Science.gov

Sample records for identifying rheumatoid arthritis

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Rheumatoid Arthritis Small Text Medium Text Large Text Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease affecting about ...

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rheumatoid Arthritis English Español 繁體中文 한국어 tiếng Việt Rheumatoid Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that causes pain, ...

  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in ... wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is ...

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition? What if my symptoms come back? Other organizations National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Citations Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis by JA Rindfleisch, ...

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000431.htm Rheumatoid arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term disease. It leads ...

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis: identifying and characterising polymorphisms using rat models

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder characterised by erosive inflammation of the articular cartilage and by destruction of the synovial joints. It is regulated by both genetic and environmental factors, and, currently, there is no preventative treatment or cure for this disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified ∼100 new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis, in addition to the already known locus within the major histocompatibility complex II region. However, together, these loci account for only a modest fraction of the genetic variance associated with this disease and very little is known about the pathogenic roles of most of the risk loci identified. Here, we discuss how rat models of rheumatoid arthritis are being used to detect quantitative trait loci that regulate different arthritic traits by genetic linkage analysis and to positionally clone the underlying causative genes using congenic strains. By isolating specific loci on a fixed genetic background, congenic strains overcome the challenges of genetic heterogeneity and environmental interactions associated with human studies. Most importantly, congenic strains allow functional experimental studies be performed to investigate the pathological consequences of natural genetic polymorphisms, as illustrated by the discovery of several major disease genes that contribute to arthritis in rats. We discuss how these advances have provided new biological insights into arthritis in humans. PMID:27736747

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself. The pattern of joints ... other joints and is worse in the morning. Rheumatoid arthritis is also a systemic disease, involving other body ...

  8. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed to help you learn more about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). You will learn how the diagnosis of ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that causes chronic abnormal inflammation, ...

  10. High-density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Diogo, Dorothée; Lee, Annette; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli; Viatte, Sebastien; McAllister, Kate; Amos, Christopher I; Padyukov, Leonid; Toes, Rene E M; Huizinga, Tom W J; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Hu, Xinli; Sandor, Cynthia; de Bakker, Paul I W; Davila, Sonia; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Heng, Khai Koon; Andrews, Robert; Edkins, Sarah; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Symmons, Deborah; Concannon, Pat; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Deloukas, Panos; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlsetig, Lisbeth; Martin, Javier; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Plenge, Robert M; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Using the Immunochip custom SNP array, which was designed for dense genotyping of 186 loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we analyzed 11,475 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. We combined these data in a meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional independent cases (n = 2,363) and controls (n = 17,872). We identified 14 new susceptibility loci, 9 of which were associated with rheumatoid arthritis overall and five of which were specifically associated with disease that was positive for anticitrullinated peptide antibodies, bringing the number of confirmed rheumatoid arthritis risk loci in individuals of European ancestry to 46. We refined the peak of association to a single gene for 19 loci, identified secondary independent effects at 6 loci and identified association to low-frequency variants at 4 loci. Bioinformatic analyses generated strong hypotheses for the causal SNP at seven loci. This study illustrates the advantages of dense SNP mapping analysis to inform subsequent functional investigations.

  11. High density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Diogo, Dorothée; Lee, Annette; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli; Viatte, Sebastien; McAllister, Kate; Amos, Christopher I.; Padyukov, Leonid; Toes, Rene E.M.; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Hu, Xinli; Sandor, Cynthia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Davila, Sonia; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Heng, Khai Koon; Andrews, Robert; Edkins, Sarah; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Symmons, Deborah; Concannon, Pat; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Deloukas, Panos; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlsetig, Lisbeth; Martin, Javier; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Plenge, Robert; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Summary Using the Immunochip custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, designed for dense genotyping of 186 genome wide association study (GWAS) confirmed loci we analysed 11,475 rheumatoid arthritis cases of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. The data were combined in meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional independent cases (n=2,363) and controls (n=17,872). We identified fourteen novel loci; nine were associated with rheumatoid arthritis overall and 5 specifically in anti-citrillunated peptide antibody positive disease, bringing the number of confirmed European ancestry rheumatoid arthritis loci to 46. We refined the peak of association to a single gene for 19 loci, identified secondary independent effects at six loci and association to low frequency variants (minor allele frequency <0.05) at 4 loci. Bioinformatic analysis of the data generated strong hypotheses for the causal SNP at seven loci. This study illustrates the advantages of dense SNP mapping analysis to inform subsequent functional investigations. PMID:23143596

  12. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... debilitating when it affects the hands and fingers. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common forms of ...

  13. High-density genotyping of immune loci in Koreans and Europeans identifies eight new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Kang, Young Mo; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Suh, Chang-Hee; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Jisoo; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Nath, Swapan K; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel M; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Okada, Yukinori; Diogo, Dorothée; Liao, Katherine P; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Plenge, Robert M; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    A highly polygenic aetiology and high degree of allele-sharing between ancestries have been well elucidated in genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, the high-density genotyping array Immunochip for immune disease loci identified 14 new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci among individuals of European ancestry. Here, we aimed to identify new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci using Korean-specific Immunochip data. We analysed Korean rheumatoid arthritis case-control samples using the Immunochip and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) array to search for new risk alleles of rheumatoid arthritis with anticitrullinated peptide antibodies. To increase power, we performed a meta-analysis of Korean data with previously published European Immunochip and GWAS data for a total sample size of 9299 Korean and 45,790 European case-control samples. We identified eight new rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci (TNFSF4, LBH, EOMES, ETS1-FLI1, COG6, RAD51B, UBASH3A and SYNGR1) that passed a genome-wide significance threshold (p<5×10(-8)), with evidence for three independent risk alleles at 1q25/TNFSF4. The risk alleles from the seven new loci except for the TNFSF4 locus (monomorphic in Koreans), together with risk alleles from previously established RA risk loci, exhibited a high correlation of effect sizes between ancestries. Further, we refined the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent potentially causal variants through a trans-ethnic comparison of densely genotyped SNPs. This study demonstrates the advantage of dense-mapping and trans-ancestral analysis for identification of potentially causal SNPs. In addition, our findings support the importance of T cells in the pathogenesis and the fact of frequent overlap of risk loci among diverse autoimmune diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. High-Density Genotyping of Immune Loci in Koreans and Europeans Identifies Eight New Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Loci

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Kang, Young Mo; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Suh, Chang-Hee; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Jisoo; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Nath, Swapan K.; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Kremer, Joel M.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Okada, Yukinori; Diogo, Dorothée; Liao, Katherine P.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Plenge, Robert M.; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective A highly polygenic etiology and high degree of allele-sharing between ancestries have been well-elucidated in genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, the high-density genotyping array Immunochip for immune disease loci identified 14 new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci among individuals of European ancestry. Here, we aimed to identify new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci using Korean-specific Immunochip data. Methods We analyzed Korean rheumatoid arthritis case-control samples using the Immunochip and GWAS array to search for new risk alleles of rheumatoid arthritis with anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies. To increase power, we performed a meta-analysis of Korean data with previously published European Immunochip and GWAS data, for a total sample size of 9,299 Korean and 45,790 European case-control samples. Results We identified 8 new rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci (TNFSF4, LBH, EOMES, ETS1–FLI1, COG6, RAD51B, UBASH3A and SYNGR1) that passed a genome-wide significance threshold (p<5×10−8), with evidence for three independent risk alleles at 1q25/TNFSF4. The risk alleles from the 7 new loci except for the TNFSF4 locus (monomorphic in Koreans), together with risk alleles from previously established RA risk loci, exhibited a high correlation of effect sizes between ancestries. Further, we refined the number of SNPs that represent potentially causal variants through a trans-ethnic comparison of densely genotyped SNPs. Conclusion This study demonstrates the advantage of dense-mapping and trans-ancestral analysis for identification of potentially causal SNPs. In addition, our findings support the importance of T cells in the pathogenesis and the fact of frequent overlap of risk loci among diverse autoimmune diseases. PMID:24532676

  15. The use of administrative health care databases to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, John G; Thompson, Kara; Skedgel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objective To validate and compare the decision rules to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in administrative databases. Methods A study was performed using administrative health care data from a population of 1 million people who had access to universal health care. Information was available on hospital discharge abstracts and physician billings. RA cases in health administrative databases were matched 1:4 by age and sex to randomly selected controls without inflammatory arthritis. Seven case definitions were applied to identify RA cases in the health administrative data, and their performance was compared with the diagnosis by a rheumatologist. The validation study was conducted on a sample of individuals with administrative data who received a rheumatologist consultation at the Arthritis Center of Nova Scotia. Results We identified 535 RA cases and 2,140 non-RA, noninflammatory arthritis controls. Using the rheumatologist’s diagnosis as the gold standard, the overall accuracy of the case definitions for RA cases varied between 68.9% and 82.9% with a kappa statistic between 0.26 and 0.53. The sensitivity and specificity varied from 20.7% to 94.8% and 62.5% to 98.5%, respectively. In a reference population of 1 million, the estimated annual number of incident cases of RA was between 176 and 1,610 and the annual number of prevalent cases was between 1,384 and 5,722. Conclusion The accuracy of case definitions for the identification of RA cases from rheumatology clinics using administrative health care databases is variable when compared to a rheumatologist’s assessment. This should be considered when comparing results across studies. This variability may also be used as an advantage in different study designs, depending on the relative importance of sensitivity and specificity for identifying the population of interest to the research question. PMID:27790047

  16. Phenome-Wide Association Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subgroups Identifies Association between Seronegative Disease and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Jayanth; Mo, Huan; Carroll, Robert J.; Crofford, Leslie J.; Denny, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The differences between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been widely reported. We performed electronic health record (EHR)-based phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) to identify disease associations in seropositive and seronegative RA. Methods A validated algorithm identified RA subjects from the de-identified EHR. Serotypes were determined by values of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA). We tested EHR-derived phenotypes using PheWAS comparing seropositive RA against seronegative RA, yielding disease associations. PheWAS was also performed on RF-positive versus RF-negative subjects and ACPA-positive versus ACPA-negative subjects. Following PheWAS, select phenotypes were then manually reviewed and fibromyalgia was specifically evaluated using a validated algorithm. Results There were 2199 individuals identified with RA and either RF or ACPA testing. Of these, 1382 (63%) were seropositive. Seronegative RA was associated with “Myalgia and Myositis” (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, P=3.7×10−10) and back pain. A manual record review showed 80% of Myalgia and Myositis codes were used for fibromyalgia, and follow-up with a specific EHR algorithm for fibromyalgia confirmed that seronegative RA was associated with fibromyalgia (OR=1.8, P=4.0×10−6). Seropositive RA was associated with Chronic Airway Obstruction (OR=2.2, P=1.4×10−4) and tobacco use (OR=2.2, P=7.0×10−4). Conclusion This PheWAS in RA patients identifies a strong association between seronegativity and fibromyalgia. It also affirms relationships between seropositivity with chronic airway obstruction and seropositivity with tobacco use. These findings demonstrate the utility of the PheWAS approach to discover novel phenotype associations within different subgroups of a disease. PMID:27589350

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects joints, it sometimes causes lung disease ...

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Eyes?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects ...

  19. A novel method to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis based on differential pathway networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shi-Tong; Sun, Yong-Hua; Zong, Shi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a novel method based on differential pathway network (DPN) analysis. The present study proposed a DPN where protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was integrated with pathway‑pathway interactions. Pathway data was obtained from background PPI network and the Reactome pathway database. Subsequently, pathway interactions were extracted from the pathway data by building randomized gene‑gene interactions and a weight value was assigned to each pathway interaction using Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) to identify differential pathway interactions. Differential pathway interactions were visualized using Cytoscape to construct a DPN. Topological analysis was conducted to identify hub pathways that possessed the top 5% degree distribution of DPN. Modules of DPN were mined according to ClusterONE. A total of 855 pathways were selected to build pathway interactions. By filtrating pathway interactions of weight values >0.7, a DPN with 312 nodes and 791 edges was obtained. Topological degree analysis revealed 15 hub pathways, such as heparan sulfate/heparin‑glycosaminoglycan (HS‑GAG) degradation, HS‑GAG metabolism and keratan sulfate degradation for RA based on DPN. Furthermore, hub pathways were also important in modules, which validated the significance of hub pathways. In conclusion, the proposed method is a computationally efficient way to identify hub pathways of RA, which identified 15 hub pathways that may be potential biomarkers and provide insight to future investigation and treatment of RA.

  20. Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0210 TITLE: Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David A. Fox CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0210 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David A. Fox...citrulline, which contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We show that citrullinated epithelial- derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78

  1. A Multinational Arab Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies New Genetic Associations for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Richa; Plenge, Robert M; Bjonnes, Andrew C; Dashti, Hassan S; Okada, Yukinori; Gad El Haq, Wessam; Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Al Emadi, Samar; Masri, Basel K; Halabi, Hussein; Badsha, Humeira; Uthman, Imad W; Margolin, Lauren; Gupta, Namrata; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Kapiri, Marianthi; Dargham, Soha R; Aranki, Grace; Kazkaz, Layla A; Arayssi, Thurayya

    2017-05-01

    Genetic factors underlying susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Arab populations are largely unknown. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) was undertaken to explore the generalizability of previously reported RA loci to Arab subjects and to discover new Arab-specific genetic loci. The Genetics of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Some Arab States Study was designed to examine the genetics and clinical features of RA patients from Jordan, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. In total, >7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with RA overall and with seropositive or seronegative RA in 511 RA cases and 352 healthy controls. In addition, replication of 15 signals was attempted in 283 RA cases and 221 healthy controls. A genetic risk score of 68 known RA SNPs was also examined in this study population. Three loci (HLA region, intergenic 5q13, and 17p13 at SMTNL2/GGT6) reached genome-wide significance in the analyses of association with RA and with seropositive RA, and for all 3 loci, evidence of independent replication was demonstrated. Consistent with the findings in European and East Asian populations, the association of RA with HLA-DRB1 amino acid position 11 conferred the strongest effect (P = 4.8 × 10 -16 ), and a weighted genetic risk score of previously associated RA loci was found to be associated with RA (P = 3.41 × 10 -5 ) and with seropositive RA (P = 1.48 × 10 -6 ) in this population. In addition, 2 novel associations specific to Arab populations were found at the 5q13 and 17p13 loci. This first RA GWAS in Arab populations confirms that established HLA-region and known RA risk alleles contribute strongly to the risk and severity of disease in some Arab groups, suggesting that the genetic architecture of RA is similar across ethnic groups. Moreover, this study identified 2 novel RA risk loci in Arabs, offering further population-specific insights into the

  2. Joint-specific DNA methylation and transcriptome signatures in rheumatoid arthritis identify distinct pathogenic processes

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Rizi; Hammaker, Deepa; Boyle, David L.; Morgan, Rachel; Walsh, Alice M.; Fan, Shicai; Firestein, Gary S.; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Stratifying patients on the basis of molecular signatures could facilitate development of therapeutics that target pathways specific to a particular disease or tissue location. Previous studies suggest that pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is similar in all affected joints. Here we show that distinct DNA methylation and transcriptome signatures not only discriminate RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from osteoarthritis FLS, but also distinguish RA FLS isolated from knees and hips. Using genome-wide methods, we show differences between RA knee and hip FLS in the methylation of genes encoding biological pathways, such as IL-6 signalling via JAK-STAT pathway. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes are identified between knee and hip FLS using RNA-sequencing. Double-evidenced genes that are both differentially methylated and expressed include multiple HOX genes. Joint-specific DNA signatures suggest that RA disease mechanisms might vary from joint to joint, thus potentially explaining some of the diversity of drug responses in RA patients. PMID:27282753

  3. Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0320 TITLE: Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward K Chan CONTRACTING... Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0320 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward K Chan 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...individuals with  rheumatoid   arthritis  (RA). The goal is to test the  hypothesis that oral microbiome and metagenomic analyses will allow us to identify new

  4. Phenome-Wide Association Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subgroups Identifies Association Between Seronegative Disease and Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Doss, Jayanth; Mo, Huan; Carroll, Robert J; Crofford, Leslie J; Denny, Joshua C

    2017-02-01

    The differences between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been widely reported. We performed electronic health record (EHR)-based phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) to identify disease associations in seropositive and seronegative RA. A validated algorithm identified RA subjects from the de-identified version of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center EHR. Serotypes were determined by rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) values. We tested EHR-derived phenotypes using PheWAS comparing seropositive RA and seronegative RA, yielding disease associations. PheWAS was also performed in RF-positive versus RF-negative subjects and ACPA-positive versus ACPA-negative subjects. Following PheWAS, select phenotypes were then manually reviewed, and fibromyalgia was specifically evaluated using a validated algorithm. A total of 2,199 RA individuals with either RF or ACPA testing were identified. Of these, 1,382 patients (63%) were classified as seropositive. Seronegative RA was associated with myalgia and myositis (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, P = 3.7 × 10 -10 ) and back pain. A manual review of the health record showed that among subjects coded for Myalgia and Myositis, ∼80% had fibromyalgia. Follow-up with a specific EHR algorithm for fibromyalgia confirmed that seronegative RA was associated with fibromyalgia (OR 1.8, P = 4.0 × 10 -6 ). Seropositive RA was associated with chronic airway obstruction (OR 2.2, P = 1.4 × 10 -4 ) and tobacco use (OR 2.2, P = 7.0 × 10 -4 ). This PheWAS of RA patients identifies a strong association between seronegativity and fibromyalgia. It also affirms relationships between seropositivity and chronic airway obstruction and between seropositivity and tobacco use. These findings demonstrate the utility of the PheWAS approach to discover novel phenotype associations within different subgroups of a disease. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. [Management of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fiehn, C; Krüger, K

    2016-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease. Due to the destruction of joints in the course of the disease it leads to significant morbidity in affected patients. The quality of life and even life expectancy can be severely impaired. Early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment is a decisive step towards a more benign course of the disease. New classification criteria have been published in order to help in early diagnosis. Methods of imaging, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging help in the detection of synovitis, which is the major pathomorphological manifestation of arthritis and should be identified without any doubt. Treatment follows the rule of treat to target with the aim of achieving remission or if this is not realistic, at least the lowest possible level of disease activity. The first and perhaps most important step in therapy is the initiation of methotrexate or if contraindications are present, another disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) as soon as the diagnosis is made. Initial addition of glucocorticoids is recommended, which should be reduced in dose and terminated as soon as possible. Furthermore, either the combination of different DMARDs or the start of biologic DMARDs, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors or second generation biologic DMARDs is possible as a treatment option. The treatment follows the rule of shared decision-making and is the standard to treat comorbidities, the use an interdisciplinary approach and to treat functional deficits by rehabilitation measures, such as physiotherapy.

  6. Association-heterogeneity mapping identifies an Asian-specific association of the GTF2I locus with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Ikari, Katsunori; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Jisoo; Chung, Won Tae; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Momohara, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Nath, Swapan K.; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Considerable sharing of disease alleles among populations is well-characterized in autoimmune disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), but there are some exceptional loci showing heterogenic association among populations. Here we investigated genetic variants with distinct effects on the development of rheumatoid arthritis in Asian and European populations. Ancestry-related association heterogeneity was examined using Cochran’s homogeneity tests for the disease association data from large Asian (n = 14,465; 9,299 discovery subjects and 5,166 validation subjects; 4 collections) and European (n = 45,790; 11 collections) rheumatoid arthritis case-control cohorts with Immunochip and genome-wide SNP array data. We identified significant heterogeneity between the two ancestries for the common variants in the GTF2I locus (PHeterogeneity = 9.6 × 10−9 at rs73366469) and showed that this heterogeneity was due to an Asian-specific association effect (ORMeta = 1.37 and PMeta = 4.2 × 10−13 in Asians; ORMeta = 1.00 and PMeta = 1.00 in Europeans). Trans-ancestral comparison and bioinfomatics analysis revealed a plausibly causal or disease-variant-tagging SNP (rs117026326; in linkage disequilibrium with rs73366469), whose minor allele is common in Asians but rare in Europeans. In conclusion, we identified largest-ever effect on Asian rheumatoid arthritis across human non-HLA regions at GTF2I by heterogeneity mapping followed by replication studies, and pinpointed a possible causal variant. PMID:27272985

  7. Subchondral pseudocysts in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rennell, C; Mainzer, F; Multz, C V; Genant, H K

    1977-12-01

    Subchondral cyst formation (geode) is a not uncommon manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis which may at times impede correct radiologic interpretation. Four patients with rheumatoid arthritis who demonstrated striking subarticular cystic erosive disease are described. These cases emphasize the nature and appearance of this interesting finding.

  8. Identifying key genes in rheumatoid arthritis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Lv, Qi; Teng, Songsong; Yu, Yinxian; Niu, Kerun; Yi, Chengqin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related genes based on microarray data using the WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) method. Two gene expression profile datasets GSE55235 (10 RA samples and 10 healthy controls) and GSE77298 (16 RA samples and seven healthy controls) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Characteristic genes were identified using metaDE package. WGCNA was used to find disease-related networks based on gene expression correlation coefficients, and module significance was defined as the average gene significance of all genes used to assess the correlation between the module and RA status. Genes in the disease-related gene co-expression network were subject to functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Characteristic genes were also mapped to the Connectivity Map to screen small molecules. A total of 599 characteristic genes were identified. For each dataset, characteristic genes in the green, red and turquoise modules were most closely associated with RA, with gene numbers of 54, 43 and 79, respectively. These genes were enriched in totally enriched in 17 Gene Ontology terms, mainly related to immune response (CD97, FYB, CXCL1, IKBKE, CCR1, etc.), inflammatory response (CD97, CXCL1, C3AR1, CCR1, LYZ, etc.) and homeostasis (C3AR1, CCR1, PLN, CCL19, PPT1, etc.). Two small-molecule drugs sanguinarine and papaverine were predicted to have a therapeutic effect against RA. Genes related to immune response, inflammatory response and homeostasis presumably have critical roles in RA pathogenesis. Sanguinarine and papaverine have a potential therapeutic effect against RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. An algorithm to identify rheumatoid arthritis in primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Sara; Hider, Samantha L; Raza, Karim; Stack, Rebecca J; Hayward, Richard A; Mallen, Christian D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multisystem, inflammatory disorder associated with increased levels of morbidity and mortality. While much research into the condition is conducted in the secondary care setting, routinely collected primary care databases provide an important source of research data. This study aimed to update an algorithm to define RA that was previously developed and validated in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods The original algorithm consisted of two criteria. Individuals meeting at least one were considered to have RA. Criterion 1: ≥1 RA Read code and a disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) without an alternative indication. Criterion 2: ≥2 RA Read codes, with at least one ‘strong’ code and no alternative diagnoses. Lists of codes for consultations and prescriptions were obtained from the authors of the original algorithm where these were available, or compiled based on the original description and clinical knowledge. 4161 people with a first Read code for RA between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 were selected from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, successor to the GPRD), and the criteria applied. Results Code lists were updated for the introduction of new Read codes and biological DMARDs. 3577/4161 (86%) of people met the updated algorithm for RA, compared to 61% in the original development study. 62.8% of people fulfilled both Criterion 1 and Criterion 2. Conclusions Those wishing to define RA in the CPRD, should consider using this updated algorithm, rather than a single RA code, if they wish to identify only those who are most likely to have RA. PMID:26700281

  10. [Rheumatoid arthritis and multiple neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Ivorra, J; Massutí, B; Román, J; Balañá, C; Portilla, J; Pascual, E

    1991-09-28

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the appearance of neoplastic disease has been fundamentally described of lymphoproliferative origin. The case of a 59 year old woman with rheumatoid arthritis of a 4 year evolution is reported. The patient was treated with gold salts and methotrexate and presented successively a bronchogenic carcinoma and a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The epidemiologic studies in the relation of rheumatoid arthritis-neoplasia are discussed and the pathogenic hypotheses to the immune alterations as well as the treatments employed are described.

  11. Immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Firestein, Gary; McInnes, Iain B

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory arthropathy. The majority of evidence, derived from genetics, tissue analyses, models and clinical studies, points to an immune mediated etiology associated with stromal tissue dysregulation that together propogate chronic inflammation and articular destruction. A pre-RA phase lasting months to years, may be characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies, increasing concentration and range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and altered metabolism. Clinical disease onset comprises synovitis and systemic comorbidities affecting the vasculature, metabolism and bone. Targeted immune therapeutics, and aggressive treatment strategies have substantially improved clinical outcomes, and informed pathogenetic understanding, but no cure as yet exists. Herein we review recent data that support intriguing models of disease pathogenesis. They allude to the possibility of restoration of immunologic homeostasis and thus a state of tolerance associated with drug free remission. This target represents a bold vision for the future of RA therapeutics. PMID:28228278

  12. Physiotherapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kavuncu, Vural; Evcik, Deniz

    2004-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and painful clinical condition that leads to progressive joint damage, disability, deterioration in quality of life, and shortened life expectancy. Even mild inflammation may result in irreversible damage and permanent disability. The clinical course according to symptoms may be either intermittent or progressive in patients with RA. In most patients, the clinical course is progressive, and structural damage develops in the first 2 years. The aim of RA management is to achieve pain relief and prevent joint damage and functional loss. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation applications significantly augment medical therapy by improving the management of RA and reducing handicaps in daily living for patients with RA. In this review, the application of physiotherapy modalities is examined, including the use of cold/heat applications, electrical stimulation, and hydrotherapy. Rehabilitation treatment techniques for patients with RA such as joint protection strategies, massage, exercise, and patient education are also presented. PMID:15266230

  13. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Treatment and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Treatment and Causes Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated? Doctors have many ways to treat this ...

  14. Does information on novel identified autoantibodies contribute to predicting the progression from undifferentiated arthritis to rheumatoid arthritis: a study on anti-CarP antibodies as an example.

    PubMed

    Boeters, Debbie M; Trouw, Leendert A; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; van Steenbergen, Hanna W

    2018-05-03

    The presence of autoantibodies is considered an important characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); therefore, both anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) are included in the 2010 classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a considerable number of RA patients lack both these autoantibodies. Recently, several novel autoantibodies have been identified but their value for the classification of RA patients is unclear. Therefore, we studied the value of novel autoantibodies using the presence of anticarbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies as an example for predicting RA development in patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA). There were 1352 UA patients included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic (EAC) cohort according to the 1987 criteria. When the 2010 criteria were used, there were 838 UA patients. Of these, we evaluated whether they fulfilled the 1987 or 2010 criteria after 1 year, respectively. Logistic regression analyses were performed with RA as outcome and ACPA, RF, and anti-CarP antibodies as predictors. Analyses were repeated after stratification for ACPA and RF. Thirty-three percent of the 1987-UA patients and 6% of the 2010-UA patients progressed to RA during the first year of follow-up. For the 1987-UA patients, anti-CarP antibodies were associated with progression to RA, an association which remained when a correction was made for the presence of ACPA and RF (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.4). After stratification for ACPA and RF, anti-CarP antibodies were associated with progression to RA only for ACPA- and RF-negative patients (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.7). For the 2010-UA patients, anti-CarP antibodies were associated with progression to RA; however, they were not when a correction was made for the presence of ACPA and RF (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.3-2.1). Our finding that anti-CarP antibodies have no additional value when RA is defined according to the 2010 criteria might

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almoallim, Hani M.; Alharbi, Laila A.

    2014-01-01

    The status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Saudi Arabia (SA) was examined from various perspectives based on a systematic literature review and the authors’ personal experiences. In this regard, database and journal search were conducted to identify studies on RA in SA, yielding a total of 43 articles. Although efforts have been made to promote RA research in SA, current studies mostly represent only a few centers and may not accurately portray the national status of RA care. Notably, biological therapies were introduced early for almost all practicing rheumatologists in SA (government and private). However, no national guidelines regarding the management of RA have been developed based on local needs and regulations. Also, while efforts were made to establish RA data registries, they have not been successful. Taken together, this analysis can contribute to the planning of future guidelines and directives for RA care in SA. PMID:25491208

  16. Fine-mapping the human leukocyte antigen locus in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases: identifying causal amino acid variants?

    PubMed

    van Heemst, Jurgen; Huizinga, Tom J W; van der Woude, Diane; Toes, René E M

    2015-05-01

    To provide an update on and the context of the recent findings obtained with novel statistical methods on the association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus with rheumatic diseases. Novel single nucleotide polymorphism fine-mapping data obtained for the HLA locus have indicated the strongest association with amino acid positions 11 and 13 of HLA-DRB1 molecule for several rheumatic diseases. On the basis of these data, a dominant role for position 11/13 in driving the association with these diseases is proposed and the identification of causal variants in the HLA region in relation to disease susceptibility implicated. The HLA class II locus is the most important risk factor for several rheumatic diseases. Recently, new statistical approaches have identified previously unrecognized amino acid positions in the HLA-DR molecule that associate with anticitrullinated protein antibody-negative and anticitrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis. Likewise, similar findings have been made for other rheumatic conditions such as giant-cell arteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, all these studies point toward an association with the same amino acid positions: amino acid positions 11 and 13 of the HLA-DR β chain. As both these positions influence peptide binding by HLA-DR and have been implicated in antigen presentation, the novel fine-mapping approach is proposed to map causal variants in the HLA region relevant to rheumatoid arthritis and several rheumatic diseases. If these interpretations are correct, they would direct the biological research aiming to address the explanation for the HLA-disease association. Here, we provide an overview of the recent findings and evidence from literature that, although relevant new insights have been obtained on HLA-disease associations, the interpretation of the biological role of these amino acids as causal variants explaining that such associations should be taken with caution.

  17. What People with Rheumatoid Arthritis Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... People With Rheumatoid Arthritis Need to Know About Osteoporosis What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis is an ... Management Strategies Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  18. A systematic review of validated methods for identifying patients with rheumatoid arthritis using administrative or claims data.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cecilia P; Rohan, Patricia; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2013-12-30

    To review the evidence supporting the validity of billing, procedural, or diagnosis code, or pharmacy claim-based algorithms used to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in administrative and claim databases. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1991 to September 2012 using controlled vocabulary and key terms related to RA and reference lists of included studies were searched. Two investigators independently assessed the full text of studies against pre-determined inclusion criteria and extracted the data. Data collected included participant and algorithm characteristics. Nine studies reported validation of computer algorithms based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes with or without free-text, medication use, laboratory data and the need for a diagnosis by a rheumatologist. These studies yielded positive predictive values (PPV) ranging from 34 to 97% to identify patients with RA. Higher PPVs were obtained with the use of at least two ICD and/or procedure codes (ICD-9 code 714 and others), the requirement of a prescription of a medication used to treat RA, or requirement of participation of a rheumatologist in patient care. For example, the PPV increased from 66 to 97% when the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and the presence of a positive rheumatoid factor were required. There have been substantial efforts to propose and validate algorithms to identify patients with RA in automated databases. Algorithms that include more than one code and incorporate medications or laboratory data and/or required a diagnosis by a rheumatologist may increase the PPV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathogenesis and Prediction of Future Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0408 TITLE: Pathogenesis and Prediction of Future Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kevin D. Deane, MD/PhD...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Pathogenesis and Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...preclinical period of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development that is characterized by abnormalities of the immune system prior to the onset of the

  20. Pathogenesis and Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0408 TITLE: Pathogenesis and Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kevin D. Deane, MD/PhD...NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0408 Pathogenesis and Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...there is a preclinical period of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development that is characterized by abnormalities of the immune system prior to the onset of

  1. Anticardiolipin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Keane, A; Woods, R; Dowding, V; Roden, D; Barry, C

    1987-10-01

    Anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was present in the sera of 49% of 90 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The ACA was absent in 30 control patients with osteoarthritis. C-reactive protein levels equal to or exceeding 7 mg/dl were found in 10 patients all of whom were ACA positive. ACA was present in a larger proportion of rheumatoid factor (RF) positive than of RF negative patients. Male sex and extra-articular manifestations of RA were both more common in ACA positive than ACA negative patients. In the ACA positive group the lupus anticoagulant and VDRL tests were negative. However, a small number of patients had evidence of vascular events.

  2. Use of health insurance claim patterns to identify patients using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Marie-Agnès; Bénichou, Jacques; Blin, Patrick; Weill, Alain; Bégaud, Bernard; Abouelfath, Abdelilah; Moore, Nicholas; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie

    2012-06-01

    To determine healthcare claim patterns associated using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The CADEUS study randomly identified NSAID users within the French health insurance database. One-year claims data were extracted, and NSAID indication was obtained from prescribers. Logistic regression was used in a development sample to identify claim patterns predictive of RA and models applied to a validation sample. Analyses were stratified on the dispensation of immunosuppressive agents or specific antirheumatism treatment, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate discriminant power. NSAID indication was provided for 26,259 of the 45,217 patients included in the CADEUS cohort; it was RA for 956 patients. Two models were constructed using the development sample (n = 13,143), stratifying on the dispensation of an immunosuppressive agent or specific antirheumatism treatment. Discriminant power was high for both models (AUC > 0.80) and was not statistically different from that found when applied to the validation sample (n = 13,116). The models derived from this study may help to identify patients prescribed NSAIDs who are likely to have RA in claims databases without medical data such as treatment indication. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Be Prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of elevations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related biomarkers prior to the onset of clinically apparent RA raises hopes that individuals who are at risk for future RA can be identified in a preclinical phase of disease that is defined as abnormalities of RA-related immune activity prior to the clinically apparent onset of joint disease. Additionally, there is a growing understanding of the immunologic processes that are occurring in preclinical RA, as well as a growing understanding of risk factors that may be mechanistically related to RA development. Furthermore, there are data supporting that treatment of early RA can lead to drug free remission. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use biomarkers and other factors to accurately identify the likelihood and timing of onset of future RA, and intervene with immunomodulatory therapies and/or risk factor modification to prevent the future onset of RA in at-risk individuals. Importantly, several clinical prevention trials for RA have already been tried, and one is underway. However, while our understanding of the growing understanding of the mechanisms and natural history of RA development may be leading us to the implementation of prevention strategies for RA, there are still several challenges to be met. These include developing sufficiently accurate methods of predicting those at high risk for future RA so that clinical trials can be developed based on accurate rates of development of arthritis and subjects can be adequately informed of their risk for disease, identifying the appropriate interventions and biologic targets for optimal prevention, and addressing the psychosocial and economic aspects that are crucial to developing broadly applicable prevention measures for RA. These issues notwithstanding, prevention of RA may be within reach in the near future. PMID:24315049

  4. Early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis: distinct molecular signatures identified by gene-expression profiling in synovia

    PubMed Central

    Lequerré, Thierry; Bansard, Carine; Vittecoq, Olivier; Derambure, Céline; Hiron, Martine; Daveau, Maryvonne; Tron, François; Ayral, Xavier; Biga, Norman; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Chiocchia, Gilles; Le Loët, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease and its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Because previous microarray studies have only focused on long-standing (LS) RA compared to osteoarthritis, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of early and LS RA versus control synovia. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy from 15 patients (4 early untreated RA, 4 treated LS RA and 7 controls, who had traumatic or mechanical lesions). Extracted mRNAs were used for large-scale gene-expression profiling. The different gene-expression combinations identified by comparison of profiles of early, LS RA and healthy synovia were linked to the biological processes involved in each situation. Results Three combinations of 719, 116 and 52 transcripts discriminated, respectively, early from LS RA, and early or LS RA from healthy synovia. We identified several gene clusters and distinct molecular signatures specifically expressed during early or LS RA, thereby suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms during the course of RA. Conclusions Early and LS RA have distinct molecular signatures with different biological processes participating at different times during the course of the disease. These results suggest that better knowledge of the main biological processes involved at a given RA stage might help to choose the most appropriate treatment. PMID:19563633

  5. HLA-DRB1 Analysis Identified a Genetically Unique Subset within Rheumatoid Arthritis and Distinct Genetic Background of Rheumatoid Factor Levels from Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hiwa, Ryosuke; Ikari, Katsunori; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Saji, Hiroh; Yurugi, Kimiko; Miura, Yasuo; Maekawa, Taira; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Terao, Chikashi

    2018-04-01

    HLA-DRB1 is the most important locus associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). However, fluctuations of rheumatoid factor (RF) over the disease course have made it difficult to define fine subgroups according to consistent RF positivity for the analyses of genetic background and the levels of RF. A total of 2873 patients with RA and 2008 healthy controls were recruited. We genotyped HLA-DRB1 alleles for the participants and collected consecutive data of RF in the case subjects. In addition to RF+ and RF- subsets, we classified the RF+ subjects into group 1 (constant RF+) and group 2 (seroconversion). We compared HLA-DRB1 alleles between the RA subsets and controls and performed linear regression analysis to identify HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with maximal RF levels. Omnibus tests were conducted to assess important amino acid positions. RF positivity was 88%, and 1372 and 970 RF+ subjects were classified into groups 1 and 2, respectively. RF+ and RF- showed similar genetic associations to ACPA+ and ACPA- RA, respectively. We found that shared epitope (SE) was more enriched in group 2 than 1, p = 2.0 × 10 -5 , and that amino acid position 11 showed a significant association between 1 and 2, p = 2.7 × 10 -5 . These associations were independent of ACPA positivity. SE showed a tendency to be negatively correlated with RF titer (p = 0.012). HLA-DRB1*09:01, which reduces ACPA titer, was not associated with RF levels (p = 0.70). The seroconversion group was shown to have distinct genetic characteristics. The genetic architecture of RF levels is different from that of ACPA.

  6. Emerging immunotherapies for rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Gary; Cooles, Faye AH; Isaacs, John D; Hilkens, Catharien MU

    2014-01-01

    Novel treatments in development for rheumatoid arthritis target 3 broad areas: cytokines, cells, and signaling pathways. Therapies from each domain share common advantages (for example previously demonstrated efficacy, potential long-term immunomodulation, and oral administration respectively) that have stimulated research in each area but also common obstacles to their development. In this review recent progress in each area will be discussed alongside the factors that have impeded their path to clinical use. PMID:24535556

  7. [Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.

  8. [Possible association of gynecological cancer and rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Ulises

    2012-06-01

    The association between rheumatoid arthritis and cancer is controversial. Previous studies have shown a correlation between rheumatoid arthritis and the development of lymphoma. Describe a case of rheumatoid arthritis and associated breast cancer plus the identification of the clinical features of a set of cases in which arthritis and cancer go along. This is a retrospective clinical series study. A database of Hospital General ISSSTECALI of Mexicali, Mexico, containing information on patients suffering from both rheumatoid arthritis and cancer until 2012 was checked. The medical files confirmed the diagnoses. The data available included age, date of arthritis diagnosis, date of cancer diagnosis, related conditions, results of serological tests, type of cancer, treatments used and follow-up information. Fifteen cases of women suffering from both rheumatoid arthritis and cancer were identified on the database of the Hospital General ISSSTECALI in Mexicali. The case described here is the number four on that list. The average age was 54 years and the average time between arthritis and cancer diagnoses was four years. Ten patients were administered methotrexate. Nine patients (60%) suffered from breast cancer and six more from cervical cancer. Three patients suffered from cervical dysplasia. These cases emphasize the need of strict follow-up on patients suffering from inflammatory rheumatoid condition. If cancer follows chronic inflammation, immunosuppression, or it is pure coincidence, is still a matter of debate.

  9. Leprosy and rheumatoid arthritis: consequence or association?

    PubMed

    Henriques, Celia Coelho; Lopéz, Begoña; Mestre, Tiago; Grima, Bruno; Panarra, António; Riso, Nuno

    2012-08-13

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae with a high prevalence in some developing countries however, it is rarely seen in non-endemic regions. Arthritis has been described in all types of Hansen's disease. Chronic arthritis is known to exist even in paucibacillary forms, resolved or treated disease and in patients without reaction, suggesting a perpetuated inflammatory process. In these cases leprosy can mimic some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. When a patient with a history of leprosy presents with a symmetric, distal, polyarthritis the diagnosis may not be linear. Possibly it is a rheumatoid-like leprous arthritis with M leprae acting as the trigger element for the chronic process or it is an overlap condition, with a concomitant rheumatoid arthritis? A case report of a patient with a chronic inflammatory arthritis with 10 years of evolution is presented. The differential diagnosis between leprous and rheumatoid arthritis is discussed.

  10. Preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Mary J; Moeller, Elfi; Davis, Adrienne; Paget, Stephen A; Crow, Mary K; Lockshin, Michael D; Sammaritano, Lisa; Devereux, Richard B; Schwartz, Joseph E; Levine, Daniel M; Salmon, Jane E

    2006-02-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality because of cardiovascular disease, independent of traditional risk factors. To determine the prevalence of preclinical atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to identify clinical and biological markers for atherosclerotic disease in this patient population. Matched, cross-sectional study. Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City. 98 consecutive outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis who were followed by rheumatologists and 98 controls matched on age, sex, and ethnicity. Cardiovascular risk factor ascertainment and carotid ultrasonography in all participants; disease severity, disease treatment, and inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Despite a more favorable risk factor profile, patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a 3-fold increase in carotid atherosclerotic plaque (44% vs. 15%; P < 0.001). The relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and carotid atherosclerotic plaque remained after accounting for age, serum cholesterol levels, smoking history, and hypertensive status; adjusted predicted prevalence was 7.4% (95% CI, 3.4% to 15.2%) for the control group and 38.5% (CI, 25.4% to 53.5%) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Age (P < 0.001) and current cigarette use (P < 0.014) were also significantly associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis was related to age, hypertension status, and use of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (a possible marker of disease severity). The study had a cross-sectional design, and inflammatory markers were determined only once. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have a high prevalence of preclinical atherosclerosis independent of traditional risk factors, suggesting that chronic inflammation and, possibly, disease severity are atherogenic in this population.

  11. Preclinical Rheumatoid Arthritis (Autoantibodies): An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies demonstrate that there is a period of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during which there are elevations of disease-related biomarkers, including autoantibodies, in the absence of and prior to the development of RA; this period can be termed ‘preclinical RA’. These ‘preclinical’ autoantibodies including rheumatoid factor and antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens, and more recent studies have also identified a wider variety of autoantibodies and a wide range of inflammatory biomarkers. These findings in conjunction with established and emerging data about genetic and environmental risk factors for RA support a model of disease development where certain factors lead to an initial triggering of RA-related autoimmunity that expands over time to the point where symptomatic arthritis classifiable as RA develops. Herein will be reviewed updates in the field, as well as a discussion of current limitations of our understanding of preclinical RA, and potential future directions for study. PMID:24643396

  12. Hearing status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadeh, A; Daraei, M; Jalessi, M; Peyvandi, A A; Amini, E; Ranjbar, L A; Daneshi, A

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to induce conductive hearing loss and/or sensorineural hearing loss. This study evaluated the function of the middle ear and cochlea, and the related factors. Pure tone audiometry, speech reception thresholds, speech discrimination scores, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were assessed in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy volunteers. Pure tone audiometry results revealed a higher bone conduction threshold in the rheumatoid arthritis group, but there was no significant difference when evaluated according to the sensorineural hearing loss definition. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions related prevalence of conductive or mixed hearing loss, tympanometry values, acoustic reflexes, and speech discrimination scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Sensorineural hearing loss was significantly more prevalent in patients who used azathioprine, cyclosporine and etanercept. Higher bone conduction thresholds in some frequencies were detected in rheumatoid arthritis patients that were not clinically significant. Sensorineural hearing loss is significantly more prevalent in refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  13. Autofeedback from ultrasound images provides rapid improvement in palpation skills for identifying joint swelling in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Michihiro; Murayama, Go; Yamada, Yusuke; Nemoto, Takuya; Kageyama, Michiaki; Toyama, Shoko; Kusaoi, Makio; Onuma, Shin; Kon, Takayuki; Sekiya, Fumio; Sugimoto, Kaoru; Matsudaira, Ran; Matsushita, Masakazu; Tada, Kurisu; Kempe, Kazuo; Yamaji, Ken; Tamura, Naoto; Takasaki, Yoshinari

    2012-06-01

    Joint swelling, an important factor in the classification criteria and disease activity assessment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), renders joint palpation a necessary skill for physicians. Ultrasound (US) examination that visualizes soft tissue abnormalities is now used to assess musculoskeletal disease. We assessed the usefulness of US assessments in enhancing physical joint examination skills. We examined 1944 joints (bilateral shoulder, elbow, wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints 1-5, and knee joints) in 108 patients with RA during April-July 2011. We first physically examined and confirmed joint swelling; subsequently, the same rheumatologist conducted US examinations and multiple assessors graded the joint swelling. When the 2 results differed, we received autofeedback from the US results to improve the physical examination skills. The sensitivities and specificities of physical examination for US-detected swollen joint, the correlation coefficient (CC) of the swollen joint counts, and the concordance rate in each patient for joint swelling sites and power Doppler (PD)-positive sites with the κ coefficients between the physical and US examinations were compared over time. We found that the sensitivity of physical examination increased by 42 percentage points (pp), while the specificity decreased by 18 pp. The average CC in June-July was greater than that in April-May. The percentage of κ coefficients > 0.8 increased from 8.8% to 17% for joint swelling and from 8.3% to 14% for PD-positive sites. Our results suggest that autofeedback from US assessment provides quick improvement in palpation skills for identifying joint swelling in patients with RA.

  14. Serodiagnosis and immune profile in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, P; Bhattacharya, S; Chakraborty, M; Pal, B

    1997-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-five cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis, 82 non-rheumatoid cases suffering from various other diseases and 40 healthy normal controls were investigated for detection of rheumatoid factor, quantitation of serum immunoglobulin, demonstration of antinuclear antibody (ANA) and LE cell phenomenon. Microlatex agglutination test of serum for rheumatoid factor (RF) showed 64% positivity in rheumatoid group and 1.2% positivity in non-rheumatoid group. All three immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) were found to be raised in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, whereas only IgA level was elevated in serum of patients with non-rheumatoid diseases. ANA and LE cell phenomenon were observed in 3.4% and 2.8% cases respectively in cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis who had been suffering from severe active rheumatoid arthritis. In non-rheumatoid group RF was positive in significant titre in only one case of leprosy. Synovial fluid and synovium were found to be heavily infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. RF appears first in synovial fluid and then in serum. Hence RF titre in blood may not attain significant level for the first several months.

  15. [Garlic effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Denisov, L N; Andrianova, I V; Timofeeva, S S

    1999-01-01

    To perform of clinical trial of alisate--a garlic preparation produced in Russia. An open controlled trial of alisate enrolled 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 15 patients with RA of varying clinical form, stage and activity were given alisate in a dose 300 mg (1 tablet) twice a day for 4-6 weeks. 15 control RA patients received conventional antirheumatic therapy. The alisate group achieved a good and partial response in 86.5% of cases. The drug was well tolerated and had no side effects. In control group, some parameters changed for the worse. Alisate can be recommended for treatment of RA patients in combined and monotherapy.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; González-Juanatey, Carlos; López-Mejias, Raquel; Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is an essential feature of the metabolic syndrome that has been linked to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Understanding how inflammation arising in one tissue affects the physiology and pathology of other organs remains an unanswered question with therapeutic implications for chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and RA. Adipokines may play a role in the development of atherogenesis in patients with RA. Biologic therapies, such as TNF-α antagonists, that block proinflammatory cytokines have beneficial effects on the insulin resistance that is often observed in patients with RA. PMID:23431244

  17. [Current treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Carli, P; Landais, C; Aletti, M; Cournac, J-M; Poisnel, E; Paris, J-F

    2009-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, the management of rheumatoid arthritis has been revolutionized. Early diagnosis is essential and should allow an early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD), if possible within the first 3 three months after disease onset, aiming at disease remission and the best long-term prognosis. Recommendations for the prescription of synthetic and biologic DMARD (mainly anti-TNFalpha agents) are available since September 2007 [6] by HAS in France. The great efficacy of these drugs has been established from many clinical trials including tens of thousands of patients. However, severe adverse side effects may occur (allergy, tuberculosis, opportunistic infections, demyelination) and rheumatologists should remain vigilant. Global care of the patient includes prescription of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments (education, physical treatment, ergotherapy, psychotherapy, surgery). A good coordination between all specialists is required. Screening and treatment of extra-articular manifestations, prevention of infections, osteoporosis and cardiovascular complications are essential to allow a better long-term prognosis, and reduce disability and mortality of rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. My Treatment Approach to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, John M.; Matteson, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has brought important advances in the understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and its management and treatment. New classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, better definitions of treatment outcome and remission, and the introduction of biologic response-modifying drugs designed to inhibit the inflammatory process have greatly altered the approach to managing this disease. More aggressive management of rheumatoid arthritis early after diagnosis and throughout the course of the disease has resulted in improvement in patient functioning and quality of life, reduction in comorbid conditions, and enhanced survival. PMID:22766086

  19. Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0320 TITLE: Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward K Chan CONTRACTING...Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0320 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward K Chan 5d...significant difference in the oral  microbiome at the subspecies level of individuals with  rheumatoid   arthritis  (RA). The goal is to test the

  20. Gene-Based Genome-Wide Association Analysis in European and Asian Populations Identified Novel Genes for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Xia, Wei; Mo, Xing-Bo; Lin, Xiang; Qiu, Ying-Hua; Yi, Neng-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Deng, Fei-Yan; Lei, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease. Using a gene-based association research strategy, the present study aims to detect unknown susceptibility to RA and to address the ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility to RA between European and Asian populations. Gene-based association analyses were performed with KGG 2.5 by using publicly available large RA datasets (14,361 RA cases and 43,923 controls of European subjects, 4,873 RA cases and 17,642 controls of Asian Subjects). For the newly identified RA-associated genes, gene set enrichment analyses and protein-protein interactions analyses were carried out with DAVID and STRING version 10.0, respectively. Differential expression verification was conducted using 4 GEO datasets. The expression levels of three selected 'highly verified' genes were measured by ELISA among our in-house RA cases and controls. A total of 221 RA-associated genes were newly identified by gene-based association study, including 71'overlapped', 76 'European-specific' and 74 'Asian-specific' genes. Among them, 105 genes had significant differential expressions between RA patients and health controls at least in one dataset, especially for 20 genes including 11 'overlapped' (ABCF1, FLOT1, HLA-F, IER3, TUBB, ZKSCAN4, BTN3A3, HSP90AB1, CUTA, BRD2, HLA-DMA), 5 'European-specific' (PHTF1, RPS18, BAK1, TNFRSF14, SUOX) and 4 'Asian-specific' (RNASET2, HFE, BTN2A2, MAPK13) genes whose differential expressions were significant at least in three datasets. The protein expressions of two selected genes FLOT1 (P value = 1.70E-02) and HLA-DMA (P value = 4.70E-02) in plasma were significantly different in our in-house samples. Our study identified 221 novel RA-associated genes and especially highlighted the importance of 20 candidate genes on RA. The results addressed ethnic genetic background differences for RA susceptibility between European and Asian populations and detected a long list of overlapped or ethnic specific RA genes. The

  1. Serology and immunoglobulin profile in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Adhya, S; Chakraborty, G; Hajra, B; Bhattacharya, S; Sikdar, P K; Sinha, S; Banerjee, P P; Ghosh, E; Chakraborty, P

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and twenty cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis, 80 non-rheumatoid cases suffering from various other diseases and 40 healthy individuals were investigated for the presence of rheumatoid factor, quantitation of serum immunoglobulin, demonstration of ANA and LE cell phenomenon. Microlatex agglutination test of serum for rheumatoid factor showed 56.6% positivity in rheumatoid group and 3.7% positivity in non-rheumatoid group. All three serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) were raised in serum in significant titre in cases of rheumatoid arthritis, whereas only IgA lever was elevated in the group of non-rheumatoid diseases. ANA and LE cell phenomenon were observed in 11.7% and 4.4% cases of rheumatoid arthritis who had severe underlying disease. In non-rheumatoid group, only one of 6 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus showed rheumatoid factor and that too in an insignificant titre (less than 1:20). Synovium and synovial fluid contained plenty of plasma cells and lymphocytes. It has been observed that RF appears first in synovial fluid and it may take several months to a year to attain detectable level in serum.

  2. Calprotectin and TNF trough serum levels identify power Doppler ultrasound synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis patients in remission or with low disease activity.

    PubMed

    Inciarte-Mundo, José; Ramirez, Julio; Hernández, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Cuervo, Andrea; Cabrera-Villalba, Sonia Raquel; Pascal, Mariona; Yagüe, Jordi; Cañete, Juan D; Sanmarti, Raimon

    2016-07-08

    Serum levels of calprotectin, a major S100 leucocyte protein, are associated with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Higher drug trough serum levels are associated with good response in patients treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). Power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) synovitis is predictive of flare and progression of structural damage in patients in clinical remission. The purpose of this study was to analyse the accuracy of calprotectin and TNFi trough serum levels in detecting PDUS synovitis in RA and PsA patients in clinical remission or with low disease activity who were receiving TNFi. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 92 patients (42 with RA, 50 with PsA) receiving adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETN) or infliximab who were in remission or had low disease activity (28-joint Disease Activity Score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate <3.2). Associations of calprotectin, TNFi trough serum levels and acute phase reactants with PDUS synovitis were assessed using correlation and linear regression analyses. The accuracy and discriminatory capacity in detecting PDUS synovitis was assessed using ROC curves. PDUS synovitis was found in 62.4 % of RA patients and 32 % of PsA patients. Both RA and PsA patients with PDUS synovitis had higher calprotectin levels and lower TNFi trough serum levels. Calprotectin positively correlated with ultrasound scores (all r coefficients >0.50 in RA). Calprotectin correlated with the PDUS synovitis score in patients treated with ADA and ETN. Using PDUS synovitis (yes or no) as the reference variable, calprotectin had an AUC of 0.826. The best cut-off was ≥1.66 μg/ml, with a likelihood ratio of 2.77. C-reactive protein (AUC 0.673) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (AUC 0.731) had a lower discriminatory capacity. TNFi trough serum levels were significantly associated with PDUS synovitis (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.52-0.85, p < 0.001) but their accuracy (AUC <0

  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Complementary Medicine: In Depth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rheumatology International . 2010;30(5):571–586. Setty AR, Sigal LH. Herbal medications commonly used in the ... 4):185–192. Balneotherapy Anain JM Jr, Bojrab AR, Rhinehart FC. Conservative treatments for rheumatoid arthritis in ...

  4. Vocational Rehabilitation for Persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Saralynn H.

    1998-01-01

    Useful vocational rehabilitation strategies for persons with rheumatoid arthritis include (1) management of symptoms and reduction of energy demand; (2) reasonable job accommodations; (3) identification of suitable jobs and necessary training; and (4) enhancement of self-advocacy skills. (SK)

  5. Update on ibuprofen for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ward, J R

    1984-07-13

    In doses of 1,200 mg/day or more, ibuprofen is as effective as aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The tolerability and safety of ibuprofen are superior to those of aspirin and compare favorably with those of other NSAIDs. Although additional controlled trials are indicated to determine optimal dose, ibuprofen's excellent therapeutic index establishes it as a useful drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis association at 6q23

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Wendy; Barton, Anne; Ke, Xiayi; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Bowes, John; Donn, Rachelle; Symmons, Deborah; Hider, Samantha; Bruce, Ian N; Wilson, Anthony G; Marinou, Ioanna; Morgan, Ann; Emery, Paul; Carter, Angela; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Strachan, David; Worthington, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) identified nine single SNPs putatively associated with rheumatoid arthritis at P = 1 × 10 -5 - 5 × 10-7 in a genome-wide association screen. One, rs6920220, was unequivocally replicated (trend P = 1.1 × 10-8) in a validation study, as described here. This SNP maps to 6q23, between the genes oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 3 (OLIG3) and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3). PMID:17982455

  7. Biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verheul, M K; Fearon, U; Trouw, L A; Veale, D J

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are systemic inflammatory conditions characterized by a chronic form of arthritis, often leading to irreversible joint damage. Early treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases is required to reduce or prevent joint injury. However, early diagnosis can be difficult and currently it is not possible to predict which individual patient will develop progressive erosive disease or who may benefit from a specific treatment according to their clinical features at presentation. Biomarkers are therefore required to enable earlier diagnosis and predict prognosis in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this review we will examine the evidence and current status of established and experimental biomarkers in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis for three important purposes; disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Progress on rheumatoid arthritis in elderly].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qin; Deng, Zhao-da; Wang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Gong; Shen, Hai-Li

    2017-06-25

    During choosing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs), risk factors should be evaluated in elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The present study focused on biological therapies, and elderly patients should be more concerned about the risk of infection when used it. Traditional Chinese medicine has advantages of obvious curative effect, especially for tripterygium wilfordii, large clinical trial on western and Chinese medical accurate drug strategies for old patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Old patients are easier to suffer from cardiac diseases and interstitial lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis could be controlled along with the treatment for coexistent disease. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in old patients is the same with other RA, and need to treat to target based on the aim of relieve pain and reduce activity of diseases, while the clinical charteristic and treatment target in elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis were not similar with other aged patient, so treatment standard target would vary with aging. Resent clinical studies excluded old patients, lead to lack of evidence-based medicine data. Clinical study for elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis are energetically carrying out, and could provide base and guide for clinical treatment. Copyright© 2017 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  9. [New therapies for rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Salgado, Eva; Maneiro, José Ramón

    2014-11-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane and progressive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Advances in the knowledge of disease pathogenesis allowed the identification of novel therapeutic targets such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 or the system JAK/STAT phosphorylation. At present there are 5 TNF antagonists approved for RA. Tocilizumab blocks the pathway of IL-6 and is the only biological with proven efficacy in monotherapy. Rituximab modulates B cell response in RA. Abatacept provided new data on T cell involvement in the pathogenesis of RA. Tofacitinib is the first kinase inhibitor approved for this disease. Biologic drugs have proven efficacy, almost always in combination with methotrexate, and even halt radiographic progression. Monitoring infection is the main precaution in handling these patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. HDL Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ormseth, Michelle J; Stein, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have accelerated atherosclerosis despite the appearance of having a less atherogenic lipid profile; however, lipoprotein function rather than concentration may be a better indicator of atherosclerotic risk. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings concerning HDL function in patients with RA. Recent findings Two major activities of HDL, its antioxidant and cholesterol efflux functions have been examined in RA. HDL antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with inflammation and RA disease activity; however, there is no clear consensus if antioxidant capacity is altered significantly in RA compared to control subjects. Moreover, despite numerous studies there is no consensus whether HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is significantly altered in RA compared to control subjects or influenced by inflammation or disease activity. Summary Additional studies will be valuable to consolidate existing data and find consensus. Moreover, studies evaluating the impact of various HDL functions on cardiovascular disease in RA are needed. PMID:26709471

  11. Arthroscopic Synovectomy of Wrist in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Woo; Park, Min Jong

    2017-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting multiple joints. Wrist involvement is common. Patients with persistent symptoms despite medical management are candidates for surgery. Synovectomy can provide pain relief and functional improvement for rheumatoid wrist. Arthroscopic synovectomy is a safe and reliable method, with minimal postoperative morbidity. This article reviews the role, technique, and results of arthroscopic synovectomy in the rheumatoid wrist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in predicting rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Tafaj, Argjend; Izairi, Remzi; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2011-01-01

    The study presents the results of predicting role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, compared to rheumatoid factor. 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were identified from a retrospective chart review. The results of our study show that presence of the rheumatoid factor has less diagnostic and prognostic significance than the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and suggests its superiority in predicting an erosive disease course.

