Science.gov

Sample records for identifying nuclear material

  1. 76 FR 77855 - Criteria for Identifying Material Licensees for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... for those nuclear material licensees, including fuel cycle facilities, with significant safety or... identifies nuclear material licensees, including fuel cycle and Agreement State licensees, for AARM..., one additional element (i.e., criterion), has been added that focuses on those material...

  2. Method for Non-Intrusively Identifying a Contained Material Utilizing Uncollided Nuclear Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, John L.; Stephens, Alan G.; Grover Blaine S.

    1999-02-26

    An improved nuclear diagnostic method identifies a contained target material by measuring on-axis, mono-energetic uncollided particle radiation transmitted through a target material for two penetrating radiation beam energies, and applying specially developed algorithms to estimate a ratio of macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a neutron beam, or a ratio of linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a gamma-ray beam. Alternatively, the measurements are used to derive a minimization formula based on the macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two neutron beam energies, or the linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two gamma-ray beam energies. A candidate target material database, including known macroscopic neutron cross-sections or linear attenuation coefficients for target materials at the selected neutron or gamma-ray beam energies, is used to approximate the estimated ratio or to solve the minimization formula, such that the identity of the contained target material is discovered.

  3. Method for non-intrusively identifying a contained material utilizing uncollided nuclear transmission measurements

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, John L.; Stephens, Alan G.; Grover, S. Blaine

    2001-11-20

    An improved nuclear diagnostic method identifies a contained target material by measuring on-axis, mono-energetic uncollided particle radiation transmitted through a target material for two penetrating radiation beam energies, and applying specially developed algorithms to estimate a ratio of macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a neutron beam, or a ratio of linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a gamma-ray beam. Alternatively, the measurements are used to derive a minimization formula based on the macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two neutron beam energies, or the linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two gamma-ray beam energies. A candidate target material database, including known macroscopic neutron cross-sections or linear attenuation coefficients for target materials at the selected neutron or gamma-ray beam energies, is used to approximate the estimated ratio or to solve the minimization formula, such that the identity of the contained target material is discovered.

  4. Ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate and identify materials

    DOEpatents

    Kraus, Robert H.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Espy, Michelle A.; Volegov, Petr L.

    2010-03-30

    An ultra-low magnetic field NMR system can non-invasively examine containers. Database matching techniques can then identify hazardous materials within the containers. Ultra-low field NMR systems are ideal for this purpose because they do not require large powerful magnets and because they can examine materials enclosed in conductive shells such as lead shells. The NMR examination technique can be combined with ultra-low field NMR imaging, where an NMR image is obtained and analyzed to identify target volumes. Spatial sensitivity encoding can also be used to identify target volumes. After the target volumes are identified the NMR measurement technique can be used to identify their contents.

  5. Nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) processes plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. This fact sheet responds to your September 6, 1991, request, that we describe the methods and facilities for DOE's plutonium processing. Plutonium, which is used to make nuclear weapons, does not exist in nature and has to be produced. However, DOE no longer produces plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Instead, DOE processes and recycles the plutonium from retired nuclear weapons and the plutonium that remains as scrap or residue from plutonium processing. This paper reports that DOE recovers plutonium through two basic processes-aqueous and pyrochemical-at four processing sites-Rocky Flats, Savannah River, Hanford, and Los Alamos. However, because of environmental and safety concerns and reductions in nuclear weapons, DOE has closed or may close most of the processing facilities. Only Los Alamos' processing facilities are currently operating.

  6. Ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate and identify materials

    DOEpatents

    Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Urbaitis, Algis V.; Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich; Espy, Michelle A.; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Kraus, Jr., Robert Henry

    2013-03-05

    Method comprising obtaining an NMR measurement from a sample wherein an ultra-low field NMR system probes the sample and produces the NMR measurement and wherein a sampling temperature, prepolarizing field, and measurement field are known; detecting the NMR measurement by means of inductive coils; analyzing the NMR measurement to obtain at least one measurement feature wherein the measurement feature comprises T1, T2, T1.rho., or the frequency dependence thereof; and, searching for the at least one measurement feature within a database comprising NMR reference data for at least one material to determine if the sample comprises a material of interest.

  7. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  11. Keeping Nuclear Materials Secure

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-19

    For 50 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been helping to keep nuclear materials secure. We do this by developing instruments and training inspectors that are deployed to other countries to make sure materials such as uranium are being used for peaceful purposes and not diverted for use in weapons. These measures are called “nuclear safeguards,” and they help make the world a safer place.

  12. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-09-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide.

  13. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  14. NUCLEAR FUEL MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Goeddel, W.V.

    1962-06-26

    An improved method is given for making the carbides of nuclear fuel material. The metal of the fuel material, which may be a fissile and/or fertile material, is transformed into a silicide, after which the silicide is comminuted to the desired particle size. This silicide is then carburized at an elevated temperature, either above or below the melting point of the silicide, to produce an intimate mixture of the carbide of the fuel material and the carbide of silicon. This mixture of the fuel material carbide and the silicon carbide is relatively stable in the presence of moisture and does not exhibit the highly reactive surface condition which is observed with fuel material carbides made by most other known methods. (AEC)

  15. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  16. Application of Nuclear Material Tracking System to nuclear materials control

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, R.F.

    1989-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews the design concept of the Nuclear Material Tracking System, which is called NTRAK. Subsequently, it provides preliminary estimates of NTRAK detection capability for selected situations and outlines how NTRAK can be used to defend against the insider adversary attempting to steal special nuclear material (SNM). The NTRAK is a special assembly of gamma radiation detectors. The feature of NTRAK which makes it unique is its ability to direction-find and triangulate the position of localized sources of gamma radiation. This capability allows the nuclear safeguards system designer to develop material control procedures based on the position or motion of detected material. This capability was not previously available, because detection systems were unable to determine the direction from the detectors to the nuclear material being monitored. Other features of NTRAK that make it useful for nuclear material control include its abilities to (1) detect SNM at significant ranges from the detectors, (2) verify material quantity, (3) detect theft material traveling piggyback on authorized material, and (4) provide defense in depth against the adversary insider attempting to steal SNM.

  17. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclear systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.

  18. Materials Science for Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Anthony J.

    2008-03-01

    In response to the elevated importance of nuclear detection technology, a variety of research efforts have sought to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials These efforts have goals such as improving our understanding of how these materials perform, supporting the development of formalized discovery tools, or enabling rapid and effective performance characterization. This article provides an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of these materials.

  19. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  1. MSFC Nuclear Propulsion Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R.; Cook, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion systems for spacecraft applications present numerous technical challenges for propulsion systems. They have been the focus of a recent NRA. Challenges inclue: a nuclear reactor subsystem to produce thermal energy; a power conversion subsystem to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy; a propulsion subsystem that utilizes Hall effect thrusters; thruster technologies and high temperature materials to support subsystems. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Facility provides an ideal platform for the study of high temperature and reactive materials. An overview of the facility and its capabilities will be presented.

  2. Materials Challenges in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J; Was, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power currently provides about 13% of the worldwide electrical power, and has emerged as a reliable baseload source of electricity. A number of materials challenges must be successfully resolved for nuclear energy to continue to make further improvements in reliability, safety and economics. The operating environment for materials in current and proposed future nuclear energy systems is summarized, along with a description of materials used for the main operating components. Materials challenges associated with power uprates and extensions of the operating lifetimes of reactors are described. The three major materials challenges for the current and next generation of water-cooled fission reactors are centered on two structural materials aging degradation issues (corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials and neutron-induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels), along with improved fuel system reliability and accident tolerance issues. The major corrosion and stress corrosion cracking degradation mechanisms for light water reactors are reviewed. The materials degradation issues for the Zr alloy clad UO2 fuel system currently utilized in the majority of commercial nuclear power plants is discussed for normal and off-normal operating conditions. Looking to proposed future (Generation IV) fission and fusion energy systems, there are 5 key bulk radiation degradation effects (low temperature radiation hardening and embrittlement, radiation-induced and modified solute segregation and phase stability, irradiation creep, void swelling, and high temperature helium embrittlement) and a multitude of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking effects (including irradiation-assisted phenomena) that can have a major impact on the performance of structural materials.

  3. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, Gary M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Rogers, Vern C.

    2007-07-01

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  4. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-07-26

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0{trademark}. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority.

  5. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; ...

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclearmore » systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.« less

  6. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  7. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear...

  8. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear...

  9. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear...

  10. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear...

  11. Special nuclear material simulation device

    DOEpatents

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  12. Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System

    SciTech Connect

    Radle, James E; Archer, Daniel E; Carter, Robert J; Mullens, James Allen; Mihalczo, John T; Britton Jr, Charles L; Lind, Randall F; Wright, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    The Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System (FNMIS), funded by the NA-241 Office of Dismantlement and Transparency, provides information to determine the material attributes and identity of heavily shielded nuclear objects. This information will provide future treaty participants with verifiable information required by the treaty regime. The neutron interrogation technology uses a combination of information from induced fission neutron radiation and transmitted neutron imaging information to provide high confidence that the shielded item is consistent with the host's declaration. The combination of material identification information and the shape and configuration of the item are very difficult to spoof. When used at various points in the warhead dismantlement sequence, the information complimented by tags and seals can be used to track subassembly and piece part information as the disassembly occurs. The neutron transmission imaging has been developed during the last seven years and the signature analysis over the last several decades. The FNMIS is the culmination of the effort to put the technology in a usable configuration for potential treaty verification purposes.

  13. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  14. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen W.M.; Bennett, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems.

  15. New technologies for monitoring nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes new technologies for monitoring the continued presence of nuclear materials that are being evaluated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to reduce the effort, cost, and employee exposures associated with conducting nuclear material inventories. These technologies also show promise for the international safeguarding of process systems and nuclear materials in storage, including spent fuels. The identified systems are based on innovative technologies that were not developed for safeguards applications. These advanced technologies include passive and active sensor systems based on optical materials, inexpensive solid-state radiation detectors, dimensional surface characterization, and digital color imagery. The passive sensor systems use specialized scintillator materials coupled to optical-fiber technologies that not only are capable of measuring radioactive emissions but also are capable of measuring or monitoring pressure, weight, temperature, and source location. Small, durable solid-state gamma-ray detection devices, whose components are estimated to cost less than $25 per unit, can be implemented in a variety of configurations and can be adapted to enhance existing monitoring systems. Variations in detector design have produced significantly different system capabilities. Dimensional surface characterization and digital color imaging are applications of developed technologies that are capable of motion detection, item surveillance, and unique identification of items.

  16. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 10B, Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Brian R. T.

    1996-12-01

    The second of two volumes in this series to deal with the information required for the use of materials in the nuclear power industry. The two volumes together contain the most comprehensive collection of information ever published in nuclear materials. Contents: Motta/Lemaignan: Zirconium Alloys. Dietz: Structural Materials. Ullmaier/Schilling: Physics of Radiation Damage in Solids. Smith/Mattas/Billone: First Wall and Blanket Materials. Boltax: Mixed Oxide Fuel Pin Performance. Oversby: Nuclear Wate Materials.

  17. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  18. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  19. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-08-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials.

  20. Nuclear Material Management in Russia and New Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martyanov,A A; Pitel,V A; Babcock,R A; Heinberg,C L; Tynan,D M

    2001-06-25

    The Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) is the federal authority empowered with the management of state-owned nuclear materials, with the exception of military applications. The Russian Federal Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is a key component in establishing an effective nuclear materials management system in the Russian Federation. In December 2000, the Russian government issued the decree to enter into force the regulation on the accounting and control of nuclear materials and directed the State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear materials should begin October 2001. This regulation establishes the basic accounting documents and the requirement to report them to the FIS to launch the State Nuclear Material Registry of nuclear materials. The Nuclear Material Registry contains information on agencies and operating organizations that use nuclear material, along with the kinds, quantity and other characteristics of nuclear material. Minatom will use the Registry and the supporting database and functionality that reside in the FIS for carrying out the functions of nuclear materials management. At the same time, the FIS provides for reporting from material balance areas (MBA). With American support, 14 Russian enterprises are reporting material balance area level information to the FIS using full-function reporting (i.e., reporting inventory and inventory changes including closeout and reconciliation between the FIS and enterprises). Russian Federation regulations for nuclear material control and accounting and nuclear materials management have been or are being developed, some of which may impact the FIS, whether for full-function reporting or its support in preparing the Nuclear Material Registry. This paper discusses the role and the place of the FIS in nuclear material management, describes the goals and challenges facing the FIS based on Russian Federation regulations, and provides a brief

  1. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  2. Whole-genome screening identifies proteins localized to distinct nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ka-Wing; Li, Yujing; Wang, Wenqi; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Kunpeng; Qi, Robert Z; Liu, Dan; Songyang, Zhou; Chen, Junjie

    2013-10-14

    The nucleus is a unique organelle that contains essential genetic materials in chromosome territories. The interchromatin space is composed of nuclear subcompartments, which are defined by several distinctive nuclear bodies believed to be factories of DNA or RNA processing and sites of transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional regulation. In this paper, we performed a genome-wide microscopy-based screening for proteins that form nuclear foci and characterized their localizations using markers of known nuclear bodies. In total, we identified 325 proteins localized to distinct nuclear bodies, including nucleoli (148), promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (38), nuclear speckles (27), paraspeckles (24), Cajal bodies (17), Sam68 nuclear bodies (5), Polycomb bodies (2), and uncharacterized nuclear bodies (64). Functional validation revealed several proteins potentially involved in the assembly of Cajal bodies and paraspeckles. Together, these data establish the first atlas of human proteins in different nuclear bodies and provide key information for research on nuclear bodies.

  3. Nuclear materials safeguards for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Basic concepts of domestic and international safeguards are described, with an emphasis on safeguards systems for the fuel cycles of commercial power reactors. Future trends in institutional and technical measures for nuclear materials safeguards are outlined. The conclusion is that continued developments in safeguards approaches and technology, coupled with institutional measures that facilitate the global management and protection of nuclear materials, are up to the challenge of safeguarding the growing inventories of nuclear materials in commercial fuel cycles in technologically advanced States with stable governments that have signed the nonproliferation treaty. These same approaches also show promise for facilitating international inspection of excess weapons materials and verifying a fissile materials cutoff convention.

  4. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  5. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-05-11

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. Our review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. Furthermore, the development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  6. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  7. Thermodynamics of Asymmetric Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alan; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P. J.; Hagel, K.; Kohley, Z.; Heilborn, L.; Mabiala, J.; May, L. W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G. A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Zheng, H.; Yennello, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    The nuclear caloric curve is observed to depend on the neutron-proton asymmetry. Three independent methods, each with multiple probes, are used to extract the temperatures of excited emitting sources. A linear decrease in the temperature with increasing neutron excess is observed for all 12 probes studied. Comparison of these results to theoretical model calculations may allow further characterization of the nuclear equation of state, in particular the asymmetry energy.

  8. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-09-18

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC&A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC&A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships.

  9. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    DOE PAGES

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; ...

    2016-05-11

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. Our review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. Furthermore, the development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclearmore » materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.« less

  10. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country`s nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  11. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies.

  12. Synthetic Organic Materials in Nuclear Powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Winslow, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Report aids plant designers and qualification engineers in ensuring that organic materials in nuclear powerplants will perform satisfactorily in such safety-related equipment as insulation on motor windings, pump diaphragms, motor and pump lubricants, and pump seals and gaskets. Report provides information for service that may include both mild and harsh nuclear environments.

  13. Nuclear Materials Safeguards - Manpower Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Manuel A.

    Nuclear safeguard systems, their operation and implications for future manpower needs, and the need for these topics to be integrated into the engineering education curriculum, are focused on in this paper. The elements of a safeguard system and factors influencing the selection of a particular system are presented. Projections concerning the use…

  14. Nuclear Materials Safeguards - Manpower Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Manuel A.

    Nuclear safeguard systems, their operation and implications for future manpower needs, and the need for these topics to be integrated into the engineering education curriculum, are focused on in this paper. The elements of a safeguard system and factors influencing the selection of a particular system are presented. Projections concerning the use…

  15. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material...

  16. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Low...

  17. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Low...

  18. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material...

  19. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material...

  20. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Low...

  1. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Low...

  2. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material...

  3. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  4. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  5. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a discussion of the safeguarding of nuclear materials in the states of the former Soviet Union. Several issues have been identified and improvements are being pursued at many facilities. These issues include: (1) improvements to existing computerized accounting systems, (2) access control, and (3) control of material movement.

  6. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  7. Nuclear forensics of special nuclear material at Los Alamos: three recent studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Lav; Gallimore, David L; Garduon, Katherine; Keller, Russell C; Kuhn, Kevin J; Lujan, Elmer J; Martinez, Alexander; Myers, Steven C; Moore, Steve S; Porterfield, Donivan R; Schwartz, Daniel S; Spencer, Khalil J; Townsend, Lisa E; Xu, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics of special nuclear materials is a highly specialized field because there are few analytical laboratories in the world that can safely handle nuclear materials, perform high accuracy and precision analysis using validated analytical methods. The goal of nuclear forensics is to establish an unambiguous link between illicitly trafficked nuclear material and its origin. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Signatures Program has implemented a graded 'conduct of operations' type approach for determining the unique nuclear, chemical, and physical signatures needed to identify the manufacturing process, intended use, and origin of interdicted nuclear material. In our approach an analysis flow path was developed for determining key signatures necessary for attributing unknown materials to a source. This analysis flow path included both destructive (i.e., alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, TIMS, particle size distribution, density and particle fractionation) and non-destructive (i.e., gamma-ray spectrometry, optical microscopy, SEM, XRD, and x-ray fluorescence) characterization techniques. Analytical techniques and results from three recent cases characterized by this analysis flow path along with an evaluation of the usefulness of this approach will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Fuzzy controllers in nuclear material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.

    1994-10-01

    Fuzzy controllers are applied to predicting and modeling a time series, with particular emphasis on anomaly detection in nuclear material inventory differences. As compared to neural networks, the fuzzy controllers can operate in real time; their learning process does not require many iterations to converge. For this reason fuzzy controllers are potentially useful in time series forecasting, where the authors want to detect and identify trends in real time. They describe an object-oriented implementation of the algorithm advanced by Wang and Mendel. Numerical results are presented both for inventory data and time series corresponding to chaotic situations, such as encountered in the context of strange attractors. In the latter case, the effects of noise on the predictive power of the fuzzy controller are explored.

  9. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  10. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, R. W.

    2004-02-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  11. Nuclear material control in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions.

  12. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  13. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  14. ABACC`s nuclear material accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, R.O.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a review of the history and policies of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The discussion leads up to a description of the database (presently utilizing Fox Pro) developed for materials accountability, with its broad requirements listed.

  15. Materials analysis with a nuclear microprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiore, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The ability to produce focused beams of a few MeV light ions from Van de Graaff accelerators has resulted in the development of nuclear microprobes. Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions, and particle-induced x-ray emission are used to provide spatially resolved information from the near surface region of materials. Rutherford backscattering provides nondestructive depth and mass resolution. Nuclear reactions are sensitive to light elements (Z < 15). Particle-induced x-ray analysis is similar to electron microprobe analysis, but 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive. The focused beams are usually produced with specially designed multiplets of magnetic quadrupoles. The LASL microprobe uses a superconducting solenoid as a final lens. The data are acquired by a computer interfaced to the experiment with CAMAC. The characteristics of the information acquired with a nuclear microprobe are discussed; the means of producing the beams of nuclear particles are described; and the limitations and applications of such systems are given.

