre-service…

  16. Optimizing Requirements Decisions with KEYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalali, Omid; Menzies, Tim; Feather, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Recent work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has allowed for external access to five of JPL's real-world requirements models, anonymized to conceal proprietary information, but retaining their computational nature. Experimentation with these models, reported herein, demonstrates a dramatic speedup in the computations performed on them. These models have a well defined goal: select mitigations that retire risks which, in turn, increases the number of attainable requirements. Such a non-linear optimization is a well-studied problem. However identification of not only (a) the optimal solution(s) but also (b) the key factors leading to them is less well studied. Our technique, called KEYS, shows a rapid way of simultaneously identifying the solutions and their key factors. KEYS improves on prior work by several orders of magnitude. Prior experiments with simulated annealing or treatment learning took tens of minutes to hours to terminate. KEYS runs much faster than that; e.g for one model, KEYS ran 13,000 times faster than treatment learning (40 minutes versus 0.18 seconds). Processing these JPL models is a non-linear optimization problem: the fewest mitigations must be selected while achieving the most requirements. Non-linear optimization is a well studied problem. With this paper, we challenge other members of the PROMISE community to improve on our results with other techniques.

  17. Institutional Research: The Key to Successful Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Enrollment management includes the processes and activities that influence the size, shape, and characteristics of a student body by directing institutional efforts in marketing, recruitment, admissions, pricing, and financial aid. Institutional research plays an essential, if not the key, role in enrollment management. This report discusses the…

  18. Patient Characteristics Predicting Readmission Among Individuals Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Melissa; Murtaugh, Christopher M; Shah, Shivani; Barrón-Vaya, Yolanda; Bowles, Kathryn H; Peng, Timothy R; Zhu, Carolyn W; Feldman, Penny H

    2016-02-01

    Heart failure is difficult to manage and increasingly common with many individuals experiencing frequent hospitalizations. Little is known about patient factors consistently associated with hospital readmission. A literature review was conducted to identify heart failure patient characteristics, measured before discharge, that contribute to variation in hospital readmission rates. Database searches yielded 950 potential articles, of which 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Patient characteristics generally have a very modest effect on all-cause or heart failure-related readmission within 7 to 180 days of index hospital discharge. A range of cardiac diseases and other comorbidities only minimally increase readmission rates. No single patient characteristic stands out as a key contributor across multiple studies underscoring the challenge of developing successful interventions to reduce readmissions. Interventions may need to be general in design with the specific intervention depending on each patient's unique clinical profile. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Plant distribution and stand characteristics in brackish marshes: Unravelling the roles of abiotic factors and interspecific competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carus, Jana; Heuner, Maike; Paul, Maike; Schröder, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Due to increasing pressure on estuarine marshes from sea level rise and river training, there is a growing need to understand how species-environment relationships influence the zonation and growth of tidal marsh vegetation. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and stand characteristics of the two key brackish marsh species Bolboschoenus maritimus and Phragmites australis in the Elbe estuary together with several abiotic habitat factors. We then tested the effect of these habitat factors on plant growth and zonation with generalised linear models (GLMs). Our study provides detailed information on the importance of single habitat factors and their interactions for controlling the distribution patterns and stand characteristics of two key marsh species. Our results suggest that flow velocity is the main factor influencing species distribution and stand characteristics and together with soil-water salinity even affects the inundation tolerance of the two specie investigated here. Additionally, inundation height and duration as well as interspecific competition helped explain the distribution patterns and stand characteristics. By identifying the drivers of marsh zonation and stand characteristics and quantifying their effects, this study provides useful information for evaluating a future contribution of tidal marsh vegetation to ecosystem-based shore protection.

  20. Identification of a key structural element for protein folding within beta-hairpin turns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewon; Brych, Stephen R; Lee, Jihun; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2003-05-09

    Specific residues in a polypeptide may be key contributors to the stability and foldability of the unique native structure. Identification and prediction of such residues is, therefore, an important area of investigation in solving the protein folding problem. Atypical main-chain conformations can help identify strains within a folded protein, and by inference, positions where unique amino acids may have a naturally high frequency of occurrence due to favorable contributions to stability and folding. Non-Gly residues located near the left-handed alpha-helical region (L-alpha) of the Ramachandran plot are a potential indicator of structural strain. Although many investigators have studied mutations at such positions, no consistent energetic or kinetic contributions to stability or folding have been elucidated. Here we report a study of the effects of Gly, Ala and Asn substitutions found within the L-alpha region at a characteristic position in defined beta-hairpin turns within human acidic fibroblast growth factor, and demonstrate consistent effects upon stability and folding kinetics. The thermodynamic and kinetic data are compared to available data for similar mutations in other proteins, with excellent agreement. The results have identified that Gly at the i+3 position within a subset of beta-hairpin turns is a key contributor towards increasing the rate of folding to the native state of the polypeptide while leaving the rate of unfolding largely unchanged.

  1. Characteristics of Effective Mentorship for Academic Surgeons: A Grounded Theory Model.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Amalia; Elder, William B; Neumayer, Leigh A

    2017-08-23

    The authors sought to describe characteristics of effective mentoring relationships in academic surgery based upon lived experiences of mid-career and senior female academic surgeons. Prior qualitative work describes characteristics of successful mentoring relationships. However, no model exists of effective mentorship that is specific to academic surgery. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with mid-career and senior female US academic surgeons about the impact of mentoring on professional development during 2014 and 2015. Purposive selection aimed to maximize institutional, specialty, years in career, and racial diversity. Grounded theory method was used to generate a conceptual model of effective mentoring relationships. Data saturation occurred following 15 interviews. Interviewees described the need for multiple mentors over time with each mentor addressing a unique domain. Interviewees suggested that mentees should seek mentors who will serve as strategic advisors, who will be unselfish, and who engage with diverse mentees. This study identified a need for multiple mentors across time and disciplines, and identified 3 key characteristics of effective mentoring relationships in academic surgery. Future work in this area should generate an operational definition of mentorship that supports quantitative evaluation of mentor and mentoring panel performance.

  2. Key Gaps for Enabling Plant Growth in Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Motil, Brian; Barta, Dan; Fritsche, Ralph; Massa, Gioia; Quincy, Charlie; Romeyn, Matthew; Wheeler, Ray; Hanford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Growing plants to provide food or psychological benefits to crewmembers is a common vision for the future of human spaceflight, often represented in media and in serious concept studies. The complexity of controlled environment agriculture, and plant growth in microgravity have and continue to be the subject of dedicated scientific research. However, actually implementing these systems in a way that will be cost effective, efficient, and sustainable for future space missions is a complex, multi-disciplinary problem. Key questions exist in many areas: human medical research in nutrition and psychology, horticulture, plant physiology and microbiology, multi-phase microgravity fluid physics, hardware design and technology development, and system design, operations and mission planning. This paper describes key knowledge gaps identified by a multi-disciplinary working group within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It also begins to identify solutions to the simpler questions identified by the group based on work initiated in 2017. Growing plants to provide food or psychological benefits to crewmembers is a common vision for the future of human spaceflight, often represented in media and in serious concept studies. The complexity of controlled environment agriculture, and plant growth in microgravity have and continue to be the subject of dedicated scientific research. However, actually implementing these systems in a way that will be cost effective, efficient, and sustainable for future space missions is a complex, multi-disciplinary problem. Key questions exist in many areas: human medical research in nutrition and psychology, horticulture, plant physiology and microbiology, multi-phase microgravity fluid physics, hardware design and technology development, and system design, operations and mission planning. This paper describes key knowledge gaps identified by a multi-disciplinary working group within the National Aeronautics and Space

  3. Identifying Key Features of Student Performance in Educational Video Games and Simulations through Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment cycle of "evidence-centered design" (ECD) provides a framework for treating an educational video game or simulation as an assessment. One of the main steps in the assessment cycle of ECD is the identification of the key features of student performance. While this process is relatively simple for multiple choice tests, when…

  4. Characteristics of self-identified sexual addicts in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    Wéry, Aline; Vogelaere, Kim; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Poudat, François-Xavier; Caillon, Julie; Lever, Delphine; Billieux, Joël; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified “sexual addicts.” Methods The sample was composed of 72 patients who consulted an outpatient treatment center regarding their sexual behaviors. Data were collected through a combination of structured interviewing and self-report measures. Results Most patients were males (94.4%) aged 20–76 years (mean 40.3 ± 10.9). Endorsement of sexual addiction diagnosis varied from 56.9% to 95.8% depending on the criteria used. The sexual behaviors reported to have the highest degree of functional impairment were having multiple sexual partners (56%), having unprotected sexual intercourse (51.9%), and using cybersex (43.6%). Ninety percent of patients endorsed a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and 60.6% presented at least one paraphilia. Conclusions Results showed highly different profiles in terms of sexual preferences and behaviors, as well as comorbidities involved. These findings highlight the need to develop tailored psychotherapeutic interventions by taking into account the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder. PMID:27774812

  5. Identifying Signs of Tinea Pedis: A Key to Understanding Clinical Variables.

    PubMed

    Canavan, Theresa N; Elewski, Boni E

    2015-10-01

    Tinea pedis is a frequently encountered dermatophytosis affecting the superficial skin of the feet, primarily of adults. The prevalence of tinea pedis has increased over the last several decades due to an increase in multiple risk factors. Infection from dermatophytes is most common, but infection from other fungi can also result in tinea pedis. Four distinct clinical presentations occur: interdigital, moccasin, vesicular, and acute ulcerative types. A variety of physical exam findings can help the clinician identify patients with tinea pedis.

  6. Description of male, pupa and larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, with keys to identify four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, W; Takaoka, H; Saeung, A

    2015-09-01

    The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  7. [Application of ICP-MS to Identify the Botanic Source of Characteristic Honey in South Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yue; Chen, Fang; Wang, Yong; Chen, Lan-zhen; Zhang, Xue-wen; Wang, Yan-hui; Wu, Li-ming; Zhou, Qun

    2016-01-01

    By adopting inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with chemometric analysis technology, 23 kinds of minerals in four kinds of characteristic honey derived from Yunnan province were analyzed. The result showed that 21 kinds of mineral elements, namely Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb, have significant differences among different varieties of honey. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first four main components reached 77.74%, seven kinds of elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Sr, Cd, Ba) from the first main component contained most of the honey information. Through the stepwise discriminant analysis, seven kinds of elements (Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Sr, Pb) were filtered. out and used to establish the discriminant function model, and the correct classification rates of the proposed model reached 90% and 86.7%, respectively, which showed elements contents could be effectively indicators to discriminate the four kinds characteristic honey in southern Yunnan Province. In view of all the honey samples were harvested from apiaries located at south Yunnan Province where have similar climate, soil and other environment conditions, the differences of the mineral elements contents for the honey samples mainly due to their corresponding nectariferous plant. Therefore, it is feasible to identify honey botanical source through the differences of mineral elements.

  8. Identifying key components for an effective case report poster: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Willett, Lisa L; Paranjape, Anuradha; Estrada, Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Residents demonstrate scholarly activity by presenting posters at academic meetings. Although recommendations from national organizations are available, evidence identifying which components are most important is not. To develop and test an evaluation tool to measure the quality of case report posters and identify the specific components most in need of improvement. Faculty evaluators reviewed case report posters and provided on-site feedback to presenters at poster sessions of four annual academic general internal medicine meetings. A newly developed ten-item evaluation form measured poster quality for specific components of content, discussion, and format (5-point Likert scale, 1 = lowest, 5 = highest). Evaluation tool performance, including Cronbach alpha and inter-rater reliability, overall poster scores, differences across meetings and evaluators and specific components of the posters most in need of improvement. Forty-five evaluators from 20 medical institutions reviewed 347 posters. Cronbach's alpha of the evaluation form was 0.84 and inter-rater reliability, Spearman's rho 0.49 (p < 0.001). The median score was 4.1 (Q1 -Q3, 3.7-4.6)(Q1 = 25th, Q3 = 75th percentile). The national meeting median score was higher than the regional meetings (4.4 vs, 4.0, P < 0.001). We found no difference in faculty scores. The following areas were identified as most needing improvement: clearly state learning objectives, tie conclusions to learning objectives, and use appropriate amount of words. Our evaluation tool provides empirical data to guide trainees as they prepare posters for presentation which may improve poster quality and enhance their scholarly productivity.

  9. Sexual behaviors and situational characteristics of most recent male-partnered sexual event among gay and bisexually identified men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Joshua G; Reece, Michael; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Novak, David S; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-11-01

    Recent nationally representative studies documenting event-level sexual behavior have included samples that are predominantly heterosexual, resulting in limited information on the sexual repertoire of gay and bisexually identified men. This study sought to document the sexual behaviors that gay and bisexually identified men report during their most recent male-partnered sexual event and to describe the situational characteristics and participants' evaluation of these events. Via an internet-based survey, data were collected from 24,787 gay and bisexually identified men (ages 18-87 years) from 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Measures included items related to sociodemographics, recent sexual behavior history, situational characteristics, orgasm, and ratings of arousal and pleasure. Participants' mean age was 39.2 years; ethnicities included white (84.6%), Latino (6.4%), and African American (3.6%); and most men (79.9%) identified as homosexual. The most commonly reported behavior was kissing a partner on the mouth (74.5%), followed by oral sex (72.7%), and partnered masturbation (68.4%). Anal intercourse occurred among less than half of participants (37.2%) and was most common among men ages 18-24 (42.7%). Sex was most likely to occur in the participant's home (46.8%), with less frequently reported locations including hotels (7.4%) and public spaces (3.1%). The number of behaviors engaged in during last sexual event varied with most (63.2%) including 5-9 different sexual behaviors. These data provide one of the first examinations of sexual behaviors during the most recent male-partnered sexual event among gay and bisexually identified men in the United States. Findings from this study suggest that gay and bisexually identified men have a diverse sexual repertoire and that partnered sexual behaviors are not limited solely to acts of penile insertion. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  11. Characteristics of Effective Simulation (Preclinical) Teachers as Identified by Dental Students: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Maureen; Mucciolo, Thomas W; Jahangiri, Leila

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this qualitative research study was to identify and categorize criteria for simulation teacher quality preferences as reported by dental students. Second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry in 2015 were given a two-question, open-ended survey asking what qualities they liked most and least in a simulation or preclinical teacher. Responses were collected until data saturation was reached. Key words in the responses were identified and coded based on similar relationships and then were grouped into defined categories. A total of 168 respondents out of the target group of 363 students (46.3%) provided 1,062 written comments. Three core themes-character, competence, and communication-emerged from 16 defined categories, which were validated using references from the educational literature. The theme of character encompassed eight of the defined categories (motivation, available, caring, patience, professionalism, empathy, fairness, and happiness) and accounted for 50% of the total student responses. The theme of competence comprised five categories (expertise, knowledgeable, efficient, skillful, and effective) and represented 34% of all responses. The communication theme covered the remaining three categories (feedback, approachable, and interpersonal communication) and contained 17% of the responses. Positive and negative comments in the category of motivation accounted for 11.2% of all student responses. Expertise was the next highest category with 9.3% of the responses, followed closely by 9.1% in the category of available. Among these students, the top five attributes of simulation teachers were motivation, expertise, available, caring, and feedback. While the study did not attempt to correlate these findings with improved student performance, the results can be used in the development of assessment tools for faculty and targeted faculty development programs.

  12. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  13. Identifying Key Components for an Effective Case Report Poster: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Paranjape, Anuradha; Estrada, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Residents demonstrate scholarly activity by presenting posters at academic meetings. Although recommendations from national organizations are available, evidence identifying which components are most important is not. OBJECTIVE To develop and test an evaluation tool to measure the quality of case report posters and identify the specific components most in need of improvement. DESIGN Faculty evaluators reviewed case report posters and provided on-site feedback to presenters at poster sessions of four annual academic general internal medicine meetings. A newly developed ten-item evaluation form measured poster quality for specific components of content, discussion, and format (5-point Likert scale, 1 = lowest, 5 = highest). Main outcome measure(s): Evaluation tool performance, including Cronbach alpha and inter-rater reliability, overall poster scores, differences across meetings and evaluators and specific components of the posters most in need of improvement. RESULTS Forty-five evaluators from 20 medical institutions reviewed 347 posters. Cronbach’s alpha of the evaluation form was 0.84 and inter-rater reliability, Spearman’s rho 0.49 ( < 0.001). The median score was 4.1 (Q1 -Q3, 3.7-4.6)(Q1 = 25th, Q3 = 75th percentile). The national meeting median score was higher than the regional meetings (4.4 vs, 4.0,  < 0.001). We found no difference in faculty scores. The following areas were identified as most needing improvement: clearly state learning objectives, tie conclusions to learning objectives, and use appropriate amount of words. CONCLUSIONS Our evaluation tool provides empirical data to guide trainees as they prepare posters for presentation which may improve poster quality and enhance their scholarly productivity. PMID:19089510

  14. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    PubMed

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  15. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search

    PubMed Central

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing “meow” did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds. PMID:18567253

  16. Identifying childhood characteristics that underlie premorbid risk for substance use disorders: socialization and boldness.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brian M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-02-01

    We utilized a longitudinal twin study (N = 2,510) to identify the child characteristics present prior to initiation of substance use that best predicted later substance use disorders. Two independent traits accounted for the majority of premorbid risk: socialization (conformity to rules and conventional values) and boldness (sociability and social assurance, stress resilience, and thrill seeking). Low socialization was associated with disruptive behavior disorders, parental externalizing disorders, and environmental adversity and exhibited moderate genetic (0.45) and shared environmental influences (0.30). Boldness was highly heritable (0.71) and associated with less internalizing distress and environmental adversity. In combination, these traits exhibited robust associations with adolescent and young adult substance use disorders (R = .48 and .50, respectively) and incremental prediction over disruptive behavior disorders, parental externalizing disorders, and environmental adversity. The results were replicated in an independent sample. Socialization and boldness offer a novel conceptualization of underlying risk for substance use disorders that has the potential to improve prediction and theory with implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention.

  17. Identification of key ancestors of modern germplasm in a breeding program of maize.

    PubMed

    Technow, F; Schrag, T A; Schipprack, W; Melchinger, A E

    2014-12-01

    Probabilities of gene origin computed from the genomic kinships matrix can accurately identify key ancestors of modern germplasms Identifying the key ancestors of modern plant breeding populations can provide valuable insights into the history of a breeding program and provide reference genomes for next generation whole genome sequencing. In an animal breeding context, a method was developed that employs probabilities of gene origin, computed from the pedigree-based additive kinship matrix, for identifying key ancestors. Because reliable and complete pedigree information is often not available in plant breeding, we replaced the additive kinship matrix with the genomic kinship matrix. As a proof-of-concept, we applied this approach to simulated data sets with known ancestries. The relative contribution of the ancestral lines to later generations could be determined with high accuracy, with and without selection. Our method was subsequently used for identifying the key ancestors of the modern Dent germplasm of the public maize breeding program of the University of Hohenheim. We found that the modern germplasm can be traced back to six or seven key ancestors, with one or two of them having a disproportionately large contribution. These results largely corroborated conjectures based on early records of the breeding program. We conclude that probabilities of gene origin computed from the genomic kinships matrix can be used for identifying key ancestors in breeding programs and estimating the proportion of genes contributed by them.

  18. Characteristics of effective clinical teachers identified by dental students: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, L; McAndrew, M; Muzaffar, A; Mucciolo, T W

    2013-02-01

    This qualitative research study identified criteria for clinical teacher quality preferences as perceived by dental students. Third and fourth year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry were given a two question, open-ended survey asking what qualities they liked most and least in a clinical teacher. Responses were collected until data saturation was achieved. A total of 157 respondents provided a total of 995 written comments. Descriptive words within the responses were coded and grouped into key words, according to similar relationships, and further refined into 17 defined categories. Three core themes, Character, Competence and Communication, emerged from these 17 categories, which were validated according to specific references found in the existing educational literature. 'Character' comprised nine of the 17 defined categories: (caring, motivation, empathy, patience, professionalism, available, fairness, happiness, patient-centred) and yielded 59.1% of total student responses; 'Competence' consisted of five categories: knowledgeable, expertise, efficient, skilful, effective (29.2%); and 'Communication' represented the remaining three categories: feedback, approachable and interpersonal communication (11.7%). Positive and negative responses related to the defined category of caring were cited by 59.2% of all students. Motivation was the next highest category, cited by 45.9% of students. Non-cognitive attributes, especially those in the Character theme, comprised the majority of student comments. Because students' perceptions are so critical to understanding clinical teaching effectiveness in dental education, these findings can be used to develop assessments to measure clinical teaching effectiveness, to create criteria for the hiring and promotion of clinical faculty and to plan faculty development programming. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Key characteristics of the Fe-snow regime in Ganymede's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückriemen, Tina; Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman

    2014-05-01

    Ganymede shows signs of an internally produced dipolar magnetic field (|Bdip|≡719 nT) [1]. For small planetary bodies such as Ganymede the Fe-snow regime, i.e. the top-down solidification of iron, has been suggested to play an important role in the core cooling history [2,3]. In that regime, iron crystals form first at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) due to shallow or negative slopes of the melting temperature [2,3]. The solid iron particles are heavier than the surrounding Fe-FeS fluid, i.e. a snow zone forms, settle to deeper core regions, where the core temperature is higher than the melting temperature, and remelt again. As a consequence, a stable chemical gradient in the Fe-FeS fluid arises within the snow zone. We speculate this style of convection via sedimentation to be small scale, therefore it lacks an important criterion necessary for dynamo action [4]. Below this zone, whose thickness increases with time, the process of remelting of iron creates a gravitationally unstable situation. We propose that this could be the driving mechanism for a potential dynamo. However, dynamo action would be restricted to the time period the snow zone needs to grow across the core. With a 1D thermo-chemical evolution model, we investigate key characteristics of the Fe-snow regime within Ganymede's core: the compositional density gradient of the fluid Fe-FeS within the snow zone and the time period necessary to grow the snow zone across the core. Additionally, we determine the dipolar magnetic field strength associated with a dynamo in Ganymede's deeper fluid core. We vary important input paramters such as the initial sulfur concentration (7-19 wt.%), the core heat flux (2-6 mW/m2) and the thermal conductivity (20-60 W/mK) with the nominal model being: xs=10 wt.%, qcmb=4 mW/m2, kc=32 W/mK. We find, that heat fluxes higher than 6 or 22 mW/m2 are required for double-diffusive or overturning convection to overcome the compositional density gradient within the snow zone

  20. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  1. Outstanding School Administrators: Their Keys to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C.; And Others

    Project Success was initiated to identify the good things that happen in American public education. One thousand administrators nationwide, identified by their peers as successful were asked to describe their leadership characteristics and beliefs about education. Responses were received from 491 administrators. Chapter 1 presents sample…

  2. Key-value store with internal key-value storage interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Ting, Dennis P. J.

    A key-value store is provided having one or more key-value storage interfaces. A key-value store on at least one compute node comprises a memory for storing a plurality of key-value pairs; and an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one persistent storage device providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of one or more of the plurality of key-value pairs, wherein the software interface module provides the one or more key-value pairs to the at least one persistent storage device in a key-value format. The abstract storage interface optionally processes one or moremore » batch operations on the plurality of key-value pairs. A distributed embodiment for a partitioned key-value store is also provided.« less

  3. ASL, Total Communication and Oralism: Identifying Shared Characteristics of School-Based Writing Intervention Programs for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students, K-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carolyn Mascia

    2009-01-01

    To be effective in providing a writing literacy program, regardless of communication approaches, educators should establish program-wide conditions that promote English writing literacy over time. The researcher's purpose for this study was to identify shared characteristics of writing intervention programs in three different communication school…

  4. Identifying Childhood Characteristics that Underlie Pre-Morbid Risk for Substance Use Disorders: Socialization and Boldness

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal twin study (N = 2510), we identified the child characteristics present prior to initiation of substance use that best predicted later substance use disorders. Two independent traits accounted for the majority of pre-morbid risk: socialization (conformity to rules and conventional values) and boldness (sociability and social assurance, stress resilience, and thrill seeking). Low socialization was associated with disruptive behavior disorders, parental externalizing disorders, and environmental adversity, and exhibited moderate genetic (.45) and shared environmental influences (.30). Boldness was highly heritable (.71) and associated with less internalizing distress and environmental adversity. Together, these traits exhibited robust associations with adolescent and young adult substance use disorders (R = .48 and .50, respectively), and incremental prediction over disruptive behavior disorders, parental externalizing disorders, and environmental adversity. Results were replicated in an independent sample. Socialization and boldness offer a novel conceptualization of underlying risk for substance use disorders that has the potential to improve prediction and theory with implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention. PMID:24280373

  5. Communication Is Key to Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunsell, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    States, districts, and schools must work to develop effective implementation and communications plans around the Common Core State Standards and aligned assessments. The Education Trust commissioned research on the communication of changes to state assessments in the recent past and lessons learned from that effort identify key elements of an…

  6. The impact of airport characteristics on airport surface accidents and incidents.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Sabine; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington Y

    2015-06-01

    Airport surface safety and in particular runway and taxiway safety is acknowledged globally as one of aviation's greatest challenges. To improve this key area of aviation safety, it is necessary to identify and understand the causal and contributing factors on safety occurrences. While the contribution of human factors, operations, and procedures has been researched extensively, the impact of the airport and its associated characteristics itself has received little or no attention. This paper introduces a novel methodology for risk and hazard assessment of airport surface operations, and models the relationships between airport characteristics, and (a) the rate of occurrences, (b) the severity of occurrences, and (c) the causal factors underlying occurrences. The results show for the first time how the characteristics of airports, and in particular its infrastructure and operations, influence the safety of surface operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. and National Safety Council. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative hidden Markov model analysis pipeline identifies proteins characteristic of cereal-infecting fungi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungal pathogens cause devastating losses in economically important cereal crops by utilising pathogen proteins to infect host plants. Secreted pathogen proteins are referred to as effectors and have thus far been identified by selecting small, cysteine-rich peptides from the secretome despite increasing evidence that not all effectors share these attributes. Results We take advantage of the availability of sequenced fungal genomes and present an unbiased method for finding putative pathogen proteins and secreted effectors in a query genome via comparative hidden Markov model analyses followed by unsupervised protein clustering. Our method returns experimentally validated fungal effectors in Stagonospora nodorum and Fusarium oxysporum as well as the N-terminal Y/F/WxC-motif from the barley powdery mildew pathogen. Application to the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum reveals a secreted phosphorylcholine phosphatase that is characteristic of hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic cereal pathogens and shares an ancient selection process with bacterial plant pathogens. Three F. graminearum protein clusters are found with an enriched secretion signal. One of these putative effector clusters contains proteins that share a [SG]-P-C-[KR]-P sequence motif in the N-terminal and show features not commonly associated with fungal effectors. This motif is conserved in secreted pathogenic Fusarium proteins and a prime candidate for functional testing. Conclusions Our pipeline has successfully uncovered conservation patterns, putative effectors and motifs of fungal pathogens that would have been overlooked by existing approaches that identify effectors as small, secreted, cysteine-rich peptides. It can be applied to any pathogenic proteome data, such as microbial pathogen data of plants and other organisms. PMID:24252298

  8. Identifying key factors associated with aggression on acute inpatient psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; Allan, Teresa; Simpson, Alan; Jones, Julia; Van Der Merwe, Marie; Jeffery, Debra

    2009-04-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a critical issue for modern acute psychiatric services, not just because of the adverse impact it has on patients and staff, but also because it puts a financial strain on service providers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of patient violence to other variables: patient characteristics, features of the service and physical environment, patient routines, staff factors, the use of containment methods, and other patient behaviours. A multivariate cross sectional design was utilised. Data were collected for a six month period on 136 acute psychiatric wards in 26 NHS Trusts in England. Multilevel modelling was conducted to ascertain those factors most strongly associated with verbal aggression, aggression toward objects, and physical aggression against others. High levels of aggression were associated with a high proportion of patients formally detained under mental health legislation, high patient turnover, alcohol use by patients, ward doors being locked, and higher staffing numbers (especially qualified nurses). The findings suggest that the imposition of restrictions on patients exacerbates the problem of violence, and that alcohol management strategies may be a productive intervention. Insufficient evidence is available to draw conclusions about the nature of the link between staffing numbers and violence.