  13. Postoperative Surgical Infection After Spinal Surgery in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kensuke; Ohba, Tetsuro; Ebata, Shigeto; Haro, Hirotaka

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis are at higher risk for infection than the general population, and surgical site infection after spinal surgery in this population can result in clinically significant complications. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors for acute surgical site infection after spinal surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were treated with nonbiologic (conventional) disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) alone or with biologic DMARDs. All patients treated with biologic agents were treated with nonbiologic agents as well. The authors performed a retrospective, single-center review of 47 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis who underwent spinal surgery and had follow-up of 3 months or longer. The incidence of surgical site infection was examined, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of surgical site infection with putative risk factors, including the use of biologic agents, methotrexate, and prednisolone, as well as the duration of rheumatoid arthritis, the presence of diabetes, patient age, length of surgery, and number of operative levels. After spinal surgery, 14.89% (7 of 47) of patients had surgical site infection. Use of methotrexate and/or prednisolone, patient age, diabetes, duration of rheumatoid arthritis, length of surgery, number of operative levels, and use of biologic DMARDs did not significantly increase the risk of infection associated with spinal surgery. All patients who had surgical site infection had undergone spinal surgery with instrumentation. The findings show that greater attention to preventing surgical site infection may be needed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who undergo spinal surgery with instrumentation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show that the use of biologic agents did not increase the incidence of surgical site infection after spinal surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

  14. Mortality of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, M; Oiwa, H; Kasagi, F; Masunari, N; Yamada, M; Suzuki, G; Fujiwara, S

    2005-10-01

    To determine the mortality risk of Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors, including comorbidity. 91 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis were identified during screening a cohort of 16 119 Japanese atomic bomb survivors in the period 1958 to 1966. These individuals and the remainder of the cohort were followed for mortality until 1999. Mortality risk of the rheumatoid patients was estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to age and sex, lifestyle and physical factors such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, and comorbidity were included as adjustment factors for the analysis of total mortality and for analysis of mortality from each cause of death. 83 of the rheumatoid patients (91.2%) and 8527 of the non-rheumatoid controls (52.9%) died during mean follow up periods of 17.8 and 28.0 years, respectively. The age and sex adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in the rheumatoid patients was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 1.99), p < 0.001. Multiple adjustments, including for lifestyle and physical factors, resulted in a similar mortality hazard ratio of 1.57 (1.25 to 1.94), p < 0.001. Although mortality risk tended to be higher in male than in female rheumatoid patients, the difference was not significant. Pneumonia, tuberculosis, and liver disease were significantly increased as causes of death in rheumatoid patients. Rheumatoid arthritis is an independent risk factor for mortality. Infectious events are associated with increased mortality in rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain: Tips for Protecting Your Joints

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis pain: Tips for protecting your joints Use these joint protection techniques to help you stay in control of your rheumatoid arthritis pain. By Mayo Clinic Staff Joint protection is ...

  16. Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis: Is all inflammation the same?

    PubMed

    Coates, Laura C; FitzGerald, Oliver; Helliwell, Philip S; Paul, Carle

    2016-12-01

    To review the pathophysiology, co-morbidities, and therapeutic options for psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in order to further understand the similarities and differences in treatment paradigms in the management of each disease. New targets for individualized therapeutic decisions are also identified with the aim of improving therapeutic outcome and reducing toxicity. Using the PubMed database, we searched literature published from 2000 to 2015 using combinations of the key words "psoriasis," "psoriatic arthritis," "rheumatoid arthritis," "pathogenesis," "immunomodulation," and "treatment." This was a non-systematic review and there were no formal inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts identified in the search were screened for relevance and articles considered appropriate evaluated further. References within these selected articles were also screened. Information was extracted from 198 articles for inclusion in this report. There was no formal data synthesis. Articles were reviewed and summarized according to disease area (psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis). The pathophysiology of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis involves chronic inflammation mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dysfunction in integrated signaling pathways affecting different constituents of the immune system result in varying clinical features in the three diseases. Co-morbidities, including cardiovascular disease, malignancies, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are increased. Increased understanding of the immunopathogenesis allowed development of targeted treatments; however, despite a variety of potentially predictive genetic, protein and cellular biomarkers, there is still significant unmet need in these three inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inter- relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rajkarnikar, J; Thomas, B S; Rao, S K

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal medicine defines a rapidly emerging branch of Periodontology focusing on establishing a strong relationship between periodontal health and systemic health. It is speculated that the major common dysregulation which links Periodontitis with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is being played by the mediators of immune inflammatory response. To determine whether there is any relationship between periodontal disease and Rheumatoid arthritis. A total of 100 patients were included for the present study which was divided into two groups: one group (cases) included 50 patients attending the Department of Orthopedics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal who were diagnosed of Rheumatoid arthritis. Another subject population included 50 patients as controls attending the Department of Oral Medicine, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal with age and gender matched with those of rheumatoid arthritis group. Specific measures for periodontitis included plaque index, gingival index, number of missing teeth, and radiographic alveolar bone loss scores. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis included health assessment questionaires, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Various periodontal parameters were compared between the cases and controls. The average alveolar bone loss was statistically more severe in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) group than in the controls although there were similar plaque index in both the groups. The gingival index was statistically higher in the RA group. The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C- Reactive Protein (CRP) levels of RA patients were also significantly associated with the severity of periodontal disease. There was a significant association between Rheumatoid arthritis and Periodontitis which may be due to a common underlying deregulation of the inflammatory response in these individuals.

  18. [Kidney involvement in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Icardi, A; Araghi, P; Ciabattoni, M; Romano, U; Lazzarini, P; Bianchi, G

    2003-01-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively), followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy). Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs) nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept) are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment), followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14%) and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis and sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Goes, Ana Claudia Janiszewski; Reis, Larissa Aparecida Busatto; Silva, Marilia Barreto G; Kahlow, Barbara Stadler; Skare, Thelma L

    Sleep disturbances are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and contribute to loss of life quality. To study associations of sleep quality with pain, depression and disease activity in RA. This is a transversal observational study of 112 RA patients submitted to measurement of DAS-28, Epworth scale for daily sleepiness, index of sleep quality by Pittsburg index, risk of sleep apnea by the Berlin questionnaire and degree of depression by the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale) questionnaire. We also collected epidemiological, clinical, serological and treatment data. Only 18.5% of RA patients had sleep of good quality. In univariate analysis a bad sleep measured by Pittsburg index was associated with daily doses of prednisone (p=0.03), DAS-28 (p=0.01), CES-D (p=0.0005) and showed a tendency to be associated with Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p=0.06). In multivariate analysis only depression (p=0.008) and Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p=0.004) kept this association. Most of RA patients do not have a good sleep quality. Depression and risk of sleep apnea are independently associated with sleep impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. HLA-linked rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Hasstedt, S.J.; Clegg, D.O.; Ingles, L.

    Twenty-eight pedigrees were ascertained through pairs of first-degree relatives diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA was confirmed in 77 pedigree members including probands; the absence of disease was verified in an additional 261 pedigree members. Pedigree members were serologically typed for HLA. We used likelihood analysis to statistically characterize the HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus. The genetic model assumed tight linkage to HLA. The analysis supported the existence of an HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus, estimated the lifetime penetrance as 41% in male homozygotes and as 48% in female homozygotes. Inheritance was recessive in males and was nearly recessive in females. Inmore » addition, the analysis attributed 78% of the variance within genotypes to genetic or environmental effects shared by siblings. The genetic model inferred in this analysis is consistent with previous association, linkage, and familial aggregation studies of RA. The inferred HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus accounts for approximately one-fifth of the RA in the population. Although other genes may account for the remaining familial RA, a large portion of RA cases may occur sporadically. 79 refs., 9 tabs.« less

  1. Advances in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dale, James

    2015-08-01

    Modern early rheumatoid arthritis strategies are usually based upon a number of important overarching principles: 1. early diagnosis facilitates early commencement of disease modifying anti-rheumatic therapy; 2. early commencement of treatment reduces the long-term risk of erosive damage and functional decline; 3. composite disease activity measures should be used to quantify global rheumatoid arthritis disease activity; and 4. therapy should be intensified until a predefined disease activity target has been achieved. A substantial minority of rheumatoid arthritis patients (approximately 40%) will experience an adequate response to methotrexate monotherapy; however, the remainder may require disease modifying anti-rheumatic combination therapy, and/or biologic therapy, to achieve disease activity targets. Importantly, short term trials of methotrexate monotherapy do not appear to disadvantage outcomes provided treatment continues to be intensified if disease activity targets are not achieved. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Rheumatoid arthritis prevalence in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Dekis, Alaa; Hudson, Marie; Pineau, Christian A; Boire, Gilles; Fortin, Paul R; Bessette, Louis; Jean, Sonia; Chetaille, Ann L; Belisle, Patrick; Bergeron, Louise; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Joseph, Lawrence

    2014-12-19

    To estimate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prevalence in Quebec using administrative health data, comparing across regions. Cases of RA were ascertained from physician billing and hospitalization data, 1992-2008. We used three case definitions: 1) ≥ 2 billing diagnoses, submitted by any physician, ≥ 2 months apart, but within 2 years; 2) ≥ 1 diagnosis, by a rheumatologist; 3) ≥1 hospitalization diagnosis (all based on ICD-9 code 714, and ICD-10 code M05). We combined data across these three case definitions, using Bayesian hierarchical latent class models to estimate RA prevalence, adjusting for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the data. We compared urban versus rural regions. Using our case definitions and no adjustment for error, we defined 75,760 cases for an over-all RA prevalence of 9.9 per thousand residents. After adjusting for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of our case definition algorithms, we estimated Quebec RA prevalence at 5.6 per 1000 females and 4.1 per 1000 males. The adjusted RA prevalence estimates for older females were the highest for any demographic group (9.9 cases per 1,000), and were similar in rural and urban regions. In younger males and females, and in older males, RA prevalence estimates were lower in rural versus urban areas. Without adjustment for error inherent in administrative databases, RA prevalence in Quebec was approximately 1%, while adjusted estimates are approximately half that. The lower prevalence in rural areas, seen for most demographic groups, may suggest either true regional variations in RA risk, or under-ascertainment of cases in rural Quebec.

  3. Galectins in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Yu, Yangsheng; Koehn, Christopher D; Zhang, Zhixin; Su, Kaihong

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex and common systemic autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation and hyperplasia. Multiple proteins, cells, and pathways have been identified to contribute to the pathogenesis of RA. Galectins are a group of lectins that bind to β-galactoside carbohydrates on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. They are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and organs with the highest expression in the immune system. Galectins are potent immune regulators and modulate a range of pathological processes, such as inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Accumulated evidence shows that several family members of galectins play positive or negative roles in the disease development of RA, through their effects on T and B lymphocytes, myeloid lineage cells, and fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In this review, we will summarize the function of different galectins in immune modulation and their distinct roles in RA pathogenesis. PMID:24416634

  4. Lysosomal β-glucuronidase regulates Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis severity

    PubMed Central

    Bramwell, Kenneth K.C.; Ma, Ying; Weis, John H.; Chen, Xinjian; Zachary, James F.; Teuscher, Cory; Weis, Janis J.

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most prevalent arthropod-borne illness in the United States and remains a clinical and social challenge. The spectrum of disease severity among infected patients suggests that host genetics contribute to pathogenic outcomes, particularly in patients who develop arthritis. Using a forward genetics approach, we identified the lysosomal enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUSB), a member of a large family of coregulated lysosomal enzymes, as a key regulator of Lyme-associated arthritis severity. Severely arthritic C3H mice possessed a naturally occurring hypomorphic allele, Gusbh. C57BL/6 mice congenic for the C3H Gusb allele were prone to increased Lyme-associated arthritis severity. Radiation chimera experiments revealed that resident joint cells drive arthritis susceptibility. C3H mice expressing WT Gusb as a transgene were protected from severe Lyme arthritis. Importantly, the Gusbh allele also exacerbated disease in a serum transfer model of rheumatoid arthritis. A known GUSB function is the prevention of lysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Development of Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis in Gusbh-expressing mice was associated with heightened accumulation of GAGs in joint tissue. We propose that GUSB modulates arthritis pathogenesis by preventing accumulation of proinflammatory GAGs within inflamed joint tissue, a trait that may be shared by other lysosomal exoglycosidases. PMID:24334460

  5. [Cystic Rheumatoid Arthritis--case report].

    PubMed

    Mourão, Ana Filipa; Santos, Fernando Pimentel; Falcão, Sandra; Pinto, Teresa Laura; Barros, Rita; de Matos, António Alves; Branco, Jaime Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Among the many radiological findings seen in Rheumatoid Arthritis RA small subchondral geodes and erosions are typical. Large geodes are far less common abnormalities and their presence may indicate diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. We present a case report of a 55-year old woman with seronegative RA that developed a large geode in the knee with extensive joint destruction.

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis in a military aviator.

    PubMed

    Moszyk, Danielle J; Sulit, Daryl J

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition whose pathogenesis is determined partially by genetic and environmental factors. Without treatment, 20 to 30% of individuals with this condition will become permanently disabled in a few years. Rheumatoid arthritis and its potential complications can cause significant disability and could seriously affect the performance of an aviator. Traditionally, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) and biologics have not been used until disease progression occurs, but they recently have been added earlier in the course of disease for a more aggressive approach to treatment. It has been shown to significantly reduce the number of affected joints, pain, and disability. This newer treatment regimen has helped a military pilot continue his aviation career. We present the case of an experienced designated military pilot who was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. He was initially treated early with a DMARD and biologic medication. He has remained in remission and currently only uses etanercept (biologic medication) and a non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drug to control his disease. He has responded favorably to therapy and has few limitations. Due to his positive response to treatment, the aviator was granted military aeromedical waivers for rheumatoid arthritis and chronic medication use.

  7. [The golden age of rheumatoid arthritis treatment].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Ulises

    2014-01-01

    Today, we enjoy the golden age of rheumatology. In the 1970s, the paradigm for treating rheumatoid arthritis consisted in a pyramid. In the decade of the 1980s, and shortly after began a revolution in the understanding and treatment of rheumatic diseases. Methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor-blockers came on the scene.

  8. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis - a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kurkó, Júlia; Besenyei, Timea; Laki, Judit; Glant, Tibor T; Mikecz, Katalin; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2013-10-01

    The "Bermuda triangle" of genetics, environment and autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various aspects of genetic contribution to the etiology, pathogenesis and outcome of RA are discussed in this review. The heritability of RA has been estimated to be about 60 %, while the contribution of HLA to heritability has been estimated to be 11-37 %. Apart from known shared epitope (SE) alleles, such as HLA-DRB1*01 and DRB1*04, other HLA alleles, such as HLA-DRB1*13 and DRB1*15 have been linked to RA susceptibility. A novel SE classification divides SE alleles into S1, S2, S3P and S3D groups, where primarily S2 and S3P groups have been associated with predisposition to seropositive RA. The most relevant non-HLA gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RA include PTPN22, IL23R, TRAF1, CTLA4, IRF5, STAT4, CCR6, PADI4. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 30 loci involved in RA pathogenesis. HLA and some non-HLA genes may differentiate between anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) seropositive and seronegative RA. Genetic susceptibility has also been associated with environmental factors, primarily smoking. Some GWAS studies carried out in rodent models of arthritis have confirmed the role of human genes. For example, in the collagen-induced (CIA) and proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PgIA) models, two important loci - Pgia26/Cia5 and Pgia2/Cia2/Cia3, corresponding the human PTPN22/CD2 and TRAF1/C5 loci, respectively - have been identified. Finally, pharmacogenomics identified SNPs or multiple genetic signatures that may be associated with responses to traditional disease-modifying drugs and biologics.

  9. Current treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ilowite, Norman T

    2002-01-01

    Prognostic factors in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) include polyarticular onset, polyarticular disease course, and rheumatoid factor positivity; in the systemic onset subtype, persistence of systemic features at 6 months after onset confers a worse prognosis. Timely diagnosis and appropriate aggressive treatment of patients with poor prognostic features improve quality of life and outcome. After nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate is the most commonly used second-line agent. However, approximately one third of patients do not respond to methotrexate adequately. Randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in patients with JRA are few, but one such trial with the tumor necrosis factor inhibitor etanercept shows that this drug is effective and well-tolerated. Other recently approved agents for rheumatoid arthritis, including infliximab, leflunomide, celecoxib, and rofecoxib, have not been adequately studied in pediatric patients, and the role of these agents in children with JRA remains to be determined.

  10. Rationale of Cruciate Retaining Design in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of Clinical Analysis and its Role in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Munis; Sharma, Om Prakash; Priyavadhana, Sruthi; Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, proponents of total knee designs (cruciate retaining and posterior stabilised) have conducted several long-term studies to claim the potential of these designs in several subsets of patients. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has also been one such domain where numerous studies were conducted in the past. A general perception among majority of arthroplasty surgeons is that, posterior stabilised (PS) is the implanted design of choice among patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, with the available literature there is a significant disparity related to the selection of implants in patients with rheumatoid RA. In this review of literature, an attempt is made to identify the clinical performance and role of one such implant design, the cruciate retaining (CR) prosthesis in rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted after a series of advanced search in the following medical databases; Pub med, Biomed central, Cochrane and Google scholar for articles related to long term follow up studies of cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis using the keywords cruciate retaining prosthesis, total knee arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis. The available data demonstrate that the CR design is attributed with an excellent long term survivorship and functional outcome even in follow up studies up to twenty-five years. The advantages of using a CR design are long term survivorship, controlled femoral roll back and preservation of bone stock. Thus, the data gathered in this review lead to a consideration that the CR design is an implant design on par with PS design in patients with RA.

  11. Rationale of Cruciate Retaining Design in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of Clinical Analysis and its Role in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Munis; Sharma, Om Prakash; Priyavadhana, Sruthi; Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2017-01-01

    Background: Over the years, proponents of total knee designs (cruciate retaining and posterior stabilised) have conducted several long-term studies to claim the potential of these designs in several subsets of patients. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has also been one such domain where numerous studies were conducted in the past. A general perception among majority of arthroplasty surgeons is that, posterior stabilised (PS) is the implanted design of choice among patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, with the available literature there is a significant disparity related to the selection of implants in patients with rheumatoid RA. In this review of literature, an attempt is made to identify the clinical performance and role of one such implant design, the cruciate retaining (CR) prosthesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Method: The review was conducted after a series of advanced search in the following medical databases; Pub med, Biomed central, Cochrane and Google scholar for articles related to long term follow up studies of cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis using the keywords cruciate retaining prosthesis, total knee arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis. Results: The available data demonstrate that the CR design is attributed with an excellent long term survivorship and functional outcome even in follow up studies up to twenty-five years. Conclusion: The advantages of using a CR design are long term survivorship, controlled femoral roll back and preservation of bone stock. Thus, the data gathered in this review lead to a consideration that the CR design is an implant design on par with PS design in patients with RA. PMID:29114338

  12. Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print this issue Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key En español Send us your comments ... type of arthritis. It’s far more common than rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on ...

  13. Hemochromatosis simulating rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fabíola Brasil; Callegari, Amanda; Sarinho, José Célso; Lucena, Juliana; Casagrande, Renielly; de Souza, Branca Dias Batista

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of a patient who had a previous diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, nonerosive, rheumatoid factor negative, that despite the therapeutic approach presented progressive worsening of the articular and general condition. After extensive research, she had a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Joint symptoms are common manifestations in hemochromatosis. The arthropathy of hemochromatosis may resemble inflammatory arthropathy mimicking RA, particularly in the most common sites as 2nd and 3rd metacarpophalangeal. Radiologically are observed decreased joint space, subchondral sclerosis, cyst formation and chondrocalcinosis. Treatment with disease modifying drugs for rheumatoid arthritis tend to worsen the clinical picture, since the liver is the major site of deposition of iron in hemochromatosis and these medications are known to be hepatotoxic. Phlebotomy treatment for hemochromatosis is apparently ineffective in reversing the articular manifestations, which requires the association with iron chelating drugs. Due to the apparent difficulty in differentiating between the two diseases, a screening profile of iron in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with atypical progression is necessary.

  14. Quadriparesis in a young female suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Agarwal, N; Yadava, R K; Jain, S K

    2003-07-01

    Cervical spine is involved in a significant proportion of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Although cervical spine disease may often be 'benign', neurological complications are not uncommon. Patients of rheumatoid arthritis should be screened for cervical spine involvement and appropriately treated with combination of anti-rheumatic drugs. We report a case of quadriparesis secondary to subluxation and disc herniation at C4-C5 level in a young woman with rheumatoid arthritis of short duration.

  15. Orthopedic Surgery among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Population-based study to Identify Risk factors, Sex differences, and Time trends.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L; Makol, Ashima

    2017-12-20

    To identify risk factors for large joint (LJS) versus small joint surgery (SJS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and evaluate trends in surgery rates over time. A retrospective medical record review was performed of all orthopedic surgeries following first fulfillment of 1987 ACR criteria for adult-onset RA among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA in 1980-2013. Risk factors were examined using Cox models adjusted for age, sex and calendar year of RA incidence. Trends in incidence of joint surgeries were examined using Poisson regression models. A total of 1077 patients with RA (mean age 56 years, 69% female, 66% seropositive) were followed for a median of 10.7 years during which 112 (90 women) underwent at least one SJS and 204 (141 women) underwent at least one LJS. Risk factors included advanced age, rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibody positivity for both SJS and LJS, and BMI≥30 kg/m 2 for LJS. Risk factors for SJS and LJS at any time during follow-up included the presence of radiographic erosions, large joint swelling, and methotrexate use. SJS rates decreased by calendar year of incidence (hazard ratio 0.53; p=0.001), with significant decline in SJS after 1995. The cumulative incidence of SJS was higher in women than men (p=0.008). In recent years, there has been a significant decline in rates of SJS but not LJS in patients with RA. The incidence of SJS is higher among women. Traditional RA risk factors are strong predictors for SJS and LJS. Increasing age and obesity are predictive of LJS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Link between Gut Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro José; Pizano-Zárate, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and understanding of gut microbiota has recently increased representing a wide research field, especially in autoimmune diseases. Gut microbiota is the major source of microbes which might exert beneficial as well as pathogenic effects on human health. Intestinal microbiome's role as mediator of inflammation has only recently emerged. Microbiota has been observed to differ in subjects with early rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls, and this finding has commanded this study as a possible autoimmune process. Studies with intestinal microbiota have shown that rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by an expansion and/or decrease of bacterial groups as compared to controls. In this review, we present evidence linking intestinal dysbiosis with the autoimmune mechanisms involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:28948174

  17. [The laser therapy of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Soroka, N F

    1989-01-01

    About 300 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) underwent multimodality treatment including laser radiation of varying wavelengths. Use was made of helium-neon, infrared, argon and helium-cadmium lasers. A new method of combined laser therapy by radiation of helium-cadmium and helium-neon lasers is described. A scheme of optimal parameters and types of laser radiation recommended for the treatment of different clinical varieties of RA is provided.

  18. DNA methylome signature in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kazuhisa; Whitaker, John W; Boyle, David L; Wang, Wei; Firestein, Gary S

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics can influence disease susceptibility and severity. While DNA methylation of individual genes has been explored in autoimmunity, no unbiased systematic analyses have been reported. Therefore, a genome-wide evaluation of DNA methylation loci in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) isolated from the site of disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was performed. Genomic DNA was isolated from six RA and five osteoarthritis (OA) FLS lines and evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 chip. Cluster analysis of data was performed and corrected using Benjamini-Hochberg adjustment for multiple comparisons. Methylation was confirmed by pyrosequencing and gene expression was determined by qPCR. Pathway analysis was performed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. RA and control FLS segregated based on DNA methylation, with 1859 differentially methylated loci. Hypomethylated loci were identified in key genes relevant to RA, such as CHI3L1, CASP1, STAT3, MAP3K5, MEFV and WISP3. Hypermethylation was also observed, including TGFBR2 and FOXO1. Hypomethylation of individual genes was associated with increased gene expression. Grouped analysis identified 207 hypermethylated or hypomethylated genes with multiple differentially methylated loci, including COL1A1, MEFV and TNF. Hypomethylation was increased in multiple pathways related to cell migration, including focal adhesion, cell adhesion, transendothelial migration and extracellular matrix interactions. Confirmatory studies with OA and normal FLS also demonstrated segregation of RA from control FLS based on methylation pattern. Differentially methylated genes could alter FLS gene expression and contribute to the pathogenesis of RA. DNA methylation of critical genes suggests that RA FLS are imprinted and implicate epigenetic contributions to inflammatory arthritis.

  19. Hypereosinophilia and seroconversion of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Rachel K; Panush, Richard S; Kramer, Neil; Rosenstein, Elliot D

    2014-11-01

    At the intersection of atopy and autoimmunity, we present a patient with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed hypereosinophilia, without evidence of other etiologies, as she became rheumatoid factor (RF) positive. Although the magnitude of eosinophilia in patients with RA has been thought to reflect the severity or activity of the RA, in our patient, eosinophilia developed at a time when the patient's synovitis was well controlled. Although eosinophilia may reflect associated drug hypersensitivity, discontinuation of the medications utilized to control our patient's disease, adalimumab and methotrexate, did not promote clinical improvement. Probably the most curious aspect of our patient was the concomitant development of rheumatoid factor seropositivity in the setting of previously seronegative RA. The temporal relationship between the development of peripheral eosinophilia and seroconversion suggests a possible connection between these events. We speculate that the T cell cytokine production that can induce eosinophilia may simultaneously activate RF production.

  20. Fibromyalgia complicating disease management in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Lubna; Haidri, Fakhir Raza

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate frequency of fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis and its effect on disease activity score. Cross-sectional study. The Indus Hospital, Karachi, from December 2010 to May 2011. All adult patients of either gender diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis on the basis of clinical, laboratory and X-ray criteria were included in the study. The sample data was separated into two groups depending on presence or absence of fibromyalgia and 28 joint disease activity score (DAS-28) value was evaluated. There were 31 (25.83%) patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia (RAFM) out of the total 120. The median (IQR) age of patients was 40 (32 - 51) years. All were females. The overall female frequency was 79 (88.8%). The median (IQR) DAS-28 score in RA group was 4.9 (3.66 - 5.71), while the median (IQR) DAS-28 score in RAFM was 7.04 (6.62 - 7.64) [p < 0.0001]. The number of patient getting combination therapy of DMARD in RAFM group was 61.3% while in RA group was 42.7%. DAS-28 was found to be significantly higher in RAFM patients probably because of higher perception of pain.

  1. Dialysis treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hezemans, R L; Krediet, R T; Arisz, L

    1995-07-01

    The results of dialysis treatment in 24 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 20 chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 4 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), were analysed. Presence of secondary amyloidosis, renal function, morbidity and survival were examined. Amyloidosis was present in 13 patients. Especially among amyloidosis patients, renal function declined rapidly in the last year before dialysis started. On average, 63 days per patient-year were spent in the hospital, 58% was dialysis-related, mainly due to vascular access problems. Hospitalization was even more widespread in amyloidosis patients (79 days, 72% dialysis-related). Median survival in RA patients with amyloidosis was 11 months; in RA patients without amyloidosis this was 29 months. Two-year survival was only 1 out of 10 for the RA amyloidosis patients; for the RA non-amyloidosis patients this was 5 out of 6 (p < 0.01). Cardiovascular causes of death were most frequent. In conclusion, high morbidity and low survival make RA patients with amyloidosis a high-risk group on renal replacement therapy.

  2. [Imaging in rheumatoid arthritis of the elbow].

    PubMed

    Lerch, K; Herold, T; Borisch, N; Grifka, J

    2003-08-01

    Early specific radiologic changes of rheumatoid arthritis can usually be detected in the hands and feet. Later stages of the disease process show a typical centripetal spread of the affected joints, i.e., shoulder, elbow, and knee. For prognostic assessment of cubital rheumatoid arthritis, conventional radiography still remains the gold standard. X-rays allow objective scoring and thus classification into standardized stages. A concentric destruction of the rheumatic joint as compared to deformity in the degenerative joint is the typical radiologic symptom to look for. For soft tissue assessment, ultrasound (US) should be the diagnostic tool of choice. Due to the thin surrounding soft tissue layer, as well as the advanced high-resolution technology, bony structures can also be well demonstrated in any plane. In the early arthritic stages, particularly the small changes, e.g., minimal erosions of the cortical area, are very well detectable by US. The use of "color" allows good evaluation of the synovial inflammatory status. Modern imaging methods such as computer- assisted tomography (CAT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are restricted to a few set indications and should not be chosen for routine examination. More invasive methods such as arthrography are no longer indicated for assessment of cubital rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinaemia in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    de Witte, T J; Geerdink, P J; Lamers, C B; Boerbooms, A M; van der Korst, J K

    1979-01-01

    In order to evaluate the incidence and aetiology of hypergastrinaemia 53 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis were examined for gastric acid secretion, fasting serum gastrin concentration, circulating parietal cell antibodies, and some parameters of the activity of inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis. The basal and maximum acid output was found to be subnormal in this group (P less than 0.01), and in 11 of these patients (23%) the fasting serum gastrin levels were raised (P less than 0.05). This hypergastrinaemia correlated strongly with maximum acid output. Only in cases of achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria (maximum acid output less than 2 mmol/l) was the serum gastrin level markedly raised. Two out of 5 patients with achlorhydria were found to have circulating parietal cell antibodies, and 1 had decreased absorption of vitamin B12. No relationship was found between serum gastrin and duration or activity of rheumatoid arthritis; nor was there a relationship between basal serum gastrin and the various antirheumatic drugs administered. PMID:434940

  4. Pathway-driven gene stability selection of two rheumatoid arthritis GWAS identifies and validates new susceptibility genes in receptor mediated signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Hoggart, Clive J; Wright, Victoria J; Levin, Michael; Coin, Lachlan J M

    2011-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the commonest chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder affecting ∼1% of the world population. It has a strong genetic component and a growing number of associated genes have been discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which nevertheless only account for 23% of the total genetic risk. We aimed to identify additional susceptibility loci through the analysis of GWAS in the context of biological function. We bridge the gap between pathway and gene-oriented analyses of GWAS, by introducing a pathway-driven gene stability-selection methodology that identifies potential causal genes in the top-associated disease pathways that may be driving the pathway association signals. We analysed the WTCCC and the NARAC studies of ∼5000 and ∼2000 subjects, respectively. We examined 700 pathways comprising ∼8000 genes. Ranking pathways by significance revealed that the NARAC top-ranked ∼6% laid within the top 10% of WTCCC. Gene selection on those pathways identified 58 genes in WTCCC and 61 in NARAC; 21 of those were common (P(overlap)< 10(-21)), of which 16 were novel discoveries. Among the identified genes, we validated 10 known RA associations in WTCCC and 13 in NARAC, not discovered using single-SNP approaches on the same data. Gene ontology functional enrichment analysis on the identified genes showed significant over-representation of signalling activity (P< 10(-29)) in both studies. Our findings suggest a novel model of RA genetic predisposition, which involves cell-membrane receptors and genes in second messenger signalling systems, in addition to genes that regulate immune responses, which have been the focus of interest previously.

  5. Allergic manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Asa Reckner; Wingren, Gun; Skogh, Thomas; Svernell, Olle; Ernerudh, Jan

    2003-10-01

    A functional dichotomy between Th1- and Th2-type immune responses has been suggested. This study was performed to investigate whether rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a disease with indications of Th1-deviated immune activation, is inversly related to atopic conditions which are Th2-mediated. Two hundred and sixty-three adult cases of RA, fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association (ARA) 1987 Revised Classification Criteria for RA, were identified in 1995 and compared with 541 randomly selected population referents. The presence of atopic manifestations was established through a postal questionnaire and by demonstrating circulating IgE antibodies to common allergens. RA was inversely associated with certain manifestations of rhinitis, which were regarded as the most reliable indicators of atopic disease in the present study. However, no negative association was seen between RA and asthma and eczema, respectively. The main results give some support for an inverse relationship between RA and rhinitis. The prevalence of circulating IgE antibodies was however similar in cases and controls, suggesting that the T-cell commitment mainly occurs in the affected organs.

  6. Genetics and epigenetics of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Viatte, Sebastien; Plant, Darren; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Investigators have made key advances in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) genetics in the past 10 years. Although genetic studies have had limited influence on clinical practice and drug discovery, they are currently generating testable hypotheses to explain disease pathogenesis. Firstly, we review here the major advances in identifying RA genetic susceptibility markers both within and outside of the MHC. Understanding how genetic variants translate into pathogenic mechanisms and ultimately into phenotypes remains a mystery for most of the polymorphisms that confer susceptibility to RA, but functional data are emerging. Interplay between environmental and genetic factors is poorly understood and in need of further investigation. Secondly, we review current knowledge of the role of epigenetics in RA susceptibility. Differences in the epigenome could represent one of the ways in which environmental exposures translate into phenotypic outcomes. The best understood epigenetic phenomena include post-translational histone modifications and DNA methylation events, both of which have critical roles in gene regulation. Epigenetic studies in RA represent a new area of research with the potential to answer unsolved questions. PMID:23381558

  7. The Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Citrullinome.

    PubMed

    Tilvawala, Ronak; Nguyen, Son Hong; Maurais, Aaron J; Nemmara, Venkatesh V; Nagar, Mitesh; Salinger, Ari J; Nagpal, Sunil; Weerapana, Eranthie; Thompson, Paul R

    2018-03-21

    Increased protein citrullination is linked to various diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus, and cancer. Citrullinated autoantigens, a hallmark of RA, are recognized by anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) which are used to diagnose RA. ACPA-recognizing citrullinated enolase, vimentin, keratin, and filaggrin are also pathogenic. Here, we used a chemoproteomic approach to define the RA-associated citrullinome. The identified proteins include numerous serine protease inhibitors (Serpins), proteases and metabolic enzymes. We demonstrate that citrullination of antiplasmin, antithrombin, t-PAI, and C1 inhibitor (P1-Arg-containing Serpins) abolishes their ability to inhibit their cognate proteases. Citrullination of nicotinamide N-methyl transferase (NNMT) also abolished its methyltransferase activity. Overall, these data advance our understanding of the roles of citrullination in RA and suggest that extracellular protein arginine deiminase (PAD) activity can modulate protease activity with consequent effects on Serpin-regulated pathways. Moreover, our data suggest that inhibition of extracellular PAD activity will be therapeutically relevant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Southern Albania.

    PubMed

    Koko, Vjollca; Ndrepepa, Ana; Skenderaj, Skender

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and the burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Southern Albania. This is an epidemiologic observational study with cross-sectional analyses of all patients with RA who lived in Southern Albania during the 1995-2011 years. The RA prevalence, incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) were assessed. During the 1995-2011 years, 194 patients (154 females and 40 males) with RA living in Southern Albania were identified. The prevalence of RA in 2011 was 0.25% in general population and 0.34% in adult (>14 years) population. The incidence of RA in 2011 was 0.012% (12 new cases per 100000 inhabitants) and 0.016% (16 new cases per 100000 adults). The prevalence increased (from 0.036% in 1996 to 0.25% in 2011) and the incidence did not change over the study period. The mortality was 3.2% (n=7 deaths). The DALY due to RA was 823 years per 100000 inhabitants during 1995-2011 years. RA in Southern Albania has a prevalence of 0.25 % and an annual incidence of 0.012% in the general population in 2011. RA was responsible for a considerable burden on the health of population during the 1995-2011 years.

  9. Epidemiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Southern Albania

    PubMed Central

    Koko, Vjollca; Ndrepepa, Ana; Skenderaj, Skender

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and the burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Southern Albania. Material and Methods: This is an epidemiologic observational study with cross-sectional analyses of all patients with RA who lived in Southern Albania during the 1995-2011 years. The RA prevalence, incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) were assessed. Results: During the 1995-2011 years, 194 patients (154 females and 40 males) with RA living in Southern Albania were identified. The prevalence of RA in 2011 was 0.25% in general population and 0.34% in adult (>14 years) population. The incidence of RA in 2011 was 0.012% (12 new cases per 100000 inhabitants) and 0.016% (16 new cases per 100000 adults). The prevalence increased (from 0.036% in 1996 to 0.25% in 2011) and the incidence did not change over the study period. The mortality was 3.2% (n=7 deaths). The DALY due to RA was 823 years per 100000 inhabitants during 1995-2011 years. Conclusion: RA in Southern Albania has a prevalence of 0.25 % and an annual incidence of 0.012% in the general population in 2011. RA was responsible for a considerable burden on the health of population during the 1995-2011 years. PMID:26236163

  10. The ability of the 2013 ACC/AHA cardiovascular risk score to identify rheumatoid arthritis patients with high coronary artery calcification scores

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Vivian K.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Solus, Joseph F.; Oeser, Annette; Raggi, Paolo; Stein, C. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) that is underestimated by the Framingham risk score (FRS). We hypothesized that the 2013 ACC/AHA 10-year risk score would perform better than the FRS and the Reynolds risk score (RRS) in identifying RA patients known to have elevated cardiovascular risk based on high coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores. Methods Among 98 RA patients eligible for risk stratification using the ACC/AHA score we identified 34 patients with high CAC (≥ 300 Agatston units or ≥75th percentile) and compared the ability of the 10-year FRS, RRS and the ACC/AHA risk scores to correctly assign these patients to an elevated risk category. Results All three risk scores were higher in patients with high CAC (P values <0.05). The percentage of patients with high CAC correctly assigned to the elevated risk category was similar among the three scores (FRS 32%, RRS 32%, ACC/AHA 41%) (P=0.233). The c-statistics for the FRS, RRS and ACC/AHA risk scores predicting the presence of high CAC were 0.65, 0.66, and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions The ACC/AHA 10-year risk score does not offer any advantage compared to the traditional FRS and RRS in the identification of RA patients with elevated risk as determined by high CAC. The ACC/AHA risk score assigned almost 60% of patients with high CAC into a low risk category. Risk scores and standard risk prediction models used in the general population do not adequately identify many RA patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. PMID:25371313

  11. The reliability of diagnostic coding and laboratory data to identify tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease among rheumatoid arthritis patients using anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy.

    PubMed

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Baxter, Roger; Liu, Liyan; McFarland, Bentson; Austin, Donald; Varley, Cara; Radcliffe, LeAnn; Suhler, Eric; Choi, Dongsoek; Herrinton, Lisa J

    2011-03-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF) therapies are associated with severe mycobacterial infections in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We developed and validated electronic record search algorithms for these serious infections. The study used electronic clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacy records from Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) and the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center (PVAMC). We identified suspect tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cases using inpatient and outpatient diagnostic codes, culture results, and anti-tuberculous medication dispensing. We manually reviewed records to validate our case-finding algorithms. We identified 64 tuberculosis and 367 NTM potential cases, respectively. For tuberculosis, diagnostic code positive predictive value (PPV) was 54% at KPNC and 9% at PVAMC. Adding medication dispensings improved these to 87% and 46%, respectively. Positive tuberculosis cultures had a PPV of 100% with sensitivities of 79% (KPNC) and 55% (PVAMC). For NTM, the PPV of diagnostic codes was 91% (KPNC) and 76% (PVAMC). At KPNC, ≥ 1 positive NTM culture was sensitive (100%) and specific (PPV, 74%) if non-pathogenic species were excluded; at PVAMC, ≥1 positive NTM culture identified 76% of cases with PPV of 41%. Application of the American Thoracic Society NTM microbiology criteria yielded the highest PPV (100% KPNC, 78% PVAMC). The sensitivity and predictive value of electronic microbiologic data for tuberculosis and NTM infections is generally high, but varies with different facilities or models of care. Unlike NTM, tuberculosis diagnostic codes have poor PPV, and in the absence of laboratory data, should be combined with anti-tuberculous therapy dispensings for pharmacoepidemiologic research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Accuracy of Canadian health administrative databases in identifying patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a validation study using the medical records of rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Widdifield, Jessica; Bernatsky, Sasha; Paterson, J Michael; Tu, Karen; Ng, Ryan; Thorne, J Carter; Pope, Janet E; Bombardier, Claire

    2013-10-01

    Health administrative data can be a valuable tool for disease surveillance and research. Few studies have rigorously evaluated the accuracy of administrative databases for identifying rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Our aim was to validate administrative data algorithms to identify RA patients in Ontario, Canada. We performed a retrospective review of a random sample of 450 patients from 18 rheumatology clinics. Using rheumatologist-reported diagnosis as the reference standard, we tested and validated different combinations of physician billing, hospitalization, and pharmacy data. One hundred forty-nine rheumatology patients were classified as having RA and 301 were classified as not having RA based on our reference standard definition (study RA prevalence 33%). Overall, algorithms that included physician billings had excellent sensitivity (range 94-100%). Specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were modest to excellent and increased when algorithms included multiple physician claims or specialist claims. The addition of RA medications did not significantly improve algorithm performance. The algorithm of "(1 hospitalization RA code ever) OR (3 physician RA diagnosis codes [claims] with ≥1 by a specialist in a 2-year period)" had a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 85%, PPV of 76%, and negative predictive value of 98%. Most RA patients (84%) had an RA diagnosis code present in the administrative data within ±1 year of a rheumatologist's documented diagnosis date. We demonstrated that administrative data can be used to identify RA patients with a high degree of accuracy. RA diagnosis date and disease duration are fairly well estimated from administrative data in jurisdictions of universal health care insurance. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Cellular and molecular perspectives in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Veale, Douglas J; Orr, Carl; Fearon, Ursula

    2017-06-01

    Synovial immunopathology in rheumatoid arthritis is complex involving both resident and infiltrating cells. The synovial tissue undergoes significant neovascularization, facilitating an influx of lymphocytes and monocytes that transform a typically acellular loose areolar membrane into an invasive tumour-like pannus. The microvasculature proliferates to form straight regularly-branching vessels; however, they are highly dysfunctional resulting in reduced oxygen supply and a hypoxic microenvironment. Autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are found at an early stage, often before arthritis has developed, and they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. Abnormal cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction thus ensue and, in turn, through the increased production of reactive oxygen species actively induce inflammation. Key pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors and their signalling pathways, including nuclear factor κB, Janus kinase-signal transducer, are highly activated when immune cells are exposed to hypoxia in the inflamed rheumatoid joint show adaptive survival reactions by activating. This review attempts to highlight those aberrations in the innate and adaptive immune systems including the role of genetic and environmental factors, autoantibodies, cellular alterations, signalling pathways and metabolism that are implicated in the pathogenesis of RA and may therefore provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention.

  14. An administrative data validation study of the accuracy of algorithms for identifying rheumatoid arthritis: the influence of the reference standard on algorithm performance.

    PubMed

    Widdifield, Jessica; Bombardier, Claire; Bernatsky, Sasha; Paterson, J Michael; Green, Diane; Young, Jacqueline; Ivers, Noah; Butt, Debra A; Jaakkimainen, R Liisa; Thorne, J Carter; Tu, Karen

    2014-06-23

    We have previously validated administrative data algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using rheumatology clinic records as the reference standard. Here we reassessed the accuracy of the algorithms using primary care records as the reference standard. We performed a retrospective chart abstraction study using a random sample of 7500 adult patients under the care of 83 family physicians contributing to the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD) in Ontario, Canada. Using physician-reported diagnoses as the reference standard, we computed and compared the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for over 100 administrative data algorithms for RA case ascertainment. We identified 69 patients with RA for a lifetime RA prevalence of 0.9%. All algorithms had excellent specificity (>97%). However, sensitivity varied (75-90%) among physician billing algorithms. Despite the low prevalence of RA, most algorithms had adequate positive predictive value (PPV; 51-83%). The algorithm of "[1 hospitalization RA diagnosis code] or [3 physician RA diagnosis codes with ≥1 by a specialist over 2 years]" had a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI 69-88), specificity of 100% (95% CI 100-100), PPV of 78% (95% CI 69-88) and NPV of 100% (95% CI 100-100). Administrative data algorithms for detecting RA patients achieved a high degree of accuracy amongst the general population. However, results varied slightly from our previous report, which can be attributed to differences in the reference standards with respect to disease prevalence, spectrum of disease, and type of comparator group.

  15. A comparison of rural and urban rheumatoid arthritis populations.

    PubMed

    Basu, N; Steven, M

    2009-02-01

    There is evidence to suggest that remote populations have poorer clinical outcomes in certain disease processes such as asthma and cancer. This study looks to identify any disparities in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the context of rurality. A retrospective observational study was performed on all 1314 patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis who have been under the care of the principal rheumatologist at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, between the years 1994 and 2004 inclusive. Rurality was defined according to the Scottish Household Survey. Populations were assessed in terms of age; sex; duration of diagnosis; number of years of Disease Modifying AntiRheumatic Drugs (DMARD) therapy, prednisolone use and the number of musculoskeletal practical interventions undertaken (eg joint aspiration or replacement). Two thirds of patients were considered rural dwellers. No significant difference was established between the populations with regards to management. DMARD therapy had been prescribed in 77% of rural patients vs 70% of their city counterparts for a mean 5.4 and 4.0 years respectively. The proportion of patients exposed to prednisolone therapy and who underwent musculoskeletal procedures were equivalent. Rural dwellers, with rheumatoid arthritis in the Highlands of Scotland, do not appear to be disadvantaged in regards to their disease management in comparison to the urban population.

  16. Using Big Data to Evaluate the Association between Periodontal Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Michael A; Comer, Angela C; DiRenzo, Dana D; Yesha, Yelena; Rishe, Naphtali D

    2015-01-01

    An association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis is believed to exist. Most investigations into a possible relationship have been case-control studies with relatively low sample sizes. The advent of very large clinical repositories has created new opportunities for data-driven research. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to measure the association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis in a population of 25 million patients. We demonstrated that subjects with periodontal disease were roughly 1.4 times more likely to have rheumatoid arthritis. These results compare favorably with those of previous studies on smaller cohorts. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms behind this association and to determine if aggressive treatment of periodontal disease can alter the course of rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis: what do MRI and ultrasound show

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Lennart; Teh, James

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory arthritis, affecting approximately 1% of the world’s population. Its pathogenesis has not been completely understood. However, there is evidence that the disease may involve synovial joints, subchondral bone marrow as well as intra- and extraarticular fat tissue, and may lead to progressive joint destruction and disability. Over the last two decades, significant improvement in its prognosis has been achieved owing to new strategies for disease management, the emergence of new biologic therapies and better utilization of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy have been recognized as essential for improving clinical outcomes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Despite the potential of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging to visualize all tissues typically involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, the diagnosis of early disease remains difficult due to limited specificity of findings. This paper summarizes the pathogenesis phenomena of rheumatoid arthritis and describes rheumatoid arthritis-related features of the disease within the synovium, subchondral bone marrow and articular fat tissue on MRI and ultrasound. Moreover, the paper aims to illustrate the significance of MRI and ultrasound findings in rheumatoid arthritis in the diagnosis of subclinical and early inflammation, and the importance of MRI and US in the follow-up and establishing remission. Finally, we also discuss MRI of the spine in rheumatoid arthritis, which may help assess the presence of active inflammation and complications. PMID:28439423

  18. Benefits of Exercise in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Jennifer K.; Law, Rebecca-Jane; Matschke, Verena; Lemmey, Andrew B.; Moore, Jonathan P.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Jones, Jeremy G.; Maddison, Peter; Thom, Jeanette M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the importance of exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to demonstrate the multitude of beneficial effects that properly designed exercise training has in this population. RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease characterised by decrements to joint health including joint pain and inflammation, fatigue, increased incidence and progression of cardiovascular disease, and accelerated loss of muscle mass, that is, “rheumatoid cachexia”. These factors contribute to functional limitation, disability, comorbidities, and reduced quality of life. Exercise training for RA patients has been shown to be efficacious in reversing cachexia and substantially improving function without exacerbating disease activity and is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, all RA patients should be encouraged to include aerobic and resistance exercise training as part of routine care. Understanding the perceptions of RA patients and health professionals to exercise is key to patients initiating and adhering to effective exercise training. PMID:21403833

  19. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  20. RAACFDb: Rheumatoid arthritis ayurvedic classical formulations database.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Thoufic Ali, A M; Agrawal, Aakash; Sajitha Lulu, S; Mohana Priya, A; Vino, S

    2017-02-02

    In the past years, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone remarkable changes in all therapeutic modes. The present newfangled care in clinical research is to determine and to pick a new track for better treatment options for RA. Recent ethnopharmacological investigations revealed that traditional herbal remedies are the most preferred modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, several ayurvedic modes of treatments and formulations for RA are not much studied and documented from Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, this directed us to develop an integrated database, RAACFDb (acronym: Rheumatoid Arthritis Ayurvedic Classical Formulations Database) by consolidating data from the repository of Vedic Samhita - The Ayurveda to retrieve the available formulations information easily. Literature data was gathered using several search engines and from ayurvedic practitioners for loading information in the database. In order to represent the collected information about classical ayurvedic formulations, an integrated database is constructed and implemented on a MySQL and PHP back-end. The database is supported by describing all the ayurvedic classical formulations for the treatment rheumatoid arthritis. It includes composition, usage, plant parts used, active ingredients present in the composition and their structures. The prime objective is to locate ayurvedic formulations proven to be quite successful and highly effective among the patients with reduced side effects. The database (freely available at www.beta.vit.ac.in/raacfdb/index.html) hopefully enables easy access for clinical researchers and students to discover novel leads with reduced side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seronegative rheumatoid arthritis: pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Arthur G; Isaacs, John D

    2014-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has long been recognised as a highly heterogeneous disease of immune dysregulation. Despite an ever-growing appreciation of the role of circulating autoantibodies in the development of 'seropositive' disease, the pathogenesis of seronegative RA remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that RA 'serotypes', in fact, reflect distinct disease entities that, despite their clinical overlap, diverge in respect of genetic architecture, cellular pathology and even therapeutic responsiveness. Focussing on seronegative RA, this review considers these concepts and their implications for the management of patients with this challenging, though sometimes overlooked, condition. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [The interauricular laser therapy of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Sidorov, V D; Mamiliaeva, D R; Gontar', E V; Reformatskaia, S Iu

    1999-01-01

    Investigations have proved the ability of interauricular low-intensity infrared laser therapy (0.89 nm, 7.6 J/cm) to produce anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating action in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The method has selective, pathogenetically directed immunomodulating effect the mechanism of which is similar to that of basic antirheumatic drugs and of intravenous laser radiation of blood. This laser therapy can be used as an alternative to intravenous blood radiation being superior as a noninvasive method. Interauricular laser therapy can potentiate the effects of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, cytostatics and diminish their side effects.

  3. Antibiotics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ogrendik, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) commenced in the 1930s with the use of sulfasalazine. Later, tetracyclines were successfully used for the treatment of RA. In double-blind and randomized studies, levofloxacin and macrolide antibiotics (including clarithromycin and roxithromycin) were also shown to be effective in the treatment of RA. There have been several reports in the literature indicating that periodontal pathogens are a possible cause of RA. Oral bacteria are one possible cause of RA. In this review, we aimed to investigate the effects of different antibiotics in RA treatment. PMID:24403843

  4. Fertility, Pregnancy, and Lactation in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Pascal H P; Dolhain, Radboud J E M

    2017-05-01

    Fertility is impaired in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas less is known about male fertility problems. Pregnancy outcome in patients with RA is slightly less favorable compared with the general population, especially in patients with active disease. Disease activity usually improves during pregnancy, but less than previously thought. Although several antirheumatic drugs are contraindicated in pregnancy, more treatment options are available. There is evidence on the safety of TNF inhibitors in pregnancy. Given the impact of active disease on fertility and pregnancy outcome, a treat-to-target strategy is recommended for patients who are pregnant or have a wish to conceive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Causes and consequences of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Katz, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    To review current information on the causes, treatments, and consequences of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis. Disease activity (inflammation, pain, joint symptoms) is associated with greater fatigue. However, disease activity per se accounts for only a small portion of fatigue, and rheumatoid arthritis medications that reduce disease activity have small effects on fatigue. Instead, factors outside the direct effects of rheumatoid arthritis, such as obesity, physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, and depression, explain the majority of variation in fatigue. Some of these factors may be indirect effects of disease (e.g. pain can lead to sleep disturbance). Rheumatoid arthritis has significant effects on the quality of life of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. The most effective approaches to reducing rheumatoid arthritis fatigue appear to be behavioral, such as increasing physical activity, or cognitive, such as cognitive behavioral interventions. Fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis appears to be largely because of factors outside the direct effects of the disease, such as behavioral and psychological factors. In spite of the tremendous impact of fatigue on patient health and quality of life, effective treatments remain elusive, but existing data show that behavioral and cognitive approaches may be most effective.

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis clinical features and management strategies at an urban tertiary facility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rais, Rehan; Saeed, Mohammad; Haider, Rimsha; Jassani, Zahra; Riaz, Amir; Perveen, Tahira

    2014-12-01

    To determine the presentation patterns, biologically vulnerable patient groups and treatment strategies of rheumatoid arthritis. The retrospective study was conducted at the Rheumatology Clinic of Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, and comprised data of rheumatology patients who presented between September 2006 and September 2012. After screening all the files, rheumatoid arthritis cases were identified. Data collection was done using a questionnaire that included patient demographics, co-morbidities, clinical manifestations and drug therapy. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 2300 files screened, 500(21.7%) related to patients of rheumatoid arthritis. The mean age at presentation of these 500 patients was 41±15 years. There were 367(73.4%) women and they presented at an earlier age compared to men (p<0.024). Erosions were present in 198(40%) patients on X-rays and 22(4.4%) had joint deformities. Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis was associated with higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels (p<0.014), but did not differ from seronegative rheumatoid arthritis in terms of Disease Activity Score-28 levels (p<0.21). The skewed gender distribution was likely an effect of rheumatoid arthritis biology rather than due to issues of healthcare accessibility. Seronegative RA is likely to present late though it is as destructive as the seropositive disease.

  7. Web-based rehabilitation interventions for people with rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Srikesavan, Cynthia; Bryer, Catherine; Ali, Usama; Williamson, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Background Rehabilitation approaches for people with rheumatoid arthritis include joint protection, exercises and self-management strategies. Health interventions delivered via the web have the potential to improve access to health services overcoming time constraints, physical limitations, and socioeconomic and geographic barriers. The objective of this review is to determine the effects of web-based rehabilitation interventions in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Randomised controlled trials that compared web-based rehabilitation interventions with usual care, waiting list, no treatment or another web-based intervention in adults with rheumatoid arthritis were included. The outcomes were pain, function, quality of life, self-efficacy, rheumatoid arthritis knowledge, physical activity and adverse effects. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and quality of evidence with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results Six source documents from four trials ( n = 567) focusing on self-management, health information or physical activity were identified. The effects of web-based rehabilitation interventions on pain, function, quality of life, self-efficacy, rheumatoid arthritis knowledge and physical activity are uncertain because of the very low quality of evidence mostly from small single trials. Adverse effects were not reported. Conclusion Large, well-designed trials are needed to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of web-based rehabilitation interventions in rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Coexistence of bronchiectasis and rheumatoid arthritis: revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilczynska, Maria M; Condliffe, Alison M; McKeon, Damian J

    2013-04-01

    The presence of bronchiectasis (BR) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been recognized for many decades; nevertheless, little research has been undertaken in this area. It is important to recognize that BR coexistent with RA differs from the other types of BR. The purpose of this descriptive review was to delineate the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, pulmonary function testing, imaging, prognosis and management of concomitant BR and RA. To inform our study we searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases, using combinations of the following key words: computed tomography, lung function tests, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchiectasis, biological agents, and interstitial lung disease. The number of published papers covering this topic is limited, but several relevant conclusions can be drawn. Patients with concomitant RA and BR have worse obstructive airways disease, increased susceptibility to recurrent pulmonary infections, faster lung function decline, and higher mortality, compared with subjects with either RA or BR alone. The use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (both biological and non-biological) for RA in RA-BR patients imparts a further challenge in managing these patients. Although there are not any published guidelines on the management of coexisting RA-BR, we have attempted to provide such recommendations, based on the literature review and our experience.

  9. Biologic interventions for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Celia; Choy, Ernest H S; Hewlett, Sarah; Kirwan, John R; Cramp, Fiona; Chalder, Trudie; Pollock, Jon; Christensen, Robin

    2016-06-06

    Fatigue is a common and potentially distressing symptom for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with no accepted evidence-based management guidelines. Evidence suggests that biologic interventions improve symptoms and signs in RA as well as reducing joint damage. To evaluate the effect of biologic interventions on fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis. We searched the following electronic databases up to 1 April 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Current Controlled Trials Register, the National Research Register Archive, The UKCRN Portfolio Database, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, Web of Science, and Dissertation Abstracts International. In addition, we checked the reference lists of articles identified for inclusion for additional studies and contacted key authors. We included randomised controlled trials if they evaluated a biologic intervention in people with rheumatoid arthritis and had self reported fatigue as an outcome measure. Two reviewers selected relevant trials, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Where appropriate, we pooled data in meta-analyses using a random-effects model. We identified 32 studies for inclusion in this current review. Twenty studies evaluated five anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologic agents (adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab and infliximab), and 12 studies focused on five non-anti-TNF biologic agents (abatacept, canakinumab, rituximab, tocilizumab and an anti-interferon gamma monoclonal antibody). All but two of the studies were double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trials. In some trials, patients could receive concomitant disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). These studies added either biologics or placebo to DMARDs. Investigators did not change the dose of the latter from baseline. In total, these studies included 9946 participants in the intervention groups and

  10. Pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis complicating rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Qarni, M U; Kohan, D E

    2000-07-01

    Necrotizing glomerulonephritis associated with rheumatoid arthritis typically occurs in the setting of frankly apparent systemic vasculitic signs and symptoms. We report two recent cases that differed from this paradigm. Both patients had rheumatoid arthritis and deteriorating renal function due to P-ANCA positive pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis, but minimal systemic symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy may have contributed to the dialysis dependence of one of these patients. We suggest that heightened suspicion of an aggressive necrotizing glomerulonephritis should be maintained in all patients with rheumatoid arthritis who present with acute renal insufficiency even in the absence of frank vasculitis.

  11. Assessing Medication Adherence in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-26

    REV1E\\\\’ER 50. "E PFlEV101JS EOmC»lS ARE C . E1E ?~e 3 01 3 FlIll!!S D ~.!!fitt Assessing Medication Adherence in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA...Background • Rheumatoid arthritis - Affecting 1-3 million Americans - Seventy percent are women - Associated with higher risk of heart disease and stroke...and Objectives Purpose: Assess medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis Objectives: 1. Primary: Assess whether there is a correlation

  12. Bilateral Cricoarytenoid Arthritis: A Cause of Recurrent Upper Airway Obstruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Pradeep; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Venkatachalam, VP

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral cricoarytenoid joint arthritis with history of rheumatoid arthritis, presented with stridor to the outpatient department. Endolaryngoscopy revealed adducted vocal cords and a nodule over left arytenoid which later confirmed to be rheumatoid nodule on histopathologic examination. Initially, although patient responded well to medical treatment, recurrence was noticed after 6 months follow-up. PMID:27418875

  13. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Celiac Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis Identifies Fourteen Non-HLA Shared Loci

    PubMed Central

    Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli A.; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Festen, Eleanora A.; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Kurreeman, Fina A. S.; Thomson, Brian; Gupta, Namrata; Romanos, Jihane; McManus, Ross; Ryan, Anthony W.; Turner, Graham; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Tucci, Francesca; Toes, Rene; Grandone, Elvira; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Rybak, Anna; Cukrowska, Bozena; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Li, Yonghong; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Klareskog, Lars; Huizinga, Tom W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiology and candidate gene studies indicate a shared genetic basis for celiac disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the extent of this sharing has not been systematically explored. Previous studies demonstrate that 6 of the established non-HLA CD and RA risk loci (out of 26 loci for each disease) are shared between both diseases. We hypothesized that there are additional shared risk alleles and that combining genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from each disease would increase power to identify these shared risk alleles. We performed a meta-analysis of two published GWAS on CD (4,533 cases and 10,750 controls) and RA (5,539 cases and 17,231 controls). After genotyping the top associated SNPs in 2,169 CD cases and 2,255 controls, and 2,845 RA cases and 4,944 controls, 8 additional SNPs demonstrated P<5×10−8 in a combined analysis of all 50,266 samples, including four SNPs that have not been previously confirmed in either disease: rs10892279 near the DDX6 gene (Pcombined = 1.2×10−12), rs864537 near CD247 (Pcombined = 2.2×10−11), rs2298428 near UBE2L3 (Pcombined = 2.5×10−10), and rs11203203 near UBASH3A (Pcombined = 1.1×10−8). We also confirmed that 4 gene loci previously established in either CD or RA are associated with the other autoimmune disease at combined P<5×10−8 (SH2B3, 8q24, STAT4, and TRAF1-C5). From the 14 shared gene loci, 7 SNPs showed a genome-wide significant effect on expression of one or more transcripts in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) block around the SNP. These associations implicate antigen presentation and T-cell activation as a shared mechanism of disease pathogenesis and underscore the utility of cross-disease meta-analysis for identification of genetic risk factors with pleiotropic effects between two clinically distinct diseases. PMID:21383967

  14. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in celiac disease and rheumatoid arthritis identifies fourteen non-HLA shared loci.