  16. Retrospective Imaging and Characterization of Nuclear Material.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert B; Sholom, Sergey

    2017-08-01

    Modern techniques for detection of covert nuclear material requires some combination of real time measurement and/or sampling of the material. More common is real time measurement of the ionizing emission caused by radioactive decay or through the materials measured in response to external interrogation radiation. One can expose the suspect material with various radiation types, including high energy photons such as x rays or with larger particles such as neutrons and muons, to obtain images or measure nuclear reactions induced in the material. Stand-off detection using imaging modalities similar to those in the medical field can be accomplished, or simple collimated detectors can be used to localize radioactive materials. In all such cases, the common feature is that some or all of the nuclear materials have to be present for the measurement, which makes sense; as one might ask, "How you can measure something that is not there?" The current work and results show how to do exactly that: characterize nuclear materials after they have been removed from an area leaving no chemical trace. This new approach is demonstrated to be fully capable of providing both previous source spatial distribution and emission energy grouping. The technique uses magnetic resonance for organic insulators and/or luminescence techniques on ubiquitous refractory materials similar in theory to the way the nuclear industry carries out worker personnel dosimetry. Spatial information is obtained by acquiring gridded samples for dosimetric measurements, while energy information comes through dose depth profile results that are functions of the incident radiation energies.

  17. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Corrales, L. Rene; Ness, Nancy J.; Williford, Ralph E.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, B. Peter; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Song, Jakyoung; Park, Byeongwon; Jiang, Weilin; Begg, Bruce D.; Birtcher, R. B.; Chen, X.; Conradson, Steven D.

    2000-10-02

    Radiation effects from the decay of radionuclides may impact the long-term performance and stability of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. In an effort to address these concerns, the objective of this project was the development of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, particularly on solid-state radiation effects and their influence on aqueous dissolution kinetics. This study has employed experimental, theoretical and computer simulation methods to obtain new results and insights into radiation damage processes and to initiate the development of predictive models. Consequently, the research that has been performed under this project has significant implications for the High-Level Waste and Nuclear Materials focus areas within the current DOE/EM mission. In the High-Level Waste (HLW) focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. Ultimately, this research could result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  18. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  19. 10 CFR 74.15 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 74.15 Section 74.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.15 Nuclear material transaction reports....

  20. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  1. Guidelines for identifying suspect/counterfeit material

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist users of products in identifying: substandard, misrepresented, or fraudulently marked items. The guidelines provide information about such topics as: precautions, inspection and testing, dispositioning identified items, installed inspection and reporting suspect/counterfeit materials. These guidelines apply to users who are developing procurement documents, product acceptance/verification methods, company procedures, work instructions, etc. The intent of these SM guidelines in relation to the Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and implementing company Management Control Procedures is not to substitute or replace existing requirements, as defined in either the QAPD or company implementing instructions (Management Control Procedures). Instead, the guidelines are intended to provide a consolidated source of information addressing the issue of Suspect/Counterfeit materials. These guidelines provide an extensive suspect component listing and suspect indications listing. Users can quickly check their suspect items against the list of manufacturers products (i.e., type, LD. number, and nameplate information) by consulting either of these listings.

  2. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  3. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, N.B.

    1998-09-08

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies identify a group of nuclear pore complex glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies we identified a group of eight polypeptides of rat liver nuclear envelopes that have common epitopes. Most or all of these proteins are structurally distinct, as shown by tryptic peptide mapping and analysis with polyclonal antibodies. While these polypeptides are relatively tightly bound to nuclear membranes, only one is an integral membrane protein. The eight antigens cofractionate with the nuclear pore complex under various conditions of ionic strength and detergent. It can be seen by immunofluorescence microscopy that the monoclonal antibodies reacting with these antigens stain the nuclear surface of interphase cells in a finely punctate pattern. When the nuclear envelope is disassembled and subsequently reformed during mitosis, the proteins are reversibly dispersed throughout the cytoplasm in the form of minute foci. By EM immunogold localization on isolated nuclear envelopes, the monoclonal antibodies label exclusively the nuclear pore complex, at both its nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic margins. Considered together, our biochemical and localization data indicate that the eight nuclear envelope polypeptides are pore complex components. As shown in the accompanying paper (Holt, G. D., C. M. Snow, A. Senior, R. S. Haltiwanger, L. Gerace, and G. W. Hart, J. Cell Biol., 104:1157-1164) these eight polypeptides contain a novel form of glycosylation, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine. The relative abundance and disposition of these O-linked glycoproteins in the pore complex are consistent with their having a role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. PMID:2437126

  5. Designed porosity materials in nuclear reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Stan, Marius

    2016-09-06

    A nuclear fuel pellet with a porous substrate, such as a carbon or tungsten aerogel, on which at least one layer of a fuel containing material is deposited via atomic layer deposition, and wherein the layer deposition is controlled to prevent agglomeration of defects. Further, a method of fabricating a nuclear fuel pellet, wherein the method features the steps of selecting a porous substrate, depositing at least one layer of a fuel containing material, and terminating the deposition when the desired porosity is achieved. Also provided is a nuclear reactor fuel cladding made of a porous substrate, such as silicon carbide aerogel or silicon carbide cloth, upon which layers of silicon carbide are deposited.

  6. Atoms on the Move: Transporting Nuclear Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration pamphlet outlining in detail the many aspects involved in safe transportation of all types of nuclear materials. The detailed safety regulations and designs of various shipping packages and containers are emphasized. Included are maps of waste burial sites and fuel production facilities, an…

  7. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.G.

    2001-04-10

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  8. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other than...

  9. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other than...

  10. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of special...

  11. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of special...

  12. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other than...

  13. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of special...

  14. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of special...

  15. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other than...

  16. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  17. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  18. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  19. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  20. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, David Andrew

    2016-10-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  1. Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

  2. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T; Campbell, Billy J; Hammond, Glenn A; Meppen, Bruce W; Brown, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the

  3. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and reporting requirements with respect to material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear...

  4. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-29

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  5. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-05

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  6. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

    2014-04-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  9. Integrating the stabilization of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, H.F.

    1996-05-01

    In response to Recommendation 94-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, the Department of Energy committed to stabilizing specific nuclear materials within 3 and 8 years. These efforts are underway. The Department has already repackaged the plutonium at Rocky Flats and metal turnings at Savannah River that had been in contact with plastic. As this effort proceeds, we begin to look at activities beyond stabilization and prepare for the final disposition of these materials. To describe the plutonium materials being stabilize, Figure 1 illustrates the quantities of plutonium in various forms that will be stabilized. Plutonium as metal comprises 8.5 metric tons. Plutonium oxide contains 5.5 metric tons of plutonium. Plutonium residues and solutions, together, contain 7 metric tons of plutonium. Figure 2 shows the quantity of plutonium-bearing material in these four categories. In this depiction, 200 metric tons of plutonium residues and 400 metric tons of solutions containing plutonium constitute most of the material in the stabilization program. So, it is not surprising that much of the work in stabilization is directed toward the residues and solutions, even though they contain less of the plutonium.

  10. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  11. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1999-10-05

    A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  12. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1997-12-01

    A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium, and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  13. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a— (1...

  14. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a— (1...

  15. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a— (1...

  16. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a— (1...

  17. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  18. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  19. Mechanistic materials modeling for nuclear fuel performance

    DOE PAGES

    Tonks, Michael R.; Andersson, David; Phillpot, Simon R.; ...

    2017-03-15

    Fuel performance codes are critical tools for the design, certification, and safety analysis of nuclear reactors. However, their ability to predict fuel behavior under abnormal conditions is severely limited by their considerable reliance on empirical materials models correlated to burn-up (a measure of the number of fission events that have occurred, but not a unique measure of the history of the material). In this paper, we propose a different paradigm for fuel performance codes to employ mechanistic materials models that are based on the current state of the evolving microstructure rather than burn-up. In this approach, a series of statemore » variables are stored at material points and define the current state of the microstructure. The evolution of these state variables is defined by mechanistic models that are functions of fuel conditions and other state variables. The material properties of the fuel and cladding are determined from microstructure/property relationships that are functions of the state variables and the current fuel conditions. Multiscale modeling and simulation is being used in conjunction with experimental data to inform the development of these models. Finally, this mechanistic, microstructure-based approach has the potential to provide a more predictive fuel performance capability, but will require a team of researchers to complete the required development and to validate the approach.« less

  20. IMPROVED TECHNNOLOGY TO PREVENT ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H

    2005-07-20

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (collectively known as weapons of mass destruction, or WMD) and the potential acquisition and use of WMD against the world by terrorists are extremely serious threats to international security. These threats are complex and interrelated. There are myriad routes to weapons of mass destruction--many different starting materials, material sources, and production processes. There are many possible proliferators--threshold countries, rogue states, state-sponsored or transnational terrorists groups, domestic terrorists, and even international crime organizations. Motives for acquiring and using WMD are similarly wide ranging--from a desire to change the regional power balance, deny access to a strategic area, or alter international policy to extortion, revenge, or hate. Because of the complexity of this threat landscape, no single program, technology, or capability--no silver bullet--can solve the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem. An integrated program is needed that addresses the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem from end to end, from prevention to detection, reversal, and response, while avoiding surprise at all stages, with different activities directed specifically at different types of WMD and proliferators. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. The radiation properties of nuclear materials, particularly highly enriched uranium (HEU), make the detection of smuggled nuclear materials technically difficult. A number of efforts are under way to devise improved detector materials and instruments and to identify novel signatures that could be detected. Key applications of this work include monitoring for radioactive

  1. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J. P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; SRL; Savi Technology; DOE

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness.

  2. Compartmental analysis of dynamic nuclear medicine data: models and identifiability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbary, Fabrice; Garbarino, Sara; Vivaldi, Valentina

    2016-12-01

    Compartmental models based on tracer mass balance are extensively used in clinical and pre-clinical nuclear medicine in order to obtain quantitative information on tracer metabolism in the biological tissue. This paper is the first of a series of two that deal with the problem of tracer coefficient estimation via compartmental modelling in an inverse problem framework. Specifically, here we discuss the identifiability problem for a general n-dimension compartmental system and provide uniqueness results in the case of two-compartment and three-compartment compartmental models. The second paper will utilize this framework in order to show how nonlinear regularization schemes can be applied to obtain numerical estimates of the tracer coefficients in the case of nuclear medicine data corresponding to brain, liver and kidney physiology.

  3. Detection Of Special Nuclear Materials Tagged Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Deyglun, Clement; Perot, Bertrand; Carasco, Cedric; Sannie, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Corre, Gwenole; Boudergui, Karim; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Normand, Stephane; Cusset, Eric

    2015-07-01

    In order to detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in unattended luggage or cargo containers in the field of homeland security, fissions are induced by 14 MeV neutrons produced by an associated particle DT neutron generator, and prompt fission particles correlated with tagged neutron are detected by plastic scintillators. SMN produce high multiplicity events due to induced fissions, whereas nonnuclear materials produce low multiplicity events due to cross-talk, (n,2n) or (n,n'γ) reactions. The data acquisition electronics is made of compact FPGA boards. The coincidence window is triggered by the alpha particle detection, allowing to tag the emission date and direction of the 14 MeV interrogating neutron. The first part of the paper presents experiment vs. calculation comparisons to validate MCNP-PoliMi simulations and the post-processing tools developed with the data analysis framework ROOT. Measurements have been performed using different targets (iron, lead, graphite), first with small plastic scintillators (10 x 10 x 10 cm{sup 3}) and then with large detectors (10 x 10 x 100 cm{sup 3}) to demonstrate that nuclear materials can be differentiated from nonnuclear dense materials (iron, lead) in iron and wood matrixes. A special attention is paid on SNM detection in abandoned luggage. In the second part of the paper, the performances of a cargo container inspection system are studied by numerical simulation, following previous work reported in. Detectors dimensions and shielding against the neutron generator background are optimized for container inspection. Events not correlated to an alpha particle (uncorrelated background), counting statistics, time and energy resolutions of the data acquisition system are all taken into account in a realistic numerical model. The impact of the container matrix (iron, ceramic, wood) has been investigated by studying the system capability to detect a few kilograms of SNM in different positions in the cargo container, within 10

  4. Nuclear materials 1993 annual report. Volume 8, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Note that the subtitle of No. 2 has been changed from ``Nonreactors`` to ``Nuclear Materials.`` Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993.

  5. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with {sup 6}LiF (95% {sup 6}Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Materials characterization center workshop on compositional and microstructural analysis of nuclear waste materials. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Shade, J.W.; Thomas, M.T.

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on Compositional and Microstructural Analysis of Nuclear Waste Materials, conducted November 11 and 12, 1980, was to critically examine and evaluate the various methods currently used to study non-radioactive, simulated, nuclear waste-form performance. Workshop participants recognized that most of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) test data for inclusion in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook will result from application of appropriate analytical procedures to waste-package materials or to the products of performance tests. Therefore, the analytical methods must be reliable and of known accuracy and precision, and results must be directly comparable with those from other laboratories and from other nuclear waste materials. The 41 participants representing 18 laboratories in the United States and Canada were organized into three working groups: Analysis of Liquids and Solutions, Quantitative Analysis of Solids, and Phase and Microstructure Analysis. Each group identified the analytical methods favored by their respective laboratories, discussed areas needing attention, listed standards and reference materials currently used, and recommended means of verifying interlaboratory comparability of data. The major conclusions from this workshop are presented.

  11. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >10{sup 10} neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the {<=}2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons ({approx_equal}3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low ({gamma},n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low ({gamma},n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D{sub 2}O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated

  12. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >1010 neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the ≤2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons (≈3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low (γ,n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low (γ,n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D2O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated. Conversion efficiency of more than

  13. Nuclear Materials Development Facility decommissioning final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, R.J.; Harrison, D.J.; Meyer, R.D.; Schrag, F.C.; Wilson, R.C.

    1987-03-31

    The Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), building 055, was utilized for research, development, and production work on radiotoxic nuclear fuels, primarily /sup 239/Pu. The decision was made in FY 1982 to decommission the facility as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program. The intent was to decontaminate and decommission (D and D) the NMDF to the extent it would be suitable for unrestricted use. A project plan was prepared to describe the scope of the work, the techniques used, and the equipment needed for D and D. Activity requirements and detailed work procedures were prepared to define the work required on each major segment of the decommissioning. A facility description, history, and the special techniques used during D and D are given in this report. The more significant D and D activities, which include glovebox decontamination, support area contamination, and HVAC decontamination, are summarized in this document. The NMDF was decontaminated to levels that were as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), but in all cases to levels below the limits prescribed for unrestricted use. The disposal of potentially contaminated NaK, contained in 10 bubblers that were used to purify the inert atmosphere of the glove boxes, also is discussed. The decommissioning of Rockwell's NMDF began in October 1982 and was completed in October 1986. Final surveys, waste shipments, and the final report were completed by March 1987. The final schedule for the project is shown in Section 5.0 (Figure 46). 48 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  15. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  16. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  17. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  18. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  19. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  20. Identifying Fossil Bacteria in Martian Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Within the next decade, robotic missions are going to Mars with the search for evidence for extant and extinct life as at least one of the mission objectives. Moreover, the first Martian samples will be returned to Earth in 2008. It is therefore imperative that we can be certain that we can identify life in Martian rocks. In this paper we will not be discussing extant life but will concentrate on fossil life.

  1. Identifying Fossil Bacteria in Martian Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Within the next decade, robotic missions are going to Mars with the search for evidence for extant and extinct life as at least one of the mission objectives. Moreover, the first Martian samples will be returned to Earth in 2008. It is therefore imperative that we can be certain that we can identify life in Martian rocks. In this paper we will not be discussing extant life but will concentrate on fossil life.

  2. 10 CFR 1017.12 - Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Nuclear Information. 1017.12 Section 1017.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.12 Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified...

  3. 10 CFR 1017.12 - Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Nuclear Information. 1017.12 Section 1017.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.12 Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified...

  4. 10 CFR 1017.12 - Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nuclear Information. 1017.12 Section 1017.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.12 Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified...

  5. 10 CFR 1017.12 - Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Nuclear Information. 1017.12 Section 1017.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.12 Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified...

  6. 10 CFR 1017.12 - Prohibitions on identifying Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Nuclear Information. 1017.12 Section 1017.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.12 Prohibitions on identifying...

  7. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-06-05

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Revisiting Statistical Aspects of Nuclear Material Accounting

    DOE PAGES

    Burr, T.; Hamada, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear material accounting (NMA) is the only safeguards system whose benefits are routinely quantified. Process monitoring (PM) is another safeguards system that is increasingly used, and one challenge is how to quantify its benefit. This paper considers PM in the role of enabling frequent NMA, which is referred to as near-real-time accounting (NRTA). We quantify NRTA benefits using period-driven and data-driven testing. Period-driven testing makes a decision to alarm or not at fixed periods. Data-driven testing decides as the data arrives whether to alarm or continue testing. The difference between period-driven and datad-riven viewpoints is illustrated by using one-year andmore » two-year periods. For both one-year and two-year periods, period-driven NMA using once-per-year cumulative material unaccounted for (CUMUF) testing is compared to more frequent Shewhart and joint sequential cusum testing using either MUF or standardized, independently transformed MUF (SITMUF) data. We show that the data-driven viewpoint is appropriate for NRTA and that it can be used to compare safeguards effectiveness. In addition to providing period-driven and data-driven viewpoints, new features include assessing the impact of uncertainty in the estimated covariance matrix of the MUF sequence and the impact of both random and systematic measurement errors.« less

  11. Detecting special nuclear material using muon-induced neutron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Matthew Durham, J.; Fabritius, Joseph, II; Hecht, Adam; Milner, Edward C.; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher L.; Perry, John; Poulson, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The penetrating ability of cosmic ray muons makes them an attractive probe for imaging dense materials. Here, we describe experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by cosmic-ray muons to identify the presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Neutrons emitted from SNM are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of SNM-bearing objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects, and may have potential applications in warhead verification scenarios. During the experiment described here we did not attempt to distinguish the type or grade of the SNM.

  12. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Records... writing to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78...

  13. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Records... writing to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78...

  14. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Records... writing to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78...

  15. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Records... writing to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78...

  16. Distributional properties of stochastic shortest paths for smuggled nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Pan, Feng; Roach, Fred; Saeger, Kevin J

    2011-01-05

    The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach herlhis target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary's uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.

  17. Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kehle, R.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

  18. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  19. Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.

    PubMed

    Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Evaluation of nonaqueous processes for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, B.C.; Grens, J.Z.; Knighton, J.B.; Coops, M.S.

    1983-12-01

    A working group was assigned the task of evaluating the status of nonaqueous processes for nuclear materials and the prospects for successful deployment of these technologies in the future. In the initial evaluation, the study was narrowed to the pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical processes closely related to the processes used for purification of plutonium and its conversion to metal. The status of the chemistry and process hardware were reviewed and the development needs in both chemistry and process equipment technology were evaluated. Finally, the requirements were established for successful deployment of this technology. The status of the technology was evaluated along three lines: (1) first the current applications were examined for completeness, (2) an attempt was made to construct closed-cycle flow sheets for several proposed applications, (3) and finally the status of technical development and future development needs for general applications were reviewed. By using these three evaluations, three different perspectives were constructed that together present a clear picture of how complete the technical development of these processes are.

  1. Proteomic Approach to Identify Nuclear Proteins in Wheat Grain.

    PubMed

    Bancel, Emmanuelle; Bonnot, Titouan; Davanture, Marlène; Branlard, Gérard; Zivy, Michel; Martre, Pierre

    2015-10-02

    The nuclear proteome of the grain of the two cultivated wheat species Triticum aestivum (hexaploid wheat; genomes A, B, and D) and T. monococcum (diploid wheat; genome A) was analyzed in two early stages of development using shotgun-based proteomics. A procedure was optimized to purify nuclei, and an improved protein sample preparation was developed to efficiently remove nonprotein substances (starch and nucleic acids). A total of 797 proteins corresponding to 528 unique proteins were identified, 36% of which were classified in functional groups related to DNA and RNA metabolism. A large number (107 proteins) of unknown functions and hypothetical proteins were also found. Some identified proteins may be multifunctional and may present multiple localizations. On the basis of the MS/MS analysis, 368 proteins were present in the two species, and in two stages of development, some qualitative differences between species and stages of development were also found. All of these data illustrate the dynamic function of the grain nucleus in the early stages of development.