  9. Key demographic characteristics of patients with bacteriuria due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a multiethnic community, in North West London.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Batura, Deepak; Batura, Neha; Nielsen, Peder Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) are encountered worldwide, particularly in certain regions of the world and in certain ethnic groups. Simple criteria for identification of patients likely to be infected with ESBLE may enable clinicians to select appropriate empirical antibiotics for treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the association between ESBLE bacteriuria and readily available key demographic characteristics (age, gender and ethnicity) in a multiethnic population. In this cross-sectional observational study, we explored the association between ESBLE bacteriuria and age, gender and ethnicity in 134 831 patients who submitted urine specimens for culture during 2007-2009 in two multiethnic boroughs in London, UK. In multivariate analysis, the risk of ESBLE bacteriuria was higher in males (odds ratio, OR = 1.3) and in patients older than 60 years (OR > 2). Patients from an Asian ethnic group were significantly more likely than White British subjects to have ESBLE bacteriuria (Indians, OR = 2.7; Asians of any other background, OR = 2.4; and Pakistanis, OR = 1.8). In contrast, patients who were of white ethnic background other than Irish were 0.66 times less likely to have ESBLE bacteriuria than White British patients (p = 0.025). Our study shows that in our local multiethnic population, older patients (> 60 years), males and those of South Asian ethnicity were significantly more likely to have ESBLE bacteriuria than others. Knowledge of these simple and readily available demographic data can help identify groups of patients at risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ESBLE and may aid in choice of empirical antibiotics.

  10. Unraveling the key to the resistance of canids to prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel A.; Pumarola, Martí

    2017-01-01

    One of the characteristics of prions is their ability to infect some species but not others and prion resistant species have been of special interest because of their potential in deciphering the determinants for susceptibility. Previously, we developed different in vitro and in vivo models to assess the susceptibility of species that were erroneously considered resistant to prion infection, such as members of the Leporidae and Equidae families. Here we undertake in vitro and in vivo approaches to understand the unresolved low prion susceptibility of canids. Studies based on the amino acid sequence of the canine prion protein (PrP), together with a structural analysis in silico, identified unique key amino acids whose characteristics could orchestrate its high resistance to prion disease. Cell- and brain-based PMCA studies were performed highlighting the relevance of the D163 amino acid in proneness to protein misfolding. This was also investigated by the generation of a novel transgenic mouse model carrying this substitution and these mice showed complete resistance to disease despite intracerebral challenge with three different mouse prion strains (RML, 22L and 301C) known to cause disease in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that dog D163 amino acid is primarily, if not totally, responsible for the prion resistance of canids. PMID:29131852

  11. Characterization Of Dissolved Organic Mattter In The Florida Keys Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D. G.; Shank, G. C.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past few decades, Scleractinian coral populations in the Florida Keys have increasingly experienced mortality due to bleaching events as well as microbial mediated illnesses such as black band and white band disease. Such pathologies seem to be most correlated with elevated sea surface temperatures, increased UV exposures, and shifts in the microbial community living on the coral itself. Recent studies indicate that corals’ exposure to UV in the Florida Keys is primarily controlled by the concentration of CDOM (Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter) in the water column. Further, microbial community alterations may be linked to changes in concentration and chemical composition of the larger DOM (Dissolved Organic Matter) pool. Our research characterized the spatial and temporal properties of DOM in Florida Bay and along the Keys ecosystems using DOC analyses, in-situ water column optical measurements, and spectral analyses including absorbance and fluorescence measurements. We analyzed DOM characteristics along transects running from the mouth of the Shark River at the southwest base of the Everglades, through Florida Bay, and along near-shore Keys coastal waters. Two 12 hour time-series samplings were also performed at the Seven-Mile Bridge, the primary Florida Bay discharge channel to the lower Keys region. Photo-bleaching experiments showed that the chemical characteristics of the DOM pool are altered by exposure to solar radiation. Results also show that DOC (~0.8-5.8 mg C/L) and CDOM (~0.5-16.5 absorbance coefficient at 305nm) concentrations exhibit seasonal fluctuations in our study region. EEM analyses suggest seasonal transitions between primarily marine (summer) and terrestrial (winter) sources along the Keys. We are currently combining EEM-PARAFAC analysis with in-situ optical measurements to model changes in the spectral properties of DOM in the water column. Additionally, we are using stable δ13C isotopic analysis to further characterize DOM

  12. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West. This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03890

  13. Identifying long term empirical relationships between storm characteristics and episodic groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tashie, Arik; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2016-01-01

    Shallow aquifers are an important source of water resources and provide base flow to streams; yet actual rates of groundwater recharge are difficult to estimate. While climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events, the resulting impact on groundwater recharge remains poorly understood. We quantify empirical relations between precipitation characteristics and episodic groundwater recharge for a wide variety of geographic and land use types across North Carolina. We extract storm duration, magnitude, average rate, and hourly weighted intensity from long-term precipitation records over periods of 12–35 years at 10 locations. Using time series of water table fluctuations from nearby monitoring wells, we estimate relative recharge to precipitation ratios (RPR) to identify statistical trends. Increased RPR correlates with increased storm duration, whereas RPR decreases with increasing magnitude, average rate, and intensity of precipitation. Agricultural and urban areas exhibit the greatest decrease in RPR due to increasing storm magnitude, average rate, and intensity, while naturally vegetated areas exhibit a larger increase in RPR with increased storm duration. Though RPR is generally higher during the winter than the summer, this seasonal effect is magnified in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions. These statistical trends provide valuable insights into the likely consequences of climate and land use change for water resources in subtropical climates. If, as predicted, growing seasons lengthen and the intensity of storms increases with a warming climate, decreased recharge in Appalachia, the Piedmont, and rapidly growing urban areas of the American Southeast could further limit groundwater availability.

  14. Characteristics of effective classroom teachers as identified by students and professionals: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Leila; Mucciolo, Thomas W

    2008-04-01

    This qualitative research study identified criteria for teacher quality preferences as perceived by current and past students. A two-question, open-ended survey asking what qualities learners liked most and least in a teacher/presenter was given to two groups: students (Group A) from medicine, dentistry, and related residency programs; and dentists and physicians (Group B) who had graduated at least three years previously and who attended a minimum of two days of continuing education courses in lecture format each year. A total of 300 subjects provided 2,295 written responses. Descriptive words within the responses were coded and grouped according to similar relationships, resulting in the emergence of twenty-one defined categories that were further refined into three core categories: personality, process, and performance. Results showed that the two groups appear to have different preferences in teacher/presenter characteristics. For Group A (students), the categories of content design, content organization, and content development were at the forefront of their preferences. Group B (professionals) overwhelmingly favored elements of speaker self-confidence and expertise. Both groups highly valued expertise and speaking style. These findings can be used to develop curriculum, enhance faculty members' teaching skills, and plan continuing education programs.

  15. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  16. Network analysis of translocated Takahe populations to identify disease surveillance targets.

    PubMed

    Grange, Zoë L; VAN Andel, Mary; French, Nigel P; Gartrell, Brett D

    2014-04-01

    Social network analysis is being increasingly used in epidemiology and disease modeling in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. We investigated this tool in describing a translocation network (area that allows movement of animals between geographically isolated locations) used for the conservation of an endangered flightless rail, the Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri). We collated records of Takahe translocations within New Zealand and used social network principles to describe the connectivity of the translocation network. That is, networks were constructed and analyzed using adjacency matrices with values based on the tie weights between nodes. Five annual network matrices were created using the Takahe data set, each incremental year included records of previous years. Weights of movements between connected locations were assigned by the number of Takahe moved. We calculated the number of nodes (i(total)) and the number of ties (t(total)) between the nodes. To quantify the small-world character of the networks, we compared the real networks to random graphs of the equivalent size, weighting, and node strength. Descriptive analysis of cumulative annual Takahe movement networks involved determination of node-level characteristics, including centrality descriptors of relevance to disease modeling such as weighted measures of in degree (k(i)(in)), out degree (k(i)(out)), and betweenness (B(i)). Key players were assigned according to the highest node measure of k(i)(in), k(i)(out), and B(i) per network. Networks increased in size throughout the time frame considered. The network had some degree small-world characteristics. Nodes with the highest cumulative tie weights connecting them were the captive breeding center, the Murchison Mountains and 2 offshore islands. The key player fluctuated between the captive breeding center and the Murchison Mountains. The cumulative networks identified the captive breeding center every year as the hub of the network until the final

  17. Vulnerable Children's Access to Examinations at Key Stage 4. Research Report RR639

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Johnson, Annie; Martin, Kerry; Kinder; Kay

    2005-01-01

    This research project was commissioned by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) in 2004 to examine barriers to vulnerable children accessing examinations at the end of key stage 4 and to identify strategies employed to overcome these barriers. Key groups of vulnerable children identified by the DfES included: (1) Looked-after children;…

  18. Drought propagation and its relation with catchment biophysical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Garreton, C. D.; Lara, A.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts propagate in the hydrological cycle from meteorological to soil moisture to hydrological droughts. To understand the drivers of this process is of paramount importance since the economic and societal impacts in water resources are directly related with hydrological droughts (and not with meteorological droughts, which have been most studied). This research analyses drought characteristics over a large region and identify its main exogenous (climate forcing) and endogenous (biophysical characteristics such as land cover type and topography) explanatory factors. The study region is Chile, which covers seven major climatic subtypes according to Köppen system, it has unique geographic characteristics, very sharp topography and a wide range of landscapes and vegetation conditions. Meteorological and hydrological droughts (deficit in precipitation and streamflow, respectively) are characterized by their durations and standardized deficit volumes using a variable threshold method, over 300 representative catchments (located between 27°S and 50°S). To quantify the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought, we propose a novel drought attenuation index (DAI), calculated as the ratio between the meteorological drought severity slope and the hydrological drought severity slope. DAI varies from zero (catchment that attenuates completely a meteorological drought) to one (the meteorological drought is fully propagated through the hydrological cycle). This novel index provides key (and comparable) information about drought propagation over a wide range of different catchments, which has been highlighted as a major research gap. Similar drought indicators across the wide range of catchments are then linked with catchment biophysical characteristics. A thorough compilation of land cover information (including the percentage of native forests, grass land, urban and industrial areas, glaciers, water bodies and no vegetated areas), catchment physical

  19. Identifying ELIXIR Core Data Resources

    PubMed Central

    Durinx, Christine; McEntyre, Jo; Appel, Ron; Apweiler, Rolf; Barlow, Mary; Blomberg, Niklas; Cook, Chuck; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lopez, Rodrigo; Redaschi, Nicole; Stockinger, Heinz; Teixeira, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    The core mission of ELIXIR is to build a stable and sustainable infrastructure for biological information across Europe. At the heart of this are the data resources, tools and services that ELIXIR offers to the life-sciences community, providing stable and sustainable access to biological data. ELIXIR aims to ensure that these resources are available long-term and that the life-cycles of these resources are managed such that they support the scientific needs of the life-sciences, including biological research. ELIXIR Core Data Resources are defined as a set of European data resources that are of fundamental importance to the wider life-science community and the long-term preservation of biological data. They are complete collections of generic value to life-science, are considered an authority in their field with respect to one or more characteristics, and show high levels of scientific quality and service. Thus, ELIXIR Core Data Resources are of wide applicability and usage. This paper describes the structures, governance and processes that support the identification and evaluation of ELIXIR Core Data Resources. It identifies key indicators which reflect the essence of the definition of an ELIXIR Core Data Resource and support the promotion of excellence in resource development and operation. It describes the specific indicators in more detail and explains their application within ELIXIR’s sustainability strategy and science policy actions, and in capacity building, life-cycle management and technical actions. The identification process is currently being implemented and tested for the first time. The findings and outcome will be evaluated by the ELIXIR Scientific Advisory Board in March 2017. Establishing the portfolio of ELIXIR Core Data Resources and ELIXIR Services is a key priority for ELIXIR and publicly marks the transition towards a cohesive infrastructure. PMID:27803796

  20. Identifying ELIXIR Core Data Resources.

    PubMed

    Durinx, Christine; McEntyre, Jo; Appel, Ron; Apweiler, Rolf; Barlow, Mary; Blomberg, Niklas; Cook, Chuck; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lopez, Rodrigo; Redaschi, Nicole; Stockinger, Heinz; Teixeira, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The core mission of ELIXIR is to build a stable and sustainable infrastructure for biological information across Europe. At the heart of this are the data resources, tools and services that ELIXIR offers to the life-sciences community, providing stable and sustainable access to biological data. ELIXIR aims to ensure that these resources are available long-term and that the life-cycles of these resources are managed such that they support the scientific needs of the life-sciences, including biological research. ELIXIR Core Data Resources are defined as a set of European data resources that are of fundamental importance to the wider life-science community and the long-term preservation of biological data. They are complete collections of generic value to life-science, are considered an authority in their field with respect to one or more characteristics, and show high levels of scientific quality and service. Thus, ELIXIR Core Data Resources are of wide applicability and usage. This paper describes the structures, governance and processes that support the identification and evaluation of ELIXIR Core Data Resources. It identifies key indicators which reflect the essence of the definition of an ELIXIR Core Data Resource and support the promotion of excellence in resource development and operation. It describes the specific indicators in more detail and explains their application within ELIXIR's sustainability strategy and science policy actions, and in capacity building, life-cycle management and technical actions. The identification process is currently being implemented and tested for the first time. The findings and outcome will be evaluated by the ELIXIR Scientific Advisory Board in March 2017. Establishing the portfolio of ELIXIR Core Data Resources and ELIXIR Services is a key priority for ELIXIR and publicly marks the transition towards a cohesive infrastructure.

  1. Ecological characterization of the lower Everglades, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Schomer, N.S.; Drew, R.D.

    A conceptual model of the study area identifies four major ecological zones: (1) terrestrial and freshwater wetlands, (2) estuarine and saltwater wetlands, (3) Florida Bay and mangrove islands, and (4) the Florida Keys. These zones are delineated by differences in basic physical-chemical background factors which in turn promote characteristic ecological communities. The terrestrial and freshwater wetlands support pinelands, sawgrass marshes, wet prairies, sloughs and occasional tree islands. The estuarine and saltwater wetlands support mangrove forests, salt marshes and oscillating salinity systems. Florida Bay exhibits oscillating meso- to hypersaline waters over grassbeds on marine lime mud sediments surrounding deeper lake areas.more » The exposed tips of the mud banks frequently support mangrove or salt prairie vegetation. The Florida Keys support almost all of the above communities to some small degree but are characterized by extensive offshore coral reefs. The productivity of these communities with regard to fish and wildlife reflects (1) the diversity and type of habitats available to species that are potentially capable of exploiting them, (2) the degree of alteration of these habitats by man and natural forces, and (3) historical, biogeographic and random factors that restrict organisms to specific environments or prohibit them from exploiting a potential habitat.« less

  2. How Is This Flower Pollinated? A Polyclave Key to Use in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Lucy

    1989-01-01

    Presents an identification method which uses the process of elimination to identify pollination systems. Provides the polyclave key, methodology for using the key, a sample worksheet, and abbreviation codes for pollination systems. (MVL)

  3. Building a Relationship between Robot Characteristics and Teleoperation User Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Michael; Horan, Ben; Seyedmahmoudian, Mehdi

    2017-03-14

    The Robot Operating System (ROS) provides roboticists with a standardized and distributed framework for real-time communication between robotic systems using a microkernel environment. This paper looks at how ROS metadata, Unified Robot Description Format (URDF), Semantic Robot Description Format (SRDF), and its message description language, can be used to identify key robot characteristics to inform User Interface (UI) design for the teleoperation of heterogeneous robot teams. Logical relationships between UI components and robot characteristics are defined by a set of relationship rules created using relevant and available information including developer expertise and ROS metadata. This provides a significant opportunity to move towards a rule-driven approach for generating the designs of teleoperation UIs; in particular the reduction of the number of different UI configurations required to teleoperate each individual robot within a heterogeneous robot team. This approach is based on using an underlying rule set identifying robots that can be teleoperated using the same UI configuration due to having the same or similar robot characteristics. Aside from reducing the number of different UI configurations an operator needs to be familiar with, this approach also supports consistency in UI configurations when a teleoperator is periodically switching between different robots. To achieve this aim, a Matlab toolbox is developed providing users with the ability to define rules specifying the relationship between robot characteristics and UI components. Once rules are defined, selections that best describe the characteristics of the robot type within a particular heterogeneous robot team can be made. A main advantage of this approach is that rather than specifying discrete robots comprising the team, the user can specify characteristics of the team more generally allowing the system to deal with slight variations that may occur in the future. In fact, by using the

  4. Building a Relationship between Robot Characteristics and Teleoperation User Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Michael; Horan, Ben; Seyedmahmoudian, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The Robot Operating System (ROS) provides roboticists with a standardized and distributed framework for real-time communication between robotic systems using a microkernel environment. This paper looks at how ROS metadata, Unified Robot Description Format (URDF), Semantic Robot Description Format (SRDF), and its message description language, can be used to identify key robot characteristics to inform User Interface (UI) design for the teleoperation of heterogeneous robot teams. Logical relationships between UI components and robot characteristics are defined by a set of relationship rules created using relevant and available information including developer expertise and ROS metadata. This provides a significant opportunity to move towards a rule-driven approach for generating the designs of teleoperation UIs; in particular the reduction of the number of different UI configurations required to teleoperate each individual robot within a heterogeneous robot team. This approach is based on using an underlying rule set identifying robots that can be teleoperated using the same UI configuration due to having the same or similar robot characteristics. Aside from reducing the number of different UI configurations an operator needs to be familiar with, this approach also supports consistency in UI configurations when a teleoperator is periodically switching between different robots. To achieve this aim, a Matlab toolbox is developed providing users with the ability to define rules specifying the relationship between robot characteristics and UI components. Once rules are defined, selections that best describe the characteristics of the robot type within a particular heterogeneous robot team can be made. A main advantage of this approach is that rather than specifying discrete robots comprising the team, the user can specify characteristics of the team more generally allowing the system to deal with slight variations that may occur in the future. In fact, by using the

  5. The characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Rachel; Davies, Kerry; Lavender, Verna

    2015-11-01

    This article reports a systematic review of literature undertaken to identify characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the key words 'anticipatory', 'mourning', 'grief', and synonyms. This review focused on six studies that met inclusion criteria and reported characteristics of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults. Characteristics and experiences were sorted into four main themes: symptoms; a sense of loss; caregiver behaviour; and the unique experience of caring for, or losing, a teenager or young adult. The review suggests that there are characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning that are unique to caregivers of this age group. The review also suggests that consideration of anticipatory mourning is important in offering holistic care to young adults and their caregivers, and points to the need for further research in this area.

  6. Identification of Key Odorants in Used Disposable Absorbent Incontinence Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Gunnar; Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify key odorants in used disposable absorbent incontinence products. DESIGN: Descriptive in vitro study SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Samples of used incontinence products were collected from 8 residents with urinary incontinence living in geriatric nursing homes in the Gothenburg area of Sweden. Products were chosen from a larger set of products that had previously been characterized by descriptive odor analysis. METHODS: Pieces of the used incontinence products were cut from the wet area, placed in glass bottles, and kept frozen until dynamic headspace sampling of volatile compounds was completed. Gas chromatography–olfactometry was used to identify which compounds contributed most to the odors in the samples. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Twenty-eight volatiles were found to be key odorants in the used incontinence products. Twenty-six were successfully identified. They belonged to the following classes of chemical compounds: aldehydes (6); amines (1); aromatics (3); isothiocyanates (1); heterocyclics (2); ketones (6); sulfur compounds (6); and terpenes (1). CONCLUSION: Nine of the 28 key odorants were considered to be of particular importance to the odor of the used incontinence products: 3-methylbutanal, trimethylamine, cresol, guaiacol, 4,5-dimethylthiazole-S-oxide, diacetyl, dimethyl trisulfide, 5-methylthio-4-penten-2-ol, and an unidentified compound. PMID:28328644

  7. Canonical correlation analysis to identify the semen characteristics used to forecast the freeze survival of Curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F S; Murgas, L D S; Ferreira-Machad, M R; Andrade, E S; Felizardo, V O; Allaman, I B; de Paula, F G

      OBJECTIVE: To identify which sperm characteristics were able to predict more accurately the quality of curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) semen upon freezing using canonical correlation analysis. Eleven fish breeders with initial mean weight of 705.21 ± 111 g were used. For cryopreservation, 200 µL of semen were taken from each animal and diluted in the cryoprotectant solution (10% dimethyl sulfoxide and 5% Beltsville Thawing Solution Minitub) in a 1:4 ratio and placed into 0.5-mL straws. Sperm characteristics (motility, sperm abnormalities, total antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation) were evaluated. A randomized block design with duplicate samples per treatment (fresh and frozen semen) was used. The block factor was the animals, and the experimental unit the ejaculates. Canonical correlation was used to evaluate the association between sperm characteristics of fresh semen and thawed semen. There was a significant association (P = 0.10) among the variables measured in fresh semen with the variables measured in thawed semen, and 78.6% of the difference observed in the thawed semen can be attributed to variation of variables measured in fresh semen. Sperm motility, motility duration and antioxidant activity of the thawed semen showed an inverse relationship with those of the fresh semen; whereas the minor sperm abnormalities, major sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation showed a direct relationship with those of the fresh semen. Only the rate and motility duration of the thawed semen presented high correlation (-0.63 and -0.73, respectively) with the canonical variable represented by the sperm characteristics of fresh semen. The rate and motility duration of fresh semen may be used to predict the quality of the thawed sperm in Prochilodus lineatus.

  8. Function key and shortcut key use in airway facilities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-02-01

    This document provides information on the function keys and shortcut keys used by systems in the Federal Aviation Administration : Airway Facilities (AF) work environment. It includes a catalog of the function keys and shortcut keys used by each syst...

  9. Operational Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect

    Kimpland, Robert Herbert

    Operational characteristics represent the set of responses that a nuclear system exhibits during normal operation. Operators rely on this behavior to assess the status of the system and to predict the consequences of off-normal events. These characteristics largely refer to the relationship between power and system operating conditions. The static and dynamic behavior of a chain-reacting system, operating at sufficient power, is primarily governed by reactivity effects. The science of reactor physics has identified and evaluated a number of such effects, including Doppler broadening and shifts in the thermal neutron spectrum. Often these reactivity effects are quantified in the formmore » of feedback coefficients that serve as coupling coefficients relating the neutron population and the physical mechanisms that drive reactivity effects, such as fissile material temperature and density changes. The operational characteristics of such nuclear systems usually manifest themselves when perturbations between system power (neutron population) and system operating conditions arise. Successful operation of such systems requires the establishment of steady equilibrium conditions. However, prior to obtaining the desired equilibrium (steady-state) conditions, an approach from zero-power (startup) must occur. This operational regime may possess certain limiting system conditions that must be maintained to achieve effective startup. Once steady-state is achieved, a key characteristic of this operational regime is the level of stability that the system possesses. Finally, a third operational regime, shutdown, may also possess limiting conditions of operation that must be maintained. This report documents the operational characteristics of a “generic” Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution (ADFS) system during the various operational regimes of startup, steady-state operation, and shutdown. Typical time-dependent behavior for each operational regime will be illustrated, and

  10. Key challenges in the development and implementation of telehealth projects.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Victor; West, Robert M; Shickle, Darren; Keen, Justin; Clamp, Susan

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was carried out to identify the key challenges in the implementation of telehealth. This was followed by a survey of organisations in England involved in telehealth projects in order to understand the challenges they faced. Ten of the 13 health or local authority organisations surveyed had telehealth projects and three were at the planning stage. The analysis revealed seven key challenges facing implementers of telehealth in England. Based on the findings from the literature review and the survey, a model was constructed and a checklist drawn up. The model contained the following elements: identifying issues, needs and partners; producing a strategy; securing funding; implementing changes; and monitoring and evaluating a telehealth project. The checklist was validated by using key informants from the organisations originally surveyed. The checklist may be useful to guide telehealth development and implementation in the future.

  11. Key Questions in Building Defect Prediction Models in Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramler, Rudolf; Wolfmaier, Klaus; Stauder, Erwin; Kossak, Felix; Natschläger, Thomas

    The information about which modules of a future version of a software system are defect-prone is a valuable planning aid for quality managers and testers. Defect prediction promises to indicate these defect-prone modules. However, constructing effective defect prediction models in an industrial setting involves a number of key questions. In this paper we discuss ten key questions identified in context of establishing defect prediction in a large software development project. Seven consecutive versions of the software system have been used to construct and validate defect prediction models for system test planning. Furthermore, the paper presents initial empirical results from the studied project and, by this means, contributes answers to the identified questions.

  12. A delphi exercise to identify characteristic features of gout - opinions from patients and physicians, the first stage in developing new classification criteria.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Rebecca L; Dalbeth, Nicola; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Adebajo, Adewale O; Gaffo, Angelo L; Terkeltaub, Robert; Mandell, Brian F; Suryana, Bagus P P; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia; Diaz-Torne, Cèsar; Khanna, Dinesh; Lioté, Frederic; Mccarthy, Geraldine; Kerr, Gail S; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Janssens, Hein; Baraf, Herbert F; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Harrold, Leslie R; Stamp, Lisa K; Van De Laar, Mart A; Janssen, Matthijs; Doherty, Michael; Boers, Maarten; Edwards, N Lawrence; Gow, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Khanna, Puja; Helliwell, Philip S; Grainger, Rebecca; Schumacher, H Ralph; Neogi, Tuhina; Jansen, Tim L; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Sivera, Francisca; Taylor, William J; Alten, Rieke

    2013-04-01

    To identify a comprehensive list of features that might discriminate between gout and other rheumatic musculoskeletal conditions, to be used subsequently for a case-control study to develop and test new classification criteria for gout. Two Delphi exercises were conducted using Web-based questionnaires: one with physicians from several countries who had an interest in gout and one with patients from New Zealand who had gout. Physicians rated a list of potentially discriminating features that were identified by literature review and expert opinion, and patients rated a list of features that they generated themselves. Agreement was defined by the RAND/UCLA disagreement index. Forty-four experienced physicians and 9 patients responded to all iterations. For physicians, 71 items were identified by literature review and 15 more were suggested by physicians. The physician survey showed agreement for 26 discriminatory features and 15 as not discriminatory. The patients identified 46 features of gout, for which there was agreement on 25 items as being discriminatory and 7 items as not discriminatory. Patients and physicians agreed upon several key features of gout. Physicians emphasized objective findings, imaging, and patterns of symptoms, whereas patients emphasized severity, functional results, and idiographic perception of symptoms.

