Matsunaga, Shunji; Hayashi, Kyoji; Naruo, Tetsuro; Nozoe, Shin-ichi; Komiya, Setsuro
A trial of brace therapy modified by a measured personality pattern of patients with idiopathic scoliosis was performed. To evaluate the effectiveness of performing personality tests for patients with idiopathic scoliosis who undergo brace therapy. Brace therapy has often been used for the treatment of scoliosis. However, emotional distress can result from this therapy. Few attempts have been made to reduce such stress. A test using the Maudsley Personality Inventory was performed on 145 adolescent females with idiopathic scoliosis, treated with brace therapy alone, before the start of brace therapy and 1 month after the start of brace therapy. On the basis of test results, the patients were rated as normal type and four abnormal types. Brace therapy was continued considering the personality pattern of patients. For all patients, changes in psychologic test results, compliance with braces wearing instructions, and correction of scoliosis were analyzed. Of the 134 patients rated as normal before the start of therapy, 108 patients were rated as abnormal pattern when tested 1 month after the start of therapy. After performing autogenic training for patients with E-N+ and E-N- personalities, and giving advice to school teachers to decrease the emotional stress for patients with E+N+ personality, 47 patients were finally rated as abnormal pattern. In total, 12 (8%) of the 145 patients dropped out. In dropouts, the average pretreatment deformity of 29 degrees (range: 21 degrees -37 degrees ) had increased to an average of 37 degrees (range, 31 degrees -48 degrees ). Psychologic tests may be useful and provide a means of modifying brace therapy tailored to the psychologic conditions of individual patients.
Honeyman, Cheryl; Davison, Jean
Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional curvature of the spine of unknown cause that occurs in often otherwise fit young people. A complex surgical procedure is required for the most severe curves. Quantitative literature suggests scoliosis surgery improves patients' lives, while qualitative literature focuses on patients' concerns rather than their experience. Aims To explore how adolescents interpret their perioperative experience. Method Six participants, aged 15-18, were interviewed and transcripts were analysed. Findings Four themes were identified: shock, fears and worries; parental interaction; coping; and motivation and positivity. Conclusion Participants were reluctant to share concerns, however those they shared related more to fear of the unknown and lack of control than specific issues such as pain. Participants depended on their parents, especially their mothers, during the perioperative period, and they recognised their parents' stress. Participants coped well, were motivated and had a positive outlook.
Auerbach, Joshua D; Lonner, Baron S; Crerand, Canice E; Shah, Suken A; Flynn, John M; Bastrom, Tracey; Penn, Phedra; Ahn, Jennifer; Toombs, Courtney; Bharucha, Neil; Bowe, Whitney P; Newton, Peter O
Appearance concerns in individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can result in impairment in daily functioning, or body image disturbance. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ) is a self-reported, seven-question instrument that measures body image disturbance in general populations; no studies have specifically examined body image disturbance in those with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study aimed to validate a modified version of the BIDQ in a population with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to establish discriminant validity by comparing responses of operatively and nonoperatively treated patients with those of normal controls. In the first phase, a multicenter study of forty-nine patients (mean age, fourteen years; thirty-seven female) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was performed to validate the BIDQ-Scoliosis version (BIDQ-S). Participants completed the BIDQ-S, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22, Children's Depression Index (CDI), and Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. In the second phase, ninety-eight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 15.7 years; seventy-five female) matched by age and sex with ninety-eight healthy adolescents were enrolled into a single-center study to evaluate the discriminant validity of the BIDQ-S. Subjects completed the BIDQ-S and a demographic form before treatment. Independent-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. The BIDQ-S was internally consistent (Cronbach alpha = 0.82), and corrected item total correlations ranged from 0.47 to 0.67. The BIDQ-S was significantly correlated with each domain of the SRS-22 and the total score (r = -0.50 to -0.72, p ≤ 0.001), with the CDI (r = 0.31, p = 0.03), and with the BESAA (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). BIDQ-S scores differed significantly between patients (1.50) and controls (1.06, p < 0.005), establishing
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3D spinal deformity in frontal, sagittal and axial planes, with high relevance in the pediatric population especially in adolescents and females between 10 years of age and the end of growth spurt and skeletal maturity. The radiographic manifestation is a curve greater than 10° measured by Cobb method associated with vertebral rotation. "Idiopathic" diagnosis has to be done after neuroanatomical anomalies of the posterior cerebral fosa and spinal canal have been ruled out. The physical finding of a thoracic or lumbar hump is the clinical manifestation of vertebral rotation seen in a forward bending test (Adam's Test). It is recommended that all curves with a magnitude greater than 20° have to be controlled and treated by a spinal surgeon being observation, bracing and surgery the different treatment options based on the extent, progression of deformity and basically the clinical condition of the patient. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Chazono, Masaaki; Soshi, Sigeru; Kida, Yoshikuni; Hashimoto, Kurando; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yousuke; Shinohara, Akira; Marumo, Keishi; Kono, Katsuki; Suzuki, Nobumasa
Following identification of peak height velocity (PHV) by a recent study as a possible prognostic factor for curve progression in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), the aim of this study was to investigate PHV curves in Japanese female patients with IS. The study subjects were 20 skeletally immature IS patients who were followed until maturity. The mean age and the mean pubertal status at the initial visit were 9.8 years and 24 months before menarche, respectively, with a follow-up period of 5.2 years. Height measurements were recorded at each visit, and HV was calculated as the change in height (cm) divided by the time interval (yr.) between visits of 6 to 12 months. The PHV, age at PHV (APHV), height at PHV (HPHV), and final height (FH) were determined. Patient HV curves were plotted using their HV data, and growth periods (GPs) were calculated from the curves. PHVs and GPs of study patients were compared to standard data from unaffected girls. The median values and interquartile ranges in PHV, APHV, HPHV, and FH were 8.5 cm/yr. (7.9-9.7), 11.8 yr. (11.2-12.1), 153.2 cm (150.1-155.8), and 160.1 cm (157.4-162.4), respectively. The median GP was 27 months. The PHV and GP values in IS female patients were higher and shorter than those in unaffected girls. These findings indicate that the patterns of height velocity curves in IS patients are different from those in unaffected girls, suggesting that curve progression in IS patients is associated with the magnitude of PHV and duration of GP. Recently, we have developed an HV reader to easily and quickly identify the present HV in patients with scoliosis, applicable for the clinical setting or school screening. We conclude that risk assessments of curve progression in patients with IS should include HV along with measures of skeletal maturity such as the Risser sign and/or digital skeletal age using hand X-rays.
Meyer, C; Cammarata, E; Haumont, T; Deviterne, D; Gauchard, G C; Leheup, B; Lascombes, P; Perrin, Ph P
The influence of physical and sporting activities (PSA) on idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is still obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such an influence exists and if so, to determine its characteristics. Two hundred and one teenagers with IS and a control group of 192 adolescents completed an epidemiological questionnaire. Those practising gymnastics were more numerous in the IS group than in the control group. Moreover, the practice of gymnastics was chosen before IS was diagnosed. As gymnastic activities are considered neither as a therapy nor as a precursor of IS, the distribution observed could be linked to a common factor that both increases the likelihood of IS and favors the practice of gymnastics. Joint laxity (JL) may be such a common factor, and was therefore tested (wrist and middle finger) on 42 girls with IS and 21 girls of a control group. IS patients, practising gymnastics or not, showed a higher JL than the control group practising gymnastics or not. Furthermore, the groups practising gymnastic activities did not show higher JL levels than the other groups. Children with a high JL could be drawn toward gymnastics because of their ability to adapt to the constraints of this sport. Girls with a high JL may therefore be prone to developing IS. The fact that most teenagers with IS practise gymnastics could be related to a higher JL.
Cano, Danila Vieira Baldini; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Alves, Vera Lúcia dos Santos; Avanzi, Osmar; Pinto, José Simão de Paula
To create a clinical database of respiratory function in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; computerize and store this clinical data through the use of a software; incorporate this electronic protocol to the SINPE© (Integrated Electronic Protocols System) and analyze a pilot project with interpretation of results. From the literature review a computerized data bank of clinical data of postural deviations was set up (master protocol). Upon completion of the master protocol a specific protocol of respiratory function in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was designed and a pilot project was conducted to collect and analyze data from ten patients. It was possible to create the master protocol of postural deviations and the specific protocol of respiratory function in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The data collected in the pilot project was processed by the SINPE ANALYZER©, generating charts and statistics. The establishment of the clinical database of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was possible. Computerization and storage of clinical data using the software were viable. The electronic protocol of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis could be incorporated into the SINPE© and its use in the pilot project was successful.
The objective is the description and summary of the current state of idiopathic scoliosis treatment with physical therapy based on new scientific knowledge and concluded from more than 15 years of experience as a leading physician in two well-known clinics specializing in the conservative treatment of scoliosis. Based on current scientific publications on physical therapy in scoliosis treatment and resulting from the considerable personal experience gained working with conservative treatment and consulting scoliosis patients (as inpatients and outpatients), the current methods of physical therapy have been compared and evaluated. Physical therapy according to Schroth and Vojta therapy are at present the most common and effective methods in the physical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. These methods can be applied during inpatient or outpatient treatment or intensified in the practice of specialized therapists. As there are only a few scientific studies on this subject, the author's findings are based mainly on his own experiences of the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Athough these experiences are the results of over 15 years of working in the field of therapy, and the Schroth method in combination with corrective bracing presents highly promising results, it would nevertheless be desirable to conduct detailed scientific studies to verify the effectiveness of conservative treatment.