  2. Characterization of nuclear material by Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradela, C.; Alaerts, G.; Becker, B.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Mondelaers, W.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Koizumi, M.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2016-11-01

    The use of Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis for the characterization of nuclear materials is discussed. The method, which relies on resonance structures in neutron-induced reaction cross sections, can be applied as a non-destructive method to characterise complex nuclear materials such as melted fuel resulting from a severe nuclear accident. Results of a demonstration experiment at the GELINA facility reveal that accurate data can be obtained at a compact facility even in the case of strong overlapping resonances.

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory standard nuclear material container

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) approved and issued on March 7, 2008, DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual [hereafter referred to as Manual] to address this recommendation, and a Prioritization Methodology as a complex-wide requirement for the packaging of nuclear material outside an engineered barrier. The Manual establishes 'technically justified criteria' for packages in order to ensure safe interim storage and handling outside an engineered barrier. The Prioritization Methodology establishes a risk-based procedure for identifying the order to repackage that would most efficiently reduce the overall risk. It is a logical extension of the work performed to meet the two earlier DNFSB recommendations to include all materials stored outside of engineered barriers, i.e., not just excess materials. LANL will continue to work all aspects of a comprehensive Implementation Plan to d monstrate all aspects of compliance with the Manual. Assessment of materials in nonstandard containers utilizing a risk based approach, repackaging up to 400 containers/year; activities include reprocessing of items to allow container consolidation and subsequent increase in vault capacity. Continued efforts in establishing and implementing a Surveillance and Maintenance Program for current Hagans and for the NG SNMCSs supported by a database for packaging and surveillance. Elastomer aging studies for the NG SNMCs will continue to justify extending the design life well beyond the currently specified five years. First production with containers available for use anticipated in June 2010. LANL will continue to define schedule and resources to meet these objectives.

  4. Materials for Children about Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiss, Harry

    President Reagan's Fiscal Year 1987 budget was an attempt to increase dramatically spending on national defense, on nuclear weapons, while cutting back on social programs. The increases for almost all nuclear weapons indicate the Administration of the United States saw its major responsibility as one of providing a strong military, one centered on…

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Materials Processing Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear materials processing technician program is designed for use with courses 23-25 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Materials Processing Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear materials processing technician program is designed for use with courses 23-25 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  7. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Measurement and Characterization of Nuclear Material at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester

    2009-07-01

    A measurement plan and preliminary Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the investigation of well-defined mixed-oxide fuel pins. Measurement analysis including pulse-height distributions and time-dependent cross-correlation functions will be performed separately for neutrons and gamma rays. The utilization of Monte Carlo particle transport codes, specifically MCNP-PoliMi, is discussed in conjunction with the anticipated measurements. Four EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors with an accurate pulse timing and digital, offline, optimized pulse-shape discrimination method will be used to prove the dependency of pulse-height distributions, cross-correlation functions, and material multiplicities upon fuel pin composition, fuel pin quantity, and detector geometry. The objective of the measurements and simulations is to identify novel methods for describing mixed-oxide fuel samples by relating measured quantities to fuel characteristics such as criticality, mass quantity, and material composition. This research has applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation.

  9. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-12-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968.

  10. Nuclear Materials Stewardship Within the DOE Environmental Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyeu, J. D.; Kiess, T. E.; Gates, M. L.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has made significant progress in planning disposition of its excess nuclear materials and has recently completed several noteworthy studies. Since establishment in 1997, the EM Nuclear Material Stewardship Program has developed disposition plans for excess nuclear materials to support facility deactivation. All nuclear materials have been removed from the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (Mound), and disposition planning is nearing completion for the Fernald Environmental Management Project and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Only a few issues remain for materials at the Hanford and Idaho sites. Recent trade studies include the Savannah River Site Canyons Nuclear Materials Identification Study, a Cesium/Strontium Management Alternatives Trade Study, a Liquid Technical Standards Trade Study, an Irradiated Beryllium Reflectors with Tritium study, a Special Performance Assessment Required Trade Study, a Neutron Source Trade Study, and development of discard criteria for uranium. A Small Sites Workshop was also held. Potential and planned future activities include updating the Plutonium-239 storage study, developing additional packaging standards, developing a Nuclear Material Disposition Handbook, determining how to recover or dispose of Pu-244 and U-233, and working with additional sites to define disposition plans for their nuclear materials.

  11. Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

  12. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  13. A systematic approach to identify cellular auxetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Carolin; Liebold-Ribeiro, Yvonne

    2015-02-01

    Auxetics are materials showing a negative Poisson’s ratio. This characteristic leads to unusual mechanical properties that make this an interesting class of materials. So far no systematic approach for generating auxetic cellular materials has been reported. In this contribution, we present a systematic approach to identifying auxetic cellular materials based on eigenmode analysis. The fundamental mechanism generating auxetic behavior is identified as rotation. With this knowledge, a variety of complex two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) auxetic structures based on simple unit cells can be identified.

  14. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated.

  15. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew

    2016-09-26

    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  16. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  17. Identifying bacterial spores and anthrax hoax materials by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Brouillette, Carl R.; Smith, Wayne

    2004-12-01

    The distribution of Bacillus anthracis spores through the US postal system in the autumn of 2001, initiated a secondary form of terror, the mailing of hoax materials. In the past three years nearly 20,000 letters containing harmless powders have been mailed, creating additional anxiety. Thus, there is a need for analyzers that can not only identify anthrax-causing spores to save lives, but also identify hoax materials to eliminate time-consuming and costly shutdowns. Recently, we established that Raman spectroscopy has the ability to identify both Bacilli endospores and hoax materials. Here we present Raman spectra of several Bacilli spores along with the dipicolinate salts, to further define the abilities of this technology to not only identify hoax materials, but also identify spores at the genus and species level.

  18. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  19. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF..., “Personal Computer Data Input for NRC Licensees.” Copies of these instructions may be obtained either by...

  20. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    SciTech Connect

    Hirdt, J.A.; Brown, D.A.

    2016-01-15

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  1. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirdt, J. A.; Brown, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  2. A treaty to ban nuclear smuggling: The next step in nuclear material control?

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, B.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    Since the demise of the Soviet Union, reports have continued to surface that weapons-usable nuclear material has been smuggled out of former Soviet territory into the hands of proliferant states. So far, few examples of nuclear smuggling have involved serious quantities of weapons-usable material, and much purported smuggling has involved attempted fraud rather than an effort to transfer fissile material. In no instance has an actual transfer to a potential proliferant state been verified.

  3. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-02-17

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  4. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  5. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  6. Real-Time Characterization of Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, Sean; Candy, Jim; Chambers, Dave; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Snyderman, Neal

    2015-09-04

    When confronting an item that may contain nuclear material, it is urgently necessary to determine its characteristics. Our goal is to provide accurate information with high-con dence as rapidly as possible.

  7. Guidance for identifying, reporting and tracking nuclear safety noncompliances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document provides Department of Energy (DOE) contractors, subcontractors and suppliers with guidance in the effective use of DOE`s Price-Anderson nuclear safety Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). Prompt contractor identification, reporting to DOE, and correction of nuclear safety noncompliances provides DOE with a basis to exercise enforcement discretion to mitigate civil penalties, and suspend the issuance of Notices of Violation for certain violations. Use of this reporting methodology is elective by contractors; however, this methodology is intended to reflect DOE`s philosophy on effective identification and reporting of nuclear safety noncompliances. To the extent that these expectations are met for particular noncompliances, DOE intends to appropriately exercise its enforcement discretion in considering whether, and to what extent, to undertake enforcement action.

  8. Fabrication of High Temperature Cermet Materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Panda, Binayak; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Processing techniques are being developed to fabricate refractory metal and ceramic cermet materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Significant advances have been made in the area of high-temperature cermet fuel processing since RoverNERVA. Cermet materials offer several advantages such as retention of fission products and fuels, thermal shock resistance, hydrogen compatibility, high conductivity, and high strength. Recent NASA h d e d research has demonstrated the net shape fabrication of W-Re-HfC and other refractory metal and ceramic components that are similar to UN/W-Re cermet fuels. This effort is focused on basic research and characterization to identify the most promising compositions and processing techniques. A particular emphasis is being placed on low cost processes to fabricate near net shape parts of practical size. Several processing methods including Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) and conventional PM processes are being evaluated to fabricate material property samples and components. Surrogate W-Re/ZrN cermet fuel materials are being used to develop processing techniques for both coated and uncoated ceramic particles. After process optimization, depleted uranium-based cermets will be fabricated and tested to evaluate mechanical, thermal, and hot H2 erosion properties. This paper provides details on the current results of the project.

  9. In-field analysis and assessment of nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Myers, W.S.; Olivares, J.A.; Phillips, J.R.; York, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has actively developed and implemented a number of instruments to monitor, detect, and analyze nuclear materials in the field. Many of these technologies, developed under existing US Department of Energy programs, can also be used to effectively interdict nuclear materials smuggled across or within national borders. In particular, two instruments are suitable for immediate implementation: the NAVI-2, a hand-held gamma-ray and neutron system for the detection and rapid identification of radioactive materials, and the portable mass spectrometer for the rapid analysis of minute quantities of radioactive materials. Both instruments provide not only critical information about the characteristics of the nuclear material for law-enforcement agencies and national authorities but also supply health and safety information for personnel handling the suspect materials.

  10. The Science of Nuclear Materials Detection using gamma-ray beams: Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    An atomic nucleus is excited by absorption of incident photons with an energy the same as the excitation energy of the level, and subsequently a gamma-ray is emitted as it de-excites. This phenomenon is called Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and mostly used for studies on Nuclear Physics field. By measuring the NRF gamma-rays, we can identify nuclear species in any materials because the energies of the NRF gamma-rays uniquely depend on the nuclear species. For example, 235U has an excitation level at 1733 keV. If we irradiate a material including 235U with a gamma-ray tuned at this excitation level, the material absorbs the gamma-ray and re-emits another gamma-ray immediately to move back towards the ground state. Therefore we can detect the 235U by measuring the re-emitted (NRF) gamma-rays. Several inspection methods using gamma-rays, which can penetrate a thick shielding have been proposed and examined. Bertozzi and Ledoux have proposed an application of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) by using bremsstrahlung radiations. However the signal-to-noise (SN) ratio of the NRF measurement with the bremsstrahlung radiation is, in general, low. Only a part of the incident photons makes NRF with a narrow resonant band (meV-eV) whereas most of incident radiation is scattered by atomic processes in which the reaction rate is higher than that of NRF by several orders of magnitudes and causes a background. Thus, the NRF with a gamma-ray quasi-monochromatic radiation beam is proposed. The monochromatic gamma-rays are generated by using laser Compton scattering (LCS) of electrons and intense laser photons by putting a collimator to restrict the gamma-ray divergence downstream. The LCS gamma-ray, which is energy-tunable and monochromatic, is an optimum apparatus for NRF measurements We have been conducted NRF experiment for nuclear research, especially with high linear polarized gamma-ray generated by LCS, to survey the distribution of M1 strength in MeV region in LCS

  11. Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: Identifying a hidden warhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, John; Acton, James M.

    2014-06-01

    A means of verifying that nuclear warheads to be dismantled are genuine items has been proposed that potentially reveals no information to an inspector about the design of the weapons. Two experts explain the ins and outs of the method and its implications for arms-control policy. See Article p.497

  12. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and maintain a measurement system which assures that all quantities in the material accounting records...) In each inventory period, control total material control and accounting measurement uncertainty so... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for...

  13. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    DOEpatents

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  14. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  15. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  16. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., development, and evaluation programs in facilities other than irradiated fuel reprocessing plants; or an... possible loss of special nuclear material; (3) Permit rapid determination of whether an actual loss of a...

  17. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  18. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  19. Global threat reduction initiative Russian nuclear material removal progress

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, Kelly

    2008-07-15

    In December 1999 representatives from the United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started discussing a program to return to Russia Soviet- or Russian-supplied highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel stored at the Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia. Trilateral discussions among the United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied HEU fuel. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program is an important aspect of the U.S. Government's commitment to cooperate with the other nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-usable proliferation-attractive nuclear materials. To date, 496 kilograms of Russian-origin HEU have been shipped to Russia from Serbia, Latvia, Libya, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. The pilot spent fuel shipment from Uzbekistan to Russia was completed in April 2006. (author)

  20. Glassy materials investigated for nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, E. D.

    1968-01-01

    Studies determine the feasibility of preparing fuel-bearing glasses and glasses bearing neutron-absorbing materials for use as crystalline fuel and control rods for reactors. Properties investigated were devitrification resistance, urania solubility, and density.

  1. Accelerated materials evaluation for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, M.; Walters, L.; Greenwood, L. R.; Garner, F. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper addresses the opportunities and complexities of using materials test reactors with high neutron fluxes to perform accelerated studies of material aging in power reactors operating at lower neutron fluxes and with different neutron flux spectra. Radiation damage and gas production in different reactors have been compared using the code, SPECTER. This code provides a common standard from which to compare neutron damage data generated by different research groups using a variety of reactors.

  2. Accelerated materials evaluation for nuclear applications

    DOE PAGES

    Griffiths, Malcolm; Walters, L.; Greenwood, L. R.; ...

    2017-02-28

    Here, this paper addresses the opportunities and complexities of using materials test reactors with high neutron fluxes to perform accelerated studies of material aging in power reactors operating at lower neutron fluxes and with different neutron flux spectra. Radiation damage and gas production in different reactors have been compared using the code, SPECTER. This code provides a common standard from which to compare neutron damage data generated by different research groups using a variety of reactors.

  3. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  4. A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. J.; Roberts, F. P.; Merrill, J. A.; Brown, W. B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.

  5. Application of nuclear-physics methods in space materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, L. S.; Voronina, E. N.; Galanina, L. I.; Chirskaya, N. P.

    2017-07-01

    The brief history of the development of investigations at the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in the field of space materials science is outlined. A generalized scheme of a numerical simulation of the radiation impact on spacecraft materials and elements of spacecraft equipment is examined. The results obtained by solving some of the most important problems that modern space materials science should address in studying nuclear processes, the interaction of charged particles with matter, particle detection, the protection from ionizing radiation, and the impact of particles on nanostructures and nanomaterials are presented.

  6. Nuclear materials detection using high-energy γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Smith, Donald L.

    2005-12-01

    The FIGARO technique uses 6-7 MeV γ-rays produced in the 19F(p, αγ)16O reaction to detect materials used in nuclear weapons or associated with their production. These γ-rays induce neutron emission via the photoneutron and photofission processes in nuclear materials. Previous experiments have shown that FIGARO gives responses specific to nuclear materials with little or no response to common benign materials. The technique is also resistant to both photon and neutron shielding countermeasures. We present preliminary results from modeling studies of neutron detection rates with simulated air cargo and intermodal shipping containers. A general methodology to compare operating performance based on receiver-operator-characteristic curves is also discussed.

  7. Accelerated Nuclear Energy Materials Development with Multiple Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M J; Bench, G

    2009-08-19

    A fundamental issue in nuclear energy is the changes in material properties as a consequence of time, temperature, and neutron fluence. Usually, candidate materials for nuclear energy applications are tested in nuclear reactors to understand and model the changes that arise from a combination of atomic displacements, helium and hydrogen production, and other nuclear transmutations (e.g. fission and the production of fission products). Experiments may be carried out under neutron irradiation conditions in existing nuclear materials test reactors (at rates of 10 to 20 displacements per atom (DPA) per year or burn-up rates of a few percent per year for fertile fuels), but such an approach takes much too long for many high neutron fluence scenarios (300 DPA for example) expected in reactors of the next generation. Indeed it is reasonable to say that there are no neutron sources available today to accomplish sufficiently rapid accelerated aging let alone also provide the temperature and spectral characteristics of future fast spectrum nuclear energy systems (fusion and fission both). Consequently, materials research and development progress continues to be severely limited by this bottleneck.

  8. Identifying and bounding uncertainties in nuclear reactor thermal power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Hauser, E.; Estrada, H.

    2012-07-01

    Determination of the thermal power generated in the reactor core of a nuclear power plant is a critical element in the safe and economic operation of the plant. Direct measurement of the reactor core thermal power is made using neutron flux instrumentation; however, this instrumentation requires frequent calibration due to changes in the measured flux caused by fuel burn-up, flux pattern changes, and instrumentation drift. To calibrate the nuclear instruments, steam plant calorimetry, a process of performing a heat balance around the nuclear steam supply system, is used. There are four basic elements involved in the calculation of thermal power based on steam plant calorimetry: The mass flow of the feedwater from the power conversion system, the specific enthalpy of that feedwater, the specific enthalpy of the steam delivered to the power conversion system, and other cycle gains and losses. Of these elements, the accuracy of the feedwater mass flow and the feedwater enthalpy, as determined from its temperature and pressure, are typically the largest contributors to the calorimetric calculation uncertainty. Historically, plants have been required to include a margin of 2% in the calculation of the reactor thermal power for the licensed maximum plant output to account for instrumentation uncertainty. The margin is intended to ensure a cushion between operating power and the power for which safety analyses are performed. Use of approved chordal ultrasonic transit-time technology to make the feedwater flow and temperature measurements (in place of traditional differential-pressure- based instruments and resistance temperature detectors [RTDs]) allows for nuclear plant thermal power calculations accurate to 0.3%-0.4% of plant rated power. This improvement in measurement accuracy has allowed many plant operators in the U.S. and around the world to increase plant power output through Measurement Uncertainty Recapture (MUR) up-rates of up to 1.7% of rated power, while also

  9. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  10. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  11. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-03-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radioligical Terrorism Consequence Management.

  12. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  13. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  14. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    other nuclear facilities, tracking materials at border crossings and choke points, screening maritime cargo containers, and examining actual or...generate low levels of neutrons. Some commercial goods contain radioactive material, such as ceramics (which may contain uranium) and kitty litter (which...alert individuals to the presence of elevated levels of radiation. They may use any of several types of detector material. They are lightweight and

  15. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.C.

    1981-06-01

    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  16. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy`s Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item`s exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer`s requirements.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Nuclear Waste Storage Canister Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, John

    The nature of interaction of mild steel nuclear waste storage containers with technetium ions is not fully known. Technetium is formed during nuclear processing and some of this technetium has leaked at the Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Washington State. It is often found as highly oxidized pertechnetate (TeO4-) anions at these storage sites which also happen to be highly alkaline and contain a significant amount of nitrate. Theoretically, pertechnetate anions can act as electron acceptors and interact with the mild steel containers and accelerate the oxidation (corrosion) of steel. It is of interest to identify if pertechnetate anions pose a corrosion hazard to the mild steel nuclear waste storage tanks, under the conditions of the storage sites, as that can accelerate the degradation of the tanks and lead to further contamination. In this thesis, the interaction of two relevant container materials, namely, steel alloys A285 and A537 with a technetium surrogate, rhenium was studied. Perrhenate was used as an analog for pertechnetate. As all isotopes of technetium are radioactive, rhenium was chosen as the experimental surrogate due to its chemical similarity to technetium. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization tests, and the surface morphology was studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted in 1.0M NaNO3 + 0.1M NaOH and 1.0M NaNO3 + 0.1M NaOH + 0.02M NaReO4. Tests were performed at three different temperatures, namely, (i) room temperature, (ii) 50°C and (iii) 80°C to study the effect of higher temperatures found in the storage sites. Corrosion current, corrosion potential, anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes, polarization resistance and corrosion rates were obtained from electrochemical testing and evaluated. Increasing temperatures was found to lead to increasing corrosion rates for all samples. The data also revealed increased corrosion from

  18. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  19. Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material in a Cargo Container

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Jones; D. R. Norman; K. J. Haskell; J. W. Sterbentz; W. Y. Yoon; S. M. Watson; J. T. Johnson; J. M. Zabriskie; B. D. Bennett; R. W. Watson; J. F. Hamon

    2005-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  20. Enviromental Development Plan: special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This Environmental Development Plan includes the process steps and facilities necessary for the production of plutonium and tritium for Government needs and the production of some other radioactive materials that will be used for heat and radiation sources by domestic and international customers. The production reactors and the spent fuel processing plants and their effluents are discussed, but the defense wastes from them are treated in a separate EDP. The scope does not include transportation, decontamination and decommissioning, safeguards and security, or use of the SNM products.