  13. CAREGIVERS’ DIFFERING NEEDS ACROSS KEY EXPERIENCES OF THE ADVANCED CANCER DISEASE TRAJECTORY

    PubMed Central

    Bernard-DuBenske, Lori L.; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Gustafson, David H.; Guarnaccia, Charles A.; Cleary, James F.; Dinauer, Susan K.; McTavish, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Familial caregivers are providing increasing amounts of care to advanced cancer patients. Increased understanding of caregivers’ needs is vital in providing necessary support to lessen caregiver burden and morbidity. Current literature has identified caregiver and patient needs at broad stages of the cancer trajectory; however, such broad stages may be too general to inform a practice of targeting specific interventions when they have the greatest utility. This study examines a variety of particular needs across a number of more discrete illness-related transition experiences specifically in the advanced cancer disease trajectory. One hundred fifty-nine female informal caregivers of people with advanced cancer completed a needs assessment survey. Analyses of these cross-sectional retrospective-report data reveal that cancer caregiver needs vary across specific key experiences occurring within the broader stages of illness identified by current literature. Furthermore, caregivers have unique needs during bereavement. While the sample characteristics are demographically limited, this study provides preliminary evidence that the broad stages are not specific enough increments for effectively examining caregiver needs, and supports the need for more precise distribution of cancer-related information at more discrete times in the illness course. PMID:18662420

  14. Identifying True Normality in the Elementary Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Kay Baker offers a look at the needs and manifestations (observed characteristics) of the developing human being, specifically of the second-plane child. She outlines key ideas in thinking about these needs and manifestations and discerns the pedagogy associated with each. She emphasizes that the pedagogy/practice must meet the needs of the child.…

  15. Spectral reflectance characteristics and automated data reduction techniques which identify wetland and water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1970-01-01

    Progress on research designed to test the usability of multispectral, high altitude, remotely sensed data to analyze ecological and hydrological conditions in estuarine environments is presented. Emphasis was placed on data acquired by NASA aircraft over the Patuxent River Chesapeake Bay Test Site, No. 168. Missions were conducted over the Chesapeake Bay at a high altitude flight of 18,460 m and a low altitude flight of 3070. The principle objectives of the missions were: (1) to determine feasibility of identifying source and extent of water pollution problems in Baltimore Harbor, Chesapeake Bay and major tributaries utilizing high altitude, ERTS analogous remote sensing data; (2) to determine the feasibility of mapping species composition and general ecological condition of Chesapeake Bay wetlands, utilizing high altitude, ERTS analogous data; (3) to correlate ground spectral reflectance characteristics of wetland plant species with tonal characteristics on multispectral photography; (4) to determine usefulness of high altitude thermal imagery in delinating isotherms and current patterns in the Chesapeake Bay; and (5) to investigate automated data interpretive techniques which may be usable on high altitude, ERTS analogous data.

  16. Identification of key regulators of pancreatic cancer progression through multidimensional systems-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Deepa; Bhasin, Manoj K

    2016-05-03

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive cancer with dismal prognosis, urgently necessitating better biomarkers to improve therapeutic options and early diagnosis. Traditional approaches of biomarker detection that consider only one aspect of the biological continuum like gene expression alone are limited in their scope and lack robustness in identifying the key regulators of the disease. We have adopted a multidimensional approach involving the cross-talk between the omics spaces to identify key regulators of disease progression. Multidimensional domain-specific disease signatures were obtained using rank-based meta-analysis of individual omics profiles (mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation) related to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). These domain-specific PDAC signatures were integrated to identify genes that were affected across multiple dimensions of omics space in PDAC (genes under multiple regulatory controls, GMCs). To further pin down the regulators of PDAC pathophysiology, a systems-level network was generated from knowledge-based interaction information applied to the above identified GMCs. Key regulators were identified from the GMC network based on network statistics and their functional importance was validated using gene set enrichment analysis and survival analysis. Rank-based meta-analysis identified 5391 genes, 109 miRNAs and 2081 methylation-sites significantly differentially expressed in PDAC (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05). Bimodal integration of meta-analysis signatures revealed 1150 and 715 genes regulated by miRNAs and methylation, respectively. Further analysis identified 189 altered genes that are commonly regulated by miRNA and methylation, hence considered GMCs. Systems-level analysis of the scale-free GMCs network identified eight potential key regulator hubs, namely E2F3, HMGA2, RASA1, IRS1, NUAK1, ACTN1, SKI and DLL1, associated with important pathways driving cancer progression. Survival analysis on individual key regulators revealed

  17. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  18. Benchmarking carcass characteristics and muscles from commercially identified beef and dairy cull cow carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Patten, L E; Johnson, D D; Calkins, C R; Gwartney, B L

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark carcasses and muscles from commercially identified fed (animals that were perceived to have been fed an increased plane of nutrition before slaughter) and nonfed cull beef and dairy cows and A-maturity, USDA Select steers, so that the muscles could be identified from cull cow carcasses that may be used to fill a void of intermediately priced beef steaks. Carcass characteristics were measured at 24 h postmortem for 75 carcasses from 5 populations consisting of cull beef cows commercially identified as fed (B-F, n = 15); cull beef cows commercially identified as nonfed (B-NF, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as fed (D-F, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as nonfed (D-NF, n = 15); and A-maturity, USDA Select grade steers (SEL, n = 15). Nine muscles were excised from each carcass [m. infraspinatus, m. triceps brachii (lateral and long heads), m. teres major, m. longissimus dorsi (also termed LM), m. psoas major, m. gluteus medius, m. rectus femoris, and m. tensor fasciae latae] and subjected to Warner-Bratzler shear force testing and objective sensory panel evaluation after 14 d of postmortem aging. Carcass characteristics differed (P < 0.05) among the 5 commercially identified slaughter groups for the traits of lean maturity, bone maturity, muscle score, HCW, fat color, subjective lean color, marbling, ribeye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, and preliminary yield grade. Carcasses from commercially identified, fed cull cows exhibited more (P < 0.01) weight in carcass lean than did commercially identified, nonfed cull cows. There was a group x muscle interaction (P = 0.02) for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory overall tenderness values demonstrates that muscles from the SEL group were the most tender (P < 0.01), whereas muscles from the B-NF group were the least tender (P < 0.01). Sensory, beef flavor intensity was similar (P > 0.20) among cull cow carcass groups

  19. Identifying the participant characteristics that predict recruitment and retention of participants to randomised controlled trials involving children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Louise; Adair, Pauline; Coffey, Margaret; Harris, Rebecca; Burnside, Girvan

    2016-06-22

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are recommended as the 'gold standard' in evaluating health care interventions. The conduct of RCTs is often impacted by difficulties surrounding recruitment and retention of participants in both adult and child populations. Factors influencing recruitment and retention of children to RCTs can be more complex than in adults. There is little synthesised evidence of what influences participation in research involving parents and children. To identify predictors of recruitment and retention in RCTs involving children. A systematic review of RCTs was conducted to synthesise the available evidence. An electronic search strategy was applied to four databases and restricted to English language publications. Quantitative studies reporting participant predictors of recruitment and retention in RCTs involving children aged 0-12 were identified. Data was extracted and synthesised narratively. Quality assessment of articles was conducted using a structured tool developed from two existing quality evaluation checklists. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Of the 154 participant factors reported, 66 were found to be significant predictors of recruitment and retention in at least one study. These were classified as parent, child, family and neighbourhood characteristics. Parent characteristics (e.g. ethnicity, age, education, socioeconomic status (SES)) were the most commonly reported predictors of participation for both recruitment and retention. Being young, less educated, of an ethnic minority and having low SES appear to be barriers to participation in RCTs although there was little agreement between studies. When analysed according to setting and severity of the child's illness there appeared to be little variation between groups. The quality of the studies varied. Articles adhered well to reporting guidelines around provision of a scientific rationale for the study and background information as well as displaying good

  20. Key Program Features to Enhance the School-to-Career Transition for Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doren, Bonnie; Yan, Min-Chi; Tu, Wei-Mo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article was to identify key features within research-based school-to-career programs that were linked to positive employment outcomes for youth disabilities. Three key program features were identified and discussed that could be incorporated into the practices and programs of schools and communities to support the employment…

  1. Key Recommendations from the MedtecHTA Project.

    PubMed

    Tarricone, Rosanna; Torbica, Aleksandra; Drummond, Michael

    2017-02-01

    There are particular characteristics of Medical Devices, such as the device-user interaction, the incremental nature of innovation and the broader organizational impact that lead to additional challenges for health technology assessment (HTA). The project explored key aspects of the conduct and methods of HTA for MDs. Systematic reviews and original research studies were conducted to determine improvements in processes and methods that could enhance the potential for HTA and optimize the diffusion of MDs. Regulatory processes for MDs should be more closely aligned, the HTA evaluative framework should be harmonized and processes for conditional coverage and evidence development should be used. The methods for HTA should consider MDs as complex interventions, require the establishment of high quality registries, consider an iterative approach to the evaluation over time, recognize and allow for the particular characteristics of devices and use appropriate approaches for confounder adjustment in comparative effectiveness studies. To optimize the diffusion, a common classification should be developed across countries in order to facilitate international comparisons, factors driving diffusion should be explored in HTA reports and physicians' personal goals and motivation should be better understood. The key recommendations of the MedtecHTA project should improve the conduct and use of HTA for MDs. © 2017 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Characteristics of Millennial Students at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Susanne Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the degree to which Millennial students who attend two-year colleges exhibit the characteristics of the seven Millennial generation characteristics. Howe and Strauss (2007) purport that the Millennials exhibit seven key characteristics in their behavior: Special, Sheltered, Confident, Team-oriented,…

  3. Differential Effects of Monovalent Cations and Anions on Key Nanoparticle Attributes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the key particle attributes such as particle size, size distribution and surface charge of both the nano- and micron-sized particles is the first step in drug formulation as such attributes are known to directly influence several characteristics of drugs including d...

  4. Various Bee Pheromones Binding Affinity, Exclusive Chemosensillar Localization, and Key Amino Acid Sites Reveal the Distinctive Characteristics of Odorant-Binding Protein 11 in the Eastern Honey Bee, Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin-Mi; Zhang, Lin-Ya; Fu, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Fan; Tan, Jing; Li, Hong-Liang

    2018-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are the critical elements responsible for binding and transporting odors and pheromones in the sensitive olfactory system in insects. Honey bees are representative social insects that have complex odorants and pheromone communication systems relative to solitary insects. Here, we first cloned and characterized OBP11 ( AcerOBP11 ), from the worker bees antennae of Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana . Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis, most sequences homologous to AcerOBP11 belong to the typical OBPs family. The transcriptional expression profiles showed that AcerOBP11 was expressed throughout the developmental stages and highly specifically expressed in adult antennae. Using immunofluorescence localization, AcerOBP11 in worker bee's antennae was only localized in the sensilla basiconica (SB) near the fringe of each segment. Fluorescence ligand-binding assay showed that AcerOBP11 protein had strong binding affinity with the tested various bee pheromones components, including the main queen mandibular pheromones (QMPs), methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB), and ( E )-9-oxo-2-decanoic acid (9-ODA), alarm pheromone (n-hexanol), and worker pheromone components. AcerOBP11 also had strong binding affinity to plant volatiles, such as 4-Allylveratrole. Based on the docking and site-directed mutagenesis, two key amino acid residues (Ile97 and Ile140) were involved in the binding of AcerOBP11 to various bee pheromones. Taken together, we identified that AcerOBP11 was localized in a single type of antennal chemosensilla and had complex ligand-binding properties, which confer the dual-role with the primary characteristics of sensing various bee pheromones and secondary characteristics of sensing general odorants. This study not only prompts the theoretical basis of OBPs-mediated bee pheromones recognition of honey bee, but also extends the understanding of differences in pheromone communication between social and solitary insects.

  5. Identifying Key Actors in Heterogeneous Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-29

    analysis (SNA) and game theory (GT) to improve accuracy for detecting significant or “powerful” actors within a total actor space when both resource...coalesce in order to achieve a desired outcome. Cooperative game theory (CGT) models of coalition formation are based on two limiting assumptions: that...demonstration of a new approach for synthesizing social network analysis and game theory. The ultimate goal of this research agenda is to generalize

  6. Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…

  7. Active Rehabilitation-a community peer-based approach for persons with spinal cord injury: international utilisation of key elements.

    PubMed

    Divanoglou, A; Tasiemski, T; Augutis, M; Trok, K

    2017-06-01

    Active Rehabilitation (AR) is a community peer-based approach that started in Sweden in 1976. As a key component of the approach, AR training camps provide intensive, goal-oriented, intentional, group-based, customised training and peer-support opportunities in a community environment for individuals with spinal cord injury. Prospective cross-sectional study. To describe the profile of the organisations that use components of the AR approach, and to explore the characteristics and the international variations of the approach. Twenty-two organisations from 21 countries from Europe, Asia and Africa reported using components of the AR approach during the past 10 years. An electronic survey was developed and distributed through a personalised email. Sampling involved a prospective identification of organisations that met the inclusion criteria and snowball strategies. While there were many collaborating links between the organisations, RG Active Rehabilitation from Sweden and Motivation Charitable Trust from the United Kingdom were identified as key supporting organisations. The 10 key elements of the AR approach were found to be used uniformly across the participating organisations. Small variations were associated with variations in country income and key supporting organisation. This is the first study to describe the key elements and international variations of the AR approach. This will provide the basis for further studies exploring the effectiveness of the approach, it will likely facilitate international collaboration on research and operational aspects and it could potentially support higher integration in the health-care system and long-term funding of these programmes.

  8. Identifying Characteristics of a "Good School" in the British and Saudi Arabian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzahrani, Saeed Musaid H.; Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda; Bright, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at establishing whether primary schools in the Saudi education system conform to the characteristics of what are referred to as "good schools" in the British education system. The findings established through this study show that only 43.75% of primary schools in Saudi conform to the characteristics of what are referred…

  9. Real-Time Biologically Inspired Action Recognition from Key Poses Using a Neuromorphic Architecture.

    PubMed

    Layher, Georg; Brosch, Tobias; Neumann, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent agents, such as robots, have to serve a multitude of autonomous functions. Examples are, e.g., collision avoidance, navigation and route planning, active sensing of its environment, or the interaction and non-verbal communication with people in the extended reach space. Here, we focus on the recognition of the action of a human agent based on a biologically inspired visual architecture of analyzing articulated movements. The proposed processing architecture builds upon coarsely segregated streams of sensory processing along different pathways which separately process form and motion information (Layher et al., 2014). Action recognition is performed in an event-based scheme by identifying representations of characteristic pose configurations (key poses) in an image sequence. In line with perceptual studies, key poses are selected unsupervised utilizing a feature-driven criterion which combines extrema in the motion energy with the horizontal and the vertical extendedness of a body shape. Per class representations of key pose frames are learned using a deep convolutional neural network consisting of 15 convolutional layers. The network is trained using the energy-efficient deep neuromorphic networks ( Eedn ) framework (Esser et al., 2016), which realizes the mapping of the trained synaptic weights onto the IBM Neurosynaptic System platform (Merolla et al., 2014). After the mapping, the trained network achieves real-time capabilities for processing input streams and classify input images at about 1,000 frames per second while the computational stages only consume about 70 mW of energy (without spike transduction). Particularly regarding mobile robotic systems, a low energy profile might be crucial in a variety of application scenarios. Cross-validation results are reported for two different datasets and compared to state-of-the-art action recognition approaches. The results demonstrate, that (I) the presented approach is on par with other key pose based

  10. Real-Time Biologically Inspired Action Recognition from Key Poses Using a Neuromorphic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Layher, Georg; Brosch, Tobias; Neumann, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent agents, such as robots, have to serve a multitude of autonomous functions. Examples are, e.g., collision avoidance, navigation and route planning, active sensing of its environment, or the interaction and non-verbal communication with people in the extended reach space. Here, we focus on the recognition of the action of a human agent based on a biologically inspired visual architecture of analyzing articulated movements. The proposed processing architecture builds upon coarsely segregated streams of sensory processing along different pathways which separately process form and motion information (Layher et al., 2014). Action recognition is performed in an event-based scheme by identifying representations of characteristic pose configurations (key poses) in an image sequence. In line with perceptual studies, key poses are selected unsupervised utilizing a feature-driven criterion which combines extrema in the motion energy with the horizontal and the vertical extendedness of a body shape. Per class representations of key pose frames are learned using a deep convolutional neural network consisting of 15 convolutional layers. The network is trained using the energy-efficient deep neuromorphic networks (Eedn) framework (Esser et al., 2016), which realizes the mapping of the trained synaptic weights onto the IBM Neurosynaptic System platform (Merolla et al., 2014). After the mapping, the trained network achieves real-time capabilities for processing input streams and classify input images at about 1,000 frames per second while the computational stages only consume about 70 mW of energy (without spike transduction). Particularly regarding mobile robotic systems, a low energy profile might be crucial in a variety of application scenarios. Cross-validation results are reported for two different datasets and compared to state-of-the-art action recognition approaches. The results demonstrate, that (I) the presented approach is on par with other key pose based

  11. A New Species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Kalimantan, Indonesia, With Keys to Identify 19 Bornean Species of the Subgenus Gomphostilbia.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Harmonis

    2016-07-01

    A new simuliid species, Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov., is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and is assigned to the Simulium banauense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). This new species has close similarities to S alienigenum Takaoka from the Philippines, in many characters including the adult antennal color pattern and pupal gill with four long filaments arranged in two pairs each bearing a long stalk, but is distinguished from the latter in the female by the longer sensory vesicle and in the pupa by the gill with an elongate common basal stalk. Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov. is the first member of the S. banauense group in Borneo, and marks the most southerly distribution of the group. Keys to identify 19 Bornean species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia are provided. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Study of the scientific reasoning methods: Identifying the salient reasoning characteristics exhibited by engineers and scientists in an R&D environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, William F.

    At the core of what it means to be a scientist or engineer is the ability to think rationally using scientific reasoning methods. Yet, typically if asked, scientist and engineers are hard press for a reply what that means. Some may argue that the meaning of scientific reasoning methods is a topic for the philosophers and psychologist, but this study believes and will prove that the answers lie with the scientists and engineers, for who really know the workings of the scientific reasoning thought process than they. This study will provide evidence to the aims: (a) determine the fundamental characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists working in R&D projects, (b) sample the engineer/scientist community to determine their views as to the importance, frequency, and ranking of each of characteristics towards benefiting their R&D projects, (c) make concluding remarks regarding any identified competency gaps in the exhibited or expected cognitive reasoning methods of engineer/scientists working on R&D projects. To drive these aims are the following three research questions. The first, what are the salient characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists in an R&D environment? The second, what do engineer/scientists consider to be the frequency and importance of the salient cognitive reasoning methods characteristics? And the third, to what extent, if at all, do patent holders and technical fellows differ with regard to their perceptions of the importance and frequency of the salient cognitive reasoning characteristics of engineer/scientists? The methodology and empirical approach utilized and described: (a) literature search, (b) Delphi technique composed of seven highly distinguish engineer/scientists, (c) survey instrument directed to distinguish Technical Fellowship, (d) data collection analysis. The results provide by Delphi Team answered the first research question. The collaborative effort validated

  13. Diagnosing climate change impacts and identifying adaptation strategies by involving key stakeholder organisations and farmers in Sikkim, India: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Azhoni, Adani; Goyal, Manish Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Narrowing the gap between research, policy making and implementing adaptation remains a challenge in many parts of the world where climate change is likely to severely impact water security. This research aims to narrow this gap by matching the adaptation strategies being framed by policy makers to that of the perspectives of development agencies, researchers and farmers in the Himalayan state of Sikkim in India. Our case study examined the perspectives of various stakeholders for climate change impacts, current adaptation strategies, knowledge gaps and adaptation barriers, particularly in the context of implementing the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change through semi-structured interviews carried out with decision makers in the Sikkim State Government, researchers, consultants, local academia, development agencies and farmers. Using Stakeholders Network Analysis tools, this research unravels the complexities of perceiving climate change impacts, identifying strategies, and implementing adaptation. While farmers are less aware about the global phenomenon of climate change impacts for water security, their knowledge of the local conditions and their close interaction with the State Government Agriculture Department provides them opportunities. Although important steps are being initiated through the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change it is yet to deliver effective means of adaptation implementation and hence, strengthening the networks of close coordination between the various implementing agencies will pay dividends. Knowledge gaps and the need for capacity building identified in this research, based on the understandings of key stakeholders are highly relevant to both the research community and for informing policy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Are there pollination syndromes in the Australian epacrids (Ericaceae: Styphelioideae)? A novel statistical method to identify key floral traits per syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Convergent floral traits hypothesized as attracting particular pollinators are known as pollination syndromes. Floral diversity suggests that the Australian epacrid flora may be adapted to pollinator type. Currently there are empirical data on the pollination systems for 87 species (approx. 15 % of Australian epacrids). This provides an opportunity to test for pollination syndromes and their important morphological traits in an iconic element of the Australian flora. Methods Data on epacrid–pollinator relationships were obtained from published literature and field observation. A multivariate approach was used to test whether epacrid floral attributes related to pollinator profiles. Statistical classification was then used to rank floral attributes according to their predictive value. Data sets excluding mixed pollination systems were used to test the predictive power of statistical classification to identify pollination models. Key Results Floral attributes are correlated with bird, fly and bee pollination. Using floral attributes identified as correlating with pollinator type, bird pollination is classified with 86 % accuracy, red flowers being the most important predictor. Fly and bee pollination are classified with 78 and 69 % accuracy, but have a lack of individually important floral predictors. Excluding mixed pollination systems improved the accuracy of the prediction of both bee and fly pollination systems. Conclusions Although most epacrids have generalized pollination systems, a correlation between bird pollination and red, long-tubed epacrids is found. Statistical classification highlights the relative importance of each floral attribute in relation to pollinator type and proves useful in classifying epacrids to bird, fly and bee pollination systems. PMID:23681546

  15. Tag Content Access Control with Identity-based Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Rong, Chunming

    2010-09-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that used to identify objects and users has been applied to many applications such retail and supply chain recently. How to prevent tag content from unauthorized readout is a core problem of RFID privacy issues. Hash-lock access control protocol can make tag to release its content only to reader who knows the secret key shared between them. However, in order to get this shared secret key required by this protocol, reader needs to communicate with a back end database. In this paper, we propose to use identity-based secret key exchange approach to generate the secret key required for hash-lock access control protocol. With this approach, not only back end database connection is not needed anymore, but also tag cloning problem can be eliminated at the same time.

  16. The Key Roles in the Informal Organization: A Network Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Toni, Alberto F.; Nonino, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the key roles embedded in the informal organizational structure (informal networks) and to outline their contribution in the companies' performance. A major objective of the research is to find and characterize a new key informal role that synthesises problem solving, expertise, and accessibility…

  17. Consumer perception, facts and possibilities to improve acceptability of health and sensory characteristics of pork.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, W; Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Viaene, J; Boucqué, C V

    1999-10-01

    Changes at consumer level, as well as an image decline of the meat sector, resulted in considerable decreases of fresh meat consumption. Consumer orientation is considered as a prerequisite to slow down or reverse the adverse fresh pork consumption evolution. Consumer perception of pork is taken as the starting point of this article. Focus is first on assessing differences between facts related to nutritional value and healthiness aspects of pork and their perception by Belgian meat consumers. Second, possibilities of improving pork characteristics are identified. Pork is perceived worst as compared to beef and poultry on the attributes leanness, healthiness, taste and tenderness. Consumer-oriented response strategies should focus at improving these intrinsic quality characteristics, before other elements like traceability, labelling or marketing can be implemented successfully. The possibilities to improve nutritional value, healthiness and sensory characteristics pertain to selection, pig diet composition, transport, slaughter and post-slaughter circumstances. A successful adoption of consumer orientation urges for co-operation throughout the entire pork production chain. The identified topics are key attention points for adequate production and marketing by the pork sector, as well as for consequent communication by government and public services.

  18. Metabolic characteristics of dominant microbes and key rare species from an acidic hot spring in Taiwan revealed by metagenomics

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Kuei -Han; Liao, Ben -Yang; Chang, Hao -Wei; ...

    2015-12-03

    Microbial diversity and community structures in acidic hot springs have been characterized by 16S rRNA gene-based diversity surveys. However, our understanding regarding the interactions among microbes, or between microbes and environmental factors, remains limited. In the present study, a metagenomic approach, followed by bioinformatics analyses, were used to predict interactions within the microbial ecosystem in Shi-Huang-Ping (SHP), an acidic hot spring in northern Taiwan. Characterizing environmental parameters and potential metabolic pathways highlighted the importance of carbon assimilatory pathways. Four distinct carbon assimilatory pathways were identified in five dominant genera of bacteria. Of those dominant carbon fixers, Hydrogenobaculum bacteria outcompeted othermore » carbon assimilators and dominated the SHP, presumably due to their ability to metabolize hydrogen and to withstand an anaerobic environment with fluctuating temperatures. Furthermore, most dominant microbes were capable of metabolizing inorganic sulfur-related compounds (abundant in SHP). However, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the only species among key rare microbes with the capability to fix nitrogen, suggesting a key role in nitrogen cycling. In addition to potential metabolic interactions, based on the 16S rRNAs gene sequence of Nanoarchaeum-related and its potential host Ignicoccus-related archaea, as well as sequences of viruses and CRISPR arrays, we inferred that there were complex microbe-microbe interactions. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that there were numerous microbe-microbe and microbe-environment interactions within the microbial community in an acidic hot spring. We proposed that Hydrogenobaculum bacteria were the dominant microbial genus, as they were able to metabolize hydrogen, assimilate carbon and live in an anaerobic environment with fluctuating temperatures.« less

  19. Metabolic characteristics of dominant microbes and key rare species from an acidic hot spring in Taiwan revealed by metagenomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Kuei -Han; Liao, Ben -Yang; Chang, Hao -Wei

    Microbial diversity and community structures in acidic hot springs have been characterized by 16S rRNA gene-based diversity surveys. However, our understanding regarding the interactions among microbes, or between microbes and environmental factors, remains limited. In the present study, a metagenomic approach, followed by bioinformatics analyses, were used to predict interactions within the microbial ecosystem in Shi-Huang-Ping (SHP), an acidic hot spring in northern Taiwan. Characterizing environmental parameters and potential metabolic pathways highlighted the importance of carbon assimilatory pathways. Four distinct carbon assimilatory pathways were identified in five dominant genera of bacteria. Of those dominant carbon fixers, Hydrogenobaculum bacteria outcompeted othermore » carbon assimilators and dominated the SHP, presumably due to their ability to metabolize hydrogen and to withstand an anaerobic environment with fluctuating temperatures. Furthermore, most dominant microbes were capable of metabolizing inorganic sulfur-related compounds (abundant in SHP). However, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the only species among key rare microbes with the capability to fix nitrogen, suggesting a key role in nitrogen cycling. In addition to potential metabolic interactions, based on the 16S rRNAs gene sequence of Nanoarchaeum-related and its potential host Ignicoccus-related archaea, as well as sequences of viruses and CRISPR arrays, we inferred that there were complex microbe-microbe interactions. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that there were numerous microbe-microbe and microbe-environment interactions within the microbial community in an acidic hot spring. We proposed that Hydrogenobaculum bacteria were the dominant microbial genus, as they were able to metabolize hydrogen, assimilate carbon and live in an anaerobic environment with fluctuating temperatures.« less

  20. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  1. Identifying potential habitat for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duarte, Adam; Wolcott, Daniel M.; Chow, T. Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26 km2 of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat when weighting each factor equally. This study reports a habitat suitability map for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics, which can be used to assist current and future recovery efforts for the species.