Albayrak, Akif; Buyuk, Abdul Fettah; Ucpunar, Hanifi; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Kargin, Deniz; Kaygusuz, Mehmet Akif
Clinical study with pre- and postoperative back photographs and postoperative Scoliosis Research Society-22 survey in patients who had undergone surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the effect of showing patients their photographs before and after surgery for idiopathic scoliosis on postoperative patient satisfaction. After scoliosis surgery, patient satisfaction may be limited because the patients cannot directly see their back and may forget the preoperative appearance. In 60 patients who had undergone surgery for correction of idiopathic scoliosis (Lenke type 1), pre- and postoperative photographs were taken from the anterior, posterior, and right and left lateral views. After surgery, patients in group 1 (30 patients) were shown the preoperative and most recent follow-up photographs, and patients in group 2 (30 patients) had routine evaluation but were not shown their photographs. All patients completed the Scoliosis Research Society-22 survey. Patients in both groups had similar age, sex, distribution of Lenke type and Risser sign, follow-up, and pre- and postoperative Cobb angles and balance (coronal and sagittal). A significant difference was observed between the groups for survey question 10 (which was about self-image), question 18 (which was about function and activity), and question 21 (which was about satisfaction) (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences between patients in groups 1 and 2 in Scoliosis Research Society-22 domain or total scores. By showing patients the pre- and postoperative clinical photographs, patient satisfaction may be greater, as measured with some SRS-22 scores. This method may enable clinicians to positively change the patients' self-image perception after surgery for correction of scoliosis. 4.
A study of 204 patients operated on for idiopathic scoliosis by the Harrington method between 1970 and 1975 found that patients were content with their lives, tended to form families later in life, and had fewer sexual relationships. The patients felt their illness had mostly influenced their participation in work and in physical activities.…
Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Karlsson, Magnus; Ohlin, Acke; Gerdhem, Paul
To study family history in relation to curve severity, gender, age at diagnosis and treatment in idiopathic scoliosis. A self-assessment questionnaire on family history of scoliosis was administered to 1,463 untreated, brace or surgically treated idiopathic scoliosis patients. Out of the 1,463 patients, 51 % had one or more relatives with scoliosis. There was no significant difference between females and males, nor between juvenile and adolescent study participants in this respect (p = 0.939 and 0.110, respectively). There was a significant difference in maximum curve size between patients with one or more relatives with scoliosis (median 35°, interquartile range 25) and patients without any relative with scoliosis (median 32°, interquartile range 23) (p = 0.022). When stratifying patients according to treatment (observation, brace treatment or surgery), we found that it was more common to have a relative with scoliosis among the treated patients (p = 0.011). The OR for being treated was 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) when the patient had a relative with scoliosis, compared to not having. Larger curve sizes were found in patients with a family history of scoliosis than in the ones without. No relation between family history and gender or between family history and age at onset of idiopathic scoliosis was found. Although the presence of a family history of scoliosis may not be a strong prognostic risk factor, it indicates that these patients are at higher risk of developing a more severe curve.
Hashimoto, Hideki; Sase, Takeshi; Arai, Yasuhisa; Maruyama, Toru; Isobe, Keijirou; Shouno, Yasuhiro
A cross-sectional observational study to determine the response distribution, internal consistency, and construct, concurrent, and discriminative validities of The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) Patient Questionnaire translated into Japanese as compared with the other language versions. To validate the Japanese version of SRS22. The SRS-22 was translated into several languages but yet not into Japanese. The Japanese SRS-22 and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 were simultaneously administered to 114 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure, though several items were not loaded as theoretically expected. The originally constructed Japanese SRS-22 subscales and the English version showed similar response distribution. Internal consistency was fair but lower than that of the English version. The concurrent validity of the translated version, except for the self-image subscale, was supported using Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 subscales as a reference. The function scale differed significantly by curve angle magnitude and treatment status. The self-image score was the highest in patients under observation when curve angle was < 40 degrees, while postsurgical patients marked the highest scores when the angle > or = 40 degrees, respectively. The Japanese SRS-22 is valid and may be useful for clinical evaluation of Japanese scoliosis patients, though the self-image subscale may need further assessment.
Di Felice, Francesca; Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Negrini, Stefano
The aim of the study was to provide a meta-analysis of current literature concerning the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, And Scopus databases was conducted up to November 2016. Eligible works were prospective or retrospective studies that enrolled patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, followed up without any treatment from the time of detection. A meta-analysis for proportion was performed. The following studies were grouped per diagnosis: infantile idiopathic scoliosis, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Of the 1797 citations screened, we assessed 61 full-text articles and included 13 of these (2301 participants). Three studies included infantile idiopathic scoliosis patients (347 participants), five studies included a mixed population of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (1330 participants), and five studies included adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients only (624 participants). The random pooled estimated progression rate was 49% (95% confidence interval = 1%-97%) for infantile idiopathic scoliosis, 49% in a mixed group of patients affected by juvenile idiopathic scoliosis or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (95% confidence interval = 19%-79%), and 42% in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (95% confidence interval = 11%-73%). During growth, idiopathic scoliosis tends to progress in a high percentage of cases. The progression rate varies according to the age at diagnosis, with infantile scoliosis being the most unpredictable. There are many confounders, such as age, Risser sign and baseline Cobb angles that were not consistent among studies, making the data very heterogeneous.
Noll, Christine; Steitz, Vanessa; Daentzer, Dorothea
Proprioceptive insoles are known to influence the functions of posture and gait by modulations of the sensory structures at the sole of the foot. Literature has shown that they could improve the position of the upper-body in patients with postural complaints of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of proprioceptive insoles on the spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis. Eighteen patients were included in this prospective, single-centre, randomized study. All patients needed to have a relevant growth potential and suffered from a slight idiopathic scoliosis. Two groups were used, where group 1 performed physiotherapy twice a week, whereas group 2 was additionally supplied with proprioceptive insoles. Patients underwent three-dimensional rasterstereography for back-shape analysis. Furthermore, a conventional x-ray imaging of the spine was performed at the beginning and 1 year later to document the curvatures. There was no statistical difference in the Cobb angles, and in almost all parameters of the rasterstereography, there was no statistically significant change between and within both groups. According to the results of this study, there was no evidence of any statistical significant effect of proprioceptive insoles on spinal curvature in patients with slight idiopathic scoliosis.
Lo, Yi-Fang; Huang, Yu-Chu
Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering. Scoliosis may be treated either conservatively or surgically, based on the severity of the disease. Bracing is the most widely adopted method of conservative treatment. However, the main goal of bracing is to inhibit the progression of the spinal curvature rather than to cure scoliosis. The clinical effectiveness of bracing in Taiwan has often been underutilized as a result of financial or other factors such as the availability of the treatment. The purpose of the present review is to clarify the effectiveness of bracing for AIS by elucidating the pathophysiology of scoliosis and examining the recent clinical evidence. The importance of preventative care and the unique contribution of nursing care to treatment has to date been under-recognized. The positive support that nurses provide to the families of the patients during the early phases of treatment as well as to the patients themselves, including helping them exercise appropriately and wear the brace correctly, is an essential component of effective treatment. Learning how to work with and to adapt to the brace being part of the body is an important part of the treatment as well as a way to avoid pain. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate this learning process and, overall, to provide health education.
Shin, John I; Phan, Kevin; Kothari, Parth; Kim, Jun S; Guzman, Javier Z; Cho, Samuel K
This is a retrospective analysis of administrative database. To elucidate the effect of glycemic control on surgical outcomes of middle-aged and elderly idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a condition thought to adversely affect outcomes of spine surgery. However, no study has stratified glycemic control levels and their impact on outcome for idiopathic scoliosis patients receiving a spinal fusion surgery. Previous studies may have reported higher than true rates of complications for controlled diabetic patients, who are the majority of diabetic patients. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried from years 2002 to 2011. We extracted idiopathic scoliosis patients older than 45 years of age that received spinal fusion and analyzed complications and outcomes variables among 3 cohorts: nondiabetic patients, controlled diabetics, and uncontrolled diabetics. Multivariate analyses were used to assess whether glycemic control was a risk factor for adverse postoperative outcomes. Controlled diabetics had significantly increased rates of acute renal failure (ARF), while uncontrolled diabetics had significantly increased rates of acute postoperative hemorrhage. In multivariate analyses controlling for patient factors and comorbidities, controlled DM was found to be an independent predictor of ARF [odds ratio (OR), 1.863; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.346-2.579; P=0.0002), and uncontrolled DM was found to be a significant risk factor for acute postoperative hemorrhage (OR, 2.182; 95% CI, 1.192-3.997; P=0.0115), ARF (OR, 4.839; 95% CI, 1.748-13.392; P=0.0024), deep vein thrombosis (OR, 5.825; 95% CI, 1.329-25.522, P=0.0194) and in-patient mortality (OR, 8.889; 95% CI, 1.001-78.945; P=0.0499). Controlled DM was found to be a risk factor for ARF in adult idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery, while uncontrolled DM was shown to be a risk factor for postoperative hemorrhage, ARF, deep vein
Ghandehari, Hasan; Mahabadi, Maryam Ameri; Mahdavi, Seyed Mani; Shahsavaripour, Ali; Seyed Tari, Hossein Vahid; Safdari, Farshad
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) may lead to physical and mental problems. It also can adversely affect patient satisfaction and the quality of life. In this study, we assessed the outcomes and satisfaction rate after surgical treatment of AIS using scoliosis research society-30 questionnaire (SRS-30). We enrolled 135 patients with AIS undergoing corrective surgery. Patients were followed for at least 2 years. We compared pre- and post-operative x-rays in terms of Cobb's angles and coronal balance. At the last visit, patients completed the SRS-30 questionnaire. We then assessed the correlation between radiographic measures, SRS-30 total score, and patient satisfaction. Cobb's angle and coronal balance improved significantly after surgery (P<0.001). The scores of functional activity, pain, self-image/cosmesis, mental health, and satisfaction were 27±4.3, 26±2.5, 33±5.2, 23±3.5, and 13±1.8, respectively. The total SRS-30 score was 127±13. Radiographic measures showed significant positive correlation with satisfaction and SRS-30 total scores. There was also a positive correlation between satisfaction and self-image/cosmesis domain scores. The greater the radiographic angles were corrected the higher the SRS-30 total score and patient satisfaction were. It is intuitive that the appearance and cosmesis is of most important factor associated with patient satisfaction.