    PubMed

    Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli A; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Festen, Eleanora A; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N; Kurreeman, Fina A S; Thomson, Brian; Gupta, Namrata; Romanos, Jihane; McManus, Ross; Ryan, Anthony W; Turner, Graham; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Posthumus, Marcel D; Remmers, Elaine F; Tucci, Francesca; Toes, Rene; Grandone, Elvira; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Rybak, Anna; Cukrowska, Bozena; Coenen, Marieke J H; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van Riel, Piet L C M; Li, Yonghong; de Bakker, Paul I W; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Klareskog, Lars; Huizinga, Tom W J; Wijmenga, Cisca; Plenge, Robert M

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiology and candidate gene studies indicate a shared genetic basis for celiac disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the extent of this sharing has not been systematically explored. Previous studies demonstrate that 6 of the established non-HLA CD and RA risk loci (out of 26 loci for each disease) are shared between both diseases. We hypothesized that there are additional shared risk alleles and that combining genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from each disease would increase power to identify these shared risk alleles. We performed a meta-analysis of two published GWAS on CD (4,533 cases and 10,750 controls) and RA (5,539 cases and 17,231 controls). After genotyping the top associated SNPs in 2,169 CD cases and 2,255 controls, and 2,845 RA cases and 4,944 controls, 8 additional SNPs demonstrated P<5 × 10(-8) in a combined analysis of all 50,266 samples, including four SNPs that have not been previously confirmed in either disease: rs10892279 near the DDX6 gene (P(combined) =  1.2 × 10(-12)), rs864537 near CD247 (P(combined) =  2.2 × 10(-11)), rs2298428 near UBE2L3 (P(combined) =  2.5 × 10(-10)), and rs11203203 near UBASH3A (P(combined) =  1.1 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed that 4 gene loci previously established in either CD or RA are associated with the other autoimmune disease at combined P<5 × 10(-8) (SH2B3, 8q24, STAT4, and TRAF1-C5). From the 14 shared gene loci, 7 SNPs showed a genome-wide significant effect on expression of one or more transcripts in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) block around the SNP. These associations implicate antigen presentation and T-cell activation as a shared mechanism of disease pathogenesis and underscore the utility of cross-disease meta-analysis for identification of genetic risk factors with pleiotropic effects between two clinically distinct diseases.

  15. Living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis: a BARFOT study.

    PubMed

    Bala, Sidona-Valentina; Samuelson, Karin; Hagell, Peter; Fridlund, Bengt; Forslind, Kristina; Svensson, Björn; Thomé, Bibbi

    2017-09-01

    To describe and understand the meaning of living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis. A considerable number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis live with an ongoing active and symptomatic illness despite access to potent antirheumatic treatment. There is, however, a lack of knowledge about the meaning of living with this severe long-term illness, defined as persistent rheumatoid arthritis. A descriptive design based on a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used. Ten adults with persistent rheumatoid arthritis and at least five years disease duration were interviewed. The interviews were analysed according to van Manen's method. Living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis revealed four overall themes: an existence dominated by painful symptoms and treatment, radical changes and limitations in one's life, a continual struggle to cope with one's life and to master the illness, and a dependency on those who are close by and the world around. The lifeworld was affected to a varying extent and in various ways by the illness but also by the dependence on its treatment and care that was not experienced as sufficiently meeting needs in terms of security, access to and coordination of care as well as team and rehabilitation services. Persistent rheumatoid arthritis and its treatment entail a radical effect on the person's life and quality of life. Current ordinary rheumatology care does not seem to meet the individual needs of the person with persistent rheumatoid arthritis in an optimal way. A greater knowledge about and understanding of the person who lives with persistent rheumatoid arthritis is important for facilitating the development of care and the relief of suffering. A holistic alternative to conventional clinical practice, such as person-centred care, could be tested as an innovative model of care. Our findings might serve as material for educational and counselling purposes for healthcare professionals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Morphologic festures of cardiac lesions in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Kop'eva, T N

    1976-11-01

    Morphological examinations of the heart in cases of articulo-visceral rheumatoid arthritis revealed in 20 of the 35 conducted observations certain changes attributable to the underlying disease. The following groups of changes were revealed: 1) endocarditis; 2) myocarditis; 3) pericarditis; 4) rheumatoid nodules; 5) valvular sclerosis and mural endocarditis; 6) cardiosclerosis; 7) amyloidosis; 8) coronaritis and coronary sclerosis; 9) adhesions in the pericardial cavity. The severity of cardiac leasion in rheumatoid arthritis is determined by the involvement of the serosa into the pathological process. Inflammatory and sclerotic changes in the myocardium are predimonantly of a subepicardial and subendocardial nature, usually non-accompanied by any clear clinical symptoms, or taking a latent course. Rheumatoid nodules typical of rheumatoid arthritis, and deposits of amyloid masses in the walls of the coronary arteries are noted rarely. Changes in the heart are observed mostly in "septic", subacute rheumatoid arthritis and in Still's disease. Cardiac lesions in rheumatoid arthritis are connected with microcirculatory disorders caused by immunopathological processes.

  17. Treatment of AA amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, C; Sule, A; Mittal, G; Gaitonde, S; Pathan, E; Rajadhyaksha, S; Deshpande, R B; Gurmeet, M; Samant, R; Joshi, V R

    2002-07-01

    Four patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with biopsy confirmed AA amyloidosis were treated with chlorambucil. All had established but uncontrolled RA with a persistently raised ESR. Moderate (> 1 gm, < 3.5 gm/d) to nephrotic range (> 3.5 gm/d) proteinuria and a relatively well preserved renal function was noted in three patients. One patient had deranged renal function and required dialysis. On chlorambucil, there was complete recovery, partial improvement and no improvement in one patient each. The fourth patient required haemodialysis, did not tolerate chlorambucil and succumbed to the illness. Therapy with chlorambucil can benefit some patients of RA with AA amyloidosis. Leucopenia is the most important dose limiting side effect.

  18. Emerging role of leptin in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, G; Liang, J-N; Wang, Z-Y; Zhou, D

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested the importance of leptin against autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS) and psoriasis. To summarize our current understanding of the role of leptin in inflammatory responses and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a systematic review was conducted to assess the discrepancy of leptin in RA and its effect on immunity according to different studies. Recently, emerging data have indicated that leptin is involved in the pathological function of RA, which is common in autoimmune disorders. This review discusses the possible consequences of leptin levels in RA. Blocking the key signal pathways of leptin and inhibiting the leptin activity-like leptin antagonist may be a promising way for potential therapeutic treatment of RA at risk of detrimental effects. However, leptin was increased in patients with RA and may also regulate joint damage. Thus, more understanding of the mechanism of leptin in RA would be advantageous in the future. PMID:24802245

  19. Light scattering study of rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Beuthan, J; Netz, U; Minet, O

    The distribution of light scattered by finger joints is studied in the near-IR region. It is shown that variations in the optical parameters of the tissue (scattering coefficient {mu}{sub s}, absorption coefficient {mu}{sub a}, and anisotropy factor g) depend on the presence of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At the first stage, the distribution of scattered light was measured in diaphanoscopic experiments. The convolution of a Gaussian error function with the scattering phase function proved to be a good approximation of the data obtained. Then, a new method was developed for the reconstruction of distribution of optical parameters in the fingermore » cross section. Model tests of the quality of this reconstruction method show good results. (laser biology and medicine)« less

  20. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  1. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hollan, I; Dessein, P H; Ronda, N; Wasko, M C; Svenungsson, E; Agewall, S; Cohen-Tervaert, J W; Maki-Petaja, K; Grundtvig, M; Karpouzas, G A; Meroni, P L

    2015-10-01

    The increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been recognized for many years. However, although the characteristics of CVD and its burden resemble those in diabetes, the focus on cardiovascular (CV) prevention in RA has lagged behind, both in the clinical and research settings. Similar to diabetes, the clinical picture of CVD in RA may be atypical, even asymptomatic. Therefore, a proactive screening for subclinical CVD in RA is warranted. Because of the lack of clinical trials, the ideal CVD prevention (CVP) in RA has not yet been defined. In this article, we focus on challenges and controversies in the CVP in RA (such as thresholds for statin therapy), and propose recommendations based on the current evidence. Due to the significant contribution of non-traditional, RA-related CV risk factors, the CV risk calculators developed for the general population underestimate the true risk in RA. Thus, there is an enormous need to develop adequate CV risk stratification tools and to identify the optimal CVP strategies in RA. While awaiting results from randomized controlled trials in RA, clinicians are largely dependent on the use of common sense, and extrapolation of data from studies on other patient populations. The CVP in RA should be based on an individualized evaluation of a broad spectrum of risk factors, and include: 1) reduction of inflammation, preferably with drugs decreasing CV risk, 2) management of factors associated with increased CV risk (e.g., smoking, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, kidney disease, depression, periodontitis, hypothyroidism, vitamin D deficiency and sleep apnea), and promotion of healthy life style (smoking cessation, healthy diet, adjusted physical activity, stress management, weight control), 3) aspirin and influenza and pneumococcus vaccines according to current guidelines, and 4) limiting use of drugs that increase CV risk. Rheumatologists should take responsibility for the education of

  2. Pelvic radiotherapy in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis: Refining the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Felefly, T; Mazeron, R; Huertas, A; Canova, C H; Maroun, P; Kordahi, M; Morice, P; Deutsch, É; Haie-Méder, C; Chargari, C

    2017-04-01

    Conflicting results concerning the toxicity of radiotherapy in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis were reported in literature. This work describes the toxicity profiles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing pelvic radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies at our institution. Charts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who underwent pelvic radiotherapy for cervical or endometrial cancer in a curative intent at the Gustave-Roussy Cancer Campus between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed for treatment-related toxicities. Acute and late effects were graded as per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 scoring system. Eight patients with cervical cancer and three with endometrial cancer were identified. Median follow-up was 56 months. Median external beam radiotherapy dose was 45Gy. All patients received a brachytherapy boost using either pulse- or low-dose rate technique. Concomitant chemotherapy was used in seven cases. Median time from rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis to external beam radiation therapy was 5 years. No severe acute gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity was reported. One patient had grade 3 dermatitis. Any late toxicity occurred in 7 /11 patients, and one patient experienced severe late toxicities. One patient with overt systemic rheumatoid arthritis symptoms at the time of external beam radiation therapy experienced late grade 3 ureteral stenosis, enterocolitis and lumbar myelitis. Pelvic radiotherapy, in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis, appears to be feasible, with potentially slight increase in low grade late events compared to other anatomic sites. Patients with overt systemic rheumatoid arthritis manifestation at the time of radiotherapy might be at risk of potential severe toxicities. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Managed care implications in managing rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gary M

    2014-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory form of arthritis characterized by joint inflammation, pain, swelling, and stiffness. While contemporary treatment strategies based on early diagnosis, aggressive treatment, and regular monitoring have helped a significant number of patients achieve evidence-based treatment goals, RA still presents substantial management challenges to both clinicians and patients, and has the potential to lead to severe disability over time. In addition to its significant clinical consequences, RA has important economic implications. Both direct and indirect medical costs associated with RA are significant, including costs of medications, ambulatory and office-based care, and quality-of-life and productivity costs. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with prevalent RA have associated cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities, further compounding healthcare costs and complicating management of this disorder. Clinically favorable and cost-effective management must focus on prevention of disease progression and the improved patient health status and productivity than can result from optimal disease control. With the myriad of treatment options both available and emerging, managed care organizations are faced with difficult decisions surrounding the most clinically and cost-effective allocation of treatments designed to improve disease outcomes for patients with RA. It is vital that managed care clinicians and providers analyze both the overall burden and the specific costs of RA. This will allow a better understanding of how costs and issues relating to healthcare utilization affect the treatment of patients with RA and impact individualized therapy, care coordination, and outcomes.

  4. Home Care Guide on Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (For Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesecke, Linda L.; And Others

    The booklet, written by the medical staff of a children's hospital, provides information for parents of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Arthritis is a swelling of the joint(s) in children and lasts for over 6 weeks (sometimes many years). Aspirin is the main medicine given for JRA, and it works not only to control pain but also,…

  5. Late onset rheumatoid arthritis an observational study.

    PubMed

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta; Bahtiri, Elton; Mahmutaj, Vigan

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have an onset at older age. The onset of the disease at the age of 60 and over is called late-onset rheumatoid arthritis (LORA). The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment characteristics of patients with LORA compared to those with early-onset RA (EaORA), provided that all the patients had an approximately equal duration of the disease. This is an observational single-center study, which involved 120 patients with an established diagnosis of RA, of which 60 patients had LORA, and 60 patients EaORA. The disease activity, measured by the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28-ESR), was significantly higher in the LORA group compared to the EaORA group (p<0.05). Significantly more patients with LORA had involvement of the shoulders (LORA vs. EaORA, 30% vs. 15%; p <0.05) and knees (LORA vs. EaORA, 46.7% vs. 16.7%; p <0.05). Radiological erosive changes were significantly more frequent in the LORA group in comparison with EaORA (p <0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity (p>0.05), while the number of patients positive for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) was signifi cantly greater in the EaORA group (p<0.05). The values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were significantly higher in the LORA than in the EaORA group. Hemoglobin levels were lower in the LORA group (11.96±1.64 g/dL) than in the EaORA group (12.18±1.56 g/dL). The most used disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were methotrexate and sulfasalazine, while biological drugs were not used. In conclusion, based on the results of our study, LORA has some features that distinguish it from EaORA, such as higher disease activity, more frequent involvement of large joints, and more pronounced structural damage. This should be taken in account in clinical practice, especially regarding treatment choices.

  6. The effects of the Mediterranean diet on rheumatoid arthritis prevention and treatment: a systematic review of human prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Casuarina; Kouvari, Matina; D'Cunha, Nathan M; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Mellor, Duane D; Kellett, Jane; Naumovski, Nenad

    2018-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive autoimmune disease characterised by severely swollen and painful joints. To compliment pharmacotherapy, people living with rheumatoid arthritis often turn to dietary interventions such as the Mediterranean diet. The aim of the present systematic review is to discuss the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the management and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis in human prospective studies. Four studies met the inclusion criteria, including two intervention studies reporting improvement in the pain visual analogue scale (p < 0.05) and a decrease in the health assessment questionnaire for rheumatoid arthritis score (p < 0.05) in the Mediterranean diet groups. Only one study reported a reduction in the 28 joint count disease activity score for rheumatoid arthritis for the Mediterranean diet group (p < 0.05). This review has identified beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in reducing pain and increasing physical function in people living with rheumatoid arthritis. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to support widespread recommendation of the Mediterranean diet for prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Which is the best cutoff of body mass index to identify obesity in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis? A study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Maria Fernanda B Resende; Pinto, Maria Raquel da Costa; Raid, Renata G Santos Couto; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius Melo de; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria

    Standard anthropometric measures used to diagnose obesity in the general population may not have the same performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. To determine cutoff points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for detecting obesity in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing these standard anthropometric measures to a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based obesity criterion. Adult female patients with more than six months of diagnosis of RA underwent clinical evaluation, with anthropometric measures and body composition with DXA. Eighty two patients were included, mean age 55±10.7 years. The diagnosis of obesity in the sample was about 31.7% by BMI, 86.6% by WC and 59.8% by DXA. Considering DXA as golden standard, cutoff points were identified for anthropometric measures to better approximate DXA estimates of percent body fat: for BMI value≥25kg/m 2 was the best for definition of obesity in female patients with RA, with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 60%. For WC, with 80% of sensitivity and 35% of specificity, the best value to detect obesity was 86cm. A large percentage of patients were obese. The traditional cutoff points used for obesity were not suitable for our sample. For this female population with established RA, BMI cutoff point of 25kg/m 2 and WC cutoff point of 86cm were the most appropriate to detect obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Which is the best cutoff of body mass index to identify obesity in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis? A study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Maria Fernanda B Resende; da Costa Pinto, Maria Raquel; Raid, Renata G Santos Couto; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius Melo de; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria

    2016-02-11

    Standard anthropometric measures used to diagnose obesity in the general population may not have the same performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. To determine cutoff points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for detecting obesity in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing these standard anthropometric measures to a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based obesity criterion. Adult female patients with more than six months of diagnosis of RA underwent clinical evaluation, with anthropometric measures and body composition with DXA. Eighty two patients were included, mean age 55±10.7 years. The diagnosis of obesity in the sample was about 31.7% by BMI, 86.6% by WC and 59.8% by DXA. Considering DXA as golden standard, Cutoff points were identified for anthropometric measures to better approximate DXA estimates of percent body fat: for BMI value ≥ 25kg/m 2 was the best for definition of obesity in female patients with RA, with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 60%. For WC, with 80% of sensitivity and 35% of specificity, the best value to detect obesity was 86cm. A large percentage of patients were obese. The traditional cutoff points used for obesity were not suitable for our sample. For this female population with established RA, BMI cutoff point of 25kg/m 2 and WC cutoff point of 86cm were the most appropriate to detect obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Periodontal microbioma and rheumatoid arthritis: The role of Porhyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Azzi, L; Rania, S; Vinci, R; Spadari, F; Croveri, F; Scognamiglio, C; Farronato, D; Tettamanti, L; Tagliabue, A; Silvestre-Rangil, J; Bellintani, C

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis is a disease, which can be described as an autoimmune response after molecular mimicry caused by infective agents. The current study aims at evaluating the correlation between Rhematoid Arthritis (RA) and Periodontal Disease (PD), with special attention to the microbioma detected in the gums. Thirty-four patients with RD were recruited into the current study. Among rheumatic parameters, Rheumatoid Factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibody (CCP), HLA-BDR1 and DAS28 were collected. A dental clinician evaluated the periodontal screening record (PSR). Afterwards, 1 paper cone was inserted for 30 seconds into the gingival sulcus then sent to the laboratory for evaluation. Quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes was performed with the hydrolysis probes method to identify and evaluate the amount Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Campylobacter rectus. There were no statistical differences in the composition of oral microbioma between PSR groups. There were no statistical significant differences between bacterial loads and serum values. On the contrary, a positive correlation was found between the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal pockets on one side and RF and CCP on the other. Therefore, the presence of Porhyromonas gingivalis in periodontal pockets is associated to RA inflammatory indices.

  10. Direct immunofluorescence of normal skin in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, O M; Barnes, L; Woods, R; McHugh, L; Barry, C; O'Loughlin, S

    1985-11-01

    The clinical significance of previously described immunoglobulin and complement deposition in the superficial dermal vessel walls of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. In the present study, skin biopsies were obtained from the normal forearm and buttock of 48 unselected patients with rheumatoid arthritis and were examined by direct immunofluorescence (IF) for the presence of immunoglobulin (IgG,A,M) and complement (C3) in the vessel walls. Deposits of C3, IgM or IgG were detected in 10 patients. Five patients had deposits at the forearm sample alone, four patients had deposits at both biopsy sites, while one patient was positive at the buttock alone. Clinical features were similar in patients with and without vessel IF. However, patients with IF were significantly more seropositive with lower levels of complement and raised levels of serum IgA and IgM. There was also an increased level of circulating IgG immune complexes in these patients. Further analysis following exclusion of seronegative patients revealed similar results. This study suggests that the presence of vessel IF identifies a subgroup of patients who have evidence of more severe immunological disturbance.

  11. 78 FR 32667 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment... support the approval of drug products for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It... Drugs, Devices, and Biological Products for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA),'' published in...

  12. Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0314 TITLE: Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis ...19 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro- Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUBJECT TERMS Rheumatoid arthritis , inflammation and autoimmunity, macrophages, glucocorticoid receptor, transcriptional regulation, coactivators and

  13. Knee Arthritis Without Other Joint Symptoms in the Elderly With Seronegative Elderly Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mine, Takatomo; Ihara, Koichiro; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kuriyama, Ryutaro; Date, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Elderly onset Rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) has important clinical distinctions when compared with younger onset RA (YORA). In knee arthritis of elderly patients, infection, crystal-induced arthritis or EORA should be suspected if elevation of CRP in the preoperative examination and turbid joint effusion in their knee joint are found. Furthermore, if joint swelling and effusion remain after performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the infection after TKA, implant debris-related arthritis and EORA should be considered. However, it is difficult to diagnose patients as EORA if Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) are negative. The differential diagnosis is very important.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Humeira; Kong, Kok Ooi; Tak, Paul P

    2008-06-01

    Studies have shown that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Middle East have delayed diagnosis and low disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) utilization. We describe the characteristics and treatments of consecutive RA patients presenting to a new musculoskeletal clinic in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Demographic and clinical data were collected over a 10-month period at the first visit to our clinic for patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. A total of 100 patients were seen: (average +/- SD) age 42.2 +/- 12.3 years; female 87%; Arabs 38%, Indian 36%, Caucasian and others 26%; 73% rheumatoid-factor positive; years since diagnosis: 3.9 +/- 5.7; lag time between symptom onset to diagnosis 1.2 +/- 1.3 years and lag time to first DMARD was 1.6 +/- 2.0 years. Mean tender joint count was 8.9 +/- 7.9, mean swollen joint count 9.0 +/- 7.6, mean patient's global assessment of disease activity 57.4 +/- 25.0 mm, mean ESR 33 +/- 25 mm/h, mean DAS28 5.2 +/- 1.6, physician global assessment 55.0 +/- 23.8. Only 43% were on DMARDs (25% MTX, 5% TNF blockers). Among the patients who were not on DMARD, only 28.1% had disease duration less than 1 year (p = <0.01). Erosions were present in 55.2% of patients with available X-rays, and deformities in 26% of patients. There were no racial differences in disease characteristics. The UAE has a unique population with many races residing in the country. Among the first 100 consecutive patients seen at our clinic, there were no significant differences in disease characteristics with the majority of the patients having very active disease, delayed diagnosis, and not being treated with DMARDs.

  15. Focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Harper, L; Cockwell, P; Howie, A J; Michael, J; Richards, N T; Savage, C O; Wheeler, D C; Bacon, P A; Adu, D

    1997-02-01

    We report ten patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed a focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis (FSNGN) and extracapillary proliferation typical of vasculitic glomerulonephritis. Five patients also had extrarenal vasculitis. Renal presentation was with renal impairment (n = 9) (median creatinine 726 mumol/l, range 230-1592 mumol/l), microscopic haematuria (n = 8) and proteinuria (n = 10). Nine patients were seropositive for rheumatoid factor and nine had bone erosions. Serum from four of five patients tested by indirect immunofluorescence was positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) with perinuclear staining. Only three patients had penicillamine or gold therapy. Treatment was with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide (six patients, two of whom were also plasma-exchanged), prednisolone and azathioprine (two patients) and prednisolone alone (two patients). There was a marked improvement in renal function in eight patients. Two patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure recovered renal function, although in one patient this was transient and she required further dialysis 4 months later. Two other patients progressed to dialysis at 3 months and 1 year respectively. Four patients died, one remains dialysis-dependent, and four continue to have good renal function at 5 year follow-up (median creatinine 148.5 mumol/l, range 120-193 mumol/l). One patient was lost to follow-up at 5 years. FSNGN should be considered in all patients with RA and renal impairment, proteinuria and/or microscopic haematuria. This diagnosis appears to be more likely in patients with clinical extrarenal vasculitis, bone erosions or who are seropositive. In these cases, an urgent renal biopsy is indicated.

  16. Ghrelin gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Metin; Koca, Suleyman Serdar; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Yuce, Huseyin; Aydin, Suleyman; Isik, Ahmet

    2011-07-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous orexigenic peptide, has anti-inflammatory effects, down-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, and its altered levels are reported in various inflammatory diseases. The human preproghrelin (ghrelin/obestatin) gene shows several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, Gln90Leu, and A-501C. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, and clinical significance, of these four SNPs in a small cohort of Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 103 patients with RA and 103 healthy controls. In the RA group, disease activity and disease-related damage were assessed using the Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28), and the modified Larsen scoring (MLS) methods. In all the participants, genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequencies of ghrelin gene SNPs were 82.5 and 79.6% in the RA and control groups, respectively, and there were no significant differences in terms of genotype distributions and allele frequencies for these four SNPs between the groups. However, the A-501C SNP was found to be associated with early disease onset, and Gln90Leu SNP with less frequent rheumatoid factor positivity, in the RA group. A-501C SNP is associated with earlier onset of RA suggesting that genetic variations in the ghrelin gene may have an impact on RA. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Subacromial bursitis with giant rice bodies as initial presentation of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Ramesh; Tan, Justina Wei Lyn; Chau, Cora Yuk Ping; Lee, Keng Thiam

    2012-10-01

    Rice body formation is a nonspecific response to chronic synovial inflammation associated with tuberculous arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative inflammatory arthritis, and even osteoarthritis. Such bodies were termed rice bodies because of their close resemblance to grains of polished white rice. We present a case report of a middle-aged woman with right shoulder subacromial/subdeltoid bursitis with giant rice body formation as her initial presentation of rheumatoid arthritis. Her right shoulder symptoms resolved after subacromial and subdeltoid bursectomy and removal of the rice bodies. She subsequently developed inflammatory arthritis of other joints, met the criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and has been treated medically.

  18. Sleep Loss Exacerbates Fatigue, Depression, and Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; FitzGerald, John D.; Ranganath, Veena K.; Nicassio, Perry M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Disturbances of sleep are hypothesized to contribute to pain. However, experimental data are limited to healthy pain-free individuals. This study evaluated the effect of sleep loss during part of the night on daytime mood symptoms and pain perceptions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in comparison with control subjects. Design: A between-groups laboratory study with assessment of mood symptoms and pain perception before and after partial night sleep deprivation (PSD; awake 23:00 hr to 03:00 hr). Setting: General clinical research center. Participants: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 27) and volunteer comparison control subjects (n = 27). Measurements: Subjective reports of sleep, mood symptoms and pain, polysomnographic assessment of sleep continuity, and subjective and objective assessment of rheumatoid arthritis-specific joint pain. Results: PSD induced differential increases in self-reported fatigue (P < 0.09), depression (P < 0.04), anxiety (P < 0.04), and pain (P < 0.01) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with responses in control subjects, in whom differential increases of self-reported pain were independent of changes in mood symptoms, subjective sleep quality, and objective measures of sleep fragmentation. In the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, PSD also induced increases in disease-specific activity as indexed by self-reported pain severity (P < 0.01) and number of painful joints (P < 0.02) as well as clinician-rated joint counts (P < 0.03). Conclusion: This study provides the first evidence of an exaggerated increase in symptoms of mood and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after sleep loss, along with an activation of rheumatoid arthritis-related joint pain. Given the reciprocal relationship between sleep disturbances and pain, clinical management of pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis should include an increased focus on the prevention and treatment of sleep disturbance in this clinical

  19. Response of human rheumatoid arthritis osteoblasts and osteoclasts to adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Grit; Junker, Susann; Meier, Florian M P; Rickert, Markus; Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Rehart, Stefan; Lange, Uwe; Frommer, Klaus W; Schett, Georg; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neumann, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an effector molecule in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis, e.g. by inducing cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes in synovial fibroblasts. There is growing evidence that adiponectin affects osteoblasts and osteoclasts although the contribution to the aberrant bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis is unclear. Therefore, the adiponectin effects on rheumatoid arthritis-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts were evaluated. Adiponectin and its receptors were examined in bone tissue. Primary human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were stimulated with adiponectin and analysed using realtime polymerase chain-reaction and immunoassays. Effects on matrix-production by osteoblasts and differentiation and resorptive activity of osteoclasts were examined. Immunohistochemistry of rheumatoid arthritis bone tissue showed adiponectin expression in key cells of bone remodelling. Adiponectin altered gene expression and cytokine release in osteoblasts and increased IL-8 secretion by osteoclasts. Adiponectin inhibited osterix and induced osteoprotegerin mRNA in osteoblasts. In osteoclasts, MMP-9 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase expression was increased. Accordingly, mineralisation capacity of osteoblasts decreased whereas resorptive activity of osteoclasts increased. The results confirm the proinflammatory potential of adiponectin and support the idea that adiponectin influences rheumatoid arthritis bone remodelling through alterations in osteoblast and osteoclast.

  20. Identification of transcription regulatory relationships in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guofeng; Han, Ning; Li, Zengchun; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is recognized as the most crippling or disabling type of arthritis, and osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. These diseases severely reduce the quality of life, and cause high socioeconomic burdens. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA and OA development remain elusive despite intensive research efforts. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential transcription regulatory relationships between transcription factors (TFs) and differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) in RA and OA, respectively. We downloaded the gene expression profiles of RA and OA from the Gene Expression Omnibus and analyzed the gene expression using computational methods. We identified a set of 4,076 DCGs in pairwise comparisons between RA and OA patients, RA and normal donors (NDs), or OA and ND. After regulatory network construction and regulatory impact factor analysis, we found that EGR1, NFE2L1, and NFYA were crucial TFs in the regulatory network of RA and NFYA, CBFB, CREB1, YY1 and PATZ1 were crucial TFs in the regulatory network of OA. These TFs could regulate the DCGs expression to involve RA and OA by promoting or inhibiting their expression. Altogether, our work may extend our understanding of disease mechanisms and may lead to an improved diagnosis. However, further experiments are still needed to confirm these observations.

  1. Chinese Registry of rheumatoid arthritis (CREDIT): II. prevalence and risk factors of major comorbidities in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shangyi; Li, Mengtao; Fang, Yongfei; Li, Qin; Liu, Ju; Duan, Xinwang; Liu, Yi; Wu, Rui; Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Yongfu; Jiang, Zhenyu; Wang, Yanhong; Yu, Chen; Wang, Qian; Tian, Xinping; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients are at higher risk of developing comorbidities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of major comorbidities in Chinese rheumatoid arthritis patients. We also aimed to identify factors associated with these comorbidities. Baseline demographic, clinical characteristics and comorbidity data from RA patients enrolled in the Chinese Registry of rhEumatoiD arthrITis (CREDIT) from Nov 2016 to August 2017 were presented and compared with those from five other registries across the world. Possible factors related to three major comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, fragility fracture and malignancy) were identified using multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 13,210 RA patients were included (80.6% female, mean age 52.9 years and median RA duration 4.0 years). Baseline prevalence rates of major comorbidities were calculated: CVD, 2.2% (95% CI 2.0-2.5%); fragility fracture, 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-1.9%); malignancy, 0.6% (95% CI 0.5-0.7%); overall major comorbidities, 4.2% (95% CI 3.9-4.6%). Advanced age was associated with all comorbidities. Male gender and disease duration were positively related to CVD. Female sex and longer disease duration were potential risk factors for fragility fractures. Ever use of methotrexate (MTX) was negatively related to baseline comorbidities. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis in China have similar prevalence of comorbidities with other Asian countries. Advanced age and long disease duration are possible risk factors for comorbidities. On the contrary, MTX may protect RA patients from several major comorbidities, supporting its central role in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. What are the dominant cytokines in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Ridgley, Laura A.; Anderson, Amy E.; Pratt, Arthur G.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease of evolving immune dysregulation that culminates in joint destruction and disability. The principle by which pro-inflammatory cytokines may be therapeutically targeted to abrogate disease is well established, but has yet to translate into reliable cures for patients. Emerging insights into cytokine-mediated pathobiology during rheumatoid arthritis development are reviewed, and their implications for future treatment strategies considered. Recent findings Accumulating data highlight cytokine perturbations before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Some of these have now been linked to the arthritogenic activation of autoantibodies and associated pain and bone destruction in affected joints. These observations suggest cytokines may trigger the transition from systemic immunity to arthritis. Cytokine exposure could furthermore ‘prime’ synovial stromal cells to perpetuate a dominant pro-inflammatory environment. By facilitating cross-talk between infiltrating immune cells and even sustaining ectopic lymphoid structure development in some cases, cytokine interplay ultimately underpins the failure of arthritis to resolve. Summary Successful therapeutic stratification will depend upon an increasingly sophisticated appreciation of how dominant players amongst cytokine networks vary across time and anatomical space during incipient rheumatoid arthritis. The prize of sustained remission for all patients justifies the considerable effort required to achieve this understanding. PMID:29206659

  3. [Current concepts of pharmacotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Balabanova, R M

    2003-01-01

    Although there were essential achievements in understanding the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the mentioned pathologies still remain one of the most complicated problems in practical medicine. Rheumatologists arrived, during the last decade, at a conclusion on a need in an early aggressive therapy, because the destructive changes develop in joints yet during the first 4 months starting from the onset of initial RA clinical signs. The approach towards treatment by non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs changed with respect to the risk factors related with the onset of potential complications and to choosing the safest drugs, which became possible owing to the development of drugs, whose action is aimed at suppression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COG-2). The group of "disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs" (DMARD) was added two new cytotoxic drugs, i.e. cyclosporin A and leflunomid. A concept of combined therapy by 2 or 3 DMARD was elaborated to ensure an effect in case of tolerance to monotherapy. The feasibility and safety of therapy by glucocorticosteroids both with small daily doses and with pulse therapy in extra aggressive RA variations were proven. The use of biological agents, i.e. of monoclonal antibodies to TNF alpha and IL-4 or of their receptors antagonists, is an absolutely new trend in RA treatment. Treatment safety is in the focus of attention; monitoring methods were designed to ensure such safety.

  4. Sarilumab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Simon Cooper has >18 years of global experience in the pharmaceutical industry. He joined Sanofi in July 2014 as the Vice President, Global Project Head. In his current position at Sanofi, Dr Cooper is responsible for the clinical development of sarilumab and the worldwide submission in rheumatoid arthritis. He joined Sanofi after serving as the Global Program Medical Director at Novartis since 2012. In this role, Dr Cooper acted as the clinical lead for secukinumab psoriasis submission. Prior to Novartis, Dr Cooper held various posts at Human Genome Sciences, USA, including Executive Director of Clinical Research, Senior Director of Clinical Research and Director of Clinical Research. During his tenure at Human Genome Sciences, USA, Dr Cooper was involved in the submission of belimumab leading to its approval for SLE, and was responsible for its subsequent clinical development program. Dr Cooper has also previously held positions at MedImmune Ltd, UK, Roche, Napp Pharmaceutical Research Ltd, Wyeth Research and Medeval Ltd. In these roles, his responsibilities ranged from medical oversight of clinical trials to medical support for commercial, medical affairs and business development. He received a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery from University of Newcastle upon Tyne Medical School.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Balandraud, Nathalie; Roudier, Jean

    2018-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases, with a 0.5% worldwide prevalence. The cause of RA remains unknown, however both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its development. Among these is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here, we discuss several aspects of the close relationship between EBV and RA. Patients with RA have impaired control of EBV infection. Indeed, they have high titres of antibodies against EBV antigens. Their peripheral blood T lymphocytes are less efficient at controlling the outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells. RA patients have more EBV-infected B cells than normal controls, leading to a 10-fold systemic EBV overload. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLPD) is a polyclonal EBV-positive B lymphocyte proliferation, which can evolve into an EBV-positive B cell lymphoma. RA patients also have an increased risk of developing EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). Hence the need to monitor EBV load when treating RA patients with immunosuppressors. EBV, a widespread virus, highly recognized by antibodies but never eliminated, is an ideal candidate to trigger chronic immune complex disease. Anti-EBV antibody responses should be considered as one of the chronic autoantibody responses linked to the development of RA, in the same way as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing Rheumatoid Arthritis with Dietary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Shweta; Jaiswal, Kumar Sagar; Gupta, Bhawna

    2017-01-01

    Self-help by means of dietary interventions can help in management of various disorders including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a debilitating autoimmune disease. Dietary interventions necessitate a widespread appeal for both patients as well as clinicians due to factors including affordability, accessibility, and presence of scientific evidences that demonstrate substantial benefits in reducing disease symptoms such as pain, joint stiffness, swelling, tenderness and associated disability with disease progression. However, there is still an uncertainty among the community about the therapeutic benefits of dietary manipulations for RA. In the present review, we provide an account of different diets and their possible molecular mechanism of actions inducing observed therapeutic benefits for remission and management of RA. We further indicate food that can be a potential aggravating factor for the disease or may help in symptomatic relief. We thereafter summarize and thereby discuss various diets and food which help in reducing levels of inflammatory cytokines in RA patients that may play an effective role in management of RA following proper patient awareness. We thus would like to promote diet management as a tool that can both supplement and complement present treatment strategies for a better patient health and recovery. PMID:29167795

  7. Understanding emerging treatment paradigms in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will continue to evolve as new drugs are developed, as new data become available, and as our potential to achieve greater and more consistent outcomes becomes more routine. Many patients will find both symptom relief and modest control of their disease with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), yet this course of therapy is clearly not effective in all patients. In fact, despite strong evidence that intensive treatment in the early stages of RA can slow or stop disease progression and may prevent disability, many patients continue to be managed in a stepwise manner and are treated with an ongoing monotherapy regimen with DMARDs. There is now a large body of evidence demonstrating the success of treating RA patients with anti-TNF therapy, usually in combination with methotrexate. As a result of the increased use of anti-TNF therapy, treatment paradigms have changed – and our practice is beginning to reflect this change. In the present review, we summarize the salient points of several recently proposed and emerging treatment paradigms with an emphasis on how these strategies may impact future practice. PMID:21624182

  8. Understanding emerging treatment paradigms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Combe, Bernard

    2011-05-25

    Treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will continue to evolve as new drugs are developed, as new data become available, and as our potential to achieve greater and more consistent outcomes becomes more routine. Many patients will find both symptom relief and modest control of their disease with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), yet this course of therapy is clearly not effective in all patients. In fact, despite strong evidence that intensive treatment in the early stages of RA can slow or stop disease progression and may prevent disability, many patients continue to be managed in a stepwise manner and are treated with an ongoing monotherapy regimen with DMARDs. There is now a large body of evidence demonstrating the success of treating RA patients with anti-TNF therapy, usually in combination with methotrexate. As a result of the increased use of anti-TNF therapy, treatment paradigms have changed - and our practice is beginning to reflect this change. In the present review, we summarize the salient points of several recently proposed and emerging treatment paradigms with an emphasis on how these strategies may impact future practice.

  9. Current treatment paradigms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fries, J F

    2000-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has traditionally been treated using the pyramid approach, in which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the first-line treatment and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are introduced relatively late in the disease. This approach is no longer valid. Previously regarded as a benign disease, RA is now recognized as causing substantial morbidity and mortality, as do the NSAIDs used in treatment. DMARDs are more effective in controlling the pain and disability of RA than NSAIDs, and are often no more toxic. The current treatment paradigm emphasizes early, consistent use of DMARDs. A 'sawtooth' strategy of DMARD use has been proposed, in which a rising but low level of disability triggers a change in therapy. Determining the most clinically useful DMARD combinations and the optimal sequence of DMARD use requires effectiveness studies, Bayesian approaches and analyses of long-term outcomes. Such approaches will allow optimization of multiple drug therapies in RA, and should substantially improve the long-term outcome for many patients.

  10. Filgotinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter C; Abdul Azeez, Maha; Kiriakidis, Serafim

    2017-10-01

    Biologics were the first targeted therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), having in common high clinical efficacy. Being proteins, they are administered parenterally. The first oral targeted small molecules approved for RA are competitive inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK) enzyme family which mediate signalling for a cytokine subset important in RA pathogenesis. Areas covered: Several JAK inhibitors have been developed with differing selectivity for the four JAK enzymes with a view to generating oral, multi-cytokine inhibitors. Here we review the pharmacology and clinical trial data for efficacy and safety of filgotinib, an investigational selective JAK1 inhibitor. We contextualise the contemporary approach to RA management and substantial unmet needs that remain. Expert opinion: The selectivity of filgotinib for JAK1 may have theoretical advantages in terms of limiting toxicity. However, establishing whether this is so before larger numbers of patients are exposed in phase III and beyond in the real word setting, will be difficult. Filgotinib clinical trial data to date has been encouraging with rapid, sustained efficacy with promising safety and tolerability. We are likely to see an expanding choice of approved JAK inhibitors in the clinic but it may not be straightforward to distinguish safety and efficacy differences.

  11. Clocking in: chronobiology in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Buttgereit, Frank; Smolen, Josef S; Coogan, Andrew N; Cajochen, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Circadian rhythms are of crucial importance for cellular and physiological functions of the brain and body. Chronobiology has a prominent role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with major symptoms such as joint pain and stiffness being most pronounced in the morning, possibly mediated by circadian rhythms of cytokine and hormone levels. Chronobiological principles imply that tailoring the timing of treatments to the circadian rhythm of individual patients (chronotherapy) could optimize results. Trials of NSAID or methotrexate chronotherapy for patients with RA suggest such an approach can improve outcomes and reduce adverse effects. The most compelling evidence for RA chronotherapy, however, is that coordinating the timing of glucocorticoid therapy to coincide with the nocturnal increase in blood IL-6 levels results in reduced morning stiffness and pain compared with the same glucocorticoid dose taken in the morning. Aside from optimizing relief of the core symptoms of RA, chronotherapy might also relieve important comorbid conditions such as depression and sleep disturbances. Surprisingly, chronobiology is not mentioned in official guidelines for conducting RA drug registration trials. Given the imperative to achieve the best value with approved drugs and health budgets, the time is ripe to translate the 'circadian concept' in rheumatology from bench to bedside.

  12. Chronobiology and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio

    2012-05-01

    As circadian rhythms and biological signaling occur in a complex network with cyclical 24-h period interactions (chronobiology) between the central and the autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine glands and the immune system, this review will explore the involvement of this emerging network in the disease pathophysiology and management. Recent advances regarding nocturnal hormones such as melatonin and prolactin that activate the nighttime immune response, and the successive rise of cortisol that dowregulates the ongoing immune reactivity very early in the morning, will be discussed within the circadian neuroendocrine immune network. In addition, the role of sleep and the daily distribution of body energy, which are important factors for the homoeostatic regulation of circadian physiological/pathological processes of the immune network will be reviewed.In chronic immune/inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), stiffness and functional disability are evident in the early morning hours as under the chronic stress of the disease the nighttime adrenal cortisol production becomes insufficient to inhibit ongoing nocturnal immune/inflammatory activity. Currently, the most advanced approach to optimizing the risk-benefit ratio for long-term glucocorticoid treatment in RA seems to be low-dose chronotherapy with modified nighttime release prednisone (release at 3 a.m.). A similar chronotherapeutical approach could also be effective with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate.

  13. Current drug therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    The etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains unclear at present, but advances have been made in the drug therapy for RA. Recent attention has been focused on selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that inhibit a subtype of cyclooxygenase. Various clinical studies have confirmed that the selective COX-2 inhibitors cause fewer severe gastrointestinal complications, although an increased incidence of myocardial infarction was suggested. Terminal enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade, such as membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase, might be a target for new NSAIDs in the near future. Low-dose glucocorticoid treatment for RA has been reconsidered possibly to prevent articular destruction of RA. Special attention for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis by concomitant administration of bisphosphonates might be necessary. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs should be effective in delaying the progression of joint destruction and physical disability. Methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and leflunomide have shown such an effect. Inhibition of articular destruction was also proven by administration of the biologic agents etanercept and infliximab plus methotrexate. Tuberculosis complicated with infliximab therapy is one of the most important concerns in Japan. Agents that improve the quality of life of patients with RA are still needed.

  14. Infliximab in active early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Breedveld, F; Emery, P; Keystone, E; Patel, K; Furst, D; Kalden, J; St, C; Weisman, M; Smolen, J; Lipsky, P; Maini, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of the combination of infliximab plus methotrexate (MTX) on the progression of structural damage in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Subanalyses were carried out on data for patients with early RA in the Anti-TNF Therapy in RA with Concomitant Therapy (ATTRACT) study, in which 428 patients with active RA despite MTX therapy received placebo with MTX (MTX-only) or infliximab 3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every (q) 4 or 8 weeks with MTX (infliximab plus MTX) for 102 weeks. Early RA was defined as disease duration of 3 years or less; 82 of the 428 patients (19%) met this definition. Structural damage was assessed with the modified van der Heijde-Sharp score. The changes from baseline to week 102 in total modified van der Heijde-Sharp score were compared between the infliximab plus MTX groups and the MTX-only group. Results: The erosion and joint space narrowing scores from baseline to week 102 in the cohort of patients with early RA decreased significantly in each infliximab dose regimen compared with the MTX-only regimen. Consistent benefit was seen in the joints of both hands and feet. Conclusions: Infliximab combined with MTX inhibited the progression of structural damage in patients with early RA during the 2 year period of treatment. Early intervention with infliximab in patients with active RA despite MTX therapy may provide long term benefits by preventing radiographic progression and preserving joint integrity. PMID:14722203

  15. Annual costs of rheumatoid arthritis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Malhan, Simten; Akbulut, Lale Aktekin; Bodur, Hatice; Tulunay, Cankat F

    2010-03-01

    Objective of the present study is aimed to determine costs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) based on reimbursement agencies perspective [Social Security Institution (SSI)] in Turkey. The international clinical guidelines for RA are followed for analysing the direct costs. Data were collected from hospital bills, social security institution price lists, and Ministry of Health drug price list. Direct costs of RA patients were estimated as euro 2,669.14 patient/year. Outpatient costs were found to be euro 240.40. Routine tests during the year were calculated as euro 98.85. Ten percent of patients are hospitalized per year, and 0.62% of these patients received arthroplasty and/or other interventions. The cost during hospital stay was euro 87.76. euro 2,238 was determined as being paid per year for medication alone (including anti-TNF) and euro 4 is spent on auxiliary materials annually. Our data show a remarkable economic impact of RA over society. We hope that the cost of RA studies will help package price practices for reimbursement agencies.

  16. [Rheumatoid arthritis as a connective tissue disease].

    PubMed

    Targońska-Stępniak, Bożena

    2018-01-01

    The available data indicate that seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops as a result of systemic, autoimmune reaction directed against a range of "self" peptides/proteins that have undergone specific forms of post-translational modification. The development and progress of autoimmunity may be triggered by non-specific, local inflammatory processes outside the joints, for example in the oral or respiratory mucous membrane. The disease occurs in genetically susceptible individuals under the influence of environmental risk factors that promote autoimmunity and consequently the inflammatory process. Smoking is particularly linked with RA pathogenesis. Synovitis of multiple, symmetrical, peripheral joints is the most typical feature of RA which results in irreversible damage to joints structure and as a consequence in disability of patients. However, the inflammatory process in the course of RA has a systemic, constitutional nature. Therefore, extra-articular symptoms with internal organ involvement may occur additionally to synovitis, what is an unfavorable prognostic factor. Extra-articular manifestations of RA are associated with the high disease activity both inflammatory and immunological. They occur in patients with severe form of the disease and contribute to a significant lifespan reduction. This is usually associated with progressive atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The systemic inhibition of an abnormal immune system activity is the mainstay of the effective RA treatment. The currently used disease modifying antirheumatic drugs affect the activity and function of different constituents of the immune system, including B and T lymphocytes and the main pro-inflammatory cytokines, and contribute to autoimmune and inflammatory processes.

  17. Baricitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Satoshi; Nakayamada, Shingo; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by systemic synovitis causing joint destruction. With the development of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and combination of conventional DMARDs, clinical remission is perceived as an appropriate and realistic goal in many patients. However, bDMARDs require intravenous or subcutaneous injection and some patients fail to respond to bDMARDs or lose their primary response. Under the circumstances, targeted synthetic DMARDs (tsDMARDs), which are orally available low-molecular weight products, have been emerging. Five phase 3 trials of Baricitinib, a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, have been performed and showed high clinical efficacy in patients with active RA and naïve to sDMARDs or an inadequate response to sDMARDs, MTX or bDMARDs. There was a favorable response for clinical and functional parameters in studies with placebo, MTX and adalimumab as comparator. It is also reported that safety was tolerable within the limited study period. We here review the recent progress in the development of baricitinib and its potential for the treatment of RA. Expert commentary: Although baricitinib is only one of the highly effective DMARDs that has a new mode of action, it will bring new concepts for rheumatology in the future.

  18. Symmetrical primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Fatma Elif; Karaduman, Ayşen; Hürmüz, Pervin; Ozyar, Enis; Barişta, Ibrahim; Sağlam, Arzu

    2010-05-01

    Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL) is an indolent low grade B cell lymphoma of the skin, with lack of extracutaneous involvement at the time of diagnosis. Herein we report the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed symmetrical PCMZL lesions on both ear lobes. Lesions occurring symmetrically on ear lobes are more specific for cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) and this kind of symmetrical localization hasn't been reported for PCMZL before. PCMZL is considered to arise from a background of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and this case point out the concept of CLH and PCMZL spectrum. Association of marginal zone lymphoma with rheumatoid arthritis and resolution of lesions together with the resolution of symptoms due to rheumatoid arthritis after rituximab therapy is another interesting point for this case. To the best of our knowledge PCMZL associated with RA has not been reported previously.

  19. The development of a questionnaire to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis patient's knowledge about methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Fayet, Françoise; Savel, Carine; Rodere, Malory; Pereira, Bruno; Abdi, Dihya; Mathieu, Sylvain; Tournadre, Anne; Soubrier, Martin; Dubost, Jean-Jacques

    2016-03-01

    Assess knowledge concerning methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients by means of a questionnaire. Methotrexate is the standard drug for rheumatoid arthritis treatment. It has potentially serious side effects that can be largely prevented by making sure that patients are well informed and comply with prescription guidelines. Cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire on methotrexate (mode of action, administration, drug interactions), side effects, monitoring and lifestyle implications was offered to all the rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with the drug seen between March and September 2013 in a large hospital in France. One hundred and eighty-three patients (143 women), mean age 60 (13·5) years, with a median disease duration of 12 years [7-20] and treated with methotrexate for eight years [5-13] took part. Methotrexate was identified as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug by 78% of the patients. The weekly administration method was well assimilated (97%); 67% indicated that the rationale for folic acid was to reduce treatment toxicity. Only 21% knew that trimethoprim was contraindicated. Half were aware of the haematologic risk and 36% were aware of the risk of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. There was knowledge concerning laboratory testing (80%), but 54% thought they were only being monitored for rheumatoid arthritis activity. Only 13% of the men, but 90% of the women, of childbearing age knew that contraception was essential, and 75% indicated that alcohol consumption should be limited. A low knowledge score correlated significantly with age and low educational level. It was independent of sex, duration of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis patient's knowledge concerning methotrexate is poor, particularly for the most serious side effects (haematologic and hypersensitivity pneumonitis), interactions with trimethoprim, and in men, the need for contraception. Patient knowledge concerning methotrexate should be regularly checked and

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease caused by periodontal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ogrendik, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    A statistically significant association between periodontal disease (PD) and systemic diseases has been identified. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, exhibits similar characteristics and pathogenesis to PD. The association between RA and PD has been investigated, and numerous publications on this subject exist. Approximately 20 bacterial species have been identified as periodontal pathogens, and these organisms are linked to various types of PD. The most analyzed species of periodontopathic bacteria are Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Antibodies and DNA from these oral pathogens have been isolated from the sera and synovial fluids of RA patients. This rapid communication describes the role of periodontal pathogens in the etiopathogenesis of RA. PMID:23737674

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis in a rural South African Negro population.

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, P; Solomon, L; Valkenburg, H A

    1975-01-01

    (1) An epidemiological study of a rural African community has been carried out in the Western Transvaal. Altogether 801 respondents over 15 years old were examined; radiographs of the hands and feet were obtained in all these individuals. Serological tests for rheumatoid factor were carried out on 516 blood samples. (2) The diagnosis of inflammatory polyarthritis was based on a modification of the Rome Criteria of 1961. Two categories were defined: 'definite' and 'probable' rheumatoid arthritis. (3) In this population inflammatory polyarthritis was much less common and much milder in its manifestations than in European and American peoples. The prevalence of 'definite' rheumatoid arthritis was 0.12% and of 'definite' and 'probable' rheumatoid arthritis combined, 0.87. Such changes as were encountered on clinical and radiological examination were invariably mild; no respondent in the entire survey had clinical features that would have been accepted in the ordinary way as those of rheumatoid arthritis. (4) The latex fixation test (LFT) was positive in 8.9% of the sera tested; the modified LFT aftaer inactivation of the serum at 56 degrees C was positive in 15.1% of cases. Similar findings in West African populations have been explained on the basis of alteration of the immune response by widespread parasitic infections. No obvious aetiological factor of this type was found in the present survey. PMID:1137440

  2. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging trends in diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Birch, James T; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2010-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the joints causing pain and stiffness, pathologically characterized by chronic synovitis. Without proper treatment, it progresses to cause joint deformity that results in significant loss of function. Extra-articular disease can also occur, which exacerbates morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Patients from all age groups can acquire the disease, hence the additional categories of juvenile onset and elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are the mainstay of therapy, and should be initiated as early as possible in the course of the disease in consultation with a rheumatologist. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and the immune response

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    The interrelationship among lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils appears to be an important aspect of the synovial inflammation that is characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis. In a study comparing gold sodium aurothiomalate (GST) with auranofin (Au), an orally absorbed compound, both appeared to inhibit the disease process and no difference between parenteral and oral administration was observed. Another study involved two groups of nine patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis. One group underwent plasmapheresis. The second group underwent total lymphoid irradiation. Both agents appeared to inhibit the disease process. Plasmapheresis was better tolerated that irradiation.

  5. The role of exercise in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Metsios, George S; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonis; Kitas, George D

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with significant functional impairment and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Along with pharmacological therapy, exercise seems to be a very promising intervention to improve disease-related outcomes, including functional ability and systemic manifestations, such as the increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we discuss the physiological mechanisms by which exercise improves inflammation, cardiovascular risk and psychological health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and describe in detail how exercise can be incorporated in the management of this disease using real examples from our clinical practice.

  6. Coeliac Disease With Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unusual Association.

    PubMed

    Warjri, Synrang Batngen; Ete, Tony; Beyong, Taso; Barman, Bhupen; Lynrah, Kyrshanlang G; Nobin, Hage; Perme, Obang

    2015-02-01

    Coeliac disease has a significant association with many autoimmune disorders. It shares many common genetic and immunological features with other autoimmune diseases. Gluten, a gut-derived antigen, is the driver of the autoimmunity seen in coeliac disease. The altered intestinal permeability found in coeliac patients, coupled with a genetic predisposition and altered immunological response, may result in a systemic immune response that is directed against sites other than the gut. Gut-derived antigens may have a role in the pathogenesis of other autoimmune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. Here we report a case of adult coeliac disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma with Polyarthritis Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yachoui, Ralph; Farooq, Nouman; Amos, Jonathan V; Shaw, Gene R

    2016-12-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). AITL typically presents with lymphadenopathy, fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and rarely polyarthritis. We report the case of a 50-year-old female who presented with lymphadenopathy, rash, and symmetric polyarthritis. She was later diagnosed with AITL and was treated with chemotherapy with resolution of arthritis. AITL should be suspected in paitents presenting with rheumatoid-like arthritis and diffuse lymphadenopathy. © 2016 Marshfield Clinic.

  8. Comprehensive assessment of rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in a large psoriatic arthritis cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, John; Ho, Pauline; Flynn, Edw; Ali, Faisal; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Coates, Laura C; Warren, Rich B; McManus, Ross; Ryan, Anthony W; Kane, David; Korendowych, Eleanor; McHugh, Neil; FitzGerald, Oliver; Packham, Jonathon; Morgan, Ann W; Bruce, Ian N; Barton, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Objective A number of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility genes have been identified in recent years. Given the overlap in phenotypic expression of synovial joint inflammation between RA and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the authors explored whether RA susceptibility genes are also associated with PsA. Methods 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to 41 genes previously reported as RA susceptibility loci were selected for investigation. PsA was defined as an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis and subjects were recruited from the UK and Ireland. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassArray platform and frequencies compared with data derived from large UK control collections. Results Significant evidence for association with susceptibility to PsA was found toa SNP mapping to the REL (rs13017599, ptrend=5.2×104) gene, while nominal evidence for association (ptrend<0.05) was found to seven other loci including PLCL2 (rs4535211, p=1.7×10−3); STAT4 (rs10181656, p=3.0×10−3) and the AFF3, CD28, CCL21, IL2 and KIF5A loci. Interestingly, three SNPs demonstrated opposite effects to those reported for RA. Conclusions The REL gene, a key modulator of the NFκB pathway, is associated with PsA but the allele conferring risk to RA is protective in PsA suggesting that there are fundamental differences in the aetiological mechanisms underlying these two types of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:22328738

  9. Tofacitinib: A Review in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2017-12-01

    Tofacitinib (Xeljanz ® ) is a potent, selective JAK inhibitor that preferentially inhibits Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and JAK3. In the EU, oral tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant of, one or more DMARDs. Several clinical studies of ≤ 24 months' duration showed that tofacitinib monotherapy (as first- or second-line treatment) and combination therapy with a conventional synthetic DMARD (csDMARD; as second- or third-line treatment) was effective in reducing signs and symptoms of disease and improving health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), with benefits sustained during long-term therapy (≤ 96 months). Tofacitinib monotherapy inhibited progression of structural damage in methotrexate-naïve patients during ≤ 24 months' treatment, with beneficial effects also seen in patients receiving tofacitinib plus methotrexate as second-line therapy for 12 months. Tofacitinib was generally well tolerated during ≤ 114 months' treatment, with most adverse events of mild or moderate severity. The tolerability profile of tofacitinib was generally similar to that of biological DMARDs (bDMARDs), with infections and infestations the most common adverse events (AEs) in tofacitinib recipients. However, the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) was higher with tofacitinib than in the general RA population, although infections were clinically manageable. When added to background methotrexate, tofacitinib was noninferior to adalimumab in terms of efficacy, and both combination therapies had generally similar tolerability profiles. Although additional comparative studies are needed to more definitively position tofacitinib relative to bDMARDs and other targeted synthetic DMARDs, current evidence indicates that oral tofacitinib is a useful option for the treatment of patients with RA.

  10. Cartilage and bone damage in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Maśliński, Włodzimierz; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Nieciecki, Michał; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a chronic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial aetiology, leads to partial or permanent disability in the majority of patients. It is characterised by persistent synovitis and formation of pannus, i.e. invasive synovial tissue, which ultimately leads to destruction of the cartilage, subchondral bone, and soft tissues of the affected joint. Moreover, inflammatory infiltrates in the subchondral bone, which can lead to inflammatory cysts and later erosions, play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. These inflammatory infiltrates can be seen in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as bone marrow oedema (BME). BME is observed in 68–75% of patients in early stages of RA and is considered a precursor of rapid disease progression. The clinical significance of synovitis and bone marrow oedema as precursors of erosions is well established in daily practice, and synovitis, BME, cysts, hyaline cartilage defects and bone erosions can be detected by ultrasonography (US) and MRI. A less explored subject is the inflammatory and destructive potential of intra- and extra-articular fat tissue, which can also be evaluated in US and MRI. Finally, according to certain hypotheses, hyaline cartilage damage may trigger synovitis and lead to irreversible joint damage, and MRI may be used for preclinical detection of cartilage biochemical abnormalities. This review discusses the pathomechanisms that lead to articular cartilage and bone damage in RA, including erosion precursors such as synovitis and osteitis and panniculitis, as well as the role of imaging techniques employed to detect early cartilage damage and bone erosions. PMID:29853727

  11. Ghrelin and obestatin levels in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Koca, Suleyman Serdar; Ozgen, Metin; Aydin, Suleyman; Dag, Sait; Evren, Bahri; Isik, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Ghrelin is a powerful, endogenous orexigenic peptide. In addition, ghrelin has anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been reported that ghrelin down-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Obestatin appears to decrease food intake and appetite, and its potential role in inflammation is not yet clear. The aims of this study were to assess total and acylated (active) ghrelin and obestatin serum levels and their relations with inflammatory status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 37 patients with RA, 29 patients with Behçet's disease (BD) and 28 healthy controls (HC). Total ghrelin and obestatin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and acylated ghrelin was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with RA had lower total ghrelin, but higher obestatin levels than patients with BD (p<0.05 for both), but when compared with HC group differences were not significant. There was no difference across groups in terms of acylated ghrelin. Total ghrelin level was not correlated with any study parameters in the all groups. Obestatin level correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate and DAS-28 in the RA group, the level of IL-6 in the BD group, and with the level of TNF-alpha in the HC group (r=0.400, p<0.05; r=0.412, p<0.05, r=0.543, p<0.01 and r=0.528, p<0.05, respectively). Our results did not show a significant correlation between circulating ghrelin and clinical or laboratory markers of disease activity in RA. Surprisingly, obestatin correlated with some inflammatory markers. So, obestatin seems to be more valuable than ghrelin in the pathogenesis of RA.