  2. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  3. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    PubMed

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Co-extinction in a host-parasite network: identifying key hosts for network stability.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Tad; Cornelius, Emily

    2015-08-17

    Parasites comprise a substantial portion of total biodiversity. Ultimately, this means that host extinction could result in many secondary extinctions of obligate parasites and potentially alter host-parasite network structure. Here, we examined a highly resolved fish-parasite network to determine key hosts responsible for maintaining parasite diversity and network structure (quantified here as nestedness and modularity). We evaluated four possible host extinction orders and compared the resulting co-extinction dynamics to random extinction simulations; including host removal based on estimated extinction risk, parasite species richness and host level contributions to nestedness and modularity. We found that all extinction orders, except the one based on realistic extinction risk, resulted in faster declines in parasite diversity and network structure relative to random biodiversity loss. Further, we determined species-level contributions to network structure were best predicted by parasite species richness and host family. Taken together, we demonstrate that a small proportion of hosts contribute substantially to network structure and that removal of these hosts results in rapid declines in parasite diversity and network structure. As network stability can potentially be inferred through measures of network structure, our findings may provide insight into species traits that confer stability.

  5. Paving the Way to Successful Implementation: Identifying Key Barriers to Use of Technology-Based Therapeutic Tools for Behavioral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Alex; Lord, Sarah; Torrey, John; Marsch, Lisa; Lardiere, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers to use of technology for behavioral health care from the perspective of care decision makers at community behavioral health organizations. As part of a larger survey of technology readiness, 260 care decision makers completed an open-ended question about perceived barriers to use of technology. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), qualitative analyses yielded barrier themes related to characteristics of technology (e.g., cost and privacy), potential end users (e.g., technology literacy and attitudes about technology), organization structure and climate (e.g., budget and infrastructure), and factors external to organizations (e.g., broadband accessibility and reimbursement policies). Number of reported barriers was higher among respondents representing agencies with lower annual budgets and smaller client bases relative to higher budget, larger clientele organizations. Individual barriers were differentially associated with budget, size of client base, and geographic location. Results are discussed in light of implementation science frameworks and proactive strategies to address perceived obstacles to adoption and use of technology-based behavioral health tools.

  6. Paving the Way to Successful Implementation: Identifying Key Barriers to Use of Technology-Based Therapeutic Tools for Behavioral Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Alex; Lord, Sarah; Torrey, John; Marsch, Lisa; Lardiere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers to use of technology for behavioral health care from the perspective of care decision-makers at community behavioral health organizations. As part of a larger survey of technology readiness, 260 care decision-makers completed an open-ended question about perceived barriers to use of technology. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), qualitative analyses yielded barrier themes related to characteristics of technology (e.g., cost, privacy), potential end-users (e.g., technology literacy, attitudes about technology), organization structure and climate (e.g., budget, infrastructure), and factors external to organizations (e.g., broadband accessibility, reimbursement policies). Number of reported barriers was higher among respondents representing agencies with lower annual budgets and smaller client bases relative to higher budget, larger clientele organizations. Individual barriers were differentially associated with budget, size of client base, and geographic location. Results are discussed in light of implementation science frameworks and proactive strategies to address perceived obstacles to adoption and use of technology-based behavioral health tools. PMID:25192755

  7. A Dichotomous Key to Tree Cones and Fruits of the Eastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda T.

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a dichotomous key to 29 tree cones, fruits, and nuts of eastern United States. Students can use the key to identify at least 10 species in a 1-hour laboratory assignment. This key uses reproductive structures that are significantly different from others. These structures are durable enough to be used in the laboratory for many…

  8. Key Stage 3 Pupils' Views about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in literacy teaching have tended to target the needs of primary, rather than high school pupils and focus on technical, rather than affective aspects of reading. This paper describes a questionnaire-based study undertaken to identify perceptions and views held by Key Stage 3 readers of different ages, genders and abilities.…

  9. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Jet Fuels. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Ellen; Naik, Chitral V.; Puduppakkam, Karthik V.; Modak, Abhijit; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, Theo; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of jet fuels and appropriately associated model fuels. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels and biomass-derived jet fuels that meet certain specifications of currently used jet propulsion applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multidimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in real combustors. Such reliable kinetic models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal combustors and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics.

  10. Non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for car-key applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Hehn, T.; Thewes, M.; Kuehne, I.; Frey, A.; Scholl, G.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for application in a remote car-key, to extend the lifetime of the battery or even to realize a fully energy autonomous, maintenance-free car-key product. Characteristic for a car-key are low frequency and large amplitude motions during normal daily operation. The basic idea of this non-resonant generator is to use a round flat permanent magnet moving freely in a round flat cavity, which is packaged on both sides by printed circuit boards embedded with multi-layer copper coils. The primary goal of this structure is to easily integrate the energy harvester with the existing electrical circuit module into available commercial car-key designs. The whole size of the energy harvester is comparable to a CR2032 coin battery. To find out the best power-efficient and optimal design, several magnets with different dimensions and magnetizations, and various layouts of copper coils were analysed and built up for prototype testing. Experimental results show that with an axially magnetized NdFeB magnet and copper coils of design variant B a maximum open circuit voltage of 1.1V can be observed.

  11. Characteristic odor of Osmoderma eremita identified as a male-released pheromone.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Mattias C; Hedin, Jonas; Svensson, Glenn P; Tolasch, Till; Francke, Wittko

    2003-03-01

    Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli) is an endangered scarab beetle living in hollow trees. It has mainly been known for its characteristic odor, typically described as a fruity, peachlike or plumlike aroma. The odor emanating from a single beetle can sometimes be perceived from a distance of several meters. In this paper, we show that the characteristic odor from O. eremita is caused by the compound (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone, released in large quantities mainly or exclusively by male beetles. Antennae from male and female beetles responded in a similar way to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone in electroantennographic recordings. Field trapping experiments showed that (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone is a pheromone attracting female beetles. Lactones similar to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone are frequently used as female-released sex pheromones by phytophagous scarabs. This is, however, the first evidence of a lactone used as a male-produced pheromone in scarab beetles. We propose that the strong signal from males is a sexually selected trait used to compete for females and matings. The signal could work within trees but also act as a guide to tree hollows, which are an essential resource for O. eremita. Males may, thus, attract females dispersing from their natal tree by advertising a suitable habitat. This signal could also be exploited by other males searching for tree hollows or for females, which would explain the catch of several males in our traps.

  12. For the General Internist: A Summary of Key Innovations in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Roy, Brita; Chheda, Shobhina G; Bates, Carol; Dunn, Kathel; Karani, Reena; Willett, Lisa L

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a review of published medical education articles to identify high-quality research and innovation relevant to educators in general medicine. Our review team consisted of six general internists with expertise in medical education and a professional medical librarian. We manually searched 15 journals in pairs (a total of 3062 citations) for original research articles in medical education published in 2014. Each pair of reviewers independently rated the relevance, importance, and generalizability of articles on medical education in their assigned journals using a 27-point scale (maximum of 9 points for each characteristic). From this list, each team member independently reviewed the 22 articles that received a score of 20 or higher from both initial reviewers, and for each selected article rated the quality and global relevance for the generalist educator. We included the seven top-rated articles for presentation in this review, and categorized the studies into four general themes: continuity clinic scheduling, remediation, interprofessional education, and quality improvement and patient safety. We summarized key findings and identified significant limitations of each study. Further studies assessing patient outcomes are needed to strengthen the literature in medical education. This summary of relevant medical education articles can inform future research, teaching, and practice.

  13. Key considerations in designing a patient navigation program for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    DeGroff, Amy; Coa, Kisha; Morrissey, Kerry Grace; Rohan, Elizabeth; Slotman, Beth

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among those cancers affecting both men and women. Screening is known to reduce mortality by detecting cancer early and through colonoscopy, removing precancerous polyps. Only 58.6% of adults are currently up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening by any method. Patient navigation shows promise in increasing adherence to colorectal cancer screening and reducing health disparities; however, it is a complex intervention that is operationalized differently across institutions. This article describes 10 key considerations in designing a patient navigation intervention for colorectal cancer screening based on a literature review and environmental scan. Factors include (1) identifying a theoretical framework and setting program goals, (2) specifying community characteristics, (3) establishing the point(s) of intervention within the cancer continuum, (4) determining the setting in which navigation services are provided, (5) identifying the range of services offered and patient navigator responsibilities, (6) determining the background and qualifications of navigators, (7) selecting the method of communications between patients and navigators, (8) designing the navigator training, (9) defining oversight and supervision for the navigators, and (10) evaluating patient navigation. Public health practitioners can benefit from the practical perspective offered here for designing patient navigation programs. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Lifelong Learning Key Competence Levels of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adabas, Abdurrahman; Kaygin, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The European Union defines lifelong learning as all activities aimed at improving an individual's knowledge, skills and competences individually, socially or vocationally throughout his/her life. In 2007, eight key competences necessary for lifelong learning were identified by the European Union Education and Culture Commission. These competences…

  15. Identifying Opportunities for Vertical Integration of Biochemistry and Clinical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wendelberger, Karen J.; Burke, Rebecca; Haas, Arthur L.; Harenwattananon, Marisa; Simpson, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: Retention of basic science knowledge, as judged by National Board of Medical Examiners' (NBME) data, suffers due to lack of apparent relevance and isolation of instruction from clinical application, especially in biochemistry. However, the literature reveals no systematic process for identifying key biochemical concepts and associated clinical conditions. This study systematically identified difficult biochemical concepts and their common clinical conditions as a critical step towards enhancing relevance and retention of biochemistry.Methods: A multi-step/ multiple stakeholder process was used to: (1) identify important biochemistry concepts; (2) determine students' perceptions of concept difficulty; (3) assess biochemistry faculty, student, and clinical teaching scholars' perceived relevance of identified concepts; and (4) identify associated common clinical conditions for relevant and difficult concepts. Surveys and a modified Delphi process were used to gather data, subsequently analyzed using SPSS for Windows.Results: Sixteen key biochemical concepts were identified. Second year medical students rated 14/16 concepts as extremely difficult while fourth year students rated nine concepts as moderately to extremely difficult. On average, each teaching scholar generated common clinical conditions for 6.2 of the 16 concepts, yielding a set of seven critical concepts and associated clinical conditions.Conclusions: Key stakeholders in the instructional process struggle to identify biochemistry concepts that are critical, difficult to learn and associated with common clinical conditions. However, through a systematic process beginning with identification of concepts and associated clinical conditions, relevance of basic science instruction can be enhanced.

  16. The Future of Government Funding for Persons with Disabilities: Some Key Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Clarke

    1980-01-01

    The paper identifies and discusses key factors associated with government funding for disabled individuals. An introductory section traces the growth of public expenditures in recent years. Five key factors affecting government funding are examined (sample subtopics in parentheses): state government tax and spending limits (Proposition 13 and the…

  17. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  18. Hard, harder, hardest: principal stratification, statistical identifiability, and the inherent difficulty of finding surrogate endpoints.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Julian; Henn, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In many areas of clinical investigation there is great interest in identifying and validating surrogate endpoints, biomarkers that can be measured a relatively short time after a treatment has been administered and that can reliably predict the effect of treatment on the clinical outcome of interest. However, despite dramatic advances in the ability to measure biomarkers, the recent history of clinical research is littered with failed surrogates. In this paper, we present a statistical perspective on why identifying surrogate endpoints is so difficult. We view the problem from the framework of causal inference, with a particular focus on the technique of principal stratification (PS), an approach which is appealing because the resulting estimands are not biased by unmeasured confounding. In many settings, PS estimands are not statistically identifiable and their degree of non-identifiability can be thought of as representing the statistical difficulty of assessing the surrogate value of a biomarker. In this work, we examine the identifiability issue and present key simplifying assumptions and enhanced study designs that enable the partial or full identification of PS estimands. We also present example situations where these assumptions and designs may or may not be feasible, providing insight into the problem characteristics which make the statistical evaluation of surrogate endpoints so challenging.

  19. Hard, harder, hardest: principal stratification, statistical identifiability, and the inherent difficulty of finding surrogate endpoints

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In many areas of clinical investigation there is great interest in identifying and validating surrogate endpoints, biomarkers that can be measured a relatively short time after a treatment has been administered and that can reliably predict the effect of treatment on the clinical outcome of interest. However, despite dramatic advances in the ability to measure biomarkers, the recent history of clinical research is littered with failed surrogates. In this paper, we present a statistical perspective on why identifying surrogate endpoints is so difficult. We view the problem from the framework of causal inference, with a particular focus on the technique of principal stratification (PS), an approach which is appealing because the resulting estimands are not biased by unmeasured confounding. In many settings, PS estimands are not statistically identifiable and their degree of non-identifiability can be thought of as representing the statistical difficulty of assessing the surrogate value of a biomarker. In this work, we examine the identifiability issue and present key simplifying assumptions and enhanced study designs that enable the partial or full identification of PS estimands. We also present example situations where these assumptions and designs may or may not be feasible, providing insight into the problem characteristics which make the statistical evaluation of surrogate endpoints so challenging. PMID:25342953

  20. Starting Vortex Identified as Key to Unsteady Ejector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    Unsteady ejectors are currently under investigation for use in some pulse-detonation-engine-based propulsion systems. Experimental measurements made in the past, and recently at the NASA Glenn Research Center, have demonstrated that thrust augmentation can be enhanced considerably when the driver is unsteady. In ejector systems, thrust augmentation is defined as = T(sup Total)/T(sup j), where T(sup Total) is the total thrust of the combined ejector and driving jet and T(sup j) is the thrust due to the driving jet alone. There are three images in this figure, one for each of the named thrust sources. The images are color contours of measured instantaneous vorticity. Each image is an ensemble average of at least 150 phase-locked measurements. The flow is from right to left, and the shape and location of each driver is shown on the far right of each image. The emitted vortex is a clearly defined "doughnut" of highly vortical (spinning) flow. In these planar images, the vortex appears as two distorted circles, one above, and one below the axis of symmetry. Because they are spinning in the opposite direction, the two circles have vorticity of opposite sign and thus are different colors. There is also a rectangle shown in each image. Its width represents the ejector diameter that was found experimentally to yield the highest thrust augmentation. It is apparent that the optimal ejector diameter is that which just "captures" the vortex: that is, the diameter bounding the outermost edge of the vortex structure. The exact mechanism behind the enhanced performance is unclear; however, it is believed to be related to the powerful vortex emitted with each pulse of the unsteady driver. As such, particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were obtained for three unsteady drivers: a pulsejet, a resonance tube, and a speaker-driven jet. All the drivers were tested with ejectors, and all exhibited performance enhancement over similarly sized steady drivers. The characteristic

  1. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-12-15

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographicmore » context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.« less

  2. Key Elements of Clinical Physician Leadership at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Dine, C. Jessica; Kahn, Jeremy M; Abella, Benjamin S; Asch, David A; Shea, Judy A

    2011-01-01

    Background A considerable body of literature in the management sciences has defined leadership and how leadership skills can be attained. There is considerably less literature about leadership within medical settings. Physicians-in-training are frequently placed in leadership positions ranging from running a clinical team or overseeing a resuscitation effort. However, physicians-in-training rarely receive such training. The objective of this study was to discover characteristics associated with effective physician leadership at an academic medical center for future development of such training. Methods We conducted focus groups with medical professionals (attending physicians, residents, and nurses) at an academic medical center. The focus group discussion script was designed to elicit participants' perceptions of qualities necessary for physician leadership. The lead question asked participants to imagine a scenario in which they either acted as or observed a physician leader. Two independent reviewers reviewed transcripts to identify key domains of physician leadership. Results Although the context was not specified, the focus group participants discussed leadership in the context of a clinical team. They identified 4 important themes: management of the team, establishing a vision, communication, and personal attributes. Conclusions Physician leadership exists in clinical settings. This study highlights the elements essential to that leadership. Understanding the physician attributes and behaviors that result in effective leadership and teamwork can lay the groundwork for more formal leadership education for physicians-in-training. PMID:22379520

  3. Imaging Characteristics of Pathologically Proven Thymic Hyperplasia: Identifying Features That Can Differentiate True From Lymphoid Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Tetsuro; Sholl, Lynette M.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Nishino, Mizuki

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to investigate the imaging characteristics of pathologically proven thymic hyperplasia and to identify features that can differentiate true hyperplasia from lymphoid hyperplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-one patients (nine men and 22 women; age range, 20–68 years) with pathologically confirmed thymic hyperplasia (18 true and 13 lymphoid) who underwent preoperative CT (n = 27), PET/CT (n = 5), or MRI (n = 6) were studied. The length and thickness of each thymic lobe and the transverse and anterior-posterior diameters and attenuation of the thymus were measured on CT. Thymic morphologic features and heterogeneity on CT and chemical shift on MRI were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake values were measured on PET. Imaging features between true and lymphoid hyperplasia were compared. RESULTS No significant differences were observed between true and lymphoid hyperplasia in terms of thymic length, thickness, diameters, morphologic features, and other qualitative features (p > 0.16). The length, thickness, and diameters of thymic hyperplasia were significantly larger than the mean values of normal glands in the corresponding age group (p < 0.001). CT attenuation of lymphoid hyperplasia was significantly higher than that of true hyperplasia among 15 patients with contrast-enhanced CT (median, 47.9 vs 31.4 HU; Wilcoxon p = 0.03). The receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded greater than 41.2 HU as the optimal threshold for differentiating lymphoid hyperplasia from true hyperplasia, with 83% sensitivity and 89% specificity. A decrease of signal intensity on opposed-phase images was present in all four cases with in- and opposed-phase imaging. The mean maximum standardized uptake value was 2.66. CONCLUSION CT attenuation of the thymus was significantly higher in lymphoid hyperplasia than in true hyperplasia, with an optimal threshold of greater than 41.2 HU in this cohort of patients with pathologically confirmed

  4. Clinical Characteristics of Exacerbation-Prone Adult Asthmatics Identified by Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ae; Shin, Seung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Chang, Hun Soo; Bae, Da Jeong; Cho, You Sook; Park, Hae Sim; Yoon, Ho Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation. A uniform cluster analysis method was applied to 259 adult asthmatics who were regularly followed-up for over 1 year using 12 variables, selected on the basis of their contribution to asthma phenotypes. After clustering, clinical profiles and exacerbation rates during follow-up were compared among the clusters. Four subphenotypes were identified: cluster 1 was comprised of patients with early-onset atopic asthma with preserved lung function, cluster 2 late-onset non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, cluster 3 early-onset atopic asthma with severely impaired lung function, and cluster 4 late-onset non-atopic asthma with well-preserved lung function. The patients in clusters 2 and 3 were identified as exacerbation-prone asthmatics, showing a higher risk of asthma exacerbation. Two different phenotypes of exacerbation-prone asthma were identified among Korean asthmatics using cluster analysis; both were characterized by impaired lung function, but the age at asthma onset and atopic status were different between the two. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  5. Characteristic Sizes of Life in the Oceans, from Bacteria to Whales.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K H; Berge, T; Gonçalves, R J; Hartvig, M; Heuschele, J; Hylander, S; Jacobsen, N S; Lindemann, C; Martens, E A; Neuheimer, A B; Olsson, K; Palacz, A; Prowe, A E F; Sainmont, J; Traving, S J; Visser, A W; Wadhwa, N; Kiørboe, T

    2016-01-01

    The size of an individual organism is a key trait to characterize its physiology and feeding ecology. Size-based scaling laws may have a limited size range of validity or undergo a transition from one scaling exponent to another at some characteristic size. We collate and review data on size-based scaling laws for resource acquisition, mobility, sensory range, and progeny size for all pelagic marine life, from bacteria to whales. Further, we review and develop simple theoretical arguments for observed scaling laws and the characteristic sizes of a change or breakdown of power laws. We divide life in the ocean into seven major realms based on trophic strategy, physiology, and life history strategy. Such a categorization represents a move away from a taxonomically oriented description toward a trait-based description of life in the oceans. Finally, we discuss life forms that transgress the simple size-based rules and identify unanswered questions.

  6. A Key Establishment Protocol for RFID User in IPTV Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae; Sohn, Jae-Min; Park, Gil-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Ho

    In recent years, the usage of IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) has been increased. The reason is a technological convergence of broadcasting and telecommunication delivering interactive applications and multimedia content through high speed Internet connections. The main critical point of IPTV security requirements is subscriber authentication. That is, IPTV service should have the capability to identify the subscribers to prohibit illegal access. Currently, IPTV service does not provide a sound authentication mechanism to verify the identity of its wireless users (or devices). This paper focuses on a lightweight authentication and key establishment protocol based on the use of hash functions. The proposed approach provides effective authentication for a mobile user with a RFID tag whose authentication information is communicated back and forth with the IPTV authentication server via IPTV set-top box (STB). That is, the proposed protocol generates user's authentication information that is a bundle of two public keys derived from hashing user's private keys and RFID tag's session identifier, and adds 1bit to this bundled information for subscriber's information confidentiality before passing it to the authentication server.

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies three key loci for high mesocarp oil content in perennial crop oil palm.

    PubMed

    Teh, Chee-Keng; Ong, Ai-Ling; Kwong, Qi-Bin; Apparow, Sukganah; Chew, Fook-Tim; Mayes, Sean; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Appleton, David; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2016-01-08

    GWAS in out-crossing perennial crops is typically limited by insufficient marker density to account for population diversity and effects of population structure resulting in high false positive rates. The perennial crop oil palm is the most productive oil crop. We performed GWAS for oil-to-dry-mesocarp content (O/DM) on 2,045 genotyped tenera palms using 200K SNPs that were selected based on the short-range linkage disequilibrium distance, which is inherent with long breeding cycles and heterogeneous breeding populations. Eighty loci were significantly associated with O/DM (p ≤ 10(-4)) and three key signals were found. We then evaluated the progeny of a Deli x AVROS breeding trial and a 4% higher O/DM was observed amongst those having the beneficial genotypes at two of the three key loci (p < 0.05). We have initiated MAS and large-scale planting of elite dura and pisifera parents to generate the new commercial tenera palms with higher O/DM potential.

  8. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA with 128, 192, and 256-Bit Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Junko; Fukunaga, Toshinori

    This paper describes a differential fault analysis (DFA) attack against CLEFIA. The proposed attack can be applied to CLEFIA with all supported keys: 128, 192, and 256-bit keys. DFA is a type of side-channel attack. This attack enables the recovery of secret keys by injecting faults into a secure device during its computation of the cryptographic algorithm and comparing the correct ciphertext with the faulty one. CLEFIA is a 128-bit blockcipher with 128, 192, and 256-bit keys developed by the Sony Corporation in 2007. CLEFIA employs a generalized Feistel structure with four data lines. We developed a new attack method that uses this characteristic structure of the CLEFIA algorithm. On the basis of the proposed attack, only 2 pairs of correct and faulty ciphertexts are needed to retrieve the 128-bit key, and 10.78 pairs on average are needed to retrieve the 192 and 256-bit keys. The proposed attack is more efficient than any previously reported. In order to verify the proposed attack and estimate the calculation time to recover the secret key, we conducted an attack simulation using a PC. The simulation results show that we can obtain each secret key within three minutes on average. This result shows that we can obtain the entire key within a feasible computational time.

  9. Simulation-based Assessment to Reliably Identify Key Resident Performance Attributes.

    PubMed

    Blum, Richard H; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Boulet, John R; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Petrusa, Emil R; Baker, Keith H; Davidyuk, Galina; Dearden, Jennifer L; Feinstein, David M; Jones, Stephanie B; Kimball, William R; Mitchell, John D; Nadelberg, Robert L; Wiser, Sarah H; Albrecht, Meredith A; Anastasi, Amanda K; Bose, Ruma R; Chang, Laura Y; Culley, Deborah J; Fisher, Lauren J; Grover, Meera; Klainer, Suzanne B; Kveraga, Rikante; Martel, Jeffrey P; McKenna, Shannon S; Minehart, Rebecca D; Mitchell, John D; Mountjoy, Jeremi R; Pawlowski, John B; Pilon, Robert N; Shook, Douglas C; Silver, David A; Warfield, Carol A; Zaleski, Katherine L

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining reliable and valid information on resident performance is critical to patient safety and training program improvement. The goals were to characterize important anesthesia resident performance gaps that are not typically evaluated, and to further validate scores from a multiscenario simulation-based assessment. Seven high-fidelity scenarios reflecting core anesthesiology skills were administered to 51 first-year residents (CA-1s) and 16 third-year residents (CA-3s) from three residency programs. Twenty trained attending anesthesiologists rated resident performances using a seven-point behaviorally anchored rating scale for five domains: (1) formulate a clear plan, (2) modify the plan under changing conditions, (3) communicate effectively, (4) identify performance improvement opportunities, and (5) recognize limits. A second rater assessed 10% of encounters. Scores and variances for each domain, each scenario, and the total were compared. Low domain ratings (1, 2) were examined in detail. Interrater agreement was 0.76; reliability of the seven-scenario assessment was r = 0.70. CA-3s had a significantly higher average total score (4.9 ± 1.1 vs. 4.6 ± 1.1, P = 0.01, effect size = 0.33). CA-3s significantly outscored CA-1s for five of seven scenarios and domains 1, 2, and 3. CA-1s had a significantly higher proportion of worrisome ratings than CA-3s (chi-square = 24.1, P < 0.01, effect size = 1.50). Ninety-eight percent of residents rated the simulations more educational than an average day in the operating room. Sensitivity of the assessment to CA-1 versus CA-3 performance differences for most scenarios and domains supports validity. No differences, by experience level, were detected for two domains associated with reflective practice. Smaller score variances for CA-3s likely reflect a training effect; however, worrisome performance scores for both CA-1s and CA-3s suggest room for improvement.

  10. River conservation and terrestrial mammals: key ecological processes

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Hanley

    2008-01-01

    Key ecological processes affecting interactions between rivers and terrestrial mammals are identified and explained, using flood plains of Alaska as examples of relatively pristine systems. Both coastal (southeast Alaska) and interior Alaska examples are used. Coastal Alaskan rivers tend to be relatively short, flashy, rain-driven systems, whereas interior Alaska...

  11. Communication systems, transceivers, and methods for generating data based on channel characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Michael A; Young, Derek

    2012-09-18

    Examples of methods for generating data based on a communications channel are described. In one such example, a processing unit may generate a first vector representation based in part on at least two characteristics of a communications channel. A constellation having at least two dimensions may be addressed with the first vector representation to identify a first symbol associated with the first vector representation. The constellation represents a plurality of regions, each region associated with a respective symbol. The symbol may be used to generate data, which may stored in an electronic storage medium and used as a cryptographic key or a spreading code or hopping sequence in a modulation technique.