Gomez, Jaime A; Hresko, M Timothy; Glotzbecker, Michael P
Pediatric patient visits for spinal deformity are common. Most of these visits are for nonsurgical management of scoliosis, with approximately 600,000 visits for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) annually. Appropriate management of scoliotic curves that do not meet surgical indication parameters is essential. Renewed enthusiasm for nonsurgical management of AIS (eg, bracing, physical therapy) exists in part because of the results of the Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial, which is the only randomized controlled trial available on the use of bracing for AIS. Bracing is appropriate for idiopathic curves between 20° and 40°, with successful control of these curves reported in >70% of patients. Patient adherence to the prescribed duration of wear is essential to maximize the effectiveness of the brace. The choice of brace type must be individualized according to the deformity and the patient's personality as well as the practice setting and brace availability.
Parent, Eric C; Dang, Rohan; Hill, Doug; Mahood, Jim; Moreau, Marc; Raso, Jim; Lou, Edmond
Cross-sectional measurement study. To analyze the score distribution of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire domains and items for patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) of all ages. Scoliosis-related quality-of-life questionnaires have demonstrated high ceiling effects in younger patients. However, the score distribution has not been examined thoroughly in other clinically relevant IS subgroups. The SRS-22 was completed by 173 females with IS. The proportions of ceiling effects, floor effects, of patients scoring greater than or equal to 4 out of 5 and the box plots of the score distribution for each domain and item were compared between subgroups. Subgroups were formed based on age (k = 4), management (k = 6), curve severity (k = 3), and curve type (k = 4). Domain ceiling effects varied between 0% and 23.1%. Domain floor effects were observed only for Self-image (<7%) and Satisfaction (<12%). Only Pain and Satisfaction showed moderate (>20%) ceiling effects. Ceiling effects for Pain and Mental Health decreased with increasing age (P < 0.05). Pain ceiling effects decreased and Satisfaction ceiling effects increased from least to most invasive management (P < 0.05), but no differences were found among Cobb severity or curve types subgroups. Of the 22 items, 9 had major (>or=50%) ceiling effects and 11 had moderate ceiling effects. Most subgroups (14/16) had 4 to 6 items with major ceiling effects. The following items had major ceiling effects in the majority of subgroups: Function, 9 and 15; Pain, 11 and 17; and Self-image, 14. Most SRS-22 domains had acceptable levels of ceiling effects (<20%) in the majority of the subgroups examined. However, more sensitive measurements may be needed to supplement the SRS-22 in assessing Pain in patients below 18 years or Satisfaction after surgery.
Tripi, Paul A; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Potzman, Jennifer; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Thompson, George H
A retrospective study of postoperative pain management with intrathecal morphine. Identify the dosing regimen of intrathecal morphine that safely and effectively provides postoperative analgesia with minimal complications in patients with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) and segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI). Postoperative pain after surgery for idiopathic scoliosis is a concern. Intrathecal morphine has been used to decrease pain. However, the most appropriate dose has not been determined. We retrospectively analyzed 407 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent PSF and SSI at our institution from 1992 through 2006. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the intrathecal morphine dose: no dose (n = 68); moderate dose of 9 to 19 microg/kg, mean 14 microg/kg (n = 293); and high dose of 20 microg/kg or greater, mean 24 microg/kg (n = 46). Data included demographics, Wong-Baker visual analog scale postoperative pain scores, postoperative intravenous morphine requirements, time to first rescue dose of intravenous morphine, and postoperative complications of pruritus, nausea/vomiting, respiratory depression, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. The demographics of the 3 study groups showed no statistical differences. The mean Wong-Baker visual analog scale pain score in the post anesthesia care unit was 5.2, 0.5, and 0.2, and the mean time to first morphine rescue was 6.6, 16.7, and 22.9 hours, respectively. In the first 48 postoperative hours, respiratory depression occurred in 1 (1.5%), 8 (2.7%), and 7 (15.2%) patients, whereas PICU admission occurred in 0 (0%), 6 (2%), and 8 (17.4%) patients, respectively. The majority of PICU admissions were the result of respiratory depression. Frequency of pruritus and nausea/vomiting was similar in all 3 groups. Intrathecal morphine in the moderate dose range of 9 to 19 microg/kg (mean 14 microg/kg), provides safe and effective postoperative analgesia in the
Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Akgül, Turgut; Çolak, Ilker; Dereli, Elif Elçin; Chodza, Mehmet; Dikici, Fatih
Quality of life and cosmethic appearance have gained importance as outcomes in AIS treatment. Improving aesthetic appearance and quality of life are defined as the primary aims of scoliosis treatment by health professionals. Studies that assess and compare the different treatment results in the field of quality of life and cosmethics are some what limited. A cross-sectional study was designed to compare quality of life and deformity perception in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) received conservative (exercise or exercise + brace) or surgical treatment. A total of 68 (58 females) patients aged 10-18 years with AIS received conservative (exercise or exercise+brace) or surgical treatment were invited to participate in the study. Quality of life (Scoliosis Research Society-23 (SRS-23)) and perception of deformity (Walter Reed Visual Assessment (WRVAS)) were assessed. Conservatively treated patients had significantly superior scores in function domain of SRS-23 than surgically treated patients (exercise/surgery, exercise+brace/surgery; p= 0.009, 0.004). Otherwise, surgically treated patients had significantly superior scores in self-image (p= 0.000, 0.000), and satisfaction with management (p= 0.001, 0.006) domains of SRS-23, and WRVAS (p= 0.000, 0.000) than conservative groups. In addition to radiographic assessments, quality of life, aesthetic perception, functionality, satisfaction with management, psycho-social status should carefully be taken into consideration by health professionals in the teratment of AIS.
Progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) produces specific signs and symptoms, including trunk and spinal deformity and imbalance, impairment of breathing function, pain, progression during adult life, and psychological problems, as a whole resulting in an alteration of the health-related quality of life. A scoliosis-specific rehabilitation program attempts to prevent, improve, or minimize these signs and symptoms by using exercises and braces as the main tools in the rehabilitation treatment. Patient evaluation is an essential point in the decision-making process and determines the selection of the specific exercises and the specifications of the brace design. However, this article is not addressed to scoliosis management. In this present article, a complete definition and discussion of radiological aspects, such as the Cobb angle, axial rotation, curve pattern classifications, and sagittal configuration, follow a short description of the three-dimensional nature of AIS. The relationship between AIS and growth is also discussed. There is also a section dedicated to the assessment of trunk deformity and back asymmetry. Other important clinical aspects, such as pain and disability, changes in other regions of the body, muscular balance, breathing function, and health-related quality of life, are not discussed in this present article.