  12. [Pulmonary infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Noboru; Tsuchiya, Yutaka; Tokunaga, Daidou; Miyahara, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Shouzaburo; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka

    2007-06-01

    We studied 149 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (mean age 68.0 years; 68 men, 81 women) with pulmonary infections. The mean age at the onset of RA and the duration of RA was 57.2 +/- 15.2 years and 10.9 +/- 11.5 years, respectively. Pulmonary infections included nontuberculous mycobacteriosis in 59 patients (Mycobacterium avium complex infection, 50 cases : Mycobacterium kansasii infection, 4 cases; others, 5 cases), pneumonia in 46 patients, pulmonary tuberculosis in 28 patients, pulmonary aspergillosis in 12 patients, pulmonary cryptococcosis in 5 patients, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in 5 patients, lung abscess in 9 patients, exacerbation of bronchiectasis in 7 patients, and empyema in 4 patients. One hundred percent of patients with exacerbation of bronchiectasis, 91.7% of patients with pulmonary aspergillosis, 87% of patients with pneumonia, and 81.4% of patients with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis had underlying lung diseases. The pulmonary infections during therapy with steroids were pulmonary tuberculosis (78.6%), pneumonia (65.2%), and pulmonary aspergillosis (58.3%), while the pulmonary infections during methotrexate treatment were Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (80%), pulmonary cryptococcosis (40%), and pulmonary tuberculosis (28.6%). Pulmonary infections in RA patients who were taking TNFalpha inhibitors included 1 patient each with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Among the RA patients with lung abscess, malignancy was noted in 55.6%, and diabetes mellitus in 22.2%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the second-most-common cause of pneumonia and cause of all exacerbations of bronchiectasis. As well as immunosuppressive medications (steroids, methotrexate, TNFalpha inhibitors) and systemic comorbid diseases, underlying lung diseases could be one of the risk factor for pulmonary infections in patients with RA. The dominant risk factor for each pulmonary infection in patients with RA

  13. Molecular Insight into Gut Microbiota and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohao; He, Bing; Liu, Jin; Feng, Hui; Ma, Yinghui; Li, Defang; Guo, Baosheng; Liang, Chao; Dang, Lei; Wang, Luyao; Tian, Jing; Zhu, Hailong; Xiao, Lianbo; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-03-22

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorder. Gut microbiota play an important role in the etiology of RA. With the considerable progress made in next-generation sequencing techniques, the identified gut microbiota difference between RA patients and healthy individuals provides an updated overview of the association between gut microbiota and RA. We reviewed the reported correlation and underlying molecular mechanisms among gut microbiota, the immune system, and RA. It has become known that gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of RA via multiple molecular mechanisms. The progressive understanding of the dynamic interaction between gut microbiota and their host will help in establishing a highly individualized management for each RA patient, and achieve a better efficacy in clinical practice, or even discovering new drugs for RA.

  14. A rheumatoid arthritis study by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Carolina S.; Silva, Ana Carla A.; Santos, Tatiano J. P. S.; Martin, Airton A.; dos Santos Fernandes, Ana Célia; Andrade, Luís E.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown causes and a new methods to identify it in early stages are needed. The main purpose of this work is the biochemical differentiation of sera between normal and RA patients, through the establishment of a statistical method that can be appropriately used for serological analysis. The human sera from 39 healthy donors and 39 rheumatics donors were collected and analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results show significant spectral variations with p<0.05 in regions corresponding to protein, lipids and immunoglobulins. The technique of latex particles, coated with human IgG and monoclonal anti-CRP by indirect agglutination known as FR and CRP, was performed to confirm possible false-negative results within the groups, facilitating the statistical interpretation and validation of the technique.

  15. Fears and Beliefs in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Francis; Chauvin, Pierre; Hudry, Christophe; Mathoret-Philibert, Florence; Poussiere, Maud; De Chalus, Thibault; Dreuillet, Caroline; Russo-Marie, Françoise; Joubert, Jean-Michel; Saraux, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore beliefs and apprehensions about disease and its treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Methods 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 25 with spondyloarthritis participated in semi-structured interviews about their disease and its treatment. The interviews were performed by trained interviewers in participants' homes. The interviews were recorded and the main themes identified by content analysis. Results Patients differentiated between the underlying cause of the disease, which was most frequently identified as a hereditary or individual predisposition. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the most frequently cited triggering factor for disease onset was a psychological factor or life-event, whereas patients with spondyloarthritis tended to focus more on an intrinsic vulnerability to disease. Stress and overexertion were considered important triggering factors for exacerbations, and relaxation techniques were frequently cited strategies to manage exacerbations. The unpredictability of the disease course was a common source of anxiety. Beliefs about the disease and apprehensions about the future tended to evolve over the course of the disease, as did treatment expectations. Conclusions Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis hold a core set of beliefs and apprehensions that reflect their level of information about their disease and are not necessarily appropriate. The physician can initiate discussion of these beliefs in order to dispel misconceptions, align treatment expectations, provide reassurance to the patient and readjust disease management. Such a dialogue would help improve standards of care in these chronic and incapacitating diseases. PMID:25474157

  16. Geode development and multiple fractures in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lowthian, P J; Calin, A

    1985-01-01

    The radiological development from normal bone of geodes and subsequent fractures in phalanges of two adjacent fingers is described in a patient with classical rheumatoid arthritis. Presentation was as a septic, discharging focus, but infection was excluded; the pathology is described. Images PMID:3977410

  17. Geode development and multiple fractures in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lowthian, P J; Calin, A

    1985-02-01

    The radiological development from normal bone of geodes and subsequent fractures in phalanges of two adjacent fingers is described in a patient with classical rheumatoid arthritis. Presentation was as a septic, discharging focus, but infection was excluded; the pathology is described.

  18. [Genetic and environmental contribution to rheumatoid arthritis: a family study].

    PubMed

    Iebba, Filippo; Di Sora, Fiorella; Leti, Wilma; Montella, Tatiana; Montella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We report on the HLA typing of three brothers (A, B, C) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their six sons. This family is interesting for the full concordance for RA between parents. The aim of this study was the discovery of genetic and/or enviromental cofactors determining this absolute concordance.

  19. Cognitive Distortion in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relation to Depression and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined the relation between cognitive distortion, as measured by the Cognitive Error Questionnaire, and both self-reported and interview-rated depression and disability in 92 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Found cognitive distortion significantly associated with depression, and also related to physical disability. Discusses the results,…

  20. Pain Coping Strategies and Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined role of pain episodes and active and passive pain coping strategies in predicting depression in 287 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Findings revealed pain, passive coping, and interaction between the 2 accounted for higher depression. Results also indicated that frequent use of passive pain coping strategies in face of high pain…

  1. Folate-targeted nanoparticles for rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease, affecting almost 1% of the world population. Although the cause of RA remains unknown, the complex interaction between immune mediators (cytokines and effector cells) is responsible for the joint damage that begins at the synovial membrane. Activated macrophages are critical in the pathogenesis of RA and showed specifically express a receptor for the vitamin folic acid (FA), folate receptor β (FRβ). This particular receptor allows internalization of FA-coupled cargo. In this review we will address the potential of nanoparticles as an effective drug delivery system for therapies that will directly target activated macrophages. Special attention will be given to stealth degree of the nanoparticles as a strategy to avoid clearance by macrophages of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). This review summarizes the application of FA-target nanoparticles as drug delivery systems for RA and proposes prospective future directions. Rheumatoid arthritis is a debilitating autoimmune disease of the joints which affects many people worldwide. Up till now, there is a lack of optimal therapy against this disease. In this review article, the authors outlined in depth the current mechanism of disease for rheumatoid arthritis and described the latest research in using folic acid-targeted nanoparticles to target synovial macrophages in the fight against rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Bernd; Dziekan, Thomas; Weissbach, Carmen; Mahler, Marianne; Schirner, Michael; Berliner, Birgitt; Bauer, Daniel; Voigt, Jan; Berliner, Michael; Bahner, Malte L.; Macdonald, Rainer

    2010-02-01

    The blood pool agent indo-cyanine green (ICG) has been investigated in a prospective clinical study for detection of rheumatoid arthritis using fluorescence imaging. Temporal behavior as well as spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity are suited to differentiate healthy and inflamed finger joints after i.v. injection of an ICG bolus.

  3. The revised Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue measures and the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease scale: validation in six countries.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, Sarah; Kirwan, John; Bode, Christina; Cramp, Fiona; Carmona, Loreto; Dures, Emma; Englbrecht, Matthias; Fransen, Jaap; Greenwood, Rosemary; Hagel, Sofia; van de Laar, Maart; Molto, Anna; Nicklin, Joanna; Petersson, Ingemar F; Redondo, Marta; Schett, Georg; Gossec, Laure

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue Multidimensional Questionnaire (BRAF-MDQ), the revised Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Numerical Rating Scales (BRAF-NRS V2) and the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) scale in six countries. We surveyed RA patients in France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK, including the HAQ, 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and potential revisions of the BRAF-NRS coping and Spanish RAID coping items. Factor structure and internal consistency were examined by factor analysis and Cronbach's α and construct validity by Spearman's correlation. A total of 1276 patients participated (76% female, 25% with a disease duration <5 years, median HAQ 1.0). The original BRAF-MDQ four-factor structure and RAID single-factor structure were confirmed in every country with ⩾66% of variation in items explained by each factor and all item factor loadings of 0.71-0.98. Internal consistency for the BRAF-MDQ total and subscales was a Cronbach's α of 0.75-0.96 and for RAID, 0.93-0.96. Fatigue construct validity was shown for the BRAF-MDQ and BRAF-NRS severity and effect scales, correlated internally with SF-36 vitality and with RAID fatigue (r = 0.63-0.93). Broader construct validity for the BRAFs and RAID was shown by correlation with each other, HAQ and SF-36 domains (r = 0.46-0.82), with similar patterns in individual countries. The revised BRAF-NRS V2 Coping item had stronger validity than the original in all analyses. The revised Spanish RAID coping item performed as well as the original. Across six European countries, the BRAF-MDQ identifies the same four aspects of fatigue, and along with the RAID, shows strong factor structure and internal consistency and moderate-good construct validity. The revised BRAF-NRS V2 shows improved construct validity and replaces the original. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  4. The revised Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue measures and the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease scale: validation in six countries

    PubMed Central

    Kirwan, John; Bode, Christina; Cramp, Fiona; Carmona, Loreto; Dures, Emma; Englbrecht, Matthias; Fransen, Jaap; Greenwood, Rosemary; Hagel, Sofia; van de Laar, Maart; Molto, Anna; Nicklin, Joanna; Petersson, Ingemar F; Redondo, Marta; Schett, Georg; Gossec, Laure

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue Multidimensional Questionnaire (BRAF-MDQ), the revised Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Numerical Rating Scales (BRAF-NRS V2) and the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) scale in six countries. Methods We surveyed RA patients in France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK, including the HAQ, 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and potential revisions of the BRAF-NRS coping and Spanish RAID coping items. Factor structure and internal consistency were examined by factor analysis and Cronbach’s α and construct validity by Spearman’s correlation. Results A total of 1276 patients participated (76% female, 25% with a disease duration <5 years, median HAQ 1.0). The original BRAF-MDQ four-factor structure and RAID single-factor structure were confirmed in every country with ⩾66% of variation in items explained by each factor and all item factor loadings of 0.71–0.98. Internal consistency for the BRAF-MDQ total and subscales was a Cronbach’s α of 0.75–0.96 and for RAID, 0.93–0.96. Fatigue construct validity was shown for the BRAF-MDQ and BRAF-NRS severity and effect scales, correlated internally with SF-36 vitality and with RAID fatigue (r = 0.63–0.93). Broader construct validity for the BRAFs and RAID was shown by correlation with each other, HAQ and SF-36 domains (r = 0.46–0.82), with similar patterns in individual countries. The revised BRAF-NRS V2 Coping item had stronger validity than the original in all analyses. The revised Spanish RAID coping item performed as well as the original. Conclusion Across six European countries, the BRAF-MDQ identifies the same four aspects of fatigue, and along with the RAID, shows strong factor structure and internal consistency and moderate–good construct validity. The revised BRAF-NRS V2 shows improved construct validity and replaces the original. PMID:29087507

  5. Inverse Association between Air Pressure and Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Furu, Moritoshi; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a bone destructive autoimmune disease. Many patients with RA recognize fluctuations of their joint synovitis according to changes of air pressure, but the correlations between them have never been addressed in large-scale association studies. To address this point we recruited large-scale assessments of RA activity in a Japanese population, and performed an association analysis. Here, a total of 23,064 assessments of RA activity from 2,131 patients were obtained from the KURAMA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance) database. Detailed correlations between air pressure and joint swelling or tenderness were analyzed separately for each of the 326 patients with more than 20 assessments to regulate intra-patient correlations. Association studies were also performed for seven consecutive days to identify the strongest correlations. Standardized multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent influences from other meteorological factors. As a result, components of composite measures for RA disease activity revealed suggestive negative associations with air pressure. The 326 patients displayed significant negative mean correlations between air pressure and swellings or the sum of swellings and tenderness (p = 0.00068 and 0.00011, respectively). Among the seven consecutive days, the most significant mean negative correlations were observed for air pressure three days before evaluations of RA synovitis (p = 1.7×10−7, 0.00027, and 8.3×10−8, for swellings, tenderness and the sum of them, respectively). Standardized multiple linear regression analysis revealed these associations were independent from humidity and temperature. Our findings suggest that air pressure is inversely associated with synovitis in patients with RA. PMID:24454853

  6. Genetics of Rheumatoid Arthritis — A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Kurkó, Júlia; Besenyei, Timea; Laki, Judit; Glant, Tibor T.; Mikecz, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    The “Bermuda triangle” of genetics, environment and autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various aspects of genetic contribution to the etiology, pathogenesis and outcome of RA are discussed in this review. The heritability of RA has been estimated to be about 60 %, while the contribution of HLA to heritability has been estimated to be 11–37 %. Apart from known shared epitope (SE) alleles, such as HLA-DRB1*01 and DRB1*04, other HLA alleles, such as HLA-DRB1*13 and DRB1*15 have been linked to RA susceptibility. A novel SE classification divides SE alleles into S1, S2, S3P and S3D groups, where primarily S2 and S3P groups have been associated with predisposition to seropositive RA. The most relevant non-HLA gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RA include PTPN22, IL23R, TRAF1, CTLA4, IRF5, STAT4, CCR6, PADI4. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 30 loci involved in RA pathogenesis. HLA and some non-HLA genes may differentiate between anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) seropositive and seronegative RA. Genetic susceptibility has also been associated with environmental factors, primarily smoking. Some GWAS studies carried out in rodent models of arthritis have confirmed the role of human genes. For example, in the collagen-induced (CIA) and proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PgIA) models, two important loci — Pgia26/Cia5 and Pgia2/Cia2/Cia3, corresponding the human PTPN22/CD2 and TRAF1/C5 loci, respectively — have been identified. Finally, pharmacogenomics identified SNPs or multiple genetic signatures that may be associated with responses to traditional disease-modifying drugs and biologics. PMID:23288628

  7. To what extent is the familial risk of rheumatoid arthritis explained by established rheumatoid arthritis risk factors?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Frisell, Thomas; Askling, Johan; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Källberg, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    Family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing RA, and information on family history is, therefore, routinely collected in clinical practice. However, as more genetic and environmental risk factors shared by relatives are identified, the importance of family history may diminish. The aim of this study was to determine how much of the familial risk of RA can be explained by established genetic and nongenetic risk factors. History of RA among first-degree relatives of individuals in the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis case-control study was assessed through linkage to the Swedish Multigeneration Register and the Swedish Patient Register. We used logistic regression models to investigate the decrease in familial risk after successive adjustment for combinations of nongenetic risk factors (smoking, alcohol intake, parity, silica exposure, body mass index, fatty fish consumption, and education), and genetic risk factors (shared epitope [SE] and 76 single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Established nongenetic risk factors did not explain familial risk of either seropositive or seronegative RA to any significant degree. Genetic risk factors accounted for a limited proportion of the familial risk of seropositive RA (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.10, SE-adjusted OR 3.72, SNP-adjusted OR 3.46, and SE and SNP-adjusted OR 3.35). Established risk factors only provided an explanation for familial risk of RA in minor part, suggesting that many (familial) risk factors remain to be identified, in particular for seronegative RA. Family history of RA therefore remains an important clinical risk factor for RA, the value of which has not yet been superseded by other information. There is thus a need for further etiologic studies of both seropositive and seronegative RA. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Utility of different cardiovascular disease prediction models in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Purcarea, A; Sovaila, S; Udrea, G; Rezus, E; Gheorghe, A; Tiu, C; Stoica, V

    2014-01-01

    Background. Rheumatoid arthritis comes with a 30% higher probability for cardiovascular disease than the general population. Current guidelines advocate for early and aggressive primary prevention and treatment of risk factors in high-risk populations but this excess risk is under-addressed in RA in real life. This is mainly due to difficulties met in the correct risk evaluation. This study aims to underline the differences in results of the main cardiovascular risk screening models in the real life rheumatoid arthritis population. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, patients addressed to a tertiary care center in Romania for an biannual follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis and the ones who were considered free of any cardiovascular disease were assessed for subclinical atherosclerosis. Clinical, biological and carotidal ultrasound evaluations were performed. A number of cardiovascular disease prediction scores were performed and differences between tests were noted in regard to subclinical atherosclerosis as defined by the existence of carotid intima media thickness over 0,9 mm or carotid plaque. Results. In a population of 29 Romanian rheumatoid arthritis patients free of cardiovascular disease, the performance of Framingham Risk Score, HeartSCORE, ARIC cardiovascular disease prediction score, Reynolds Risk Score, PROCAM risk score and Qrisk2 score were compared. All the scores under-diagnosed subclinical atherosclerosis. With an AUROC of 0,792, the SCORE model was the only one that could partially stratify patients in low, intermediate and high-risk categories. The use of the EULAR recommended modifier did not help to reclassify patients. Conclusion. The only score that showed a statistically significant prediction capacity for subclinical atherosclerosis in a Romanian rheumatoid arthritis population was SCORE. The additional calibration or the use of imaging techniques in CVD risk prediction for the intermediate risk category might be warranted. PMID:25713628

  9. Utility of different cardiovascular disease prediction models in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Purcarea, A; Sovaila, S; Udrea, G; Rezus, E; Gheorghe, A; Tiu, C; Stoica, V

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis comes with a 30% higher probability for cardiovascular disease than the general population. Current guidelines advocate for early and aggressive primary prevention and treatment of risk factors in high-risk populations but this excess risk is under-addressed in RA in real life. This is mainly due to difficulties met in the correct risk evaluation. This study aims to underline the differences in results of the main cardiovascular risk screening models in the real life rheumatoid arthritis population. In a cross-sectional study, patients addressed to a tertiary care center in Romania for an biannual follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis and the ones who were considered free of any cardiovascular disease were assessed for subclinical atherosclerosis. Clinical, biological and carotidal ultrasound evaluations were performed. A number of cardiovascular disease prediction scores were performed and differences between tests were noted in regard to subclinical atherosclerosis as defined by the existence of carotid intima media thickness over 0,9 mm or carotid plaque. In a population of 29 Romanian rheumatoid arthritis patients free of cardiovascular disease, the performance of Framingham Risk Score, HeartSCORE, ARIC cardiovascular disease prediction score, Reynolds Risk Score, PROCAM risk score and Qrisk2 score were compared. All the scores under-diagnosed subclinical atherosclerosis. With an AUROC of 0,792, the SCORE model was the only one that could partially stratify patients in low, intermediate and high-risk categories. The use of the EULAR recommended modifier did not help to reclassify patients. The only score that showed a statistically significant prediction capacity for subclinical atherosclerosis in a Romanian rheumatoid arthritis population was SCORE. The additional calibration or the use of imaging techniques in CVD risk prediction for the intermediate risk category might be warranted.

  10. [Subclinical sensorineural hearing loss in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Treviño-González, José Luis; Villegas-González, Mario Jesús; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique; Montero-Cantu, Carlos Alberto; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernán; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is a clinical entity capable to cause hearing impairment that can be diagnosed promptly with high frequencies audiometry. To detect subclinical sensorineural hearing loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cross-sectional study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis performing high frequency audiometry 125Hz to 16,000Hz and tympanometry. The results were correlated with markers of disease activity and response to therapy. High frequency audiometry was performed in 117 female patients aged from 19 to 65 years. Sensorineural hearing loss was observed at a sensitivity of pure tones from 125 to 8,000 Hz in 43.59%, a tone threshold of 10,000 to 16,000Hz in 94.02% patients in the right ear and in 95.73% in the left ear. Hearing was normal in 8 (6.84%) patients. Hearing loss was observed in 109 (93.16%), and was asymmetric in 36 (30.77%), symmetric in 73 (62.37%), bilateral in 107 (91.45%), unilateral in 2 (1.71%), and no conduction and/or mixed hearing loss was encountered. Eight (6.83%) patients presented vertigo, 24 (20.51%) tinnitus. Tympanogram type A presented in 88.90% in the right ear and 91.46% in the left ear, with 5.98 to 10.25% type As. Stapedius reflex was present in 75.3 to 85.2%. Speech discrimination in the left ear was significantly different (p = 0.02)in the group older than 50 years. No association was found regarding markers of disease activity, but there was an association with the onset of rheumatoid arthritis disease. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a high prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss for high and very high frequencies. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis: the evidence accumulates for complex pathobiologic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Clifton O.; Moni, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review was conducted to focus on the recent clinical and translational research related to the associations between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent findings There is a growing interest in the associations between oral health and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. A number of epidemiologic studies have described associations between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. Recent clinical studies continue to support these reports, and are increasingly linked with biological assessments to better understand the nature of these relationships. A number of recent studies have evaluated the periopathogenic roles of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the oral microbiome, and mechanisms of site-specific and substrate-specific citrullination. These are helping to further elucidate the interactions between these two inflammatory disease processes. Summary Studies of clinical oral health parameters, the gingival microenvironment, autoantibodies and biomarkers, and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity measures are providing a better understanding of the potential mechanisms responsible for rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease associations. The cumulative results and ongoing studies have the promise to identify novel mechanisms and interventional strategies to improve patient outcomes for both conditions. PMID:23455329

  12. The first national clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Firth, J; Snowden, N; Ledingham, J; Rivett, A; Galloway, J; Dennison, E M; MacPhie, E; Ide, Z; Rowe, I; Kandala, N; Jameson, K

    The first national audit for rheumatoid and early inflammatory arthritis has benchmarked care for the first 3 months of follow-up activity from first presentation to a rheumatology service. Access to care, management of early rheumatoid arthritis and support for self care were measured against National Institute for Health and Care Excellence quality standards; impact of early arthritis and experience of care were measured using patient-reported outcome and experience measures. The results demonstrate delays in referral and accessing specialist care and the need for service improvement in treating to target, suppression of high levels of disease activity and support for self-care. Improvements in patient-reported outcomes within 3 months and high levels of overall satisfaction were reported but these results were affected by low response rates. This article presents a summary of the national data from the audit and discusses the implications for nursing practice.

  13. Novel autoantibody markers for early and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Somers, Klaartje; Geusens, Piet; Elewaut, Dirk; De Keyser, Filip; Rummens, Jean-Luc; Coenen, Marieke; Blom, Marlies; Stinissen, Piet; Somers, Veerle

    2011-02-01

    Approximately one-third of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are seronegative for the 2 serological RA markers, rheumatoid factor (RF) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACCP). Moreover, the sensitivities of both markers are lower in the diagnostically important early disease phase. The aim of this study was to identify additional autoantibody markers for early RA and for RF-negative, ACCP-negative (seronegative) RA. We screened an RA synovium cDNA phage display library with autoantibodies in plasma from 10 early (symptoms of maximum 1 year) and 10 seronegative (RF-negative, ACCP-negative) RA patients with validation in 72 additional RA patients and 121 controls (38 healthy controls, 43 patients with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases, 20 osteoarthritis patients and 20 subjects with mechanical joint complaints). Fourteen novel autoantibodies were identified that showed a 54% sensitivity and 90% specificity for RA. For 11 of these autoantibodies, an exclusive presence was demonstrated in RA patients (100% specificity, 37% sensitivity) as compared to controls. All early RA patients were positive for at least one of the identified autoantibodies and antibody-positivity was associated with a shorter disease duration (P = 0.0087). 52% of RA patients who initially tested negative for RF and ACCP, tested positive for at least one of the 14 novel autoantibodies, resulting in a 19% increase in sensitivity compared to current serological testing. Moreover, 5 identified autoantibodies were detected more frequently in seronegative RA patients, indicating that these autoantibodies constitute novel candidate markers for this RA subtype. We demonstrated that the targets of 3 of these 5 autoantibodies had an increased expression in RA synovial tissue compared to control synovial tissue, pointing towards a biological rationale for these auto antibody targets in RA. In conclusion, we identified novel candidate autoantibody markers for RA that can be

  14. Course and prognosis in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Kukeli, Anton; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Pallaskas, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2013-01-01

    Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor (RF) tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the study was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between RA seronegative and seropositive, regarding course and prognoses of the disease. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the (American College of Rheumatology) criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the course and prognoses of disease. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.9, SD=10.3) with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xbox=6.41, SD=6.47). Course of the disease with "remissions and exacerbations", progressive continual course and bad prognoses, were more presented in seropositive group ofpatients. Partial remission was more common in seronegative patients but according to serostatus and gender has not shown statistically significant difference. Duration of the disease was a specific prognostic sign for both subsets [(r=0.32, p<0.01) seronegative, (r=0.22, p<0.05) seropositive], while age was only a specific prognostic sign for the seropositive subset [(r=0.01, p>0.05) seronegative, (r=0.18, p<0.05) seropositive]. Seropositive and seronegative RA distinguish in course and prognostic feature, but not enough to differentiate them in two different forms of the disease. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant.

  15. High Prevalence of Gallstone Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A New Comorbidity Related to Dyslipidemia?

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, María Carmen; de Lama, Eugenia; Ordoñez-Palau, Sergi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Corbella, Emili; Pintó, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of gallstone disease and identify associated risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to the general population. Eighty-four women with rheumatoid arthritis were included in the study. Each patient was assessed via a structured interview, physical examination, abdominal ultrasound and blood test including lipid profile. The prevalence of gallstone disease in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with data from a study of the Spanish population matched by age groups. Twenty-eight of the 84 women had gallstone disease (33.3%). RA women with and without gallstone disease were similar in most of the variables assessed, except for older age and menopausal status in the former. A greater prevalence of gallstone disease was seen in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to the general population of the same age; however, the differences were significant only in women aged 60 or older (45.5% versus 23.1% respectively, P-value .008). The age-adjusted OR of developing gallstone disease in RA women compared with general population women was 2,3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.1). A significantly higher HDL3-c subfraction and higher apoA-I/HDL and HDL3-c/TC ratios were observed in patients with gallstone disease. Women with rheumatoid arthritis may have a predisposition to gallstones that can manifest in middle or older age compared with women in the general population. This situation could be related to chronic inflammation and HDL metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Severity indices in rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Esther; García de Yébenes, M Jesús; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Carmona, Loreto

    2017-08-11

    To identify tools designed to evaluate the severity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in order to use them in the investigation of prognostic markers in early arthritis. We conducted a systematic review of studies that developed/validated an index for RA disease severity. They were analyzed using the COSMIN checklist to assess their methodological quality. In addition, all the variables included were evaluated for their clarity of definition, feasibility and probability of being present in each outcome during the first 2 years of the disease course. To estimate redundancy, variables were grouped by domains. After reviewing 3,519 articles, 3 studies were included. The first study, the PAS, assessed whether current and lifetime treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and/or biologics accurately predicted RA severity, as measured by the patient-reported PAS. Treatment variables did not fully distinguish patients in the highest and lowest quartiles of PAS scores. Another severity index, the Claims-Based Index for RA Severity (CIRAS), included the variables age, sex, Felty's syndrome, number of rehabilitation and rheumatology visits, test for inflammatory markers, number of chemistry panels/platelet counts ordered and rheumatoid factor test. The correlation was low (r=0.56) with an index previously validated by the same research group, the RA medical records-based index of severity (RARBIS), with Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-PCR) (r=0.07) and Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MD-HAQ) (r=0.008). Finally, the RARBIS, used to validate the CIRAS, was devised as an RA severity index based on medical records. It includes as domains surgery, radiology, extra-articular manifestations, clinical and laboratory variables, previously chosen by an expert panel. RARBIS had a weak correlation with treatment intensity (r=0.35) and with DAS28 (r=0.41). There is no index to assess the severity of RA based on the course of the

  17. Risk of autism spectrum disorder in children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ping-Han; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Chou, I-Jun; Luo, Shue-Fen; Tseng, Wen-Yi; Huang, Lu-Hsiang; Kuo, Chang-Fu

    2017-11-26

    To determine whether offspring of Taiwanese mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis have a higher risk of autism spectrum disorder. Using the National Health Insurance database and National Birth Registry, we identified a cohort of all live births in Taiwan between 2001 and 2012. Children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis were identified and matched with up to 8 controls by maternal age, 1-minute Apgar score, 5-minute Apgar score, mode of delivery, sex of the child, gestational age, birth weight and place of residence. Marginal Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ASD in offspring. Of 1,893,244 newborns, 0.08% (n=1594) were born to systemic lupus erythematosus mothers, and 0.04% (n=673) were born to rheumatoid arthritis mothers. Overall, 5 of 673 (0.74%) offspring of rheumatoid arthritis mothers, 7 of 1594 (0.44%) offspring of systemic lupus erythematosus mothers and 10,631 of 1,893,244 (0.56%) offspring of all mothers developed autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder incidence (per 100,000 person-years) was 140.39 (95% CI, 45.58-327.62) for the rheumatoid arthritis group and 76.19 (95% CI, 30.63-156.97) for the systemic lupus erythematosus group. Autism spectrum disorder risk was not significantly higher for children born to mothers with rheumatoid arthritis (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.60-3.40) or systemic lupus erythematosus (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.36-1.59). Children born to women with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis do not have a higher risk of autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiographic estimation in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Rexhepi, Mjellma

    2011-01-01

    Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, regarding some radiological and clinical parameters, applied for the first time on patients from Kosovo. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the radiographic damage and clinical parameters of the disease, using a data base. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.96, SD=10.37) with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb = 6.41, SD=6.47). All patients underwent a standardised evaluation radiographs. Baseline standardised poster anterior radiographs of hands and feet and radiographs of other joints, depending on indications, were assessed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate values correlated with the radiological damages and statistical difference was found for seronegative subset (r=0.24, p<0.01). Longer duration of the disease resulted in the increase of radiological changes in both subsets (r=0.66, p<0.01) seronegative, (r=0.49, p<0.01) seropositive. Anatomic changes of IInd and IIIrd level were nearly equally distributed in both subsets, 76 (60.8%) seronegative, 75 (60%) seropositive. Radiological damages are nearly equal in both subsets, elevate in relation to the duration of the disease and correlate with ESR values. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant. Although there are some definite quantitative and qualitative differences regarding sero-status, obviously there is a great deal of overlap between the two groups. PMID:21875421

  19. Radiographic estimation in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Rexhepi, Mjellma

    2011-08-01

    Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, regarding some radiological and clinical parameters, applied for the first time on patients from Kosovo. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the radiographic damage and clinical parameters of the disease, using a data base. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.96, SD=10.37) with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb = 6.41, SD=6.47). All patients underwent a standardised evaluation radiographs. Baseline standardised poster anterior radiographs of hands and feet and radiographs of other joints, depending on indications, were assessed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate values correlated with the radiological damages and statistical difference was found for seronegative subset (r=0.24, p<0.01). Longer duration of the disease resulted in the increase of radiological changes in both subsets (r=0.66, p<0.01) seronegative, (r=0.49, p<0.01) seropositive. Anatomic changes of IInd and IIIrd level were nearly equally distributed in both subsets, 76 (60.8%) seronegative, 75 (60%) seropositive. Radiological damages are nearly equal in both subsets, elevate in relation to the duration of the disease and correlate with ESR values. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant. Although there are some definite quantitative and qualitative differences regarding sero-status, obviously there is a great deal of overlap between the two groups.

  20. The role of autoantibodies in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Derksen, V F A M; Huizinga, T W J; van der Woude, D

    2017-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation. The presence of autoantibodies in the sera of RA patients has provided many clues to the underlying disease pathophysiology. Based on the presence of several autoantibodies like rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP), and more recently anti-acetylated protein antibodies RA can be subdivided into seropositive and seronegative disease. The formation of these autoantibodies is associated with both genetic and environmental risk factors for RA, like specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and smoking. Autoantibodies can be detected many years before disease onset in a subset of patients, suggesting a sequence of events in which the first autoantibodies develop in predisposed hosts, before an inflammatory response ensues leading to clinically apparent arthritis. Research on the characteristics and effector functions of these autoantibodies might provide more insight in pathophysiological processes underlying arthritis in RA. Recent data suggests that ACPA might play a role in perpetuating inflammation once it has developed. Furthermore, pathophysiological mechanisms have been discovered supporting a direct link between the presence of ACPA and both bone erosions and pain in RA patients. In conclusion, investigating the possible pathogenic potential of autoantibodies might lead to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0003 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 10 Dec 2014 – 09 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis ...cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients exhibit a distinct cell surface phenotype and transcriptional signature that could be used to

  2. A population-based study on the association between rheumatoid arthritis and voice problems.

    PubMed

    Hah, J Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Kim, So Young; Oh, Dong Jun; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether rheumatoid arthritis increases the frequency of organic laryngeal lesions and the subjective voice complaint rate in those with no organic laryngeal lesion. We performed a cross-sectional study using the data from 19,368 participants (418 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 18,950 controls) of the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The associations between rheumatoid arthritis and organic laryngeal lesions/subjective voice complaints were analyzed using simple/multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sample adjusting for confounding factors, including age, sex, smoking status, stress level, and body mass index, which could provoke voice problems. Vocal nodules, vocal polyp, and vocal palsy were not associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a multiple regression analysis, and only laryngitis showed a positive association (adjusted odds ratio, 1.59; 95 % confidence interval, 1.01-2.52; P = 0.047). Rheumatoid arthritis was associated with subjective voice discomfort in a simple regression analysis, but not in a multiple regression analysis. Participants with rheumatoid arthritis were older, more often female, and had higher stress levels than those without rheumatoid arthritis. These factors were associated with subjective voice complaints in both simple and multiple regression analyses. Rheumatoid arthritis was not associated with organic laryngeal diseases except laryngitis. Rheumatoid arthritis did not increase the odds ratio for subjective voice complaints. Voice problems in participants with rheumatoid arthritis originated from the characteristics of the rheumatoid arthritis group (higher mean age, female sex, and stress level) rather than rheumatoid arthritis itself.

  3. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yoel Kloog RECIPIENT: Tel Aviv University TEL AVIV 69978 Israel REPORT DATE: October...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras- Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display augmented activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and accordingly overexpression of active K-RAS in

  4. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients exhibit a distinct cell surface phenotype and transcriptional signature that could be used to predict...and are on track to achieve our Year 2 goals 15. SUBJECT TERMS Rheumatoid arthritis ; CD4 T cells; citrulline; HLA class II tetramers; RNAseq

  5. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT... Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA); Farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS); T helper cells, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs); targeted synthetic DMARDs 16...active Ras was shown to reverse anergy and to restore IL-2 production. Importantly, T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display

  6. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Importantly, T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display augmented activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and...analysis. The proposed project is highly relevant to the FY13 PRMRP topic area of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The short-term impact of our research will

  7. The Role of the Interferon-Gamma-Jak/STAT Pathway in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0537 TITLE: The Role of the Interferon-Gamma-Jak/STAT Pathway in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stanley...Sep 2016 - 31 Aug 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Role of the Interferon-Gamma-Jak/STAT Pathway in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b...subsets that likely counteracts IL-2 regulator activity and contribute to the pathogenesis of RA. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Rheumatoid arthritis ; Autoimmunity; T

  8. The Role of IL-17 in the Angiogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0102 TITLE: The Role of IL-17 in the Angiogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Shiva Shahrara...NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0102 The Role of IL-17 in the Angiogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S... rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joint vascularization. However, less is known about the pro-angiogenic factors downstream of IL-17 cascade that could indirectly

  9. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a...TERMS Ras GTPases; Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA); Farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS); T helper cells, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs...anergy and to restore IL-2 production. Importantly, T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display augmented activation of the Ras

  10. Rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary nodules: An unexpected final diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zurita Prada, Pablo Antonio; Urrego Laurín, Claudia Lía; Assyaaton Bobo, Sow; Faré García, Regina; Estrada Trigueros, Graciliano; Gallardo Romero, José Manuel; Borrego Pintado, Maria Henar

    We report the case of a 50-year-old female smoker with an 11-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies) receiving triple therapy. She developed pulmonary nodules diagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis by lung biopsy. We found no reported cases of the coexistence of these two diseases. Smoking abstinence led to radiologic resolution without modifying the immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic brain syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis following corticosteroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V P; Ehrlich, G E

    1976-01-01

    Six patients with seropositive nodule-forming rheumatoid arthritis developed severe central nervous system manifestations consistent with a diagnosis of organic brain syndrome. Organic brain syndrome occurred while 5 of these patients were undergoing corticosteroid withdrawal after prolonged administration. Neuropsychiatric symptoms rapidly cleared, responding to reinstitution of oral or parenteral corticosteroids in large doses in 4 patients, to increase in dosage in 1 patient, and to no drug therapy in the remaining 1. Marked reduction in rheumatoid factor in sera and demonstration of IgM deposits in the choroid plexus in 1 of the patients raised the possibility of immune complex-mediated central nervous system vasculitis.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis and pseudo-vesicular skin plaques: rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Manriquez, Juan; Giesen, Laura; Puerto, Constanza Del; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A 54 year-old woman with a 3-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consulted us because of weight loss, fever and skin eruption. On physical examination, erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance were seen on the back of both shoulders. Histological examination was consistent with rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis (RND). After 3 days of prednisone treatment, the skin eruption resolved. RND is a rare cutaneous manifestation of seropositive RA, characterized by asymptomatic, symmetrical erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance. Histology characteristically reveals a dense, neutrophilic infiltrate with leucocitoclasis but without other signs of vasculitis. Lesions may resolve spontaneously or with RA treatment. This case illustrates an uncommon skin manifestation of active rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Autoimmune Arthritides, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, or Peripheral Spondyloarthritis Following Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Arvikar, Sheila L; Crowley, Jameson T; Sulka, Katherine B; Steere, Allen C

    2017-01-01

    To describe systemic autoimmune joint diseases that develop following Lyme disease, and to compare their clinical features with those of Lyme arthritis (LA). We reviewed records of all adult patients referred to our LA clinic over a 13-year period, in whom we had diagnosed a systemic autoimmune joint disease following Lyme disease. For comparison, records of patients enrolled in our LA cohort over the most recent 2-year period were analyzed. Levels of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and to 3 Lyme disease-associated autoantigens were measured. We identified 30 patients who had developed a new-onset systemic autoimmune joint disorder a median of 4 months after Lyme disease (usually manifested by erythema migrans [EM]). Fifteen had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 had psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and 2 had peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA). The 30 patients typically had polyarthritis, and those with PsA or SpA often had previous psoriasis, axial involvement, or enthesitis. In the comparison group of 43 patients with LA, the usual clinical picture was monoarticular knee arthritis, without prior EM. Most of the patients with systemic autoimmune joint disorders were positive for B burgdorferi IgG antibodies, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but had significantly lower titers and lower frequencies of Lyme disease-associated autoantibodies than patients with LA. Prior to our evaluation, these patients had often received additional antibiotics for presumed LA, without benefit. We prescribed antiinflammatory agents, most commonly disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, resulting in improvement. Systemic autoimmune joint diseases (i.e., RA, PsA, SpA) may follow Lyme disease. Development of polyarthritis after antibiotic-treated EM, previous psoriasis, or low-titer B burgdorferi antibodies may provide insight into the correct diagnosis. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis following ciguatera poisoning: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Ryuichi; Shimabukuro, Akira; Kinjo, Mitsuyo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To report the first case of ciguatera-associated rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Patient: A 53-year-old man presented to our clinic with morning stiffness and pain in the fingers and wrists. Results: For six months, he had suffered from chronic pain in both hands and shoulders caused by ciguatera poisoning. He was referred to a local general hospital and diagnosed with RA. Conclusion: When synovitis becomes evident in chronic ciguatera poisoning, reevaluation is necessary, including investigation of chronic arthritis, which might be associated with the onset of RA. PMID:28593018

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis following ciguatera poisoning: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Ryuichi; Shimabukuro, Akira; Kinjo, Mitsuyo

    2017-05-01

    Objective: To report the first case of ciguatera-associated rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Patient: A 53-year-old man presented to our clinic with morning stiffness and pain in the fingers and wrists. Results: For six months, he had suffered from chronic pain in both hands and shoulders caused by ciguatera poisoning. He was referred to a local general hospital and diagnosed with RA. Conclusion: When synovitis becomes evident in chronic ciguatera poisoning, reevaluation is necessary, including investigation of chronic arthritis, which might be associated with the onset of RA.

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis and work: The impact of rheumatoid arthritis on absenteeism and presenteeism.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, Suzanne M M

    2015-06-01

    For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), being in paid work is very important, and it increases self-esteem and financial independence. Although the management of RA has changed in the last 15 years to early aggressive treatment and the introduction of biologic treatments, many patients still have to take sick leave or even stop working because of their RA (i.e., absenteeism). For those remaining in paid work, patients may experience problems due to RA resulting in productivity loss while at work (i.e., presenteeism). The costs attributed to absenteeism and presenteeism (i.e., indirect costs) have been estimated to be very high, and they even exceed direct costs. However, there is no consensus on how to calculate these costs. This manuscript examines the relationship between the use of biologic therapy and absenteeism, with a focus on sick leave, and on presenteeism, and it provides an overview of indirect costs of absenteeism and presenteeism in those treated with biologic therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation in Private Payer Coverage of Rheumatoid Arthritis Drugs.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James D; Wilkinson, Colby L; Anderson, Jordan E; Chenoweth, Matthew D

    2016-10-01

    Payers in the United States issue coverage determinations to guide how their enrolled beneficiaries use prescription drugs. Because payers create their own coverage policies, how they cover drugs can vary, which in turn can affect access to care by beneficiaries. To examine how the largest private payers based on membership cover drugs indicated for rheumatoid arthritis and to determine what evidence the payers reported reviewing when formulating their coverage policies. Coverage policies issued by the 10 largest private payers that make their policies publicly available were identified for rheumatoid arthritis drugs. Each coverage determination was compared with the drug's corresponding FDA label and categorized according to the following: (a) consistent with the label, (b) more restrictive than the label, (c) less restrictive than the label, or (d) mixed (i.e., more restrictive than the label in one way but less restrictive in another). Each coverage determination was also compared with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2012 treatment recommendations and categorized using the same relative restrictiveness criteria. The policies were then reviewed to identify the evidence that the payers reported reviewing. The identified evidence was divided into the following 6 categories: randomized controlled trials; other clinical studies (e.g., observational studies); health technology assessments; clinical reviews; cost-effectiveness analyses; and clinical guidelines. Sixty-nine percent of coverage determinations were more restrictive than the corresponding FDA label; 15% were consistent; 3% were less restrictive; and 13% were mixed. Thirty-four percent of coverage determinations were consistent with the ACR recommendations, 33% were more restrictive; 17% were less restrictive; and 17% were mixed. Payers most often reported reviewing randomized controlled trials for their coverage policies (an average of 2.3 per policy). The payers reported reviewing an average of

  18. Rheumatoid Cachexia Revisited: A Metabolic Co-Morbidity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Masuko, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, play a crucial role. The chronic inflammation, combined with reduced physical activity, leads to muscle wasting whereas fat mass would be maintained; the resulting abnormal metabolic state is described as rheumatoid cachexia. Since the loss of muscle volume would be compensated by the increased fat mass, body mass index (BMI) is reported not to reflect the nutritional status in RA patients. The implication of rheumatoid cachexia for cardiovascular risk and clinical prognosis is not clearly understood, however, adequate control of disease activity in combination with appropriate physical exercise could be the most important strategy to control rheumatoid cachexia and related metabolic problems. PMID:25988122

  19. A review on interleukins: The key manipulators in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jatin; Bhar, Sutonuka; Devi, C Subathra

    2017-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease associated with weakening of bones and joint pain. It primarily involves autoimmunity, matrix destruction, osteoclastogenesis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Numerous cellular and humoral components of the immune system are involved in the etiology of diseases; however, the cardinal part is played by the inter-cellular signaling messengers called cytokines. Interleukins is a vaguely defined sub-class of cytokines that are abundantly found in the RA patients. The multifariousness and diversity in the function of the interleukins make them very likely to be associated with the pathogenesis in multiple ways. Nonetheless, the variety in opinions of researchers globally has led to contentious inferences. Ergo, in this review we have amalgamated the views of researchers from the past two decades till date to provide a comprehensive report about the role of interleukins in rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Application of Synchrotron Radiation Imaging for Non-destructive Monitoring of Mouse Rheumatoid Arthritis Model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chang-Hyuk; Kim, Hong-Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon

    This study was performed to observe microstructures of the rheumatoid arthritis induced mouse feet using a synchrotron radiation beam and to compare findings with histological observations. X-ray refraction images from ex-vivo rheumatoid arthritis induced mouse feet were obtained with an 8KeV white (unmonochromatic) beam and 20 micron thick CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal. The visual image was magnified using a x 10 microscope objective and captured using digital CCD camera. Experiments were performed at 1B2 bending magnet beamline of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) in Korea. Obtained images were compared with histopathologic findings from same sample. Cartilage destruction and thickened joint capsulemore » with joint space narrowing were clearly identified at each grade of rheumatoid model with spatial resolution of as much as 1.2 micron and these findings were directly correlated with histopathologic findings. The results suggest that x-ray microscopy study of the rheumatoid arthritis model using synchrotron radiation demonstrates the potential for clinically relevant micro structure of mouse feet without sectioning and fixation.« less

  1. Comprehensive epigenetic landscape of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Ai, Rizi; Laragione, Teresina; Hammaker, Deepa; Boyle, David L; Wildberg, Andre; Maeshima, Keisuke; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Krishna, Vinod; Pocalyko, David; Whitaker, John W; Bai, Yuchen; Nagpal, Sunil; Bachman, Kurtis E; Ainsworth, Richard I; Wang, Mengchi; Ding, Bo; Gulko, Percio S; Wang, Wei; Firestein, Gary S

    2018-05-15

    Epigenetics contributes to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we show the first comprehensive epigenomic characterization of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), including histone modifications (H3K27ac, H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K36me3, H3K27me3, and H3K9me3), open chromatin, RNA expression and whole-genome DNA methylation. To address complex multidimensional relationship and reveal epigenetic regulation of RA, we perform integrative analyses using a novel unbiased method to identify genomic regions with similar profiles. Epigenomically similar regions exist in RA cells and are associated with active enhancers and promoters and specific transcription factor binding motifs. Differentially marked genes are enriched for immunological and unexpected pathways, with "Huntington's Disease Signaling" identified as particularly prominent. We validate the relevance of this pathway to RA by showing that Huntingtin-interacting protein-1 regulates FLS invasion into matrix. This work establishes a high-resolution epigenomic landscape of RA and demonstrates the potential for integrative analyses to identify unanticipated therapeutic targets.

  2. [Imaging assessment of bone and cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shintaro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovitis and subsequent joint destruction involving bone and cartilage. Recent therapeutic development have improved outcomes including disease activity and structural progression in RA, and standardized procedures of imaging assessment including modified total Sharp score (mTSS) have contributed largely for the development of therapeutic strategy. In addition, ultrasonography and MRI of joints have been recently emerging as novel imaging methods for RA. Here, we review current imaging assessments of bone and cartilage destruction in RA.

  3. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity in Australian clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Bagga, Hanish

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate which rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity measures are being collected in patients receiving glucocorticoids, non-biologic or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in Australian rheumatology practice. Methods. A retrospective audit of medical records was conducted from eight rheumatology practices around Australia. Each rheumatologist recruited 30 consecutive eligible patients into the review, 10 of whom must have been receiving a biological agent for rheumatoid arthritis. Disease activity measures and radiographic assessments were collected from each patient's last consultation. For biologic patients, disease activity measures were also collected from when the patient was first initiated on the biological agent. Results. At last consultation, the disease measures that were recorded most often were ESR (89.2%), haemoglobin (87.5%), and CRP (84.2%). DAS28 was infrequently recorded (16.3%). The rate of recording disease activity measures for patients receiving biologic DMARDs decreased over time (mean 27 months). Conclusion. This review has shown inconsistency of RA activity measures being recorded in Australian rheumatology clinical practice. An accurate assessment of the disease process is necessary to effectively target rheumatoid arthritis patients to treat in order to achieve optimal outcomes.

  4. Construction of meaningful identities in the context of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood and paid work: A meta-ethnography.

    PubMed

    Feddersen, Helle; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2017-12-01

    To derive new conceptual understanding about how women with rheumatoid arthritis manage their illness, motherhood and paid work, based on a comprehensive overview of existing knowledge, gained from qualitative studies. Rheumatoid arthritis affects several social aspects of life; however, little is known about how women with rheumatoid arthritis simultaneously manage their illness, motherhood and paid work. Qualitative metasynthesis. A qualitative metasynthesis informed by Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography was carried out, based on studies identified by a systematic search in nine databases. Six studies were included. Social interactions in the performance of three interdependent subidentities emerged as an overarching category, with three subcategories: subidentities associated with (1) paid work, (2) motherhood and (3) rheumatoid arthritis. Pressure in managing one of the subidentities could restrict the fulfilment of the others. The subidentities were interpreted as being flexible, situational, contextual and competing. The women strove to construct meaningful subidentities by taking into account feedback obtained in social interactions. The subidentities associated with paid work and motherhood are competing subidentities. Paid work is given the highest priority, followed by motherhood and illness is the least attractive subidentity. Because of the fluctuating nature of the illness, the women constantly reconstruct the three interdependent subidentities. When healthcare professionals meet a woman with rheumatoid arthritis, they should consider that she might not accept the subidentity as an ill person. Health professionals should not expect that women will prioritise their illness in their everyday life. This could be included in clinical conversation with the women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, David N; Armstrong, Michelle E; Cooke, Gordon; Dodd, Jonathan D; Veale, Douglas J; Donnelly, Seamas C

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD. © 2013.

  6. Psychological correlates of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matcham, F; Ali, S; Hotopf, M; Chalder, T

    2015-07-01

    Fatigue is common and debilitating in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). A focus on the psychological variables associated with fatigue may help to identify targets for intervention which could enhance the treatment of fatigue in RA. The purpose of this review was to systematically identify psychological variables related to fatigue in RA, with the overall aim of suggesting evidence-based targets for fatigue intervention in RA. Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the narrative synthesis. A wide range of psychological variables were addressed, spanning 6 categories: affect and common mental disorders; RA-related cognitions; non-RA-related cognitions; personality traits; stress and coping; and social support/interpersonal relationships. The most consistent relationship was found between mood and fatigue, with low mood frequently associated with increased fatigue. Some evidence also highlighted the relationship between RA-related cognitions (such as RA self-efficacy) and fatigue, and non-RA-cognitions (such as goal ownership) and fatigue. Limited evidence was found to support the relationship between stress and coping or personality traits and fatigue, although mixed evidence was found for the relationship between social support and fatigue. The results of this review suggest the interventions for fatigue in RA may benefit from a focus on mental health, and disease-related cognitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis vaccine therapies: perspectives and lessons from therapeutic ligand epitope antigen presentation system vaccines for models of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Kenneth S.; Mikecz, Katalin; Steiner, Harold L.; Glant, Tibor T.; Finnegan, Alison; Carambula, Roy E.; Zimmerman, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The current status of therapeutic vaccines for autoimmune diseases is reviewed with rheumatoid arthritis as the focus. Therapeutic vaccines for autoimmune diseases must regulate or subdue responses to common self-antigens. Ideally, such a vaccine would initiate an antigen-specific modulation of the T-cell immune response that drives the inflammatory disease. Appropriate animal models and types of T helper cells and signature cytokine responses that drive autoimmune disease are also discussed. Interpretation of these animal models must be done cautiously because the means of initiation, autoantigens, and even the signature cytokine and T helper cell (Th1 or Th17) responses that are involved in the disease may differ significantly from those in humans. We describe ligand epitope antigen presentation system vaccine modulation of T-cell autoimmune responses as a strategy for the design of therapeutic vaccines for rheumatoid arthritis, which may also be effective in other autoimmune conditions. PMID:25787143

  8. Impact of early diagnosis on functional disability in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dam; Choi, Chan-Bum; Lee, Jiyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jaejoon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To determine whether early diagnosis is beneficial for functional status of various disease durations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods A total of 4,540 RA patients were enrolled as part of the Korean Observational Study Network for Arthritis (KORONA). We defined early diagnosis as a lag time between symptom onset and RA diagnosis of ≤ 12 months, whereas patients with a longer lag time comprised the delayed diagnosis group. Demographic characteristics and outcomes were compared between early and delayed diagnosis groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the impact of early diagnosis on the development of functional disability in RA patients. Results A total of 2,597 patients (57.2%) were included in the early diagnosis group. The average Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score was higher in the delayed diagnosis group (0.64 ± 0.63 vs. 0.70 ± 0.66, p < 0.01), and the proportion of patients with no functional disability (HAQ = 0) was higher in the early diagnosis group (22.9% vs. 20.0%, p = 0.02). In multivariable analyses, early diagnosis was independently associated with no functional disability (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40). In a subgroup analysis according to disease duration, early diagnosis was associated with no functional disability in patients with disease duration < 5 years (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.72) but not in patients with longer disease duration (for 5 to 10 years: OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.52; for ≥ 10 years: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.28). Conclusions Early diagnosis is associated with no functional disability, especially in patients with shorter disease duration. PMID:27618867

  9. Crescentic glomerular nephritis associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Balendran, K; Senarathne, L D S U; Lanerolle, R D

    2017-07-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder where clinically significant renal involvement is relatively common. However, crescentic glomerular nephritis is a rarely described entity among the rheumatoid nephropathies. We report a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-negative crescentic glomerular nephritis. A 54-year-old Sri Lankan woman who had recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis was being treated with methotrexate 10 mg weekly and infrequent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. She presented to our hospital with worsening generalized body swelling and oliguria of 1 month's duration. Her physical examination revealed that she had bilateral pitting leg edema and periorbital edema. She was not pale or icteric. She had evidence of mild synovitis of the small joints of the hand bilaterally with no deformities. No evidence of systemic vasculitis was seen. Her blood pressure was 170/100 mmHg, and her jugular venous pressure was elevated to 7 cm with an undisplaced cardiac apex. Her urine full report revealed 2+ proteinuria with active sediment (dysmorphic red blood cells [17%] and granular casts). Her 24-hour urinary protein excretion was 2 g. Her serum creatinine level was 388 μmol/L. Abdominal ultrasound revealed normal-sized kidneys with acute parenchymal changes and mild ascites. Her renal biopsy showed renal parenchyma containing 20 glomeruli showing diffuse proliferative glomerular nephritis, with 14 of 20 glomeruli showing cellular crescents, and the result of Congo red staining was negative. Her rheumatoid factor was positive with a high titer (120 IU/ml), but results for antinuclear antibody, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (perinuclear and cytoplasmic) were negative. Antistreptolysin O titer <200 U/ml and cryoglobulins were not detected. The results of her hepatitis serology, retroviral screening, and malignancy screening were

  10. Application of a prediction model for the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with undifferentiated arthritis.

    PubMed

    Arana-Guajardo, Ana; Pérez-Barbosa, Lorena; Vega-Morales, David; Riega-Torres, Janett; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge; Garza-Elizondo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Different prediction rules have been applied to patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) to identify those that progress to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Leiden Prediction Rule (LPR) has proven useful in different UA cohorts. To apply the LPR to a cohort of patients with UA of northeastern Mexico. We included 47 patients with UA, LPR was applied at baseline. They were evaluated and then classified after one year of follow-up into two groups: those who progressed to RA (according to ACR 1987) and those who did not. 43% of the AI patients developed RA. In the RA group, 56% of patients obtained a score ≤ 6 and only 15% ≥ 8. 70% who did not progress to RA had a score between 6 and ≤ 8. There was no difference in median score of LPR between groups, p=0.940. Most patients who progressed to RA scored less than 6 points in the LPR. Unlike what was observed in other cohorts, the model in our population did not allow us to predict the progression of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Crocin reduces the inflammation response in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Jiang, Chao; Zhu, Wenyong

    2017-05-01

    This study is to determine the role and mechanism of crocin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Totally 60 Wistar SD rats were randomly divided into control group, RA model group, methotrexate group, crocin high dose, middle dose, and low dose groups. The paw swelling degree, arthritis score, thymus and spleen index, the mRNA and protein levels of iNOS, and the serum content of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were evaluated. Crocin treatment significantly alleviated the paw swelling of RA rats. The arthritis score in crocin treatment groups was significantly lower than that in RA model group. Additionally, the thymus index, but not the spleen index, declined remarkably in crocin treatment groups than in RA model group. Besides, crocin administration significantly reduced the iNOS production and the serum content of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Crocin may exert potent anti-RA effects through inhibiting cytokine.

  12. Pentosidine in synovial fluid in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, J R; Takahashi, M; Suzuki, M; Kushida, K; Miyamoto, S; Inoue, T

    1998-12-01

    Pentosidine is an advanced glycation endproduct formed by glycosylation and oxidation. Our aim was to develop a means to measure pentosidine in synovial fluid (SF), and to compare its concentration in SF in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the relationship between its concentration in SF and the disease activity of RA. SF was collected from knee joints in 31 patients with RA and 40 with OA, who had hydrarthrosis. One patient with RA and 7 with OA who had the complication of diabetes mellitus or chronic renal failure made up the DM/CRF group, and the remaining patients made up the RA group (n = 30) and the OA group (n = 33). Pentosidine was measured by the direct HPLC method with column switching after hydrolysis of SF. Pentosidine was detected in all SF and was greater in RA (83.9 +/- 46.0 nmol/l, mean +/- SD) than in OA (40.1 +/- 19.6 nmol/l). Three DM/CRF patients undergoing hemodialysis had markedly high pentosidine levels (482.5 +/- 280.8 nmol/l). There was a significant correlation between pentosidine and C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and Lansbury Index (p < 0.01). Patients with RA were divided into high and low activity groups according to the CRP and Lansbury Index. Pentosidine was significantly higher in the high activity group (CRP > or = 2.0 mg/dl and Lansbury Index > or = 50%) than in the low activity group (CRP < 2.0 and/or Lansbury Index < 50) (100.9 +/- 42.8 vs 58.5 +/- 39.6 nmol/; p = 0.0013). Pentosidine in synovial fluid was higher in RA than in OA. Pentosidine levels in SF were related to the disease activity in RA.