  12. A review of hospital characteristics associated with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Brand, Caroline A; Barker, Anna L; Morello, Renata T; Vitale, Michael R; Evans, Sue M; Scott, Ian A; Stoelwinder, Johannes U; Cameron, Peter A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this review was to critically appraise the literature relating to associations between high-level structural and operational hospital characteristics and improved performance. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, proQuest and PsychINFO were searched for articles published between January 1996 and May 2010. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. and data extraction Studies were included if they were systematic reviews or meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, controlled before and after studies or observational studies (cohort and cross-sectional) that were multicentre, comparative performance studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data, assigned grades of evidence according to the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines and critically appraised the included articles. Data synthesis Fifty-seven studies were reported within 12 systematic reviews and 47 observational articles. There was heterogeneity in use and definition of performance outcomes. Hospital characteristics investigated were environment (incentives, market characteristics), structure (network membership, ownership, teaching status, geographical setting, service size) and operational design (innovativeness, leadership, organizational culture, public reporting and patient safety practices, information technology systems and decision support, service activity and planning, workforce design, staff training and education). The strongest evidence for an association with overall performance was identified for computerized physician order entry systems. Some evidence supported the associations with workforce design, use of financial incentives, nursing leadership and hospital volume. There is limited, mainly low-quality evidence, supporting the associations between hospital characteristics and healthcare performance. Further characteristic-specific systematic reviews are

  13. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  14. Gene Network Construction from Microarray Data Identifies a Key Network Module and Several Candidate Hub Genes in Age-Associated Spatial Learning Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Raihan; Singh, Shiva M.

    2017-01-01

    As humans age many suffer from a decrease in normal brain functions including spatial learning impairments. This study aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms in age-associated spatial learning impairment (ASLI). We used a mathematical modeling approach implemented in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to create and compare gene network models of young (learning unimpaired) and aged (predominantly learning impaired) brains from a set of exploratory datasets in rats in the context of ASLI. The major goal was to overcome some of the limitations previously observed in the traditional meta- and pathway analysis using these data, and identify novel ASLI related genes and their networks based on co-expression relationship of genes. This analysis identified a set of network modules in the young, each of which is highly enriched with genes functioning in broad but distinct GO functional categories or biological pathways. Interestingly, the analysis pointed to a single module that was highly enriched with genes functioning in “learning and memory” related functions and pathways. Subsequent differential network analysis of this “learning and memory” module in the aged (predominantly learning impaired) rats compared to the young learning unimpaired rats allowed us to identify a set of novel ASLI candidate hub genes. Some of these genes show significant repeatability in networks generated from independent young and aged validation datasets. These hub genes are highly co-expressed with other genes in the network, which not only show differential expression but also differential co-expression and differential connectivity across age and learning impairment. The known function of these hub genes indicate that they play key roles in critical pathways, including kinase and phosphatase signaling, in functions related to various ion channels, and in maintaining neuronal integrity relating to synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Taken

  15. Gene Network Construction from Microarray Data Identifies a Key Network Module and Several Candidate Hub Genes in Age-Associated Spatial Learning Impairment.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Raihan; Singh, Shiva M

    2017-01-01

    As humans age many suffer from a decrease in normal brain functions including spatial learning impairments. This study aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms in age-associated spatial learning impairment (ASLI). We used a mathematical modeling approach implemented in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to create and compare gene network models of young (learning unimpaired) and aged (predominantly learning impaired) brains from a set of exploratory datasets in rats in the context of ASLI. The major goal was to overcome some of the limitations previously observed in the traditional meta- and pathway analysis using these data, and identify novel ASLI related genes and their networks based on co-expression relationship of genes. This analysis identified a set of network modules in the young, each of which is highly enriched with genes functioning in broad but distinct GO functional categories or biological pathways. Interestingly, the analysis pointed to a single module that was highly enriched with genes functioning in "learning and memory" related functions and pathways. Subsequent differential network analysis of this "learning and memory" module in the aged (predominantly learning impaired) rats compared to the young learning unimpaired rats allowed us to identify a set of novel ASLI candidate hub genes. Some of these genes show significant repeatability in networks generated from independent young and aged validation datasets. These hub genes are highly co-expressed with other genes in the network, which not only show differential expression but also differential co-expression and differential connectivity across age and learning impairment. The known function of these hub genes indicate that they play key roles in critical pathways, including kinase and phosphatase signaling, in functions related to various ion channels, and in maintaining neuronal integrity relating to synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Taken together, they

  16. Identification of key microRNAs and genes in preeclampsia by bioinformatics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shouling; Cao, Nannan; Tang, Yao; Gu, Weirong

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal maternal–foetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to identify the key microRNAs and genes in preeclampsia and uncover their potential functions. We downloaded the miRNA expression profile of GSE84260 and the gene expression profile of GSE73374 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed miRNAs and genes were identified and compared to miRNA-target information from MiRWalk 2.0, and a total of 65 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMIs), including 32 up-regulated miRNAs and 33 down-regulated miRNAs, and 91 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 83 up-regulated genes and 8 down-regulated genes, were identified. The pathway enrichment analyses of the DEMIs showed that the up-regulated DEMIs were enriched in the Hippo signalling pathway and MAPK signalling pathway, and the down-regulated DEMIs were enriched in HTLV-I infection and miRNAs in cancers. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses of the DEGs were performed using Multifaceted Analysis Tool for Human Transcriptome. The up-regulated DEGs were enriched in biological processes (BPs), including the response to cAMP, response to hydrogen peroxide and cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin; no enrichment of down-regulated DEGs was identified. KEGG analysis showed that the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in the Hippo signalling pathway and pathways in cancer. A PPI network of the DEGs was constructed by using Cytoscape software, and FOS, STAT1, MMP14, ITGB1, VCAN, DUSP1, LDHA, MCL1, MET, and ZFP36 were identified as the hub genes. The current study illustrates a characteristic microRNA profile and gene profile in preeclampsia, which may contribute to the interpretation of the progression of preeclampsia and provide novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. PMID:28594854

  17. Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Florida Keys, 2001-2017.

    PubMed

    Murray, Heidi L; Pruszynski, Catherine A; Leal, Andrea L; Hribar, Lawrence J

    2018-06-23

    The presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was first reported in the Florida Keys in 1993. Despite extensive surveillance, the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District (FKMCD) only collected specimens occasionally on a few islands, some years finding no evidence of the invasive species. In 2013-2017, FKMCD witnessed a sudden increase in population size and geographic extent of Ae. albopictus. Samples of Ae. albopictus have now been identified on 30 different islands in the Florida Keys. Three islands in particular (Key Largo, Big Pine Key, and Stock Island) have produced multiple positive samples during at least 4 of the last 5 yr, suggesting establishment of the invasive species. FKMCD continues to monitor Ae. albopictus throughout the Keys and make extensive efforts to reduce population abundance and geographic extent of this disease vector.

  18. A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W.; Castillo, Pedro Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included. PMID:23717181

  19. Key enablers to facilitate healthy behavior change: workshop summary.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Aldag, Matt; Centola, Damon; Edinborough, Elton; Ghannadian, Jason D; Haught, Andrea; Jackson, Theresa; Kinn, Julie; Kunkler, Kevin J; Levine, Betty; Martindale, Valerie E; Neal, David; Snyder, Leslie B; Styn, Mindi A; Thorndike, Frances; Trabosh, Valerie; Parramore, David J

    2014-05-01

    The increases in preventable chronic diseases and the rising costs of health care are unsustainable. The US Army Surgeon General's vision to transition from a health care system to a system of health requires the identification of key health enablers to facilitate the adoption of healthy behaviors. In support of this vision, the US Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center hosted a workshop in April 2013 titled "Incentives to Create and Sustain Change for Health." Members of government and academia participated to identify key health enablers that could ultimately be leveraged by technology. The key health enablers discussed included (1) public health messaging, (2) changing health habits and the environmental influence on health, (3) goal setting and tracking, (4) the role of incentives in behavior-change intervention, and (5) the role of peer and social networks on change. This report summarizes leading evidence and the group consensus on evidence-based practices with respect to the key enablers in creating healthy behavior change.

  20. HIV epidemic among key populations in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Djomand, Gaston; Quaye, Silas; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2014-09-01

    Globally, HIV infection remains a significant issue for key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers. A review of recent articles was conducted for west African countries to assess the burden of disease among female sex workers and MSM, access to services and identify barriers to implementation of services for key populations. In west Africa, key populations engage in high-risk practices for the acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Available HIV prevalence data fluctuate across and within countries for both MSM and female sex workers and may be five to ten times as high as that of the general population. HIV prevalence varied from 15.9% in The Gambia to 68% in Benin among female sex workers, whereas it ranged from 9.8% in The Gambia to 34.9% in Nigeria for MSM. Yet, important data gaps exist, including key populations size estimations in several countries as well as HIV prevalence, incidence and other biomarkers of HIV risk. Because of sociocultural, legal, political and economic challenges, exacerbated by a poor health system infrastructure, the HIV response is not strategically directed toward programs for key populations in countries with concentrated epidemics. Noteworthy is the low coverage of prevention care and treatment interventions offered to key populations. Sufficient planning and political will with legal and structural frameworks that reconcile public health and human rights are needed to prioritize HIV prevention, care and treatment programming for key populations programs in west Africa.

  1. Use of multilevel logistic regression to identify the causes of differential item functioning.

    PubMed

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, María Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Given that a key function of tests is to serve as evaluation instruments and for decision making in the fields of psychology and education, the possibility that some of their items may show differential behaviour is a major concern for psychometricians. In recent decades, important progress has been made as regards the efficacy of techniques designed to detect this differential item functioning (DIF). However, the findings are scant when it comes to explaining its causes. The present study addresses this problem from the perspective of multilevel analysis. Starting from a case study in the area of transcultural comparisons, multilevel logistic regression is used: 1) to identify the item characteristics associated with the presence of DIF; 2) to estimate the proportion of variation in the DIF coefficients that is explained by these characteristics; and 3) to evaluate alternative explanations of the DIF by comparing the explanatory power or fit of different sequential models. The comparison of these models confirmed one of the two alternatives (familiarity with the stimulus) and rejected the other (the topic area) as being a cause of differential functioning with respect to the compared groups.

  2. Identifying PHM market and network opportunities.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mark E; Krishnaswamy, Anand; Poziemski, John; York, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Two key processes for healthcare organizations seeking to assume a financially sustainable role in population health management (PHM), after laying the groundwork for the effort, are to identify potential PHM market opportunities and determine the scope of the PHM network. Key variables organizations should consider with respect to market opportunities include the patient population, the overall insurance/employer market, and available types of insurance products. Regarding the network's scope, organizations should consider both traditional strategic criteria for a viable network and at least five additional criteria: network essentiality and PHM care continuum, network adequacy, service distribution right-sizing, network growth strategy, and organizational agility.

  3. Predicting Key Events in the Popularity Evolution of Online Information.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Hu, Changjun; Fu, Shushen; Fang, Mingzhe; Xu, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of online information generally experiences a rising and falling evolution. This paper considers the "burst", "peak", and "fade" key events together as a representative summary of popularity evolution. We propose a novel prediction task-predicting when popularity undergoes these key events. It is of great importance to know when these three key events occur, because doing so helps recommendation systems, online marketing, and containment of rumors. However, it is very challenging to solve this new prediction task due to two issues. First, popularity evolution has high variation and can follow various patterns, so how can we identify "burst", "peak", and "fade" in different patterns of popularity evolution? Second, these events usually occur in a very short time, so how can we accurately yet promptly predict them? In this paper we address these two issues. To handle the first one, we use a simple moving average to smooth variation, and then a universal method is presented for different patterns to identify the key events in popularity evolution. To deal with the second one, we extract different types of features that may have an impact on the key events, and then a correlation analysis is conducted in the feature selection step to remove irrelevant and redundant features. The remaining features are used to train a machine learning model. The feature selection step improves prediction accuracy, and in order to emphasize prediction promptness, we design a new evaluation metric which considers both accuracy and promptness to evaluate our prediction task. Experimental and comparative results show the superiority of our prediction solution.

  4. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, Patrick Gc; Somda, Serge Ma; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42-19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08-11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03-0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted.

  5. Identification of key climatic factors regulating the transport of pesticides in leaching and to tile drains.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Bernard T; Dubus, Igor G; Surdyk, Nicolas; Fowler, Hayley J; Burton, Aidan; Hollis, John M; Reichenberger, Stefan; Jarvis, Nicholas J

    2008-09-01

    Key climatic factors influencing the transport of pesticides to drains and to depth were identified. Climatic characteristics such as the timing of rainfall in relation to pesticide application may be more critical than average annual temperature and rainfall. The fate of three pesticides was simulated in nine contrasting soil types for two seasons, five application dates and six synthetic weather data series using the MACRO model, and predicted cumulative pesticide loads were analysed using statistical methods. Classification trees and Pearson correlations indicated that simulated losses in excess of 75th percentile values (0.046 mg m(-2) for leaching, 0.042 mg m(-2) for drainage) generally occurred with large rainfall events following autumn application on clay soils, for both leaching and drainage scenarios. The amount and timing of winter rainfall were important factors, whatever the application period, and these interacted strongly with soil texture and pesticide mobility and persistence. Winter rainfall primarily influenced losses of less mobile and more persistent compounds, while short-term rainfall and temperature controlled leaching of the more mobile pesticides. Numerous climatic characteristics influenced pesticide loss, including the amount of precipitation as well as the timing of rainfall and extreme events in relation to application date. Information regarding the relative influence of the climatic characteristics evaluated here can support the development of a climatic zonation for European-scale risk assessment for pesticide fate.

  6. Academic Primer Series: Eight Key Papers about Education Theory.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Michael; Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Chan, Teresa M; Krzyzaniak, Sara M; Pineda, Nicolas; Spector, Jordan; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Many teachers adopt instructional methods based on assumptions of best practices without attention to or knowledge of supporting education theory. Familiarity with a variety of theories informs education that is efficient, strategic, and evidence-based. As part of the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine Faculty Incubator Program, a list of key education theories for junior faculty was developed. A list of key papers on theories relevant to medical education was generated using an expert panel, a virtual community of practice synthetic discussion, and a social media call for resources. A three-round, Delphi-informed voting methodology including novice and expert educators produced a rank order of the top papers. These educators identified 34 unique papers. Eleven papers described the general use of education theory, while 23 papers focused on a specific theory. The top three papers on general education theories and top five papers on specific education theory were selected and summarized. The relevance of each paper for junior faculty and faculty developers is also presented. This paper presents a reading list of key papers for junior faculty in medical education roles. Three papers about general education theories and five papers about specific educational theories are identified and annotated. These papers may help provide foundational knowledge in education theory to inform junior faculty teaching practice.

  7. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Bea, Sergio A; Wainwright, Haruko; Spycher, Nicolas; Faybishenko, Boris; Hubbard, Susan S; Denham, Miles E

    2013-08-01

    Acidic low-level waste radioactive waste solutions were discharged to three unlined seepage basins at the F-Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, from 1955 through 1989. Despite many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic and contaminated with significant levels of U(VI) and other radionuclides. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a desired closure strategy for the site, based on the premise that regional flow of clean background groundwater will eventually neutralize the groundwater acidity, immobilizing U(VI) through adsorption. An in situ treatment system is currently in place to accelerate this in the downgradient portion of the plume and similar measures could be taken upgradient if necessary. Understanding the long-term pH and U(VI) adsorption behavior at the site is critical to assess feasibility of MNA along with the in-situ remediation treatments. This paper presents a reactive transport (RT) model and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses to explore key controls on the U(VI)-plume evolution and long-term mobility at this site. Two-dimensional numerical RT simulations are run including the saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones, U(VI) and H(+) adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments, dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals, and key hydrodynamic processes are considered. UQ techniques are applied using a new open-source tool that is part of the developing ASCEM reactive transport modeling and analysis framework to: (1) identify the complex physical and geochemical processes that control the U(VI) plume migration in the pH range where the plume is highly mobile, (2) evaluate those physical and geochemical parameters that are most controlling, and (3) predict the future plume evolution constrained by historical, chemical and hydrological data. The RT simulation results show a good agreement with the observed historical pH and concentrations of U(VI), nitrates

  8. Robust multiparty quantum secret key sharing over two collective-noise channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhan-jun

    2006-02-01

    Based on a polarization-based quantum key distribution protocol over a collective-noise channel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004) 017901], a robust (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of key over two collective-noise channels (i.e., the collective dephasing channel and the collective rotating channel) is proposed. In this scheme the sharer entirety can establish a joint key with the message sender only if all the sharers collaborate together. Since Bell singlets are enough for use and only single-photon polarization needs to be identified, this scheme is feasible according to the present-day technique.

  9. Middle Leadership: A Key Role of Numeracy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a large national project that explored successful numeracy practices in remote and very remote schools. While there have been a number of significant findings, the middle leader has been identified as a key role in the development of successful numeracy/mathematics practices in schools. The middle leader plays a critical role…

  10. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. Methods We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Findings Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133), lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089), lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048), and a lower proportion of low

  11. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Zoë M; Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133), lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089), lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048), and a lower proportion of low-income households (β1 = -0

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies three key loci for high mesocarp oil content in perennial crop oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Chee-Keng; Ong, Ai-Ling; Kwong, Qi-Bin; Apparow, Sukganah; Chew, Fook-Tim; Mayes, Sean; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Appleton, David; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2016-01-01

    GWAS in out-crossing perennial crops is typically limited by insufficient marker density to account for population diversity and effects of population structure resulting in high false positive rates. The perennial crop oil palm is the most productive oil crop. We performed GWAS for oil-to-dry-mesocarp content (O/DM) on 2,045 genotyped tenera palms using 200K SNPs that were selected based on the short-range linkage disequilibrium distance, which is inherent with long breeding cycles and heterogeneous breeding populations. Eighty loci were significantly associated with O/DM (p ≤ 10−4) and three key signals were found. We then evaluated the progeny of a Deli x AVROS breeding trial and a 4% higher O/DM was observed amongst those having the beneficial genotypes at two of the three key loci (p < 0.05). We have initiated MAS and large-scale planting of elite dura and pisifera parents to generate the new commercial tenera palms with higher O/DM potential. PMID:26743827

  13. A Sampled Literature Review of Design-Based Learning Approaches: A Search for Key Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; van Eijck, Michiel; Jochems, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Design-based learning (DBL) is an educational approach grounded in the processes of inquiry and reasoning towards generating innovative artifacts, systems and solutions. The approach is well characterized in the context of learning natural sciences in secondary education. Less is known, however, of its characteristics in the context of higher…

  14. Identifying Patient Attitudinal Clusters Associated with Asthma Control: The European REALISE Survey.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Thys; Fletcher, Monica; Price, David

    Asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical phenotypes, and treatment may be tailored accordingly. However, factors beyond purely clinical traits, such as patient attitudes and behaviors, can also have a marked impact on treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to further analyze data from the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) Europe survey, to identify distinct patient groups sharing common attitudes toward asthma and its management. Factor analysis of respondent data (N = 7,930) from the REALISE Europe survey consolidated the 34 attitudinal variables provided by the study population into a set of 8 summary factors. Cluster analyses were used to identify patient clusters that showed similar attitudes and behaviors toward each of the 8 summary factors. Five distinct patient clusters were identified and named according to the key characteristics comprising that cluster: "Confident and self-managing," "Confident and accepting of their asthma," "Confident but dependent on others," "Concerned but confident in their health care professional (HCP)," and "Not confident in themselves or their HCP." Clusters showed clear variability in attributes such as degree of confidence in managing their asthma, use of reliever and preventer medication, and level of asthma control. The 5 patient clusters identified in this analysis displayed distinctly different personal attitudes that would require different approaches in the consultation room certainly for asthma but probably also for other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristic behaviors of students with LD who have teacher-identified math weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R; Hammill, D D

    2000-01-01

    Mathematics learning disabilities (LD) have gained increased attention over the last decade from both researchers and practitioners. A large percentage of students receiving learning disability services experience difficulties with mathematics, but little research has examined the specific mathematics behaviors of students with LD who have teacher-identified math weaknesses. This study examines the literature on mathematics LD and identifies specific behaviors from that body of research for the purpose of determining the extent to which those behaviors are observed in students with LD. Data are presented from observations of 391 special education professionals on 1724 students with LD, 870 of whom had identified math weaknesses and 854 of whom did not. Our results validate the existing literature and provide implications for teachers, researchers, and others interested in studying mathematics LD.

  16. Mergeomics: a web server for identifying pathological pathways, networks, and key regulators via multidimensional data integration.

    PubMed

    Arneson, Douglas; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Shu, Le; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Yang, Xia

    2016-09-09

    Human diseases are commonly the result of multidimensional changes at molecular, cellular, and systemic levels. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled an outpour of omics datasets that capture these changes. However, separate analyses of these various data only provide fragmented understanding and do not capture the holistic view of disease mechanisms. To meet the urgent needs for tools that effectively integrate multiple types of omics data to derive biological insights, we have developed Mergeomics, a computational pipeline that integrates multidimensional disease association data with functional genomics and molecular networks to retrieve biological pathways, gene networks, and central regulators critical for disease development. To make the Mergeomics pipeline available to a wider research community, we have implemented an online, user-friendly web server ( http://mergeomics. idre.ucla.edu/ ). The web server features a modular implementation of the Mergeomics pipeline with detailed tutorials. Additionally, it provides curated genomic resources including tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci, ENCODE functional annotations, biological pathways, and molecular networks, and offers interactive visualization of analytical results. Multiple computational tools including Marker Dependency Filtering (MDF), Marker Set Enrichment Analysis (MSEA), Meta-MSEA, and Weighted Key Driver Analysis (wKDA) can be used separately or in flexible combinations. User-defined summary-level genomic association datasets (e.g., genetic, transcriptomic, epigenomic) related to a particular disease or phenotype can be uploaded and computed real-time to yield biologically interpretable results, which can be viewed online and downloaded for later use. Our Mergeomics web server offers researchers flexible and user-friendly tools to facilitate integration of multidimensional data into holistic views of disease mechanisms in the form of tissue-specific key regulators

  17. Bi-directional gene set enrichment and canonical correlation analysis identify key diet-sensitive pathways and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morine, Melissa J; McMonagle, Jolene; Toomey, Sinead; Reynolds, Clare M; Moloney, Aidan P; Gormley, Isobel C; Gaora, Peadar O; Roche, Helen M

    2010-10-07

    constituent genes, as well as strong correlations between gene expression and plasma markers of metabolic syndrome independent of the dietary effect. Bi-directional gene set enrichment analysis more accurately reflects dynamic regulatory behaviour in biochemical pathways, and as such highlighted biologically relevant changes that were not detected using a traditional approach. In such cases where transcriptomic response to treatment is exceptionally large, canonical correlation analysis in conjunction with Fisher's exact test highlights the subset of pathways showing strongest correlation with the clinical markers of interest. In this case, we have identified selenoamino acid metabolism and steroid biosynthesis as key pathways mediating the observed relationship between metabolic health and high-CLA beef. These results indicate that this type of analysis has the potential to generate novel transcriptome-based biomarkers of disease.

  18. Bi-directional gene set enrichment and canonical correlation analysis identify key diet-sensitive pathways and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    -sensitive changes in constituent genes, as well as strong correlations between gene expression and plasma markers of metabolic syndrome independent of the dietary effect. Conclusion Bi-directional gene set enrichment analysis more accurately reflects dynamic regulatory behaviour in biochemical pathways, and as such highlighted biologically relevant changes that were not detected using a traditional approach. In such cases where transcriptomic response to treatment is exceptionally large, canonical correlation analysis in conjunction with Fisher's exact test highlights the subset of pathways showing strongest correlation with the clinical markers of interest. In this case, we have identified selenoamino acid metabolism and steroid biosynthesis as key pathways mediating the observed relationship between metabolic health and high-CLA beef. These results indicate that this type of analysis has the potential to generate novel transcriptome-based biomarkers of disease. PMID:20929581

  19. A mixed-methods study identifying key intervention targets to improve participation in daily living activities in primary Sjögren's syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Katie L; Deane, Katherine H O; Newton, Julia L; Deary, Vincent; Bowman, Simon; Rapley, Tim; Ng, Wan-Fai

    2018-02-06

    Functional ability and participation in life situations are compromised in many primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) patients. This study aims to identify the key barriers and priorities to participation in daily living activities, in order to develop potential future interventions. Group concept mapping (GCM), a semi-quantitative, mixed-methods, approach was used to identify and structure ideas from UK PSS patients, adults living with a PSS patient (AHMs) and health care professionals (HCPs). Brainstorming generated ideas, which were summarised into a final set of statements. Participants individually arranged these statements into themes and rated each statement for importance. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were applied to sorted and rated data to produce visual representations of the ideas (concept maps), enabling identification of agreed priority areas for interventions. 121 patients, 43 AHMs and 67 HCPs took part. 463 ideas were distilled down to 94 statements. These statements were grouped into seven clusters; 'Patient empowerment', 'Symptoms', 'Wellbeing', 'Access and coordination of healthcare', 'Knowledge and support', 'Public awareness and support' and 'Family and friends'. Patient empowerment and Symptoms were rated as priority conceptual themes. Important statements within priority clusters indicate patients should be taken seriously and supported to self-manage symptoms of oral and ocular dryness, fatigue, pain and poor sleep. Our data highlighted that in addition to managing PSS symptoms; interventions aiming to improve patient empowerment, general wellbeing, access to healthcare, patient education and social support are important to facilitate improved participation in daily living activities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Models of HIV Preconception Care and Key Elements Influencing These Services: Findings from Healthcare Providers in Seven US Cities.

    PubMed

    Simone, Joanne; Hoyt, Mary Jo; Storm, Deborah S; Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah

    2018-06-05

    Preconception care can improve maternal and infant outcomes by identifying and modifying health risks before pregnancy and reducing unplanned pregnancies. However, information about how preconception care is provided to persons living with HIV (PLWH) is lacking. This study uses qualitative interviews with HIV care providers to describe current models of preconception care and explore factors influencing services. Single, anonymous, telephone interviews were conducted with 92 purposively selected HIV healthcare providers in Atlanta, Baltimore, Houston, Kansas City, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco in 2013-2014. Content analysis and a grounded theory approach were used to analyze data. Participants included 57% physicians with a median of 10 [interquartile range (IQR) = 5-17] years HIV care experience; the mean proportion of female patients was 45%. Participants described Individual Provider (48.9%), Team-based (43.2%), and Referral-only (7.6%) models of preconception care, with 63% incorporating referrals outside their clinics. Thematic analysis identified five key elements influencing the provision of preconception care within and across models: consistency of delivery, knowledge and attitudes, clinic characteristics, coordination of care, and referral accessibility. Described models of preconception care reflect the complexity of our healthcare system. Qualitative analysis offers insights about how HIV clinicians provide preconception care and how key elements influence services. However, additional research about the models and outcomes of preconception care services are needed. To improve preconception care for PLWH, research and quality improvement initiatives must utilize available strengths and tackle existing barriers, identified by our study and others, to define and implement effective models of preconception care services.