  1. ADDING REALISM TO NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLVING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-15

    Two new criticality modeling approaches have greatly increased the efficiency of dissolver operations in H-Canyon. The first new approach takes credit for the linear, physical distribution of the mass throughout the entire length of the fuel assembly. This distribution of mass is referred to as the linear density. Crediting the linear density of the fuel bundles results in using lower fissile concentrations, which allows higher masses to be charged to the dissolver. Also, this approach takes credit for the fact that only part of the fissile mass is wetted at a time. There are multiple assemblies stacked on top of each other in a bundle. On average, only 50-75% of the mass (the bottom two or three assemblies) is wetted at a time. This means that only 50-75% (depending on operating level) of the mass is moderated and is contributing to the reactivity of the system. The second new approach takes credit for the progression of the dissolving process. Previously, dissolving analysis looked at a snapshot in time where the same fissile material existed both in the wells and in the bulk solution at the same time. The second new approach models multiple consecutive phases that simulate the fissile material moving from a high concentration in the wells to a low concentration in the bulk solution. This approach is more realistic and allows higher fissile masses to be charged to the dissolver.

  2. Meta-material for nuclear particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Vannozzi, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting strips coated with boron were engineered with a view to subnuclear particle detection. Combining the characteristics of boron as a generator of α-particles (as a consequence of neutron absorption) and the ability of superconducting strips to act as resistive switches, it is shown that fabricated Nb-boron and NbN-boron strips represent a promising basis for implementing neutron detection devices. In particular, the superconducting transition of boron-coated NbN strips generates voltage outputs of the order of a few volts thanks to the relatively higher normal state resitivity of NbN with respect to Nb. This result, combined with the relatively high transition temperature of NbN (of the order of 16 K for the bulk material), is an appealing prospect for future developments. The coated strips are meta-devices since their constituting material does not exist in nature and it is engineered to accomplish a specific task, i.e. generate an output voltage signal upon α-particle irradiation.

  3. Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwanbeck, C. A.

    1965-01-01

    The tensile properties for 33 polycrystalline structural materials including aluminum, titanium, nickel and iron alloys were obtained at -256.5 C (30 deg R) after irradiation exposure at this temperature to 10(exp 17) nvt (E greater than 0.5 Mev), at -256.5 C without previous irradiation, and at approximately 27 C (540 deg R) without previous irradiation. The data were evaluated statistically to permit identification of cryogenic effects and nuclear-cryogenic effects. A number of conclusions were drawn regarding suitability of certain of the materials for use in nuclear-cryogenic applications and regarding the need for further investigation.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  5. 37 CFR 211.5 - Deposit of identifying material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.5 Deposit of identifying material. (a) General... claim of protection in a mask work under section 908 of title 17 U.S.C. (b) Nature of required deposit... accompany an application for registration of a mask work claim under § 211.4 of these regulations...

  6. Electron backscatter diffraction: applications for nuclear materials.

    PubMed

    Medevielle; Hugon; Dugne

    1999-09-01

    The diffraction of electrons was first observed in 1928 by Kikuchi. The phenomenon results in the formation of characteristic diagrams of the crystalline lattice and the orientation of the phase. Backscattered electrons are diffracted by the different crystallographic planes (hkl) according to the Bragg angle thetab. These describe, by symmetry, two cones of axes normal to the diffracting plane. Information is collected on a phosphor screen, leading to the acquisition of a diffraction pattern called a Kikuchi diagram. Several improvements now give a wide range of applications such as phase identification (carbides or complex compounds in a (U,Zr,O) structure), analysis of materials interfaces (ZrO2/UO2), as well as solidification studies and local texture determination (molybdenum sheets). In these applications, EBSD, as a type of quantitative metallography, is a powerful tool.

  7. Method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials

    DOEpatents

    Asay, Blaine W.; Henson, Bryan F.; Sander, Robert K.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Son, Steven F.; Dickson, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials. A polymorphic material capable of existing in at least one non-centrosymmetric phase is interrogated with a beam of laser light at a chosen wavelength and frequency. A phase transition is induced in the material while it is interrogated. The intensity of light scattered by the material and having a wavelength equal to one half the wavelength of the interrogating laser light is detected. If the phase transition results in the production of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light increases; if the phase transition results in the disappearance of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light decreases.

  8. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  10. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  11. Survey of hazardous materials used in nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, E.A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

    1991-02-01

    The use of hazardous'' materials in routine underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site has been reviewed. In addition the inventory of test yields, originally reported in 1976 has been updated. A trail down-hole inventory'' has been conducted for a selected test. The inorganic hazardous materials introduced during testing (with the exception of lead and the fissionable materials) produce an incremental change in the quantity of such materials already present in the geologic media surrounding the test points. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  12. Inverse Analysis of Irradiated NuclearMaterial Gamma Spectra via Nonlinear Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Garrett James

    Nuclear forensics is the collection of technical methods used to identify the provenance of nuclear material interdicted outside of regulatory control. Techniques employed in nuclear forensics include optical microscopy, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and alpha, beta, and gamma spectrometry. This dissertation focuses on the application of inverse analysis to gamma spectroscopy to estimate the history of pulse irradiated nuclear material. Previous work in this area has (1) utilized destructive analysis techniques to supplement the nondestructive gamma measurements, and (2) been applied to samples composed of spent nuclear fuel with long irradiation and cooling times. Previous analyses have employed local nonlinear solvers, simple empirical models of gamma spectral features, and simple detector models of gamma spectral features. The algorithm described in this dissertation uses a forward model of the irradiation and measurement process within a global nonlinear optimizer to estimate the unknown irradiation history of pulse irradiated nuclear material. The forward model includes a detector response function for photopeaks only. The algorithm uses a novel hybrid global and local search algorithm to quickly estimate the irradiation parameters, including neutron fluence, cooling time and original composition. Sequential, time correlated series of measurements are used to reduce the uncertainty in the estimated irradiation parameters. This algorithm allows for in situ measurements of interdicted irradiated material. The increase in analysis speed comes with a decrease in information that can be determined, but the sample fluence, cooling time, and composition can be determined within minutes of a measurement. Furthermore, pulse irradiated nuclear material has a characteristic feature that irradiation time and flux cannot be independently estimated. The algorithm has been tested against pulse irradiated samples of pure special nuclear material with cooling times of

  13. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  14. Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

  15. Application of nuclear microprobes to material of archaeological interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.

    1988-03-01

    Strongly focused nuclear microprobes have not been widely used until recently for characterization of material of archaeological interest. The main reasons are (1) the large size of many artefacts are not suitable for measurements in vacuum together with the requirement of avoiding sampling from (often) unique material; (2) the frequent surface corrosion of objects to depths thicker than the range of the incident particles; (3) the high cost of analyses when compared with the budgets of Museum's curators for scientific investigations. About ten laboratories throughout the world are concerned with nuclear milliprobe for investigation of bones, glasses, papers and parchments, potsherds, coins, iron and bronze artefacts, silver and gold jewelry. The nuclear microprobe facilities in this field of research have mostly been developed at Bartol-Delaware and Los Alamos (USA), Lower Hutt (New Zealand), Saclay (France) and LARN — Namur (Belgium).

  16. Long Duration Hot Hydrogen Exposure of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Hickman, Robert; Dobson, Chris; Clifton, Scooter

    2007-01-01

    An arc-heater driven hyper-thermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to .produce high-temperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low cost test facility for the purpose of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials and improving associated processing/fabrication techniques. Design and engineering development efforts are fully summarized, and facility operating characteristics are reported as determined from a series of baseline performance mapping runs and long duration capability demonstration tests.

  17. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  18. IMPACT OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLUTION ON VESSEL CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.; Clifton, B.

    2012-10-01

    Different nuclear materials require different processing conditions. In order to maximize the dissolver vessel lifetime, corrosion testing was conducted for a range of chemistries and temperature used in fuel dissolution. Compositional ranges of elements regularly in the dissolver were evaluated for corrosion of 304L, the material of construction. Corrosion rates of AISI Type 304 stainless steel coupons, both welded and non-welded coupons, were calculated from measured weight losses and post-test concentrations of soluble Fe, Cr and Ni.

  19. First-principles modeling of materials for nuclear energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Andrey I. Nikonov, Anton Yu.; Ponomareva, Alena V.; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Barannikova, Svetlana A.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss recent developments in the field of ab initio electronic structure theory and its use for studies of materials for nuclear energy applications. We review state-of-the-art simulation methods that allow for an efficient treatment of effects due to chemical and magnetic disorder, and illustrate their predictive power with examples of two materials systems, Fe-Cr-Ni alloys and Zr-Nb alloys.

  20. The Task of Detecting Illicit Nuclear Material: Status and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzes, Richard

    2006-04-01

    In August 1994, police at the Munich airport intercepted a suitcase from Moscow with half a kilogram of nuclear-reactor fuel, of which 363 grams was weapons- grade plutonium. A few months later police seized 2.7 kilograms of highly enriched uranium from a former worker at a Russian nuclear institute and his accomplices in Prague. These are just two of 18 incidents involving the smuggling of weapons grade nuclear materials between 1993 and 2004 reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consequences of a stolen or improvised nuclear device being exploded in a U.S. city would be world changing. The concern over the possibility of a nuclear weapon, or the material for a weapon or a radiological dispersion device, being smuggled across U.S. borders has led to the deployment of radiation detection equipment at the borders. Related efforts are occurring around the world. Radiation portal monitors are used as the main screening tool, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. Passive detection techniques combined with imaging, and possibly active techniques, are the current available tools for screening cargo for items of concern. There are a number of physics limitations to what is possible with each technology given the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials, commercial sources, and medical radionuclides in the stream of commerce. There have been a number of lessons learned to date from the various efforts in the U.S. and internationally about the capability for interdicting illicit nuclear material.

  1. Several Novel Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Identified in Skeletal Muscle Have Cytoskeletal Associations*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Gavin S.; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K.; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  2. Storage of nuclear materials by encapsulation in fullerenes

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.

    1994-01-01

    A method of encapsulating radioactive materials inside fullerenes for stable long-term storage. Fullerenes provide a safe and efficient means of disposing of nuclear waste which is extremely stable with respect to the environment. After encapsulation, a radioactive ion is essentially chemically isolated from its external environment.

  3. Securing Nuclear Materials: The 2010 Summit and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-16

    increased following the Chernobyl accident, the IAEA’s role in nuclear security activities increased following the September 11, 2001, terrorist...Materials: The 2010 Summit and Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 17 United States deposits its instrument of ratification to the...recommended advice and consent on September 11, 2008. The Senate must approve implementing legislation before the United States deposits its

  4. Selecting and using materials for a nuclear rocket engine reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, Anatolii G.; Fedik, Ivan I.

    2011-03-01

    This paper provides a historical account of how the nuclear rocket engine reactor was created and discusses the problem of selecting materials for a gas environment at a temperature of up to 3100 K and energy release of 30 MW per liter.

  5. Monitoring the Random Errors of Nuclear Material Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1980-06-01

    Monitoring and controlling random errors is an important function of a measurement control program. This report describes the principal sources of random error in the common nuclear material measurement processes and the most important elements of a program for monitoring, evaluating and controlling the random error standard deviations of these processes.

  6. Development of nuclear fuels and materials for propulsion systems for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Olsen, C. S.; Titran, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    A panel was organized by NASA/DOE/DOD to study nuclear fuels, materials, and related nuclear propulsion technologies for SEI, and the panel findings are discussed. The fuels/materials requirements for nuclear thermal propulsion and nuclear electric propulsions are reviewed, and the development items such as 'element' development and characterization, fabrication process development, nuclear capsule tests, nuclear loop tests, and nuclear furnace tests are examined for selected classes of fuels.

  7. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) the use or operation of nuclear reactors or other nuclear devices in a United States Government-owned... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy...

  8. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) the use or operation of nuclear reactors or other nuclear devices in a United States Government-owned... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy...

  9. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) the use or operation of nuclear reactors or other nuclear devices in a United States Government-owned... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy...

  10. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) the use or operation of nuclear reactors or other nuclear devices in a United States Government-owned... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy...

  11. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) the use or operation of nuclear reactors or other nuclear devices in a United States Government-owned... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy...

  12. Nuclear archaeology: Verifying declarations of fissile-material production

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Controlling the production of fissile material is an essential element of nonproliferation policy. Similarly, accounting for the past production of fissile material should be an important component of nuclear disarmament. This paper describes two promising techniques that make use of physical evidence at reactors and enrichment facilities to verify the past production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. In the first technique, the concentrations of long-lived radionuclides in permanent components of the reactor core are used to estimate the neutron fluence in various regions of the reactor, and thereby verify declarations of plutonium production in the reactor. In the second technique, the ratio of the concentration of U-235 to that of U-234 in the tails is used to determine whether a given container of tails was used in the production of low- enriched uranium, which is suitable for reactor fuel, or highly enriched uranium, which can be used in nuclear weapons. Both techniques belong to the new field of [open quotes]nuclear archaeology,[close quotes] in which the authors attempt to document past nuclear weapons activities and thereby lay a firm foundation for verifiable nuclear disarmament. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license is...

  14. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special nuclear...

  15. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material for...

  16. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license is...

  17. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material for...

  18. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special nuclear...

  19. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear Material...

  20. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear Material...

  1. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of special...

  2. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of special...

  3. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing...

  4. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license is...

  5. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing...

  6. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear Material...

  7. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of special...

  8. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material for...

  9. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license is...

  10. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing...

  11. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material for...

  12. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing...

  13. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of special...

  14. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special nuclear...

  15. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special nuclear...

  16. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear Material...

  17. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  18. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  19. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  20. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material...

  1. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  2. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  3. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  4. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  5. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  6. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear Material Access Authorization §...

  7. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear Material Access Authorization §...

  8. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection Using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard R. Tittmann; P.M. Lenahan; David Spears; Rhys Williams

    2008-11-25

    The objective of this project is to develop anovel technique for remote, non-destructive, non-radiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs. We propse the development of a detection system based on magnetic resonance principles (NAR), which would work where radiation detection is not possible. The approach would be non-intrusive, penetrating, applicable to many materials of interest for Nonproliferation, and be able to identify the nuclear samples under investigation.

  9. The History and Future of NDE in the Management of Nuclear Power Plant Materials Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-04-01

    The author has spent more than 25 years conducting engineering and research studies to quantify the performance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in nuclear power plant (NPP) applications and identifying improvements to codes and standards for NDE to manage materials degradation. This paper will review this fundamental NDE engineering/research work and then look to the future on how NDE can be optimized for proactively managing materials degradation in NPP components.

  10. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA quantification of various forensic materials.

    PubMed

    Andréasson, H; Nilsson, M; Budowle, B; Lundberg, H; Allen, M

    2006-12-01

    Due to the different types and quality of forensic evidence materials, their DNA content can vary substantially, and particularly low quantities can impact the results in an identification analysis. In this study, the quantity of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA was determined in a variety of materials using a previously described real-time PCR method. DNA quantification in the roots and distal sections of plucked and shed head hairs revealed large variations in DNA content particularly between the root and the shaft of plucked hairs. Also large intra- and inter-individual variations were found among hairs. In addition, DNA content was estimated in samples collected from fingerprints and accessories. The quantification of DNA on various items also displayed large variations, with some materials containing large amounts of nuclear DNA while no detectable nuclear DNA and only limited amounts of mitochondrial DNA were seen in others. Using this sensitive real-time PCR quantification assay, a better understanding was obtained regarding DNA content and variation in commonly analysed forensic evidence materials and this may guide the forensic scientist as to the best molecular biology approach for analysing various forensic evidence materials.

  11. Nuclear Material Processing at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Severynse, T.F.

    1998-07-01

    Plutonium production for national defense began at Savannah River in the mid-1950s, following construction of production reactors and separations facilities. Following the successful completion of its production mission, the site`s nuclear material processing facilities continue to operate to perform stabilization of excess materials and potentially support the disposition of these materials. A number of restoration and productivity improvement projects implemented in the 1980s, totaling nearly a billion dollars, have resulted in these facilities representing the most modern and only remaining operating large-scale processing facilities in the DOE Complex. Together with the Site`s extensive nuclear infrastructure, and integrated waste management system, SRS is the only DOE site with the capability and mission of ongoing processing operations.

  12. An overview of the Nuclear Materials Focus Area research program

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERSON,GARY D.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; OSBORNE,KEN K.; RANDALL,VIRGINIA

    2000-02-25

    The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) is responsible for providing comprehensive needs identification, integration of technology research and development activities, and technology deployment for stabilization, packaging, and interim storage of surplus nuclear materials within the DOE complex. The NMFA was chartered in April 1999 by the Office of Science and Technology (OST), an organizational component of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). OST manages a national program to conduct basic and applied research, and technology development, demonstration, and deployment assistance that is essential to completing a timely and cost-effective cleanup of the DOE nuclear weapons complex. DOE/EM provides environmental research results, as well as cleanup technologies and systems, to meet high-priority end-user needs, reduce EM's major cost centers and technological risks, and accelerate technology deployments. The NMFA represents the segment of EM that focuses on technological solutions for re-using, transforming, and disposing excess nuclear materials and is jointly managed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  13. Applications of nuclear analytical methods to materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear analytical methods have now become important in the characterization of many types of materials and have been shown to be an extremely important extension of many more common methods. To illustrate the breadth of their use, some recent Brookhaven experiments are described that deal with the depth distribution of hydrogen in Nb-H alloys, the diffusion of Mo in graphite at high temperatures, and the measurement of Al and Si concentrations in zeolite catalysts. It is hoped that the presentation of these illustrative examples will serve as a stimulus and encouragement for the further application of nuclear analytical methods.

  14. Efforts of Uzbekistan to prevent nuclear terrorism and smuggling of radioactive and nuclear materials.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, V D; Karimov, Yu N; Podkovirin, A I; Shipilov, N N; Yuldashev, B S; Fazylov, M I

    2005-01-01

    Uzbekistan is located on the cross-roads from the north--Russia, Western Europe--to the south--Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and others. The appearance of terrorist organizations urged some Asian countries to make the nuclear weapons, the making the task of stopping the transportation of nuclear materials and technologies from the north (from countries possessing nuclear weapon) to the south (to countries desiring to have weapons and its components) a reality. To resolve this problem, on the main transportation routes, "Yantar" stationary radiation monitors of Russian production were installed, and development and production of monitors of our own make was started. This paper covers these works as well as those on preventing possible terrorist attacks on nuclear objects of Uzbekistan.

  15. Overview of materials technologies for space nuclear power and propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Ott, L. J.; Ingersoll, D. T.; Ellis, R. J.; Grossbeck, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A wide range of different space nuclear systems are currently being evaluated as part of the DOE Special Purpose Fission Technology program. The near-term subset of systems scheduled to be evaluated range from 50 kWe gas-, pumped liquid metal-, or liquid metal heat pipe-cooled reactors for space propulsion to 3 kWe heat pipe or pumped liquid metal systems for Mars surface power applications. The current status of the materials technologies required for the successful development of near-term space nuclear power and propulsion systems is reviewed. Materials examined in this overview include fuels (UN, UO2, UZrH), cladding and structural materials (stainless steel, superalloys, refractory alloys), neutron reflector materials (Be, BeO), and neutron shield materials (B4C,LiH). The materials technologies issues are considerably less demanding for the 3 kWe reactor systems due to lower operating temperatures, lower fuel burnup, and lower radiation damage levels. A few reactor subcomponents in the 3 kWe reactors under evaluation are being used near or above their engineering limits, which may adversely affect the 5 to 10 year lifetime design goal. It appears that most of these issues for the 3 kWe reactor systems can be accommodated by incorporating a few engineering design changes. Design limits (temperature, burnup, stress, radiation levels) for the various materials proposed for space nuclear reactors will be summarized. For example, the temperature and stress limits for Type 316 stainless steel in the 3 kWe Na-cooled heat pipe reactor (Stirling engine) concept will be controlled by thermal creep and CO2 corrosion considerations rather than radiation damage issues. Conversely, the lower operating temperature limit for the LiH shield material will likely be defined by ionizing radiation damage (radiolysis)-induced swelling, even for the relatively low radiation doses associated with the 3 kWe reactor. .