  13. Diet and Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms: Survey Results From a Rheumatoid Arthritis Registry.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Sara K; Frits, Michelle; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Zhi Zack; Mahmoud, Taysir; Iannaccone, Christine; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Yoshida, Kazuki; Weinblatt, Michael E; Shadick, Nancy A; Solomon, Daniel H

    2017-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often ask whether specific foods, popularized as inflammatory or antiinflammatory, can improve or worsen their RA. Patients with RA took a survey on diet and RA symptoms, and the survey data were collected and analyzed. A dietary survey was mailed to 300 subjects in a single-center RA registry at a large academic center. Subjects were asked about their consumption of 20 foods and whether these foods make their RA symptoms better, worse, or unchanged. Semiannual registry data include demographics, medications, comorbidities, and disease activity scores. Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon's rank sum tests evaluated associations between subject characteristics from the most recent registry assessment and changes in RA symptoms from specific foods. Of the 217 subjects (72% response rate), 83% were female; the median RA duration was 17 years (interquartile range 9-27 years), and 58% were taking a biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. Twenty-four percent of subjects reported that foods affect their RA symptoms, with 15% reporting improvement and 19% reporting worsening. Blueberries and spinach were the foods most often reported to improve RA symptoms, while soda with sugar and desserts were those most often reported to worsen RA symptoms. Younger age and noting that sleep, warm room temperature, and vitamin/mineral supplements improve RA were each associated with reporting that foods affect RA symptoms. Medication use, sex, body mass index, smoking, disease duration, disease activity scores, and self-reported RA flares were not associated with reporting that foods affect RA. Nearly one-quarter of RA subjects with longstanding disease reported that diet had an effect on their RA symptoms. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. A Systematic Review of Serum Biomarkers Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide and Rheumatoid Factor as Tests for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter; Gartemann, Juliane; Hsieh, Jeanie; Creeden, James

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review assesses the current status of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) tests in the diagnosis and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We reviewed publications on tests and biomarkers for early diagnosis of RA from English-language MEDLINE-indexed journals and non-MEDLINE-indexed sources. 85 publications were identified and reviewed, including 68 studies from MEDLINE and 17 non-MEDLINE sources. Anti-CCP2 assays provide improved sensitivity over anti-CCP assays and RF, but anti-CCP2 and RF assays in combination demonstrate a positive predictive value (PPV) nearing 100%, greater than the PPV of either of the tests alone. The combination also appears to be able to distinguish between patients whose disease course is expected to be more severe and both tests are incorporated in the 2010 ACR Rheumatoid Arthritis Classification Criteria. While the clinical value of anti-CCP tests has been established, differences in cut-off values, sensitivities and specificities exist between first-, second- and third-generation tests and harmonization efforts are under way. Anti-CCP and RF are clinically valuable biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of RA patients. The combination of the two biomarkers in conjunction with other clinical measures is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of RA patients. PMID:21915375

  15. Gender differences in Latin-American patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barragán-Martínez, Carolina; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Pineda-Tamayo, Ricardo; Mantilla, Rubén D; Castellanos-de la Hoz, Juan; Bernal-Macías, Santiago; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Data on the effect of gender in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in non-Caucasian populations is scarce. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a large population with unique characteristics, including high admixture. Our aim was to examine the effect of gender in patients with RA in LAC. This was a 2-phase study. First we conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in which 1128 consecutive Colombian patients with RA were assessed. Second, a systematic review of the literature was done to evaluate the effect of gender in LAC patients with RA. Our results show a high prevalence of RA in LAC women with a ratio of 5.2 women per man. Colombian women with RA are more at risk of having an early age at onset and developing polyautoimmunity and abdominal obesity, and they perform more household duties than their male counterparts. However, male gender was associated with the presence of extra-articular manifestations. Of a total of 641 potentially relevant articles, 38 were considered for final analysis, in which several factors and outcomes related to gender were identified. RA in LAC women is not only more common but presents with some clinical characteristics that differ from RA presentation in men. Some of those characteristics could explain the high rates of disability and worse prognosis observed in women with RA in LAC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Brito, Yoel; Glassberg, Marilyn K; Ascherman, Dana P

    2017-11-09

    Among the many extra-articular complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), interstitial lung disease (ILD) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Prevalence estimates for RA-ILD vary widely depending on the specific clinical, radiographic, and functional criteria used to establish the diagnosis. A key unresolved issue is whether early, subclinical forms of RA-ILD represent a precursor to end stage, fibrotic lung disease. Based on uncertainties surrounding the natural history of RA-ILD, incomplete understanding of underlying disease pathogenesis, and lack of controlled clinical trials, evidence-based therapeutic strategies remain largely undefined. Correlative clinico-epidemiological studies have identified key risk factors for disease progression. Complementing these findings, the identification of specific molecular and serological markers of RA-ILD has improved our understanding of disease pathogenesis and established the foundation for predictive biomarker profiling. Experience from case series and cohort studies suggests that newer biological agents such as rituximab may be viable treatment options. RA-ILD continues to have a major impact on "disease intrinsic" morbidity and mortality. Increased understanding of disease pathogenesis and the natural history of subclinical RA-ILD will promote the development of more refined therapeutic strategies.

  17. Previous history of tuberculosis is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shen, T-C; Lin, C-L; Wei, C-C; Chen, C-H; Tu, C-Y; Hsia, T-C; Shih, C-M; Hsu, W-H; Chung, C-J; Sung, F-C; Kao, C-H

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that mycobacterial infections could trigger autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To explore the association between previous tuberculosis (TB) and RA. We conducted a case-control study using data obtained from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. We identified 26 535 adults with RA from 2002 to 2011, with the date of diagnosis as the index date. This number was randomly selected and frequency-matched four times by age, sex and the year of index date from among non-RA individuals. Odds ratios (ORs) of RA were calculated for associations with TB. Compared with controls, RA patients had a crude OR of 1.77 for TB (95%CI 1.61-1.94). The strength of the association between RA and TB remained at the same level after controlling for other potential risk factors (adjusted OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.57-1.90), although RA patients tended to have a higher prevalence of hypertension, coronary artery disease and kidney disease. TB was much more prevalent in RA patients than in control subjects. Prospective cohort studies are required to establish a causal relationship between previous TB and RA.

  18. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Di; Trynka, Gosia; Raj, Towfique; Terao, Chikashi; Ikari, Katsunori; Kochi, Yuta; Ohmura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Akari; Yoshida, Shinji; Graham, Robert R; Manoharan, Arun; Ortmann, Ward; Bhangale, Tushar; Denny, Joshua C; Carroll, Robert J; Eyler, Anne E; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kremer, Joel M; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Jian; Ye, Lingying; Su, Ding-Feng; Yang, Jian; Xie, Gang; Keystone, Ed; Westra, Harm-Jan; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zhou, Xuezhong; Gupta, Namrata; Mirel, Daniel; Stahl, Eli A; Diogo, Dorothée; Cui, Jing; Liao, Katherine; Guo, Michael H; Myouzen, Keiko; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Coenen, Marieke J H; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Huizinga, Tom W J; Dieudé, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Bridges, S Louis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Toes, Rene E M; Tak, Paul P; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Arlestig, Lisbeth; Choi, Hyon K; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Galan, Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Barton, Anne; de Vries, Niek; Moreland, Larry W; Criswell, Lindsey A; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamada, Ryo; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Jun S; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Franke, Lude; Visscher, Peter M; Brown, Matthew A; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Xu, Huji; Behrens, Timothy W; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Momohara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Plenge, Robert M

    2014-02-20

    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ∼10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.

  19. Aberrant methylation patterns affect the molecular pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Luo, Zhengqiang

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate DNA methylation signatures in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to explore the relationship with transcription factors (TFs) that help to distinguish RA from osteoarthritis (OA). Microarray dataset of GSE46346, including six FLS samples from patients with RA and five FLS samples from patients with OA, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. RA and OA samples were screened for differentially methylated loci (DMLs). The corresponding differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were identified, followed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. A transcriptional regulatory network was built with TFs and their corresponding DMGs. Overall, 280 hypomethylated loci and 561 hypermethylated loci were screened. Genes containing hypermethylated loci were enriched in pathways in cancer, ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Genes containing hypomethylated loci were enriched in the neurotrophin signaling pathway. Moreover, we found that CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), Yin Yang 1 (YY1), v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-MYC), and early growth response 1 (EGR1) were important TFs in the transcriptional regulatory network. Therefore, DMGs might participate in the neurotrophin signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways in RA. Furthermore, CTCF, c-MYC, YY1, and EGR1 may play important roles in RA through regulating DMGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmaceutical pricing in Japan: market evidence for rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahlich, Jörg; Kamae, Isao; Sruamsiri, Rosarin

    2018-06-01

    Drug price setting is one of the key challenges faced by the Japanese health care system. This study aims to identify the determinants of drug price in Japan using the example of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment market. In order to compare prices across different products, we calculated prices per defined daily dose using WHO methodology. Price determinants were calculated both at launch and over time using IMS quarterly data on medicines approved for RA treatment in Japan from 2012 to 2015. Pharmaceutical pricing was modeled as a function of clinical and economic variables using regression analysis. For prices at the launch we found that differences in efficacy are not reflected in price differentials. We also report that the number of products within a molecule class had a negative effect on prices while originator drugs maintained higher prices. Although the existing pricing rules in Japan are very comprehensive they do not necessarily capture differences in product characteristics. The findings here support the notion that competitive forces are weak in highly regulated markets such as Japan.

  1. Utility and direct costs: ankylosing spondylitis compared with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, S M M; Jacobs, J W G; van der Heijde, D M; van der Linden, Sj; Verhoef, C M; Bijlsma, J W J; Boonen, A

    2007-06-01

    To compare utility and disease-specific direct costs between patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Netherlands. Patients with AS and those with RA completed questions on disease characteristics, the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) to assess utility, and questionnaire resource utilisation. Resource utilisation was assessed prospectively in AS, but retrospectively in RA. True cost estimates (2003) were used to calculate the costs. Differences in disease characteristics between AS and RA were described, and determinants of EQ-5D utility and costs were explored by Cox proportional hazard regressions. 576 patients with RA and 132 with AS completed the questionnaires. EQ-5D utility (0.63 vs 0.7) was lower, and annual direct costs higher in RA (euro5167 vs euro2574). In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regressions, there was no difference in utility between the diagnostic groups, but patients with RA incurred higher direct costs after controlling for age, gender and disease duration. In patients with RA and patients with AS, who are under the care of a rheumatologist, utility is equally reduced, but healthcare costs are higher in RA after controlling for age, gender and disease duration. These data can be helpful to provide insights into the differences and similarities between the healthcare needs of both patient groups and to identify issues for further research and for policy in healthcare organisations.

  2. Health care costs attributable to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J

    2004-01-01

    A 'programme budget' for the resources used in the treatment and care of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was developed with a view of helping decision-makers assess the appropriateness of the current use of resources and to discuss future resource allocation. The programme budget was developed using data from several national administrative registers. Patients with RA were identified by hospital diagnostic codes. The incremental cost of treating RA was defined as the difference in resource use for patients with and without RA. Incremental mortality due to RA was defined in similar way. Cost data were estimated for 5-year age groups. Patients with RA used on average 3.2 times as many health care resources as people without RA. The average 1997 incremental costs of primary and hospital care were EUR 253 and EUR 2.660 per patient respectively, corresponding to a national incremental cost of EUR 30 million (2000 price level). RA resulted in an annual loss of 1,549 life years. The programme budget approach is a useful tool in resource allocation decision-making, but discussions of alternative resource allocations must be based on robust studies of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in the treatment of patients with RA.

  3. Everyday ethics and help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, A.; Adam, P.; Cox, S.M.; Li, L.C.

    2018-01-01

    Background Sociological understandings of chronic illness have revealed tensions and complexities around help-seeking. Although ethics underpins healthcare, its application in the area of chronic illness is limited. Here we apply an ethical framework to interview accounts and identify ethical challenges in the early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with eight participants who had been diagnosed with RA in the 12 months prior to recruitment. Applying the concepts of autonomous decision-making and procedural justice highlighted ethical concerns which arose throughout the help-seeking process. Analysis was based on the constant-comparison approach. Results Individuals described decision-making, illness actions and the medical encounter. The process was complicated by inadequate knowledge about symptoms, common-sense understandings about the GP appointment, difficulties concerning access to specialists, and patient–practitioner interactions. Autonomous decision-making and procedural justice were compromised. The accounts revealed contradictions between the policy ideals of active self-management, patient-centred care and shared decision-making, and the everyday experiences of individuals. Conclusions For ethical healthcare there is a need for: public knowledge about early RA symptoms; more effective patient–practitioner communication; and increased support during the wait between primary and secondary care. Healthcare facilities and the government may consider different models to deliver services to people requiring rheumatology consults. PMID:20610465

  4. Balneotherapy (or spa therapy) for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Boers, Maarten; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Lambeck, Johan; de Bie, Rob; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2015-04-11

    No cure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is known at present, so treatment often focuses on management of symptoms such as pain, stiffness and mobility. Treatment options include pharmacological interventions, physical therapy treatments and balneotherapy. Balneotherapy is defined as bathing in natural mineral or thermal waters (e.g. mineral baths, sulphur baths, Dead Sea baths), using mudpacks or doing both. Despite its popularity, reported scientific evidence for the effectiveness or efficacy of balneotherapy is sparse. This review, which evaluates the effects of balneotherapy in patients with RA, is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2008. To perform a systematic review on the benefits and harms of balneotherapy in patients with RA in terms of pain, improvement, disability, tender joints, swollen joints and adverse events. We searched the Cochrane 'Rehabilitation and Related Therapies' Field Register (to December 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2014, Issue 1), MEDLIINE (1950 to December 2014), EMBASE (1988 to December 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to December 2014), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1985 to December 2014), PsycINFO (1806 to December 2014) and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). We applied no language restrictions; however, studies not reported in English, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, German or French are awaiting assessment. We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing and recently completed trials. Studies were eligible if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) consisting of participants with definitive or classical RA as defined by the American Rheumatism Association (ARA) criteria of 1958, the ARA/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria of 1988 or the ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria of 2010

  5. Pain Behavior in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Identification of Pain Behavior Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Sandra J.; Riordan, Paul A.; Keefe, Francis J.; Lefebvre, John C.

    2008-01-01

    This study used Ward’s minimum variance hierarchical cluster analysis to identify homogeneous subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis patients suffering from chronic pain who exhibited similar pain behavior patterns during a videotaped behavior sample. Ninety-two rheumatoid arthritis patients were divided into two samples. Six motor pain behaviors were examined: guarding, bracing, active rubbing, rigidity, grimacing, and sighing. The cluster analysis procedure identified four similar subgroups in Sample 1 and Sample 2. The first subgroup exhibited low levels of all pain behaviors. The second subgroup exhibited a high level of guarding and low levels of other pain behaviors. The third subgroup exhibited high levels of guarding and rigidity and low levels of other pain behaviors. The fourth subgroup exhibited high levels of guarding and active rubbing and low levels of other pain behaviors. Sample 1 contained a fifth subgroup that exhibited a high level of active rubbing and low levels of other pain measures. The results of this study suggest that there are homogeneous subgroups within rheumatoid arthritis patient populations who differ in the motor pain behaviors they exhibit. PMID:18358682

  6. Coexisting ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying-Ying; Yang, Li-Li; Cui, Hua-Dong; Zhao, Shuai; Zhang, Ning

    2011-10-01

    A 30-year-old female patient with coexisting ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis was diagnosed and treated. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is a predisposing factor of ankylosing spondylitis and HLA-DR4 is a predisposing factor of rheumatoid arthritis. This patient was HLA-B27 and HLA-DR4 positive, and ankylosing spondylitis manifested before rheumatoid arthritis. After disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs successfully arrested ankylosing spondylitis activity the patient conceived and delivered a healthy baby. One year later, she developed peripheral polyarthritis and was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. We hypothesized that pregnancy may be one of the environmental factors that can activate rheumatoid arthritis, and that disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs play an important role in keeping the disease under control.

  7. Men, rheumatoid arthritis, psychosocial impact and self-management: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Flurey, Caroline A; Hewlett, Sarah; Rodham, Karen; White, Alan; Noddings, Robert; Kirwan, John

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease affecting fewer men than women. We systematically reviewed the literature on impact and self-management of rheumatoid arthritis in men. A total of 28 papers were included and grouped into two categories: psychosocial impact of rheumatoid arthritis, and coping and self-management. This review finds gender differences relating to quality of life, work, distress, self-management, coping and support. We conclude that there is a dearth of literature focussing on rheumatoid arthritis in men only, and mixed gender studies include insufficient men to draw strong conclusions about men. Thus, further research is needed to understand the support needs of men with rheumatoid arthritis in depth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Is Male Rheumatoid Arthritis an Occupational Disease? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dan; Hutchinson, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory disease with an estimated global prevalence of 0.3–1.0%. An unexplained association exists between low formal education and the development of RA independent of smoking. It is established that RA is initiated in the lungs and that various occupations associated with dust, fume and metal inhalation can increase the risk of RA development. Objective: The objective of this review is to evaluate published clinical reports related to occupations associated with RA development. We highlight the concept of a “double-hit” phenomenon involving adsorption of toxic metals from cigarette smoke by dust residing in the lung as a result of various work exposures. We discuss the relevant pathophysiological consequences of these inhalational exposures in relation to RA associated autoantibody production. Method: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases including Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane database to cover all relative reports, using combinations of keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibody silica, dust, fumes, metals, cadmium, cigarette smoking, asbestos, mining, bronchial associated lymphoid tissue, heat shock protein 70, and adsorption. Conclusion: We postulate that the inhalation of dust, metals and fumes is a significant trigger factor for RA development in male patients and that male RA should be considered an occupational disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of occupations as a risk factor for RA in relation to the potential underlying pathophysiology. PMID:28932330

  9. Interactions between children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Power, Thomas G; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Suzanne M; Warren, Robert

    2003-01-01

    To determine the degree to which mothers of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) show an overprotective or highly controlling interaction style. We videotaped 84 mother-child pairs (42 JRA and 42 healthy, ages 6 to 13) while working on a collaborative problem-solving task. Based on physical therapy evaluations, children in the JRA group were assigned to "more severe" (n = 19) and "milder" (n = 22) arthritis subgroups. Results showed numerous differences between mothers of children with more severe arthritis and the other mothers (no differences between the milder arthritis and healthy comparison groups were found). Compared to mothers in the other two groups, mothers of children with more severe arthritis were more directive of their children's behavior during the task, showing higher rates of structure and rule setting, general clues, and prompting the child for an answer. Sequential analyses showed that mothers in the more severe group appeared to treat the task in a more evaluative manner, being more likely than other mothers to respond to correct answers with positive feedback and to incorrect answers with structure and rule setting. Mothers in the other groups were more likely to respond to both correct and incorrect answers with specific clues. We discuss how these differences in interactional style might impact the social development of children with JRA.

  10. Effectiveness of a clinical practice intervention in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell, Jordi; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Sanmartí, Raimon; Balsa, Alejandro; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra-Cortés, José; Lisbona, Pilar; Alperi, Mercedes; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Carmona, Loreto

    2012-03-01

    To compare the outcome of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a country where early clinics were established versus the outcome of patients in nonprotocolized clinics. We compared 2 multicenter cohorts: an RA cohort derived from an early arthritis registry set in 36 reference hospitals in which a specific intervention was established (Evaluation of a Model for Arthritis Care in Spain [SERAP]), and a historical control cohort of patients with early RA attending 34 rheumatology departments (Prognosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis [PROAR] cohort). Effectiveness was tested by comparing the change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the change in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the change in the Sharp/van der Heijde radiologic score using marginal structural models. A total of 161 early RA patients were recruited in the PROAR cohort and 447 in the SERAP cohort. Being a SERAP patient was inversely correlated with activity, resulting in a decrease of -0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.39, -0.08) units in the population average of the DAS28 after adjustment was made. Moreover, intervention may be seen as a protective factor of radiologic damage, with a decrease of -0.05 (95% CI -0.09, -0.01) units in the logarithm of the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. On the other hand, a decrease in functional impairment was detected, but intervention was not statistically associated with HAQ changes. Preventing major radiographic progression in a 2-year term inside structured and organized special programs for the management of disease, such as early arthritis clinics, are effective compared to nonprotocolized referrals, treatment, and followup. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. A case of methimazole-induced chronic arthritis masquerading as seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Conor N; Finzel, Kathleen; Gruber, Barry L

    2014-06-01

    We report a 40-year-old woman with onset of oligoarthritis shortly after initiating treatment with methimazole for Graves disease. Over the course of 7 years, her arthritis became progressively severe, leading to a diagnosis of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic agents and surgical intervention was contemplated. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed exuberant synovitis, involving right elbow and knees. Upon withdrawal of methimazole, prompt resolution of all signs and symptoms of arthritis was observed within several weeks. Following a MEDLINE search of available literature concerning antithyroid drug-induced arthritis, it is evident that this case represents the lengthiest duration of inflammatory arthropathy ever described in a patient that nonetheless was rapidly reversible with discontinuation of methimazole.

  12. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of human leukocyte proteins from patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, K.E.; Thorsrud, A.K.; Munthe, E.

    Human leukocyte proteins from more than 150 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, together with age- and sex-matched controls, were analyzed by use of the ISO-DALT technique of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, psoriatic arthritis, calcium tendinitis, post-infectious arthritis, and asymmetrical seronegative arthritis were also included as positive controls. Synthesis of several proteins, referred to by number as members of the Rheuma set, is shown to increase in the leukocyte preparations from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis. Several of these proteins are specific to monocytes or granulocytes; others are of unknown cellular origin, but appear to bemore » unique to rheumatoid arthritis. The Rheuma proteins appear to be indicators of disease activity, because their increased synthesis can be correlated with sedimentation rate and other clinical indices of rheumatoid disease activity.« less

  13. Fatigue and sleep quality in rheumatoid arthritis patients during hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Szady, Paulina; Bączyk, Grażyna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease of connective tissue characterised by chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Even in the early stages of the disease patients report the occurrence of fatigue and sleep disorders. Reduced sleep quality and chronic fatigue are common among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the research was to evaluate the severity of fatigue and sleep quality assessment among patients hospitalised with rheumatoid arthritis and to determine the relation between the level of symptoms of fatigue and sleep quality and variables such as: age, gender, disease duration, marital status, applied pharmacological treatment, and pain intensity. The study involved 38 patients (12 men and 26 women) hospitalised in the Rheumatologic Ward of the Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Hospital of the University of Medical Sciences. The average age of the entire group was 56.26 years. Fatigue was evaluated with use of Polish version of Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F), while in order to evaluate sleep quality within the examined group of patients the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the analysed group have lower sleep quality, and within subjects with such a diagnosis the fatigue is present. The relation was found between fatigue and such variables as: age, illness duration, marital status, applied pharmacological treatment, and severity of pain. Sleep quality within patients with RA is correlated by such variables as: age, gender, applied pharmaceutical treatment, and severity of pain. It was identified that patients with lower sleep quality experience increased levels of fatigue. There is a need to clarify which factors determine the level of fatigue and sleep quality in patients suffering from RA in future population-based research and to indicate to doctors, nurses, psychologists, and physiotherapists the significance and importance of

  14. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Bagan, Leticia; Bagan, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis has been regarded as a potential risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A systematic review is made to determine whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with RA offers benefits in terms of the clinical activity and inflammatory markers of the disease. Material and Methods A search was made of the Medline-PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Scopus databases to identify studies on the relationship between the two disease processes, and especially on the effects of nonsurgical treatment in patients of this kind. The search was based on the following keywords: rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontitis (MeSH), rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontal treatment. Results Eight articles on the nonsurgical treatment of patients with periodontitis and RA were finally included in the study. All of them evaluated clinical (DAS28) and laboratory test activity (ESR, CRP, IL-6, TNFα) before and after treatment. A clear decrease in DAS28 score and ESR was recorded, while other parameters such as CRP, IL-6 and TNFα showed a non significant tendency to decrease as a result of treatment. Conclusions Nonsurgical treatment improved the periodontal condition of patients with periodontitis and RA, with beneficial effects upon the clinical and laboratory test parameters (DAS28 and ESR), while other inflammatory markers showed a marked tendency to decrease. However, all the studies included in the review involved small samples sizes and follow-up periods of no more than 6 months. Larger and particularly longitudinal studies are therefore needed to more firmly establish possible significant relations between the two disease processes. Key words:Periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal treatment. PMID:26946202

  15. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  16. Does exercise impact on sleep for people who have rheumatoid arthritis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Sean; Donnelly, Alan; Fraser, Alexander; Comber, Laura; Kennedy, Norelee

    2017-06-01

    To systematically search for the availability of evidence for exercise impacting on sleep for people who have rheumatoid arthritis. Two reviewers independently searched seven electronic databases, identified and extracted relevant studies by applying eligibility criteria. Sources of bias were assessed independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane bias assessment tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for non-RCTs. Data were synthesized using a level of evidence approach. Meta-analyses were deemed to be inappropriate due to the heterogeneity of study designs, measurement tools and interventions. Five studies were included: one RCT; two pilot RCTs and two samples of convenience. A total of 262 people with RA were included. Interventions used were difficult to assess due to the heterogeneity of study designs and the inclusion of two using different types of yoga as an intervention. Different sleep outcome measures were used thus, it was not feasible to pool results. Studies had a high risk of bias. This review could find no consistent or conclusive evidence on whether exercise impacts on sleep in people who have rheumatoid arthritis, therefore no firm conclusions can be made. However, there is some indication that exercise may have positive benefits on sleep in people who have rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies with improved study designs, using subjective and objective measures, are needed.

  17. Blockade of PI3Kgamma suppresses joint inflammation and damage in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Camps, Montserrat; Rückle, Thomas; Ji, Hong; Ardissone, Vittoria; Rintelen, Felix; Shaw, Jeffrey; Ferrandi, Chiara; Chabert, Christian; Gillieron, Corine; Françon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Gretener, Denise; Perrin, Dominique; Leroy, Didier; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Hirsch, Emilio; Wymann, Matthias P; Cirillo, Rocco; Schwarz, Matthias K; Rommel, Christian

    2005-09-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) have long been considered promising drug targets for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. But the lack of specificity, isoform selectivity and poor biopharmaceutical profile of PI3K inhibitors have so far hampered rigorous disease-relevant target validation. Here we describe the identification and development of specific, selective and orally active small-molecule inhibitors of PI3Kgamma (encoded by Pik3cg). We show that Pik3cg(-/-) mice are largely protected in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis; this protection correlates with defective neutrophil migration, further validating PI3Kgamma as a therapeutic target. We also describe that oral treatment with a PI3Kgamma inhibitor suppresses the progression of joint inflammation and damage in two distinct mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, reproducing the protective effects shown by Pik3cg(-/-) mice. Our results identify selective PI3Kgamma inhibitors as potential therapeutic molecules for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis: can we afford to ignore it?

    PubMed

    Bloxham, E; Vagadia, V; Scott, K; Francis, G; Saravanan, V; Heycock, C; Rynne, M; Hamilton, J; Kelly, C A

    2011-09-01

    INTRODUCTION Anaemia is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinicians may focus on rheumatological issues and assume anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). This study challenged this assumption and investigated the causes of anaemia in a large cohort of RA patients to assess its implications. METHODS The hospital where the study was conducted monitors regular full blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) monthly in all RA patients on disease modifying drugs to assess efficacy and safety. A computerised system identifies and records abnormal results. The database for 2009 was interrogated to find all patients with two consecutive haemoglobin values <11 g/dl. Using a proforma, patients were defined as having iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), ACD, macrocytic anaemia (MCA) or another cause. All results of further tests investigating the anaemia were recorded. RESULTS Among 2000 RA patients on the system, 199 (10%) were identified as having anaemia over a year. Of these, 90 had IDA, 78 had ACD, 25 had MCA, and 6 had postoperative anaemia. Among 90 patients with IDA, investigations were performed in 53, with 23 normal. An explanation for IDA was found in 30: gastrointestinal bleeding in 25, gynaecological blood loss in 3, and urinary bleeding in 2. Among 78 patients with ACD, response to intensification of RA treatment occurred in 45, but erythropoietin therapy was required in 9. Within the 25 patients with MCA, 12 had unrecognised vitamin B(12) deficiency, 4 drug induced changes, 3 myeloid malignancy, 2 hypothyroidism, and 2 alcoholism. CONCLUSIONS Anaemia in RA is common, multifactorial, and potentially both serious and correctable. Established malignancy was present in 10 patients and premalignancy in a further 10 (10% of total). Treatable causes were commonly identified. Clinicians need to investigate the nature and cause of persistent anaemia, and must not assume it to be simply ACD without evidence.

  19. Skeletal Health among African Americans with Recent Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Curtis; Arora, T; Donaldson, M; Alarcon, GS; Callahan, LF; Moreland, LW; Bridges, SL; Mikuls, TR

    2009-01-01

    Background African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be at increased fracture risk. We applied the World Health Organization (WHO) fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) and National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) guidelines to a cohort of African Americans with early RA to identify which patients were recommended for osteoporosis treatment. Methods Risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed in acohort of African Americans with RA. The WHO FRAX tool estimated ten-year fracture risk. Patients were risk-stratified using FRAX without BMD to identify which individuals might be most efficiently targeted for BMD testing. Results Participants (n = 324) had a mean age of 51 years and included 81% women. There were no associations of RA disease characteristics with BMD. The proportion of patients recommended for osteoporosis treatment varied from 3% to 86%, depending on age and BMI. Ten-year fracture risk calculated with BMI only was generally the same or higher than fracture risk calculated with BMD; adding BMD data provided the most incremental value to risk assessment in patients 55–70 years of age with low/normal BMI and in those ≥ 70 years of age with BMI > 30 kg/m2. Conclusions A high proportion of African Americans with RA were recommended for treatment under 2008 NOF guidelines. FRAX without BMD identified low risk patients accurately. Systematic application of FRAX to screen high risk groups such as RA patients may be used to target individuals for BMD testing and reduce the use of unnecessary tests and treatments. PMID:19790118

  20. The glutathione defense system in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M Q; Hadi, R A; Al-Rawi, Z S; Padron, V A; Stohs, S J

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess a possible role of the natural glutathione defense system in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), serum reduced glutathione levels (GSH), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and indexes of inflammation were evaluated in 58 rheumatic patients. Rheumatoid athritis was associated with significant depletion (ca. 50%) in GSH levels compared with normal control subjects. Serum levels of the detoxifying enzymes GSR and GSH-Px decreased by ca. 50% and 45%, respectively, whereas a threefold increase in the activity of GST was observed. A 1.2-fold increase in ALP was observed in patients with RA. These effects were accompanied by a 3.1-fold increase in serum MDA content. The MDA content was higher in RA patients who were seropositive for rheumatoid factor as well as positive for C-reactive proteins. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate for all patients with RA was approximately 13.8-fold higher than for the control group, and was higher among RA patients who were positive for C-reactive proteins and exhibited seropositivity for rheumatoid factor. Patients with RA receiving gold therapy exhibited significantly lower MDA levels whereas all other factors that were measured were not effected. The results support a hypothesis that defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species are impaired in RA. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Consumer cost sharing and use of biopharmaceuticals for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of consumer cost sharing on use of physician-administered and patient self-administered specialty drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Multivariate statistical analysis of probability and use of physician-administered specialty drugs, patient self-injected specialty drugs, non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and symptom relief drugs. Analyses were conducted for patients enrolling in preferred provider organization (PPO) plans and health maintenance organization (HMO) plans with different cost-sharing requirements, adjusted for patient demographics, health status, and geographical location. Professional, facility, and pharmaceutical claims for beneficiaries of CalPERS, the public employee insurance purchasing alliance in California, for 2008-2009. Consumer cost-sharing requirements were obtained for each type of drug and service for each type of insurance plan. PPO insurance enrollees face substantially higher cost sharing for physician-administered specialty drugs, compared with HMO enrollees in CalPERS. PPO patients with rheumatoid arthritis are only half as likely as HMO enrollees to choose a physician-administered specialty drug (4.2% vs 9.3%) (P ≤.05), and use 25% less of the drugs if they use any ($10,356 vs $13,678) (P ≤.05). They are 30% more likely to use a self-administered specialty drug than are HMO enrollees (29.3% vs 22.1%) (P ≤.05), and use 35% more of the drugs if any ($16,015 vs $12,378) (P ≤.05). Consumer cost sharing reduces the use of physician-administered specialty drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. The higher use of patient self-administered specialty drugs suggests that the disincentives for use of physician-administered drugs were offset by an increased incentive to use self-administered drugs.

  2. [Gold salt alveolitis in 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Music, E; Tomsic, M; Logar, D

    1995-06-01

    When the characteristic symptoms for an interstitial pulmonary disease arise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a drug-induced alveolitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In such cases, the administration of the drug and gold salts should be stopped. The cases of three patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had been treated with gold salts for 2 months (A), 23 months (B), and 36 months (C) are presented. The total dose of sodium aureothiomalate amounted to 280 mg for patient A, 1150 mg for patient B, and 2190 mg for patient C. Clinical signs, X-rays of the lungs, pulmonary function tests, and laboratory tests were evaluated for the three patients while, for patient A BAL as well as provocation tests were additionally performed before and after therapy. In this case, the histological picture of the lungs is presented; biopsies were taken during the first BAL. The clinical complaints of all 3 patients were similar, with the alveolitis being observed as diffuse in one case and above all in the upper regions in two cases on radiology. This led to differing degrees of diffusion disorders in the lungs. In patient A, the diagnosis was made in the stage of progressive fibrotic alveolitis and was treated with D-penicillamine. All 3 patients received steroids over 3-6 months and the gold salts were stopped. Because of the long duration and doubtful differential diagnosis for patient A with either rheumatoid lung or gold salt alveolitis, a provocation test with sodium aureothiomalate was performed. All 3 patients had blood eosinophilia while, in case A, a thrombopenia was also found. A gold salt alveolitis can occur as a side effect of gold salts in addition to skin vasculitis and hematological disorders. When the gold salt administration is not stopped a fibrotic alveolitis can develop. The provocation test can be diagnostically useful to distinguish between a rheumatoid lung and gold salt alveolitis.

  3. [Dyslipidemia and atherogenic risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Batún Garrido, José Antonio de Jesús; Olán, Francisco; Hernández Núñez, Éufrates

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidaemia is one of the main risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have 2-3 times more cardiovascular risk, which is partly due to the pattern of lipids which increase the atherogenic index. A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational and prospective study was conducted on 82 patients, selected for their lipid profile. Variables associated with the disease and the drugs used were recorded. Atherogenic risk was calculated, with Chi square being used for categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney test for the continuous ones. The dyslipidaemia frequency was 54.9%. The most frequent age range of dyslipidaemia was between 51 and 60 years. Patients with type i obesity had a higher frequency of dyslipidaemia. Less dyslipidaemia was found with a lower rate of disease activity. Patients with cyclic citrullinated anti-peptide antibodies and positive rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate>13mm or CRP>2mg/L had a higher frequency of dyslipidaemia. The mean Castelli atherogenic index was 4.36, the index of Kannel was 2.59, and triglycerides/HDL-c ratio was 3.83.Patients with dyslipidaemia showed a higher frequency of positive rheumatoid factor (P=.0008), and those patients who were taking hydroxychloroquine had a lower frequency of dyslipidaemia P=.03. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have a pro-atherogenic lipid profile. It is important to know this and treat it to reduce cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis in an urban South African Negro population.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, L; Robin, G; Valkenburg, H A

    1975-01-01

    (1) An epidemiological study of an urban South African Negro community has been carried out in Johannesburg. Altogether 964 respondents were examined and in each case radiographs of the hands and feet were obtained. Rheumatoid factor tests were carried out on 404 serum samples. (2) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was graded 'definite' or 'probable' on the basis of a modification of the Rome criteria (Kellgren, Jeffrey, and Ball, 1963a). (3) In marked contrast to the findings in rural Africans the prevalence of RA in this community was similar to that in Caucasian populations. Five respondents (all elderly women) had 'definite' RA, giving a prevalence of 1.4% of the females and 0.9% of the total population sample over 15 years old. The prevalence of 'definite' and 'probable' RA combined was 2.6% for males, 3.7% for females, and 3.3% for all individuals over 15 years old. Prevalence increased with age, reaching a maximum in the 65- to 74-year cohort. (4) The form and severity of the clinical and radiological features were unlike the mild manifestations seen in rural African peoples and closely resembled the usual clinical picture of rheumatoid disease. (5) The latex fixation test was positive in 12.1% of the sera tested, which is similar to the high titres found in other African populations. No obvious cause for this phenomenon was found. (6) Several reasons for the marked difference in prevalence of RA between this urban African population and a rural African population are considered. Marked intraracial differences such as this point to the importance of sociological and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:1137439

  5. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is often needed for rheumatoid arthritis Water therapy Massage Other things you can do include: Get plenty ... to reduce pain from hip, knee, ankle, or foot arthritis. MEDICINES Medicines may be prescribed along with ...

  6. Socioeconomic status and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA study

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, C; Nordmark, B; Klareskog, L; Lundberg, I; Alfredsson, L; the, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study whether formal education and occupational class are associated with incidence of rheumatoid arthritis overall and with the incidence of the two major subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis—seropositive (RF+) and seronegative (RF–) disease. Methods: 930 cases and 1126 controls participated in a population based case–control study using incident cases of rheumatoid arthritis, carried out in Sweden during the period May 1996 to June 2001. The relative risk (RR) of developing rheumatoid arthritis with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for different levels of formal education compared with university degree and for different occupational classes compared with higher non-manual employees. Results: Subjects without a university degree had an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis compared with those with a university degree (RR = 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8)). For manual employees, assistant and intermediate non-manual employees together, the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis was about 20% more than for non-manual employees. These increased risks were more pronounced for RF+ than for RF– rheumatoid arthritis and were mainly confined to women. Smoking could not of its own explain the observed associations between risk of rheumatoid arthritis in different socioeconomic groups in Sweden. Conclusions: There was an association between high socioeconomic status and lower risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a population based investigation that was representative for the Swedish population. The study shows that as yet unexplained environmental or lifestyle factors, or both, influence the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, even in the relatively egalitarian Swedish society. PMID:15843455

  7. Ottawa Panel Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Patient Education in the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A.; Tugwell, Peter; Egan, Mary; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; Welch, Vivian A.; Trafford, Laura; Sredic, Danjiel; Pohran, Kathryn; Smoljanic, Jovana; Vukosavljevic, Ivan; De Angelis, Gino; Loew, Laurianne; McEwan, Jessica; Bell, Mary; Finestone, Hillel M.; Lineker, Sydney; King, Judy; Jelly, Wilma; Casimiro, Lynn; Haines-Wangda, Angela; Russell-Doreleyers, Marion; Laferriere, Lucie; Lambert, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The objective of this article is to create guidelines for education interventions in the management of patients ([greater than] 18 years old) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: The Ottawa Methods Group identified and synthesized evidence from comparative controlled trials using Cochrane Collaboration methods. The…

  8. Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Rexhepi, Mjellma

    2010-02-01

    Although considered a "joint disease," rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the involvement of extra-articular manifestations. The aim of the study is the investigation and comparison of frequency and type of extra-articular manifestations in a well defined community based cohort of patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Using the ACR (1987) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, patients have been classified into the 2nd and 3rd functional class (ARA). The studied group consisted of 125 seronegative patients with titters lower than 1:64 as defined by Rose-Waaler test, whereas the control group consisted of 125 seropositive patients with titters of 1:64 or higher. All patients were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49,96), with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb=6,41). In order to present the findings of the study, the structure, prevalence, arithmetic mean (Xb), standard deviation (SB), variation quotient (QV%) and variation interval (Rmax-Rmin) have been used. Probability level has been expressed by p<0,01 and p<0,05. Correlation between the number of extra-articular manifestations and duration of the disease has been calculated by means of Pearson linear correlation. Higher presence of diffuse lung fibrosis, central and peripheral nervous system damages have been confirmed in the seropositive group, and osteoporosis in the seronegative; however, no statistical difference has been found. In extra-articular manifestations, "rheumatoid core" in the seropositive subset (chi2=4,80, p<0,05) presented significant statistical difference. Rheumatoid nodules were more frequent in seropositive subset (12%:16%), in both sexes; however, they were not of significant statistical difference. Neuropathy and lung diseases were also frequently present in seropositive group, but no statistical difference has been found regarding the statistical difference. Longer duration of the disease resulted in an increase of the number of extra

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient receiving methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; Güell, Elena; Martínez Montauti, Joaquín; Pineda, Antonio; Corominas, Hèctor

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are susceptible to severe infections such as leishmaniasis. As L. infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean region, it is necessary to rule this infectious process out in any RA patient presenting with fever and pancytopenia. An early diagnosis based on a high suspicion can prevent a fatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  10. [Rheumatoid arthritis and morbidity among wet spinning factory women workers].

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Z; Janas, Z; Cichoń, L; Sikorzewski, M; Gregorowicz, H

    1977-01-01

    Two hundred ninety women employed in the wet spinning mill of the linen plants have been examined. Their average age and duration of employment were respectively 45 and 17,5 years. Examined women worked in specific microclimate including temperature from 24 degrees C to 25.3 degrees C and the moisture of air from 63,5 to 72,5%. Rheumatoid Arthritis in women working in wet spinning factory was the aim of this examination. It has been stated that these surroundings have no influence on that sort of disease.

  11. Infliximab treatment in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranju; Cuchacovich, Raquel; Huang, Wenqun; Espinoza, Luis R

    2002-03-01

    We describe a 60-year-old woman with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and endstage renal disease secondary to hypertensive nephrosclerosis undergoing hemodialysis. She had tried multiple antirheumatic medications; however, their usefulness was limited due to toxic side effects or lack of efficacy. She was then treated with chimeric antitumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody (infliximab), which resulted in immediate improvement in clinical and laboratory measures. After about 2 years of therapy, no side effects have been observed. This report expands the spectrum of infliximab to include RA patients with renal insufficiency.

  12. Cigarette smoking and pulmonary diffusion defects in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Westedt, M L; Hazes, J M; Breedveld, F C; Sterk, P J; Dijkman, J H

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has still to be defined. Risk factors associated with lung involvement in RA were investigated by means of pulmonary function studies in 40 RA patients without apparent lung disease. A decreased carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion capacity indicative of interstitial lung disease (ILD) was the main pulmonary function defect found in the first 20 patients. The occurrence was associated with current cigarette smoking. This association was confirmed in a case control study performed subsequently. These data suggest that ILD in RA is stimulated by smoking and provide an additional argument that modification of smoking behaviour in RA patients might lead to less severe complications.

  13. Janus Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Senir; Walker, Scot

    2017-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease where the immune system attacks the linings of the joints, resulting in joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and destruction. Although many products are available for the treatment of RA, limitations such as adverse reactions and tolerance greatly affect adherence. Many of the current biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs on the market are injectables, leaving a void to be filled for a product that can be taken orally. The most advanced of these approaches, the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, are oral drugs that have not only made a breakthrough in RA, but also other skin conditions.

  14. Validation of rheumatoid arthritis diagnoses in health care utilization data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Young; Servi, Amber; Polinski, Jennifer M; Mogun, Helen; Weinblatt, Michael E; Katz, Jeffrey N; Solomon, Daniel H

    2011-02-23

    Health care utilization databases have been increasingly used for studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the accuracy of RA diagnoses in these data has been inconsistent. Using medical records and a standardized abstraction form, we examined the positive predictive value (PPV) of several algorithms to define RA diagnosis using claims data: A) at least two visits coded for RA (ICD-9, 714); B) at least three visits coded for RA; and C) at least two visits to a rheumatologist for RA. We also calculated the PPVs for the subgroups identified by these algorithms combined with pharmacy claims data for at least one disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) prescription. We invited 9,482 Medicare beneficiaries with pharmacy benefits in Pennsylvania to participate; 2% responded and consented for review of their medical records. There was no difference in characteristics between respondents and non-respondents. Using 'RA diagnosis per rheumatologists' as the gold standard, the PPVs were 55.7% for at least two claims coded for RA, 65.5% for at least three claims for RA, and 66.7% for at least two rheumatology claims for RA. The PPVs of these algorithms in patients with at least one DMARD prescription increased to 86.2%-88.9%. When fulfillment of 4 or more of the ACR RA criteria was used as the gold standard, the PPVs of the algorithms combined with at least one DMARD prescriptions were 55.6%-60.7%. To accurately identify RA patients in health care utilization databases, algorithms that include both diagnosis codes and DMARD prescriptions are recommended.

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk for Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yvonne C.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Malspeis, Susan; Keyes, Katherine; Costenbader, Karen; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk in a prospective cohort and to characterize the role of smoking in this relationship. Methods A subset (N = 54,224) of the Nurses’ Health Study II, a prospective cohort of female nurses, completed the Brief Trauma Questionnaire and a screen for PTSD symptoms. Participants were categorized based on trauma exposure and number of PTSD symptoms. Incident RA cases (N = 239) from 1989 to 2011 were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) between PTSD symptoms and incident RA. To identify the impact of smoking, secondary and subgroup analyses were performed. In all analyses, PTSD and smoking were lagged two years before the development of RA. Results Compared to no history of trauma/PTSD symptoms, the HR for ≥4 PTSD symptoms and incident RA was 1.76 (95% CI 1.16, 2.67) in models adjusted for age, race and socioeconomic status. The risk for RA increased with increasing number of PTSD symptoms (P = 0.01). When smoking was added to the model, the HR for RA remained elevated (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.05, 2.43). In a subgroup analysis, excluding women who smoked before PTSD onset, results were unchanged (HR 1.68; 95% CI 1.04, 2.70). Conclusion This study suggests that women with high PTSD symptomatology have an elevated risk for RA, independent of smoking, adding to emerging evidence that stress is an important determinant of physical health. PMID:26239524

  16. EULAR definition of arthralgia suspicious for progression to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Aletaha, Daniel; Beaart-van de Voorde, Liesbeth J J; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Codreanu, Catalin; Combe, Bernard; Fonseca, João E; Hetland, Merete L; Humby, Frances; Kvien, Tore K; Niedermann, Karin; Nuño, Laura; Oliver, Sue; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Raza, Karim; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Schett, Georg; De Smet, Liesbeth; Szücs, Gabriella; Vencovský, Jirí; Wiland, Piotr; de Wit, Maarten; Landewé, Robert L; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2017-03-01

    During the transition to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) many patients pass through a phase characterised by the presence of symptoms without clinically apparent synovitis. These symptoms are not well-characterised. This taskforce aimed to define the clinical characteristics of patients with arthralgia who are considered at risk for RA by experts based on their clinical experience. The taskforce consisted of 18 rheumatologists, 1 methodologist, 2 patients, 3 health professionals and 1 research fellow. The process had three phases. In phase I, a list of parameters considered characteristic for clinically suspect arthralgia (CSA) was derived; the most important parameters were selected by a three-phased Delphi approach. In phase II, the experts evaluated 50 existing patients on paper, classified them as CSA/no-CSA and indicated their level of confidence. A provisional set of parameters was derived. This was studied for validation in phase III, where all rheumatologists collected patients with and without CSA from their outpatient clinics. The comprehensive list consisted of 55 parameters, of which 16 were considered most important. A multivariable model based on the data from phase II identified seven relevant parameters: symptom duration <1 year, symptoms of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, morning stiffness duration ≥60 min, most severe symptoms in early morning, first-degree relative with RA, difficulty with making a fist and positive squeeze test of MCP joints. In phase III, the combination of these parameters was accurate in identifying patients with arthralgia who were considered at risk of developing RA (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.92, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.96). Test characteristics for different cut-off points were determined. A set of clinical characteristics for patients with arthralgia who are at risk of progression to RA was established. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis in UK primary care: incidence and prior morbidity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, L A García; Tolosa, L B; Ruigómez, A; Johansson, S; Wallander, M-A

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in primary care and to investigate associations with consultation behaviour, risk factors, and comorbidities, using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Subjects with a first-ever diagnosis of RA between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 1997 (n = 579) were identified from a cohort of 1 206 918 subjects aged 20-79 years without cancer. Controls from the same cohort were frequency-matched to the RA group by age, sex, and calendar year (n = 4234). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of being diagnosed with RA in association with a range of factors were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RA incidence was 0.15 per 1000 person-years, was higher in women than in men, and increased with age in both sexes. Consultations and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prior to diagnosis were increased in subjects with RA. An increased risk of RA was observed in association with anaemia in the previous year (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.54-4.48) and with smoking (1.33, 1.07-1.67). A decreased risk of RA was observed in association with infectious diseases (0.68, 0.50-0.94) and pregnancy in the previous year (0.22, 0.06-0.77), diabetes (0.45, 0.26-0.78), and hypertension (0.74, 0.57-0.94). We found no association with alcohol intake, obesity, or use of low-dose aspirin, oral contraceptives, or hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Smoking was identified as the only significant lifestyle-related risk factor for RA. Infection in the previous year was associated with a reduced likelihood of RA.

  18. [Results of a randomised controlled trial on the acceptance and the outcomes of a counselling on medical inpatient rehabilitation in gainfully employed members of statutory health insurances with rheumatoid arthritis (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00229541)].

    PubMed

    Schlademann, S; Hüppe, A; Raspe, H

    2007-06-01

    In a randomised controlled trial we examined the influence of a counselling (and implementation) of an inpatient rehabilitation programme on the somatic, mental and sociomedical course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in employees. Additionally, the recruitment of a study population via routine data of statutory health insurances was tested. Potential study participants were identified by health insurances via RA-specific data on work disability, hospital stays and medical prescriptions. These insurants entered a two-stage selection process (postal screening questionnaire, experts). Eligible participants completed a postal questionnaire on their subjective health status, the responders were randomised into intervention group (IG) and control group (CG), respectively. The IG was offered a counselling on medical rehabilitation, CG members received usual care. Pension funds and health insurances transferred data on sick leaves (cases, days), hospital treatment, disability pension and medical rehabilitation (primary outcomes). Twelve months after baseline, again a questionnaire on subjective health status was completed (secondary outcomes). Data were analysed on an intention to treat and as actual basis. Whilst the offered counselling was accepted very well (IG: 84.4%), the attendance in a medical inpatient rehabilitation was low (IG: 31.3%). Neither an intention to treat analysis (IG vs. CG) nor an as actual analysis (rehabilitation vs. no rehabilitation) perceived significant differences in the course of sick leave, hospital treatment or parameters of subjective health. The study showed the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial in rehabilitation-related Health Services Research. Recruitment via routine data of health insurances showed limitations. The low acceptance of a medical inpatient rehabilitation emphasises the need to establish alternative rehabilitative programs focussing on employed RA patients.

  19. Investigation of rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in juvenile idiopathic arthritis confirms high degree of overlap.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Anne; Cobb, Joanna; Sudman, Marc; Eyre, Stephen; Martin, Paul; Flynn, Edward; Packham, Jonathon; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Langefeld, Carl D; Glass, David N; Thompson, Susan D; Thomson, Wendy

    2012-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) shares some similar clinical and pathological features with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); indeed, the strategy of investigating whether RA susceptibility loci also confer susceptibility to JIA has already proved highly successful in identifying novel JIA loci. A plethora of newly validated RA loci has been reported in the past year. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to determine if they were also associated with JIA. Thirty-four SNP that showed validated association with RA and had not been investigated previously in the UK JIA cohort were genotyped in JIA cases (n=1242), healthy controls (n=4281), and data were extracted for approximately 5380 UK Caucasian controls from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between cases with JIA and controls using PLINK. A replication cohort of 813 JIA cases and 3058 controls from the USA was available for validation of any significant findings. Thirteen SNP showed significant association (p<0.05) with JIA and for all but one the direction of association was the same as in RA. Of the eight loci that were tested, three showed significant association in the US cohort. A novel JIA susceptibility locus was identified, CD247, which represents another JIA susceptibility gene whose protein product is important in T-cell activation and signalling. The authors have also confirmed association of the PTPN2 and IL2RA genes with JIA, both reaching genome-wide significance in the combined analysis.

  20. Overlap of disease susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Steve; Ke, Xiayi; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Flynn, Edward; Packham, Jon; Worthington, Jane; Thomson, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been extremely successful in the search for susceptibility risk factors for complex genetic autoimmune diseases. As more studies are published, evidence is emerging of considerable overlap of loci between these diseases. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), another complex genetic autoimmune disease, the strategy of using information from autoimmune disease GWAS or candidate gene studies to help in the search for novel JIA susceptibility loci has been successful, with confirmed association with two genes, PTPN22 and IL2RA. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that shares similar clinical and pathological features with JIA and, therefore, recently identified confirmed RA susceptibility loci are also excellent JIA candidate loci. Objective To determine the overlap of disease susceptibility loci for RA and JIA. Methods Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nine RA-associated loci were genotyped in Caucasian patients with JIA (n=1054) and controls (n=3531) and tested for association with JIA. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using the genetic analysis software, PLINK. Results Two JIA susceptibility loci were identified, one of which was a novel JIA association (STAT4) and the second confirmed previously published associations of the TRAF1/C5 locus with JIA. Weak evidence of association of JIA with three additional loci (Chr6q23, KIF5A and PRKCQ) was also obtained, which warrants further investigation. Conclusion All these loci are good candidates in view of the known pathogenesis of JIA, as genes within these regions (TRAF1, STAT4, TNFAIP3, PRKCQ) are known to be involved in T-cell receptor signalling or activation pathways. PMID:19674979

  1. Genetic association of CCR5 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism in seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guadalupe; Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Ramos-Bello, Dolores; Jakez-Ocampo, Juan; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Núñez-Alvarez, Carlos A; Granados, Julio; Llorente, Luis

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of the CCR5 59029 A→G promoter point mutation polymorphism in determining the susceptibility to rheumatoid factor-positive and rheumatoid factor-negative rheumatoid arthritis. This polymorphism was assessed in 85 seropositive and 39 seronegative rheumatoid arthritis patients and in 126 healthy individuals of the same geographic and ethnic origin. We found an increase in the genetic frequency of the A allele in the 59029 A→G promoter region of the CCR5 receptor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with healthy controls (p = 0.01; OR = 1.5, 95% CI (1.0-2.2). Likewise, the homozygous state for the A allele was found to be more frequent in rheumatoid arthritis patients, again when compared with healthy controls (p = 0.03; OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.0). The increased frequency of the A allele was more evident in the more benign, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis group when compared with controls (p = 0.003; OR 2.4 95% CI 1.3-4.4), and when combining the A homozygous and the AG heterozygous patients compared with healthy subjects. These results suggest that this CCR5 promoter polymorphism seems to play an important role in determining different clinical courses in both forms of rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Review article: moving towards common therapeutic goals in Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Allen, P B; Olivera, P; Emery, P; Moulin, D; Jouzeau, J-Y; Netter, P; Danese, S; Feagan, B; Sandborn, W J; Peyrin-Biroulet, L

    2017-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis are chronic, progressive and disabling conditions that frequently lead to structural tissue damage. Based on strategies originally developed for rheumatoid arthritis, the treatment goal for CD has recently moved from exclusively controlling symptoms to both clinical remission and complete mucosal healing (deep remission), with the final aim of preventing bowel damage and disability. To review the similarities and differences in treatment goals between CD and rheumatoid arthritis. This review examined manuscripts from 1982 to 2016 that discussed and/or proposed therapeutic goals with their supportive evidence in CD and rheumatoid arthritis. Proposed therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes in both rheumatoid arthritis and CD include: (i) evaluation of musculoskeletal or organ damage and disability, (ii) tight control, (iii) treat-to-target, (iv) early intervention and (v) disease modification. In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, there is a paucity of disease-modification trials in CD. Novel therapeutic strategies in CD based on tight control of objective signs of inflammation are expected to change disease course and patients' lives by halting progression or, ideally, preventing the occurrence of bowel damage. Most of these strategies require validation in prospective studies, whereas several disease-modification trials have addressed these issues in rheumatoid arthritis over the last decade. The recent approval of new drugs in CD such as vedolizumab and ustekinumab should facilitate initiation of disease-modification trials in CD in the near future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [The role of the human microbiom in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis - a literature review].

    PubMed

    Krajewska-Włodarczyk, Magdalena

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive, autoimmune disease with numerous articular, extra-articular and systemic manifestations. The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is multifactorial including genetic and environmental factors. Recent advantages in sequencing techniques have allowed the deep characterization of the human microbiota. Available evidence confirms the existence of an association between dysbiosis and rheumatoid arthritis but it still remains unclear whether alterations in the microbiome are a pathogenic cause or an effect of autoimmune disease. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the most supported association between disease and microbiota is with the oral dysbiosis usually observed in patients with periodontitis. Given the strong variability and abundance of microbes living in close relation with human host, it becomes a difficult task to define what should be considered the favorable microbiome. There is need for broader studies to establish how the human microbiome contributes to disease susceptibility, and to characterize the role of microbial diversity in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease manifestation, and progression. The identification of dysbiosis specific for rheumatoid arthritis and the understanding of the dynamic interaction between microbiota and their host may help in establishing an individualized management for each patient with rheumatoid arthritis, and achieve a better efficacy of the therapy.

  4. Association of antithyroid peroxidase antibody with fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Blumen, Helena; Tagoe, Clement E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate how autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD) affects the clinical presentation of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with particular reference to fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain (CWP). A cohort of 204 patients with RA for whom the presence or absence of autoimmune thyroid antibodies was documented was examined for the relationships between thyroid autoantibodies and fibromyalgia or CWP. We identified 29 % who tested positive for antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). The anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was found in 24 %. Among the thyroid autoantibody-positive patients, 40 % had a diagnosis of fibromyalgia or CWP versus 17 % for antibody negative patients. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex, diabetes and BMI) indicated that TPOAb-positive patients were more likely to have fibromyalgia or CWP, with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.641, 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.110-10.207) P < .001. Adjusting for spinal degenerative disc disease did not change the association with fibromyalgia, OR 4.458, 95 % CI (1.950-10.191), P < .001. The OR between TgAb and fibromyalgia was not significant (P > .05). Additional logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex and BMI) indicated a significant relationship between TPOAb and fibromyalgia or CWP in patients without diabetes and those without hypothyroidism (OR of 4.873, 95 % CI (1.877-12.653), P = .001 and OR of 4.615 95 % CI (1.810-11.770), P = .001, respectively). There may be a positive association between the ATD antibody TPOAb, and fibromyalgia syndrome and CWP in patients with established RA.

  5. Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: multivariate analysis of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wild, Norbert; Karl, Johann; Grunert, Veit P; Schmitt, Raluca I; Garczarek, Ursula; Krause, Friedemann; Hasler, Fritz; van Riel, Piet L C M; Bayer, Peter M; Thun, Matthias; Mattey, Derek L; Sharif, Mohammed; Zolg, Werner

    2008-02-01

    To test if a combination of biomarkers can increase the classification power of autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) depending on the diagnostic situation. Biomarkers were subject to three inclusion/exclusion criteria (discrimination between RA patients and healthy blood donors, ability to identify anti-CCP-negative RA patients, specificity in a panel with major non-rheumatological diseases) before univariate ranking and multivariate analysis was carried out using a modelling panel (n = 906). To enable the evaluation of the classification power in different diagnostic settings the disease controls (n = 542) were weighted according to the admission rates in rheumatology clinics modelling a clinic panel or according to the relative prevalences of musculoskeletal disorders in the general population seen by general practitioners modelling a GP panel. Out of 131 biomarkers considered originally, we evaluated 32 biomarkers in this study, of which only seven passed the three inclusion/exclusion criteria and were combined by multivariate analysis using four different mathematical models. In the modelled clinic panel, anti-CCP was the lead marker with a sensitivity of 75.8% and a specificity of 94.0%. Due to the lack in specificity of the markers other than anti-CCP in this diagnostic setting, any gain in sensitivity by any marker combination is off-set by a corresponding loss in specificity. In the modelled GP panel, the best marker combination of anti-CCP and interleukin (IL)-6 resulted in a sensitivity gain of 7.6% (85.9% vs. 78.3%) at a minor loss in specificity of 1.6% (90.3% vs. 91.9%) compared with anti-CCP as the best single marker. Depending on the composition of the sample panel, anti-CCP alone or anti-CCP in combination with IL-6 has the highest classification power for the diagnosis of established RA.