Chen, Antonia F; Bi, Wenzhu; Singhabahu, Dilrukshika; Londino, Joanne; Hohl, Justin; Ward, Maeve; Ward, W Timothy
Prospective questionnaire administration study. To assess the ability to translate total and domain scores from Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-24 to SRS-22r in a surgical-range, medical/interventional adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patient population. Conversion of SRS-24 to SRS-22r is demonstrated in an operative cohort of patients with AIS, but not in a medical/interventional patient population. We simultaneously administered SRS-24 and SRS-22r questionnaires to 75 surgical-range, medical/interventional AIS patients and compared them. We performed analysis by regression modeling to produce conversion equations from SRS-24 to SRS-22r. The total SRS-24 score for these medical/interventional AIS patients was 92.5 ± 9.45 (mean, 3.9 ± 0.39), and the total SRS-22r score was 93.5 ± 9.63 (mean, 4.3 ± 0.44). The correlation between these 2 groups was fair (R 2 = 0.77) and improved to good when mental health or recall questions were removed. The correlation was also fair for total pain domains (R 2 = 0.73). However, there was poor correlation for general self-image (R 2 = 0.6) and unacceptable for post-treatment self-image (R 2 = 0.01), general function (R 2 = 0.52), activity function (R 2 = 0.56), and satisfaction (R 2 = 0.53). Compared with a published population of operative AIS patients, R 2 values for total SRS-24 scores, pain, general self-image, activity function, and satisfaction were similar (p > .05). The R 2 values for general function and combined general and activity function were significantly different between the operative and medical/interventional cohorts. Scoliosis Research Society-24 can be converted to SRS-22r scores with fair accuracy in the surgical-range, medical/interventional AIS patient population for total score, and total pain domains. The SRS-24 translates unacceptably to the SRS-22r in self-image, function, and satisfaction domains. The SRS-24 to SRS-22r conversion equations are similar to operative AIS patients, except for the
Park, Yang Sun; Lim, Young Tae; Koh, Kyung; Kim, Jong Moon; Kwon, Hyun Joon; Yang, Ji Seung; Shim, Jae Kun
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a prevalent orthopedic problem in children ages 10 to 16years. Although genetic, physiological and biomechanical factors are considered to contribute to the onset and progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spinal deformity and inter-leg ground reaction force asymmetry during walking in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Fourteen patients (3 males and 11 females) participated in this study. Maximum Cobb's angle, adjusted Cobb's angle, and pelvic tilt were calculated from X-ray images. Asymmetry indices between legs were also calculated from ground reaction force magnitude and time variables from their preferred speed walking. Pearson coefficients of correlation were used to investigate associations of asymmetry indices with angle variables. Asymmetry indices of ground reaction force magnitudes positively correlated with adjusted Cobb's angle and maximum Cobb's angle mainly during the peak of braking phase, average of braking phase, while asymmetry indices of ground reaction force time variables showed no significant correlation with adjusted or maximum Cobb's angle. In contrast, asymmetry indices of ground reaction force time variables positively correlated with pelvic tilt during stance phase. We concluded that the spinal deformity of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients estimated using the maximum and adjusted Cobb's angles is generally associated with greater asymmetry of ground reaction force magnitudes in walking, while the pelvic tilt is associated with the greater asymmetry of ground reaction force time variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr
Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical
Background Progressive idiopathic scoliosis can negatively influence the development and functioning of 2-3% of adolescents, with health consequences and economic costs, placing the disease in the centre of interest of the developmental medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chêneau brace in the management of idiopathic scoliosis. Methods A prospective observational study according to SOSORT and SRS recommendations comprised 79 patients (58 girls and 21 boys) with progressive idiopathic scoliosis, treated with Chêneau brace and physiotherapy, with initial Cobb angle between 20 and 45 degrees, no previous brace treatment, Risser 4 or more at the final evaluation and minimum one year follow-up after weaning the brace. Achieving 50° of Cobb angle was considered surgical recommendation. Results At follow-up 20 patients (25.3%) improved, 18 patients (22.8%) were stable, 31 patients (39.2%) progressed below 50 degrees and 10 patients (12.7%) progressed beyond 50 degrees (2 of these 10 patients progressed beyond 60 degrees). Progression concerned the younger and less skeletally mature patients. Conclusion Conservative treatment with Chêneau orthosis and physiotherapy was effective in halting scoliosis progression in 48.1% of patients. The results of this study suggest that bracing is effective in reducing the incidence of surgery in comparison with natural history. PMID:21266084
Bao, Hongda; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Feng; Zhu, Zezhang; Zhang, Wen
To investigate if the growth patterns of the spine and pelvis are consistent in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with single thoracic curves. Forty-eight thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (T-AIS) female patients and 48 healthy age-matched adolescents were recruited consecutively between December 2011 and October 2012. Radiographic parameters including height of spine (HOS), length of spine (LOS), height of thoracic spine (HOT), length of thoracic spine (LOT), height of pelvis (HOP), width of pelvis (WOP) and width of thorax (WOT) were measured on the long-cassette posteroanterior standing radiographs. In addition, ratios including HOS/HOP, LOS/HOP, HOT/HOP, LOT/HOP, LOS/LOT, WOT/WOP were also calculated. Independent t-test was performed to compare the radiographic parameters and ratios between the two groups. Compared to the age-matched healthy adolescents, T-AIS patients had a significantly higher LOS and LOT (t = -2.364 and -1.495, P = 0.020 and 0.043) and smaller HOS and HOT (t = 2.060 and 3.359, P = 0.042 and 0.001). Yet, all of HOP, WOP and WOT showed no significant difference between T-AIS patients and healthy adolescents. Similarly, LOS/HOP and LOT/HOP were significantly higher in T-AIS patients as may be expected with an average LOS/HOP of 2.26 ± 0.14 in normal controls.In addition, LOS/LOT in normal controls had a trend of increase with age which was different from the stable LOS/LOT in T-AIS patients, indicating an increased growth of thoracic vertebra compared to lumbar vertebra. Compared to the age-matched healthy adolescents, T-AIS patients have an abnormal growth characteristics with longer spine. The growth of pelvis and thorax show no significant differences between T-AIS patients and healthy adolescents.
Yoon, Sungyoung; Rhee, Min-Hyung
[Purpose] This study was performed to confirm physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. [Subject and Methods] A 15-year-old male middle school student with scoliosis. Cobb's angle, angle of rotation of the spine, and breathing pattern were measured before and after 8 weeks training. [Results] After 8 weeks training, Cobb's angle, angle of rotation of the spine, and breathing pattern were improved better. [Conclusion] These results indicate that physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises improves scoliosis curves and could provide an effective intervention and management of scoliosis.
Romano, Michele; Minozzi, Silvia; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Zaina, Fabio; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Maier-Hennes, Axel; Negrini, Stefano
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine . While AIS can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity, it is usually not symptomatic. However, in adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. The use of scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) to reduce progression of AIS and postpone or avoid other more invasive treatments is controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of SSE in adolescent patients with AIS. The following databases (up to 30 March 2011) were searched with no language limitations: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, issue 2), MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), CINHAL (from January 1982), SportDiscus (from January 1975), PsycInfo (from January 1887), PEDro (from January 1929). We screened reference lists of articles and also conducted an extensive handsearch of grey literature. Randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies with a control group comparing exercises with no treatment, other treatment, surgery, and different types of exercises. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Two studies (154 participants) were included. There is low quality evidence from one randomised controlled study that exercises as an adjunctive to other conservative treatments increase the efficacy of these treatments (thoracic curve reduced: mean difference (MD) 9.00, (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.47 to 12.53); lumbar curve reduced:MD 8.00, (95% CI 5.08 to 10.92)). There is very low quality evidence from a prospective controlled cohort study that scoliosis-specific exercises structured within an exercise programme can reduce brace prescription (risk ratio (RR) 0.24, (95% CI 0.06 to1.04) as compared to usual physiotherapy (many different kinds of general exercises according to the preferences of the single therapists within different facilities
Romano, Michele; Carabalona, Roberta; Petrilli, Silvia; Sibilla, Paolo; Negrini, Stefano
Objective To quantify and compare the forces exerted by scoliosis patients in fiberglass braces during exercises usually prescribed in departments where casts are made. The exercises are intended to increase corrective forces, activate muscles, stimulate ventilation and help the patient psychologically. Setting Outpatient care. Patients 17 consecutive adolescent patients wearing fiberglass brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Interventions Exercises (kyphotization, rotation, "escape from the pad") in different positions (sitting, supine, on all fours). Main outcome measure Pressure detected by the F-Socket System between the rib hump and the pad of the brace. Results In static and dynamic conditions, the position adopted did not alter the total pressure exerted by the brace, although the part of the sensor stimulated did vary. Kyphotization and rotation exercises produced a significant increase of pressure (+ 58.9% and +29.8%, respectively); however, the "escape from the pad" exercise, despite its name, did not produce any significant variation of pressure. Conclusion Exercises in the brace allow adjunctive forces to be applied on soft tissues and through them, presumably on the spine. Different exercises can be chosen to obtain different actions. Physical exercises and sporting activities are useful in mechanical terms, although other important actions should not be overlooked. PMID:16859544
Pino-Almero, Laura; Mínguez-Rey, María Fe; Sentamans-Segarra, Salvador; Salvador-Palmer, María Rosario; Anda, Rosa María Cibrián-Ortiz de; La O, Javier López-de
Idiopathic scoliosis requires a close follow-up while the patient is skeletally immature to detect early progression. Patients who are monitored by radiographs are exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if an optic noninvasive method of back surface topography based on structured light would be clinically useful in the follow-up of young patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This could reduce the number of radiographs made on these children. Thirty-one patients with idiopathic scoliosis were submitted twice to radiograph and our topographic method at intervals of 6 months to 1 year. Three topographical variables were applied horizontal plane deformity index (DHOPI), posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI), and columnar profile (PC). A statistically significant correlation was found between variations of Cobb angle with DHOPI (r=0.720, p<0.01) and POTSI (r=0.753, p<0.01) during the monitoring period. Hence, this topographic method could be useful in clinical practice as an objective adjuvant tool in routine follow-up of scoliosis.
LeBlanc, R; Labelle, H; Rivard, C H; Poitras, B
A prospective and controlled comparative study. To verify the difference in morphologic appearance between a group of adolescents with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and a control group of normal adolescents. In a previous retrospective study, the possibility of a relation between progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and specific morphotypes was demonstrated. Fifty-two adolescent girls with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were compared with an age-matched control group of 62 unaffected girls using a classification technique based on morphologic somatotypes. Morphotypes were evaluated with standardized pre-established criteria based on Sheldon's technique. Patients with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis showed significantly less mesomorphism (mean value of 0.88 +/- 0.51) than control girls (mean value of 1.72 +/- 0.52). Adolescent girls with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have a morphologic somatotype that is different from the normal adolescent population. Subjects with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are significantly less mesomorphic than control girls. This observation may be of value as a predictive factor for early identification of subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis at greater risk of progression.
Bettany-Saltikov, J; Parent, E; Romano, M; Villagrasa, M; Negrini, S
The use of exercises for the treatment of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis is controversial. Whilst exercises are routinely used in a number of central and southern European countries, most centres in the rest of the world (mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries), do not advocate its use. One of the reasons for this is that many health care professionals are usually not conversant with the differences between generalised physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE): while the former are generic exercises usually consisting of low-impact stretching and strengthening activities like yoga, Pilates and the Alexander technique, PSSE consist of a program of curve-specific exercise protocols which are individually adapted to a patients' curve site, magnitude and clinical characteristics. PSSEs are performed with the therapeutic aim of reducing the deformity and preventing its progression. It also aims to stabilise the improvements achieved with the ultimate goal of limiting the need for corrective braces or the necessity of surgery. This paper introduces the different 'Schools' and approaches of PSSE currently practiced (Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis - SEAS, Schroth, Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School - BSPTS, Dobomed, Side Shift, Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis - FITS and Lyon) and discusses their commonalities and differences.