  16. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  17. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the former Soviet Republics through computerized materials protection, control and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.L.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Boor, M.G.; Anderson, L.K.; Gary, S.P.

    1997-11-01

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of global concern. International efforts at nonproliferation focus on preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized states, organizations, or individuals. Nonproliferation can best be accomplished through international cooperation in the application of advanced science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. Computerized systems for nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) are a vital component of integrated nuclear safeguards programs. This paper describes the progress of scientists in the United States and former Soviet Republics in creating customized, computerized MPC and A systems. The authors discuss implementation of the Core Material Accountability System (CoreMAS), which was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the US Department of Energy and incorporates, in condensed and integrated form, the most valuable experience gained by US nuclear enterprises in accounting for and controlling nuclear materials. The CoreMAS approach and corresponding software package have been made available to sites internationally. CoreMAS provides methods to evaluate their existing systems and to examine advantages and disadvantages of customizing CoreMAS or improving their own existing systems. The sites can also address crucial issues of software assurance, data security, and system performance; compare operational experiences at sites with functioning computerized systems; and reasonably evaluate future efforts. The goal of the CoreMAS project is to introduce facilities at sites all over the world to modern international MPC and A practices and to help them implement effective, modern, computerized MPC and A systems to account for their nuclear materials, and thus reduce the likelihood of theft or diversion. Sites are assisted with MPC and A concepts and the implementation of an effective computerized MPC and A system.

  18. Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d33 up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85×1018 n/cm2 and 5.8×1018 n/cm2 respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

  19. Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2013-01-25

    Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d{sub 33} up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

  20. Access to Special Nuclear Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bean; J. Barrett; D. Gerts; B. Brush

    2010-07-01

    Access to special nuclear material (SNM) such as enriched uranium or plutonium is critical to the experimental validation of measurement techniques for nuclear nonproliferation applications. It is especially important that realistic quantities be available for measurements in the field. Security and safety requirements have made such access nearly impossible at many U.S. facilities. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been able to provide kilogram quantities of SNM for in situ measurements ranging from testing of equipment in laboratory facilities, to outdoor measurements simulating real conditions, to transfer of the SNM to the customer’s facility and back for measurements in the field. The INL will be working to make SNM more widely accessible for measurements by nuclear nonproliferation projects, including those with international researchers.

  1. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  2. Lead lithium eutectic material database for nuclear fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas de les Valls, E.; Sedano, L. A.; Batet, L.; Ricapito, I.; Aiello, A.; Gastaldi, O.; Gabriel, F.

    2008-06-01

    Fully validated material databases are needed for coherent technological developments in any R&D field. For nuclear fusion technology (NFT), within a near-term perspective of qualification and licensing of nuclear components and systems, this goal is both compulsory and urgent. This mandatory requirement applies for the particular case of the Pb-Li eutectic database as fusion reactor material. Pb16Li is today a reference breeder material in diverse fusion R&D programs worldwide. Technical consensus on most part of the material database inputs seems a major technological objective. In this work Pb16Li material database inputs for NFT have been systematically reviewed. Database inputs (bulk, thermal, physical-chemistry properties, and H-isotopes transport) are discussed and extended to base magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) properties, values for non-dimensional parameters and pipe/channel correlations in 2-phases dispersion models. Ongoing efforts to develop the Pb16Li material database as a computing expert system are reported.

  3. IBA studies of helium mobility in nuclear materials revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocellier, P.; Agarwal, S.; Miro, S.; Vaubaillon, S.; Leprêtre, F.; Serruys, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out and to discuss some features extracted from the study of helium migration in nuclear materials performed during the last fifteen years using ion beam analysis (IBA) measurements. The first part of this paper is devoted to a brief description of the two main IBA methods used, i.e. deuteron induced nuclear reaction for 3He depth profiling and high-energy heavy-ion induced elastic recoil detection analysis for 4He measurement. In the second part, we provide an overview of the different studies carried out on model nuclear waste matrices and model nuclear reactor structure materials in order to illustrate and discuss specific results in terms of key influence parameters in relation with thermal or radiation activated migration of helium. Finally, we show that among the key parameters we have investigated as able to influence the height of the helium migration barrier, the following can be considered as pertinent: the experimental conditions used to introduce helium (implanted ion energy and implantation fluence), the grain size of the matrix, the lattice cell volume, the Young's modulus, the ionicity degree of the chemical bond between the transition metal atom M and the non-metal atom X, and the width of the band gap.

  4. Technology readiness levels for advanced nuclear fuels and materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W. J.; Braase, L. A.; Wigeland, R. A.; Todosow, M.

    2016-12-23

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. It was pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980s to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. The process was subsequently adopted by the Department of Defense (DoD) to develop and deploy new technology and systems for defense applications as well as the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the maturity of new technologies in major construction projects. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for improving the performance and safety of current and advanced reactors, and ultimately closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because deployment of new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management, communication and tracking tool. Furthermore, this article provides examples regarding the methods by which TRLs are currently used to assess the maturity of nuclear fuels and materials under development in the DOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program within the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC).

  5. Technology readiness levels for advanced nuclear fuels and materials development

    DOE PAGES

    Carmack, W. J.; Braase, L. A.; Wigeland, R. A.; ...

    2016-12-23

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. It was pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980s to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. The process was subsequently adopted by the Department of Defense (DoD) to develop and deploy new technology and systems for defense applications as well as the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the maturity of new technologies in major construction projects. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for improving the performance and safety of currentmore » and advanced reactors, and ultimately closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because deployment of new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management, communication and tracking tool. Furthermore, this article provides examples regarding the methods by which TRLs are currently used to assess the maturity of nuclear fuels and materials under development in the DOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program within the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC).« less

  6. Gamma-ray identification of nuclear weapon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, T. B., LLNL; Hall, J. M.; Jam, C. L.; Knapp, D. A.; Koenig, Z. M.; Luke, S. J.; Pohl, B. A.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Wolford, J. K.

    1997-02-03

    There has been an accelerating national interest in countering nuclear smuggling. This has caused a corresponding expansion of interest in the use of gamma-ray spectrometers for checkpoint monitoring, nuclear search, and within networks of nuclear and collateral sensors. All of these are fieldable instruments--ranging from large, fixed portal monitors to hand-held and remote monitoring equipment. For operational reasons, detectors with widely varying energy resolution and detection efficiency will be employed. In many instances, such instruments must be sensitive to weak signals, always capable of recognizing the gamma-ray signatures from nuclear weapons materials (NWM), often largely insensitive to spectral alteration by radiation transport through intervening materials, capable of real-time implementation, and able to discriminate against signals from commonly encountered legitimate gamma-ray sources, such as radiopharmaceuticals. Several decades of experience in classified programs have shown that all of these properties are not easily achieved and successful approaches were of limited scope--such as the detection of plutonium only. This project was originally planned as a two-year LDRD-ER. Since funding for 1997 was not sustained, this is a report of the first year's progress.

  7. Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

  8. Piezoelectric material for use in a nuclear reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, Brian; Tittmann, B. R.

    2012-05-17

    In radiation environments ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation has great potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects and materials. In both nuclear power plants and materials test reactors, elevated temperatures and high levels of radiation present challenges to ultrasonic NDE methodologies. The challenges are primarily due to the degradation of the ultrasonic sensors utilized. We present results from the operation of a ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer, composed of bulk single crystal AlN, in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWHrs. The transducer was coupled to an aluminum cylinder and operated in pulse echo mode throughout the irradiation. In addition to the pulse echo testing impedance data were obtained. Further, the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was measured prior to irradiation and found to be 5.5 pC/N which is unchanged from as-grown samples, and in fact higher than the measured d{sub 33} for many as-grown samples.

  9. Interpretational framework for forensic analyses of illicit nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.; Kammeraad, J.

    1996-10-01

    jThe interdiction of illicit special nuclear materials (SNM) causes many attribution questions to be asked, e.g. where was this material produced, where was legitimate control lost, how was it transported, etc. We have developed a general framework for evaluating forensic measurements that will be useful in answering attribution questions, and will present an initial prioritization of these measurements. Interpretation of the measurements requires the integration of inputs from a diverse set of experts who have knowledge of environmental signatures, radiochemical signatures, weapons production complex, production pathways for SNM, criminal forensics, law enforcement, and intelligence. Comparison databases and international cooperation are crucial for future application of forensic measurements to the nuclear smuggling problem.

  10. The world's nuclear future - built on material success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Sue

    2010-07-01

    In our energy hungry world of the twenty-first century, the future of electricity generation must meet the twin challenges of security of supply and reduced carbon emissions. The expectations for nuclear power programmes to play a part in delivering success on both counts, grows ever higher. The nuclear industry is poised on a renaissance likely to dwarf the heady days of the 1960s and early 1970s. Global supply chain and project management challenges abound, now just as then. The science and engineering of materials will be key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. Understanding and predicting materials performance will be key to achieving life extension of existing assets and underpinning waste disposal options, as well as giving confidence to the designers, their financial backers and governments across the globe, that the next generation of reactors will deliver their full potential.

  11. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  12. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  13. Extreme Spectroscopy: In situ nuclear materials behavior from optical data

    SciTech Connect

    Guimbretiere, G.; Canizares, A.; Raimboux, N.; Omnee, R.; Duval, F.; Ammar, M.R.; Simon, P.; Desgranges, L.; Mohun, R.; Jegou, C.; Magnin, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, materials are regularly exposed to high temperature or/and irradiation and a better knowledge and understanding of their behavior under such extreme conditions is a key-point for improvements and further developments. Nowadays, Raman spectroscopy begins to be well known as a promising technique in the post mortem and remote characterization of nuclear materials exposed to extreme conditions. On this topic, at ANIMMA 2013 conference, we have presented some results about its implementation in the study of model or real nuclear fuel. However, the strength of Raman spectroscopy as in situ characterization tool is mainly its ability to be implemented remotely through optical fibers. Aware of this, implementation of other optical techniques can be considered in order to gain information not only on the structural dynamics of materials but also on the electronic charge carrier populations. In this paper, we propose to present our last advances in Raman characterization of nuclear materials and enlarge to the in situ use of complementary optical spectroscopies. Emphasis will be made on the information that can be gained to the behavior of the model fuel depleted UO{sub 2} under extreme conditions of high temperature and ionic irradiation: - In Situ Raman identification of the radiolysis alteration products of UO{sub 2} in contact with water under ionic irradiation. - In Situ Raman recording of the damaged dynamic of UO{sub 2} under inert atmosphere. - In Situ Raman and photo-luminescence study of virgin and damaged UO2 at high temperature. - In Situ study of electronic charge carriers' behavior in U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} solid solutions by mean of Iono- and Thermo- luminescence under and post- ionic irradiation. (authors)

  14. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-04

    such as thorium and uranium, is present everywhere, often in trace amounts. Cosmic rays generate low levels of neutrons. Some commercial goods contain...radioactive material, such as ceramics (which may contain uranium) and kitty litter (which may contain thorium and uranium). Other radioactive...11 HEU that has been through a nuclear reactor picks up small quantities of U-232, which decays through intermediate steps to thallium-208, which

  15. Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.

    1999-05-03

    This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data.

  16. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. The "nuclear car wash": a scanner to detect illicit special nuclear material in cargo containers

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D R; Accatino, M R; Bernstein, A; Dougan, A D; Hall, J M; Loshak, A; Manatt, D R; Pohl, B A; Prussin, S G; Walling, R S; Weirup, D L

    2004-01-28

    There is an urgent need to improve the reliability of screening cargo containers for illicit nuclear material that may be hidden there for terrorist purposes. A screening system is described for detection of fissionable material hidden in maritime cargo containers. The system makes use of a low intensity neutron beam for producing fission; and the detection of the abundant high-energy {gamma} rays emitted in the {beta}-decay of short-lived fission products and {beta}-delayed neutrons. The abundance of the delayed {gamma} rays is almost an order of magnitude larger than that of the delayed neutrons normally used to detect fission and they are emitted on about the same time scale as the delayed neutrons, i.e., {approx}1 min. The energy and temporal distributions of the delayed {gamma} rays provide a unique signature of fission. Because of their high energy, these delayed {gamma} rays penetrate low-Z cargoes much more readily than the delayed neutrons. Coupled with their higher abundance, the signal from the delayed {gamma} rays escaping from the container is predicted to be as much as six decades more intense than the delayed neutron signal, depending upon the type and thickness of the intervening cargo. The {gamma} rays are detected in a large array of scintillators located along the sides of the container as it is moved through them. Measurements have confirmed the signal strength in somewhat idealized experiments and have also identified one interference when 14.5 MeV neutrons from the D, T reaction are used for the interrogation. The interference can be removed easily by the appropriate choice of the neutron source.

  1. Use of Imaging for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Mullens, James Allen; Hausladen, Paul; Bingham, Philip R; Archer, Daniel E; Grogan, Brandon R; Mihalczo, John T

    2007-01-01

    The recent addition of imaging to the Nuclear Materials and Identification System (NMIS) using a small portable DT neutron generator with an embedded alpha detector to time and directionally tag neutrons from the DT reaction is discussed. The generator weighs {approx}35 lbs including power supplies (5 x 10{sup 7} n/sec) and operates on 50 watts power. Thus, the source can be easily moved to a variety of locations within an operational facility with minimum impact on operations or can be used at a fixed location for example to monitor receipts. Imaging NMIS (INMIS) not only characterizes the detailed shape of a containerized object by transmission tomography but determines the presence of fissile material by measuring the emitted radiation from induced fission. Previous work has shown that this type of imaging has a variety of applications other than nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). These include nonproliferation applications such as verification of configuration of nuclear weapons/components shipped or received, warhead authentication behind an information barrier, and traceability of weapons components both fissile and non fissile in dismantlement and counter terrorism. This paper concentrates on the use for NMC&A. Some of the NMC&A applications discussed are: verifying inventory and receipts, making more accurate holdup measurements especially where thicknesses of materials affect gamma ray spectrometry , determining the shape of unknown configurations of fissile materials where the material type may be known but not the form, determining the oxidation of fissile metal in storage cans, fingerprinting the content of storage containers going into a storage facility, and determining unknown configurations for criticality safety.

  2. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R&D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  3. Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Reid; Ruggiero, Christy; Hush, Don; Harvey, Neal; Kelly, Patrick; Scoggins, Wayne; Tandon, Lav

    2011-03-01

    Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

  4. Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Ruggiero, Christy; Hush, Don; Harvey, Neal; Kelly, Pat; Scoggins, Wayne; Tandon, Lav

    2011-01-03

    Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

  5. Nuclear material safeguards surveillance and accountancy by isotope correlation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.; Goleb, J.A.; Kroc, T.K.

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of isotope correlation techniques (ICT) to the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cycles for nuclear material accountancy and safeguards surveillance. The isotopic measurement of the inventory input to the reprocessing phase of the fuel cycle is the primary direct determination that an anomaly may exist in the fuel management of nuclear material. The nuclear materials accountancy gap which exists between the fabrication plant output and the input to the reprocessing plant can be minimized by using ICT at the dissolver stage of the reprocessing plant. The ICT allows a level of verification of the fabricator's fuel content specifications, the irradiation history, the fuel and blanket assemblies management and scheduling within the reactor, and the subsequent spent fuel assembly flows to the reprocessing plant. The investigation indicates that there exist relationships between isotopic concentration which have predictable, functional behavior over a range of burnup. Several cross-correlations serve to establish the initial core assembly-averaged composition. The selection of the more effective functionals will depend not only on the level of reliability of ICT for verification, but also on the capability, accuracy and difficulty of developing measurement methods. The propagation of measurement errors on the correlation functions and respective sensitivities to isotopic compositional changes have been examined and found to be consistent with current measurement methods.

  6. Grain boundary engineering for structure materials of nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2013-03-29

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE), primarily implemented by thermomechanical processing, is an effective and economical method of enhancing the properties of polycrystalline materials. Among the factors affecting grain boundary character distribution, literature data showed definitive effect of grain size and texture. GBE is more effective for austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys compared to other structural materials of nuclear reactors, such as refractory metals, ferritic and ferritic–martensitic steels, and Zr alloys. Furthermore, GBE has shown beneficial effects on improving the strength, creep strength, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation of austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys.

  7. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

  8. Evaluation of refractory materials for a nuclear waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Grotzky, V. K.; Kneale, P. A.; Teter, A. R.

    1980-07-21

    An experiment to find a suitable refractory lining for a nuclear waste incinerator has been completed. Eleven brick and six castable products were analyzed by optical and scanning microscopy. All the materials were fashioned into cup shapes and subjected to temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200/sup 0/C for as long as six weeks. Some of the cups were charged weekly with pellets made from ash materials that would contact an incinerator liner. Refractory products containing a high percentage of aluminum oxide had the greatest resistance to cracking and slag buildup. 35 figures.

  9. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  10. Nuclear material control and accounting safeguards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Woltermann, H.A.; Rudy, C.R.; Rakel, D.A.; DeVer, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    Material control and accounting (MC and A) of special nuclear material (SNM) must supplement physical security to protect SNM from unlawful use such as terrorist activities. This article reviews MC and A safeguards of SNM in the United States. The following topics are covered: a brief perspective and history of MC and A safeguards, current MC and A practices, measurement methods for SNM, historical MC and A performance, a description of near-real-time MC and A systems, and conclusions on the status of MC and A in the United States.

  11. Isotopic tracing of hydrogen transport and trapping in nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chêne, Jacques; Martin, Frantz

    2017-06-01

    Some illustrations of the use of deuterium or tritium for isotopic tracing of hydrogen absorption, transport and trapping in nuclear materials are presented. Isotopic tracing of hydrogen has been shown to be successful for the determination of the boundaries conditions for hydrogen desorption or absorption in a material exposed to a hydrogen source. Also, the unique capabilities of isotopic tracing and related techniques to characterize H interactions with point defects and dislocations acting as moving traps has been demonstrated. Such transport mechanisms are considered to play a major role in some stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  12. Nuclear isomers as ultra-high-energy-density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, C. H.; Weiss, M. S.; Anderson, J. D.

    1992-09-01

    A major energy advance could result if the enormous potential of nuclear energy storage could be tapped without the penalty of radioactive by-products. Recent research has uncovered a new method for nuclear energy storage with high energy density and no residual radioactivity. Nuclear isomers are metastable states of atomic nuclei which release their energy in a prompt burst of electromagnetic radiation; in many cases the product remaining after decay of isomer is stable and no activity is produced by the electromagnetic decay. Two kinds of nuclear isomers are known: spin isomers and shape isomers. The former lacks a release mechanism. Theory has predicted the existence of shape isomers in the mass range around mercury and gold where decay by fission is prohibited. Experiments on the existence of fissionless shape isomers have resulted in evidence for 27 different shape isomers in isotopes of mercury, lead, and thallium. Three potential candidates for release mechanisms have been identified to date: neutron catalysis (Hf- 178), laser-electron-nuclear coupling (Th-229), and Stark-shift-induced mixing (speculative). Ways of producing nonfissioning shape isomers are discussed.

  13. Where do the Nuclear Materials Management functions fit in the Materials Control and Accountability (MC and A) plan

    SciTech Connect

    DeVer, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Safeguards had its beginning in the early 1940s and has continued to grow through the stormy years in dealing with nuclear materials. MC and A Plans have been developed for each facility which includes requirements for containment, surveillance, internal controls, measurements, statistics, records and report systems, and inventory certification of its nuclear materials, in the context of how precisely the inventory is known at stated risk or confidence levels. The I and E Regulations, the newest document affecting the control system, are used for testing the current MC and A plan in place at each facility. Nuclear Materials Management activities also have reporting requirements that include: (1) Annual Forecast, (2) Materials Management Plan, (3) Quarterly Status Report, (4) Assessment Report, and (5) Scrap and Excess Material Management. Data used to generate reports for both functions come from the same data base and source documents at most facilities. The separation of sponsoring groups at the DOE for NM Accountability and NM Management can and does pose problems for contractors. In this paper, we will try to separate and identify these overlaps at the Facility and DOE level.