  6. Trends in Joint Replacement Surgery in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Young, Bradley L; Watson, Shawna L; Perez, Jorge L; McGwin, Gerald; Singh, Jasvinder A; Ponce, Brent A

    2018-02-01

    This study analyzed trends in large total joint arthroplasties (TJA) and in the proportion of these procedures performed on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2012) was used to identify the incidences of total shoulder (TSA), elbow (TEA), knee (TKA), hip (THA), and ankle (TAA) arthroplasty and the proportion of these performed with coexisting RA. The prevalence of RA among patients with TJA increased 3.0%. The prevalence of RA among cases of TEA and TSA decreased by 50% (p < 0.0001) and 18% (p = 0.0016), respectively; a 38.0% decrease occurred in the prevalence of RA among TAA (p = 0.06); and nonsignificant increases were seen among THA and TKA. The average age difference between RA and non-RA patients undergoing TJA narrowed by 2 years (p < 0.0001). There was a greater reduction in the proportion of TSA, TEA, and TAA groups among women with RA than men with RA. In the TSA and TEA groups, there was a reduction in the proportion of whites with RA, but not blacks. The proportion of privately insured TSA and TAA patients with RA decreased, while patients with RA undergoing TSA, TEA, or TAA who were receiving Medicaid (government medical insurance) remained relatively stable over time. The prevalence of RA has decreased among TSA and TEA patients. A nonsignificant decline occurred among TAA patients. The average age of TJA patients with RA is beginning to mirror those without RA. Sex ratios for TSA, TEA, and TAA patients are following a similar pattern. These results may be evidence of the success of modern RA treatment strategies.

  7. The association between urbanization and rheumatoid arthritis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Chun; Yen, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Cheng, Kuei-Ju; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and urbanization and compare the medication selection for RA patients in urban vs. rural areas. RA patients were identified among 1,000,000 random individuals from a 23-million-person nationwide health insurance database, and controls were matched at a 1 : 10 ratio. Taiwan's 359 townships were grouped into 7 urbanization levels. Geographic region and monthly income were also analyzed. Medication use in the most urbanized and less-urbanized areas were also compared. Rural dwellers had lower odds of having an RA diagnosis. The odds ratio (OR) for level 5 area residents of having an RA diagnosis was 0.62 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 - 0.85; p = 0.002), and they were both 0.76 for level 6 - 7 area residents (95% CI, 0.61 - 0.95 for level 6; p = 0.017 and 0.60 - 0.96 for level 7; p = 0.021) compared to level 1 (the most urban dwellers). The ORs of having a new RA diagnosis were 0.57 (95% CI 0.41 - 0.79, p = 0.001) in eastern Taiwan and 0.33 (95% CI 0.15 - 0.69, p = 0.004) on offshore islands compared to northern Taiwan. No association was found between monthly income and RA. Urban-dwelling RA patients used more tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists (level 1 urbanization; n = 24; 2.3%) than RA patients in less-urbanized areas (level 2 - 7 urbanization n = 30; 1.3%; p = 0.038). Results of this study suggested that an RA diagnosis and treatment are associated with urbanization.

  8. Functional analysis of choline transporters in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Seki, Masayuki; Kawai, Yuiko; Ishii, Chikanao; Yamanaka, Tsuyoshi; Odawara, Masato; Inazu, Masato

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we examined the functional characteristics of choline uptake and sought to identify the transporters in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). The expression of choline transporters was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunocytochemistry. Time course, Na + -dependency, and kinetics of [ 3 H]choline uptake were investigated. Effects of cationic drugs on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline, cell viability, and caspase-3/7 activity were also examined. Finally, we investigated the influence of choline uptake inhibitor, hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), and choline deficiency on cell viability and caspase-3/7 activity. Choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in RASFs and were localized to the plasma membrane. [ 3 H]Choline uptake occurred via a Na + -independent and pH-dependent transport system. The cells have two different [ 3 H]choline transport systems, high- and low-affinity. Various organic cations, HC-3 and choline deficiency inhibited both [ 3 H]choline uptake and cell viability, and enhanced the caspase-3/7 activity. The functional inhibition of choline transporters could promote apoptotic cell death. In RASFs, [ 3 H]choline uptake was significantly increased compared with that in OASFs without a change in gene expression. These results suggest that CTL1 (high-affinity) and CTL2 (low-affinity) are highly expressed in RASFs and choline may be transported by a choline/H +  antiport system. Identification of this CTL1- and CTL2-mediated choline transport system should provide a potential new target for RA therapy.

  9. Body awareness in persons diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Helena; Johansson, Unn-Britt; Henriksson, Elisabet W.; Lindblad, Staffan; Bullington, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Living with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) poses physiological and psychological demands on a person. RA is a autoimmune disease that can cause pain, disability, and suffering. The ability to notice bodily inner sensations and stimuli (body awareness, BA) is described in the literature in ways that could have either a positive or a negative impact on a person’s health. The concept of BA is complex and a thorough understanding is needed about what BA means from the patient’s perspective. This study was therefore conducted to acquire greater insight into this phenomenon. The study is grounded in a phenomenological life-world perspective. Eighteen narrative interviews were conducted in patients (age range 23–78 years) with RA. The interviews were analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method. General characteristics were found running through all 18 interviews, indicating that the disease resulted in a higher degree of negatively toned BA. BA was either a reactive process of searching or controlling after disease-related symptoms or a reactive process triggered by emotions. BA was an active process of taking an inventory of abilities. All participants had the ability to shift focus from BA to the outside world. Four typologies were identified: “A reactive process on symptoms,” “A reactive process on emotional triggers,” “An active process of taking an inventory of abilities,” and “A shifting from BA to the outside world.” In conclusion, because BA can be both positively and negatively toned, health care professionals must have a good understanding of when BA is positive and when it is negative in relation to the patient. RA had caused a higher degree of negatively toned BA. Thus, the ability to shift attention from BA to activity in the outside world could sometimes be beneficial for the patient’s general health. PMID:25363521

  10. Challenges in the management of rheumatoid arthritis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mody, Girish M; Cardiel, Mario H

    2008-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints. Patients experience chronic pain and suffering, and increasing disability; without treatment, life expectancy is reduced. It is imperative to identify patients early so that control of inflammation can prevent joint destruction and disability. Although great advances have been made in the developed nations, early diagnosis remains a great challenge for developing countries during the Bone and Joint Decade (2000-2010) and beyond. Developing countries face important and competitive social, economic, health- and poverty-related issues, and this frequently results in chronic diseases such as RA being forgotten in health priorities when urgent health needs are considered in an environment with poor education and scarce resources. Epidemiological studies in developing countries show a lower but still important prevalence in different regions when compared to that in Caucasians. It seems that the severity of RA varies among different ethnic groups, and probably starts at a younger age in developing countries. Practising rheumatologists in these regions need to take into account several important problems that include suboptimal undergraduate education, inadequate diagnosis, late referrals, lack of human and technical resources, poor access to rheumatologists, and some deficiencies in drug availability. Infections are very important in RA, and special care is needed in developing countries as some endemic infections include tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. These infections should be carefully taken into account when medications are prescribed and monitored. This chapter presents published information covering the main challenges faced in these environments, and suggests strategies to overcome these important problems in RA management.

  11. Arterial wave reflection and subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Sule; Robinson, Chanel; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Norton, Gavin R; Hsu, Hon-Chun; Solomon, Ahmed; Tsang, Linda; Millen, Aletta M E; Dessein, Patrick H

    2018-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk is increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Wave reflection occurs at arterial branching points, which are particularly prone to atherosclerosis. We explored the relationship of wave reflection with atherosclerosis in RA. One hundred and sixty three RA patients (110 white, 31 Asian, 17 black and 5 of mixed ancestry) without cardiovascular disease participated. Arterial stiffness, wave reflection, pressure pulsatility, plaque in the extracranial carotid artery tree and the mean of the left and right common carotid arteries intima-thickness were determined. Associations were identified in multivariable regression models. One SD increase in reflected wave pressure (OR (95% CI) = 2.54 (1.41-4.44), p=0.001), reflection magnitude (OR (95% CI) = 1.84 (1.17-2.89), p=0.008), central pulse pressure (OR (95% CI) = 1.89 (1.12-3.22), p=0.02) and peripheral pulse pressure (OR (95% CI) = 2.09 (1.23-3.57), p=0.007) were associated with plaque. The association of wave reflection with plaque was independent of arterial stiffness and pressure pulsatility, and was present in both hypertensive and normotensive RA patients. In receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the optimal cutoff value for reflected wave pressure in predicting plaque presence was 25 mmHg with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 45.2%, 89.3%, 78.6% and 66.2%, respectively; a reflected wave pressure of >25 mmHg was associated with plaque in univariate and adjusted analysis (p<0.0001 for both). Arterial function was not independently related to carotid intima-media thickness. Consideration and therapeutic targeting of wave reflection may improve cardiovascular disease prevention in RA.

  12. Treatment options for rheumatoid arthritis: celecoxib, leflunomide, etanercept, and infliximab.

    PubMed

    Luong, B T; Chong, B S; Lowder, D M

    2000-06-01

    To review new pharmacologic agents approved for use in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A MEDLINE search (1966-January 2000) was conducted to identify English-language literature available on the pharmacotherapy of RA, focusing on celecoxib, leflunomide, etanercept, and infliximab. These articles, relevant abstracts, and data provided by the manufacturers were used to collect pertinent data. All controlled and uncontrolled trials were reviewed. Agents were reviewed with regard to mechanism of action, efficacy, drug interactions, pharmacokinetics, dosing, precautions/contraindications, adverse effects, and cost. Traditional pharmacologic treatments for RA have been limited by toxicity, loss of efficacy, or both. Increasing discoveries into the mechanisms of inflammation in RA have led to the development of new agents in hopes of addressing these limitations. With the development of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, the potential exists to minimize the gastrotoxicity associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Leflunomide has been shown to be equal to or less efficacious than methotrexate, and may be beneficial as a second-line disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). The biologic response modifiers, etanercept and infliximab, are alternatives that have shown benefit alone or in combination with methotrexate. However, they should be reserved for patients who fail to respond to DMARD therapy. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of these agents as well as their role in combination therapy. Celecoxib, leflunomide, etanercept, and infliximab are the newest agents approved for RA. Clinical trials have shown that these agents are beneficial in the treatment of RA; however, long-term safety and efficacy data are lacking.

  13. Tailored first-line biologic therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cantini, Fabrizio; Niccoli, Laura; Nannini, Carlotta; Cassarà, Emanuele; Kaloudi, Olga; Giulio Favalli, Ennio; Becciolini, Andrea; Biggioggero, Martina; Benucci, Maurizio; Li Gobbi, Francesca; Grossi, Valentina; Infantino, Maria; Meacci, Francesca; Manfredi, Mariangela; Guiducci, Serena; Bellando-Randone, Silvia; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Foti, Rosario; Di Gangi, Marcella; Mosca, Marta; Tani, Chiara; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Goletti, Delia

    2016-04-01

    A multidisciplinary expert panel, the Italian board for the TAilored BIOlogic therapy (ITABIO), was constituted to formulate evidence-based decisional statements for the first-line tailored biologic therapy in patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA), and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Systematic review of the literature to identify English-language articles on the variables influencing the first-line biologic choice, including the efficacy and safety of the drug, the route of administration, the availability of response predictor biomarkers, the need of monotherapy, the patient socio-economic status, lifestyle, cultural level, personality, fertility and childbearing potential in women, the presence of comorbidities, the host-related risk factors for infection and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reactivation, the cardiovascular (CV) risk, and costs. Some variables, including the patients' preference, the indication for anti-TNF monotherapy in potential childbearing women, and the intravenous route with dose titration in obese subjects resulted valid for all the three rheumatic conditions. Further, evidence of a better cost-effectiveness profile for etanercept (ETN) and biosimilar infliximab (IFX) in RA was found. Any biologic may be employed in absence of choice driving factors in RA. Otherwise, a high infection risk or LTBI positivity drive the choice toward abatacept (ABA), tocilizumab (TCZ), or ETN. TCZ should be the first choice if monotherapy is required. High rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) titers should drive the choice toward TCZ or ABA, while in patients at high CVD risk anti-TNF choice, with preference for ETN, seems appropriate. Presence of anterior uveitis or inflammatory bowel disease drives the choice to monoclonal antibody anti-TNFs (MoAb anti-TNFs). In PsA, ustekinumab (UTK), and to a lesser extent ETN, represents the first choice in patients at high infection and TB risk. Anti-TNFs or

  14. Tissue factor expression in rheumatoid synovium: a potential role in pannus invasion of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lujun; Lu, Yahua; Chu, Yang; Xie, Jun; Ding, Wen'ge; Wang, Fengming

    2013-09-01

    Angiogenesis, as well as pannus formation within the joint, plays an important role in the erosion of articular cartilage and bone in the pathological process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tissue factor (TF), an essential initiator of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, is also involved in the angiogenesis and the pannus formation of RA progression. In the present study, we used immunofluorescence and confocal scanning methods to characterize TF immunolocalization in RA synovium. We showed that positive staining of TF could be immunolocalized in synoviocytes, CD19(+) B cells and CD68(+) macrophages, whereas weak or negative staining of tissue factor could be found in CD34(+) endothelial cells of neo-vessels, CD3(+) T cells and CD14(+) monocytes in RA synovium tissues. Our study demonstrates a detailed local expression of TF in the rheumatoid synovium, and supports the notion that TF, expressed not only by the synoviocytes themselves, but also the infiltrating CD19(+) B cells and CD68(+) macrophages, is involved in the pannus invasion in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, K.; Matsui, N.; Nohira, K.

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of labeled leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 patients, the incidence of pain and swelling in 66 wrist joints and 66 knee joints was compared with the accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes. No accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes was seen in any of the patients' wrists (0/12) or knee joints (0/14) when both pain and swelling were absent. In contrast, 93% (25/27) of wrist joints and 80% (24/30) of knee joints with both pain and swelling were positive by (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scintigraphy. There was little correlation between the stage of the disease, as determinedmore » by radiography, and (/sup 111/In)leukocyte accumulation. This study suggests that (/sup 111/In)leukocyte imaging may be a reliable procedure for monitoring the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, especially for confirming the lack of an ongoing inflammatory response.« less

  16. Application of Liposomes in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Quo Vadis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sachin Kumar; Gulati, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The most common treatments for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and some biological agents. However, none of the treatments available is able to achieve the ultimate goal of treatment, that is, drug-free remission. This limitation has shifted the focus of treatment to delivery strategies with an ability to deliver the drugs into the synovial cavity in the proper dosage while mitigating side effects to other tissues. A number of approaches like microemulsions, microspheres, liposomes, microballoons, cocrystals, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, microsponges, and so forth, have been used for intrasynovial delivery of these drugs. Amongst these, liposomes have proven to be very effective for retaining the drug in the synovial cavity by virtue of their size and chemical composition. The fast clearance of intra-synovially administered drugs can be overcome by use of liposomes leading to increased uptake of drugs by the target synovial cells, which in turn reduces the exposure of nontarget sites and eliminates most of the undesirable effects associated with therapy. This review focuses on the use of liposomes in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes data relating to the liposome formulations of various drugs. It also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology. PMID:24688450

  17. Selective JAK inhibitors in development for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Norman, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The JAK kinases are a family of four tyrosine receptor kinases that play a pivotal role in cytokine receptor signalling pathways via their interaction with signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins. Selective inhibitors of JAK kinases are viewed as of considerable potential as disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This article provides a review of the clinical development and available clinical results for those JAK inhibitors currently under investigation. Phase II data for four JAK inhibitors (baricitinib, decernotinib, filgotinib and INCB-039110) are contrasted with that reported for the recently approved JAK inhibitor tofacitinib. The preclinical data on these, in addition to peficitinib, ABT-494, INCB-047986 and AC-410 are also discussed, as are some of the inhibitors in preclinical development. JAK inhibitors are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as evidenced by several inhibitors enabling the majority of treated patients to achieve ACR20 responses, with baricitinib and INCB-039110 both effective when administered once daily. JAK inhibitors differ in isoform specificity profiles, with good efficacy achievable by selective inhibition of either JAK1 (filgotinib or INCB-039110) or JAK3 (decernotinib). It remains to be seen what selectivity provides the optimal side-effect profile and to what extent inhibition of JAK2 should be avoided.

  18. Nailfold capillaroscopy in 430 patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Alireza; Dehghan, Pooneh; Amiri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Microvascular changes are one of the first obvious steps in numerous inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nailfold video capillaroscopy (NFC) is an easy, reliable and safe method for evaluating peripheral microangiopathy. The objective of this study was to examine nailfold microcirculation in RA patients, assess morphological and structural changes quantitatively and qualitatively, and recognize useful changes. A total of 430 patients diagnosed with RA were examined in a period of 4 years. NFC was performed on all fingers of both hands in each patient. Different parameters indicating microvascular changes were detected and analyzed; such as microvascular architecture, capillary distribution disturbances, capillary morphology, capillary density, efferent/afferent limb ratio, subpapillary venular plexus and morphological abnormalities. The obtained results were categorized into normal pattern, nonspecific morphological abnormality and scleroderma pattern. The mean age of participants was 51.03±14.54 (19-87 years) that consisted of 359 females and 71 males. Based on the findings, angiogenesis (74.7%) was the most pathological condition observed after tortuosity (99.5%). 7.2% and 20.9% of patients were categorized into normal and scleroderma pattern group, respectively. Among morphological abnormalities, angiogenesis, isolated enlarged loop, irregular enlarged loop and architectural derangement were significantly more frequent in scleroderma than normal pattern (p<0.001). NFC may play an important role in monitoring RA disease and patients' follow-up. Therefore, in our opinion it could be considered in the course and follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Fenoprofen: Comparison with Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Huskisson, E. C.; Wojtulewski, J. A.; Berry, H.; Scott, Jane; Hart, F. Dudley; Balme, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Fenoprofen, a compound with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties in animals, has been compared with placebo in a double-blind cross-over trial in 60 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. There was a statistically highly significant reduction in pain, duration of morning stiffness, analgesic requirements, and articular index, with increase in grip strength. There was no significant reduction in joint size or temperature. In a subsequent double-blind group-comparative study fenoprofen proved to be as effective as aspirin in relieving the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, with strikingly fewer side effects. Almost half of the patients taking aspirin were unable to tolerate the drug in adequate dosage for six months. The remainder were able to take on average only 4 g daily, and at this dose almost half still complained of tinnitus and deafness. Fenoprofen is likely to be useful for patients who cannot tolerate aspirin and other more toxic anti-inflammatory drugs or whose disease is not of sufficient severity to justify their use. PMID:4590669

  20. People Getting a Grip on Arthritis: A Knowledge Transfer Strategy to Empower Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosseau, Lucie; Lineker, Sydney; Bell, Mary; Wells, George; Casimiro, Lynn; Egan, Mary; Cranney, Ann; Tugwell, Peter; Wilson, Keith G.; De Angelis, Gino; Loew, Laurianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold. First, to help people with arthritis become aware of and utilize Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Osteoarthritis (OA) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) as they relate to self-management strategies. Second, to evaluate the impact of specific Knowledge Translation (KT) activities on CPG uptake. More…

  1. Rheumatoid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Tilstra, Jeremy S; Lienesch, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    Rheumatoid nodules are a common manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. These lesions are often easily identified based on typical diagnostic features and characteristic locations. When biopsied, nodules have a characteristic histologic appearance. Uncommonly, rheumatoid nodules can occur in systemic locations. There is no evidence that systemic therapy treats underlying rheumatoid nodules. Paradoxically, methotrexate and possibly tumor necrosis factor inhibitors can increase nodule development. Treatment of rheumatoid nodules is often not necessary, unless patients are experiencing pain or there is interference of mechanical function. This review outlines the available data on and associations of rheumatoid nodules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thrombokinetics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with D-penicillamine.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Gallus, A S; Brooks, P M; Tampi, R; Geddes, R; Hill, W

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism of D-penicillamine induced thrombocytopenia in rheumatoid arthritis was investigated by measuring platelet life-span and platelet production rate in 2 groups of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with 250-750 mg/day D-penicillamine, 14 with a normal platelet count and 9 with thrombocytopenia (platelet count 50-130 X 10(9)/1). Age matched control patients not treated with D-penicillamine included 14 with rheumatoid arthritis and 9 with osteoarthritis. The platelet life-span was normal, but platelet production rate was significantly reduced in the thrombocytopenic patients, suggesting that D-penicillamine causes thrombocytopenia through bone marrow suppression. PMID:6742902

  3. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0003 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0003...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients

  4. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients

  5. Self-limiting arthritis among patients fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis in a very early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Norli, Ellen Sauar; Brinkmann, Gina H; Kvien, Tore K; Bjørneboe, Olav; Haugen, Anne J; Nygaard, Halvor; Thunem, Cathrine; Lie, Elisabeth; Mjaavatten, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    To study occurrence of and factors associated with self-limiting arthritis among patients fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (2010 RA criteria) in patients with ≤16 weeks׳ duration of joint swelling. We applied the 2010 RA criteria in 1118 patients included in a 2-year longitudinal cohort. In all, 256 patients fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria at baseline; outcome was defined as either "self-limiting arthritis" (no DMARD use during follow-up, no swollen joints at last assessment, and no final clinical diagnosis of RA) or "persistent disease." The associations between baseline characteristics, including the components of the 2010 RA criteria score, and outcomes were studied. In total, 36 of 256 patients (14.1%) classified as having RA had self-limiting arthritis. These patients differed from patients with persistent disease according to ACPA positivity (11.1% vs. 65.0%, p < 0.001), duration of joint swelling (median = 47.5 vs. 66.0 days, p = 0.002), 2010 RA criteria points (median = 6.0 vs. 7.0, p < 0.001), and ever smoking (52.8% vs. 74.5%, p = 0.01). Having no serology points and no duration points were independent predictors of self-limiting arthritis. The rate of self-limiting arthritis was 2.7% vs. 29.4% among ACPA positive vs. ACPA negative patients (p < 0.001), and 32.5% when duration of joint swelling was <4 weeks vs. 10.6% with longer duration (p < 0.001). Negative ACPA status, short duration of joint swelling and being a never smoker were factors associated with self-limiting arthritis in early arthritis patients classified as having RA at presentation. Our findings contribute to identify patients who potentially do not need DMARDs and who should not be included in early RA clinical drug trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and radiological features of rheumatoid arthritis in British black Africans.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Vinod; Seah, May-Ai; Elias, David A; Choy, Ernest H; Scott, David L; Gordon, Patrick A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether radiographic damage is different in British black African patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to Caucasian patients. Data on demographics, disease- and disability-related variables were obtained from all black African patients and their age-, gender- and disease-duration-matched Caucasian controls. After all features identifying the patients were concealed, X-rays of hands and feet were scored by using the Sharp/van der Heijde method. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U test, t test and chi (2) test. Sixty-four patients (32 in each ethnic group) were studied. The median age was 52 years and median disease duration 6 years. Seventy-two percent of patients were female. Black Africans and Caucasians did not differ significantly in rheumatoid factor positivity, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biological treatment use. British black African patients had significantly more tender joints and disability. Joint space narrowing was significantly greater in Caucasian patients [48 (27-85) vs 56 (34-107), p = 0.01]. Caucasian patients had more number of erosions (172 vs 220) and higher erosion score; however, the difference in the erosion scores was not statistically significant [2 (0-48) vs 4.5 (0-46), p = 0.17]. Radiographic damage was less severe in black African patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to their age-, gender- and disease-duration-matched Caucasian controls. A large prospective study is required to confirm the findings of this study and to establish the factors which might be accountable for any differences in the expression of rheumatoid arthritis in this ethnic group.

  7. The Work Instability Scale for rheumatoid arthritis predicts arthritis-related work transitions within 12 months.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth; Beaton, Dorcas E; Gignac, Monique A M; Lacaille, Diane; Zhang, Wei; Bombardier, Claire

    2010-11-01

    Among people with arthritis, the need for work transitions may signal a risk for more adverse work outcomes in the future, such as permanent work loss. Our aim was to evaluate the ability of the Work Instability Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA-WIS) to predict arthritis-related work transitions within a 12-month period. Workers with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 250) from 3 clinical sites participated in self-administered surveys that assessed the impact of health on employment at multiple time points over 12 months. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to assess the ability of the RA-WIS (range 0-23, where 23 = highest work instability) to predict 4 types of work transition: reductions in work hours, disability leaves of absence, changes in job/occupation, or temporary unemployment, assembled as a composite outcome. Covariates assessed include age, sex, education, marital status, income, pain intensity, disease duration, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCCs) were also assessed to further examine the predictive ability of the RA-WIS and to determine optimal cut points for predicting specific work transitions. After 12 months, 21.7% (n = 50 of 230) of the participants had indicated at least one arthritis-related work transition. Higher baseline RA-WIS was predictive of such an outcome (relative risk [RR] 1.05 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.00-1.11]), particularly at >17 (RR 2.30 [95% CI 1.11-4.77]). The RA-WIS cut point of >13 was found to be most accurate for prediction (AUROCC 0.68 [95% CI 0.58-0.78]). The RA-WIS demonstrated the ability to predict arthritis-related work transitions within a short timeframe, and could be a promising measurement candidate for risk prognostication where work disability outcomes are of concern. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Clinical and serological characteristics of Ecuadorian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Carlos; Maldonado, Génessis; Paredes, Carlos; Ferro, Christian; Moreno, Mario; Vera, Claudia; Vargas, Sara; Calapaqui, Wendy; Vallejo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, wherein late diagnosis and treatment leads to deformities and disability. Objective The aim of the study was to assess and describe the clinical and immunological characteristics, activity status of the disease, and functional capacity in a cohort of Ecuadorian patients with RA. Methods This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted on a population of patients with prediagnosed RA from public and private Ecuadorian rheumatology clinics. This study investigated 400 patients with a mean age of 50 years, 353 (82.25%) of which were female. Results The study showed that 44.3%, 83.5%, 60.3%, 41.8%, 37.5%, and 11.5% had an acute onset of the disease, symmetrical polyarthritis, morning stiffness exceeding 1 h, dry eyes, dry mouth, and rheumatoid nodules, respectively. A total of 89.7% presented with positive rheumatoid factor, and 96.5% were anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive. Conclusion This is the largest Ecuadorian cohort of patients with RA; clinical features are similar to those of other Latin American populations. PMID:28652830

  9. Clinical and serological characteristics of Ecuadorian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Carlos; Maldonado, Génessis; Paredes, Carlos; Ferro, Christian; Moreno, Mario; Vera, Claudia; Vargas, Sara; Calapaqui, Wendy; Vallejo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, wherein late diagnosis and treatment leads to deformities and disability. The aim of the study was to assess and describe the clinical and immunological characteristics, activity status of the disease, and functional capacity in a cohort of Ecuadorian patients with RA. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted on a population of patients with prediagnosed RA from public and private Ecuadorian rheumatology clinics. This study investigated 400 patients with a mean age of 50 years, 353 (82.25%) of which were female. The study showed that 44.3%, 83.5%, 60.3%, 41.8%, 37.5%, and 11.5% had an acute onset of the disease, symmetrical polyarthritis, morning stiffness exceeding 1 h, dry eyes, dry mouth, and rheumatoid nodules, respectively. A total of 89.7% presented with positive rheumatoid factor, and 96.5% were anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive. This is the largest Ecuadorian cohort of patients with RA; clinical features are similar to those of other Latin American populations.

  10. Outcome of total ankle arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and noninflammatory arthritis. A multicenter cohort study comparing clinical outcome and safety.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Elizabeth; Pinsker, Ellie; Younger, Alastair S E; Penner, Murray J; Wing, Kevin J; Dryden, Peter J; Glazebrook, Mark; Daniels, Timothy R

    2014-11-05

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often have degeneration of the ankle and ipsilateral hindfoot joints. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing total ankle arthroplasty have a higher risk of wound breakdown and infection. We compared intermediate-term clinical outcomes after total ankle arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and patients with noninflammatory arthritis. Fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis were compared with fifty patients with noninflammatory arthritis (the control group), matched for age within ten years, prosthesis type, and follow-up time. All patients underwent total ankle arthroplasty. Revisions and major complications were noted. Outcome scores included the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey. The groups were similar with respect to body mass index and length of follow-up (mean, 63.8 months for the rheumatoid arthritis group and 65.6 months for noninflammatory arthritis group); the rheumatoid arthritis group was younger (mean, 58.5 years compared with 61.2 years). The mean AOS pain scores were significantly different in the rheumatoid arthritis and noninflammatory arthritis groups preoperatively (p < 0.01), but were similar following total ankle arthroplasty (mean and standard deviation, 18.5 ± 17.8 for the rheumatoid arthritis group and 19.7 ± 16.5 for the noninflammatory arthritis group; p = 0.93). Both groups showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) with regard to the AOS scores for pain and disability and SF-36 physical component summary scores following surgery. Postoperatively, AOS disability and SF-36 physical component summary scores were better for patients with noninflammatory arthritis. There were seven revisions in the rheumatoid arthritis group and five in noninflammatory arthritis group. There was one major wound complication in the rheumatoid arthritis cohort and none in the control cohort. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis benefit from total ankle arthroplasty and

  11. Factors associated with sustained remission in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Martire, María Victoria; Marino Claverie, Lucila; Duarte, Vanesa; Secco, Anastasia; Mammani, Marta

    2015-01-01

    To find out the factors that are associated with sustained remission measured by DAS28 and boolean ACR EULAR 2011 criteria at the time of diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Medical records of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in sustained remission according to DAS28 were reviewed. They were compared with patients who did not achieved values of DAS28<2.6 in any visit during the first 3 years after diagnosis. We also evaluated if patients achieved the boolean ACR/EULAR criteria. Variables analyzed: sex, age, smoking, comorbidities, rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP, ESR, CRP, erosions, HAQ, DAS28, extra-articular manifestations, time to initiation of treatment, involvement of large joints, number of tender joints, number of swollen joints, pharmacological treatment. Forty five patients that achieved sustained remission were compared with 44 controls. The variables present at diagnosis that significantly were associated with remission by DAS28 were: lower values of DAS28, HAQ, ESR, NTJ, NSJ, negative CRP, absence of erosions, male sex and absence of involvement of large joints. Only 24.71% achieved the boolean criteria. The variables associated with sustained remission by these criteria were: lower values of DAS28, HAQ, ESR, number of tender joints and number of swollen joints, negative CRP and absence of erosions. The factors associated with sustained remission were the lower baseline disease activity, the low degree of functional disability and lower joint involvement. We consider it important to recognize these factors to optimize treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine: current techniques for management.

    PubMed

    Casey, Adrian T H; Crockard, H Alan; Pringle, Jean; O'Brien, Michael F; Stevens, John M

    2002-04-01

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in the European and North American population is significant. Rheumatoid arthritis can result in serious damage to the cervical spine and the central neuraxis, ranging from mild instability to myelopathy and death. Aggressive conservative care should be established early. The treating physician should not be lulled into a false sense of security by reports suggesting that cervical subluxations are typically asymptomatic [76-78]. Gradual spinal cord compression can result in severe neurologic deficits that may be irreversible despite appropriate surgical intervention when applied too late. [figure: see text] The treatment of rheumatoid disease in the cervical spine is challenging. Many details must be considered when diagnosing and attempting to institute a treatment plan, particularly surgical treatment. The pathomechanics may result in either instability or ankylosis. The superimposed deformities may be either fixed or mobile. The algorithm suggested by the authors can be used to navigate through the numerous details that must be considered to formulate a reasonable surgical plan. Although these patients are [figure: see text] frail, an "aggressive" surgical solution applied in a timely fashion yields better results than an incomplete or inappropriate surgical solution applied too late. When surgical intervention is anticipated, it should be performed before the development of severe myelopathy. Patients who progress to a Ranawat III-B status have a much higher morbidity and mortality rate associated with surgical intervention than do patients who ambulate. Although considered aggressive by some, "prophylactic" stabilization and fusion of a [figure: see text] relatively flexible, moderately deformed spine before the onset of severe neurologic symptoms may be reasonable. This approach ultimately may serve the patient better than "observation" if the patient is slowly drifting into a severe spinal deformity or shows signs of

  13. Evidence for increased chylomicron remnants in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Burggraaf, Benjamin; van Breukelen-van der Stoep, Deborah F; van Zeben, Jendé; van der Meulen, Noelle; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M; Liem, Anho; Valdivielso, Pedro; Rioja Villodres, José; Ramírez-Bollero, José; van der Zwan, Ellen; Castro Cabezas, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Levels of apolipoprotein (apo) B48 may be increased in conditions associated with systemic inflammation and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to evaluate apo B48 levels in patients with RA in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis. Patients with RA (without CVD) and controls without RA but with high CVD risk (based on the presence of diabetes mellitus or a history of CVD) and healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured as a surrogate for vascular damage. In total, 312 patients with RA, 65 controls with high CVD risk and 36 healthy controls were included. Patients with RA had the highest mean apo B48 (10.00 ± 6.65 mg/L) compared to controls with high CVD risk and healthy controls (8.37 ± 5.16 and 5.22 ± 2.46, P < .001). Triglycerides levels were comparable with controls. In RA, apo B48 correlated positively with triglycerides (r = .645; P < .001) but not with cIMT. However, in RA subjects not using lipid or blood pressure lowering medication, a weak correlation was found with cIMT (r = .157; P = .014). RA patients in the highest apo B48 tertile were more often rheumatoid factor positive and anti-CCP positive compared to the lowest tertile. Rheumatoid arthritis patients have higher levels of apo B48 compared to controls with high CVD risk and healthy controls, with normal levels of triglycerides. This accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants may contribute to the elevated CVD risk in RA patients. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  14. Increased serum concentrations of Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine are related to the presence and the severity of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Knani, Ines; Bouzidi, Hassan; Zrour, Saoussen; Bergaoui, Naceur; Hammami, Mohamed; Kerkeni, Mohsen

    2018-07-01

    Background There are limited data regarding the contribution of advanced glycation end products in the presence of rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated whether serum N ɛ -carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine were related to the presence and the severity of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 30 control subjects were included in a cross-sectional study. The severity of rheumatoid arthritis was assessed using the disease activity score for 28 joints. Serum N ɛ -carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum N ɛ -carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine concentrations were significantly higher in patients with rheumatoid arthritis vs. control subjects ( P < 0.001). Serum N ɛ -carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine concentrations were significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients with high disease activity vs. rheumatoid arthritis patients with moderate disease activity ( P < 0.001, P = 0.019, respectively). A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that N ɛ -carboxymethyllysine was independently associated with the presence of rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39, P = 0.006). Furthermore, in a multivariate stepwise regression analysis, N ɛ -carboxymethyllysine was independently correlated with disease activity score for 28 joints (standardized β = 0.43, P = 0.001). Conclusion Serum N ɛ -carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine were increased during rheumatoid arthritis, and N ɛ -carboxymethyllysine was independently associated with the presence and the severity of rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Circulating immune complexes contain citrullinated fibrinogen in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Okeke, Nwora Lance; Sharpe, Orr; Batliwalla, Franak M; Lee, Annette T; Ho, Peggy P; Tomooka, Beren H; Gregersen, Peter K; Robinson, William H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that autoantibodies and immune complexes (ICs) contribute to synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), yet the autoantigens incorporated in ICs in RA remain incompletely characterised. Methods We used the C1q protein to capture ICs from plasma derived from human RA and control patients. Antibodies specific for immunoglobulin were used to detect ICs, and fibrinogen antibodies were used to detect fibrinogen-containing ICs. RA and control plasma were separated by liquid chromatography, and fractions then characterised by ELISA, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on rheumatoid synovial tissue. Results C1q-immunoassays demonstrated increased levels of IgG (p = 0.01) and IgM (p = 0.0002) ICs in plasma derived from RA patients possessing anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP+) autoantibodies as compared with healthy controls. About one-half of the anti-CCP+ RA possessed circulating ICs containing fibrinogen (p = 0.0004). Fractionation of whole RA plasma revealed citrullinated fibrinogen in the high molecular weight fractions that contained ICs. Positive correlations were observed between fibrinogen-containing ICs and anti-citrullinated fibrinogen autoantibodies, anti-CCP antibody, rheumatoid factor and certain clinical characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated co-localisation of fibrinogen, immunoglobulin and complement component C3 in RA pannus tissue. Mass spectrometry analysis of immune complexes immunoprecipitated from RA pannus tissue lysates demonstrated the presence of citrullinated fibrinogen. Conclusion Circulating ICs containing citrullinated fibrinogen are present in one-half of anti-CCP+ RA patients, and these ICs co-localise with C3 in the rheumatoid synovium suggesting that they contribute to synovitis in a subset of RA patients. PMID:18710572

  16. Transcription factor NFAT5 promotes macrophage survival in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Susanna; Choi, Soo Youn; Kwon, H. Moo; Hwang, Daehee; Park, Yune-Jung; Cho, Chul-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Defective apoptotic death of activated macrophages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular signatures defining apoptotic resistance of RA macrophages are not fully understood. Here, global transcriptome profiling of RA macrophages revealed that the osmoprotective transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) critically regulates diverse pathologic processes in synovial macrophages including the cell cycle, apoptosis, and proliferation. Transcriptomic analysis of NFAT5-deficient macrophages revealed the molecular networks defining cell survival and proliferation. Proinflammatory M1-polarizing stimuli and hypoxic conditions were responsible for enhanced NFAT5 expression in RA macrophages. An in vitro functional study demonstrated that NFAT5-deficient macrophages were more susceptible to apoptotic death. Specifically, CCL2 secretion in an NFAT5-dependent fashion bestowed apoptotic resistance to RA macrophages in vitro. Injection of recombinant CCL2 into one of the affected joints of Nfat5+/– mice increased joint destruction and macrophage infiltration, demonstrating the essential role of the NFAT5/CCL2 axis in arthritis progression in vivo. Moreover, after intra-articular injection, NFAT5-deficient macrophages were more susceptible to apoptosis and less efficient at promoting joint destruction than were NFAT5-sufficient macrophages. Thus, NFAT5 regulates macrophage survival by inducing CCL2 secretion. Our results provide evidence that NFAT5 expression in macrophages enhances chronic arthritis by conferring apoptotic resistance to activated macrophages. PMID:28192374

  17. Air pollution as a determinant of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sigaux, Johanna; Biton, Jérôme; André, Emma; Semerano, Luca; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2018-03-07

    Pollution has long been incriminated in many cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. More recently, studies evaluated the potential role for particulate pollutants in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The incidence of RA was found to be higher in urban areas. Living near air pollution emitters was associated with higher risks of developing RA and of producing RA-specific autoantibodies. Nevertheless, no strong epidemiological evidence exists to link one or more specific air pollution particles to RA. The presence in the bronchi of lymphoid satellite islands (inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, iBALT) is strongly associated with both inflammatory lung disease and RA-associated lung disease. Diesel exhaust particles can stimulate iBALT formation. The induction by air pollution of an inflammatory environment with high citrullination levels in the lung may induce iBALT formation, thereby causing a transition toward a more specific immune response via the production of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies. Air pollution not only triggers innate immune responses at the molecular level, increasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, but is also involved in adaptive immune responses. Thus, via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), diesel exhaust particles can trigger a T-cell switch to the Th17 profile. Finally, in the murine collagen-induced arthritis model, animals whose lymphocytes lack the AHR develop milder arthritis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Recent advances in the pathogenesis, prediction, and management of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cheilonda

    2017-05-01

    To provide an overview of recently published articles covering interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA-ILD). Over the past year, many studies replicated previous findings in more diverse and occasionally larger populations internationally. Specifically, the association among cigarette smoking, high rheumatoid factor titer, elevated anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels, and RA-ILD was strengthened. Clinical characteristics, autoantibodies, and biomarkers to aid in RA-ILD development, progression, and mortality prediction were explored. Finally, direct and indirect treatment effects were highlighted. The ability to identify risk factors for preclinical RA-ILD has been enhanced, but the proper management strategy for these patients is yet to be defined. ACPAs and cigarette smoking are highly associated with RA-ILD, but the mechanistic relationship between lung injury and autoantibody generation remains unknown. There is conflicting evidence regarding the significance of a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) versus non-UIP pattern on high-resolution computed tomography. The use of biologic agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis does not appear to increase the risk of incident ILD or RA-ILD exacerbation. Randomized prospective studies of specific therapy for RA-ILD are still lacking.

  19. Plasma zinc and its relationship to clinical symptoms and drug treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Z; El-Ghobarey, A F; Fell, G S; Brown, D H; Dunlop, J; Dick, W C

    1980-01-01

    Total plasma zinc levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on different therapeutic treatments were determined in conjunction with total serum proteins, serum albumin and globulin, and articular index of joint tenderness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, serum copper, and serum iron. There were significantly lower zinc levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs than in patients on levamisole and penicillamine. Zinc levels correlated positively with serum albumin, and there was an inverse correlation between zinc levels and both ESR and globulin concentration in all rheumatoid patients. However, the correlation coefficient varied in the different treatment groups. The results of this study support the hypothesis that low plasma zinc level in rheumatoid arthritis is one of the nonspecific features of inflammation. PMID:7436558

  20. Incidence of Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Southern part of Denmark from 1995 to 2001

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jens K; Svendsen, Anders J; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in the southern part of Denmark from 1995 to 2001. At a rheumatology hospital serving a population of about 200 000 people over the age of 15, medical records were scrutinized. As case definition we used the tree and list format of 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The mean annual incidence rate per 100 000 person years was 40 in females, 21 in males, and 31 in females and males combined. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in Denmark is in accordance with recent studies from North America, the UK, and Northern European countries. The aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown but this study indicates that in these populations the exposure to non-genetic host and environmental aetiological factors is similar. PMID:19088896

  1. Seronegative rheumatoid arthritis: a rare cause of effusive-constrictive pericarditis requiring pericardiectomy.

    PubMed

    Soo, Alan; Graham, Alastair

    2012-04-01

    Effusive-constrictive pericarditis is a rare condition. In this report, we describe a case of effusive-constrictive pericarditis caused by seronegative rheumatoid arthritis which was successfully treated with surgical pericardiectomy.

  2. The Future of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Hand Surgery - Combining Evolutionary Pharmacology and Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    M, Malahias; H, Gardner; S, Hindocha; A, Juma; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease of uncertain aetiology, which is characterized primarily by synovial inflammation with secondary skeletal destructions. Rheumatoid Arthritis is diagnosed by the presence of four of the seven diagnostic criteria, defined by The American College of Rheumatology. Approximately half a million adults in the United Kingdom suffer from rheumatoid arthritis with an age prevalence between the second and fourth decades of life; annually approximately 20,000 new cases are diagnosed. The management of Rheumatoid Arthritis is complex; in the initial phase of the disease it primarily depends on pharmacological management. With disease progression, surgical input to correct deformity comes to play an increasingly important role. The treatment of this condition is also intimately coupled with input from both the occupational therapists and physiotherapy. PMID:22423304

  3. Economics of non-adherence to biologic therapies in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    De Vera, Mary A; Mailman, Jonathan; Galo, Jessica S

    2014-11-01

    Adherence to biologic therapies among patients with rheumatoid arthritis is sub-optimal, with the proportion of adherent patients reported to be as low as 11 %. We found few studies evaluating economic outcomes, including health care costs, associated with non-adherence with biologic therapies. Findings suggest that while higher pharmacy costs drive total health care costs among adherent patients, non-adherent patients incur greater health care utilization including inpatient, outpatient, and laboratory services. Finally, economic factors are important determinants of adherence to biologics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence to date has shown that higher out-of-pocket payments have a negative association with adherence to biologics. Furthermore, cost-related non-adherence is a highly prevalent problem in rheumatoid arthritis. Given the high costs of biologics and continued expansion of use in rheumatoid arthritis, there is need for more research to understand the economic implications of adherence to these therapies.

  4. Diagnosing hypoxia in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis from reflectance multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinton, Sophie; Naylor, Amy J.; Claridge, Ela

    2017-07-01

    Spectra computed from multispectral images of murine models of Rheumatoid Arthritis show a characteristic decrease in reflectance within the 600-800nm region which is indicative of the reduction in blood oxygenation and is consistent with hypoxia.

  5. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs other than methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Pradip; Kingsley, Gabrielle H; Scott, David L

    2008-05-01

    To outline recent research findings with nonmethotrexate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative arthritis spanning systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational clinical practice trials and assessments of adverse effects. Systematic reviews show no important differences between methotrexate, leflunomide and sulfasalazine monotherapies; early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy reduces erosive progression. Observational studies show that nonmethotrexate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are widely prescribed; their usage has increased in the biologic era. A systemic review also showed patients who failed monotherapy benefited from disease-modifying antirheumatic drug combinations without excess toxicity. Randomized controlled trials of intensive initial disease-modifying antirheumatic drug combinations showed they reduce synovitis and erosive damage, especially when used with steroids. The subsequent sequence of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and the value of changing disease-modifying antirheumatic drug monotherapies or stepping-up to combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are, however, unresolved. The adverse risks of nonmethotrexate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs have been evaluated, including infections and lung disease; patient-related risks seem more important than drug-related risks, though several disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs increase both types of adverse reactions. Two limitations of nonmethotrexate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are reduced impact on comorbidities like cardiovascular disease and reduced patient and clinician preferences for these treatments. Nonmethotrexate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are effective, relatively well tolerated and widely used. Their role in intensive treatment strategies in early rheumatoid arthritis appears of crucial importance.

  6. Laser acupuncture versus reflexology therapy in elderly with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Adly, Afnan Sedky; Adly, Aya Sedky; Adly, Mahmoud Sedky; Serry, Zahra M H

    2017-07-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine and compare efficacy of laser acupuncture versus reflexology in elderly with rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged between 60 and 70 years were classified into two groups, 15 patients each. Group A received laser acupuncture therapy (904 nm, beam area of 1cm 2 , power 100 mW, power density 100 mW/cm 2 , energy dosage 4 J, energy density 4 J/cm 2 , irradiation time 40 s, and frequency 100,000 Hz). The acupuncture points that were exposed to laser radiation are LR3, ST25, ST36, SI3, SI4, LI4, LI11, SP6, SP9, GB25, GB34, and HT7. While group B received reflexology therapy, both offered 12 sessions over 4 weeks. The changes in RAQoL, HAQ, IL-6, MDA, ATP, and ROM at wrist and ankle joints were measured at the beginning and end of treatment. There was significant decrease in RAQoL, HAQ, IL-6, and MDA pre/posttreatment for both groups (p < 0.05); significant increase in ATP pre/posttreatment for both groups (p < 0.05); significant increase in ankle dorsi-flexion, plantar-flexion, wrist flexion, extension, and ulnar deviation ROM pre/posttreatment in group A (p < 0.05); and significant increase in ankle dorsi-flexion and ankle plantar-flexion ROM pre/posttreatment in group B (p < 0.05). Comparison between both groups showed a statistical significant decrease in MDA and a statistical significant increase in ATP in group A than group B. Percent of changes in MDA was 41.82%↓ in group A versus 21.68%↓ in group B; changes in ATP was 226.97%↑ in group A versus 67.02%↑ in group B. Moreover, there was a statistical significant increase in ankle dorsi-flexion, ankle plantar-flexion, wrist flexion, wrist extension, and radial deviation in group A than group B. Laser therapy is associated with significant improvement in MDA and ATP greater than reflexology. In addition, it is associated with significant improvement in ankle dorsi-flexion, ankle plantar-flexion, wrist flexion

  7. Evaluation of human serum of severe rheumatoid arthritis by confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. S.; Raniero, L.; Santo, A. M. E.; Pinheiro, M. M.; Andrade, L. E. C.; Cardoso, M. A. G.; Junior, J. S.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease, recurrent and systemic, initiated by autoantibodies and maintained by inflammatory mechanisms cellular applicants. The evaluation of this disease to promote early diagnosis, need an associations of many tools, such as clinical, physical examination and thorough medical history. However, there is no satisfactory consensus due to its complexity. In the present work, confocal Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the biochemical composition of human serum of 40 volunteers, 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis presenting clinical signs and symptoms, and 16 healthy donors. The technique of latex agglutination for the polystyrene covered with human immunoglobulin G and PCR (protein c-reactive) was performed for confirmation of possible false-negative results within the groups, facilitating the statistical interpretation and validation of the technique. This study aimed to verify the changes for the characteristics Raman peaks of biomolecules such as immunoglobulins amides and protein. The results were highly significant with a good separation between groups mentioned. The discriminant analysis was performed through the principal components and correctly identified 92% of the donors. Based on these results, we observed the behavior of arthritis autoimmune, evident in certain spectral regions that characterize the serological differences between the groups.

  8. Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Valdez, Hernan; Mortensen, Eric; Chew, Robert; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Kawabata, Thomas; Riese, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA. Methods HZ cases were identified as those reported by trial investigators from the databases of the phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) clinical trials in the Tofacitinib RA Development Program. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of HZ per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated by exposure group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors for HZ (e.g., age, prednisone use). Results Among 4,789 participants, 239 were identified as having tofacitinib-associated HZ during the phase II, phase III, and LTE trials, of whom 208 (87%) were female and whose median age was 57 years (range 21–75 years). One HZ case (0.4%) was multidermatomal; none of the cases involved visceral dissemination or death. Twenty-four patients with HZ (10%) permanently discontinued treatment with tofacitinib, and 16 (7%) were either hospitalized or received intravenous antiviral drugs. The crude HZ IR across the development program was 4.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 3.8–4.9), but the IR was substantially higher within Asia (7.7 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 6.4–9.3). Older age was associated with HZ (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.6), and IRs for HZ were similar between patients receiving 5 mg tofacitinib twice daily (4.4 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.2–6.0) and those receiving 10 mg twice daily (4.2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.1–5.8). In the phase III trials among placebo recipients, the incidence of HZ was 1.5 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5–4.6). Conclusion In the Tofacitinib RA Development Program, increased rates of HZ were observed in patients treated with tofacitinib compared with those receiving placebo, particularly among patients within Asia. Complicated HZ

  9. Ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlation with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Ammapati Paul Pandian; Srinivasan, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    To study the ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and to correlate the role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP antibody) with the ocular manifestations. Three-hundred and ninety-two eyes of the 196 rheumatoid arthritis patients who attended the ophthalmology outpatient department underwent a detailed ocular examination using slit lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. The tear function of all the patients was assessed using Schirmer's test, tear film break-up time and ocular surface staining. The anti-CCP antibody titers for all the rheumatoid arthritis patients were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Seventy-seven patients (135 eyes, 39%) out of the 196 patients studied had ocular manifestations typical of rheumatoid arthritis. Dry eye was the most common manifestation (28%, 54 patients). Of the patients, 78% was females (60 patients). The mean duration of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with ocular manifestations was 5.4±2.7 years and without ocular manifestations was 2.1±1.6years. Three percent of the patients had episcleritis (six patients). Scleritis was present in 2% of the patients (four patients). Peripheral ulcerative keratitis and sclerosing keratitis was present in 1% of the population each (two patients each). Eighty-five percent (66 patients) had bilateral manifestations 15% (eleven patients) had unilateral manifestations. There was a strong association between the presence of anti-CCP antibodies and ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis which was shown by the statistically significant P-value of <0.0001. Ocular manifestations are a significant part of the extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. Dry eye was the most common ocular manifestation. There was a statistically significant association between the presence of anti-CCP antibodies specific to rheumatoid arthritis and the ocular manifestations.

  10. Geode of the femur: an uncommon manifestation potentially reflecting the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonuk; Terk, Michael R; Hu, Bing; Garber, Elayne K; Weisman, Michael H

    2006-12-01

    Geodes are noted frequently in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but large geodes of the femur are uncommon. We describe a patient with RA and a large geode in his femur; histological findings were consistent with a rheumatoid nodule and chronically inflamed synovium. We review the literature of large femoral geodes and what this particular manifestation may reflect about the pathogenesis of RA.

  11. Biosimilars for the management of rheumatoid arthritis: economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Gulácsi, László; Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Kim, HoUng; Kim, Su Yeon; Cho, Yu Young; Péntek, Márta

    2015-01-01

    Biologic drugs have proved highly effective for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These drugs are often considered cost-effective for well-defined RA patient populations not responding adequately to conventional treatment, but are used first-line relatively rarely, partly due to high costs. Furthermore, not all clinically eligible patients can access biologics even as second-line therapy. Recently, there has been a rise in interest in 'biosimilar' drugs that are highly comparable to the 'reference medicinal product' (RMP) in terms of efficacy and safety but may generally be lower in price. This review summarizes the cost burden of RA and considers the potential role of biosimilars in reducing drug costs and increasing patient access to biologics.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis and Swine influenza vaccine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Basra, Gurjot; Jajoria, Praveen; Gonzalez, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1) and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR β chains, known as the "shared epitope", which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the "shared epitope" may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  13. [Factors affecting the localization of joints in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Keitel, W; Wellmann, C; Gedschold, A; Wille, R

    1981-03-15

    For testing a possible connection between the localization of a joint and anthropometric data in rheumatoid arthritis the numbers of a maximum and minimum affection in the region of the hand were at first determined. Former findings of a more frequent participation of the right hand could be confirmed. In the region of the distal skeleton of the hand the changes were to be found more radially, in the proximal parts more frequently ulnarly. Examinations concerning the influence of the breadth, length and angular measures of the hand showed above all connections of the affection of the joints with the breadth of the hand. An influence of measures and indices of the body on the frequency of the affection of peripheral joints could statistically ascertained only for few of the constellations examined. Future investigations shall take into consideration the regional vessel and nerve supply, shall issue from homogeneous groups of test persons and shall be performed with other methods of evaluation.

  14. ER Stress: A Therapeutic Target in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Marveh; Moosavi, Mohammad Amin; McDermott, Michael F

    2018-04-22

    Diverse physiological and pathological conditions that impact on protein folding of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cause ER stress. The unfolded protein response (UPR) and the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway are activated to cope with ER stress. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammation and ER stress work in parallel by driving inflammatory cells to release cytokines that induce chronic ER stress pathways. This chronic ER stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of RA through synoviocyte proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, ER stress pathways and their constituent elements are attractive targets for RA drug development. In this review, we integrate current knowledge of the contribution of ER stress to the overall pathogenesis of RA, and suggest some therapeutic implications of these discoveries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CASPASE-12 and rheumatoid arthritis in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Laura; Obaidullah, Mohammad; Fuchs, Trista; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Brinkley, Garland; Mikuls, Ted R.; Bridges, S. Louis; Hermel, Evan

    2014-01-01

    CASPASE-12 (CASP12) has a down-regulatory function during infection, and thus may protect against inflammatory disease. We investigated the distribution of CASP12 alleles (#rs497116) in African-Americans (AA) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CASP12 alleles were genotyped in 953 RA patients and 342 controls. Statistical analyses comparing genotype groups were performed using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA with Mann-Whitney U tests and chi-square tests. There was no significant difference in the overall distribution of CASP12 genotypes within AA with RA, but CASP12 homozygous patients had lower baseline joint narrowing scores. CASP12 homozygosity appears to be a subtle protective factor for some aspects of RA in AA patients. PMID:24515649

  16. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries.

  18. Management of rheumatoid arthritis (Aamavata) using symbiohealth healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    Basisht, Gopal K.; Singh, Ram Harsh; Chandola, Harimohan

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), according to modern medicine, and Aamavata according to Ayurveda, has an etiological and clinical relationship. Aamavata is a disease complex of which RA is a part. A comparative study of the pathophysiology of this disease by both systems reveals that modern medicine has investigated the mechanism of inflammation and has developed an offense strategy to control it. Ayurveda follows a defense strategy and it focuses its search on the etiological process, where disequilibrium at a higher level of physiology affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing an immune response that results in inflammation. Understanding the pathophysiology of both systems will help the treating physician to institute a dual treatment plan of modern medicine's offense strategy and Ayurvedic medicine's defense strategy at appropriate stages of the disease. Studying the pathophsiology of the two systems also gives insight into the genetic and epigenetic phenomenon in the treatment of disease and opens the doors for groundbreaking research. PMID:23723661

  19. Development of Bruton's tyrosine kinase Inhibitors for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jiahui, Lv; Jingde, Wu; Feng, He; Ying, Qu; Qiuqiong, Zhang; Chenggong, Yu

    2018-03-16

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease and becomes one of the major causes of disability and work force loss. The presence of abnormal B cell and autoantibodies produced by most RA patients, primarily ACPA and RF, indicate that the function of B cell was involved in the development of RA disease. Accordingly, the drug targeting B cell has become a hot spot in the treatment of RA. Studies have shown that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is involved in the regulation of B cell proliferation and activation process. Some small molecule BTK inhibitors have shown excellent inhibition in biological activity analysis and animal models. Therefore, this review will briefly introduce BTK and its role in cell signaling and overview recent progress of BTK inhibitors for RA treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Implications for managed care and specialty pharmacy in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, William J

    2012-12-01

    Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be very costly. Cost-effectiveness studies provide insight into the value of treatment from a number of perspectives (eg, societal, healthcare). In most cases, the indirect costs of RA can offset the direct costs in 2 ways. Prevention of disease progression can limit future costs, such as those related to surgery and hospitalization. When disease progression is minimized, patients feel better and can have improved work productivity. Disease control of RA has improved over time, and this is attributed primarily to the introduction of more effective therapies. Despite the effectiveness of new therapies, there are a number of barriers to optimal treatment. Barriers include lack of education for patients and practitioners about RA, poor patient-provider communication, uncertainty regarding which treatments to choose, cost, and lack of adherence. Specialty pharmacy and disease therapy management programs can assist patients by providing structure, education, and mechanisms to improve treatment adherence and persistence to optimize therapy.

  1. Patient-centred care in established rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Voshaar, M J H; Nota, I; van de Laar, M A F J; van den Bemt, B J F

    2015-01-01

    Review of the evidence on patient-centred care (PCC) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) shows that involving the patient as an individual - with unique needs, concerns and preferences - has a relevant impact on treatment outcomes (safety, effectiveness and costs). This approach empowers patients to take personal responsibility for their treatment. Because clinicians are only able to interact personally with their patients just a few hours per year, patients with a chronic condition such as RA should be actively involved in the management of their disease. To stimulate this active role, five different PCC activities can be distinguished: (1) patient education, (2) patient involvement/shared decision-making, (3) patient empowerment/self-management, (4) involvement of family and friends and (5) physical and emotional support. This article reviews the existing knowledge on these five PCC activities in the context of established RA management, especially focused on opportunities to increase medication adherence in established RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Light scattering study of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthan, J.; Netz, U.; Minet, O.; Klose, Annerose D.; Hielscher, A. H.; Scheel, A.; Henniger, J.; Müller, G.

    2002-11-01

    The distribution of light scattered by finger joints is studied in the near-IR region. It is shown that variations in the optical parameters of the tissue (scattering coefficient μs, absorption coefficient μa, and anisotropy factor g) depend on the presence of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At the first stage, the distribution of scattered light was measured in diaphanoscopic experiments. The convolution of a Gaussian error function with the scattering phase function proved to be a good approximation of the data obtained. Then, a new method was developed for the reconstruction of distribution of optical parameters in the finger cross section. Model tests of the quality of this reconstruction method show good results.