Watanabe, Kei; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Uchiyama, Seiji; Endo, Naoto
This study clarifies the correlation between the components of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-24) and the radiographic parameters after surgery in Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients. To investigate the correlation between the magnitude of back deformity after scoliosis surgery and the components of the SRS-24. Patient outcomes for Japanese scoliosis patients using the SRS-24 have not been fully investigated. Idiopathic scoliosis patients (n = 81) who were treated with surgery and followed up for more than 2 years were evaluated. Radiographic examination included Cobb angle, rotation angle of apical vertebrae, and translation of the C7 vertebra from the center sacral line on the coronal plane. In addition, the score of one new question regarding postoperative scar was investigated and compared with that of the individual SRS-24 domains. A comparison of the SRS-24 and radiographic results revealed a significant inverse correlation between total pain and the postoperative correction of the rotation angle in the thoracic curve (rs = 0.27; P < 0.05). General self-image was inversely correlated with the Cobb angle (rs = -0.23; P < 0.05) and the rotation angle (rs = -0.30; P < 0.01) in the thoracic curve. Self-image after surgery was positively correlated with the correction degree of the thoracic Cobb angle (rs = 0.27; P < 0.05); 60% of patients had some concerns regarding postoperative scar, and the concerned patients demonstrated significantly lower scores in the pain and general self-image domains (P < 0.05) than the unconcerned patients did. Patients with a greater Cobb angle or rotation angle in the thoracic curve had a negative self-image. Self-image improved after surgery by greater correction of the thoracic Cobb angle. Thoracic scoliotic deformity with prominence should be substantially reduced by the surgical treatment to improve satisfaction rates and self-image regarding back appearance. Additionally, physicians should pay more
Watanabe, Kei; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Endo, Naoto; Cheh, Gene; Kim, Yongjung J; Hensley, Marsha; Stobbs, Georgia; Koester, Linda
A comparative study. To report a preliminary evaluation of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-24) and determine whether differences in baseline scores exist between American and Japanese patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Because the SRS outcomes instrument was primarily introduced for the American population, baseline scores in the Japanese population might differ from the American population. A comparative study using the SRS instrument between American and Japanese patients with idiopathic scoliosis has not been reported. Two comparable groups of 100 idiopathic scoliosis patients before spinal fusion were separated into American (A) and Japanese (J). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for gender (A: 9 men/91 women vs. J: 13 men/87 women), age (A: 15.0 +/- 2.4 vs. J: 14.9 +/- 3.8), main curve location (A: 77 thoracic/23 lumbar, J: 76 thoracic/24 lumbar), main curve Cobb angle (A: 50.5 +/- 5.2 vs. J: 51.1 +/- 8.7), and thoracic kyphosis (A: 20.9 +/- 14.3 vs. J: 19.9 +/- 12.1) (P > 0.05, for all comparisons). Patients were evaluated using the first section of the SRS-24 which was divided into 4 domains: total pain, general self-image, general function, and activity. SRS-24 scores were statistical compared in individual domains and questions using the Mann-Whitney U test. American patients had significantly lower scores in pain (P < 0.0001, A: 3.7 +/- 0.8 vs. J: 4.3 +/- 0.4), function (P < 0.01, A: 3.9 +/- 0.6 vs. J: 4.2 +/- 0.5), and activity (P < 0.0001, A: 4.5 +/- 0.8 vs. J: 4.9 +/- 0.3) domains compared with Japanese patients. Japanese patients had significantly lower scores in the self-image (P < 0.0001, A: 4.0 +/- 0.7 vs. J: 3.5 +/- 0.5) domain. With regard to individual questions, there were significant differences in the scores between the 2 groups for all questions except 5 and 13 (P < 0.05, for all comparisons). SRS-24 scores in the Japanese idiopathic scoliosis population differed from that of the
Use of the scoliosis research society outcomes instrument to evaluate patient outcome in untreated idiopathic scoliosis patients in Japan: part II: relation between spinal deformity and patient outcomes.
Watanabe, Kei; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Uchiyama, Seiji; Endo, Naoto
This study clarifies the relation between the results of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-24) and radiographic parameters of back deformity in Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients. To investigate the relation between magnitude of back deformity and results of the SRS-24 in untreated patients. In idiopathic scoliosis, it is necessary to clarify the relation between patient-perceived outcomes of the deformity and magnitude of back deformity before considering treatment. The relation between the magnitude of spinal deformity and outcomes of untreated patients, however, has not been fully investigated. Patients (n = 166) under 30 years of age with untreated scoliosis were evaluated. Radiologic examination included Cobb angle, rotation angle of apical vertebrae, and translation of C7 vertebra from the central sacral line (C7 translation) on the coronal plane. Patient evaluation using section 1 (15 questions) of the SRS-24 was compared with radiologic findings using Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank (rs). The average pain domain score was 27.0 +/- 2.2 points, general self-image 9.9 +/- 1.7 points, general function 12.7 +/- 1.1 points, and overall level of activity 14.9 +/- 0.6 points. In radiologic deformity, the average Cobb angle and rotation angle of the thoracic curve were 35.8 degrees +/- 12.1 degrees (range, 17 degrees-73 degrees) and 13.9 degrees +/- 8.2 degrees (range, 0 degrees-38 degrees), respectively. The average Cobb and rotation angle of the lumbar curve were 31.4 degrees +/- 9.3 degrees (range, 13 degrees-56 degrees) and 15.4 degrees +/- 9.7 degrees (range, 2 degrees-36 degrees), respectively. The mean C7 translation was 12.4 +/- 9.7 mm (range, 0-48 mm). Comparison between individual domains and radiologic measurements revealed that the total pain (rs = -0.33; P < 0.0001) and general self-image (rs = -0.25; P = 0.0024) domain scores had a significant inverse correlation with thoracic curve Cobb angle. Comparison between
Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna
A cross-sectional analysis of parents' and patients' perceptions of deformity- and brace-related stress regarding conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between patients' and parents' assessments of emotional stress and to compare these assessments with radiographical measurements of spinal deformity. Conservative treatment in patients with scoliosis may cause emotional stress. To our knowledge, no group has ever reported patient and parental estimation of stress related to wearing a brace and spinal deformity in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Sixty-three pairs of parents and girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace were separately asked to complete the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity and the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace. The age range of the patients was from 10 to 17 years. Patients were assessed at a mean of 14.12 (SD, 10.99) months after the start of the conservative treatment. Patients thought that a moderate level of stress was connected with conservative treatment; however, the stress level, related to perceived trunk deformation, was low. From the parents' perspective, patients experienced a moderate level of stress during conservative treatment and related to spinal deformity. The study groups differ in their perception of stress levels due to body disfigurement but not during the conservative treatment. Parent-patient stress-level disparities were not related to body mass index, age of the patient, brace application, and radiographical measurements of spinal deformity. Patients and parents perceive the emotional stress related to brace treatment in the same way; however, parents overestimate the assessment of stress levels related to body deformity. From the perspective of patients and parents, brace wearing increased the level of stress induced by the deformity alone. Complete assessment of conservative
Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Abu Shaphe, Md.; Anwar, Dilshad
Objectives. This systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of exercise on spinal deformities and quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Data Sources. Electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, PEDro, and Web of Science, were searched for research articles published from the earliest available dates up to May 31, 2015, using the key words “exercise,” “postural correction,” “posture,” “postural curve,” “Cobb's angle,” “quality of life,” and “spinal deformities,” combined with the Medical Subject Heading “scoliosis.” Study Selection. This systematic review was restricted to randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials on AIS published in English language. The quality of selected studies was assessed by the PEDro scale, the Cochrane Collaboration's tool, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation System (GRADE). Data Extraction. Descriptive data were collected from each study. The outcome measures of interest were Cobb angle, trunk rotation, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar kyphosis, vertebral rotation, and quality of life. Data Synthesis. A total of 30 studies were assessed for eligibility. Six of the 9 selected studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis revealed moderate-quality evidence that exercise interventions reduce the Cobb angle, angle of trunk rotation, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis and low-quality evidence that exercise interventions reduce average lateral deviation. Meta-analysis revealed moderate-quality evidence that exercise interventions improve the quality of life. Conclusions. A supervised exercise program was superior to controls in reducing spinal deformities and improving the quality of life in patients with AIS. PMID:26583083
Cuddihy, Laury; Danielsson, Aina J.; Cahill, Patrick J.; Samdani, Amer F.; Grewal, Harsh; Richmond, John M.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Gaughan, John P.; Antonacci, M. Darryl; Betz, Randal R.