  14. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Bathke, C.; Dalton, D.; Murphy, J.

    2013-07-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED.

  15. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC Operations...

  16. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC Operations...

  17. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC Operations...

  18. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC Operations...

  19. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  20. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear...

  1. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and secure production of nuclear fuel used in commercial nuclear reactors; the safe storage... nuclear materials, including certification of transport containers and reactor spent fuel storage; and... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards....

  2. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and secure production of nuclear fuel used in commercial nuclear reactors; the safe storage... nuclear materials, including certification of transport containers and reactor spent fuel storage; and... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards....

  3. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and secure production of nuclear fuel used in commercial nuclear reactors; the safe storage... nuclear materials, including certification of transport containers and reactor spent fuel storage; and... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards....

  4. Photonuclear reaction studies at HIγS: Developing the science of remote detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, C. R.

    2014-11-02

    Development of gamma-ray beam interrogation technologies for remote detection of special nuclear materials and isotope analysis requires comprehensive databases of nuclear structure information and gamma-ray induced nuclear reaction observables. Relevant nuclear structure details include the energy, spin and parity of excited states that have significant probability for electromagnetic transition from the ground state, i.e, the angular momentum transferred in the reaction is Δl ≤ 2. This talk will report recent Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) measurements to identify and characterize new low-spin states in actinide nuclei at energies from 1 to 4 MeV, which is the energy range most important for remote analysis methods. Here, these measurements are carried out using the nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIγS) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Also, studies of the (γ, n) reaction on a variety of nuclei with linearly polarized beams at HIγS indicate that this reaction might be used to discern between fissile and non-fissile materials. This work will be described. In addition, an overview will be given of a concept for a next generation laser Compton-backing scattering gamma-ray source to be implemented as an upgrade to increase the beam intensity at HIγS by more than an order of magnitude.

  5. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  6. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified.

  7. Nuclear Material Detection by One-Short-Pulse-Laser-Driven Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Aymond, F.; Bridgewater, Jon S.; Croft, Stephen; Deppert, O.; Devlin, Matthew James; Falk, Katerina; Fernandez, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald Cort; Gonzales, Manuel A.; Goodsell, Alison Victoria; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher Eric; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall Philip; Jung, Daniel; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth; Pomerantz, Ishay; Roth, Markus; Santi, Peter Angelo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; McCary, E.

    2015-01-28

    Covered in the PowerPoint presentation are the following areas: Motivation and requirements for active interrogation of nuclear material; laser-driven neutron source; neutron diagnostics; active interrogation of nuclear material; and, conclusions, remarks, and future works.

  8. Routine screening for the presence of adulteration in raw materials using automated nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meriage, David; Rogers, Gary; Phillips, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to increase the security of the supply chain for raw materials used in the manufacture of human therapeutics, a routine screen to detect the presence of adulteration using fully automated nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been developed and qualified for use in quality control laboratories. The method involves the collection of one-dimensional (1)H and (13)C spectra, which are subsequently processed to identify and quantitate raw material constituents by comparison to a spectral database. The resulting method is an easy-to-use limit test that can automatically determine the integrity of incoming raw materials. The method is intended to be used in good manufacturing practice production facilities and is suitable for excipients and aqueous soluble raw materials used in biopharmaceutical processes. In an effort to increase the security of the supply chain for raw materials used in the manufacture of human therapeutics, a routine screen to detect the presence of adulteration using fully automated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been developed and qualified for use in quality control laboratories. The method involves the collection of NMR spectra, which are subsequently processed to identify and quantitate raw material constituents by comparison to a spectral database. The resulting method is an easy-to-use limit test that can automatically determine the integrity of incoming raw materials. The method is intended to be used in good manufacturing practice production facilities and is suitable for excipients and aqueous soluble raw materials used in biopharmaceutical processes.

  9. Hypothesis-driven classification of materials using nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry

    DOEpatents

    Espy, Michelle A.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Schultz, Larry J.; Volegov, Petr L.

    2016-08-09

    Technologies related to identification of a substance in an optimized manner are provided. A reference group of known materials is identified. Each known material has known values for several classification parameters. The classification parameters comprise at least one of T.sub.1, T.sub.2, T.sub.1.rho., a relative nuclear susceptibility (RNS) of the substance, and an x-ray linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) of the substance. A measurement sequence is optimized based on at least one of a measurement cost of each of the classification parameters and an initial probability of each of the known materials in the reference group.

  10. Packaging configurations and handling requirements for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The basic safety concepts for radioactive material are that the package is the primary protection for the public, that the protection afforded by the package should be proportional to the hazard and that the package must be proved by performance. These principles are contained in Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations which classify hazards of various radioactive materials and link packaging requirements to the physical form and quantities being shipped. Packaging requirements are reflected in performance standards to guarantee that shipments of low hazard quantities will survive the rigors of normal transportation and that shipments of high hazard quantities will survive extreme severity transportation accidents. Administrative controls provide for segregation of radioactive material from people and other sensitive or hazardous material. They also provide the necessary information function to control the total amounts in a conveyance and to assure that appropriate emergency response activities be started in case of accidents or other emergencies. Radioactive materials shipped in conjunction with the nuclear reactor programs include, ores, concentrates, gaseous diffusion feedstocks, enriched and depleted uranium, fresh fuel, spent fuel, high level wastes, low level wastes and transuranic wastes. Each material is packaged and shipped in accordance with regulations and all hazard classes, quantity limits and packaging types are called into use. From the minimal requirements needed to ship the low hazard uranium ores or concentrates to the very stringent requirements in packaging and moving high level wastes or spent fuel, the regulatory system provides a means for carrying out transportation of radioactive material which assures low and controlled risk to the public.

  11. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse Schrieber

    2008-07-01

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America’s nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in “green” technology.

  12. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  13. Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Corrales, L.R.; Birtcher, R.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels. The goal is to provide the underpinning science and models necessary to assess the performance of glasses and ceramics designed for the immobilization and disposal of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues, excess weapons plutonium, and other highly radioactive waste streams. A variety of experimental and computer simulation methods are employed in this effort. In general, research on glasses focuses on the electronic excitations due to ionizing radiation emitted from beta decay, since this is currently thought to be the principal mechanism for deleterious radiation effects in nuclear waste glasses. Research on ceramics focuses on defects and structural changes induced by the elastic interactions between alpha-decay particles and the atoms in the structure. Radiation effects can lead to changes in physical and chemical properties that may significantly impact long-term performance of nuclear waste materials. The current lack of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in nuclear waste materials makes it impossible to extrapolate the limited existing data bases to larger doses, lower dose rates, different temperature regimes, and different glass compositions or ceramic structures. This report summarizes work after almost 2 years of a 3-year project. Work to date has resulted in 9 publications. Highlights of the research over the past year are presented.'

  14. Development of the RFID System for nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most rapidly growing technologies in the automatic data collection industry. Although commercial applications are already widespread, the use of this technology for managing nuclear materials is only in its infancy. Employing an RFID system has the potential to offer an immense payback: enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real-time access to status and event history data, and overall cost-effectiveness. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-63), is developing an RFID system for nuclear materials management. The system consists of battery-powered RFID tags with onboard sensors and memories, a reader network, application software, a database server and web pages. The tags monitor and record critical parameters, including the status of seals, movement of objects, and environmental conditions of the nuclear material packages in real time. They also provide instant warnings or alarms when preset thresholds for the sensors are exceeded. The information collected by the readers is transmitted to a dedicated central database server that can be accessed by authorized users across the DOE complex via a secured network. The onboard memory of the tags allows the materials manifest and event history data to reside with the packages throughout their life cycles in storage, transportation, and disposal. Data security is currently based on Advanced Encryption Standard-256. The software provides easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow access to all vital information once the security and privilege requirements are met. An innovative scheme has been developed for managing batteries in service for more than 10 years without needing to be changed. A miniature onboard dosimeter is being developed for applications that require radiation surveillance. A field

  15. The Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. program to support disposition of enriched uranium-bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, Stephen M.; Jacob, Norman P.

    2007-07-01

    The disposition of surplus nuclear materials has become one of the most pressing issues of our time. Numerous agencies have invoked programs with the purpose of removing such materials from various international venues and disposing these materials in a manner that achieves non-proliferability. This paper describes the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc (NFS) Nuclear Material Disposition Program, which to date has focused on a variety of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), in particular uranium of various enrichments. The major components of this program are discussed, with emphasis on recycle and return of material to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  16. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28 Security...

  17. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28 Security...

  18. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28 Security...

  19. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28 Security...

  20. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  1. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  2. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  3. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  4. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOEpatents

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  5. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  6. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  7. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  8. 77 FR 61443 - Acceptance of Application for Special Nuclear Materials License From Rensselaer Polytechnic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... COMMISSION Acceptance of Application for Special Nuclear Materials License From Rensselaer Polytechnic... 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn Diaz, Project Manager, Office of Nuclear Material Safety... for a new license for the possession and use of special nuclear material (SNM) for assaying spent...

  9. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative... officers, and nuclear materials couriers. The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is...

  10. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  12. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K

    2007-11-16

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species followed by the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. The fiberboard material induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water as expected. A corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/year measured for coupons exposed to the most aggressive conditions was recommended as a conservative estimate for use in package performance calculations.

  13. Economic benefits of advanced materials in nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, J. T.

    2009-07-01

    A key obstacle to the commercial deployment of advanced fast reactors is the capital cost. There is a perception of higher capital cost for fast reactor systems than advanced light water reactors. However, cost estimates come with a large uncertainty since far fewer fast reactors have been built than light water reactor facilities. Furthermore, the large variability of industrial cost estimates complicates accurate comparisons. Reductions in capital cost can result from design simplifications, new technologies that allow reduced capital costs, and simulation techniques that help optimize system design. It is plausible that improved materials will provide opportunities for both simplified design and reduced capital cost. Advanced materials may also allow improved safety and longer component lifetimes. This work examines the potential impact of advanced materials on the capital investment cost of fast nuclear reactors.

  14. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  15. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  16. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  17. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; ...

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method frommore » being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.« less

  18. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  19. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications. PMID:27087555

  20. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels.

  1. Nuclear Materials Characterization in the Materials and Fuels Complex Analytical Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rodriquez

    2009-03-01

    As energy prices skyrocket and interest in alternative, clean energy sources builds, interest in nuclear energy has increased. This increased interest in nuclear energy has been termed the “Nuclear Renaissance”. The performance of nuclear fuels, fuels and reactor materials and waste products are becoming a more important issue as the potential for designing new nuclear reactors is more immediate. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cells (ALHC) are rising to the challenge of characterizing new reactor materials, byproducts and performance. The ALHC is a facility located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the INL Site. It was built in 1958 as part of the former Argonne National Laboratory West Complex to support the operation of the second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). It is part of a larger analytical laboratory structure that includes wet chemistry, instrumentation and radiochemistry laboratories. The purpose of the ALHC is to perform analytical chemistry work on highly radioactive materials. The primary work in the ALHC has traditionally been dissolution of nuclear materials so that less radioactive subsamples (aliquots) could be transferred to other sections of the laboratory for analysis. Over the last 50 years though, the capabilities within the ALHC have also become independent of other laboratory sections in a number of ways. While dissolution, digestion and subdividing samples are still a vitally important role, the ALHC has stand alone capabilities in the area of immersion density, gamma scanning and combustion gas analysis. Recent use of the ALHC for immersion density shows that extremely fine and delicate operations can be performed with the master-slave manipulators by qualified operators. Twenty milligram samples were tested for immersion density to determine the expansion of uranium dioxide after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The data collected confirmed modeling analysis with very

  2. Guidance Tools for Use in Nuclear Material Management Decisions Making

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G. V.; Baker, D. J.; Sorenson, K. B.; Boeke, S. G.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of Recommendation 14 of the Integrated Nuclear Materials Management Plan (INMMP) which was the product of a management initiative at the highest levels of the Department of Energy responding to a congressional directive to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. The INMMP provided direction to ''Develop policy-level decision support tools to support long-term planning and decision making.'' To accomplish this goal a team from the Savannah River Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the U.S. Department of Energy experienced in the decision-making process developed a Guidebook to Decision-Making Methods. The goal of the team organized to implement Recommendation 14 was to instill transparency, consistency, rigor, and discipline in the DOE decision process. The guidebook introduces a process and a selection of proven methods for disciplined decision-making so that the results are clearer, more transparent, and easier for reviewers to understand and accept. It was written to set a standard for a consistent decision process.

  3. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  4. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  5. Computation of free-molecular flow in nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2009-11-01

    Generally, the transport of gases and vapors in nuclear materials is adequately described by the diffusion equation with an effective diffusion coefficient. There are instances however, in which the flow pathway can be so restrictive that the diffusion description has limitations. In general, molecular transport is governed by intermolecular forces and collisions (interactions between multiple gas/vapor molecules) and by molecule-surface interactions. However, if nano-scale pathways exist within these materials, as has been suggested, then molecular transport can be characterized as being in the free-molecular flow regime where intermolecular interactions can be ignored and flow is determined entirely by molecule-surface collisions. Our purpose in this investigation is to focus on free-molecular transport in fine capillaries of a range of shapes and to explore the effect of geometry on this transport. We have employed Monte Carlo techniques in our calculations, and for simple geometries we have benchmarked our results against some analytical and previously available results. We have used Mathematica ® which has exceptional built-in symbolic and graphical capabilities, permitting easy handling of complicated geometries and good visualization of the results. Our computations provide insights into the role of geometry in molecular transport in nuclear materials with narrow pathways for flows, and also will be useful in guiding computations that include intermolecular collisions and more realistic gas-surface collision operators.

  6. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Porter, John D.; Yoshiyama, James M.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  7. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD, BOYD

    2006-02-02

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

  8. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  9. XAFS studies of radiation damage in nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Daniel Thomas

    The growing demand for nuclear energy places a high importance on the development of new materials capable of withstanding higher temperatures and harsher irradiation conditions than those used in existing reactors. By supporting the development of next generation reactors it also becomes possible to close the nuclear fuel cycle, greatly reducing the amount of waste sent for disposal in deep geologic repositories, where its interaction with the environment is also a matter of interest. In this thesis, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is used to investigate the local atomic structure of systems of interest to nuclear energy. First, two XAFS studies on environmental materials are presented. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was treated with iron to improve its water remediation properties, specifically with respect to arsenic. XAFS was used to determine the nature of iron coating on the GAC surface, and the method of arsenic bonding to the treated surface. Next, a neodymium precipitate from solubility studies carried out for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was analyzed. Neodymium was used as an analog for plutonium in brine solutions. XAFS fitting indicated that the neodymium substituted for calcium in a gypsum lattice, providing information useful for future geochemical modeling. XAFS was also used to study radiation damage in materials. A candidate material for advanced reactor structural materials, modified 9Cr--1Mo, was irradiated to 1, 4, and 10 displacements per atom (dpa). XAFS analyses were performed on the Fe, Mo, and Nb K-edges. Irradiation caused a reduction in coordination for all three elements, but the exact behavior was element specific. Damage around Fe atoms was linear with dose, while damage around Mo atoms saturated at or before 1 dpa. XAFS was shown to provide a useful atomic level description of radiation damage for a complex alloy system. Finally, zirconium carbide and zirconium nitride, candidate materials for advanced

  10. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    DOE PAGES

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; ...

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests canmore » be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.« less

  11. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests can be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.

  12. R&D for Better Nuclear Security: Radiation Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kammeraad, J E

    2009-04-02

    I am going to talk about the need for better materials for radiation detectors. I believe that government investment in this area can enable transformational technology change that could impact domestic nuclear security and also national nuclear security in some very positive and powerful ways. I'm not going to give you a lecture on how radiation detectors work, but I am going to tell you a bit about today's off-the-shelf technology and why it is not sufficient, what we need, and what security benefit you could get from improvements. I think we're at a critical point in time for some very impactful investments. In particular I'm going to focus on the use of gamma-ray radiation detectors at ports of entry. Not long before DHS was formed, Congress decreed that counter measures against the delivery of radiological and nuclear threats would be put in place at US ports of entry, under the authority of US Customs (later Customs and Border Protection in DHS). This included the screening of all cars and trucks passing through a port of entry. Existing off-the-shelf radiation detectors had to be selected for this purpose. Plans were made to make the most of the available technologies, but there are some inherent limitations of these detectors, plus the operational setting can bring out other limitations.

  13. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material...

  14. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material...

  15. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material...

  16. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear material...

  17. Nuclear and materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Sundaram, C. V.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to assess and review the materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. It starts with an examination of the nuclear aspects of the thorium fuel cycle, meant as an introduction for materials scientists and engineers who may not normally be familiar with the concepts and terms involved. After defining and describing the thorium and uranium fuel cycles, the reasons for the resurgence of interest in the thorium fuel cycle and the technical and economic considerations that support its early adoption are examined. The reactor physics and fissile economics aspects of the thorium and uranium cycles are then compared. The specific reactor types suitable for the adoption of the thorium cycle are briefly examined and described. Subsequent sections of the paper are devoted to a detailed discussion of the materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. Available information on fabrication, refabrication and irradiation performance of thorium-based fuels for light water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature gas-cooled reactors, molten salt breeder reactors and fast breeder reactors is critically reviewed and analysed. Materials problems related to cladding and structural materials are also discussed whenever these are unique to the thorium cycle.

  18. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    SciTech Connect

    MM Hall

    2006-01-31

    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing.

  19. A Perspective on Coupled Multiscale Simulation and Validation in Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    M. P. Short; D. Gaston; C. R. Stanek; S. Yip

    2014-01-01

    The field of nuclear materials encompasses numerous opportunities to address and ultimately solve longstanding industrial problems by improving the fundamental understanding of materials through the integration of experiments with multiscale modeling and high-performance simulation. A particularly noteworthy example is an ongoing study of axial power distortions in a nuclear reactor induced by corrosion deposits, known as CRUD (Chalk River unidentified deposits). We describe how progress is being made toward achieving scientific advances and technological solutions on two fronts. Specifically, the study of thermal conductivity of CRUD phases has augmented missing data as well as revealed new mechanisms. Additionally, the development of a multiscale simulation framework shows potential for the validation of a new capability to predict the power distribution of a reactor, in effect direct evidence of technological impact. The material- and system-level challenges identified in the study of CRUD are similar to other well-known vexing problems in nuclear materials, such as irradiation accelerated corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and void swelling; they all involve connecting materials science fundamentals at the atomistic- and mesoscales to technology challenges at the macroscale.

  20. Special Nuclear Material Gamma-Ray Signatures for Reachback Analysts

    SciTech Connect

    Karpius, Peter Joseph; Myers, Steven Charles

    2016-08-29

    These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.

  1. Detecting Defects in Aircraft Materials by Nuclear Technique (pas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Emad. A.

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the nuclear techniques used in material science. The present measurements are used to study the behavior of defect concentration in one of the most important materials aluminum alloys which is the 7075 alloy. It has been shown that positrons can become trapped at imperfect locations in solids and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects. No changes have been observed in the mean lifetime values after the saturation of defect concentration. The mean lifetime and trapping rates are studied for samples deformed up to 58.3%. The concentration of defect range vary from 1015 to 1018cm-3 at the thickness reduction from 2.3 to 58.3%. The dislocation density varies from 108 to 1011cm/cm3.

  2. Detecting Defects in Aircraft Materials by Nuclear Technique (pas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Emad. A.