  3. Update on the use of steroids in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    García-Magallón, Blanca; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Andreu-Sánchez, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In recent years, a number of high-quality controlled clinical trials have shown their effect as a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) and a favourable safety profile in recent-onset RA. Despite this, they are more frequently used as bridge therapy while other DMARDs initiate their action than as true disease-modifying agents. Low-dose corticosteroid use during the first two years of disease slows radiologic damage and reduces the need of biologic therapy aimed at reaching a state of clinical remission in recent-onset RA. Thus, their systematic use in this clinical scenario should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Methotrexate: the emerging drug of choice for serious rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Salach, R H; Cash, J M

    1994-01-01

    The recently recognized high morbidity and unexpected mortality associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has spurred new interest in more aggressive, early treatment of this disease. Methotrexate (MTX) has rapidly become the rheumatologist's drug of choice for serious RA because of its favorable efficacy to toxicity ratio and rapid onset of action compared with other second-line agents. The initial concerns about hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in psoriatic patients has subsided somewhat as long-term liver toxicity data are accumulating in patients with RA. Routine liver biopsy with incremental doses of MTX is no longer recommended. Potential for severe lung, hematologic, and infectious complications exists, mandating careful monitoring of RA patients taking MTX.

  5. [Interleukins network in rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology: beyond proinflammatory cytokines].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Carreño, Luis

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis and progressive destruction of the joint cartilage and underlying bone, together with diverse extra-articular manifestations. Cytokines act as soluble effector mediators of the inflammatory process. Therapeutic neutralization with monoclonal antibodies against the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and interleukin 1 (IL-1) has shown a clear efficacy on inflammation and clinical manifestations of RA, although a percentage of patients do not respond. This review covers new relevant cytokines in the RA physiopathology and potential biomarkers of inflammation. The current challenge is to develop biomarkers that enable an earlier diagnosis, as well as prognostic markers and new therapeutic candidates. Combined administration of several of these cytokines could eventually address a personalized treatment approach for each patient. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. The specialist physician's approach to rheumatoid arthritis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bester, Frederik C J; Bosch, Fredricka J; van Rensburg, Barend J Jansen

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expected to increase in Africa and South Africa. Due to the low numbers of rheumatologists in South Africa, specialist physicians also have to care for patients with RA. Furthermore several new developments have taken place in recent years which improved the management and outcome of RA. Classification criteria were updated, assessment follow-up tools were refined and above all, several new biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were developed. Therefore it is imperative for specialist physicians to update themselves with the newest developments in the management of RA. This article provides an overview of the newest developments in the management of RA in the South African context. This approach may well apply to countries with similar specialist to patient ratios and disease profiles.

  7. A potential new treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: thunder god vine.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, P E; Tao, X L

    1997-04-01

    Various extracts of the vinelike plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f have been widely used in China to treat patients with a number of autoimmune diseases. Although most of the clinical experience has derived from uncontrolled trials, one placebo-controlled double-blind trial has clearly demonstrated efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis. Studies in laboratory animals have indicated that extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f suppress both immune and inflammatory responses and also effectively treat a number of models of autoimmune disease. More detailed in vitro analysis has indicated that components of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f suppress immune responses by inhibiting transcription of cytokine genes, including interleukin-2 and gamma interferon. The current status of knowledge of the potential clinical benefit of this herbal remedy and possible mechanisms accounting for its utility are considered in this review.

  8. Advances in the medical treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Onel, K B

    2000-02-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) remains a challenge for clinicians. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids remain the mainstays of therapy, but concerns persist about side effects and the ability of these agents to prevent progression of bony disease. In recent years, novel treatments have been developed and quickly discarded because of unexpected toxicities or lack of efficacy. However, recent studies have shown that methotrexate and sulfasalazine are relatively safe and effective for JRA. Newly developed drugs, such as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor, whose development has stemmed from a more basic understanding of pathophysiology, may provide better disease control with fewer side effects. Finally, novel therapies, such as stem cell transplantation, may offer hope for children with JRA, especially systemic-onset JRA, whose disease has been refractory to conventional therapy.

  9. Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahain, Abdullah; Jahan, Rownak

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease particularly affecting elderly people which leads to massive bone destruction with consequent inflammation, pain, and debility. Allopathic medicine can provide only symptomatic relief. However, Zingiber officinale is a plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, which has traditionally been used for treatment of RA in alternative medicines of many countries. Many of the phytochemical constituents of the rhizomes of this plant have therapeutic benefits including amelioration of RA. This review attempts to list those phytochemical constituents with their reported mechanisms of action. It is concluded that these phytochemicals can form the basis of discovery of new drugs, which not only can provide symptomatic relief but also may provide total relief from RA by stopping RA-induced bone destruction. As the development of RA is a complex process, further research should be continued towards elucidating the molecular details leading to RA and drugs that can stop or reverse these processes by phytoconstituents of ginger. PMID:24982806

  10. [Anxiety level and its determinants in rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    PubMed

    Mojs, Ewa; Ziarko, Michał; Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease with many somatic, psychological and social consequences. Somatic consequences are connected mainly with increasing levels of negative emotions such as depression, anxiety and a tendency to react with anger to many daily life situations. Additionally, loss of hope has been reported as another effect of rheumatoid arthritis. The goal of the study was to describe anxiety levels and its determinants in RA patients. The study was carried out on 31 RA patients, 22 (71%) of whom were females and 9 (29%) of whom were males. The respondents were assessed with a set of questionnaires such as Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire - Revised (EPQ-R). We have found the relationship between anxiety as (1) a state and external locus of control - powerful others (tau-b = 0.23, p = 0.09), task - oriented style of coping (tau-b = -0.34, p = 0.01), emotion-oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.33, p = 0.02) and neuroticism levels (tau-b = 0.29, p = 0.03) and (2) anxiety as a trait and external locus of control - powerful others (tau-b = 0.40, p = 0.01), task - oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.36, p = 0.01), emotion-oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.33, p = 0.02) and neuroticism levels (tau-b = 0.47, p = 0,01).

  11. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biologic DMARDS (Rituximab and Etanercept).

    PubMed

    Gashi, Afrim A; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Berisha, Idriz; Kryeziu, Avni; Ismaili, Jehona; Krasniqi, Gezim

    2014-01-01

    To determine efficacy and safety of treatment with Rituximab and Etanercept plus Methotrexate in patients with active Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), who had an inadequate response to nonbiologic DMARDS therapies and to explore the pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of Rituximab and Etanercept in our populations. Study was done at Rheumatology Clinic of University Clinical Centre in Prishtina during 2009-2011 years. We evaluated primary efficacy and safety at 24 weeks in patients enrolled in the study of long-term efficacy of Rituximab and Etanercept. Patients with active Rheumatoid Arthritis and an inadequate response to 1 or more non biologic DMARDS were randomized to receive intravenous Rituximab (1 course consisting of 2 infusions of 1.000 mg each -one group, and Etanercept 25 mg twice weekly -second group, but both groups with background MTX. The primary efficacy end point was a response on the ACR 20%, improvement criteria at 24 weeks, Secondary end points were responses on the ACR 50 and ACR 70, improvement criteria, the DAS 28, and EULAR response criteria at 24 weeks. During our investigations we treated 20 patients, 15 females and 5 males, in the treated group with RTX and 13 patients 8 females and 5 males in the treated group with ETN. Patients of group 1 and group 2 were of ages 37-69 years old and 19-69 years old (average 47-44) Most of the patients belong in 2nd and 3rd functional stage according to Steinbrocker. All ACR response parameters were significantly improved in RTX treated patients who also had clinically meaningful improvement in fatigue, disability and quality of life. Patients showed a trend less progression in radiographic end points. Most adverse events occurred with the first RTX infusion and were mild to moderate severity. At 24 weeks, a single course of RTX and ETN provided significant and clinically meaningful improvements in disease activity in patients with active, longstanding RA who had an inadequate response to 1 or more

  12. Adherence with bisphosphonate therapy in US veterans with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Richards, J Steuart; Cannon, Grant W; Hayden, Candace L; Amdur, Richard L; Lazaro, Deana; Mikuls, Ted R; Reimold, Andreas M; Caplan, Liron; Johnson, Dannette S; Schwab, Pascale; Cherascu, Bogdan N; Kerr, Gail S

    2012-12-01

    Pharmacy Benefits Management program data for patients enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry were linked with clinical data to determine bisphosphonate adherence and persistence among US veterans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine factors associated with adherence. The primary outcome measures were the duration of bisphosphonate therapy and the medication possession ratio (MPR). Patients with an MPR <0.80 were classified as nonadherent. Potential covariates considered in the analysis included patient demographics, RA disease activity and severity parameters, and factors associated with osteoporosis risk. Associations of patient factors with duration of therapy and adherence were examined using multivariable regression modeling. Bisphosphonates were prescribed to 573 (41.5%) of 1,382 VARA subjects. The mean ± SD duration of therapy for bisphosphonates was 39.2 ± 31.4 months. A longer duration of therapy correlated with older age, more years of education, and dual x-ray absorptiometry testing. The mean ± SD MPR of VARA subjects for bisphosphonate therapy was 0.69 ± 0.28; 302 (52.7%) were nonadherent. In multivariate analyses, nonadherence with bisphosphonate therapy was associated with a longer duration of RA disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.00-1.04) and duration of bisphosphonate therapy >32 months (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.04-2.57). Whites were less likely to have a low MPR compared with nonwhites (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.30-0.88). Nonadherence with bisphosphonates was common in this cohort of RA patients and was associated with nonwhite ethnicity, a longer duration of RA disease, and a greater duration of bisphosphonate therapy. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: multidetector computed tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Celikyay, Fatih; Yilmaz, Ayse; Arslan, Sule; Inanir, Ahmet; Inonu, Handan; Deniz, Caglar

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is common and encompasses a large spectrum of disease with different treatment options and prognoses. Therefore, assessment of these patients with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is vital. To evaluate the MDCT pulmonary findings of patients with RA and to compare these findings with the clinical status. Chest MDCT scans of 85 patients with RA between 2006-2012 were assessed. One patient with a pulmonary infection was excluded from the study. MDCT findings and distribution of the CT findings were examined, and patients were classified according to the predominant CT pattern. The pulmonary function test (PFT) results and categories, demographic characteristics, and clinical status of some of the patients for whom the results were obtained were evaluated, and the CT findings, PFT results, demographic characteristics, and clinical status were compared. The study group consisted of 20 men (mean age, 58.1 years ± 13.1; range, 15-77 years) and 64 women (mean age, 55.3 years ± 11.5; range, 30-84 years). The most frequent findings were nodules (78.6%) and pleural thickening (48.8%). The most common CT patterns were follicular bronchiolitis (FB) in 28 (33.3%) patients and nodular disease (ND) in 12 (14.3%) others. There was no statistically significant difference between the CT findings and PFT results, and no statistically significant difference was noted in the CT findings between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. In addition, there were some patients who exhibited no symptoms and/or had abnormal PFT results but had abnormal CT findings. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a high frequency of CT findings and CT patterns, with nodules and pleural thickening being the most common CT findings and FB and ND being the most common CT patterns. MDCT identification of patients with RA may be helpful in the evaluation of pulmonary disease, even in patients without symptoms and PFT abnormalities.

  14. Nailfold capillaroscopy in 430 patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Alireza; Dehghan, Pooneh; Amiri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Microvascular changes are one of the first obvious steps in numerous inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nailfold video capillaroscopy (NFC) is an easy, reliable and safe method for evaluating peripheral microangiopathy. The objective of this study was to examine nailfold microcirculation in RA patients, assess morphological and structural changes quantitatively and qualitatively, and recognize useful changes. Methods: A total of 430 patients diagnosed with RA were examined in a period of 4 years. NFC was performed on all fingers of both hands in each patient. Different parameters indicating microvascular changes were detected and analyzed; such as microvascular architecture, capillary distribution disturbances, capillary morphology, capillary density, efferent/afferent limb ratio, subpapillary venular plexus and morphological abnormalities. The obtained results were categorized into normal pattern, nonspecific morphological abnormality and scleroderma pattern. Results: The mean age of participants was 51.03±14.54 (19-87 years) that consisted of 359 females and 71 males. Based on the findings, angiogenesis (74.7%) was the most pathological condition observed after tortuosity (99.5%). 7.2% and 20.9% of patients were categorized into normal and scleroderma pattern group, respectively. Among morphological abnormalities, angiogenesis, isolated enlarged loop, irregular enlarged loop and architectural derangement were significantly more frequent in scleroderma than normal pattern (p<0.001). Conclusion: NFC may play an important role in monitoring RA disease and patients’ follow-up. Therefore, in our opinion it could be considered in the course and follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:29201317

  15. Impact of bariatric surgery on patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Jeffrey A.; Halperin, Florencia; Karlson, Jonathan C.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Bermas, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the effect of weight loss after bariatric surgery among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of RA patients who underwent bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, or sleeve gastrectomy) at two medical centers. We obtained anthropometrics, laboratory values, RA disease activity, and medication use at baseline (prior to surgery), at six and twelve months post-surgery, and at most recent follow-up visits. RA disease activity was determined by clinical or validated measures. At each post-surgical visit, characteristics were compared to baseline. Results We identified 53 RA patients who underwent bariatric surgery. At baseline prior to surgery, mean body mass index was 47.8 kg/m2 (SD 7.7), mean weight was 128.2 kg (SD 24.1), and 57% had moderate/high RA disease activity. Twelve months post-surgery, subjects lost a mean of 41.0 kg (SD 17.3), 70% (SD 24) of excess weight (P<0.001). RA disease activity significantly improved at post-surgical visits (P<0.001). At 12 months post-surgery, 6% had moderate/high disease activity compared to 57% at baseline (P<0.001). At most recent follow-up (mean 5.8 years [SD 3.2] after surgery), 74% were in remission compared to 26% at baseline (P<0.001). Subjects had significantly lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and RA-related medication use at follow-up visits compared to baseline (P<0.05). Conclusion After substantial weight loss from bariatric surgery, RA patients had lower disease activity, decreased serum inflammatory markers, and less RA-related medication usage. Weight loss may be an important non-pharmacologic strategy to reduce RA disease activity. However, other factors, such as improved efficacy of medications, improved physical activity, and metabolic changes, may also have contributed to these post-surgical improvements. PMID:26018243

  16. The Association Between Serum Selenium Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Na; Han, Fang; Lin, Xiaojun; Tang, Chun; Ye, Jinghua; Cai, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-01

    There are conflicting reports on the correlation between serum selenium (Se) levels with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Through a meta-analysis approach, the aim of the present study is to clarify the relationship between serum Se levels with RA. We searched literatures that met our predefined criteria in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and OVID published as of September 2015. Ten eligible articles with 14 case-control studies involving 716 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with RA had lower serum levels of Se than the healthy controls (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -1.347, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = [-1.872, -0.823], p < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis indicated that subjects with RA had lower serum Se levels than healthy controls in Europe (SMD = -1.063, 95 % CI = [-1.571, -0.556], p < 0.001) and Asia (SMD = -3.254, 95 % CI = [-4.687, -1.821], p < 0.001) but not in USA (SMD = -0.322, 95 % CI = [-0.657, 0.012], p = 0.059). The serum Se levels were lower in RA than healthy controls measured by graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (SMD = -1.026, 95 % CI = [-1.522, -0.530], p < 0.001), electrothermal absorption spectrometry (EAS) (SMD = -1.197, 95 % CI = [-2.373, -0.020], p < 0.05), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) (SMD = -0.681, 95 % CI = [-1.049, -0.313], p < 0.001), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) (SMD = -11.707, 95 % CI = [-15.189, -8.224], p < 0.001) but not by neutron activation analysis (NAA) (SMD = -0.674, 95 % CI = [-1.350, 0.003], p = 0.051). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association between low serum Se concentration with RA. However, this finding needs further confirmation by a trans-regional multicenter study to obtain better understanding of causal relationship between serum Se with RA of different human

  17. The lung in rheumatoid arthritis - focus on interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Lee, Joyce C; Sverzellati, Nicola; Rossi, Giulio; Cottin, Vincent

    2018-05-27

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an increasingly recognized complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, approximately one-third of patients have subclinical disease with varying degrees of functional impairment. While risk factors for RA-ILD are well established (e.g., older age, male gender, ever smoking history and seropositivity to rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies) little is known about optimal disease assessment, treatment and monitoring, particularly in patients with progressive disease. Patients with RA-ILD are also at high risk of infection and drug toxicity, which, along with comorbidities, complicate further treatment decision making. There are distinct histopathologic patterns of RA-ILD with different clinical phenotypes, natural history and prognosis. Of these, the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) subtype of RA-ILD shares a number of clinical and histopathologic features with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common and severe of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, suggesting the existence of common mechanistic pathways and possibly therapeutic targets. There remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of RA-ILD. Concerted multinational effort of expert centres has the potential to elucidate the basic mechanisms underlying RA-UIP and other subtypes of RA-ILD and facilitate the development of more efficacious and safer drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Posterior subtalar joint synoviography and corticosteroid injection in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, F; Dixon, A S

    1981-01-01

    Ten posterior subtalar joints of 8 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 12 posterior subtalar joints of 6 cadavers were studied by contrast synoviography. In the rheumatoid group the abnormalities included posterior capsule distension, filling defects caused by hypertrophic synovitis, limited or irregular filling of the anterior recess of the joint in 5 out of 10, and communication with the ankle joint in 3 out of 10. None of the cadaveric joints showed posterior capsule distension or limited or irregular filling of the anterior recess of the joint, but communication with the ankle was present in 2 joints. The joints of the patients were injected with a 1:1 mixture of sodium iothalamate 70% (Conray 420) and triamcinolone hexacetonide (Lederspan) 20 mg/ml. All patients noticed a decrease in and an improvement in walking beginning 24-48 hours after the examination. Quantitative thermography was done immediately before and 1 after injection in 2 patients who showed an improvement in thermographic index. We conclude that hindfoot inflammatory pain arising from the posterior subtalar joint is caused by distension with hypertrophic synovitis which can be difficult to detect clinically. Images PMID:7224686

  19. Renal involvement in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gedalia, A; Mendez, E A; Craver, R; Vehaskari, M; Espinoza, L R

    2001-01-01

    Renal involvement is a rare occurrence in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). We report on two JRA patients with kidney disease. The first was a 14-year-old African-American female with a 12-month history of polyarthritis. On presentation she was found to have an ESR of 127 mm/h and a positive ANA, rheumatoid factor (RF), perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA), haematuria, proteinuria with normal BUN and creatinine. Renal biopsy showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Her renal function deteriorated to end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis within a few months, despite aggressive treatment with steorids and monthly i.v. pulses of cyclophosphamide. The second patient presented with a 6-week history of polyarthritis and intermittent fever, and had a salmon-coloured evanescent rash. On presentation his laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated ESR and negative ANA, RF and ANCA tests. Within 8 months the patient had developed a persistent microscopic haematuria. Renal biopsy showed mild mesangial glomerulonephritis. On low-dose methotrexate therapy his JRA went into remission and his renal function remained normal. The haematuria persisted for 1 year and then resolved spontaneously. This is the first time that focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial glomerulonephritis have been described in JRA. Although the association may be just coincidental, further studies are needed to define the role of JRA in these renal conditions. In patients with JRA, urinalysis and renal function should be routinely monitored.

  20. Association study of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Robledo, G; Rueda, B; Gonzalez-Gay, M A; Fernández, B; Lamas, J R; Balsa, A; Pascual-Salcedo, D; García, A; Raya, E; Martín, J

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is a newly characterised growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide widely distributed that may play an important role in the regulation of metabolic balance in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by decreasing the pro-inflammatory Th1 responses. In this study we investigated the possible contribution of several polymorphisms in the functional Ghrelin receptor to RA susceptibility. A screening of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in a total of 950 RA patients and 990 healthy controls of Spanish Caucasian origin. Genotyping of all 3 SNPs was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction technology, using the TaqMan 5'-allele discrimination assay. We observed no statistically significant deviation between RA patients and controls for the GHSR SNPs analysed. In addition, we performed a haplotype analysis that did not reveal an association with RA susceptibility. The stratification analysis for the presence of shared epitope (SE), rheumatoid factor (RF) or antibodies anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) did not detect significant association of the GHSR polymorphisms with RA. These findings suggest that the GHSR gene polymorphisms do not appear to play a major role in RA genetic predisposition in our population.

  1. New drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Schuna, A A; Megeff, C

    2000-02-01

    New pharmacologic treatment options for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are described. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely prescribed for RA but are limited by the risk of adverse effects, especially gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. The therapeutic effects of these agents are mediated primarily through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) and prevention of subsequent formation of prostaglandins and related inflammatory mediators. Nonspecific COX inhibition appears to be responsible for much of the toxicity of NSAIDs. Agents have been developed that can selectively inhibit the COX-2 isoform, while sparing COX-1. Celecoxib and other COX-2 inhibitors appear to be no more efficacious than conventional NSAIDs, but offer superior safety. COX-2 inhibitors should be considered for patients who are candidates for NSAID therapy but at risk for GI bleeding. Unlike disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), these agents do not alter underlying disease progression. Leflunomide is a newer DMARD that reduces pyrimidine synthesis, thus decreasing rheumatoid inflammation. Leflunomide appears to be as effective as methotrexate but, unlike that drug, does not necessitate monitoring for bone marrow toxicity. Etanercept, the first biological agent with FDA-approved labeling for use in RA, has shown efficacy and minimal toxicity, except for injection-site reactions. Other biologicals that have been investigated for use in RA include infliximab and interleukin-1-receptor antagonist. COX-2 inhibitors, leflunomide, and etanercept are promising new drugs available for treating RA. Other agents are under development.

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  3. Role of erosions typical of rheumatoid arthritis in the 2010 ACR/EULAR rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: results from a very early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Gina Hetland; Norli, Ellen S; Bøyesen, Pernille; van der Heijde, Désirée; Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Nygaard, Halvor; Bjørneboe, Olav; Thunem, Cathrine; Kvien, Tore K; Mjaavatten, Maria D; Lie, Elisabeth

    2017-11-01

    To determine how the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) definition of erosive disease (erosion criterion) contributes to the number of patients classified as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/EULAR RA classification criteria (2010 RA criteria) in an early arthritis cohort. Patients from the observational study Norwegian Very Early Arthritis Clinic with joint swelling ≤16 weeks, a clinical diagnosis of RA or undifferentiated arthritis, and radiographs of hands and feet were included. Erosive disease was defined according to the EULAR definition accompanying the 2010 RA criteria. We calculated the additional number of patients being classified as RA based on the erosion criteria at baseline and during follow-up. Of the 289 included patients, 120 (41.5%) fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria, whereas 15 (5.2%) fulfilled only the erosion criterion at baseline. 118 patients had radiographic follow-up at 2 years, of whom 6.8% fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria and only one patient fulfilled solely the erosion criterion during follow-up. Few patients with early arthritis were classified as RA based on solely the erosion criteria, and of those who did almost all did so at baseline. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Complement activating properties of complexes containing rheumatoid factor in synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Elson, C J; Carter, S D; Cottrell, B J; Scott, D G; Bacon, P A; Wallington, T B

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between complexes containing rheumatoid factor and complexes activating complement was examined in synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In each case this was performed by quantifying the amount of rheumatoid factor bound by solid phase Fab'2 anti-C3 and/or solid phase conglutinin. Both anti-C3 coated and conglutinin coated microtitre plates bound high levels of complexes containing rheumatoid factor from sera of RA patients with vasculitis. Unexpectedly, these complexes were detected in synovial fluids from only a minority of RA patients with synovitis. However, RA synovial fluids did contain other complexes as shown by the presence of complement consuming activity, C1q binding material and immunoglobulin attaching to conglutinin. It is considered that in RA synovial fluids the complexes containing RF and those activating complement are not necessarily the same whilst in vasculitic sera the complexes containing rheumatoid factor also activate complement. PMID:3978872

  5. Chikungunya viral arthritis in the United States: a mimic of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jonathan J; Aw-Yeang, Han-Xian; Fox, Julie M; Taffner, Samantha; Malkova, Olga N; Oh, Stephen T; Kim, Alfred H J; Diamond, Michael S; Lenschow, Deborah J; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2015-05-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that spread to the Caribbean in 2013 and to the US in 2014. CHIKV-infected patients develop inflammatory arthritis that can persist for months or years, but little is known about the rheumatologic and immunologic features of CHIKV-related arthritis in humans, particularly as compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to describe these features in a group of 10 American travelers who were nearly simultaneously infected while visiting Haiti in June 2014. Patient history was obtained and physical examination and laboratory tests were performed. All patients with CHIKV-related arthritis had detectable levels of anti-CHIKV IgG. Using cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF), we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CHIKV-infected patients, healthy controls, and patients with untreated, active RA. Among 10 CHIKV-infected individuals, 8 developed persistent symmetric polyarthritis that met the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2010 criteria for (seronegative) RA. CyTOF analysis revealed that RA and CHIKV-infected patients had greater percentages of activated and effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than healthy controls. In addition to similar clinical features, patients with CHIKV infection and patients with RA develop very similar peripheral T cell phenotypes. These overlapping clinical and immunologic features highlight a need for rheumatologists to consider CHIKV infection when evaluating patients with new, symmetric polyarthritis. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  6. [Pharmaceutical care of patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis receiving etanercept].

    PubMed

    Romero Crespo, I; Antón Torres, R; Borrás Blasco, J; Navarro Ruiz, A

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate a pharmaceutical care protocol for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or psoriatic arthritis who begin treatment with etanercept with the objective of identifying potential medication-related problems and implementing therapeutic measures to improve the way this drug is used. An observational, prospective, 3-month study of patients with RA receiving etanercept therapy from March to December 2003 was conducted and a pharmaceutical care protocol was set up. During the first visit, a pharmacotherapeutic record was initiated for each patient, including socio-demographic data, personal history, diagnosis, DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs) previously received, and concomitant therapies for other underlying conditions. Patients were briefed on dosage, administration route, and potential adverse events both orally and in writing. Correct drug administration and preservation were verified during the second visit, where potential adverse effects were identified, treatment adherence was confirmed, and, if needed, potential drug interactions with other ongoing medications were disclosed. During the third visit, adherence was assessed, adverse events were recorded, and patients evaluated their response to treatment. Fifty patients were included, 40 with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (80%) and 10 diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis (20%). In all, 72% had received previous treatment with methotrexate (MTX), 40% with leflunomide, 20% with infliximab, 56% with corticoids, 2% with analgesics, 56% with NSAIDs, and 30% with other DMARDs. No significant drug interactions were found. Regarding adherence to treatment, 7.7% of patients skipped one or more doses, with travelling being the most common reason. Adverse events reported included: injection site reaction (27%), headache (7.7%) and nausea (7.7%). At 3 months after treatment onset, a reduction of MTX doses was seen in 18% of patients, of leflunomide dosage in 8%, of corticoids in 18%, of

  7. Dextran sulfate nanoparticles as a theranostic nanomedicine for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Heo, Roun; You, Dong Gil; Um, Wooram; Choi, Ki Young; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Jong-Sung; Choi, Yuri; Kwon, Seunglee; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Kang, Young Mo; Park, Jae Hyung

    2017-07-01

    With the aim of developing nanoparticles for targeted delivery of methotrexate (MTX) to inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an amphiphilic polysaccharide was synthesized by conjugating 5β-cholanic acid to a dextran sulfate (DS) backbone. Due to its amphiphilic nature, the DS derivative self-assembled into spherical nanoparticles (220 nm in diameter) in aqueous conditions. The MTX was effectively loaded into the DS nanoparticles (loading efficiency: 73.0%) by a simple dialysis method. Interestingly, the DS nanoparticles were selectively taken up by activated macrophages, which are responsible for inflammation and joint destruction, via scavenger receptor class A-mediated endocytosis. When systemically administrated into mice with experimental collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), the DS nanoparticles effectively accumulated in inflamed joints (12-fold more than wild type mice (WT)), implying their high targetability to RA tissues. Moreover, the MTX-loaded DS nanoparticles exhibited significantly improved therapeutic efficacy against CIA in mice compared to free MTX alone. Overall, the data presented here indicate that DS nanoparticles are potentially useful nanomedicines for RA imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term morbidity, mortality, and economics of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wong, J B; Ramey, D R; Singh, G

    2001-12-01

    To estimate the morbidity, mortality, and lifetime costs of care for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We developed a Markov model based on the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System Post-Marketing Surveillance Program cohort, involving 4,258 consecutively enrolled RA patients who were followed up for 17,085 patient-years. Markov states of health were based on drug treatment and Health Assessment Questionnaire scores. Costs were based on resource utilization, and utilities were based on visual analog scale-based general health scores. The cohort had a mean age of 57 years, 76.4% were women, and the mean duration of disease was 11.8 years. Compared with a life expectancy of 22.0 years for the general population, this cohort had a life expectancy of 18.6 years and 11.3 quality-adjusted life years. Lifetime direct medical care costs were estimated to be $93,296. Higher costs were associated with higher disability scores. A Markov model can be used to estimate lifelong morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with RA, providing a context in which to consider the potential value of new therapies for the disease.

  9. Mast cells in rheumatoid arthritis: friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Rivellese, Felice; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Marone, Gianni; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; de Paulis, Amato; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2017-06-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident cells of the innate immunity, implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They are present in synovia and their activation has been linked to the potentiation of inflammation in the course of RA. However, recent investigations questioned the role of mast cells in arthritis. In particular, animal models generated conflicting results, so that many of their pro-inflammatory, i.e. pro-arthritogenic functions, even though supported by robust experimental evidence, have been labelled as redundant. At the same time, a growing body of evidence suggests that mast cells can act as tunable immunomodulatory cells. These characteristics, not yet fully understood in the context of RA, could partially explain the inconsistent results obtained with experimental models, which do not account for the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions exerted in more chronic heterogeneous conditions such as RA. Here we present an overview of the current knowledge on mast cell involvement in RA, including the intriguing hypothesis of mast cells acting as subtle immunomodulatory cells and the emerging concept of synovial mast cells as potential biomarkers for patient stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel, Biocompatible, Disease Modifying Nanomedicine of VIP for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Varun; Rubinstein, Israel; Kuzmis, Antonina; Kastrissios, Helen; Artwohl, James; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, efficacious and safe disease-modifying therapy still represents an unmet medical need. Here we describe an innovative strategy to treat RA by targeting low doses of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) self-associated with sterically stabilized micelles (SSMs). This spontaneous interaction of VIP with SSM protects the peptide from degradation or inactivation in biological fluids and prolongs circulation half-life. Treatment with targeted low doses of nano-sized SSM-VIP but not free VIP in buffer significantly reduced incidence and severity of arthritis in an experimental model, completely abrogating joint swelling and destruction of cartilage and bone. In addition, SSM associated VIP unlike free VIP had no side-effects on the systemic functions due to selective targeting to inflamed joints. Finally, low doses of VIP in SSM successfully downregulated both inflammatory and autoimmune components of RA. Collectively, our data clearly indicate that VIP-SSM should be developed to be used as a novel nanomedicine for the treatment of RA. PMID:23211088

  11. Current and future pharmaceutical therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, Eric M

    2005-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory arthritis with a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Pharmaceutical treatment includes both anti-inflammatory medications and disease modifying drugs (DMARDs) that impact the course of the damage associated with this disease. Traditional DMARD therapy includes immunomodulatory agents such as methotrexate, used both alone and in combination. Recently available biologic response modifiers are very effective at reducing both the clinical symptoms of disease and the radiographic damage that accompanies them. This manuscript describes the clinical assessments used to measure response to therapy in RA and reviews the results seen with the various treatment strategies in this disease. In addition, the clinical and structural outcomes seen in trials of newly available and pending biologic therapies are reviewed, along with the specific toxicity issues associated with these agents. Clinical trial data is reviewed for the TNF antagonists, which have become the standard of care in RA patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate. RA has been clearly shown to be a destructive and disabling disease. The widespread use of newer agents, however, along with more aggressive use of existing therapies, appears to limit disease progression very effectively, and should lead to better long-term outcomes for these patients.

  12. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor κB and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, αVβ3 integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein. PMID:25099015

  13. Incidence and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriasis, or Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Radner, Helga; Lesperance, Tamara; Accortt, Neil A; Solomon, Daniel H

    2017-10-01

    To estimate prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, or psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Patients with RA, psoriasis, or PsA were identified based on medical and pharmacy claims from the MarketScan claims databases from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2014. Primary outcomes included age- and sex-standardized prevalence of CV risk factors during the 12 months preceding diagnosis date and incidence rates per 1,000 patient-years, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) during followup. Prevalence for RA, psoriasis, and PsA cohorts for hypertension was 18.6% (95% CI 18.3-18.8), 16.6% (95% CI 16.3-17.0), and 19.9% (95% CI 19.4-20.4), respectively; for diabetes mellitus 6.2% (95% CI 6.1-6.4), 6.3% (95% CI 6.0-6.5), and 7.8% (95% CI 7.4-8.2); for hyperlipidemia 9.9% (95% CI 9.7-10.1), 10.4% (95% CI 10.2-10.7), and 11.6% (95% CI 11.2-12.0); and for obesity 4.4% (95% CI 4.2-4.6), 3.8% (95% CI 3.5-4.0), and 6.0% (95% CI 5.6-6.5). Incidence rates per 1,000 patient-years during followup for RA, psoriasis, and PsA cohorts, respectively, for hypertension were 74.0 (95% CI 72.5-75.5), 68.2 (95% CI 65.9-70.4), and 79.8 (95% CI 76.3-83.3); for diabetes mellitus 10.6 (95% CI 10.1-11.1), 13.0 (95% CI 12.1-13.8), and 14.7 (95% CI 13.5-16.0); for hyperlipidemia 40.3 (95% CI 39.4-41.3), 47.1 (95% CI 45.4-48.7), and 52.0 (95% CI 49.6-54.3); and for obesity 24.4 (95% CI 23.4-25.4), 26.4 (95% CI 25.0-27.8), and 32.9 (95% CI 30.6-35.2). Patients with RA, psoriasis, and PsA have high prevalence and incidence of CV risk factors, suggesting the need for risk factor monitoring of these patients. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Discordant inflammation and pain in early and established rheumatoid arthritis: Latent Class Analysis of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network and British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register data.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Daniel F; Ferguson, Eamonn; Young, Adam; Kiely, Patrick D W; Walsh, David A

    2016-12-13

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity is often measured using the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). We aimed to identify and independently verify subgroups of people with RA that may be discordant with respect to self-reported and objective disease state, with potentially different clinical needs. Data were derived from three cohorts: (1) the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN) and the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR), (2) those commencing tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors and (3) those using non-biologic drugs. In latent class analysis, we used variables related to pain, central pain mechanisms or inflammation (pain, vitality, mental health, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen joint count, tender joint count, visual analogue scale of general health). Clinically relevant outcomes were examined. Five, four and four latent classes were found in the ERAN, BSRBR TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The proportions of people assigned with >80% probability into latent classes were 76%, 58% and 72% in the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The latent classes displayed either concordance between measures indicative of mild, moderate or severe disease activity; discordantly worse patient-reported measures despite less markedly elevated inflammation; or discordantly less severe patient-reported measures despite elevated inflammation. Latent classes with discordantly worse patient-reported measures represented 12%, 40% and 21% of the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively; contained more females; and showed worse function. In those latent classes with worse scores at baseline, DAS28 and function improved over 1 year (p < 0.001 for all comparisons), and scores differed less at follow-up than at baseline. Discordant latent classes can be identified in people with RA, and these findings are robust across three cohorts with varying disease duration and

  15. Surgery in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Law, W. Alexander

    1948-01-01

    The pain, deformities and disabilities resulting from rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis must be treated by a team composed of physician, physical medicine expert, orthopædic surgeon, and, in certain cases, deep X-ray therapist working simultaneously. The principle of “rest” in order to relieve pain has to be combined with methods designed to preserve and restore function. The multiple joint deformities in these cases may necessitate a long programme of reconstructive or functional treatment, which entails whole-hearted co-operation on the part of the patient in intensive post-operative exercise regime. Procedures advocated for the upper limb include excision of the acromion process together with the subacromial bursa to allow free movement between the central tendon of the deltoid and the tendinous shoulder cuff: arthrodesis of the shoulder in cases where there is more severe joint destruction: in certain cases of elbow-joint arthritis, excision of the radial head and sub-total synovectomy may preserve joint function and avoid or delay the necessity for arthroplasty which can be carried out in two ways: (a) similar to the formal joint excision, or (b) re-shaping the lower end of the humerus and upper end of the ulna lining these surfaces with fascia. The former method is preferable in cases of rheumatoid arthritis. To overcome wrist-joint deformity and restore pronation and supination excision of the lower end of the ulna together with radiocarpal fusion in position for optimum function is advocated. Finger and toe joints may be corrected by resection of the bone ends and capsulectomy. In the lower limbs bilateral involvement of the hip-joint is best treated by vitallium mould arthroplasty which may be carried out in four ways: (1) Routine arthroplasty; (2) Modified Whitman procedure; (3) Modified Colonna operation; and (4) The proximal shaft or intertrochanteric arthroplasty. It is essential in these operations to have knowledge of the operative

  16. The evidence base for psychological interventions for rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Prothero, Louise; Barley, Elizabeth; Galloway, James; Georgopoulou, Sofia; Sturt, Jackie

    2018-06-01

    its low-quality score). Small post intervention improvements in patient global assessment, functional disability, pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression were observed. The effect on coping, self-efficacy and physical activity was greater. Improvements in depression, coping and physical activity were maintained (8.5-14 months). Interventions delivered over a longer period with a maintenance component appeared more effective. Attention, education, and placebo control groups produced some improvements but not as large as those produced by the psychological interventions. Psychological interventions result in small to moderate improvements in biopsychosocial outcomes for patients with rheumatoid arthritis in addition to those achieved by standard care. Several priorities for future research were identified, including determining the cost effectiveness of non-psychologically trained health professionals delivering psychological interventions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Angiopoietin-like 4: A molecular link between insulin resistance and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Masuko, Kayo

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that common factor(s) or molecule(s) might regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, and bone and cartilage degeneration. These findings may be particularly relevant for cases of rheumatoid arthritis, in which chronic inflammation occurs in an autoimmune context and causes the degradation of articular joints as well as insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. Candidates for this common regulatory system include signals mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated regulator and its response factor, angiopoietin-like 4. The expression and bioactivity of angiopoietin-like 4, an adipocytokine that was originally reported to have an angiogenic function, have been detected not only in the vascular system and adipose tissue but also in rheumatoid joints. An essential role for angiopoietin-like 4 has been established in dyslipidemia, and recent reports indicate that it may modulate bone and cartilage catabolism in rheumatoid arthritis. The enhanced expression of angiopoietin-like 4 in rheumatoid arthritis may explain the occurrence of insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk, and joint destruction, thereby suggesting that this molecule could be a potential target for anti-rheumatoid arthritis strategies. This review describes recent research on the role of angiopoietin-like 4 in chronic inflammatory conditions and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as potential therapeutic candidates. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:939-943, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A case of scleritis associated rheumatoid arthritis accompanying an intraocular elevated lesion.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Takai, Nanae; Tada, Rei; Shoda, Hiromi; Kida, Teruyo; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Ozaki, Takurou; Makino, Shigeki

    2018-05-30

    Scleritis and/or uveitis sometimes accompanies patients who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. However, few studies have reported scleritis and/or uveitis accompanying a fundus elevated lesion, such as an intraocular tumor. In this study, we report a case of rheumatoid uveitis associated with an intraocular elevated lesion. A 66-year-old female visited another eye clinic and was diagnosed as bilateral anterior uveitis, and was prescribed steroid eye drops for treatment. She had previously been diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis at the age of 30 years. Due to vitreous opacity that appeared in her right eye, we increased the instillation of steroid eye drops and the amount of oral prednisolone. Although the inflammation had improved, anterior uveitis relapsed, and an intraocular whitish elevated lesion resembling an intraocular tumor at the superior nasal retina appeared. We speculated this lesion to be a granuloma complicated with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, we increased the amount of prednisolone administration, and the lesion began to shrink and ultimately fully disappeared. We strongly believe that our case's lesion was a subretinal granuloma related with rheumatoid arthritis, as it disappeared by increased corticosteroid treatment. Our findings show that we should consider rheumatoid arthritis in a differential diagnosis of such types of fundus elevated lesions.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus and rheumatoid arthritis: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Costenbader, Karen H; Karlson, Elizabeth W

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic, destructive, debilitating arthritis. Its etiology is unknown; it is presumed that environmental factors trigger development in the genetically predisposed. Epstein-Barr virus, a nearly ubiquitous virus in the human population, has generated great interest as a potential trigger. This virus stimulates polyclonal lymphocyte expansion and persists within B lymphocytes for the host's life, inhibited from reactivating by the immune response. In latent and replicating forms, it has immunomodulating actions that could play a role in the development of this autoimmune disease. The evidence linking Epstein-Barr virus and rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed.

  20. Epstein–Barr virus and rheumatoid arthritis: is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Costenbader, Karen H; Karlson, Elizabeth W

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic, destructive, debilitating arthritis. Its etiology is unknown; it is presumed that environmental factors trigger development in the genetically predisposed. Epstein–Barr virus, a nearly ubiquitous virus in the human population, has generated great interest as a potential trigger. This virus stimulates polyclonal lymphocyte expansion and persists within B lymphocytes for the host's life, inhibited from reactivating by the immune response. In latent and replicating forms, it has immunomodulating actions that could play a role in the development of this autoimmune disease. The evidence linking Epstein–Barr virus and rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed. PMID:16542469

  1. Rheumatoid Vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... RV) is an unusual complication of longstanding, severe rheumatoid arthritis. The active vasculitis associated with rheumatoid disease occurs ... a manifestation of “extra-articular” (beyond the joint)rheumatoid arthritis and involves the small and medium-sized arteries ...

  2. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly after a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitutionmore » of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered.« less

  3. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly before a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitutionmore » of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered.« less

  4. The impact of dietary habits on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rambod, Masoume; Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Raieskarimian, Farahnaz

    2018-05-22

    It has not been clear what kinds and how much nutrients could be harmful, preventive, or healthful for development of rheumatoid arthritis. This study aimed to determine the impact of dietary habits on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This case-control study was conducted on a total of 500 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 500 healthy controls refereed to three clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2015-2016. Convenience sampling was used for data collection in both case and control groups. An approved valid and reliable questionnaire including information about the intake of different kinds of beverages, and nutritious and non-nutritious diet was used. Data were analyzed by SPSS, version 20, using t test, chi-square and Multiple Logistic Regression model. The associations between rheumatoid arthritis development and variables including drinking 1-7 cups of coffee (OR = .44, CI .25-.76), ≥ 8 cups of coffee (OR = .50, CI .28-.90), full-fat milk (OR = 1.01, CI 1.003-1.03) per month, and intake of green tea (OR = .65, CI .45-.93) and solid oils (OR = 2.29, CI:1.57-3.34) were significant. Based on the findings, coffee consumption more than one cup per month and green tea might have preventive effects on developing rheumatoid arthritis. On the other hand, patients who consumed more full-fat milk per month and solid oil might be at risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, modification of diet based on these findings is suggested. Performing a cohort study to determine the causality effect of dietary habits and development and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis is recommended.

  5. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score (AOFAS) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: application of the Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Cristiano Sena da; Neto, Mansueto Gomes; Neto, Anolino Costa; Mendes, Selena M D; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Sá, Kátia Nunes

    2016-01-01

    To tested the reliability and validity of Aofas in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The scale was applicable to rheumatoid arthritis patients, twice by the interviewer 1 and once by the interviewer 2. The Aofas was subjected to test-retest reliability analysis (with 20 Rheumatoid arthritis subjects). The psychometric properties were investigated using Rasch analysis on 33 Rheumatoid arthritis patients. Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were (0.90identified, showing percentages above the 5% allowed by the statistical model. Further Rasch modeling suggested revising the original item 8. The results suggest that the Brazilian versions of Aofas exhibit adequate reliability, construct validity, response stability. These findings indicate that Aofas Ankle-Hindfoot scale presents a significant potential for clinical applicability in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Other studies in populations with other characteristics are now underway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory for pain: the relationship of pain catastrophizing to the recall of daily rheumatoid arthritis pain.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, John C; Keefe, Francis J

    2002-01-01

    The assumption that individuals are capable of accurately recalling past painful experiences has been a fundamental tenet of a number of cognitive-behavioral theories of pain, including the gate control theory. However, there has been very little research on the topic in the past, and the results have often been contradictory. A general conclusion that can be drawn is that memory for pain is variable, and there is need to identify what factors contribute to this variability in memory for pain. The current study examined the relation of catastrophizing to the recall of persistent pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Participants in this study were 45 individuals with persistent pain due to rheumatoid arthritis. Each participant was asked to complete a daily pain diary for a period of 30 days. Participants were subsequently asked to recall the pain they experienced over the entire period of time rather than provide a single, average rating. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that level of catastrophizing was related to the recall of both pain intensity and pain variability. This relation was statistically significant even after controlling for actual pain and variability and other background variables. Participants who scored higher on catastrophizing demonstrated better accuracy in the recall of general pain intensity and pattern over a 30-day diary period. The results of the study are discussed in terms of future studies as well as their potential clinical importance.

  7. Risk of serious infection in biological treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Cameron, Chris; Noorbaloochi, Shahrzad; Cullis, Tyler; Tucker, Matthew; Christensen, Robin; Ghogomu, Elizabeth Tanjong; Coyle, Doug; Clifford, Tammy; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A

    2015-07-18

    Serious infections are a major concern for patients considering treatments for rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence is inconsistent as to whether biological drugs are associated with an increased risk of serious infection compared with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of serious infections in patients treated with biological drugs compared with those treated with traditional DMARDs. We did a systematic literature search with Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov from their inception to Feb 11, 2014. Search terms included "biologics", "rheumatoid arthritis" and their synonyms. Trials were eligible for inclusion if they included any of the approved biological drugs and reported serious infections. We assessed the risk of bias with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. We did a Bayesian network meta-analysis of published trials using a binomial likelihood model to assess the risk of serious infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were treated with biological drugs, compared with those treated with traditional DMARDs. The odds ratio (OR) of serious infection was the primary measure of treatment effect and calculated 95% credible intervals using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The systematic review identified 106 trials that reported serious infections and included patients with rheumatoid arthritis who received biological drugs. Compared with traditional DMARDs, standard-dose biological drugs (OR 1.31, 95% credible interval [CrI] 1.09-1.58) and high-dose biological drugs (1.90, 1.50-2.39) were associated with an increased risk of serious infections, although low-dose biological drugs (0.93, 0.65-1.33) were not. The risk was lower in patients who were methotrexate naive compared with traditional DMARD-experienced or anti-tumour necrosis factor biological drug-experienced patients. The absolute increase in the number of serious infections per 1000

  8. Psychological predictors of pain severity, pain interference, depression, and anxiety in rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Seamus; McGuire, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic and progressive autoimmune disorder with symptoms sometimes including chronic pain and depression. The current study aimed to explore some of the psychological variables which predict both pain-related outcomes (pain severity and pain interference) and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety) amongst patients with rheumatoid arthritis experiencing chronic pain. In particular, this study aimed to establish whether either self-concealment, or the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, relatedness, and competence), could explain a significant portion of the variance in pain outcomes and psychological outcomes amongst this patient group. Online questionnaires were completed by 317 rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic pain, providing data across a number of predictor and outcome variables. Hierarchical multiple linear regressions indicated that the predictive models for each of the four outcome variables were significant, and had good levels of fit with the data. In terms of individual predictor variables, higher relatedness significantly predicted lower depression, and higher autonomy significantly predicted lower anxiety. The model generated by this study may identify factors to be targeted by future interventions with the goal of reducing depression and anxiety amongst patients with rheumatoid arthritis experiencing chronic pain. The findings of this study have shown that the autonomy and the relatedness of patients with rheumatoid arthritis play important roles in promoting psychological well-being. Targeted interventions could help to enhance the lives of patients despite the presence of chronic pain. What is already known about the subject? Amongst a sample of chronic pain patients who primarily had a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, it was found that higher levels of self-concealment were associated with higher self-reported pain levels and reduced well-being (as measured by anxiety/depression), and these

  9. Obesity is the main determinant of insulin resistance more than the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Hernandez, Jesus; Maldonado-Cervantes, Martha Imelda; Reyes, Juan Pablo; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Maldonado-Cervantes, Enrique; Solorzano-Rodriguez, Claudia; de la Cruz Mendoza, Esperanza; Alvarado-Sanchez, Brenda

    Systemic blockade of TNF-α in Rheumatoid arthritis with insulin resistance seems to produce more improvement in insulin sensitivity in normal weight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis than in obese patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that systemic-inflammation and obesity are independent risk factors for insulin resistance in Rheumatoid arthritis patients. To evaluate the insulin resistance in: normal weight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, overweight patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, obese Rheumatoid arthritis patients, and matched control subjects with normal weight and obesity; and its association with major cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Assessments included: body mass index, insulin resistance by Homeostasis Model Assessment, ELISA method, and enzymatic colorimetric assay. Outstanding results from these studies include: (1) In Rheumatoid arthritis patients, insulin resistance was well correlated with body mass index, but not with levels of serum cytokines. In fact, levels of cytokines were similar in all Rheumatoid arthritis patients, regardless of being obese, overweight or normal weight (2) Insulin resistance was significantly higher in Rheumatoid arthritis with normal weight than in normal weight (3) No significant difference was observed between insulin resistances of Rheumatoid arthritis with obesity and obesity (4) As expected, levels of circulating cytokines were significantly higher in Rheumatoid arthritis patients than in obesity. Obesity appears to be a dominant condition above inflammation to produce IR in RA patients. The dissociation of the inflammation and obesity components to produce IR suggests the need of an independent therapeutic strategy in obese patients with RA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. Characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Algeria: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Samy; Abbas, Abdelmalek; Ben Ammar, Amina; Kebaili, Djemaa; Ali, El Hadi; Rahal, Fadia; Khamari, Mohamed Choukri; Baltache, Ayada; Khider, Imene; Chiheub, Riad; Khelif, Khireddine; Akbi, Sabrina; Rahmani, Salima; Dahou-Makhloufi, Chafia; Brahimi-Mazouni, Nadjia; Abtroun-Benmadi, Sabira; Ladjouze-Rezig, Aicha

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in North Africa to that of Western countries. We have enrolled in a cross-sectional study all consecutive patients presenting with the diagnosis of RA according to the 1987 ACR criteria, and during a 5-month period, patients were included in 11 centers across northern Algeria. Demographics, clinical data, and health assessment questionnaires (HAQ) were collected for each patient. We have estimated means, standard deviations, and 95 % confidence intervals for all parameters. Of the 249 patients (213 females and 36 males) enrolled in the study, 10 (4 %) had juvenile onset of the disease. The mean age was 50.1 ± 14.5 years, and the mean duration of RA was 8.4 ± 7.8 years. In terms of comorbidities, 18.9 % of patients reported hypertension and 5.2 % had diabetes. The mean DAS28 at inclusion was 4.3 (95 % CI 4.1-4.5); 14.0 % were in remission (DAS28 ≤ 2.6). The mean HAQ score was 0.81 ± 0.82. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.5 % of cases, and anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies, when measured, was positive in 69.0 % of cases. Seronegative patients were older and had a relatively less severe disease. For treatment, 89.7 % of patients were taking disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and only 4 % were taking biologics (rituximab); 90.8 % of patients were taking glucocorticoids, and none of the patients satisfied the recommended calcium intake guidelines. RA in Algeria is more common in women. Compared to reports from Western countries, RA in Algeria appears to be less aggressive, with more dominant seronegative oligoarthritis forms. The remission rate is comparable to that of Western populations.

  11. The Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Characteristics on Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Myasoedova, Elena; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Nicola, Paulo J.; Maradit-Kremers, Hilal; Davis, John M.; Roger, Véronique L.; Therneau, Terry M.; Gabriel, Sherine E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) characteristics and antirheumatic medications on the risk of heart failure (HF) in RA. Methods A population-based incidence cohort of RA patients aged ≥18 (1987 ACR criteria first met between 1/1/1980 and 1/1/2008) without a history of HF was followed until HF onset (defined by Framingham criteria), death, or 1/1/2008. We collected data on RA characteristics, antirheumatic medications and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Cox models adjusting for age, sex and calendar year were used to analyze the data. Results The study included 795 RA patients (mean age 55.3 years, 69% females, 66% rheumatoid factor [RF] positive). During the mean follow-up of 9.7 years, 92 patients developed HF. The risk of HF was associated with RF positivity (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.0, 2.5), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at RA incidence (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.2, 2.0), repeatedly high ESR (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2, 3.5), severe extra-articular manifestations (HR 3.1, 95%CI 1.9, 5.1) and corticosteroid use (HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3, 3.2), adjusting for CV risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methotrexate users were half as likely to have HF as non-users (HR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3, 0.9). Conclusion Several RA characteristics and the use of corticosteroids were associated with HF adjusting for CV risk factors and CHD. Methotrexate use appeared to be protective against HF. These findings suggest an independent impact of RA on HF which may be further modified by antirheumatic treatment. PMID:21572155

  12. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Biologic DMARDS (Rituximab and Etanercept)

    PubMed Central

    Gashi, Afrim A.; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Berisha, Idriz; Kryeziu, Avni; Ismaili, Jehona; Krasniqi, Gezim

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: To determine efficacy and safety of treatment with Rituximab and Etanercept plus Methotrexate in patients with active Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), who had an inadequate response to nonbiologic DMARDS therapies and to explore the pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of Rituximab and Etanercept in our populations. Study was done at Rheumatology Clinic of University Clinical Centre in Prishtina during 2009-2011 years. Methods: We evaluated primary efficacy and safety at 24 weeks in patients enrolled in the study of long term efficacy of Rituximab and Etanercept. Patients with active Rheumatoid Arthritis and an inadequate response to 1 or more non biologic DMARDS were randomized to receive intravenous Rituximab (1 course consisting of 2 infusions of 1.000 mg each –one group, and Etanercept 25 mg twice weekly –second group, but both groups with background MTX. The primary efficacy end point was a response on the ACR 20%, improvement criteria at 24 weeks, Secondary end points were responses on the ACR 50 and ACR 70, improvement criteria, the DAS 28, and EULAR response criteria at 24 weeks. Results: During our investigations we treated 20 patients, 15 females and 5 males, in the treated group with RTX and 13 patients 8 females and 5 males in the treated group with ETN. Patients of group 1 and group 2 were of ages 37-69 years old and 19-69 years old (average 47-44) Most of the patients belong in 2nd and 3 rd functional stage according to Steinbrocker. All ACR response parameters were significantly improved in RTX treated patients who also had clinically meaningful improvement in fatigue, disability and quality of life. Patients showed a trend less progression in radiographic end points. Most adverse events occurred with the first RTX infusion and were mild to moderate severity. Conclusion: At 24 weeks, a single course of RTX and ETN provided significant and clinically meaningful improvements in disease activity in patients with active, longstanding RA who

  13. Biologic therapies and bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zerbini, C A F; Clark, P; Mendez-Sanchez, L; Pereira, R M R; Messina, O D; Uña, C R; Adachi, J D; Lems, W F; Cooper, C; Lane, N E

    2017-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic autoimmune disease of unknown cause, characterized by a chronic, symmetric, and progressive inflammatory polyarthritis. One of the most deleterious effects induced by the chronic inflammation of RA is bone loss. During the last 15 years, the better knowledge of the cytokine network involved in RA allowed the development of potent inhibitors of the inflammatory process classified as biological DMARDs. These new drugs are very effective in the inhibition of inflammation, but there are only few studies regarding their role in bone protection. The principal aim of this review was to show the evidence of the principal biologic therapies and bone loss in RA, focusing on their effects on bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and fragility fractures. Using the PICOST methodology, two coauthors (PC, LM-S) conducted the search using the following MESH terms: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, clinical trials, TNF- antagonists, infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, golimumab, IL-6 antagonists, IL-1 antagonists, abatacept, tocilizumab, rituximab, bone mineral density, bone markers, and fractures. The search was conducted electronically and manually from the following databases: Medline and Science Direct. The search period included articles from 2003 to 2015. The selection included only original adult human research written in English. Titles were retrieved and the same two authors independently selected the relevant studies for a full text. The retrieved selected studies were also reviewed completing the search for relevant articles. The first search included 904 titles from which 253 titles were selected. The agreement on the selection among researchers resulted in a Kappa statistic of 0.95 (p < 0.000). Only 248 abstracts evaluated were included in the acronym PICOST. The final selection included only 28 studies, derived from the systematic search. Additionally, a manual search in the bibliography of the

  14. STAT4 and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Remmers, Elaine F.; Plenge, Robert M.; Lee, Annette T.; Graham, Robert R.; Hom, Geoffrey; Behrens, Timothy W.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Le, Julie M.; Lee, Hye-Soon; Batliwalla, Franak; Li, Wentian; Masters, Seth L.; Booty, Matthew G.; Carulli, John P.; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Chen, Wei V.; Amos, Christopher I.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Seldin, Michael F.; Kastner, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a substantial genetic component. Susceptibility to disease has been linked with a region on chromosome 2q. METHODS We tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around 13 candidate genes within the previously linked chromosome 2q region for association with rheumatoid arthritis. We then performed fine mapping of the STAT1-STAT4 region in a total of 1620 case patients with established rheumatoid arthritis and 2635 controls, all from North America. Implicated SNPs were further tested in an independent case-control series of 1529 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and 881 controls, all from Sweden, and in a total of 1039 case patients and 1248 controls from three series of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. RESULTS A SNP haplotype in the third intron of STAT4 was associated with susceptibility to both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The minor alleles of the haplotype-defining SNPs were present in 27% of chromosomes of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis, as compared with 22% of those of controls (for the SNP rs7574865, P = 2.81×10-7; odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.32). The association was replicated in Swedish patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (P = 0.02) and matched controls. The haplotype marked by rs7574865 was strongly associated with lupus, being present on 31% of chromosomes of case patients and 22% of those of controls (P = 1.87×10-9; odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.55). Homozygosity of the risk allele, as compared with absence of the allele, was associated with a more than doubled risk for lupus and a 60% increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis. CONCLUSIONS A haplotype of STAT4 is associated with increased risk for both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting a shared pathway

  15. STAT4 and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Remmers, Elaine F; Plenge, Robert M; Lee, Annette T; Graham, Robert R; Hom, Geoffrey; Behrens, Timothy W; de Bakker, Paul I W; Le, Julie M; Lee, Hye-Soon; Batliwalla, Franak; Li, Wentian; Masters, Seth L; Booty, Matthew G; Carulli, John P; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Chen, Wei V; Amos, Christopher I; Criswell, Lindsey A; Seldin, Michael F; Kastner, Daniel L; Gregersen, Peter K

    2007-09-06

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a substantial genetic component. Susceptibility to disease has been linked with a region on chromosome 2q. We tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around 13 candidate genes within the previously linked chromosome 2q region for association with rheumatoid arthritis. We then performed fine mapping of the STAT1-STAT4 region in a total of 1620 case patients with established rheumatoid arthritis and 2635 controls, all from North America. Implicated SNPs were further tested in an independent case-control series of 1529 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and 881 controls, all from Sweden, and in a total of 1039 case patients and 1248 controls from three series of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A SNP haplotype in the third intron of STAT4 was associated with susceptibility to both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The minor alleles of the haplotype-defining SNPs were present in 27% of chromosomes of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis, as compared with 22% of those of controls (for the SNP rs7574865, P=2.81x10(-7); odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.32). The association was replicated in Swedish patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (P=0.02) and matched controls. The haplotype marked by rs7574865 was strongly associated with lupus, being present on 31% of chromosomes of case patients and 22% of those of controls (P=1.87x10(-9); odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.55). Homozygosity of the risk allele, as compared with absence of the allele, was associated with a more than doubled risk for lupus and a 60% increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis. A haplotype of STAT4 is associated with increased risk for both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting a shared pathway for these illnesses. Copyright 2007

  16. A methodological approach for assessing the uptake of core outcome sets using ClinicalTrials.gov: findings from a review of randomised controlled trials of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Jamie J; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula R

    2017-05-17

    Objective  To assess the uptake of the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set using a new assessment method of calculating uptake from data in clinical trial registry entries. Design  Review of randomised trials. Setting  ClinicalTrials.gov. Subjects  273 randomised trials of drug interventions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov between 2002 and 2016. Full publications were identified for completed studies from information in the trial registry or from an internet search using Google and the citation database Web of Science. Main outcome measure  The percentage of trials reporting or planning to measure the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set calculated from the information presented in the trial registry and compared with the percentage reporting the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set in the resulting trial publications. Results  The full rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set was reported in 81% (116/143) of trials identified on the registry as completed (or terminated) for which results were found in either the published literature or the registry. For trials identified on the registry as completed (or terminated), using information only available in the registry gives an estimate for uptake of 77% (145/189). Conclusions  The uptake of the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set in clinical trials has continued to increase over time. Using the information on outcomes listed for completed or terminated studies in a trial registry provides a reasonable estimate of the uptake of a core outcome set and is a more efficient and up-to-date approach than examining the outcomes in published trial reports. The method proposed may provide an efficient approach for an up-to-date assessment of the uptake of the 300 core outcome sets already published. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Effect of rocker shoes on pain, disability and activity limitation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh Cham, Masumeh; Ghasemi, Mohammad Sadegh; Forogh, Bijan; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Zabihi Yeganeh, Mozdeh; Eshraghi, Arezoo

    2014-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease which affects the joints and soft tissues of the foot and ankle. Rocker shoes may be prescribed for the symptomatic foot in rheumatoid arthritis; however, there is a limited evidence base to support the use of rocker shoes in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of heel-to-toe rocker shoes on pain, disability, and activity limitation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trial. Seventeen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis of 1 year or more duration, disease activity score of less than 2.6, and foot and ankle pain were recruited. Heel-to-toe rocker shoe was made according to each patient's foot size. All the patients were evaluated immediately, 7 and 30 days after their first visit. Foot Function Index values were recorded at each appointment. With the use of rocker shoes, Foot Function Index values decreased in all subscales. This reduction was noted in the first visit and was maintained throughout the trials. Rocker shoe can improve pain, disability, and activity limitation in patients with rheumatoid foot pain. All the subjects reported improved comfort levels. The results of this study showed that high-top, heel-to-toe rocker shoe with wide toe box was effective at reducing foot and ankle pain. It was also regarded as comfortable and acceptable footwear by the patients with rheumatoid foot problems. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  18. [Styles of interpersonal conflict in patients with panic disorder, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls: a cluster analysis study].