Purpose. We report a comparison study of vertebral body stapling (VBS) versus a matched bracing cohort for immature patients with moderate (25 to 44°) idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Methods. 42 of 49 consecutive patients (86%) with IS were treated with VBS and followed for a minimum of 2 years. They were compared to 121 braced patients meeting identical inclusion criteria. 52 patients (66 curves) were matched according to age at start of treatment (10.6 years versus 11.1 years, resp. [P = 0.07]) and gender. Results. For thoracic curves 25–34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression <10°) of 81% versus 61% for bracing (P = 0.16). In thoracic curves 35–44°, VBS and bracing both had a poor success rate. For lumbar curves, success rates were similar in both groups for curves measuring 25–34°. Conclusion. In this comparison of two cohorts of patients with high-risk (Risser 0-1) moderate IS (25–44°), in smaller thoracic curves (25–34°) VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25–34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success. PMID:26618169
Shan, Le-Qun; Skaggs, David L; Lee, Christopher; Kissinger, Catherine; Myung, Karen S
Patients undergoing posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were admitted to the intensive care unit until two years ago, at which time we changed our protocol to admit these patients to the general hospital floor following a brief stay in a postanesthesia care unit. This study compared postoperative management on a hospital floor with that in the intensive care unit for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion. A retrospective review of 124 consecutive patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with spinal fusion from August 2007 to August 2010 was performed. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery. Of 124 patients, sixty-six were managed postoperatively in the intensive care unit and fifty-eight, on the hospital floor. The mean age at the time of surgery was fourteen years. A mean of eleven vertebral levels (range, six to fifteen levels) were fused. No significant difference between the groups was found with respect to the mean age at the time of surgery, mean weight, mean preoperative and postoperative Cobb angles, and mean number of levels fused (p ≥ 0.12). However, the use of analgesic and antianxiety medication, number of postoperative blood tests, days of hospital stay, and number of physical therapy sessions were significantly decreased in the floor group compared with the intensive care unit group (p ≤ 0.05). No patient from the floor group had to be admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean charge was $33,121 for the floor group and $39,252 for the intensive care unit group (p < 0.001). Initial postoperative management of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis following a posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery on a general hospital floor, rather than in an intensive care unit, was associated with a shorter hospital stay, fewer blood tests, less
Théroux, Jean; Le May, Sylvie; Fortin, Carole; Labelle, Hubert
BACKGROUND: Back pain (BP) has often been associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), which is a three-dimensional deviation of the vertebral column. In adolescents, chronic pain appears to be a predictor of health care utilization and has a negative impact on physical, psychological and family well-being. In this population, BP tends to be persistent and may be a predictor of BP in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence and management of BP in AIS patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of AIS patients who were referred to Sainte-Justine University Teaching Hospital (Montreal, Quebec) from 2006 to 2011 was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 310 randomly selected charts were reviewed. Nearly one-half of the patients (47.3%) mentioned that they experienced BP, most commonly in the lumbar (19.7%) and thoracic regions (7.7%). The type of BP was documented in only 36% (n=112) of the charts. Pain intensity was specified in only 21% (n=65) of the charts. In approximately 80% (n=248) of the charts, no pain management treatment plan was documented. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of BP was moderately high among the present sample of adolescents with AIS. An improved system for documenting BP assessment, type, treatment plan and treatment effectiveness would improve pain management for these patients. PMID:25831076
Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S
In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Tabard-Fougère, Anne; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Hanquinet, Sylviane; Lascombes, Pierre; Armand, Stéphane; Dayer, Romain
Test-retest study. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of rasterstereography in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with a major curve Cobb angle (CA) between 10° and 40° for frontal, sagittal, and transverse parameters. Previous studies evaluating the validity and reliability of rasterstereography concluded that this technique had good accuracy compared with radiographs and a high intra- and interday reliability in healthy volunteers. To the best of our knowledge, the validity and reliability have not been assessed in AIS patients. Thirty-five adolescents with AIS (male = 13) aged 13.1 ± 2.0 years were included. To evaluate the validity of the scoliosis angle (SA) provided by rasterstereography, a comparison (t test, Pearson correlation) was performed with the CA obtained using 2D EOS® radiography (XR). Three rasterstereographic repeated measurements were independently performed by two operators on the same day (interrater reliability) and again by the first operator 1 week later (intrarater reliability). The variables of interest were the SA, lumbar lordosis, and thoracic kyphosis angle, trunk length, pelvic obliquity, and maximum, root mean square and amplitude of vertebral rotations. The data analyses used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The CA and SA were strongly correlated (R = 0.70) and were nonsignificantly different (P = 0.60). The intrarater reliability (same day: ICC [1, 1], n = 35; 1 week later: ICC [1, 3], n = 28) and interrater reliability (ICC [3, 3], n = 16) were globally excellent (ICC > 0.75) except for the assessment of pelvic obliquity. This study showed that the rasterstereographic system allows for the evaluation of AIS patients with a good validity compared with XR with an overall excellent intra- and interrater reliability. Based on these results, this automatic, fast, and noninvasive system can be used for monitoring the evolution of AIS in growing
Use of the scoliosis research society outcomes instrument to evaluate patient outcome in untreated idiopathic scoliosis patients in Japan: part I: comparison with nonscoliosis group: preliminary/limited review in a Japanese population.
Watanabe, Kei; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Uchiyama, Seiji; Endo, Naoto
This preliminary study evaluates untreated Japanese patients with idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-24). To determine the baseline patient outcome score using the SRS-24 for untreated Japanese scoliosis patients compared with a nonscoliosis group. The SRS instrument with 24 questions was developed to help evaluate patient-perceived outcomes of idiopathic scoliosis treatment. Evaluation of untreated Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients using the SRS instrument has not been reported. Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients (n = 141) (mean age, 13.6 years; range, 10-17 years) with a Cobb angle of more than 20 degrees who were not treated with a brace or surgery, were evaluated in comparison with a nonscoliosis group (healthy junior high school students; n = 72) using the SRS-24. The scoliosis group was categorized as mild deformity group with a major curve Cobb angle of less than 30 degrees, moderate deformity group with 30 degrees to 49 degrees, and severe deformity group with more than 50 degrees. The patients were evaluated using section 1 (15 questions) of the SRS-24, which was divided into four domains: total pain, general self-image, general function, and activity. Reliability, as determined by internal consistency, was validated using Cronbach's alpha for these domain scales. The severe deformity group had the lowest scores compared with the other deformity groups and the nonscoliosis group in pain (P < 0.0001) and self-image (P < 0.05) domains. The scores for questions 3 (P < 0.0001) and 5 (P < 0.0001), evaluation of self-image of back appearance, were significantly lower in the scoliosis group than those in the nonscoliosis group. This tendency was more significant in the patients with greater curve magnitude. Scores for questions 14 and 15, evaluation of general self-image, in the scoliosis group were, however, higher than those in the nonscoliosis group. Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha was 0
Yao, Guanfeng; Cheung, Jason P Y; Shigematsu, Hideki; Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Luk, Keith D K; Samartzis, Dino
A prospective radiographic analysis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients managed with alternate-level pedicle screw fixation was performed. The objective of this study was to characterize segmental curve flexibility and to determine its predictive value in curve correction in AIS patients. Little is known regarding the distinct segmental curve characteristics and their ability to predict curve correction in patients with AIS. The segmental Cobb angle was measured on posteroanterior standing radiographs and on fulcrum bending radiographs. Radiographs were analyzed preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively and the curve was divided into upper, mid, and lower segments based on predefined criteria. The segmental flexibility and the segmental fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI) were calculated. Eighty patients were included with mean age of 15 years. Preoperative mean segmental Cobb angles were 18, 31, and 17 degrees in the upper, mid, and lower segments, respectively. Segmental bending Cobb angles were 6, 13, and 4 degrees, respectively, corresponding to segmental flexibilities of 50%, 47%, and 83% in the upper, mid, and lower segments, respectively (P < 0.001). At 2-year follow up, the mean segmental FBCI were 155%, 131%, and 100% in the upper, mid, and lower segments, respectively (P < 0.001), which suggested that the lower segment of the curve was more flexible than the other segments and that higher correction was noted in the upper segments. A significant, positive correlation was noted between the segmental bending Cobb angle and the segmental FBCI (P < 0.05), whereby the strength of the correlation varied based on the curve segment. This is the first study to demonstrate the segmental variations in curve flexibility using the fulcrum bending radiograph in AIS patients. Curve flexibility is not uniform throughout the curve and different segments exhibit greater flexibility/correctibility than others. Segmental flexibility should
Qiu, Xu-Sheng; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Yang, Shang-Wen; Lv, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chiew, Jonathan; Ma, Wei-Wei; Qiu, Yong
Standing posterior–anterior (PA) radiographs from our clinical practice show that the concave and convex ilia are not always symmetrical in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Transverse pelvic rotation may explain this observation, or pelvic asymmetry may be responsible. The present study investigated pelvic symmetry by examining the volume and linear measurements of the two hipbones in patients with AIS. Forty-two female patients with AIS were recruited for the study. Standing PA radiographs (covering the thoracic and lumbar spinal regions and the entire pelvis), CT scans and 3D reconstructions of the pelvis were obtained for all subjects. The concave/convex ratio of the inferior ilium at the sacroiliac joint medially (SI) and the anterior superior iliac spine laterally (ASIS) were measured on PA radiographs. Hipbone volumes and several distortion and abduction parameters were measured by post-processing software. The concave/convex ratio of SI–ASIS on PA radiographs was 0.97, which was significantly < 1 (P < 0.001). The concave and convex hipbone volumes were comparable in patients with AIS. The hipbone volumes were 257.3 ± 43.5 cm3 and 256.9 ± 42.6 cm3 at the concave and convex sides, respectively (P > 0.05). Furthermore, all distortion and abduction parameters were comparable between the convex and concave sides. Therefore, the present study showed that there was no pelvic asymmetry in patients with AIS, although the concave/convex ratio of SI–ASIS on PA radiographs was significantly < 1. The clinical phenomenon of asymmetrical concave and convex ilia in patients with AIS in preoperative standing PA radiographs may be caused by transverse pelvic rotation, but it is not due to developmental asymmetry or distortion of the pelvis. PMID:22133294
Qiu, Xu-Sheng; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Yang, Shang-Wen; Lv, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chiew, Jonathan; Ma, Wei-Wei; Qiu, Yong
Standing posterior-anterior (PA) radiographs from our clinical practice show that the concave and convex ilia are not always symmetrical in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Transverse pelvic rotation may explain this observation, or pelvic asymmetry may be responsible. The present study investigated pelvic symmetry by examining the volume and linear measurements of the two hipbones in patients with AIS. Forty-two female patients with AIS were recruited for the study. Standing PA radiographs (covering the thoracic and lumbar spinal regions and the entire pelvis), CT scans and 3D reconstructions of the pelvis were obtained for all subjects. The concave/convex ratio of the inferior ilium at the sacroiliac joint medially (SI) and the anterior superior iliac spine laterally (ASIS) were measured on PA radiographs. Hipbone volumes and several distortion and abduction parameters were measured by post-processing software. The concave/convex ratio of SI-ASIS on PA radiographs was 0.97, which was significantly < 1 (P < 0.001). The concave and convex hipbone volumes were comparable in patients with AIS. The hipbone volumes were 257.3 ± 43.5 cm(3) and 256.9 ± 42.6 cm(3) at the concave and convex sides, respectively (P > 0.05). Furthermore, all distortion and abduction parameters were comparable between the convex and concave sides. Therefore, the present study showed that there was no pelvic asymmetry in patients with AIS, although the concave/convex ratio of SI-ASIS on PA radiographs was significantly < 1. The clinical phenomenon of asymmetrical concave and convex ilia in patients with AIS in preoperative standing PA radiographs may be caused by transverse pelvic rotation, but it is not due to developmental asymmetry or distortion of the pelvis. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society.