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the nuclear techniques used in material science. The present measurements are used to study the behavior of defect concentration in one of the most important materials — aluminum alloy — which is a 7075 alloy. It has been shown that positrons can become trapped in imperfect locations in solids and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects. No changes have been observed in the mean lifetime values after the saturation of defect concentration. The mean lifetime and trapping rates were studied for samples deformed up to 58.3%. The concentration of defect range varies (from 1015 to 1018 cm-3) at the thickness reduction, (from 2.3 to 58.3%). The range of the dislocation density varies (from 108 to 1011 cm/cm3).

  3. Isotopic tracing of hydrogen transport and trapping in nuclear materials.

    PubMed

    Chêne, Jacques; Martin, Frantz

    2017-07-28

    Some illustrations of the use of deuterium or tritium for isotopic tracing of hydrogen absorption, transport and trapping in nuclear materials are presented. Isotopic tracing of hydrogen has been shown to be successful for the determination of the boundaries conditions for hydrogen desorption or absorption in a material exposed to a hydrogen source. Also, the unique capabilities of isotopic tracing and related techniques to characterize H interactions with point defects and dislocations acting as moving traps has been demonstrated. Such transport mechanisms are considered to play a major role in some stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-07-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program.

  5. Illicit Trafficking in Radiological and Nuclear Materials. Lack of Regulations and Attainable Disposal for Radioactive Materials Make Them More Vulnerable than Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, G.I.; Severe, W.R.; Leonard, L.

    2007-07-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials is far from a new issue. Reports of nuclear materials offered for sale as well as mythical materials such as red mercury date back to the 1960's. While such reports were primarily scams, it illustrates the fact that from an early date there were criminal elements willing to sell nuclear materials, albeit mythical ones, to turn a quick profit. In that same time frame, information related to lost and abandoned radioactive sources began to be reported. Unlike reports on nuclear material of that era, these reports on abandoned sources were based in fact - occasionally associated with resulting injury and death. With the collapse of the Former Soviet Union, illicit trafficking turned from a relatively unnoticed issue to one of global concern. Reports of unsecured nuclear and radiological material in the states of the Former Soviet Union, along with actual seizures of such material in transit, gave the clear message that illicit trafficking was now a real and urgent problem. In 1995, the IAEA established an Illicit Trafficking Data Base to keep track of confirmed instances. Illicit Trafficking is deemed to include not only radioactive materials that have been offered for sale or crossed international boarders, but also such materials that are no longer under appropriate regulatory control. As an outcome of 9/11, the United States took a closer look at illicit nuclear trafficking as well as a reassessment of the safety and security of nuclear and other radioactive materials both in the United States and Globally. This reassessment launched heightened controls and security domestically and increased our efforts internationally to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking. This reassessment also brought about the Global Threat Reduction Initiative which aims to further reduce the threats of weapons usable nuclear materials as well those of radioactive sealed sources. This paper will focus on the issues related to a subset

  6. Rapid Response Sensor for Analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. The key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, but this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM

  7. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.

  8. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    DOE PAGES

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolatingmore » these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.« less

  9. International activities in chemical thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, J. D.; Oetting, F. L.; Ohare, P. A. G.

    For over twenty years, the International Atomic Energy Agency has played a major role in furthering the exchange of information on the thermodynamics of nuclear materials between scientists all over the world. The methodology used by the Agency to achieve this exchange has been to convene five international symposia on the thermodynamics of nuclear materials (1962, 1965, 1967, 1974 and 1979). These symposia not only served as a means for scientific exchange of experimental results, but also provided a mechanism whereby various scientists could collaborate on pertinent topics. Under the sponsorship of the Agency, several panels have been held resulting in the publication of several technical reports specifically related to thermochemical assessment, e.g. UC and PuC (1962), UO2 (1964), and PuO2 and UPuO2 (1964). On a broader front, publication of two series of monographs on thermodynamic assessment has recently been undertaken; one consists of a special series of the Atomic Energy Review and the other is a series on The Chemical Thermodynamics of Actinide Elements and Compounds.

  10. THIEF: An interactive simulation of nuclear materials safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The safeguards community is facing an era in which it will be called upon to tighten protection of nuclear material. At the same time, it is probable that safeguards will face more competition for available resources from other activities such as environmental cleanup. To exist in this era, it will be necessary to understand and coordinate all aspects of the safeguards system. Because of the complexity of the interactions involved, this process puts a severe burden on designers and operators of safeguards systems. This paper presents a simulation tool developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to allow users to examine the interactions among safeguards elements as they apply to combating the insider threat. The tool consists of a microcomputer-based simulation in which the user takes the role of the insider trying to remove nuclear material from a facility. The safeguards system is run by the computer and consists of both physical protection and MC A computer elements. All data elements describing a scenario can be altered by the user. The program can aid in training, as well as in developing threat scenarios. 4 refs.

  11. Conceptual baseline document for the nuclear materials safeguards system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    This document defines the baseline scope, schedule, and cost requirements of the Nuclear Materials Safeguards System (NMSS) replacement for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. The Nuclear Material Safeguards System (NMSS), operating in PFP, comprises data from several site safeguards systems that have been merged since 1987. NMSS was designed and implemented to the state of computer technology for the mid 1970`s. Since implementation, the hardware vendor has stopped producing computer systems and the availability of personnel trained and willing to work with the technology has diminished. Maintenance has become expensive and `reliability is a serious concern. -This effort provides a replacement in kind of the NMSS, using modern, scalable, upgradable hardware and software to the same standards used for the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) system. The NMSS Replacement is a Client/Server architecture designed on a Personal Computer based local area network (LAN) platform. The LAN is provided through an ethernet interface running the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). This architecture conforms to the HLAN standard, including the End System Operating Environment (ESOE). The Server runs the Microsoft Windows NT` Server operating system, Microsoft SQL Server2 database management system, and application tools. Clients run Microsoft Windows` and application software provided as part of the system. The interface between the clients and the database is through Microsoft ODBC4.

  12. NUCLEAR MATERIAL ATTRACTIVENESS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATERIAL ASSOCIATED WITH A CLOSED FUEL CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Wallace, R. K.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Jarvinen, G. D.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2010-06-11

    This paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the various processing steps required for a closed fuel cycle. This paper combines the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR with new results for the final, repeated burning of SNM in fast-spectrum reactors: fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS). The results of this paper suggest that all reprocessing products evaluated so far need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, or undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed.

  13. Automated local bright feature image analysis of nuclear proteindistribution identifies changes in tissue phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, David; Sudar, Damir; Bator, Carol; Bissell, Mina

    2006-02-01

    The organization of nuclear proteins is linked to cell and tissue phenotypes. When cells arrest proliferation, undergo apoptosis, or differentiate, the distribution of nuclear proteins changes. Conversely, forced alteration of the distribution of nuclear proteins modifies cell phenotype. Immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy have been critical for such findings. However, there is an increasing need for quantitative analysis of nuclear protein distribution to decipher epigenetic relationships between nuclear structure and cell phenotype, and to unravel the mechanisms linking nuclear structure and function. We have developed imaging methods to quantify the distribution of fluorescently-stained nuclear protein NuMA in different mammary phenotypes obtained using three-dimensional cell culture. Automated image segmentation of DAPI-stained nuclei was generated to isolate thousands of nuclei from three-dimensional confocal images. Prominent features of fluorescently-stained NuMA were detected using a novel local bright feature analysis technique, and their normalized spatial density calculated as a function of the distance from the nuclear perimeter to its center. The results revealed marked changes in the distribution of the density of NuMA bright features as non-neoplastic cells underwent phenotypically normal acinar morphogenesis. In contrast, we did not detect any reorganization of NuMA during the formation of tumor nodules by malignant cells. Importantly, the analysis also discriminated proliferating non-neoplastic cells from proliferating malignant cells, suggesting that these imaging methods are capable of identifying alterations linked not only to the proliferation status but also to the malignant character of cells. We believe that this quantitative analysis will have additional applications for classifying normal and pathological tissues.

  14. Materials Selection Criteria for Nuclear Power Applications: A Decision Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Prieto, Álvaro; Camacho, Ana María; Sebastián, Miguel Ángel

    2016-02-01

    An innovative methodology based on stringency levels is proposed in this paper and improves the current selection method for structural materials used in demanding industrial applications. This paper describes a new approach for quantifying the stringency of materials requirements based on a novel deterministic algorithm to prevent potential failures. We have applied the new methodology to different standardized specifications used in pressure vessels design, such as SA-533 Grade B Cl.1, SA-508 Cl.3 (issued by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers), DIN 20MnMoNi55 (issued by the German Institute of Standardization) and 16MND5 (issued by the French Nuclear Commission) specifications and determine the influence of design code selection. This study is based on key scientific publications on the influence of chemical composition on the mechanical behavior of materials, which were not considered when the technological requirements were established in the aforementioned specifications. For this purpose, a new method to quantify the efficacy of each standard has been developed using a deterministic algorithm. The process of assigning relative weights was performed by consulting a panel of experts in materials selection for reactor pressure vessels to provide a more objective methodology; thus, the resulting mathematical calculations for quantitative analysis are greatly simplified. The final results show that steel DIN 20MnMoNi55 is the best material option. Additionally, more recently developed materials such as DIN 20MnMoNi55, 16MND5 and SA-508 Cl.3 exhibit mechanical requirements more stringent than SA-533 Grade B Cl.1. The methodology presented in this paper can be used as a decision tool in selection of materials for a wide range of applications.

  15. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...

  16. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...

  17. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...

  18. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...

  19. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  20. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    PICARD, R. R.

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However, distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.

  1. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Material Verification in Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a well-established physical process that provides an isotope-specific signature that can be exploited for isotopic detection and characterization of samples. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been investigating possible applications of NRF for national security. Of the investigated applications, the verification of material in the dismantlement process is the most promising. Through a combination of benchmarking measurements and radiation transport modeling, we have shown that NRF techniques with existing bremsstrahlung photon sources and a modest detection system can be used to detect highly enriched uranium in the quantities and time limits relevant to the dismantlement process. Issues such as orientation, placement and material geometry do not significantly impact the sensitivity of the technique. We have also investigated how shielding of the uranium would be observed through non-NRF processes to enable the accurate assay of the material. This paper will discuss our findings on how NRF and photon-interrogation techniques may be applied to the material verification in the dismantlement process.

  2. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. (a...

  3. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of a...

  4. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of a...

  5. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive control...

  6. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of a...

  7. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of a...

  8. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission no...

  9. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive control...

  10. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive control...

  11. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission no...

  12. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive control...

  13. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission no...

  14. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. (a...

  15. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. (a...

  16. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for...

  17. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports....

  18. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  19. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  20. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  1. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  2. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  3. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of moderate...

  4. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low strategic...

  5. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of moderate...

  6. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of moderate...

  7. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low strategic...

  8. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low strategic...

  9. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material...

  10. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material...

  11. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material...

  12. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of moderate...

  13. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material...

  14. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low strategic...

  15. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  16. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  17. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  18. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  19. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  20. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. A Delayed Neutron Counting System for the Analysis of Special Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Madison Theresa

    Nuclear forensic analysis is a modem science that uses numerous analytical techniques to identify and attribute nuclear materials in the event of a nuclear explosion, radiological terrorist attack or the interception of illicit nuclear material smuggling. The Canadian Department of National Defence has participated in recent international exercises that have highlighted the Nation's requirement to develop nuclear forensics expertise, protocol and capabilities, specifically pertaining to the analysis of special nuclear materials (SNM). A delayed neutron counting (DNC) system has been designed and established at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) to enhance the Government's SNM analysis capabilities. This analytical technique complements those already at RMC by providing a rapid and non-destructive method for the analysis of the fissile isotopes of both uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). The SLOWPOKE-2 reactor at RMC produces a predominately thermal neutron flux. These neutrons induce fission in the SNM isotopes 233U, 235U and 239Pu releasing prompt fast neutrons, energy and radioactive fission fragments. Some of these fission fragments undergo beta - decay and subsequently emit neutrons, which can be recorded by an array of sensitive 3He detectors. The significant time period between the fission process and the release of these neutrons results in their identification as 'delayed neutrons'. The recorded neutron spectrum varies with time and the count rate curve is unique to each fissile isotope. In-house software, developed by this project, can analyze this delayed neutron curve and provides the fissile mass in the sample. Extensive characterization of the DNC system has been performed with natural U samples with 235 U content ranging from 2--7 microg. The system efficiency and dead time behaviour determined by the natural uranium sample analyses were validated by depleted uranium samples with similar quantities of 235 U resulting in a typical relative error of

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies in Heavy Fermion Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirer, Kent Robert

    29Si, 31P, and 115In nuclear magnetic resonance studies of heavy fermion materials URu2Si 2, CeRhIn5, and URu2Si2- xPx were conducted as a function of temperature, pressure, and, in the case of URu2Si2- xPx, doping. Knight shift measurements in these systems probe the hybridization between conduction and local f-electrons which is described by the heavy fermion coherence temperature, T*, and can be captured by a two fluid model. This model takes the dual nature of the local moments and the heavy electron fluid into account. In URu2Si2 in a pressure range from 0-9.1 kbar, spin-lattice-relaxation data were taken and suggest a partial suppression of the density of states below 30 K. The data are analyzed in terms of a two component spin-fermion model. The spin-lattice-relaxation behavior is then compared to other materials that demonstrate precursor fluctuations in a pseudogap regime above a ground state with long-range order. Nuclear magnetic resonance data in CeRhIn5 for both the In(1) and In(2) sites are also taken under hydrostatic pressure. The Knight shift data reveal a suppression of the hyperfine coupling to the In(1) site as a function of pressure, and the electric field gradient at the In(2) site exhibits a change of slope. These changes to these coupling constants reflect alterations to the electronic structure at the quantum critical point. Finally, we report 31P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in single crystals of URu2Si2-xP x with x = 0.09, 0.33. In the case of the x = 0.09 doping, we find no evidence for a phase transition, though the material still exhibits heavy fermion coherence. In the x = 0.33 doping, we find that it undergoes an antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition. When we include the pure compound in our analysis, we find that the hyperfine couplings and coherence temperatures evolve with doping. We compare this evolution with the trends seen in other compounds.

  3. Apparatus configured for identification of a material and method of identifying a material

    DOEpatents

    Slater, John M.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Frickey, Dean A.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus configured for identification of a material and method of identifying a material. One embodiment of the present invention provides an apparatus configured for identification of a material including a first region configured to receive a first sample and output a first spectrum responsive to exposure of the first sample to radiation; a signal generator configured to provide a reference signal having a reference frequency and a modulation signal having a modulation frequency; a modulator configured to selectively modulate the first spectrum using the modulation signal according to the reference frequency; a second region configured to receive a second sample and output a second spectrum responsive to exposure of the second sample to the first spectrum; and a detector configured to detect the second spectrum.

  4. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    1999-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  5. Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    2000-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  6. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  7. A novel single cell method to identify the genetic composition at a single nuclear body

    PubMed Central

    Anchel, David; Ching, Reagan W.; Cotton, Rachel; Li, Ren; Bazett-Jones, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Gene loci make specific associations with compartments of the nucleus (e.g. the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, and transcription factories) and this association may determine or reflect a mechanism of genetic control. With current methods, it is not possible to identify sets of genes that converge to form a “gene hub” as there is a reliance on loci-specific probes, or immunoprecipitation of a particular protein from bulk cells. We introduce a method that will allow for the identification of loci contained within the vicinity of a single nuclear body in a single cell. For the first time, we demonstrate that the DNA sequences originating from a single sub-nuclear structure in a single cell targeted by two-photon irradiation can be determined, and mapped to a particular locus. Its application to single PML nuclear bodies reveals ontologically related loci that frequently associate with each other and with PML bodies in a population of cells, and a possible nuclear body targeting role for specific transcription factor binding sites. PMID:27389808

  8. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

    2012-04-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  9. Container materials in environments of corroded spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F. H.

    1996-07-01

    Efforts to remove corroded uranium metal fuel from the K Basins wet storage to long-term dry storage are underway. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) is used to load spent nuclear fuel for vacuum drying, staging, and hot conditioning; it will be used for interim dry storage until final disposition options are developed. Drying and conditioning of the corroded fuel will minimize the possibility of gas pressurization and runaway oxidation. During all phases of operations the MCO is subjected to radiation, temperature and pressure excursions, hydrogen, potential pyrophoric hazard, and corrosive environments. Material selection for the MCO applications is clearly vital for safe and efficient long-term interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels (SS) such as 304L SS or 316L SS appear to be suitable for the MCO. Of the two, Type 304L SS is recommended because it possesses good resistance to chemical corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and radiation-induced corrosive species. In addition, the material has adequate strength and ductility to withstand pressure and impact loading so that the containment boundary of the container is maintained under accident conditions without releasing radioactive materials.

  10. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  11. System design for safe robotic handling of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.; Kimberly, H.; Kuhlmann, J.

    1996-03-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive nuclear materials. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations which are currently performed manually. Because the robotic systems will handle material that is both hazardous and valuable, the safety of the operations is of utmost importance; assurance must be given that personnel will not be harmed and that the materials and environment will be protected. These safety requirements are met by designing safety features into the system using a layered approach. Several levels of mechanical, electrical and software safety prevent unsafe conditions from generating a hazard, and bring the system to a safe state should an unexpected situation arise. The system safety features include the use of industrial robot standards, commercial robot systems, commercial and custom tooling, mechanical safety interlocks, advanced sensor systems, control and configuration checks, and redundant control schemes. The effectiveness of the safety features in satisfying the safety requirements is verified using a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. This technique can point out areas of weakness in the safety design as well as areas where unnecessary redundancy may reduce the system reliability.

  12. Characterization of nuclear transmutations in materials irradiated test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents a comparison of nuclear transmutation rates for candidate fusion first wall/blanket structural materials in available, fission test reactors with those produced in a typical fusion spectrum. The materials analyzed in this study include a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti), a reduced activation martensitic steel (Fe-9Cr-2WVTa), a high conductivity copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr), and the SiC compound. The fission irradiation facilities considered include the EBR-II fast reactor, and two high flux mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR (High Flux Irradiation Reactor) and SM-3 (Russian reactor). The transmutation and dpa rates that occur in these test reactors are compared with the calculated transmutation and dpa rates characteristic of a D-T fusion first wall spectrum. In general, past work has shown that the displacement damage produced in these fission reactors can be correlated to displacement damage in a fusion spectrum; however, the generation of helium and hydrogen through threshold reactions [(n,x,{alpha}) and (n,xp)] are much higher in a fusion spectrum. As shown in this study, the compositional changes for several candidate structural materials exposed to a fast fission reactor spectrum are very low, similar to those for a characteristic fusion spectrum. However, the relatively high thermalized spectrum of a mixed spectrum reactor produces transmutation rates quite different from the ones predicted for a fusion reactor, resulting in substantial differences in the final composition of several candidate alloys after relatively short irradiation time.

  13. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation for Nuclear Power Plant Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2008-09-01

    There are approximately 440 operating reactors in the global nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet, and these have an average age greater than 20 years. These NPPs had design lives of 30 or 40 years. The United States is currently implementing license extensions of 20 years on many plants and consideration is now being given to the concept of “life-beyond-60,” a further period of license extension from 60 to 80 years, and potentially longer. In almost all countries with NPPs, authorities are looking at some form of license renewal program. There is a growing urgency as a number of plants face either approvals for license extension or shut down, which will require deployment of new power plants. In support of NPP license extension over the past decade, various national and international programs have been initiated. This paper reports part of the work performed in support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program. The paper concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD, its relationship to advanced diagnostics and prognostics and provides an assessment of some the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed.