  1. Elementary Principal Perceptions on Key Leadership Responsibilities Associated with Increased Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Lora E.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has provided a substantial amount of information about key characteristics of effective school leaders, there is a growing need for continued improvement and reflective practice on the continuous development of instructional leaders. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent elementary principals perceive they are…

  2. Recruitment rates in workplace physical activity interventions: characteristics for success.

    PubMed

    Ryde, Gemma C; Gilson, Nicholas D; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to assess recruitment rates in workplace physical activity (PA) intervention studies and describe characteristics of studies with high recruitment rates. Data Source. Electronic and manual searches were conducted. Workplace PA intervention studies that reported the number of employees invited to participate and the number who responded were included. Studies with recruitment rates of ≥70% were categorized as high with the remaining studies (<70%) used as comparison. Key study characteristics were assessed. An approach called positive deviance was used to identify the extent to which study characteristics were unique to high recruitment rate. Seventy-six percent of studies failed to report recruitment rates (n = 30 included for review). Studies with high recruitment rates (n = 8) tended to have longer study duration (mean 1.6 years) and target smaller cohorts of employees (mean n = 199) than comparison studies (3.9 months; n = 1241). For recruitment strategies and intervention components of high studies, involvement of employees was driven by the organization, with PA interventions provided as part of the working day in paid time. These findings suggest a potential to improve recruitment through targeting small cohorts of employees, incorporating PA as a long-term strategy, facilitating organizationally driven employee involvement, and providing PA interventions during paid time.

  3. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Principles A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... 102-3—Key Points and Principles This appendix provides additional guidance in the form of answers to frequently asked questions and identifies key points and principles that may be applied to situations not...

  4. Identifying Risk Factors for Drug Use in an Iranian Treatment Sample: A Prediction Approach Using Decision Trees.

    PubMed

    Amirabadizadeh, Alireza; Nezami, Hossein; Vaughn, Michael G; Nakhaee, Samaneh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2018-05-12

    Substance abuse exacts considerable social and health care burdens throughout the world. The aim of this study was to create a prediction model to better identify risk factors for drug use. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in South Khorasan Province, Iran. Of the total of 678 eligible subjects, 70% (n: 474) were randomly selected to provide a training set for constructing decision tree and multiple logistic regression (MLR) models. The remaining 30% (n: 204) were employed in a holdout sample to test the performance of the decision tree and MLR models. Predictive performance of different models was analyzed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve using the testing set. Independent variables were selected from demographic characteristics and history of drug use. For the decision tree model, the sensitivity and specificity for identifying people at risk for drug abuse were 66% and 75%, respectively, while the MLR model was somewhat less effective at 60% and 73%. Key independent variables in the analyses included first substance experience, age at first drug use, age, place of residence, history of cigarette use, and occupational and marital status. While study findings are exploratory and lack generalizability they do suggest that the decision tree model holds promise as an effective classification approach for identifying risk factors for drug use. Convergent with prior research in Western contexts is that age of drug use initiation was a critical factor predicting a substance use disorder.

  5. Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivich, Lorrie

    Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

  6. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  7. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  8. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  9. InFlo: a novel systems biology framework identifies cAMP-CREB1 axis as a key modulator of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, N; Nagaraj, A B; Razi, A; Singh, S; Kamalakaran, S; Banerjee, N; Joseph, P; Mankovich, A; Mittal, P; DiFeo, A; Varadan, V

    2017-04-27

    Characterizing the complex interplay of cellular processes in cancer would enable the discovery of key mechanisms underlying its development and progression. Published approaches to decipher driver mechanisms do not explicitly model tissue-specific changes in pathway networks and the regulatory disruptions related to genomic aberrations in cancers. We therefore developed InFlo, a novel systems biology approach for characterizing complex biological processes using a unique multidimensional framework integrating transcriptomic, genomic and/or epigenomic profiles for any given cancer sample. We show that InFlo robustly characterizes tissue-specific differences in activities of signalling networks on a genome scale using unique probabilistic models of molecular interactions on a per-sample basis. Using large-scale multi-omics cancer datasets, we show that InFlo exhibits higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting pathway networks associated with specific disease states when compared to published pathway network modelling approaches. Furthermore, InFlo's ability to infer the activity of unmeasured signalling network components was also validated using orthogonal gene expression signatures. We then evaluated multi-omics profiles of primary high-grade serous ovarian cancer tumours (N=357) to delineate mechanisms underlying resistance to frontline platinum-based chemotherapy. InFlo was the only algorithm to identify hyperactivation of the cAMP-CREB1 axis as a key mechanism associated with resistance to platinum-based therapy, a finding that we subsequently experimentally validated. We confirmed that inhibition of CREB1 phosphorylation potently sensitized resistant cells to platinum therapy and was effective in killing ovarian cancer stem cells that contribute to both platinum-resistance and tumour recurrence. Thus, we propose InFlo to be a scalable and widely applicable and robust integrative network modelling framework for the discovery of evidence-based biomarkers

  10. What Belongs in Your 15-Bean Soup? Using the Learning Cycle to Address Misconceptions about Construction of Taxonomic Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Ann; Vanderspool, Staria

    2004-01-01

    Students can use seed characteristics to discriminate between the different kinds of legumes using taxonomic classification processes of sorting and ranking, followed by construction of taxonomic keys. The application of the Learning Cycle process to taxonomic principles, hierarchical classification, and construction of keys presents the…

  11. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Principles A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Subpart D of Part 102-3—Key Points and Principles This appendix provides additional guidance in the form of answers to frequently asked questions and identifies key points and principles that may be applied...

  12. Effective Schools, Colleges, and Departments of Education: The Dean is the Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gant, J. L.

    In a reflection upon the characteristics of effective schools and colleges of education, descriptions are offered on the qualities of effective leaders, management teams, and organizations. The dean is characterized as the key to the effectiveness of a teacher education institution. The dean must not only have a clear mission and high…

  13. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  14. Predicting Key Events in the Popularity Evolution of Online Information

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shushen; Fang, Mingzhe; Xu, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of online information generally experiences a rising and falling evolution. This paper considers the “burst”, “peak”, and “fade” key events together as a representative summary of popularity evolution. We propose a novel prediction task—predicting when popularity undergoes these key events. It is of great importance to know when these three key events occur, because doing so helps recommendation systems, online marketing, and containment of rumors. However, it is very challenging to solve this new prediction task due to two issues. First, popularity evolution has high variation and can follow various patterns, so how can we identify “burst”, “peak”, and “fade” in different patterns of popularity evolution? Second, these events usually occur in a very short time, so how can we accurately yet promptly predict them? In this paper we address these two issues. To handle the first one, we use a simple moving average to smooth variation, and then a universal method is presented for different patterns to identify the key events in popularity evolution. To deal with the second one, we extract different types of features that may have an impact on the key events, and then a correlation analysis is conducted in the feature selection step to remove irrelevant and redundant features. The remaining features are used to train a machine learning model. The feature selection step improves prediction accuracy, and in order to emphasize prediction promptness, we design a new evaluation metric which considers both accuracy and promptness to evaluate our prediction task. Experimental and comparative results show the superiority of our prediction solution. PMID:28046121

  15. Identify and Quantify the Mechanistic Sources of Sensor Performance Variation Between Individual Sensors SN1 and SN2

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Baldwin, David L.; Cinson, Anthony D.

    2014-08-06

    This Technical Letter Report satisfies the M3AR-14PN2301022 milestone, and is focused on identifying and quantifying the mechanistic sources of sensor performance variation between individual 22-element, linear phased-array sensor prototypes, SN1 and SN2. This effort constitutes an iterative evolution that supports the longer term goal of producing and demonstrating a pre-manufacturing prototype ultrasonic probe that possesses the fundamental performance characteristics necessary to enable the development of a high-temperature sodium-cooled fast reactor inspection system. The scope of the work for this portion of the PNNL effort conducted in FY14 includes performing a comparative evaluation and assessment of the performance characteristics of themore » SN1 and SN2 22 element PA-UT probes manufactured at PNNL. Key transducer performance parameters, such as sound field dimensions, resolution capabilities, frequency response, and bandwidth are used as a metric for the comparative evaluation and assessment of the SN1 and SN2 engineering test units.« less

  16. Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-03-01

    Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.

  17. Optical key system

    DOEpatents

    Hagans, Karla G.; Clough, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  18. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    PubMed

    Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings

  19. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population

    PubMed Central

    James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Results Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the

  20. Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution using Polarization Entangled Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2007-06-01

    We report on a complete experimental implementation of a quantum key distribution protocol through a free space link using polarization-entangled photon pairs from a compact parametric down-conversion source [1]. Based on a BB84-equivalent protocol, we generated without interruption over 10 hours a secret key free-space optical link distance of 1.5 km with a rate up to 950 bits per second after error correction and privacy amplification. Our system is based on two time stamp units and relies on no specific hardware channel for coincidence identification besides an IP link. For that, initial clock synchronization with an accuracy of better than 2 ns is achieved, based on a conventional NTP protocol and a tiered cross correlation of time tags on both sides. Time tags are used to servo a local clock, allowing a streamed measurement on correctly identified photon pairs. Contrary to the majority of quantum key distribution systems, this approach does not require a trusted large-bandwidth random number generator, but integrates that into the physical key generation process. We discuss our current progress of implementing a key distribution via an atmospherical link during daylight conditions, and possible attack scenarios on a physical timing information side channel to a entanglement-based key distribution system. [1] I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, C. Kurtsiefer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101122 (2006).

  1. Public-key quantum digital signature scheme with one-time pad private-key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng-Lin; Liu, Wan-Fang; Chen, Su-Gen; Wang, Zhi-Hua

    2018-01-01

    A quantum digital signature scheme is firstly proposed based on public-key quantum cryptosystem. In the scheme, the verification public-key is derived from the signer's identity information (such as e-mail) on the foundation of identity-based encryption, and the signature private-key is generated by one-time pad (OTP) protocol. The public-key and private-key pair belongs to classical bits, but the signature cipher belongs to quantum qubits. After the signer announces the public-key and generates the final quantum signature, each verifier can verify publicly whether the signature is valid or not with the public-key and quantum digital digest. Analysis results show that the proposed scheme satisfies non-repudiation and unforgeability. Information-theoretic security of the scheme is ensured by quantum indistinguishability mechanics and OTP protocol. Based on the public-key cryptosystem, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized compared with other quantum signature schemes under current technical conditions.

  2. Key components of financial-analysis education for clinical nurses.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji Young; Noh, Wonjung

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we identified key components of financial-analysis education for clinical nurses. We used a literature review, focus group discussions, and a content validity index survey to develop key components of financial-analysis education. First, a wide range of references were reviewed, and 55 financial-analysis education components were gathered. Second, two focus group discussions were performed; the participants were 11 nurses who had worked for more than 3 years in a hospital, and nine components were agreed upon. Third, 12 professionals, including professors, nurse executive, nurse managers, and an accountant, participated in the content validity index. Finally, six key components of financial-analysis education were selected. These key components were as follows: understanding the need for financial analysis, introduction to financial analysis, reading and implementing balance sheets, reading and implementing income statements, understanding the concepts of financial ratios, and interpretation and practice of financial ratio analysis. The results of this study will be used to develop an education program to increase financial-management competency among clinical nurses. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. New Insights into Various Production Characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanhua; Xu, Tingting; Qu, Xiaojun; Hu, Tong; Jiang, Xu; Zhao, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the most valuable homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria, which, for a long time, has been widely used as a starter for the production of fermented dairy products. The key production characteristics of S. thermophilus, for example the production of extracellular polysaccharide, proteolytic enzymes and flavor substances as well as acidifying capacity etc., have an important effect on the quality of dairy products. The acidification capacity of the strains determines the manufacturing time and quality of dairy products. It depends on the sugar utilization ability of strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharide is beneficial for improving the texture of dairy products. Flavor substances increase the acceptability of dairy products. The proteolytic activity of the strain influences not only the absorption of the nitrogen source, but also the formation of flavor substances. Different strains have obvious differences in production characteristics via long-time evolution and adaptation to environment. Gaining new strains with novel and desirable characteristics is an important long-term goal for researchers and the fermenting industry. The understanding of the potential molecular mechanisms behind important characteristics of different strains will promote the screening and breeding of excellent strains. In this paper, key technological and functional properties of different S. thermophilus strains are discussed, including sugar metabolism, proteolytic system and amino acid metabolism, and polysaccharide and flavor substance biosynthesis. At the same time, diversity of genomes and plasmids of S. thermophilus are presented. Advances in research on key production characteristics and molecular levels of S. thermophilus will increase understanding of molecular mechanisms of different strains with different important characteristics, and improve the industrialization control level for fermented foods. PMID:27754312

  4. Finite-key analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Curty, Marcos; Xu, Feihu; Cui, Wei; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2014-04-29

    Quantum key distribution promises unconditionally secure communications. However, as practical devices tend to deviate from their specifications, the security of some practical systems is no longer valid. In particular, an adversary can exploit imperfect detectors to learn a large part of the secret key, even though the security proof claims otherwise. Recently, a practical approach--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution--has been proposed to solve this problem. However, so far its security has only been fully proven under the assumption that the legitimate users of the system have unlimited resources. Here we fill this gap and provide a rigorous security proof against general attacks in the finite-key regime. This is obtained by applying large deviation theory, specifically the Chernoff bound, to perform parameter estimation. For the first time we demonstrate the feasibility of long-distance implementations of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution within a reasonable time frame of signal transmission.

  5. Academic Primer Series: Eight Key Papers about Education Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Michael; Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Chan, Teresa M.; Krzyzaniak, Sara M.; Pineda, Nicolas; Spector, Jordan; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Many teachers adopt instructional methods based on assumptions of best practices without attention to or knowledge of supporting education theory. Familiarity with a variety of theories informs education that is efficient, strategic, and evidence-based. As part of the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine Faculty Incubator Program, a list of key education theories for junior faculty was developed. Methods A list of key papers on theories relevant to medical education was generated using an expert panel, a virtual community of practice synthetic discussion, and a social media call for resources. A three-round, Delphi-informed voting methodology including novice and expert educators produced a rank order of the top papers. Results These educators identified 34 unique papers. Eleven papers described the general use of education theory, while 23 papers focused on a specific theory. The top three papers on general education theories and top five papers on specific education theory were selected and summarized. The relevance of each paper for junior faculty and faculty developers is also presented. Conclusion This paper presents a reading list of key papers for junior faculty in medical education roles. Three papers about general education theories and five papers about specific educational theories are identified and annotated. These papers may help provide foundational knowledge in education theory to inform junior faculty teaching practice. PMID:28210367

  6. Design and Operational Characteristics of the Shuttle Coherent Wind Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Spiers, Gary D.; Peters, Bruce R.; Li, Ye; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Geary, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    NOAA has identified the measurement of atmospheric wind velocities as one of the key unmet data sets for its next generation of sensing platforms. The merits of coherent lidars for the measurement of atmospheric winds from space platforms have been widely recognized; however, it is only recently that several key technologies have advanced to a point where a compact, high fidelity system could be created. Advances have been made in the areas of the diode-pumped, eye-safe, solid state lasers and room temperature, wide bandwidth, semiconductor detectors operating in the near-infrared region. These new lasers can be integrated into efficient and compact optical systems creating new possibilities for the development of low-cost, reliable, and compact coherent lidar systems for wind measurements. Over the past five years, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has been working toward further advancing the solid state coherent lidar technology for the measurement of atmospheric winds from space. As part of this effort, UAH had established the design characteristics and defined the expected performance for three different proposed space-based instruments: a technology demonstrator, an operational prototype, and a 7-year lifetime operational instrument. SPARCLE is an ambitious project that is intended to evaluate the suitability of coherent lidar for wind measurements, demonstrate the maturity of the technology for space application, and provide a useable data set for model development and validation. This paper describes the SPARCLE instrument's major physical and environmental design constraints, optical and mechanical designs, and its operational characteristics.

  7. Optical key system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagans, K.G.; Clough, R.E.

    2000-04-25

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam ofmore » light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.« less

  8. Enhancement of inorganic Martian dust simulant with carbon component and its effects on key characteristics of glutamatergic neurotransmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasiya; Borysov, Arseniy; Pastukhov, Artem; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Evidence on the past existence of subsurface organic-bearing fluids on Mars was recently achieved basing on the investigation of organic carbon from the Tissint Martian meteorite (Lin et al., 2014). Tremendous amount of meteorites containing abundant carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily (Pizzarello and Shock 2010). National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health panel of research scientists revealed recently that accumulating evidences suggest that nano-sized air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system in health and disease (Block et al., Neurotoxicology, 2012). During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the central nervous system (Oberdorster et al., 2004). Based on above facts, the aims of this study were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust stimulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded stimulant on the key characteristic of synaptic neurotransmission and to compare its effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogue resulted in a significant decrease in Na+-dependent uptake of L-[14C]glutamate that is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). The ambient level of the neurotransmitter in the preparation of isolated rat brain nerve terminals increased in the presence of carbon-contained Martian dust analogue. This fact indicated that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamatergic neurtransmission.

  9. Using cognitive task analysis to identify critical decisions in the laparoscopic environment.

    PubMed

    Craig, Curtis; Klein, Martina I; Griswold, John; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; McGill, Thomas; Halldorsson, Ari

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the critical decisions surgeons need to make regarding laparoscopic surgery, the information these decisions are based on, the strategies employed by surgeons to reach their objectives, and the difficulties experienced by novices. Laparoscopic training focuses on the development of technical skills. However, successful surgical outcomes are also dependent on appropriate decisions made during surgery, which are influenced by critical cues and the use of appropriate strategies. Novices might not be as adept at cue detection and strategy use. Participants were eight attending surgeons. The authors employed task-analytic techniques to identify critical decisions inherent in laparoscopy and the cues, strategies, and novice traps associated with these decisions. The authors used decision requirements tables to organize the data into the key decisions made during the preoperative, operative, and postoperative phases as well as the cues, strategies, and novice traps associated with these decisions. Key decisions identified for the preoperative phase included but were not limited to the decision of performing a laparoscopic versus open surgery, necessity to review the literature, practicing the procedure, and trocar placement. Some key decisions identified for the operative phase included converting to open surgery, performing angiograms, cutting tissue or organs, and reevaluation of the approach. Only one key decision was identified for the postoperative phrase: whether the surgeon's technique needs to be evaluated and revised. The laparoscopic environment requires complex decision making, and novices are prone to errors in their decisions. The information elicited in this study is applicable to laparoscopic training.

  10. Work Keys USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work Keys USA, 1998

    1998-01-01

    "Work Keys" is a comprehensive program for assessing and teaching workplace skills. This serial "special issue" features 18 first-hand reports on Work Keys projects in action in states across North America. They show how the Work Keys is helping businesses and educators solve the challenge of building a world-class work force.…

  11. The Key Pieces of the Career Survival and Success Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonetti, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of career-success factors identified by 5,000 managers yielded 10 key pieces: excellent performance record, communication skills, interpersonal skills, personality, skill currency, significant work experiences, power, ability to withstand pressure, ability to make difficult decisions, and having a mentor. (SK)

  12. A systems toxicology approach identifies Lyn as a key signaling phosphoprotein modulated by mercury in a B lymphocyte cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Stemmer, Paul M.; Dombkowski, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Network and protein–protein interaction analyses of proteins undergoing Hg{sup 2+}-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in Hg{sup 2+}-intoxicated mouse WEHI-231 B cells identified Lyn as the most interconnected node. Lyn is a Src family protein tyrosine kinase known to be intimately involved in the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Under normal signaling conditions the tyrosine kinase activity of Lyn is controlled by phosphorylation, primarily of two well known canonical regulatory tyrosine sites, Y-397 and Y-508. However, Lyn has several tyrosine residues that have not yet been determined to play a major role under normal signaling conditions, but are potentially important sitesmore » for phosphorylation following mercury exposure. In order to determine how Hg{sup 2+} exposure modulates the phosphorylation of additional residues in Lyn, a targeted MS assay was developed. Initial mass spectrometric surveys of purified Lyn identified 7 phosphorylated tyrosine residues. A quantitative assay was developed from these results using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) strategy. WEHI-231 cells were treated with Hg{sup 2+}, pervanadate (a phosphatase inhibitor), or anti-Ig antibody (to stimulate the BCR). Results from these studies showed that the phosphoproteomic profile of Lyn after exposure of the WEHI-231 cells to a low concentration of Hg{sup 2+} closely resembled that of anti-Ig antibody stimulation, whereas exposure to higher concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} led to increases in the phosphorylation of Y-193/Y-194, Y-501 and Y-508 residues. These data indicate that mercury can disrupt a key regulatory signal transduction pathway in B cells and point to phospho-Lyn as a potential biomarker for mercury exposure. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) induces changes in the WEHI-231 B cell phosphoproteome. • The B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway was the pathway most affected by Hg{sup 2+}. • The Src family phosphoprotein kinase Lyn

  13. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  14. Pharmacists subjected to disciplinary action: characteristics and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Denham L; Noyce, Peter R; Walshe, Kieran; Parker, Dianne; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish whether there are any characteristics of pharmacists that predict their likelihood of being subjected to disciplinary action. METHODS  The setting was the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain's Disciplinary Committee. One hundred and seventeen pharmacists, all of whom had been referred to the Disciplinary Committee, were matched with a quota sample of 580 pharmacists who had not been subjected to disciplinary action but that matched the disciplined pharmacists on a set of demographic factors (gender, country of residence, year of registration). Frequency analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the two groups of pharmacists in terms of sector of work, ethnicity, age and country of training. Descriptive statistics were also obtained from the disciplined pharmacists to further explore characteristics of disciplinary cases and those pharmacists who undergo them. KEY FINDINGS  While a number of characteristics appeared to increase the likelihood of a pharmacist being referred to the disciplinary committee, only one of these - working in a community pharmacy - was statistically significant. Professional misconduct accounted for a greater proportion of referrals than did clinical malpractice, and approximately one-fifth of pharmacists who went before the Disciplinary Committee had previously been disciplined by the Society. CONCLUSIONS  This study provides initial evidence of pharmacist characteristics that are associated with an increased risk of being disciplined, based upon the data currently available. It is recommended that follow-up work is carried out using a more extensive dataset in order to confirm the statistical trends identified here. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Corn and soybean Landsat MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T.; Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to fully utilize remote sensing to inventory crop production, it is important to identify the factors that affect the accuracy of Landsat classifications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of scene characteristics involving crop, soil, and weather variables on the accuracy of Landsat classifications of corn and soybeans. Segments sampling the U.S. Corn Belt were classified using a Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier on multitemporally registered data from two key acquisition periods. Field size had a strong effect on classification accuracy with small fields tending to have low accuracies even when the effect of mixed pixels was eliminated. Other scene characteristics accounting for variability in classification accuracy included proportions of corn and soybeans, crop diversity index, proportion of all field crops, soil drainage, slope, soil order, long-term average soybean yield, maximum yield, relative position of the segment in the Corn Belt, weather, and crop development stage.

  16. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  17. Geothermal Target Areas in Colorado as Identified by Remote Sensing Techniques

    DOE Data Explorer

    Khalid Hussein

    2012-02-01

    This layer contains the areas identified as targets of potential geothermal activity. The Criteria used to identify the target areas include: hot/warm surface exposures modeled from ASTER/Landsat satellite imagery and geological characteristics, alteration mineral commonly associated with hot springs (clays, Si, and FeOx) modeled from ASTER and Landsat data, Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) known thermal hot springs/wells and heat-flow data points, Colorado deep-seated fault zones, weakened basement identified from isostatic gravity data, and Colorado sedimentary and topographic characteristics.

  18. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Key Mites Commonly Associated With the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    D.N. Kinn

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a method of preparing mites for microscopic examination and contains a simple key to the 15 species of mites commonly associated with the southern pine bark beetle. Research workers wanting to identify these mites and others curious about them, but untrained in acarology, should find little difficulty in making identifications.

  20. Distributed generation of shared RSA keys in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Huang, Qin; Shen, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks is a totally new concept in which mobile nodes are able to communicate together over wireless links in an independent manner, independent of fixed physical infrastructure and centralized administrative infrastructure. However, the nature of Ad Hoc Networks makes them very vulnerable to security threats. Generation and distribution of shared keys for CA (Certification Authority) is challenging for security solution based on distributed PKI(Public-Key Infrastructure)/CA. The solutions that have been proposed in the literature and some related issues are discussed in this paper. The solution of a distributed generation of shared threshold RSA keys for CA is proposed in the present paper. During the process of creating an RSA private key share, every CA node only has its own private security. Distributed arithmetic is used to create the CA's private share locally, and that the requirement of centralized management institution is eliminated. Based on fully considering the Mobile Ad Hoc network's characteristic of self-organization, it avoids the security hidden trouble that comes by holding an all private security share of CA, with which the security and robustness of system is enhanced.

  1. Application of multiple tracers (SF6 and chloride) to identify the transport by characteristics of contaminant at two separate contaminated sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. K.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, H. H.; Koh, E. H.; Kim, M. O.; Lee, K.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple tracers were applied for source and pathway detection at two different sites. CO2 gas injected in the subsurface for a shallow-depth CO2 injection and leak test can be regarded as a potential contaminant source. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the migration pattern of CO2 gas. Also, at a DNAPL contaminated site, it is important to figure out the characteristics of plume evolution from the source zone. In this study, multiple tracers (SF6 and chloride) were used to evaluate the applicability of volatile and non-volatile tracers and to identify the characteristics of contaminant transport at each CO2 injection and leak test site and DNAPL contaminated site. Firstly, at the CO2 test site, multiple tracers were used to perform the single well push-drift-pull tracer test at total 3 specific depth zones. As results of tests, volatile and non-volatile tracers showed different mass recovery percentage. Most of chloride mass was recovered but less than half of SF6 mass was recovered due to volatile property. This means that only gaseous SF6 leak out to unsaturated zone. However, breakthrough curves of both tracers indicated similar peak time, effective porosity, and regional groundwater velocity. Also, at both contaminated sites, natural gradient tracer tests were performed with multiple tracers. With the results of natural gradient tracer test, it was possible to confirm the applicability of multiple tracers and to understand the contaminant transport in highly heterogeneous aquifer systems through the long-term monitoring of tracers. Acknowledgement: financial support was provided by the R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage)" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003) and Korea Ministry of Environment as "The GAIA project (2014000540010)".

  2. Finite key analysis for symmetric attacks in quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Tim; Kampermann, Hermann; Kleinmann, Matthias

    2006-10-15

    We introduce a constructive method to calculate the achievable secret key rate for a generic class of quantum key distribution protocols, when only a finite number n of signals is given. Our approach is applicable to all scenarios in which the quantum state shared by Alice and Bob is known. In particular, we consider the six state protocol with symmetric eavesdropping attacks, and show that for a small number of signals, i.e., below n{approx}10{sup 4}, the finite key rate differs significantly from the asymptotic value for n{yields}{infinity}. However, for larger n, a good approximation of the asymptotic value is found.more » We also study secret key rates for protocols using higher-dimensional quantum systems.« less

  3. A quantitative metric to identify critical elements within seafood supply networks.

    PubMed

    Plagányi, Éva E; van Putten, Ingrid; Thébaud, Olivier; Hobday, Alistair J; Innes, James; Lim-Camacho, Lilly; Norman-López, Ana; Bustamante, Rodrigo H; Farmery, Anna; Fleming, Aysha; Frusher, Stewart; Green, Bridget; Hoshino, Eriko; Jennings, Sarah; Pecl, Gretta; Pascoe, Sean; Schrobback, Peggy; Thomas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical basis is required for comparing key features and critical elements in wild fisheries and aquaculture supply chains under a changing climate. Here we develop a new quantitative metric that is analogous to indices used to analyse food-webs and identify key species. The Supply Chain Index (SCI) identifies critical elements as those elements with large throughput rates, as well as greater connectivity. The sum of the scores for a supply chain provides a single metric that roughly captures both the resilience and connectedness of a supply chain. Standardised scores can facilitate cross-comparisons both under current conditions as well as under a changing climate. Identification of key elements along the supply chain may assist in informing adaptation strategies to reduce anticipated future risks posed by climate change. The SCI also provides information on the relative stability of different supply chains based on whether there is a fairly even spread in the individual scores of the top few key elements, compared with a more critical dependence on a few key individual supply chain elements. We use as a case study the Australian southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii fishery, which is challenged by a number of climate change drivers such as impacts on recruitment and growth due to changes in large-scale and local oceanographic features. The SCI identifies airports, processors and Chinese consumers as the key elements in the lobster supply chain that merit attention to enhance stability and potentially enable growth. We also apply the index to an additional four real-world Australian commercial fishery and two aquaculture industry supply chains to highlight the utility of a systematic method for describing supply chains. Overall, our simple methodological approach to empirically-based supply chain research provides an objective method for comparing the resilience of supply chains and highlighting components that may be critical.