    PubMed

    Eher, R; Windhaber, J; Rau, H; Schmitt, M; Kellner, E

    2000-05-01

    Conflict and conflict resolution in intimate relationships are not only among the most important factors influencing relationship satisfaction but are also seen in association with clinical symptoms. Styles of conflict will be assessed in patients suffering from panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, in alcoholics and in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. 176 patients and healthy controls filled out the Styles of Conflict Inventory and questionnaires concerning severity of clinical symptoms. A cluster analysis revealed 5 types of conflict management. Healthy controls showed predominantely assertive and constructive styles, patients with panic disorder showed high levels of cognitive and/or behavioral aggression. Alcoholics showed high levels of repressed aggression, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis often did not exhibit any aggression during conflict. 5 Clusters of conflict pattern have been identified by cluster analysis. Each patient group showed considerable different patterns of conflict management.

  19. Ultrasonographic Findings of the Shoulder in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Comparison with Physical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Ho; Seo, Young-Il

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify the ultrasonographic (US) abnormalities and 2) to compare the findings of physical examination with US findings in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with shoulder pain. We studied 30 RA patients. Physical examination was performed systemically as follows: 1) area of tenderness; 2) range of passive and active shoulder motion; 3) impingement tests; 4) maneuvers for determining the location of the tendon lesions. US investigations included the biceps, the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tendons; the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa; and the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints. Thirty RA patients with 35 painful and 25 non-painful shoulders were examined. The range of motion affected the most by shoulder pain was abduction. The most frequent US finding of shoulder joint was effusion in the long head of the biceps tendon. Among the rotator cuff tendons, subscapularis was the most frequently involved. Tendon tear was also common among non-painful shoulders. Physical examination used for the diagnosis of shoulder pain had low sensitivity and specificity for detecting abnormalities in the rheumatoid shoulder joint. In conclusion, US abnormalities showed frequent tendon tears in our RA patients. Physical examination had low sensitivity and specificity for detecting rotator cuff tear in the rheumatoid shoulder joint. PMID:17728506

  20. Improved wrist pannus volume measurement from contrast-enhanced MRI in rheumatoid arthritis using shuffle transform.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, Emily; Hutchinson, Charles E; Adams, Judith E; Bruce, Ian N; Nash, Anthony F P; Holmes, Andrew P; Taylor, Christopher J; Waterton, John C

    2007-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is of value in assessing rheumatoid pannus in the hand, but the images are not always easy to quantitate. To develop and evaluate an improved measurement of volume of enhancing pannus (VEP) in the hand in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MR images of the hand and wrist were obtained for 14 patients with RA at 0, 1 and 13 weeks. Volume of enhancing pannus was measured on images created by subtracting precontrast T1-weighted images from contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images using a shuffle transformation technique. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and 3D volume rendering of the images were used as a guide to identify the pannus and any contrast-enhanced veins. Visualisation of pannus was much improved following the shuffle transform. Between 0 weeks and 1 week, the mean value of the within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV) was 0.13 and the estimated total CoV was 0.15. There was no evidence of significant increased variability within the 13-week interval for the complete sample of patients. Volume of enhancing pannus can be measured reproducibly in the rheumatoid hand using 3D contrast-enhanced MRI and shuffle transform.

  1. Sexual functioning of people with rheumatoid arthritis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    van Berlo, Willy T M; van de Wiel, Harry B M; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; van Rijswijk, Martin H

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to controls regarding sexual motivation, activity, satisfaction, and specific sexual problems, and to determine the correlation of physical aspects of the disease with sexual functioning. Questionnaire for screening sexual dysfunctions (QSD), self-constructed questionnaire on experienced distress with joints during sexual activities, arthritis impact measurements scales 2 (AIMS2), and the modified disease activity score 28 (DAS 28) were the methods used. RA patients were recruited from a registration base in three Dutch hospitals. Controls were age and sex matched healthy volunteers. A completed questionnaire was sent back by 271 patients (response 23%). Forty-seven men and 93 women were clinically examined to obtain the DAS 28. Male patients felt less sexual desire, and female patients masturbated and fantasized less than controls. Differences in satisfaction were not found. Male and female patients did not experience more sexual problems than controls. Among the women, correlations were predominantly found between age and sexual motivation and activities, among the men between physical health and sexual problems. Up to 41% of the men (4-41 depending on the joints), and up to 51% of the women (10-51 depending on the joints) have troubles with several joints during sexual activities. Medications influencing ejaculation in men correlated with distress with orgasm. Conclusions are that patients are less sexually active than controls and a considerable number of both male and female patients have trouble with their joints during sexual activities. However, patients do not differ from controls regarding sexual satisfaction. Physiological changes due to RA are apparently independent from those on psychological level. It is argued that sexual satisfaction also depends on personal and social factors. In men, physical health and disease activity are more related with sexual problems than

  2. Total fixation of cricoarytenoid joint of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Stevan P; Zivić, Ljubica; Stojanović, Jasmina; Belić, Branislav

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of cricoarytenoid joint fixation in case of rheumatoid arthritis is 17 to 33%. In later stages of rheumatoid arthritis, a gradual fixation of cricoarytenoid joint develops and both halves of the larynx become less movable which calls for endotracheal intubation; while total fixation of this joint demands surgical tracheotomy. Hashimoto thyroiditis can display symptoms which are difficult to distinguish from the ones present in total fixation of cricoarytenoid joint caused by rheumatoid arthritis. A 60-year-old woman in terminal stage of rheumatoid arthritis and Hashimoto thyroiditis, diagnosed after clinical and other examinations. She was treated for strident breathing with surgical tracheotomy. The microscopic examination of the larynx with the use of laryngoscopic pincers suggested the immovability of the right and very limited movability of the left arytenoid cartilage. A computerized endovideostroboscopy showed only passive vertical vibrating movements of the right vocal cord and irregular vibrations of the left vocal cord. Total fixation of the cricoarytenoid joint can be caused by many pathological processes, but so far references have shown no case of rheumatoid arthritis and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In differential diagnostics, one of many examinations is the microscopic examination of the larynx, but it is very important to determine the movability of the arytenoid cartilage with the use of appropriate instruments in total endotracheal anaesthesia while the patient is fully relaxed. Movements in cricoarytenoid joints in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and the same conditions are preserved.

  3. Long-term outcomes of destructive seronegative (rheumatoid) arthritis - description of four clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Sjöwall, Christopher; Hannonen, Pekka; Rannio, Tuomas; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2016-06-03

    Seronegative rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a milder course of progression compared to seropositive disease. However, long-term follow-up data of the clinical course of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis are sparse. Here we describe four cases with a rare disease entity of aggressive destructive seronegative (rheumatoid) arthritis with 20-35 years of follow-up. The four cases are women with an initial presentation of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis in 1980-1996 and have received disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs since the diagnosis. In all cases, the condition has been refractory to treatments and evolved into a severe disease with destructions of the wrists, sub-talar and ankle joints, as well as large joints but not small joints of fingers and toes. All cases are negative with regard to rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and antibodies against carbamylated proteins. This report adds to the existing literature, making the reader aware of this sub-type of inflammatory arthritis which despite being seronegative, can have devastating disease consequences. The report highlights the need for further research into this field in order to better understand this disease sub-type, the pathogenesis, disease course and outcomes.

  4. Comorbidity of gout and rheumatoid arthritis in a large population database.

    PubMed

    Merdler-Rabinowicz, Rona; Tiosano, Shmuel; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2017-03-01

    Coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and gout is considered to be unusual. The current study was designed as a population-based cross-sectional study, utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare provider organization in Israel. Data of adult patients who were previously diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis was retrieved. For each patient, five age- and sex-matched control patients were randomly selected. Different parameters including BMI, socioeconomic status, and existence of gout as well as smoking and hypertension were examined for both groups. The study included 11,540 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 56,763 controls. The proportion of gout in the study group was high compared to controls (1.61 vs. 0.92%, P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, rheumatoid arthritis was associated with gout (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.45-2.05, P = 0.00). The proportion of gout in rheumatoid arthritis patients is not lower than in the general population.

  5. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract. Rheumatoid arthritis happens when the body’s own defense system doesn’t work properly. It affects joints ... conditions. These include: Lupus happens when the body’s defense system harms the joints, heart, skin, kidneys, and ...

  6. Arthritis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Types Osteoarthritis (OA) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Fibromyalgia Gout Childhood Arthritis Managing Arthritis Risk Factors Physical Activity ... States is osteoarthritis. Other types of arthritis include gout, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis. Learn about these common ...

  7. Rheumatoid Arthritis Diet: Can Certain Foods Reduce Symptoms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frontiers in Nutrition. 2017;4:52. Arthritis and rheumatic diseases. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin ... https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/arthritis-rheumatic-diseases#tab-living-with. Accessed Feb. 2, 2018. Panush ...

  8. Evidence for early disease-modifying drugs in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David L

    2004-01-01

    Some research evidence supports early aggressive treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using combination therapy with two or more disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) plus steroids, or even DMARDs plus an anti-TNF. By contrast, conservatively delayed DMARD monotherapy, given after non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have failed, has been criticised. However, recent long-term studies highlight the complexities in evaluating whether to abandon pyramidal treatment in favour of early DMARDs. Although patients given early DMARD therapy show short-term benefits, longer-term results show no prolonged clinical advantages from early DMARDs. By 5 years patients receiving early DMARDs had similar disease activity and comparable health assessment questionnaire scores to patients who received DMARDs later in their disease course. X-ray progression was persistent and virtually identical in both groups. These negative findings do not invalidate the case for early DMARD therapy, as it is gives sustained reductions in disease activity in the early years of treatment without excessive risks from adverse effects. However, early DMARDs alone do not adequately control RA in the longer term. This may require starting with very aggressive therapy or treating patients more aggressively after early DMARD therapy has been initiated. PMID:14979927

  9. Laryngeal assessment by videolaryngostroboscopy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Puerta, José A; Cisternas, Ariel; Hernández, M Victoria; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Vilaseca, Isabel; Sanmartí, Raimon

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the larynx involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a clinical setting and correlate with the different clinical features related to more aggressive disease. Cross-sectional study including 36 consecutive patients with RA. Reflux symptoms were evaluated by the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and vocal cord impairment by the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10). Laryngeal involvement was done by videolaryngostroboscopy (VLS). The mean age was 56,3 ± 14 years with a mean disease duration of 2,6 ± 3,1 years (range 0-16 years). Voice use was considered as professional users in 33%. Twenty-four (67%) out of 36 patients had abnormal findings of VLS. One patient had larynx nodules (bamboo nodules). Eleven patients (31%) were diagnosed with muscle tension dysphonia, and there were symptoms and signs of pharyngeal-laryngeal reflux in 23 (64%) patients. No signs of cricoarytenoid joint impairment was found. Organic larynx involvement was uncommon in patients with RA. However symptoms and signs of pharyngeal-laryngeal reflux were seen in around 60% of patients. There was no correlation between the clinical phenotype, severity of disease, immunological profile or treatment with VLS findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy study of multimedia rheumatoid arthritis patient education program.

    PubMed

    Unk, Julie A; Brasington, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The research goal of improving patient adherence was assessed in this randomized controlled trial of the outcomes of a 15-min multimedia educational program when compared to educational literature for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. One hundred eight RA patients from a Midwestern rheumatology outpatient clinic completed the self-reported Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) at baseline and 1 month after education. A paired samples t-test was use for data analyses to determine if there was a significant difference in the change between the groups at preintervention and 1-month postintervention. There were no significant differences in the scores between the two groups from pretest to posttest. Results from this study showed that medication adherence, illness perception, and disability were not improved by use of multimedia or the literature within 1 month. Findings from this research study showed that a short multimedia educational program is as effective as printed materials to educate patients with RA about their disease and treatment. However, neither multimedia nor literature affects medication adherence, illness perception, or disability as self-reported by patients with RA. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Work ability of Dutch employees with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    de Croon, E M; Sluiter, J K; Nijssen, T F; Kammeijer, M; Dijkmans, B A C; Lankhorst, G J; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2005-01-01

    To (i) examine the association between fatigue, psychosocial work characteristics (job control, support, participation in decision making, psychological job demands), and physical work requirements on the one hand and work ability of employees with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the other, and (ii) determine the advice that health care professionals give to employees with RA on how to maintain their work ability. Data were gathered from 78 employees with early RA (response = 99%) by telephone interviews and self-report questionnaires. Fatigue, lack of autonomy, low coworker/supervisor support, low participation in decision making, and high physical work requirements (i.e. using manual force) predicted low work ability. High psychological job demands, however, did not predict low work ability. The rheumatologist, occupational physician, occupational therapist, physiotherapist, and psychologist gave advice on how to cope with RA at work to 36, 30, 27, 26, and 17% of the employees, respectively. Advice was directed mainly at factors intrinsic to the employee. Employees expressed a positive attitude towards this advice. Fatigue, lack of support, lack of autonomy, lack of participation in decision making, and using manual force at work (e.g. pushing and pulling) threaten the work ability of employees with RA. According to the employees with RA, involvement of health care professionals from different disciplines and the implementation of organizational and technical interventions would help them to tackle these threats.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis and lymphoma: Incidence, pathogenesis, biology, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Klein, Alina; Polliack, Aaron; Gafter-Gvili, Anat

    2018-06-03

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a greater risk of developing both Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-HL than the general population. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common than HL in these patients, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma is the most frequent subtype observed. Although the clinical course of lymphoma in RA is often aggressive, the prognosis in these cases is similar to that of lymphoma in the general population. In this review, we summarize data derived from both retrospective and prospective studies, regarding incidence, pathogenesis, and outcome of lymphomas in RA patients and outline the possible mechanisms and hypotheses linking these 2 disorders. Over the years, 3 main theories have been suggested to explain this association. These hypotheses relate to genetic predisposition, persistence of long standing disease activity with continued immune stimulation, and the role of anti-RA therapy given. A common genetic predisposition linking RA and lymphoma has not been established. As for treatment of RA, this includes immunosuppressive antitumor necrosis factor drugs or conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs like methotrexate. Neither of these drug categories appears to be associated with a higher risk of lymphoma in RA. The impact of continuing disease activity and immune stimulation appears to be the most significant in lymphomagenesis in these patients. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Maternal and fetal outcome in Mexican women with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Miguel A; Sánchez, Antonio; Bustamante, Reyna; Miranda-Hernández, Dafhne; Soliz-Antezana, Jimena; Cruz-Domínguez, Pilar; Morales, Sara; Jara, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    To report our experience in maternal-fetal outcome in women with RA in a national medical referral center. A retrospective analysis of the records of pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis attending at a Pregnancy and Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases Clinic was performed. Maternal-fetal outcomes such as disease activity, preclampsia/eclampsia, rate of live births, abortions, stillbirths, preterm birth, weeks of gestation, birth weight, congenital malformations and use of anti-rheumatic drugs were studied. We included 73 pregnancies in 72 patients. Disease activity was documented in 47.2% of patients during pregnancy and/or postpartum and 87.7% of patients received some antirheumatic drug. Preclampsia developed in 8.2% of cases. The live birth rate was 98.6%, with preterm delivery in 15.9% and low weight at term in 17.6% of cases. Cesarean section was performed in 77.1% of cases. The disease activity was not associated with a higher percentage of maternal-fetal complications. Our study showed that most patients do not experience significant activity of RA during pregnancy, fetal outcome is satisfactory and disease activity did not appear to influence significantly the obstetric outcome.

  14. Unravelling thyroid dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis: History matters.

    PubMed

    Anoop, Joseph; Geetha, Francis; Jyothi, Idiculla; Rekha, Pradeep; Shobha, Vineeta

    2018-03-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) frequently coexists with other systemic autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Due to the overlapping and nonspecific nature of symptoms, it is difficult to clinically uncover thyroidal illnesses in RA patients. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction including the presence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (antiTPO) autoantibodies in patients with RA and to analyze symptomatology of thyroid dysfunction in patients diagnosed with RA. This cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on 100 patients with RA, attending the Rheumatology Outpatient Department at St John's Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore, India. Twenty-two patients had biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction, hypothyroidism being the commonest (15/22 patients). Although fatigue and hair loss were the most common symptoms, only weight gain and cold intolerance were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) predictors of hypothyroidism and 32 patients were antiTPO positive. It was observed that equal numbers of patients developed hypothyroidism after diagnosis of RA and vice versa. History taking at the bedside to elicit symptoms, especially weight gain and cold intolerance, is quintessential to ensure timely diagnosis of hypothyroidism. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Genetic and environmental risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Deane, Kevin D; Demoruelle, M Kristen; Kelmenson, Lindsay B; Kuhn, Kristine A; Norris, Jill M; Holers, V Michael

    2017-02-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of these, the strongest associations have been seen with female sex, a family history of RA, the genetic factor the "shared epitope," and exposure to tobacco smoke. There is also renewed interest in mucosal inflammation and microbial factors as contributors to the development of RA. However, the identification of a "preclinical" period of RA that can be defined as local or systemic autoimmunity as measured by autoantibodies and other biomarkers prior to the development of clinically apparent synovitis suggests that the risk factors for RA are acting long prior to first clinical evidence of IA. As such, a major challenge to the field will be to investigate the full spectrum of the development of RA, from initiation and propagation of autoimmunity during preclinical RA and transition to clinically apparent synovitis and classifiable RA, to determine which genetic and environmental factors are important at each stage of disease development. Understanding the exact role and timing of action of risk factors for RA is especially important given the advent of prevention trials in RA, and the hope that a full understanding of genetic and environmental factors in RA could lead to effective preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Personal and family medical history correlates of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    de Roos, Anneclaire J; Cooper, Glinda S; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P

    2008-06-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often have comorbidities related to immune dysfunction, however, the timing of comorbidities relative to RA diagnosis and treatment is not clear. We studied personal and family medical history correlates of incident and prevalent RA in women. We used a nested case-control design including women in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Physician-confirmed cases of RA (n = 135) were matched to five controls each (n = 675) by birth date. We used logistic regression to examine associations between conditions listed in personal and family medical histories and both incident and prevalent RA, as estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The risk of incident RA was associated with personal medical history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.4-14.1), asthma or reactive lung disease (OR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-10.5), and cataract (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.8). Personal history of herpes zoster was associated with prevalent RA (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.8), but not with incident RA. There were no consistent associations between family medical history and RA. Patients with medical conditions indicating compromised immunity are at increased risk of developing RA. These results may indicate common pathogenesis of an environmental or genetic nature between such diseases.

  17. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography delineates ankle symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Yukihiro; Tamura, Maasa; Kirino, Yohei; Sugiyama, Yumiko; Tsuchida, Naomi; Kunishita, Yosuke; Kishimoto, Daiga; Kamiyama, Reikou; Miura, Yasushi; Minegishi, Kaoru; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2017-05-01

    To clarify the use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) of ankle joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Consecutive RA patients with or without ankle symptoms participated in the study. The US, clinical examination (CE), and patients' visual analog scale for pain (pVAS) for ankles were assessed. Prevalence of tibiotalar joint synovitis and tenosynovitis were assessed by grayscale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) US using a semi-quantitative grading (0-3). The positive US and CE findings were defined as GS score ≥2 and/or PD score ≥1, and joint swelling and/or tenderness, respectively. Multivariate analysis with the generalized linear mixed model was performed by assigning ankle pVAS as a dependent variable. Among a total of 120 ankles from 60 RA patients, positive ankle US findings were found in 21 (35.0%) patients. The concordance rate of CE and US was moderate (kappa 0.57). Of the 88 CE negative ankles, US detected positive findings in 9 (10.2%) joints. Multivariate analysis revealed that ankle US, clinical disease activity index, and foot Health Assessment Questionnaire, but not CE, was independently associated with ankle pVAS. US examination is useful to illustrate RA ankle involvement, especially for patients who complain ankle pain but lack CE findings.

  18. Feelings of guilt and shame in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ten Klooster, Peter M; Christenhusz, Lieke C A; Taal, Erik; Eggelmeijer, Frank; van Woerkom, Jan-Maarten; Rasker, Johannes J

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to determine whether patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience more general feelings of guilt and shame than their peers without RA and to examine possible correlates of guilt and shame in RA. In a cross-sectional survey study, 85 out-patients with RA (77 % female; median disease duration, 11 years) and 59 peer controls completed the Experience of Shame Scale (ESS) and the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA). Patients additionally completed measures of health status, self-efficacy, cognitive emotion regulation, and numerical rating scales for life satisfaction and happiness. Patients and peer controls were well matched for sociodemographic characteristics. No significant differences between patients and controls were found for guilt or different types of shame as measured with the TOSCA or ESS. In multivariate analyses, female patients reported more feelings of bodily shame and higher guilt proneness, while younger patients reported more character and bodily shame. Worse social functioning and more self-blaming coping strategies were the strongest independent correlates of shame. Shame proneness was only independently associated with more self-blame, whereas guilt proneness was only associated with female sex. None of the physical aspects of the disease, including pain and physical functioning, correlated with feelings of guilt and shame. Patients with longstanding RA do not experience more general feelings of shame or guilt than their peers without RA. Shame and guilt in RA is primarily associated with demographic and psychosocial characteristics and not with physical severity of the disease.

  19. Design characteristics of the Corrona Japan rheumatoid arthritis registry.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kremer, Joel M; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective is to prospectively study the comparative safety and effectiveness of older and newer classes of nonbiologic DMARDs (Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs), biologic DMARDs and targeted synthetic therapies approved for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a real-world patient population in Japan. Prospective, multicenter, noninterventional, observational study across geographic distribution of both private and public institutions for patients with RA who are newly prescribed one of the following medications: (1) methotrexate; (2) anti-TNF biologic DMARDs; (3) non-TNF biologic DMARDs; and (4) approved JAK inhibitors at the time of enrollment into the registry. Target enrollment is currently 2000 subjects. Baseline and follow-up data on patient demographics, medical history, disease activity, laboratory results, comorbidities, hospitalizations, and targeted safety events are obtained via Physician and Patient Questionnaires. Fifty sites are anticipated to participate with 40 sites ethics committee (EC) approved at the time of submission consisting of 23% clinics, 21% private academic hospitals, 29% private mid-sized to large hospitals, 15% national academic hospitals, and 12% national hospitals. The Corrona Japan RA Registry will provide real-world evidence from both private and public institutions on the comparative effectiveness and safety of recently approved RA therapies in Japan.

  20. Serum bilirubin and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Juping, Du; Yuan, Yuan; Shiyong, Chen; Jun, Li; Xiuxiu, Zhou; Haijian, Ying; Jianfeng, Shi; Bo, Shen

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress and immune imbalance play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Bilirubin is a powerful antioxidant and also regarded as immunomodulator. Increased evidence shows that bilirubin should be a protective factor for autoimmune disease. However, the relationship between bilirubin and RA remain unclear. We analyzed serum bilirubin levels and other laboratory and clinical data in 130 RA patients (35 patients without any complications), 81 osteoarthritis (OA) patients and 96 healthy controls. Binary logistic regression adjusted by age and gender revealed that the levels of serum total, indirect bilirubin were significantly lower in RA patients, when compared with healthy controls (P=.015, OR=0.767, 95% CI=0.619-0.951; P=.010, OR=0.664, 95% CI=0.487-0.906, respectively) or OA patients (P=.000, OR=0.763, 95% CI=0.661-0.882; P=.000, OR=0.656, 95% CI=0.532-0.808, respectively). A reduced trend of levels of bilirubin has been detected along with increased disease activity, despite with no significance (P>.05). Spearman rank test further demonstrated that IgG and ESR were negative associated with total, indirect bilirubin, and albumin, prealbumin, APOA, HDL-C were positively associated with bilirubin. In conclusion, the levels of serum bilirubins were decreased in RA, and decreased levels could be associated with IgG, albumin and inflammatory marker ESR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Humeira

    2018-01-01

    Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations. Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity.

  2. Homeostasis 6: nurses as external control agents in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Clancy, John; McVicar, Andrew; Mooney, Janice

    All disorders involve a disturbance of cellular and hence chemical function in the body. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease that usually attacks synovial joints and surrounding ligaments, muscles and their tendons and blood vessels. This article applies the concept of health professionals operating as external agents of homeostatic control (Clancy and McVicar, 20011a; 2011b) to RA and to the care of affected patients, using a case scenario to illustrate attempts to minimize homeostatic imbalances. After reading the article, nurses should be able to understand: how the principles of homeostatic theory apply to skeletomuscular function, in particular to synovial joint function; the skeletomuscular homeostatic role in movement; and that homeostatic failure of reduced mobility, as in RA, is a result of nature-nurture interaction; that illness arises from a cellular, hence chemical, homeostatic imbalance(s) (Clancy and McVicar, 2011a; 2011b; 2011c; 2011d; 2011e). RA is considered a cellular (B-lymphocyte) hence chemical (autoantibody) imbalance that causes the homeostatic imbalances (inflammatory pain, reduced mobility, reduced activities of daily living) associated with the condition. Health professionals are able at act as external agents of homeostatic control to only a limited extent when caring for people with RA because, as with any progressive disorder, they will only be managing signs and symptoms to improve patients' quality of life.

  3. Improving agreement in assessment of synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Peter P; Dougados, Maxime; Andre, Vincent; Balandraud, Nathalie; Chales, Gérard; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Chatelus, Emmanuel; Dernis, Emmanuelle; Gill, Ghislaine; Gilson, Mélanie; Guis, Sandrine; Mouterde, Gael; Pavy, Stephan; Pouyol, François; Marhadour, Thierry; Richette, Pascal; Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline; Soubrier, Martin; Gossec, Laure

    2013-03-01

    Synovitis assessment through evaluation of swollen joints is integral in steering treatment decisions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there is high inter-observer variation. The objective was to assess if a short collegiate consensus would improve swollen joint agreement between rheumatologists and whether this was affected by experience. Eighteen rheumatologists from French university rheumatology units participated in three 30 minutes rounds over a half day meeting evaluating joint counts of RA patients in small groups, followed by short consensus discussions. Agreement was evaluated at the end of each round as follows: (i) global agreement of swollen joints (ii) swollen joint agreement according to level of experience of the rheumatologist (iii) swollen joint count and (iv) agreement of disease activity state according to the Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Agreement was calculated using percentage agreement and kappa. Global agreement of swollen joints failed to improve (kappa 0.50 to 0.52) at the joint level. Agreement between seniors did not improve but agreement between newly qualified rheumatologists and their senior peer, which was initially poor (kappa 0.28), improved significantly (to 0.54) at the end of the consensus exercises. Concordance of DAS28 activity states improved from 71% to 87%. Consensus exercises for swollen joint assessment is worthwhile and may potentially improve agreement between clinicians in clinical synovitis and disease activity state, benefit was mostly observed in newly qualified rheumatologists. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Vogt Koyanagi Harada Syndrome and Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Teoman; Taspinar, Ozgur; Guneser, Meryem; Keskin, Yasar

    2016-03-01

    Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) Syndrome is a rarely-seen multi-systemic, autoimmune and inflammatory disease. It observed frequently with neurologic, auditory and skin manifestations and characterized with bilateral, chronic and diffused granulomatous panuveitis. It generally affects women in young-adult period. A 57 year-old female patient applied to a special center one year ago with a complaint of decrease in the sight acuity of the right eye. The right eye was operated on with cataract diagnosis. Uveitis was developed firstly in the right eye and then in the left eye after the operation. Having complaints about uveitis, tinnitus and hear loss, the patient was diagnosed with VKH syndrome. The pains started to be felt in small hand joints and both of the two ankles. The pains were increasing especially in the mornings and during rest. The duration of morning stiffness was two hours in hand and foot joints. The patient had had lumbar pain with mechanic characteristic for five years. Being diagnosed with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA), our case is presented because VKH syndrome is rarely seen in Turkey, and the joint findings are at the forefront.

  5. Indian Herbal Medicines: Possible Potent Therapeutic Agents for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Brijesh; Ali Mahdi, Abbas; Nath Paul, Bhola; Narayan Saxena, Prabhu; Kumar Das, Siddharth

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and is mainly characterized by the progressive erosion of cartilage leading to chronic polyarthritis and joint distortion. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease has yet not been elucidated, however, studies suggest that cellular proliferation of synoviocytes result in pannus formation which damages the cartilage and bone. Recent reports also support the role of free radicals in its pathogenesis. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Alternative medicine provides another approach for treatment of RA and currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a novel drug. There is a dire need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential and adverse effects, if any, of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. In this review we have tried to explore various Indian ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibbi, as also some Chinese and Korean, herbals for their potential to treat RA. PMID:18392103

  6. [Abnormal cervicovaginal cytology in women with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Ulises

    2010-02-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of infections and cancer. A link between RA and abnormal cervicovaginal cytology has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to review cervicovaginal cytology results in women with RA and compare them with a control population. Sexual behavior also was investigated. Cervicovaginal cytology results of 95 women with RA were compared to those of a control population of 1,719 women attending at the same hospital and followed until June 2009. Records of RA patients were reviewed to obtain clinical data, particularly sexual behavior. Of 95 RA patients, 13/95 had an abnormal cervicovaginal cytology result, compared with 120/1,719 controls. Twelve/13 had squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), compared with 27/120 controls. There was no significant difference in sexual partners between women with RA and controls. Women with RA without abnormal cervicovaginal cytology had less sexual partners than those with RA and abnormal cytology. Two women with RA and abnormal cervicovaginal cytology had a history of condylomata and herpes genital. Three/13 women with RA developed abnormal cervicovaginal cytology after 12 to 36 months initiating their illness. None from them had ever received immunosuppressants. Women with RA have an increased prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology, compared with a control population. It may be related to chronic inflammatory disease and sexual behavior.

  7. [Lung cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. An interdisciplinary challenge].

    PubMed

    Rubbert-Roth, A; Zander, T; Kneitz, C; Baerwald, C; Wirtz, H; Witt, C

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is a frequently occurring disease, particularly in the elderly; however, within the last 10 years the pharmaceutical treatment of lung cancer has been significantly improved. Due to a better understanding of the pathophysiological events and the identification of molecular subgroups of lung tumors, new therapeutic drugs have been developed that significantly prolong survival of patients with the respective molecular pattern. In particular immunotherapeutic agents, such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death 1 (PD1) antibodies have shown promising clinical results in a subgroup of lung cancer patients. Due to the high incidence of both lung cancer and rheumatic diseases they often occur together, which necessitates an interdisciplinary management. The success of improved therapy of lung cancer has led to a greater focus on the treatment of comorbidities; however, interventions into the immune system by immune checkpoint inhibitors can lead to new challenges when an autoimmune disease is simultaneously present. The possibility of an effective screening for lung cancer in the future also presents the prospect of an improvement in mortality, which raises the question of the optimal monitoring of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) under immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this review is to discuss the interaction between lung cancer and RA with respect to the currently available data.

  8. Assessment of Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality Process Measures and Associated Costs.

    PubMed

    Brady, Brenna L; Tkacz, Joseph; Meyer, Roxanne; Bolge, Susan C; Ruetsch, Charles

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to examine the relationship between health care costs and quality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Administrative claims were used to calculate 8 process measures for the treatment of RA. Associated health care costs were calculated for members who achieved or did not achieve each of the measures. Medical, pharmacy, and laboratory claims for RA patients (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 714.x) were extracted from the Optum Clinformatics Datamart database for 2011. Individuals were predominately female and in their mid-fifties. Measure achievement ranged from 55.9% to 80.8%. The mean cost of care for members meeting the measure was $18,644; members who did not meet the measures had a mean cost of $14,973. Primary cost drivers were pharmacy and office expenses, accounting for 42.4% and 26.3% of total costs, respectively. Regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations between biologic usage, which was more prevalent in groups attaining measures, and total expenditure across all measures (Ps < 0.001). Pharmacy costs were similar between both groups. Individuals meeting the measures had a higher proportion of costs accounted for by office visits; those not meeting the measures had a higher proportion of costs from inpatient and outpatient visits. These findings suggest that increased quality may lead to lower inpatient and outpatient hospital costs. Yet, the overall cost of RA care is likely to remain high because of intensive pharmacotherapy regimens.

  9. Assessment of rheumatoid arthritis patients' adherence to treatment.

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Mohsen A; Boulos, Dina N K; Gebrel, Asmaa; Dewedar, Sahar; Morisky, Donald E

    2015-02-01

    Reports on adherence among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Egypt and the Middle East region are lacking. This study aimed to measure adherence to treatment among a sample of patients with RA at Ain Shams University Rheumatology outpatient clinic and to assess factors affecting it. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at the rheumatology outpatient clinic on a sample of 140 patients with RA. An interview questionnaire was used to measure adherence using the 8-item Morisky's scale, factors affecting adherence to treatment like patients satisfaction were assessed using the short form patient satisfaction questionnaire, also patients' knowledge, beliefs and rate of prescription refilling were assessed. Disease Activity Score-28 was used as an objective method to assess RA disease activity. According to Morisky's scale, 90.6% and 9.4% were classified as low and moderately adherent, respectively, none was classified as highly adherent to treatment. Important barriers to adherence reported were fear of side effects, nonavailability of free drugs in hospital pharmacy and cost of medications. Younger patients (P=0.002) and those reporting greater general satisfaction (P=0.02) were more likely to be adherent. In addition, on-time refill rates of medication (P=0.001) and disease activity (P=0.02) were associated with higher adherence scores and thus further validated the results of the adherence questionnaire. Higher adherence was associated with more positive beliefs on medication, greater satisfaction with health care and less disease activity.

  10. Assessment of Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality Process Measures and Associated Costs

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Joseph; Meyer, Roxanne; Bolge, Susan C.; Ruetsch, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective was to examine the relationship between health care costs and quality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Administrative claims were used to calculate 8 process measures for the treatment of RA. Associated health care costs were calculated for members who achieved or did not achieve each of the measures. Medical, pharmacy, and laboratory claims for RA patients (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 714.x) were extracted from the Optum Clinformatics Datamart database for 2011. Individuals were predominately female and in their mid-fifties. Measure achievement ranged from 55.9% to 80.8%. The mean cost of care for members meeting the measure was $18,644; members who did not meet the measures had a mean cost of $14,973. Primary cost drivers were pharmacy and office expenses, accounting for 42.4% and 26.3% of total costs, respectively. Regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations between biologic usage, which was more prevalent in groups attaining measures, and total expenditure across all measures (Ps < 0.001). Pharmacy costs were similar between both groups. Individuals meeting the measures had a higher proportion of costs accounted for by office visits; those not meeting the measures had a higher proportion of costs from inpatient and outpatient visits. These findings suggest that increased quality may lead to lower inpatient and outpatient hospital costs. Yet, the overall cost of RA care is likely to remain high because of intensive pharmacotherapy regimens. PMID:27031517

  11. A Clinical Update and Global Economic Burden of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Syed Ali; Khan, Mohammad; Nishi, Shamima E; Alam, Fahmida; Zarin, Nowshin; Bari, Mohammad T; Ashraf, Ghulam Md

    2018-02-13

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a predominant inflammatory autoimmune disorder. The incidence and prevalence of RA is increasing with considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of RA has become clearer due to many significant research outputs during the last two decades. Many inflammatory cytokines involved in RA pathophysiology and the presence of autoantibodies are being used as potential biomarkers via the use of effective diagnostic techniques for the early diagnosis of RA. Currently, several disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are being prescribed targeting RA pathophysiology, which have shown significant contributions in improving the disease outcomes. Even though innovations in treatment strategies and monitoring are helping the patients to achieve early and sustained clinical and radiographic remission, the high cost of drugs and limited health care budgets are restricting the easy access of RA treatment. Both direct and indirect high cost of treatment are creating economic burden for the patients and affecting their quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe the updated concept of RA pathophysiology and highlight current diagnostic tools used for the early detection as well as prognosis - targeting several biomarkers of RA. Additionally, we explored the updated treatment options with side effects besides discussing the global economic burden. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; López-Mejías, Raquel; García-Bermúdez, Mercedes; González-Juanatey, Carlos; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Martín, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is the result of an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Both RA and atherosclerosis are complex polygenic diseases. Besides traditional CV risk factors and chronic inflammation, a number of studies have confirmed the role of genetic factors in the development of the atherogenesis observed in RA. In this regard, besides a strong association between the HLA-DRB1∗04 shared epitope alleles and both endothelial dysfunction, an early step in the atherosclerotic process, and clinically evident CV disease, other polymorphisms belonging to genes implicated in inflammatory and metabolic pathways, located inside and outside the HLA region, such as the 308 variant (G > A, rs1800629) of the TNFA locus, the rs1801131 polymorphism (A > C; position + 1298) of the MTHFR locus, or a deletion of 32 base pairs on the CCR5 gene, seem to be associated with the risk of CV disease in patients with RA. Despite considerable effort to decipher the genetic basis of CV disease in RA, further studies are required to better establish the genetic influence in the increased risk of CV events observed in patients with RA. PMID:22927710

  13. Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Badsha, Humeira

    2018-01-01

    Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations. Conclusion: Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity. PMID:29515679

  14. Treatment with Biologicals in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Rein, Philipp; Mueller, Ruediger B

    2017-12-01

    Management and therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been revolutionized by the development and approval of the first biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α at the end of the last century. Today, numerous efficacious agents with different modes of action are available and achievement of clinical remission or, at least, low disease activity is the target of therapy. Early therapeutic interventions aiming at a defined goal of therapy (treat to target) are supposed to halt inflammation, improving symptoms and signs, and preserving structural integrity of the joints in RA. Up to now, bDMARDs approved for therapy in RA include agents with five different modes of action: TNF inhibition, T cell co-stimulation blockade, IL-6 receptor inhibition, B cell depletion, and interleukin 1 inhibition. Furthermore, targeted synthetic DMARDs (tsDMARDs) inhibiting Janus kinase (JAK) and biosimilars also are approved for RA. The present review focuses on bDMARDs and tsDMARDS regarding similarities and possible drug-specific advantages in the treatment of RA. Furthermore, compounds not yet approved in RA and biosimilars are discussed. Following the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations, specific treatment of the disease will be discussed with respect to safety and efficacy. In particular, we discuss the question of favoring specific bDMARDs or tsDMARDs in the two settings of insufficient response to methotrexate and to the first bDMARD, respectively.

  15. Bone effects of biologic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Addolorata; Neve, Anna; Maruotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Biologic agents used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are able to reduce both disease activity and radiographic progression of joint disease. These drugs are directed against several proinflammatory cytokines (TNF α , IL-6, and IL-1) which are involved both in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and progression of joint structural damage and in systemic and local bone loss typically observed in RA. However, the role of biologic drugs in preventing bone loss in clinical practice has not yet clearly assessed. Many clinical studies showed a trend to a positive effect of biologic agents in preventing systemic bone loss observed in RA. Although the suppression of inflammation is the main goal in the treatment of RA and the anti-inflammatory effects of biologic drugs exert a positive effect on bone metabolism, the exact relationship between the prevention of bone loss and control of inflammation has not been clearly established, and if the available biologic drugs against TNF α , IL-1, and IL-6 can exert their effect on systemic and local bone loss also through a direct mechanism on bone cell metabolism is still to be clearly defined.

  16. Remission of rheumatoid arthritis: should we care about definitions?

    PubMed

    Aletaha, D; Smolen, J S

    2006-01-01

    A state of remission can be achieved in more and more rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The combination of several RA disease activity measures seems to be important to provide an overall view of disease activity. Remission can be defined by two different approaches: one using a categorical model, requiring criteria for multiple variables to be fulfilled, each with its own threshold value (remission "criteria"); the other using a dimensional model, providing single measures of activity, which allow definition of remission by a single cut point (remission cut points for composite indices). The face validity of remission as defined by composite indices surpasses the one for the "criteria". Likewise, the ones that are not weighted seem to surpass the weighted ones, as can be seen by the significant proportion of patients that continues to have considerable swollen joint counts despite being in Disease Activity Score (DAS)-28 remission. All composite indices seem to perform similarly well as tests for remission using expert judgments as the gold standard.

  17. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Cun; Xie, Qiang; Lv, Wei-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a phenotypically heterogeneous, chronic, destructive inflammatory disease of the synovial joints. A number of imaging tools are currently available for evaluation of inflammatory conditions. By targeting the upgraded glucose uptake of infiltrating granulocytes and tissue macrophages, positron emission tomography/computed tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG PET/CT) is available to delineate inflammation with high sensitivity. Recently, several studies have indicated that FDG uptake in affected joints reflects the disease activity of RA. In addition, usage of FDG PET for the sensitive detection and monitoring of the response to treatment has been reported. Combined FDG PET/CT enables the detailed assessment of disease in large joints throughout the whole body. These unique capabilities of FDG PET/CT imaging are also able to detect RA-complicated diseases. Therefore, PET/CT has become an excellent ancillary tool to assess disease activity and prognosis in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Recommendations for optimizing methotrexate treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Alfonso E; Perkins, Elizabeth L; Jay, Randy; Efthimiou, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) remains the cornerstone therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with well-established safety and efficacy profiles and support in international guidelines. Clinical and radiologic results indicate benefits of MTX monotherapy and combination with other agents, yet patients may not receive optimal dosing, duration, or route of administration to maximize their response to this drug. This review highlights best practices for MTX use in RA patients. First, to improve the response to oral MTX, a high initial dose should be administered followed by rapid titration. Importantly, this approach does not appear to compromise safety or tolerability for patients. Treatment with oral MTX, with appropriate dose titration, then should be continued for at least 6 months (as long as the patient experiences some response to treatment within 3 months) to achieve an accurate assessment of treatment efficacy. If oral MTX treatment fails due to intolerability or inadequate response, the patient may be “rescued” by switching to subcutaneous delivery of MTX. Consideration should also be given to starting with subcutaneous MTX given its favorable bioavailability and pharmacodynamic profile over oral delivery. Either initiation of subcutaneous MTX therapy or switching from oral to subcutaneous administration improves persistence with treatment. Upon transition from oral to subcutaneous delivery, MTX dosage should be maintained, rather than increased, and titration should be performed as needed. Similarly, if another RA treatment is necessary to control the disease, the MTX dosage and route of administration should be maintained, with titration as needed. PMID:28435338

  19. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: assessment, management and next steps

    PubMed Central

    Zegkos, Thomas; Kitas, George; Dimitroulas, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality which cannot be fully explained by traditional CV risk factors; cumulative inflammatory burden and antirheumatic medication-related cardiotoxicity seem to be important contributors. Despite the acknowledgment and appreciation of CV disease burden in RA, optimal management of individuals with RA represents a challenging task which remains suboptimal. To address this need, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) published recommendations suggesting the adaptation of traditional risk scores by using a multiplication factor of 1.5 if two of three specific criteria are fulfilled. Such guidance requires proper coordination of several medical specialties, including general practitioners, rheumatologists, cardiologists, exercise physiologists and psychologists to achieve a desirable result. Tight control of disease activity, management of traditional risk factors and lifestyle modification represent, amongst others, the most important steps in improving CV disease outcomes in RA patients. Rather than enumerating studies and guidelines, this review attempts to critically appraise current literature, highlighting future perspectives of CV risk management in RA. PMID:27247635

  20. Complement in the Initiation and Evolution of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Holers, V. Michael; Banda, Nirmal K.

    2018-01-01

    The complement system is a major component of the immune system and plays a central role in many protective immune processes, including circulating immune complex processing and clearance, recognition of foreign antigens, modulation of humoral and cellular immunity, removal of apoptotic and dead cells, and engagement of injury resolving and tissue regeneration processes. In stark contrast to these beneficial roles, however, inadequately controlled complement activation underlies the pathogenesis of human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) where the cartilage, bone, and synovium are targeted. Recent studies of this disease have demonstrated that the autoimmune response evolves over time in an asymptomatic preclinical phase that is associated with mucosal inflammation. Notably, experimental models of this disease have demonstrated that each of the three major complement activation pathways plays an important role in recognition of injured joint tissue, although the lectin and amplification pathways exhibit particularly impactful roles in the initiation and amplification of damage. Herein, we review the complement system and focus on its multi-factorial role in human patients with RA and experimental murine models. This understanding will be important to the successful integration of the emerging complement therapeutics pipeline into clinical care for patients with RA. PMID:29892280

  1. JAK inhibitors: A broadening approach in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lam, S

    2016-08-01

    Pfizer's Xeljanz (tofacitinib citrate) was the first Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor to reach the market for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) following its U.S. approval in November 2012, and it has since gained approval in more than 45 countries as a second-line therapy for RA after failure of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). This emerging category has heralded an attractive new class of oral treatment options in RA, with a notable opportunity in patients who stop responding to DMARDs, but they are facing a challenging market. Despite RA affecting approximately 23.7 million people worldwide, Xeljanz faces a market dominated by the anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologicals, which have robust long-term safety and efficacy. The availability of biosimilars of these market leaders is also intensifying competition, and a high price and uncertainty over long-term safety is currently tempering the market for the JAK inhibitors. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational therapy during the first 10 years of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Malcus-Johnson, Pia; Carlqvist, Carin; Sturesson, Anna-Lena; Eberhardt, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    To describe disease development and occupational therapy during the first 10 years of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to assess patients' experiences of occupational therapy and comprehensive care. A total of 168 early RA patients with variable disease severity were followed up with regular team visits. The occupational therapist evaluated hand function and activity and performed the necessary interventions. These were recorded and the number of visits generating interventions was calculated. Semi-structured interview of 11 patients regarding their views of occupational therapy and team contact was performed. Impairments of hand function were in general mild to moderate and remained fairly unchanged over time. Activity limitations increased slowly. Half of the follow-up visits generated interventions. Most common were prescriptions of assistive devices and orthoses, hand-training instructions and patient education. The patients interviewed were positive regarding occupational therapy and felt safe with comprehensive care. RA patients in all stages of the disease benefit from regular contact with an occupational therapist and team care.

  3. [Occupational therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: what rheumatologists need to know?].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Pedro Henrique Tavares Queiroz; Pontes, Tatiana Barcelos; Matheus, João Paulo Chieregato; Muniz, Luciana Feitosa; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Interventions focusing on education and self-management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by the patient improves adherence and effectiveness of early treatment. The combination of pharmacologic and rehabilitation treatment aims to maximize the possibilities of intervention, delaying the appearance of new symptoms, reducing disability and minimizing sequelae, decreasing the impact of symptoms on patient's functionality. Occupational therapy is a health profession that aims to improve the performance of daily activities by the patient, providing means for the prevention of functional limitations, adaptation to lifestyle changes and maintenance or improvement of psychosocial health. Due to the systemic nature of RA, multidisciplinary follow-up is necessary for the proper management of the impact of the disease on various aspects of life. As a member of the health team, occupational therapists objective to improve and maintaining functional capacity of the patient, preventing the progression of deformities, assisting the process of understanding and coping with the disease and providing means for carrying out the activities required for the engagement of the individual in meaningful occupations, favoring autonomy and independence in self-care activities, employment, educational, social and leisure. The objective of this review is to familiarize the rheumatologist with the tools used for assessment and intervention in occupational therapy, focusing on the application of these principles to the treatment of patients with RA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Time of day of prednisolone administration in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Kowanko, I C; Pownall, R; Knapp, M S; Swannell, A J; Mahoney, P G

    1982-01-01

    Twelve patients with rheumatoid arthritis took low dosage prednisolone, mean 5.6 mg daily, at either 0800 h, 1300 h or 2300 h in a double-blind within-patient controlled trial. Each patient was studied on each of the 3 regimens to assess control of symptoms and side effects and also to examine circadian rhythms in signs and symptoms. For several days during each drug regimen patients collected urine at each micturition and self-assessed their signs and symptoms. Circadian rhythms of finger joint swelling and of grip strength were determined, and were similar on all regimens, with morning peaks of symptoms and signs. Subjective and objective assessments showed no differences in effectiveness between the 3 times of administration of prednisolone. Urinary excretion patterns were similar to those observed in untreated people. The quantity and circadian pattern of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids excreted were similar to those in healthy patients, providing no evidence of adrenal cortical suppression at the dose levels studied, even when this dose was taken in the evening. A single morning dose of prednisolone appears in many patients to be as effective as a single evening dose or divided doses. It is therefore reasonable to initiate therapy with a morning-only regimen, because adrenopituitary suppression should be minimised. PMID:6751242

  5. Liposome-Based Nanomedicine Therapeutics for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfoozur; Beg, Sarwar; Anwar, Firoz; Kumar, Vikas; Ubale, Ruhi; Addo, Richard T; Ali, Raisuddin; Akhter, Sohail

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a very painful severe autoimmune disease with complex pathology characterized by progressive chronic inflammation, and devastation of the synovium, cartilage, and other joint-associated structures. Significant advances in research in the area of pathophysiology, diagnosis, drug development, and targeted delivery have led to improved RA therapy and better patient compliance. Targeted drug delivery using liposomal nanomedicines significantly alleviate the challenges with conventional anti-RA medications such as off-target effects, short biological half-life, poor bioavailability, high dose-related toxicity, etc. Liposomal nanomedicines in RA drug targeting offer the opportunity for passive targeting [based on size and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylation-mediated enhanced permeability and retention] and active targeting (ligation with antibody or peptides, etc.) and encapsulation of lipophilic, hydrophilic drugs, and/or combinational drugs. However, it has been found recently that such injectable nanomedicines raise the concern of an adverse immune phenomenon called complement activationrelated pseudo allergy (CARPA) and failure of therapy on multiple doses due to accelerated body clearance caused many by anti-PEG immunoglobulin M. To ensure safety and efficacy of RA therapy, these need to be considered along with the common formulation quality parameters. Here, we discuss nanotherapeutic targeting in RA therapy using liposomes. Liposomal nanoparticles are investigated for individual anti-RA drug categories. CARPA issues and pathophysiology with such nanomedicines are also discussed in detail.

  6. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas Roldán, Jorge; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Castellanos-de la Hoz, Juan; Giraldo-Villamil, Juliana; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladys; Cruz-Tapias, Paola; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and impact of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Eight-hundred patients were included. The association between AITD and RA was analyzed was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. In addition, a literature review was done focusing on geographical variations. Results. In our cohort the prevalence of AITD was 9.8% while the presence of antibodies was 37.8% for antithyroperoxidase enzyme (TPOAb) and 20.8% for antithyroglobulin protein (TgAb). The presence of type 2 diabetes, thrombosis, abnormal body mass index, and a high educational level was positively associated with AITD. The literature review disclosed a geographical variation of AITD in RA ranging from 0.5% to 27%. Autoantibody prevalence ranges from 6% to 31% for TgAb, 5% to 37% for TPOAb, and from 11.4% to 32% for the presence of either of the two. Conclusion. AITD is not uncommon in RA and should be systematically assessed since it is a risk factor for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These results may help to further study the common mechanisms of autoimmune diseases, to improve patients' outcome, and to define public health policies. An international consensus to accurately diagnose AITD is warranted. PMID:23209899

  7. The role of meat in the expression of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Grant, W B

    2000-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by inflammation of the synovial tissues in the joints. A number of papers related to dietary components that are associated with this inflammation are reviewed. In addition, the ecological approach is used to study the links between diet and RA. Multi-country data for prevalence of RA for females from eight and fifteen countries were compared statistically with components of national dietary supply. Fat from meat and offal for the period 2 years before the prevalence data was found to have the highest statistical association with the prevalence of RA (r(2) 0.877, P<0.001 for eight countries). The statistical correlations for meat and offal were almost as high as those for their fat. Similar correlations were found for temporal changes in indices of effects of RA in several European countries between 1968 and 1978 as more meat was added to the national diets, although the correlations were higher for meat than for fat. It is hypothesized that meat and offal may be a major factor contributing to the inflammation in RA. In the present short review, the author examines some of the data that associate meat consumption with RA and the possible factors, e.g. fat, Fe and nitrite, which may contribute to the inflammation.

  8. Relationship between inflammation and infliximab pharmacokinetics in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ternant, David; Ducourau, Emilie; Perdriger, Aleth; Corondan, Anca; Le Goff, Benoît; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Solau-Gervais, Elisabeth; Watier, Hervé; Goupille, Philippe; Paintaud, Gilles; Mulleman, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Aims Infliximab, an anti-tumour necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibody, is indicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to evaluate the influence of the sources of infliximab pharmacokinetic variability in RA. Methods Eighty-four patients treated with infliximab for RA were included in a prospective noncomparative study. They were analysed between two consecutive infliximab infusions. Infliximab concentrations were measured before the infusion, 2 h, 1 and 4 weeks after the infusion and immediately before the next infusion. Infliximab concentrations were described using a two-compartment population pharmacokinetic model. Results The mean (interindividual standard deviation) estimated central volume of distribution was 2.3 l (36%) and systemic clearance was 0.019 l h−1 (37%). The central volume of distribution increased with bodyweight; it was doubled between 50 and 90 kg. Systemic clearance increased with pre-infusion C-reactive protein concentration by 20%, varying from 3 to 14 mg l−1, and was decreased by 30% when methotrexate was coadministered. Conclusions The influence of methotrexate and inflammation on infliximab clearance suggests that individual adjustment of infliximab doses according to disease activity may be useful in RA. PMID:24354889

  9. Heparan Sulfate Differences in Rheumatoid Arthritis versus Healthy Sera

    PubMed Central

    López-Hoyos, Marcos; Seo, Youjin; Andaya, Armann; Leary, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a complex and highly variable polysaccharide, expressed ubiquitously on the cell surface as HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and found in the extracellular matrix as free HS fragments. Its heterogeneity due to various acetylation and sulfation patterns endows a multitude of functions. In animal tissues, HS interacts with a wide range of proteins to mediate numerous biological activities; given its multiple roles in inflammation processes, characterization of HS in human serum has significant potential for elucidating disease mechanisms. Historically, investigation of HS was limited by its low concentration in human serum, together with the complexity of the serum matrix. In this study, we used a modified mass spectrometry method to examine HS disaccharide profiles in the serum of 50 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared our results to 51 sera from healthy women. Using various purification methods and online LC-MS/MS, we discovered statistically significant differences in the sulfation and acetylation patterns between populations. Since early diagnosis of RA is considered important in decelerating the disease's progression, identification of specific biomolecule characterizations may provide crucial information towards developing new therapies for suppressing the disease in its early stages. This is the first report of potential glycosaminoglycan biomarkers for RA found in human sera, while acknowledging the obvious fact that a larger population set, and more stringent collection parameters, will need to be investigated in the future. PMID:25217862

  10. Musculoskeletal ultrasound and other imaging modalities in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ohrndorf, Sarah; Werner, Stephanie G; Finzel, Stephanie; Backhaus, Marina

    2013-05-01

    This review refers to the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) both in clinical practice and research. Furthermore, other novel sensitive imaging modalities (high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and fluorescence optical imaging) are introduced in this article. Recently published ultrasound studies presented power Doppler activity by ultrasound highly predictive for later radiographic erosions in patients with RA. Another study presented synovitis detected by ultrasound being predictive of subsequent structural radiographic destruction irrespective of the ultrasound modality (grayscale ultrasound/power Doppler ultrasound). Further studies are currently under way which prove ultrasound findings as imaging biomarkers in the destructive process of RA. Other introduced novel imaging modalities are in the validation process to prove their impact and significance in inflammatory joint diseases. The introduced imaging modalities show different sensitivities and specificities as well as strength and weakness belonging to the assessment of inflammation, differentiation of the involved structures and radiological progression. The review tries to give an answer regarding how to best integrate them into daily clinical practice with the aim to improve the diagnostic algorithms, the daily patient care and, furthermore, the disease's outcome.

  11. ABP 501 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pelechas, Eleftherios; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Drosos, Alexandros A

    2018-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which has a negative impact on the ability to perform activities daily. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF) is a cytokine with diverse cellular effects, and a key regulator of the inflammatory response. ABP 501 is a biosimilar to adalimumab, a TNF inhibitor. Areas covered: In this review, we examined ABP 501, as a biosimilar candidate to adalimumab in the treatment of RA focusing on the available data. Current data indicate that ABP 501 is a highly similar alternative to adalimumab in terms of safety, efficacy, tolerability and immunogenicity. ABP 501 has already been approved by health authorities in Europe and the United States of America, as a subcutaneous (s.c.) therapy option for the treatment of patients with RA, but also for the full spectrum approved for its bio-originator adalimumab. Expert opinion: Current body of evidence suggests that all biologic activities have been demonstrated to be equivalent between ABP 501 and the originator, including binding rates and affinity to TNF, and also the effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Therefore, it is fully expected to have same efficacy and safety in all indications.

  12. Occupational balance of women with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Tanja; Wright, Jon; Machold, Klaus; Sadlo, Gaynor; Smolen, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Occupational balance has been shown to be an important factor in maintaining health. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reduces functional ability and quality of life and may thus reduce occupational balance. The aim of this qualitative pilot study was to explore occupational balance in women who have RA. Nine women with RA with past, but not current, paid work experience, no other confounding neuro-motor disease and with disease duration of 0.75-31 years were selected from an Austrian rheumatology outpatient clinic. Age range of the participants was 28-68 years. A semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by the constant comparative method from an occupational perspective. Three main categories emerged: (1