  14. Preventing the importation of illicit nuclear materials in shipping containers.

    PubMed

    Wein, Lawrence M; Wilkins, Alex H; Baveja, Manas; Flynn, Stephen E

    2006-10-01

    We develop a mathematical model to find the optimal inspection strategy for detecting a nuclear weapon (or nuclear material to make a weapon) from being smuggled into the United States in a shipping container, subject to constraints of port congestion and an overall budget. We consider an 11-layer security system consisting of shipper certification, container seals, and a targeting software system, followed by passive (neutron and gamma), active (gamma radiography), and manual testing at overseas and domestic ports. Currently implemented policies achieve a low detection probability, and improved security requires passive and active testing of trusted containers and manually opening containers that cannot be penetrated by radiography. The annual cost of achieving a high detection probability of a plutonium weapon using existing equipment in traditional ways is roughly several billion dollars if testing is done domestically, and is approximately five times higher if testing is performed overseas. Our results suggest that employing high-energy x-ray radiography and elongating the passive neutron tests at overseas ports may provide significant cost savings, and several developing technologies, radiation sensors inside containers and tamper-resistant electronic seals, should be pursued aggressively. Further effort is critically needed to develop a practical neutron interrogation scheme that reliably detects moderately shielded, highly enriched uranium.

  15. Nuclear receptors expression chart in peripheral blood mononuclear cells identifies patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Simona; Vacca, Michele; Graziano, Giusi; D'Orazio, Andria; Cariello, Marica; Martelli, Nicola; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Salvia, Roberto; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Belfiore, Anna; Pellegrini, Fabio; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear receptors are a class of 48 ligand-activated transcription factors identified as key players of metabolic and developmental processes. Most of these receptors are potential targets for pharmacological strategies in the Metabolic Syndrome. In the present study, we analyzed changes in the mRNA expression of nuclear receptors in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Metabolic Syndrome, in order to identify novel biomarkers of disease and candidate targets for putative therapeutical approaches. We enrolled thirty healthy controls (14 M:16 F) and thirty naïve patients (16 M: 14 F; >3 criteria for Metabolic Syndrome upon Adult Treatment Panel III) without organ damage. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed the expression patterns of nuclear receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. 33/48 nuclear receptors were expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In patients with Metabolic Syndrome, we found a significant down-regulation of the entire PPAR, NR4A and RAR families, together with a repression of RXRα, VDR, and Rev-Erbα. Furthermore, we performed a novel statistical analysis with classification trees, which allowed us to depict a predictive core of nuclear receptor expression patterns characterizing subjects with Metabolic Syndrome. Random Forest Analysis identified NOR1 and PPARδ, which were both reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and specifically in CD14(+) cells (mostly monocytes), as classifiers of Metabolic Syndrome, with high specificity and sensitivity. Our results point to the use of PPAR and NR4A mRNA levels in the overall peripheral blood mononuclear cells as biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome and bona fide putative targets of pharmacological therapy. © 2013.

  16. Special nuclear material radiation monitors for the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the two decades that automatic gamma-radiation monitors have been applied to detecting special nuclear material (SNM), little attention has been devoted to how well the monitors perform in plant environments. Visits to 11 DOE facilities revealed poor information flow between developers, manufacturers, and maintainers of SNM radiation monitors. To help users achieve best performance from their monitors or select new ones, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed a hand-held monitor user's guide, calibration manuals for some commercial SNM pedestrian monitors, and an application guide for SNM pedestrian monitors. In addition, Los Alamos evaluated new commercial SNM monitors, considered whether to apply neutron detection to SNM monitoring, and investigated the problem of operating gamma-ray SNM monitors in variable plutonium gamma-radiation fields. As a result, the performance of existing SNM monitors will improve and alternative monitoring methods will become commerciallly available during the 1980s. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Special nuclear material radiation monitors for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the two decades that automatic gamma-radiation monitors have been applied to detecting special nuclear material (SNM), little attention has been devoted to how well the monitors perform in plant environments. Visits to 11 DOE facilities revealed poor information flow between developers, manufacturers, and maintainers of SNM radiation monitors. To help users achieve best performance from their monitors or select new ones, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed a hand-held monitor user's guide, calibration manuals for some commercial SNM pedestrian monitors, and an applications guide for SNM pedestrian monitors. In addition, Los Alamos evaluated new commercial SNM monitors, considered whether to apply neutron detection to SNM monitoring, and investigated the problem of operating gamma-ray SNM monitors in variable plutonium gamma-radiation fields. As a result, the performance of existing SNM monitors will improve and alternative monitoring methods will become commercially available during the 1980s.

  18. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  19. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  20. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  1. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-03-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool.

  2. Ultra Wide Band RFID Neutron Tags for Nuclear Materials Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Wang, T

    2010-01-27

    Recent advancements in the ultra-wide band Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and solid state pillar type neutron detectors have enabled us to move forward in combining both technologies for advanced neutron monitoring. The LLNL RFID tag is totally passive and will operate indefinitely without the need for batteries. The tag is compact, can be directly mounted on metal, and has high performance in dense and cluttered environments. The LLNL coin-sized pillar solid state neutron detector has achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 20% and neutron/gamma discrimination of 1E5. These performance values are comparable to a fieldable {sup 3}He based detector. In this paper we will discuss features about the two technologies and some potential applications for the advanced safeguarding of nuclear materials.

  3. Nuclear quadrupole resonance study of hydrogen bonded solid materials.

    PubMed

    Seliger, Janez

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance is presented as a method for the study of solid hydrogen bonded materials. NQR study of hydrogen bonds in ferroelectric and paraelectric KH2PO4, antiferroelectric and paraelectric squaric acid, ferroelectric croconic acid and antiferroelectric and paraelectric cocrystal 5'-dimethyl-2, 2'-bipyridine - chloranilic acid (1:1) are discussed in more details. A 14N NQR study of the strong short O-HKN hydrogen bond in two polymorphic forms of cocrystal isonicotinamide-oxalic acid (2:1) is presented as well. Various correlations between the NQR parameters and between the NQR and structural parameters have been observed. These correlations may be used to determine the proton position in a hydrogen bond and some other structural parameters from the NQR data.

  4. Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS) for security screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Kim, Kwang; Hong Chang, Ji; Hyun Jung, Young

    2011-08-01

    As a Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS), two large-volume plastic detectors and a NaI detector for gamma-ray sources and two He-3 tubes for neutron sources were integrated in a mobile box that can be mounted on a vehicle. Custom-made preamplifiers, shapers, and a MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) for each detector were conceived of and built on a compact circuit board to collect and integrate different types of data from each detector. The collected data, counts rates and spectra of the detected radiation, were continually monitored and plotted on several user-friendly display windows on a laptop computer. The system performance in the vehicle-mounted condition was tested for Co-60, Cs-137, and Cf-252 sources at various distances and speeds.

  5. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear...

  6. NUCLEAR MATERIAL ATTRACTIVENESS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATERIAL FROM PHWR'S IN A CLOSED THORIUM FUEL CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Sleaford, B W; Collins, B A; Ebbinghaus, B B; Bathke, C G; Prichard, A W; Wallace, R K; Smith, B W; Hase, K R; Bradley, K S; Robel, M; Jarvinen, G D; Ireland, J R; Johnson, M W

    2010-04-26

    This paper examines the attractiveness of material mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with reprocessing and the thorium-based LWR fuel cycle. This paper expands upon the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the reprocessing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR. This study shows that {sup 233}U that is produced in thorium-based fuel cycles is very attractive for weapons use. Consistent with other studies, these results also show that all fuel cycles examined to date need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented.

  7. Nuclear Material Attractiveness: An Assessment of Material from PHWR's in a Closed Thorium Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sleaford, Brad W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Bradley, Keith S.; Robel, Martin; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Bathke, Charles G.; Wallace, R. K.

    2010-06-11

    This paper examines the attractiveness of material mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with reprocessing and the thorium-based LWR fuel cycle. This paper expands upon the results from earlier studies [ , ] that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the reprocessing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR. This study shows that 233U that is produced in thorium-based fuel cycles is very attractive for weapons use. Consistent with other studies, these results also show that all fuel cycles examined to date need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [ ]. The methodology and key findings will be presented.

  8. In-Place Filter Tester Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Austin D; Moore, Murray E; Runnels, Joel T; Reeves, Kirk

    2016-05-01

    A portable instrument was developed to determine filter clogging and container leakage of in-place nuclear material storage canisters. This paper describes the development of an in-place filter tester for determining the "as found" condition of unopened canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy uses several thousand canisters for nuclear material storage, and air filters in the canister lids allow gases to escape while maintaining an equilibrated pressure without release of radioactive contamination. Diagnosing the filter condition and canister integrity is important for ensuring worker and public safety. Customized canister interfaces were developed for suction clamping (during tests) to two of the canister types in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Experimental leakage scenarios included: O-rings fouled with dust, cracked O-rings, and loose canister lids. The prototype tester has a measurement range for air leakage rates from 8.2 × 10 mL s up to 3.0 × 10 mL s. This is sufficient to measure a leak rate of 3.4 × 10 mL s, which is the Los Alamos helium leak criterion for post-drop tested canisters. The In-Place-Filter-Tester cannot measure to the lower value of the helium leak criterion for pre-drop tested canisters (1.0 × 10 mL s). However, helium leak testing requires canister disassembly, while the new in-place filter tester is able to assess the assembled condition of as-found and in-situ canisters.

  9. Container materials for high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain site

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.

    1991-05-01

    Candidate container materials for high-level nuclear waste packages to be emplaced at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site are being considered for their long-term resistance to corrosion, oxidation, embrittlement and other kinds of degradation. An extensive compilation of the degradation phenomena for six candidate materials is complete, and further studies have begun on the degradation modes affecting additional candidate materials. Phenomenological models for predicting container degradation rates are being advanced for environmental conditions applicable to Yucca Mountain. An experimental program is underway to evaluate the susceptibility of container materials is localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and enhancement of corrosion and oxidation attack by gamma radiation. Initial evaluations of container fabrication and welding processes have identified some processes that appear to alleviate some long-term susceptibility concerns. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  10. AN APPROACH FOR ENHANCING NUCLEAR MATERIALS TRACKING AND REPORTING IN WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    V. L. LONGMIRE; S. L. SEITZ; B. J. SINKULE

    2001-06-01

    Recent policy from the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) has identified the need to report nuclear materials in waste in a manner that is consistent with the Department of Energy's Nuclear Materials Information System (NMIS), which uses Form 471 as its official record. NMIS is used to track nuclear material inventories while they are subject to safeguards. This requirement necessitates the reevaluation of existing business practices that are used to track and report these nuclear materials. This paper provides a methodology for applying a systems approach to the evaluation of the flow of nuclear waste materials from a generating facility through to permanent disposal. This methodology can be used to integrate existing systems and leverage data already gathered that support both the waste reporting requirements and the NMIS requirements. In order to consider an active waste reporting system that covers waste management through to final disposal, the requirements for characterization, certification, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are used as an example. These requirements are found in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP/WAC) and associated requirement documents. This approach will prevent inconsistencies in reported data and address current and future needs. For example, spent fuel (which the U.S. intends to dispose of as high-level waste) has not been viewed as particularly attractive in terms of proliferation in comparison to materials associated with other parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, collecting high-level waste (or some types of defense waste) in one location where it will be left for hundreds or thousands of years presents proliferation and safeguards issues that need to be considered as part of a systems evaluation. This paper brings together information on domestic and international safeguards practices and considers the current system of documentation used by the U

  11. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Vasopressin-Responsive Nuclear Proteins in Collecting Duct Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Laura K.; Bolger, Steven J.; Luginbuhl, Kelli; Gonzales, Patricia A.; Rinschen, Markus M.; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Hoffert, Jason D.; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin controls transport in the renal collecting duct, in part, by regulating transcription. This complex process, which can involve translocation and/or modification of transcriptional regulators, is not completely understood. Here, we applied a method for large-scale profiling of nuclear proteins to quantify vasopressin-induced changes in the nuclear proteome of cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells. Using stable isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 3987 nuclear proteins and identified significant changes in the abundance of 65, including previously established targets of vasopressin signaling in the collecting duct. Vasopressin-induced changes in the abundance of the transcription factors JunB, Elf3, Gatad2b, and Hmbox1; transcriptional co-regulators Ctnnb1 (β-catenin) and Crebbp; subunits of the Mediator complex; E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4; nuclear transport regulator RanGap1; and several proteins associated with tight junctions and adherens junctions. Bioinformatic analysis showed that many of the quantified transcription factors have putative binding sites in the 5′-flanking regions of genes coding for the channel proteins Aqp2, Aqp3, Scnn1b (ENaCβ), and Scnn1g (ENaCγ), which are known targets of vasopressin. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the increase in β-catenin in nuclear fractions was accompanied by an even larger increase in its phosphorylated form (pSer552). The findings provide a new online database resource for nuclear proteomics (http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/mNPD/) and generate new hypotheses regarding vasopressin-mediated transcriptional regulation in the collecting duct. PMID:22440904

  12. Use of differential scanning fluorimetry as a high-throughput assay to identify nuclear receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Kara; Reed, Aaron; Rahhal, Raneen; Reinking, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Identification of ligands that interact with nuclear receptors is both a major biological problem and an important initial step in drug discovery. Several in vitro and in vivo techniques are commonly used to screen ligand candidates against nuclear receptors; however, none of the current assays allow screening without modification of either the protein and/or the ligand in a high-throughput fashion. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) allows unmodified potential ligands to be screened as 10µL reactions in 96-well format against partially purified protein, revealing specific interactors. As a proof of principle, we used a commercially-available nuclear receptor ligand candidate chemical library to identify interactors of the human estrogen receptor α ligand binding domain (ERα LBD). Compounds that interact specifically with ERα LBD stabilize the protein and result in an elevation of the thermal denaturation point, as monitored by the environmentally-sensitive dye SYPRO orange. We successfully identified all three compounds in the library that have previously been identified to interact with ERα, with no false positive results. PMID:22438792

  13. 10 CFR 74.11 - Reports of loss or theft or attempted theft or unauthorized production of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unauthorized production of special nuclear material. 74.11 Section 74.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping... unlawful diversion of special nuclear material which the licensee is licensed to possess, or any incident...

  14. 10 CFR 74.11 - Reports of loss or theft or attempted theft or unauthorized production of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unauthorized production of special nuclear material. 74.11 Section 74.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping... unlawful diversion of special nuclear material which the licensee is licensed to possess, or any incident...

  15. Filed emission cathodes for electrodynamic tethers: identifying compatible cathode materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrese, C.; Polk, J.; Mackie, B.; Quinlan, M.; Koel, B.

    2002-01-01

    Several material combinations were considered as candidates for the electrodynamic tether application in the investigation discussed in this paper. Critical characteristics like work function, resistance, sputter yield and sensitivity to oxidizing environments were considered. The material investigation included, ZrC/Mo, Mo, MgPt, Pt, NbC/Nb, NbNi/Nb, Nb, RuTa/Ta, Ru/Ta and Ta. The results of the measurements suggest that NbC/Nb, NbNi/Nb, and MgPt are the most promising candidates.

  16. A gamma-ray verification system for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Lanier, R.G.; Prindle, A.L.; Friensehner, A.V.; Buckley, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a gamma-ray screening system for use by the Materials Management Section of the Engineering Sciences Division at LLNL for verifying the presence or absence of special nuclear material (SNM) in a sample. This system facilitates the measurements required under the ``5610`` series of US Department of Energy orders. MMGAM is an intelligent, menu driven software application that runs on a personal computer and requires a precalibrated multi-channel analyzer and HPGe detector. It provides a very quick and easy-to-use means of determining the presence of SNM in a sample. After guiding the operator through a menu driven set-up procedure, the system provides an on-screen GO/NO-GO indication after determining the system calibration status. This system represents advances over earlier used systems in the areas of ease-of use, operator training requirements, and quality assurance. The system records the gamma radiation from a sample using a sequence of measurements involving a background measurement followed immediately by a measurement of the unknown sample. Both spectra are stored and available for analysis or output. In the current application, the presence of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 208}Tl isotopes are indicated by extracting, from the stored spectra, four energy ``windows`` preset around gamma-ray lines characteristic of the radioactive decay of these nuclides. The system is easily extendible to more complicated problems.

  17. Demonstration of bilateral U.S. and Russian remote monitoring system for special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sheely, K.B.; O`Connell, M.F.; Corbell, B.H.

    1995-07-01

    In the context of U.S. and Russian lab-to-lab initiatives, Sandia National Laboratories contracted with Kurchatov Institute Russian Research Center to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely monitoring the storage of nuclear material. The cooperative experiment was to demonstrate the Remote Monitoring System (RMS) with a minimum of 10 kg of HEU in storage at reciprocal facilities. The Kurchatov Institute selected a site at their facility and the DOE selected a site at the Argonne National Laboratory-West facility. At Kurchatov, there is material for monitoring in a floor vault, a cabinet, and shipping containers. At Argonne West, material stored in two types of storage systems is available for material monitoring. This paper discusses the system concept from both perspectives: the operator of a facility where a RMS is deployed and the user of the RMS at the remote site. The demonstration provides a unique opportunity to have a bilateral demonstration/evaluation where each participant examines all aspects of the system. The hardware and software needed to implement this system is discussed. The impacts to the operation of the facilities are discussed as well as the use of the system to remotely monitor a facility. This technology provides the capability of remotely monitoring the access to the stored nuclear materials but is not a real time security alarm system. Several enhancements to the Remote Monitoring System have been identified for future consideration.

  18. A New Light Weight Structural Material for Nuclear Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2016-01-14

    Radiation shielding materials are commonly used in nuclear facilities to attenuate the background ionization radiations to a minimum level for creating a safer workplace, meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining high quality performance. The conventional radiation shielding materials have a number of drawbacks: heavy concrete contains a high amount of elements that are not desirable for an effective shielding such as oxygen, silicon, and calcium; a well known limitation of lead is its low machinability and toxicity, which is causing a major environmental concern. Therefore, an effective and environmentally friendly shielding material with increased attenuation and low mass density is desirable. Close-cell composite metal foams (CMFs) and open-cell Al foam with fillers are light-weight candidate materials that we have studied in this project. Close-cell CMFs possess several suitable properties that are unattainable by conventional radiation shielding materials such as low density and high strength for structural applications, high surface area to volume ratio for excellent thermal isolation with an extraordinary energy absorption capability. Open-cell foam is made up of a network of interconnected solid struts, which allows gas or fluid media to pass through it. This unique structure provided a further motive to investigate its application as radiation shields by infiltrating original empty pores with high hydrogen or boron compounds, which are well known for their excellent neutron shielding capability. The resulting open-cell foam with fillers will not only exhibit light weight and high specific surface area, but also possess excellent radiation shielding capability and good processability. In this study, all the foams were investigated for their radiation shielding efficiency in terms of X-ray, gamma ray and neutron. X-ray transmission measurements were carried out on a high-resolution microcomputed tomography (microCT) system. Gamma-emitting sources: 3.0m

  19. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  20. 4π FOV compact Compton camera for nuclear material investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonho; Lee, Taewoong

    2011-10-01

    A compact Compton camera with a 4π field of view (FOV) was manufactured using the design parameters optimized with the effective choice of gamma-ray interaction order determined from a Monte Carlo simulation. The camera consisted of six CsI(Na) planar scintillators with a pixelized structure that was coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) consisting of multiple anodes connected to custom-made circuits. The size of the scintillator and each pixel was 4.4×4.4×0.5 and 0.2×0.2×0.5 cm, respectively. The total size of each detection module was only 5×5×6 cm and the distance between the detector modules was approximately 10 cm to maximize the camera performance, as calculated by the simulation. Therefore, the camera is quite portable for examining nuclear materials in areas, such as harbors or nuclear power plants. The non-uniformity of the multi-anode PMTs was corrected using a novel readout circuit. Amplitude information of the signals from the electronics attached to the scintillator-coupled multi-anode PMTs was collected using a data acquisition board (cDAQ-9178), and the timing information was sent to a FPGA (SPARTAN3E). The FPGA picked the rising edges of the timing signals, and compared the edges of the signals from six detection modules to select the coincident signal from a Compton pair only. The output of the FPGA triggered the DAQ board to send the effective Compton events to a computer. The Compton image was reconstructed, and the performance of the 4π FOV Compact camera was examined.