  4. A Quantitative Metric to Identify Critical Elements within Seafood Supply Networks

    PubMed Central

    Plagányi, Éva E.; van Putten, Ingrid; Thébaud, Olivier; Hobday, Alistair J.; Innes, James; Lim-Camacho, Lilly; Norman-López, Ana; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Farmery, Anna; Fleming, Aysha; Frusher, Stewart; Green, Bridget; Hoshino, Eriko; Jennings, Sarah; Pecl, Gretta; Pascoe, Sean; Schrobback, Peggy; Thomas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical basis is required for comparing key features and critical elements in wild fisheries and aquaculture supply chains under a changing climate. Here we develop a new quantitative metric that is analogous to indices used to analyse food-webs and identify key species. The Supply Chain Index (SCI) identifies critical elements as those elements with large throughput rates, as well as greater connectivity. The sum of the scores for a supply chain provides a single metric that roughly captures both the resilience and connectedness of a supply chain. Standardised scores can facilitate cross-comparisons both under current conditions as well as under a changing climate. Identification of key elements along the supply chain may assist in informing adaptation strategies to reduce anticipated future risks posed by climate change. The SCI also provides information on the relative stability of different supply chains based on whether there is a fairly even spread in the individual scores of the top few key elements, compared with a more critical dependence on a few key individual supply chain elements. We use as a case study the Australian southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii fishery, which is challenged by a number of climate change drivers such as impacts on recruitment and growth due to changes in large-scale and local oceanographic features. The SCI identifies airports, processors and Chinese consumers as the key elements in the lobster supply chain that merit attention to enhance stability and potentially enable growth. We also apply the index to an additional four real-world Australian commercial fishery and two aquaculture industry supply chains to highlight the utility of a systematic method for describing supply chains. Overall, our simple methodological approach to empirically-based supply chain research provides an objective method for comparing the resilience of supply chains and highlighting components that may be critical. PMID:24633147

  5. Measuring social inclusion--a key outcome in global mental health.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-04-01

    Social inclusion is increasingly recognized as a key outcome for evaluating global mental health programmes and interventions. Whereas social inclusion as an outcome is not a new concept in the field of mental health, its measurement has been hampered by varying definitions, concepts and instruments. To move the field forward, this paper reviews the currently available instruments which measure social inclusion and are reported in the literature, realizing that no single measure will be appropriate for all studies or contexts. A systematic literature search of English language peer-reviewed articles published through February 2013 was undertaken to identify scales specifically developed to measure social inclusion or social/community integration among populations with mental disorders. Five instruments were identified through the search criteria. The scales are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinnings, domains and/or key items and their potential for use in global settings. Whereas numerous reviewed abstracts discussed mental health and social inclusion or social integration, very few were concerned with direct measurement of the construct. All identified scales were developed in high-income countries with limited attention paid to how the scale could be adapted for cross-cultural use. Social inclusion is increasingly highlighted as a key outcome for global mental health policies and programmes, yet its measurement is underdeveloped. There is need for a global cross-cultural measure that has been developed and tested in diverse settings. However, until that need is met, some of the scales presented here may be amenable to adaptation.

  6. Partially Key Distribution with Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Error Control Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallaei, Saeed Ebadi; Falahati, Abolfazl

    Due to the low level of security in public key cryptosystems based on number theory, fundamental difficulties such as "key escrow" in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and a secure channel in ID-based cryptography, a new key distribution cryptosystem based on Error Control Codes (ECC) is proposed . This idea is done by some modification on McEliece cryptosystem. The security of ECC cryptosystem obtains from the NP-Completeness of block codes decoding. The capability of generating public keys with variable lengths which is suitable for different applications will be provided by using ECC. It seems that usage of these cryptosystems because of decreasing in the security of cryptosystems based on number theory and increasing the lengths of their keys would be unavoidable in future.

  7. Keys to Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise…

  8. Getting Ready for the "School of the Future": Key Questions and Tentative Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Michela; Pozzi, Francesca

    This paper explores some key aspects of "today's school", as opposed to those that have characterized "yesterday's school", with the final aim of shedding light on "tomorrow's school". In this direction, the paper puts forward tentative answers to some key questions related to the new characteristics and roles of teachers and students (main actors of the learning process) and the new features/ potentialities of contemporary educational tools which, in turn, require the enactment of innovative pedagogical approaches and educational methods. The emerging picture of the present learning landscape helps in figuring out a future situation where learning possibilities are substantially increased.

  9. A Retrospective Study on Patient Characteristics and Telehealth Alerts Indicative of Key Medical Events for Heart Failure Patients at a Home Health Agency

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kathryn; Hanlon, Alexandra; Topaz, Maxim; Chittams, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To explore association of patient characteristics and telehealth alert data with all-cause key medical events (KMEs) of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations as well as cardiac-related KMEs of ED visits, hospitalizations, and medication changes. Materials and Methods: A 6-month retrospective study was conducted of electronic patient records of heart failure (HF) patients using telehealth services at a Massachusetts home health agency. Data collected included patient demographic, psychosocial, disease severity factors and telehealth vital signs alerts. Association between patient characteristics and KMEs was analyzed by Generalized Estimating Equations. Results: The sample comprised 168 patients with a mean age of 83 years, 56% females, and 96% white. Ninety-nine cardiac-related KMEs and 87 all-cause KMEs were recorded for the subjects. Odds of a cardiac-related KME increased by 161% with the presence of valvular co-morbidity (p=0.001) and 106% with increased number of telehealth alerts (adjusted p<0.0001). Odds of an all-cause KME increased by 124% (p=0.02), 127% (p=0.01), and 70% (adjusted p<0.0001) with the presence of cancer co-morbidity, anxiety, and increased number of telehealth alerts, respectively. Overall, only 3% of all telehealth alerts were associated with KMEs. Conclusions: The very low proportion of telehealth vital sign alerts associated with KMEs indicates that telehealth alerts alone cannot inform the need for intervention within the larger context of HF care delivery in the homecare setting. Patient-relevant data such as psychosocial and symptom status, involvement with HF self-management, and presence of co-morbidities could further inform the need for interventions for HF patients in the homecare setting. PMID:23808888

  10. Texas Quality Workforce Planning: 1993 Key Industries and Targeted Occupations for Texas' 24 Quality Work Force Planning Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Commerce, Austin.

    In 1993, Texas' 24 quality work force planning committees used a state-developed targeted occupations planning methodology to identify key industries and targeted occupations with the greatest potential for job openings in their respective regions. Between 11 and 20 key industries (13.5 on average) were identified for each region. The following 10…

  11. Collaboration is key: The actual experience of disciplines working together in child care.

    PubMed

    Garvis, Susanne; Kirkby, Jane; McMahon, Keryn; Meyer, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Promoting young children's academic and developmental outcomes can no longer be achieved by the single efforts of one profession, but requires professionals to work together in inter-professional teams to understand the complexity of young children's lives. Collaboration in early childhood programs involves health professionals, educators, and other professionals sharing information, validating each other's roles, and providing input around which strategies promote positive outcomes for all children. There are, however, limited studies available within early childhood education on inter-disciplinary relationships between nurses and teachers. This paper helps to fill this void by exploring the relationship of an early childhood teacher and maternal and child health nurse working alongside one another in an Australian kindergarten. Through a narrative approach, a number of characteristics of the relationship were identified as key elements to a productive relationship. Findings are important for health professionals working with early childhood educators. By understanding the complexity within and between disciplines, professionals can work effectively to support young children and their families. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Identification of key residues for protein conformational transition using elastic network model.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji Guo; Xu, Xian Jin; Li, Chun Hua; Chen, Wei Zu; Wang, Cun Xin

    2011-11-07

    Proteins usually undergo conformational transitions between structurally disparate states to fulfill their functions. The large-scale allosteric conformational transitions are believed to involve some key residues that mediate the conformational movements between different regions of the protein. In the present work, a thermodynamic method based on the elastic network model is proposed to predict the key residues involved in protein conformational transitions. In our method, the key functional sites are identified as the residues whose perturbations largely influence the free energy difference between the protein states before and after transition. Two proteins, nucleotide binding domain of the heat shock protein 70 and human/rat DNA polymerase β, are used as case studies to identify the critical residues responsible for their open-closed conformational transitions. The results show that the functionally important residues mainly locate at the following regions for these two proteins: (1) the bridging point at the interface between the subdomains that control the opening and closure of the binding cleft; (2) the hinge region between different subdomains, which mediates the cooperative motions between the corresponding subdomains; and (3) the substrate binding sites. The similarity in the positions of the key residues for these two proteins may indicate a common mechanism in their conformational transitions.

  13. The effect of frame rate on the ability of experienced gait analysts to identify characteristics of gait from closed circuit television footage.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Burrow, Gordon; Walker, Jeremy

    2014-03-01

    Forensic gait analysis is increasingly being used as part of criminal investigations. A major issue is the quality of the closed circuit television (CCTV) footage used, particularly the frame rate which can vary from 25 frames per second to one frame every 4s. To date, no study has investigated the effect of frame rate on forensic gait analysis. A single subject was fitted with an ankle foot orthosis and recorded walking at 25 frames per second. 3D motion data were also collected, providing an absolute assessment of the gait characteristics. The CCTV footage was then edited to produce a set of eight additional pieces of footage, at various frame rates. Practitioners with knowledge of forensic gait analysis were recruited and instructed to record their observations regarding the characteristics of the subject's gait from the footage. They were sequentially sent web links to the nine pieces of footage, lowest frame rate first, and a simple observation recording form, over a period of 8 months. A sample-based Pearson product-moment correlation analysis of the results demonstrated a significant positive relationship between frame rate and scores (r=0.868, p=0.002). The results of this study show that frame rate affects the ability of experienced practitioners to identify characteristics of gait captured on CCTV footage. Every effort should therefore be made to ensure that CCTV footage likely to be used in criminal proceedings is captured at as high a frame rate as possible. © 2013.

  14. Space-based observatories providing key data for climate change applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Sentinel-1 & 3 mission are part of the Copernicus program, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. This European Earth Observation program is led by the European Commission and the space infrastructure is developed under the European Space Agency leadership. Many services will be developed through the Copernicus program among different thematic areas. The climate change is one of this thematic area and the Sentinel-1 & 3 satellites will provide key space-based observations in this area. The Sentinel-1 mission is based on a constellation of 2 identical satellites each one embarking C-SAR Instrument and provides capability for continuous radar mapping of the Earth with enhanced revisit frequency, coverage, timeliness and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long time series. In particular, Sentinel 1 provides all-weather, day-and-night estimates of soil moisture, wind speed and direction, sea ice, continental ice sheets and glaciers. The Sentinel-3 mission will mainly be devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. Among these data, very accurate surface temperatures and topography measurements will be provided and will constitute key indicators, once ingested in climate change models, for identifying climate drivers and expected climate impacts. The paper will briefly recall the satellite architectures, their main characteristics and performance. The inflight performance and key features of their images or data of the 3 satellites namely Sentinel 1A, 1B and 3A will be reviewed to demonstrate the quality and high scientific potential of the data as well as their

  15. Integrating patient empowerment as an essential characteristic of the discipline of general practice/family medicine.

    PubMed

    Mola, Ernesto; De Bonis, Judith A; Giancane, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of healthcare for patients with chronic conditions have resulted in growing evidence supporting the inclusion of patient empowerment as a key ingredient of care. In 2002, WONCA Europe issued the European Definition of General Practice/Family Medicine, which is currently considered the point of reference for European health institutions and general medical practice. Patient empowerment does not appear among the 11 characteristics of the discipline. The aim of this study is to show that many characteristics of general practice are already oriented towards patient empowerment. Therefore, promoting patient empowerment and self-management should be included as a characteristic of the discipline. The following investigation was conducted: analysing the concept and approach to empowerment as applied to healthcare in the literature; examining whether aspects of empowerment are already part of general medical practice; and identifying reasons why the European definition of general practice/family medicine should contain empowerment as a characteristic of the discipline. General practice/family medicine is the most suitable setting for promoting patient empowerment, because many of its characteristics are already oriented towards encouraging it and because its widespread presence can ensure the generalization of empowerment promotion and self-management education to the totality of patients and communities. "Promoting patient empowerment and self-management" should be considered one of the essential characteristics of general practice/family medicine and should be included in its definition.

  16. A fast image matching algorithm based on key points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huilin; Wang, Ying; An, Ru; Yan, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Image matching is a very important technique in image processing. It has been widely used for object recognition and tracking, image retrieval, three-dimensional vision, change detection, aircraft position estimation, and multi-image registration. Based on the requirements of matching algorithm for craft navigation, such as speed, accuracy and adaptability, a fast key point image matching method is investigated and developed. The main research tasks includes: (1) Developing an improved celerity key point detection approach using self-adapting threshold of Features from Accelerated Segment Test (FAST). A method of calculating self-adapting threshold was introduced for images with different contrast. Hessian matrix was adopted to eliminate insecure edge points in order to obtain key points with higher stability. This approach in detecting key points has characteristics of small amount of computation, high positioning accuracy and strong anti-noise ability; (2) PCA-SIFT is utilized to describe key point. 128 dimensional vector are formed based on the SIFT method for the key points extracted. A low dimensional feature space was established by eigenvectors of all the key points, and each eigenvector was projected onto the feature space to form a low dimensional eigenvector. These key points were re-described by dimension-reduced eigenvectors. After reducing the dimension by the PCA, the descriptor was reduced to 20 dimensions from the original 128. This method can reduce dimensions of searching approximately near neighbors thereby increasing overall speed; (3) Distance ratio between the nearest neighbour and second nearest neighbour searching is regarded as the measurement criterion for initial matching points from which the original point pairs matched are obtained. Based on the analysis of the common methods (e.g. RANSAC (random sample consensus) and Hough transform cluster) used for elimination false matching point pairs, a heuristic local geometric restriction

  17. Automated secured cost effective key refreshing technique to enhance WiMAX privacy key management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridevi, B.; Sivaranjani, S.; Rajaram, S.

    2013-01-01

    In all walks of life the way of communication is transformed by the rapid growth of wireless communication and its pervasive use. A wireless network which is fixed and richer in bandwidth is specified as IEEE 802.16, promoted and launched by an industrial forum is termed as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX). This technology enables seamless delivery of wireless broadband service for fixed and/or mobile users. The obscurity is the long delay which occurs during the handoff management in every network. Mobile WiMAX employs an authenticated key management protocol as a part of handoff management in which the Base Station (BS) controls the distribution of keying material to the Mobile Station (MS). The protocol employed is Privacy Key Management Version 2- Extensible Authentication Protocol (PKMV2-EAP) which is responsible for the normal and periodical authorization of MSs, reauthorization as well as key refreshing. Authorization key (AK) and Traffic Encryption key (TEK) plays a vital role in key exchange. When the lifetime of key expires, MS has to request for a new key to BS which in turn leads to repetition of authorization, authentication as well as key exchange. To avoid service interruption during reauthorization , two active keys are transmitted at the same time by BS to MS. The consequences of existing work are hefty amount of bandwidth utilization, time consumption and large storage. It is also endured by Man in the Middle attack and Impersonation due to lack of security in key exchange. This paper designs an automatic mutual refreshing of keys to minimize bandwidth utilization, key storage and time consumption by proposing Previous key and Iteration based Key Refreshing Function (PKIBKRF). By integrating PKIBKRF in key generation, the simulation results indicate that 21.8% of the bandwidth and storage of keys are reduced and PKMV2 mutual authentication time is reduced by 66.67%. The proposed work is simulated with Qualnet model and

  18. Predicting suicidal ideation in primary care: An approach to identify easily assessable key variables.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd

    To obtain predictors of suicidal ideation, which can also be used for an indirect assessment of suicidal ideation (SI). To create a classifier for SI based on variables of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and sociodemographic variables, and to obtain an upper bound on the best possible performance of a predictor based on those variables. From a consecutive sample of 9025 primary care patients, 6805 eligible patients (60% female; mean age = 51.5 years) participated. Advanced methods of machine learning were used to derive the prediction equation. Various classifiers were applied and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed as a performance measure. Classifiers based on methods of machine learning outperformed ordinary regression methods and achieved AUCs around 0.87. The key variables in the prediction equation comprised four items - namely feelings of depression/hopelessness, low self-esteem, worrying, and severe sleep disturbances. The generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) and the somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15) did not enhance prediction substantially. In predicting suicidal ideation researchers should refrain from using ordinary regression tools. The relevant information is primarily captured by the depression subscale and should be incorporated in a nonlinear model. For clinical practice, a classification tree using only four items of the whole PHQ may be advocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Key Elements of a Successful Drive toward Marketing Strategy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Cynthia W.; George, Marie A.

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented that depicts the relationship between an internal marketing function and an organization's readiness to learn. Learning and marketing orientations are identified as components to marketing strategy making. Key organizational functions, including communication and decision-making, are utilized in a framework for…

  20. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  1. Evaluating predictive models for solar energy growth in the US states and identifying the key drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Joheen; Banerji, Sugata

    2018-03-01

    Driven by a desire to control climate change and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, governments around the world are increasing the adoption of renewable energy sources. However, among the US states, we observe a wide disparity in renewable penetration. In this study, we have identified and cleaned over a dozen datasets representing solar energy penetration in each US state, and the potentially relevant socioeconomic and other factors that may be driving the growth in solar. We have applied a number of predictive modeling approaches - including machine learning and regression - on these datasets over a 17-year period and evaluated the relative performance of the models. Our goals were: (1) identify the most important factors that are driving the growth in solar, (2) choose the most effective predictive modeling technique for solar growth, and (3) develop a model for predicting next year’s solar growth using this year’s data. We obtained very promising results with random forests (about 90% efficacy) and varying degrees of success with support vector machines and regression techniques (linear, polynomial, ridge). We also identified states with solar growth slower than expected and representing a potential for stronger growth in future.

  2. Sulfur Denitrosylation by an Engineered Trx-like DsbG Enzyme Identifies Nucleophilic Cysteine Hydrogen Bonds as Key Functional Determinant.

    PubMed

    Lafaye, Céline; Van Molle, Inge; Tamu Dufe, Veronica; Wahni, Khadija; Boudier, Ariane; Leroy, Pierre; Collet, Jean-François; Messens, Joris

    2016-07-15

    Exposure of bacteria to NO results in the nitrosylation of cysteine thiols in proteins and low molecular weight thiols such as GSH. The cells possess enzymatic systems that catalyze the denitrosylation of these modified sulfurs. An important player in these systems is thioredoxin (Trx), a ubiquitous, cytoplasmic oxidoreductase that can denitrosylate proteins in vivo and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in vitro However, a periplasmic or extracellular denitrosylase has not been identified, raising the question of how extracytoplasmic proteins are repaired after nitrosative damage. In this study, we tested whether DsbG and DsbC, two Trx family proteins that function in reducing pathways in the Escherichia coli periplasm, also possess denitrosylating activity. Both DsbG and DsbC are poorly reactive toward GSNO. Moreover, DsbG is unable to denitrosylate its specific substrate protein, YbiS. Remarkably, by borrowing the CGPC active site of E. coli Trx-1 in combination with a T200M point mutation, we transformed DsbG into an enzyme highly reactive toward GSNO and YbiS. The pKa of the nucleophilic cysteine, as well as the redox and thermodynamic properties of the engineered DsbG are dramatically changed and become similar to those of E. coli Trx-1. X-ray structural insights suggest that this results from a loss of two direct hydrogen bonds to the nucleophilic cysteine sulfur in the DsbG mutant. Our results highlight the plasticity of the Trx structural fold and reveal that the subtle change of the number of hydrogen bonds in the active site of Trx-like proteins is the key factor that thermodynamically controls reactivity toward nitrosylated compounds. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Association of maternal characteristics and behaviours with 4-year-old children's dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Durão, Catarina; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the association of family and maternal characteristics with preschool children's dietary patterns. Trained interviewers evaluated subsample 3422 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal, 2005-2006). Maternal characteristics and behaviours (exercise, smoking habits, diet and child-feeding practices) and family characteristics were evaluated. Maternal diet was classified by a dietary score, and children's dietary patterns were identified by latent class analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by multinomial regression models. The analysis was based on a framework with four conceptual levels: maternal socio-economic position (SEP) at 12 years, maternal socio-economic and demographic characteristics at child's delivery, family characteristics and maternal behaviours at child's 4 years. Three dietary patterns were identified in children: high in energy-dense foods (EDF); low in foods typically consumed at main meals and intermediate in snacks (Snacking); higher in healthy foods; and lower in unhealthy ones (Healthier, reference). Lower maternal SEP had an overall effect on children's diet (low vs. high SEP; EDF, OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.42-2.18; Snacking, OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.27-2.35), while maternal education was directly associated with it (≤9 vs. >12 schooling years, EDF, OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.70-2.81; Snacking, OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.82-3.55). Children whose mothers had worse dietary score were significantly more likely to follow unhealthier patterns (first vs. fourth quartile; EDF, OR = 9.94, 95% CI: 7.35-13.44, P-trend < 0.001; Snacking, OR = 4.21, 95% CI: 2.94-6.05, P-trend < 0.001). Maternal diet was the key factor associated with children's diet, above and beyond socio-economic and demographic characteristics, accounting for one-third of the determination coefficient of the fully adjusted model. At preschool age

  4. Key concepts in consumer and community engagement: a scoping meta-review.

    PubMed

    Sarrami-Foroushani, Pooria; Travaglia, Joanne; Debono, Deborah; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-06-13

    Although consumer and community engagement (CCE) in health care is receiving increasing attention, research and practice in this area are hampered by the variability of concepts and terminology commonly employed. This scoping meta-review aims to identify key CCE concepts and examine terminology used to describe them. In a scoping meta-review, an extensive list of 47 phrases and 11 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) was used to undertake a comprehensive and systematic search in PubMed Central, Embase, EBM reviews, CINAHL, APAPsycNET, and Scopus. 59 systematic reviews met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The analysis identified nine different concepts related to CCE: shared decision making, self-management, CCE in health care systems, community-based health promotion, providing access to health care, rehabilitation, participation in research, collaboration in research design and conduct, and peer support. The identified concepts differ from each other in many aspects including the aim of the activity, the role of consumers and the type of professionals' involvement. Each concept was described by a range of terms, with some terms shared by different concepts. In addition, two overlapping concepts of patient-centeredness and patient empowerment were recognised. This study describes CCE-related key concepts and provides new insight into their relationship with different CCE-related terms. Identification of key CCE-related concepts and terms will be useful to focus future studies and initiatives and enhance production of CCE-related evidence.

  5. Key concepts in consumer and community engagement: a scoping meta-review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although consumer and community engagement (CCE) in health care is receiving increasing attention, research and practice in this area are hampered by the variability of concepts and terminology commonly employed. This scoping meta-review aims to identify key CCE concepts and examine terminology used to describe them. Methods In a scoping meta-review, an extensive list of 47 phrases and 11 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) was used to undertake a comprehensive and systematic search in PubMed Central, Embase, EBM reviews, CINAHL, APAPsycNET, and Scopus. Results 59 systematic reviews met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The analysis identified nine different concepts related to CCE: shared decision making, self-management, CCE in health care systems, community-based health promotion, providing access to health care, rehabilitation, participation in research, collaboration in research design and conduct, and peer support. The identified concepts differ from each other in many aspects including the aim of the activity, the role of consumers and the type of professionals’ involvement. Each concept was described by a range of terms, with some terms shared by different concepts. In addition, two overlapping concepts of patient-centeredness and patient empowerment were recognised. Conclusions This study describes CCE-related key concepts and provides new insight into their relationship with different CCE-related terms. Identification of key CCE-related concepts and terms will be useful to focus future studies and initiatives and enhance production of CCE-related evidence. PMID:24923771

  6. Identification of key regulators for the migration and invasion of rheumatoid synoviocytes through a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    You, Sungyong; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Choi, Susanna; Kim, Ji-Young; Park, Su-Jung; Ji, Jong Dae; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Jo; Cho, Chul-Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Wan-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid synoviocytes, which consist of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and synovial macrophages (SMs), are crucial for the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Particularly, FLSs of RA patients (RA-FLSs) exhibit invasive characteristics reminiscent of cancer cells, destroying cartilage and bone. RA-FLSs and SMs originate differently from mesenchymal and myeloid cells, respectively, but share many pathologic functions. However, the molecular signatures and biological networks representing the distinct and shared features of the two cell types are unknown. We performed global transcriptome profiling of FLSs and SMs obtained from RA and osteoarthritis patients. By comparing the transcriptomes, we identified distinct molecular signatures and cellular processes defining invasiveness of RA-FLSs and proinflammatory properties of RA-SMs, respectively. Interestingly, under the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)–stimulated condition, the RA-FLSs newly acquired proinflammatory signature dominant in RA-SMs without losing invasive properties. We next reconstructed a network model that delineates the shared, RA-FLS–dominant (invasive), and RA-SM–dominant (inflammatory) processes. From the network model, we selected 13 genes, including periostin, osteoblast-specific factor (POSTN) and twist basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1), as key regulator candidates responsible for FLS invasiveness. Of note, POSTN and TWIST1 expressions were elevated in independent RA-FLSs and further instigated by IL-1β. Functional assays demonstrated the requirement of POSTN and TWIST1 for migration and invasion of RA-FLSs stimulated with IL-1β. Together, our systems approach to rheumatoid synovitis provides a basis for identifying key regulators responsible for pathological features of RA-FLSs and -SMs, demonstrating how a certain type of cells acquires functional redundancy under chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:24374632

  7. [Key pathway of methane production and characteristics of stable carbon isotope of the Tuojia River waterbody.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Lyu, Cheng Wen; Qin, Xiao Bo; Wu, Hong Bao; Wan, Yun Fan; Liao, Yu Lin; Lu, Yan Hong; Wang, Bin; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed at exploring the key pathway of methane production and clarifying the composition and distribution of carbon (C) isotopes in the Tuojia River waterbody in Hunan Pro-vince. We estimated CH 4 concentrations and fluxes of four reaches (S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 ) by a two-layer diffusion model and gas chromatography. The spatial and temporal distribution of CH 4 flux and its relationship with environmental factors were examined. The key pathway of CH 4 production was investigated by stable C isotope method to analyze the distribution characteristics of 13 C isotope (δ 13 C) of water dissolved CH 4 and seston/benthic organic matter. There was significant seasonal variability in water pH, with mean value of (7.27±0.03). The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) showed strong seasonal and spatial variations, with the range of 0.43-13.99 mg·L -1 . The maximum value of DO occurred in S 1 and differed significantly in summer and autumin. In addition, DO differed significantly in winter and other seasons in S 2 , S 3 and S 4 . The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) showed a gradual increasing trend from source to estuary. The highest concentration of DOC (8.32 mg·L -1 ) was found in S 2 , while the lowest was observed in S 1 (0.34 mg·L -1 ). The electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of water ranged from 17 to 436 μS·cm -1 and from -52.30 to 674.10 mV, respectively, which were significantly different among the four reaches (P<0.05). Water ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 - -N) concentrations were in the ranges of 0.30-1.35 (averaged 0.90±0.10) mg·L -1 and 0.82-2.45 (averaged 1.62±0.16) mg·L -1 , respectively. The dissolved concentration and diffusion flux of CH 4 ranged from 0 to 5.28 μmol·L -1 and from -0.34 to 619.72 μg C·m -2 ·h -1 , respectively, with significant temporal and spatial variations. They showed a similar trend among reaches. Their values were highest in

  8. Urinary metabolomics analysis identifies key biomarkers of different stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shu; Zhan, Zong-Ying; Cao, Hong-Yan; Wu, Chao; Bian, Yan-Qin; Li, Jian-Yuan; Cheng, Gen-Hong; Liu, Ping; Sun, Ming-Yu

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify a panel of biomarkers that can distinguish between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and explore molecular mechanism involved in the process of developing NASH from NAFLD. METHODS Biomarkers may differ during stages of NAFLD. Urine and blood were obtained from non-diabetic subjects with NAFLD and steatosis, with normal liver function (n = 33), from patients with NASH, with abnormal liver function (n = 45), and from healthy age and sex-matched controls (n = 30). Samples were subjected to metabolomic analysis to identify potential non-invasive biomarkers. Differences in urinary metabolic profiles were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis. RESULTS Compared with NAFLD patients, patients with NASH had abnormal liver function and high serum lipid concentrations. Urinary metabonomics found differences in 31 metabolites between these two groups, including differences in nucleic acids and amino acids. Pathway analysis based on overlapping metabolites showed that pathways of energy and amino acid metabolism, as well as the pentose phosphate pathway, were closely associated with pathological processes in NAFLD and NASH. CONCLUSION These findings suggested that a panel of biomarkers could distinguish between NAFLD and NASH, and could help to determine the molecular mechanism involved in the process of developing NASH from NAFLD. Urinary biomarkers may be diagnostic in these patients and could be used to assess responses to therapeutic interventions. PMID:28487615

  9. Building capacity in Australian interprofessional health education: perspectives from key health and higher education stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynda R; Pockett, Rosalie B; Nisbet, Gillian; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Dunston, Roger; Lee, Alison; White, Jill F

    2011-05-01

    A substantial literature engaging with the directions and experiences of stakeholders involved in interprofessional health education exists at the international level, yet almost nothing has been published that documents and analyses the Australian experience. Accordingly, this study aimed to scope the experiences of key stakeholders in health and higher education in relation to the development of interprofessional practice capabilities in health graduates in Australia. Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews and two focus groups of key stakeholders involved in the development and delivery of interprofessional health education in Australian higher education were undertaken. Interview data were coded to identify categories that were organised into key themes, according to principles of thematic analysis. Three themes were identified: the need for common ground between health and higher education, constraints and enablers in current practice, and the need for research to establish an evidence base. Five directions for national development were also identified. The study identified a range of interconnected changes that will be required to successfully mainstream interprofessional education within Australia, in particular, the importance of addressing issues of culture change and the need for a nationally coordinated and research informed approach. These findings reiterate those found in the international literature.

  10. Illustrated Key to Species of Genus Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Occurring in Mexico and Central America

    PubMed Central

    Armendáriz-Toledano, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We provide an illustrated key of species of Dendroctonus Erichson from Mexico and Central America based on characters of the male genitalia and external morphology. The key incorporates newly identified diagnostic characters for this genus that enhance discrimination of particularly difficult sibling species. PMID:28355476

  11. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E.

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-keymore » infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.« less

  12. Personality characteristics as predictors of underreporting of energy intake on 24-hour dietary recall interviews.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Janet A; Rumpler, William V; Riddick, Howard; Hebert, James R; Rhodes, Donna; Judd, Joseph T; Baer, David J; McDowell, Margaret; Briefel, Ronette

    2003-09-01

    To identify characteristics associated with misreporting of energy intake during 24-hour dietary recalls (24 HR). Ninety-eight subjects were administered two 24 HRs. Energy expenditure was determined by doubly labeled water (44 subjects) or intake balance (54 subjects). Data on subjects' physical, lifestyle, and psychosocial characteristics were also collected. Subjects/setting At the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center 52 women and 46 men were administered 24HR and completed lifestyle and personality questionnaires and a memory test. Physical characteristics such as weight, percent body fat, and total energy expenditure were measured. Statistical analysis The influences of subject parameters on energy misreporting were assessed by linear regression and Pearson product-moment correlation analysis for continuous variables and by ANOVA for discrete variables. Stepwise regression was used to identify key factors in underreporting. Factors particularly important in predicting underreporting of energy intake include factors indicating dissatisfaction with body image; for example, a 398 kcal/day underreport in subjects attempting weight loss during the past year with a nearly 500 kcal/day underreport in women. Overall, women underreported by 393 kcal/day relative to men and women evinced a social desirability bias amounting to a 26 kcal underreport for each point on the social desirability scale. Gender differences also were evident in the effect of percent body fat (with men underreporting about 16 kcal/day/percent body fat) and in departure from self-reported ideal body weight (with women underreporting about 21 kcal/day/kg). Body image and fatness are key factors on which health professionals should focus when seeking predictors of underreporting of dietary intake. Dietary interviews must be conducted to minimize bias related to subjects' tendencies to win approval and avoid censure by the interviewer. In addition, dissatisfaction with body image may lead to

  13. Identifying Key Early Literacy and School Readiness Issues: Exploring a Strategy for Assessing Community Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.

    2006-01-01

    Much effort has been expended in developing intervention programs to help improve the early literacy and school readiness skills of young children. This article presents the results of a needs assessment project aimed at identifying priorities for community intervention programs aimed at ensuring that young children enter school ready to learn. A…

  14. Dissection of culture media for embryos: the most important and less important components and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David K

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in culture media formulations have led to an increase in the ability to maintain the mammalian embryo in culture throughout the preimplantation and pre-attachment period. Amino acids and specific macromolecules have been identified as being key medium components, whereas temporal dynamics have been recognised as important media characteristics. Furthermore, other laboratory factors that directly impact embryo development and viability have been identified. Such factors include the use of a reduced oxygen tension, an appropriate incubation system and an adequate prescreening of all contact supplies. With rigourous quality systems in place, it is possible to obtain in vivo rates of embryo development in vitro using new media formulations while maintaining high levels of embryo viability. The future of embryo culture will likely be based on novel culture chips capable of providing temporal dynamics while facilitating real-time analysis of embryo physiology.

  15. The Current Global State of Key Lifestyle Characteristics: Health and Economic Implications.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; McNeil, Amy; Sagner, Michael; Hills, Andrew P

    The chronic disease crisis we currently face must be addressed in rapid fashion. Cardiovascular (CV) and pulmonary diseases, diabetes as well as several forms of cancer are leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Collectively, these conditions have a significant impact on the quality of life of individuals, families and communities, placing an unsustainable burden on health systems. There is hope for the chronic disease crisis in that these conditions are largely preventable or can be delayed to much later in life through a timeless medicine, healthy living. Specifically, physical activity (PA), healthy nutrition, not smoking and maintaining a healthy body weight, the latter of which being predominantly influenced by PA and nutrition, are the key healthy living medicine (HLM) ingredients. Unfortunately, there is much work to be done, the unhealthy living phenotype is running rampant across the globe. Without improvements in PA, nutrition, tobacco use and body habitus patterns, there is little hope for curtailing the chronic disease epidemic that has been brought about by the dramatic increase in unhealthy living behaviors. This review highlights current trends in lifestyle behaviors, benefits associated with reversing those behaviors and potential paths to promote the increased utilization of HLM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Invertase SUC2 Is the key hydrolase for inulin degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were recently found to be capable of efficiently utilizing inulin, but genetic mechanisms of inulin hydrolysis in yeast remain unknown. Here we report functional characteristics of invertase SUC2 from strain JZ1C and demonstrate that SUC2 is the key enzyme responsible for inulin metabolism in S. cerevisiae.

  17. Locally acquired Dengue--Key West, Florida, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2010-05-21

    Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease in the world, causing an estimated 50-100 million infections and 25,000 deaths each year. During 1946-1980, no cases of dengue acquired in the continental United States were reported. Since 1980, a few locally acquired U.S. cases have been confirmed along the Texas-Mexico border, temporally associated with large outbreaks in neighboring Mexican cities. On September 1, 2009, a New York physician notified the Monroe County (Florida) Health Department (MCHD) and the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) of a suspected dengue case in a New York state resident whose only recent travel was to Key West, Florida. CDC confirmed the diagnosis, and a press release was issued to notify the public and Key West physicians of the potential risk for locally acquired dengue infections. In the next 2 weeks, two dengue infections in Key West residents without recent travel were reported and confirmed. Subsequently, enhanced and active surveillance identified 24 more Key West cases during 2009. On April 13, 2010, another Key West dengue case was reported to FDOH, bringing the total to 28. This report describes the first three dengue cases reported in 2009, briefly summarizes the 2010 case, highlights preliminary findings from the ongoing investigation, and outlines measures used to mitigate and control the outbreak. Clinicians should include dengue in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illnesses in patients who live in or have recently traveled to subtropical areas of the United States or to the tropics.

  18. Tailored combination prevention packages and PrEP for young key populations

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Nguyen, Nadia L; Celum, Connie; Cowan, Frances M; Go, Vivian; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Young key populations, defined in this article as men who have sex with men, transgender persons, people who sell sex and people who inject drugs, are at particularly high risk for HIV. Due to the often marginalized and sometimes criminalized status of young people who identify as members of key populations, there is a need for HIV prevention packages that account for the unique and challenging circumstances they face. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is likely to become an important element of combination prevention for many young key populations. Objective In this paper, we discuss important challenges to HIV prevention among young key populations, identify key components of a tailored combination prevention package for this population and examine the role of PrEP in these prevention packages. Methods We conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence to date on prevention strategies, challenges to prevention and combination prevention packages for young key populations. We focused specifically on the role of PrEP in these prevention packages and on young people under the age of 24, and 18 in particular. Results and discussion Combination prevention packages that include effective, acceptable and scalable behavioural, structural and biologic interventions are needed for all key populations to prevent new HIV infections. Interventions in these packages should meaningfully involve beneficiaries in the design and implementation of the intervention, and take into account the context in which the intervention is being delivered to thoughtfully address issues of stigma and discrimination. These interventions will likely be most effective if implemented in conjunction with strategies to facilitate an enabling environment, including increasing access to HIV testing and health services for PrEP and other prevention strategies, decriminalizing key populations’ practices, increasing access to prevention and care, reducing stigma and discrimination, and

  19. A support vector machine-based method to identify mild cognitive impairment with multi-level characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhuqing; Jing, Bin; Yan, Huagang; Dong, Jianxin; Liu, Han; Mo, Xiao; Han, Ying; Li, Haiyun

    2016-09-07

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Non-invasive diagnostic methods are desirable to identify MCI for early therapeutic interventions. In this study, we proposed a support vector machine (SVM)-based method to discriminate between MCI patients and normal controls (NCs) using multi-level characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This method adopted a radial basis function (RBF) as the kernel function, and a grid search method to optimize the two parameters of SVM. The calculated characteristics, i.e., the Hurst exponent (HE), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo) and gray matter density (GMD), were adopted as the classification features. A leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to evaluate the classification performance of the method. Applying the proposed method to the experimental data from 29 MCI patients and 33 healthy subjects, we achieved a classification accuracy of up to 96.77%, with a sensitivity of 93.10% and a specificity of 100%, and the area under the curve (AUC) yielded up to 0.97. Furthermore, the most discriminative features for classification were found to predominantly involve default-mode regions, such as hippocampus (HIP), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and subcortical regions such as lentiform nucleus (LN) and amygdala (AMYG). Therefore, our method is promising in distinguishing MCI patients from NCs and may be useful for the diagnosis of MCI. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying key features of early stressful experiences that produce stress vulnerability and resilience in primates

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complex role of early stressful experiences in producing both vulnerability and resilience to later stress-related psychopathology in a variety of primate models of human development. Two types of models are reviewed: Parental Separation Models (e.g., isolate-rearing, peer-rearing, parental separations, and stress inoculation) and Maternal Behavior Models (e.g., foraging demands, variation in maternal style, and maternal abuse). Based on empirical evidence, it is argued that early life stress exposure does not increase adult vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as a linear function, as is generally believed, but instead reflects a quadratic function. Features of early stress exposure including the type, duration, frequency, ecological validity, sensory modality, and developmental timing, within and between species, are identified to better understand how early stressful experiences alter neurobiological systems to produce such diverse developmental outcomes. This article concludes by identifying gaps in our current knowledge, providing directions for future research, and discussing the translational implications of these primate models for human development and psychopathology. PMID:20851145

  1. The Use of the Internet to Meet Sexual Partners: A Comparison of Non-Heterosexually-Identified Men with Heterosexually-Identified Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Seal, David Wyatt; Benotsch, Eric G.; Green, Marisa; Snipes, Daniel J.; Bull, Sheana S.; Cejka, Anna; Lance, Shannon Perschbacher; Nettles, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, we conducted online interviews with 65 self-identified adult heterosexual men and women and gay/bisexual men to explore perceptions and experiences with meeting people online. Reasons for meeting people online, desired partner characteristics, and the process of connecting for sex paralleled those observed in real-life; but the Internet allowed people to identify more partners and specific partner characteristics. “Background checks” of online partners, even though often believed to be false, increased familiarity and trust leading to reduced perceived need for condom use. Participants said online condom use negotiation was easier, but usually occurred in face-to-face contexts in practice. (99) PMID:25767648

  2. Improved key-rate bounds for practical decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Qi; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2017-01-01

    The decoy-state scheme is the most widely implemented quantum-key-distribution protocol in practice. In order to account for the finite-size key effects on the achievable secret key generation rate, a rigorous statistical fluctuation analysis is required. Originally, a heuristic Gaussian-approximation technique was used for this purpose, which, despite its analytical convenience, was not sufficiently rigorous. The fluctuation analysis has recently been made rigorous by using the Chernoff bound. There is a considerable gap, however, between the key-rate bounds obtained from these techniques and that obtained from the Gaussian assumption. Here we develop a tighter bound for the decoy-state method, which yields a smaller failure probability. This improvement results in a higher key rate and increases the maximum distance over which secure key exchange is possible. By optimizing the system parameters, our simulation results show that our method almost closes the gap between the two previously proposed techniques and achieves a performance similar to that of conventional Gaussian approximations.

  3. Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-03-01

    Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence.

  4. Key aspects of coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  5. Diversity of key players in the microbial ecosystems of the human body

    PubMed Central

    Jordán, Ferenc; Lauria, Mario; Scotti, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Praveen, Paurush; Morine, Melissa; Priami, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Coexisting bacteria form various microbial communities in human body parts. In these ecosystems they interact in various ways and the properties of the interaction network can be related to the stability and functional diversity of the local bacterial community. In this study, we analyze the interaction network among bacterial OTUs in 11 locations of the human body. These belong to two major groups. One is the digestive system and the other is the female genital tract. In each local ecosystem we determine the key species, both the ones being in key positions in the interaction network and the ones that dominate by frequency. Beyond identifying the key players and discussing their biological relevance, we also quantify and compare the properties of the 11 networks. The interaction networks of the female genital system and the digestive system show totally different architecture. Both the topological properties and the identity of the key groups differ. Key groups represent four phyla of prokaryotes. Some groups appear in key positions in several locations, while others are assigned only to a single body part. The key groups of the digestive and the genital tracts are totally different. PMID:26514870

  6. Diversity of key players in the microbial ecosystems of the human body.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Ferenc; Lauria, Mario; Scotti, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Praveen, Paurush; Morine, Melissa; Priami, Corrado

    2015-10-30

    Coexisting bacteria form various microbial communities in human body parts. In these ecosystems they interact in various ways and the properties of the interaction network can be related to the stability and functional diversity of the local bacterial community. In this study, we analyze the interaction network among bacterial OTUs in 11 locations of the human body. These belong to two major groups. One is the digestive system and the other is the female genital tract. In each local ecosystem we determine the key species, both the ones being in key positions in the interaction network and the ones that dominate by frequency. Beyond identifying the key players and discussing their biological relevance, we also quantify and compare the properties of the 11 networks. The interaction networks of the female genital system and the digestive system show totally different architecture. Both the topological properties and the identity of the key groups differ. Key groups represent four phyla of prokaryotes. Some groups appear in key positions in several locations, while others are assigned only to a single body part. The key groups of the digestive and the genital tracts are totally different.

  7. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted. PMID:24920938

  8. Rubella vaccination in India: identifying broad consequences of vaccine introduction and key knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Winter, A K; Pramanik, S; Lessler, J; Ferrari, M; Grenfell, B T; Metcalf, C J E

    2018-01-01

    Rubella virus infection typically presents as a mild illness in children; however, infection during pregnancy may cause the birth of an infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). As of February 2017, India began introducing rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into the public-sector childhood vaccination programme. Low-level RCV coverage among children over several years can result in an increase in CRS incidence by increasing the average age of infection without sufficiently reducing rubella incidence. We evaluated the impact of RCV introduction on CRS incidence across India's heterogeneous demographic and epidemiological contexts. We used a deterministic age-structured model that reflects Indian states' rural and urban area-specific demography and vaccination coverage levels to simulate rubella dynamics and estimate CRS incidence with and without RCV introduction to the public sector. Our analysis suggests that current low-level private-sector vaccination has already slightly increased the burden of CRS in India. We additionally found that the effect of public-sector RCV introduction depends on the basic reproductive number, R 0, of rubella. If R 0 is five, a value empirically estimated from an array of settings, CRS incidence post-RCV introduction will likely decrease. However, if R 0 is seven or nine, some states may experience short-term or annual increases in CRS, even if a long-term total reduction in cases (30 years) is expected. Investment in population-based serological surveys and India's fever/rash surveillance system will be key to monitoring the success of the vaccination programme.

  9. A systematic review of validated methods for identifying anaphylaxis, including anaphylactic shock and angioneurotic edema, using administrative and claims data.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gary; Kachroo, Sumesh; Jones, Natalie; Crean, Sheila; Rotella, Philip; Avetisyan, Ruzan; Reynolds, Matthew W

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel pilot program initially aims to conduct active surveillance to refine safety signals that emerge for marketed medical products. A key facet of this surveillance is to develop and understand the validity of algorithms for identifying health outcomes of interest from administrative and claims data. This article summarizes the process and findings of the algorithm review of anaphylaxis. PubMed and Iowa Drug Information Service searches were conducted to identify citations applicable to the anaphylaxis health outcome of interest. Level 1 abstract reviews and Level 2 full-text reviews were conducted to find articles using administrative and claims data to identify anaphylaxis and including validation estimates of the coding algorithms. Our search revealed limited literature focusing on anaphylaxis that provided administrative and claims data-based algorithms and validation estimates. Only four studies identified via literature searches provided validated algorithms; however, two additional studies were identified by Mini-Sentinel collaborators and were incorporated. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes varied, as did the positive predictive value, depending on the cohort characteristics and the specific codes used to identify anaphylaxis. Research needs to be conducted on designing validation studies to test anaphylaxis algorithms and estimating their predictive power, sensitivity, and specificity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Neural Interfaces for Intracortical Recording: Requirements, Fabrication Methods, and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Katarzyna M; Grand, Laszlo; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Implantable neural interfaces for central nervous system research have been designed with wire, polymer, or micromachining technologies over the past 70 years. Research on biocompatible materials, ideal probe shapes, and insertion methods has resulted in building more and more capable neural interfaces. Although the trend is promising, the long-term reliability of such devices has not yet met the required criteria for chronic human application. The performance of neural interfaces in chronic settings often degrades due to foreign body response to the implant that is initiated by the surgical procedure, and related to the probe structure, and material properties used in fabricating the neural interface. In this review, we identify the key requirements for neural interfaces for intracortical recording, describe the three different types of probes-microwire, micromachined, and polymer-based probes; their materials, fabrication methods, and discuss their characteristics and related challenges.

  11. Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI): Psychometric characteristics of an instrument for routine assessment of persons with psychoses and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Vázquez Morejón, Antonio J; Vázquez-Morejón, Raquel; Bellido Zanin, Gloria

    2018-03-22

    This study explores the psychometric characteristics of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI), an instrument for routine clinical assessment of behavior problems in outpatients with psychosis based on information provided by key family informants. Six hundred and twenty-one patients diagnosed with psychosis and bipolar affective disorder (ICD-10 F20-F31) attended at Community Mental Health Units were evaluated in routine reviews using the BPI and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). Twenty-five subjects were simultaneously administered the Social Behavior Schedule (SBS) and 28 were again administered the BPI eight weeks later. The instrument shows adequate psychometric characteristics with high internal consistency and robust temporal reliability, as well as satisfactory concurrent and construct validity. Factor analysis identified three factors: Underactivity/Social Withdrawal, Active Problems and Lack of Impulse Control, with adequate saturation of the items on each of the factors. The BPI is easy to apply, reliable and valid, takes up little of valuable clinical time, allowing routine assessment in public service contexts for persons diagnosed with psychosis and bipolar affective disorder for whom key family informants are available. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Defining Multiple Characteristic Raman Bands of α-Amino Acids as Biomarkers for Planetary Missions Using a Statistical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, S. M.; Patel, M. R.; Gilmour, I.; Olsson-Francis, K.; Ringrose, T. J.

    2016-06-01

    Biomarker molecules, such as amino acids, are key to discovering whether life exists elsewhere in the Solar System. Raman spectroscopy, a technique capable of detecting biomarkers, will be on board future planetary missions including the ExoMars rover. Generally, the position of the strongest band in the spectra of amino acids is reported as the identifying band. However, for an unknown sample, it is desirable to define multiple characteristic bands for molecules to avoid any ambiguous identification. To date, there has been no definition of multiple characteristic bands for amino acids of interest to astrobiology. This study examined l-alanine, l-aspartic acid, l-cysteine, l-glutamine and glycine and defined several Raman bands per molecule for reference as characteristic identifiers. Per amino acid, 240 spectra were recorded and compared using established statistical tests including ANOVA. The number of characteristic bands defined were 10, 12, 12, 14 and 19 for l-alanine (strongest intensity band: 832 cm-1), l-aspartic acid (938 cm-1), l-cysteine (679 cm-1), l-glutamine (1090 cm-1) and glycine (875 cm-1), respectively. The intensity of bands differed by up to six times when several points on the crystal sample were rotated through 360 °; to reduce this effect when defining characteristic bands for other molecules, we find that spectra should be recorded at a statistically significant number of points per sample to remove the effect of sample rotation. It is crucial that sets of characteristic Raman bands are defined for biomarkers that are targets for future planetary missions to ensure a positive identification can be made.

  13. Defining Multiple Characteristic Raman Bands of α-Amino Acids as Biomarkers for Planetary Missions Using a Statistical Method.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, S M; Patel, M R; Gilmour, I; Olsson-Francis, K; Ringrose, T J

    2016-06-01

    Biomarker molecules, such as amino acids, are key to discovering whether life exists elsewhere in the Solar System. Raman spectroscopy, a technique capable of detecting biomarkers, will be on board future planetary missions including the ExoMars rover. Generally, the position of the strongest band in the spectra of amino acids is reported as the identifying band. However, for an unknown sample, it is desirable to define multiple characteristic bands for molecules to avoid any ambiguous identification. To date, there has been no definition of multiple characteristic bands for amino acids of interest to astrobiology. This study examined L-alanine, L-aspartic acid, L-cysteine, L-glutamine and glycine and defined several Raman bands per molecule for reference as characteristic identifiers. Per amino acid, 240 spectra were recorded and compared using established statistical tests including ANOVA. The number of characteristic bands defined were 10, 12, 12, 14 and 19 for L-alanine (strongest intensity band: 832 cm(-1)), L-aspartic acid (938 cm(-1)), L-cysteine (679 cm(-1)), L-glutamine (1090 cm(-1)) and glycine (875 cm(-1)), respectively. The intensity of bands differed by up to six times when several points on the crystal sample were rotated through 360 °; to reduce this effect when defining characteristic bands for other molecules, we find that spectra should be recorded at a statistically significant number of points per sample to remove the effect of sample rotation. It is crucial that sets of characteristic Raman bands are defined for biomarkers that are targets for future planetary missions to ensure a positive identification can be made.

  14. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method. PMID:26655663

  15. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seung-Jae; Lee, Young-Gu; Lee, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Jun, Moon-Seog

    2011-01-01

    These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes. PMID:22164072

  16. A Trustworthy Key Generation Prototype Based on DDR3 PUF for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenchao; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Miaoxin; Liu, Zhenglin

    2014-01-01

    Secret key leakage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a high security risk especially when sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environment and physically accessible to attackers. With nowadays semi/fully-invasive attack techniques attackers can directly derive the cryptographic key from non-volatile memory (NVM) storage. Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) is a promising technology to resist node capture attacks, and it also provides a low cost and tamper-resistant key provisioning solution. In this paper, we designed a PUF based on double-data-rate SDRAM Type 3 (DDR3) memory by exploring its memory decay characteristics. We also described a prototype of 128-bit key generation based on DDR3 PUF with integrated fuzzy extractor. Due to the wide adoption of DDR3 memory in WSN, our proposed DDR3 PUF technology with high security levels and no required hardware changes is suitable for a wide range of WSN applications. PMID:24984058

  17. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  18. In Search of Black Swans: Identifying Students at Risk of Failing Licensing Examinations.

    PubMed

    Barber, Cassandra; Hammond, Robert; Gula, Lorne; Tithecott, Gary; Chahine, Saad

    2018-03-01

    To determine which admissions variables and curricular outcomes are predictive of being at risk of failing the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part 1 (MCCQE1), how quickly student risk of failure can be predicted, and to what extent predictive modeling is possible and accurate in estimating future student risk. Data from five graduating cohorts (2011-2015), Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, were collected and analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictive models and determine whether they could be used to predict future risk, using the 2016 graduating cohort. Four predictive models were developed to predict student risk of failure at admissions, year 1, year 2, and pre-MCCQE1. The HGLM analyses identified gender, MCAT verbal reasoning score, two preclerkship course mean grades, and the year 4 summative objective structured clinical examination score as significant predictors of student risk. The predictive accuracy of the models varied. The pre-MCCQE1 model was the most accurate at predicting a student's risk of failing (AUC 0.66-0.93), while the admissions model was not predictive (AUC 0.25-0.47). Key variables predictive of students at risk were found. The predictive models developed suggest, while it is not possible to identify student risk at admission, we can begin to identify and monitor students within the first year. Using such models, programs may be able to identify and monitor students at risk quantitatively and