The following distinguish the physical examination in scoliosis: it is extensive, it is revealing, and it influences treatment. Throughout this discussion, reference frequently is made to evaluation for underlying neural disease. Idiopathic scoliosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, and a neural etiology of spinal deformity must be ruled out in every case.
Adobor, Raphael D; Joranger, Paal; Steen, Harald; Navrud, Ståle; Brox, Jens Ivar
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can progress and affect the health related quality of life of the patients. Research shows that screening is effective in early detection, which allows for bracing and reduced surgical rates, and may save costs, but is still controversial from a health economic perspective. Model based cost minimisation analysis using hospital's costs, administrative data, and market prices to estimate costs in screening, bracing and surgical treatment. Uncertainty was characterised by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Time horizon was 6 years from first screening at 11 years of age. To compare estimated costs in screening and non-screening scenarios (reduced treatment rates of 90%, 80%, 70% of screening, and non-screening Norway 2012). Data was based on screening and treatment costs in primary health care and in hospital care settings. Participants were 4000, 12-year old children screened in Norway, 115190 children screened in Hong Kong and 112 children treated for scoliosis in Norway in 2012. We assumed equivalent outcome of health related quality of life, and compared only relative costs in screening and non-screening settings. Incremental cost was defined as positive when a non-screening scenario was more expensive relative to screening. Screening per child was € 8.4 (95% CrI 6.6 to10.6), € 10350 (8690 to 12180) per patient braced, and € 45880 (39040 to 55400) per child operated. Incremental cost per child in non-screening scenario of 90% treatment rate was € 13.3 (1 to 27), increasing from € 1.3 (-8 to 11) to € 27.6 (14 to 44) as surgical rates relative to bracing increased from 40% to 80%. For the 80% treatment rate non-screening scenario, incremental cost was € 5.5 (-6 to 18) when screening all, and € 11.3 (2 to 22) when screening girls only. For the non-screening Norwegian scenario, incremental cost per child was € -0.1(-14 to 16). Bracing and surgery were the main cost drivers and contributed most to
Fortin, Carole; Grunstein, Erin; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie
Trunk imbalance (ie, frontal trunk shift measured with a plumb line from C7 to S1) is part of the clinical evaluation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but its prevalence and relationship with scoliosis, back pain, and health-related factors are not well documented. The principal objectives are to document trunk imbalance prevalence and to explore the association between trunk imbalance and the following factors: Cobb angle, type of scoliosis, back pain, function, mental health, and self-image. The secondary objective is to determine back pain prevalence and the relationship between back pain and each of the following: Cobb angle, function, mental health, and self-image. This is a cross-sectional study in a scoliosis clinic of a tertiary university hospital center. The sample includes youth with AIS (N=55). The outcome measures were trunk imbalance prevalence and magnitude, and back pain prevalence and intensity using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) pain score, and the function, self-image, and mental health domains of the SRS-22. Trunk imbalance and back pain were assessed in 55 patients with AIS (Cobb angle: 10-60°). Patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire and the NPRS. Correlations were done between trunk imbalance and scoliosis (Cobb angle, type of scoliosis), back pain (NPRS and SRS-22 pain score), and health-related factors using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and logistic regression models. Trunk imbalance prevalence is 85% and back pain prevalence is 73%. We found fair to moderate significant positive correlation between trunk imbalance and Cobb angle (r=0.32-0.66, p<.05) but not with back pain, function, mental health, self-image, or type of scoliosis. Lower self-reported pain significantly correlated with lower Cobb angles (r=0.29, p=.03), higher function (r=0.55, p=.000), higher self-image (r=0.44, p=.001), and better mental health (r=0.48, p=.000). There was a trend for trunk
Fadzan, Maja; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most common spinal deformities, yet its cause is unknown. Various theories look to biomechanical, neuromuscular, genetic, and environmental origins, yet our understanding of scoliosis etiology is still limited. Determining the cause of a disease is crucial to developing the most effective treatment. Associations made with scoliosis do not necessarily point to causality, and it is difficult to determine whether said associations are primary (playing a role in development) or secondary (develop as a result of scoliosis). Scoliosis is a complex condition with highly variable expression, even among family members, and likely has many causes. These causes could be similar among homogenous groups of AIS patients, or they could be individual. Here, we review the most prevalent theories of scoliosis etiology and recent trends in research. PMID:29399224
Zhang, Wen; Sha, Shifu; Xu, Leilei; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang
Though several studies have reported the incidence of intraspinal neural axis abnormalities in infantile and juvenile "presumed idiopathic" scoliosis, there has been a varying prevalence ranging from 11.1 to 26.0% based on a limited sample size. Therefore, such inconclusive findings have resulted in some questions on the MRI-associated role in the management of these patients. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and distribution of intraspinal anomalies in the infantile and juvenile patients with "presumed idiopathic" scoliosis and to explore the radiographic and clinical indicators with large sample size. A total of 504 infantile and juvenile patients diagnosed with "presumed idiopathic" scoliosis were examined for potentially-existing neural axis abnormalities by MRI. Patients were grouped into two cohorts according to the presence of neural axis abnormalities. Radiographic parameters including curve magnitude, curve pattern, location of apex, degree of thoracic kyphosis, and span of curve were recorded and compared between the two groups. The prevalence of the neural abnormalities between the infantile-age group and juvenile-age group was also compared. The student t test was used to evaluate the differences of continuous variables and the chi-square test was used to evaluate the difference of categorical variables. Fisher exact test was applied to detect the difference of the rate of intraspinal anomalies between the "infantile idiopathic scoliosis" and "juvenile idiopathic scoliosis" group. Involving the spinal cord, 94 patients (18.7%) were found to have a neural abnormality: Arnold-Chiari malformation alone in 43 patients, Arnold-Chiari malformation combined with syringomyelia in 18 patients, isolated syringomyelia in 13 patients, diastematomyelia in six patients, tethered cord combined with diastematomyelia in six patients, tethered cord alone in four patients, and other uncommon intraspinal abnormalities in the remaining four patients. Totally Arnold
Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Loo, Shweh Fern; Ong, Jun Yin; Lisitha, Kulathunga Arachchige; Hasan, M Shahnaz; Lee, Chee Kean; Chiu, Chee Kidd; Kwan, Mun Keong
A prospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of an accelerated recovery protocol for Asian adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF). There has been successful implementation of an accelerated recovery protocol for AIS patients undergoing PSF in the western population. No similar studies have been reported in the Asian population. Seventy-four AIS (65 F, 9 M) patients scheduled for PSF surgery were recruited. The accelerated protocol encompasses preoperative regime, preoperative day of surgery counseling, intraoperative strategies, an accelerated postoperative rehabilitation and pain management regime. All patients were operated using a dual attending surgeon strategy. Outcome measures included pain scores at five time intervals, length of stay, and detailed recovery milestones. Any complications or readmissions during the first 4 months postoperative period were recorded. Mean duration of operation was 2.2 ± 0.3 hours with a mean blood loss of 824.3 ± 418.2 mL. No patients received allogenic blood transfusion. The mean length of stay was 3.6 ± 0.6 days. Surgical wound pain score was 6.4 ± 2.1 at 12 hours, which reduced to 5.0 ± 2.0 at 60 hours. Abdominal pain peaked at 36 hours with pain scores 2.4 ± 2.9. First liquid intake was at 5.2 ± 7.5 hours, urinary catheter removal at 18.7 ± 4.8 hours, sitting up at 20.6 ± 9.1 hours, ambulation at 27.2 ± 0.5 hours, consumption of solid food at 32.2 ± 0.5 hours, first flatus at 39.0 ± 0.7 hours, and first bowel movement at 122.1 ± 2.0 hours. The complication rate was 1.4% due to superficial wound infection with one patient failed to comply with the accelerated protocol. An accelerated recovery protocol following PSF for AIS is feasible without increasing the complication or readmission rates. The total length of stay was 3.6 days and this is comparable
Responsiveness and Minimal Important Changes of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire in Subjects With Mild Adolescent and Moderate Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis Undergoing Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation.
Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Foti, Calogero; Ferrante, Simona
Single-center, prospective study. Evaluating the responsiveness and minimal important changes (MICs) for the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and adult idiopathic scoliosis (AS). Despite the SRS-22 properties have been investigated in various different languages, there is still a lack of information concerning responsiveness and MIC, limiting the use of SRS-22 for clinical and research purposes. At the beginning and end of multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, 149 subjects with mild AIS (Cobb angle <25°) and 140 subjects with moderate AS (Cobb angle <35°) completed the SRS-22. Upon completing the programs, subjects also performed the global perceived effect (GPE) scales test, which was divided to produce a dichotomous outcome (improved vs. stable). Responsiveness was calculated for all SRS-22 domains but satisfaction with management by distribution (effect size; standardized response mean) and anchor-based methods (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves; correlations between change scores of the SRS-22 and GPE). ROC curves were also used to compute the MICs. The effect size ranged from 1.23 to 1.50 in AIS and from 1.02 to 1.37 in AS. The standardized response mean ranged from 0.95 to 1.27 in AIS and from 0.66 to 0.90 in AS. The ROC analyses revealed the following MIC values (area under the curve; sensitivity; specificity): function, 0.70 (0.739;66;70) for AIS and 0.60 (0.842;84;76) for AS; pain, 0.70 (0.731;71;70) for AIS and 0.40 (0.817;81;70) for AS; mental health, 0.50 (0.708;83;58) for AIS and 0.55 (0.750;69;78) for AS; self-perceived image, 0.40 (0.609;79;42) for AIS and 0.60 (0.751;61;82) for AS. Correlations between change scores of the SRS-22 domains and GPE were low to moderate, ranging from -0.347 to -0.667. The SRS-22 was sensitive in detecting clinical changes in subjects with adolescent and adult scoliosis. We recommend taking the MICs provided into account when
Dumpa, Srikanth Reddy; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Aiyer, Siddharth N; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Rajasekaran, S
Retrospective observational study. To analyze the effect of low-density (LD) strategic pedicle screw fixation on the correction of coronal and sagittal parameters in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. LD screw fixation achieves favorable coronal correction, but its effect on sagittal parameters is not well established. AIS is often associated with decreased thoracic kyphosis (TK), and the use of multi-level pedicle screws may result in further flattening of the sagittal profile. A retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients with AIS to compare coronal and sagittal parameters preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up. All patients underwent posterior correction via LD strategic pedicle screw fixation. Radiographs were analyzed for primary Cobb angle (PCA), coronal imbalance, cervical sagittal angle (CSA), TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), C7 plumb line, spino-sacral angle, curve flexibility, and screw density. PCA changed significantly from 57.6°±13.9° to 19°±8.4° ( p <0.0001) with 67% correction, where the mean curve flexibility was 41% and screw density was 68%. Regional sagittal parameters did not change significantly, including CSA (from 10.76° to 10.56°, p =0.893), TK (from 24.4° to 22.8°, p =0.145), and LL (from 50.3° to 51.1°, p =0.415). However, subgroup analysis of the hypokyphosis group (<10°) and the hyperkyphosis group (>40°) showed significant correction of TK ( p <0.0001 in both). Sacro-pelvic parameters showed a significant decrease of PT and increase of SS, suggesting a reduction in pelvic retroversion SS (from 37° to 40°, p =0.0001) and PT (from 15° to 14°, p =0.025). LD strategic pedicle screw fixation provides favorable coronal correction and improves overall sagittal sacro-pelvic parameters. This technique does not cause significant flattening of TK and results in a favorable restoration of TK in patients with hypokyphosis or hyperkyphosis.
Dumpa, Srikanth Reddy; Aiyer, Siddharth N.; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Rajasekaran, S
Study Design Retrospective observational study. Purpose To analyze the effect of low-density (LD) strategic pedicle screw fixation on the correction of coronal and sagittal parameters in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Overview of Literature LD screw fixation achieves favorable coronal correction, but its effect on sagittal parameters is not well established. AIS is often associated with decreased thoracic kyphosis (TK), and the use of multi-level pedicle screws may result in further flattening of the sagittal profile. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients with AIS to compare coronal and sagittal parameters preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up. All patients underwent posterior correction via LD strategic pedicle screw fixation. Radiographs were analyzed for primary Cobb angle (PCA), coronal imbalance, cervical sagittal angle (CSA), TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), C7 plumb line, spino-sacral angle, curve flexibility, and screw density. Results PCA changed significantly from 57.6°±13.9° to 19°±8.4° (p <0.0001) with 67% correction, where the mean curve flexibility was 41% and screw density was 68%. Regional sagittal parameters did not change significantly, including CSA (from 10.76° to 10.56°, p =0.893), TK (from 24.4° to 22.8°, p =0.145), and LL (from 50.3° to 51.1°, p =0.415). However, subgroup analysis of the hypokyphosis group (<10°) and the hyperkyphosis group (>40°) showed significant correction of TK (p <0.0001 in both). Sacro-pelvic parameters showed a significant decrease of PT and increase of SS, suggesting a reduction in pelvic retroversion SS (from 37° to 40°, p =0.0001) and PT (from 15° to 14°, p =0.025). Conclusions LD strategic pedicle screw fixation provides favorable coronal correction and improves overall sagittal sacro-pelvic parameters. This technique does not cause significant flattening of TK and results in a favorable restoration of TK in
Danielsson, Aina J; Hallerman, Kerstin Lofdahl
Consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis and diagnosis before age 10 were invited to a clinical follow-up (FU) at least 10 years after treatment with brace or surgery. To evaluate the quality of life and back problems in adulthood. Information on long-term outcome relating to health issues, back problems, and quality of life after treatment is sparse in this patient group. One hundred twenty-four patients, 69% of the original group, underwent radiography, spirometry, and answered questionnaires on back problems and quality of life. Sixty-seven patients were braced and 57 patients surgically treated. Results were compared with a population-based control group (n = 130) and with patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Nineteen patients (15%) had onset before age 6. The mean age at present FU was 41 years, time until FU mean 26 years, and curve size mean 36°. Ninety percent of the patients were working. Overall, 77% reported back pain, but analgesic use was sparse and 88% had normal back function as measured by the Oswestry Disability Index. Quality of life as measured by the SF-36 showed no differences from national norms except for a slight reduction in physical role. Back pain and back function were at the same level as in patients with AIS of the same age and curve sizes. The Scoliosis Research Society quality of life questionnaire (revised version, SRS-22r) scores were similar for both groups except for satisfaction with management, which was lower among braced patients, 3.4 versus 4.0 (p = .0017). The dyspnea grading was strongly correlated to the SRS-22r Total score and the physical composite summary score/SF-36 in all the groups. Most braced and surgically treated patients had quality of life at normal level, or just slightly below for physical function. Despite frequent back pain, back function was not severely affected. Dyspnea appears to affect quality of life negatively. III. Copyright © 2015 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by
Stokes, O M; Luk, K D K
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects about 3% of children. Non-operative measures are aimed at altering the natural history to maintain the size of the curve below 40° at skeletal maturity. The application of braces to treat spinal deformity pre-dates the era of evidence-based medicine, and there is a paucity of irrefutable prospective evidence in the literature to support their use and their effectiveness has been questioned. This review considers this evidence. The weight of the evidence is in favour of bracing over observation. The most recent literature has moved away from addressing this question, and instead focuses on developments in the design of braces and ways to improve compliance.
Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Martin; Kwan, Kenny; Dahl, Benny; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Samartzis, Dino
Current surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) involves correction in both the coronal and sagittal plane, and thorough assessment of these parameters is essential for evaluation of surgical results. However, various definitions of thoracic kyphosis (TK) have been proposed, and the intra- and inter-rater reproducibility of these measures has not been determined. As such, the purpose of the current study was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reproducibility of several TK measurements used in the assessment of AIS. Twenty patients (90% females) surgically treated for AIS with alternate-level pedicle screw fixation were included in the study. Three raters independently evaluated pre- and postoperative standing lateral plain radiographs. For each radiograph, several definitions of TK were measured as well as L1-S1 and nonfixed lumbar lordosis. All variables were measured twice 14 days apart, and a mixed effects model was used to determine the repeatability coefficient (RC), which is a measure of the agreement between repeated measurements. Also, the intra- and inter-rater intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined as a measure of reliability. Preoperative median Cobb angle was 58° (range 41°-86°), and median surgical curve correction was 68% (range 49-87%). Overall intra-rater RC was highest for T2-T12 and nonfixed TK (11°) and lowest for T4-T12 and T5-T12 (8°). Inter-rater RC was highest for T1-T12, T1-nonfixed, and nonfixed TK (13°) and lowest for T5-T12 (9°). Agreement varied substantially between pre- and postoperative radiographs. Inter-rater ICC was highest for T4-T12 (0.92; 95% CI 0.88-0.95) and T5-T12 (0.92; 95% CI 0.88-0.95) and lowest for T1-nonfixed (0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). Considerable variation for all TK measurements was noted. Intra- and inter-rater reproducibility was best for T4-T12 and T5-T12. Future studies should consider adopting a relevant minimum difference as a limit for true change in TK.
Lee, Andy C H; Feger, Mark A; Singla, Anuj; Abel, Mark F
Systemic review and meta-analysis. To analyze the effect of spinal fusion and instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) on absolute pulmonary function test (PFTs). Pulmonary function is correlated with severity of deformity in AIS patients and studies that have analyzed the effect of spinal fusion and instrumentation on PFTs for AIS have reported inconsistent results. There is a need to analyze the effect of spinal fusion on PFTs with stratification by surgical approach. Our analysis included 22 studies. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for absolute PFT outcome measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analyses were performed at each postoperative time frame for six homogeneous surgical approaches: (i) combined anterior release and posterior fusion with instrumentation; (ii) combined video assisted anterior release and posterior fusion with instrumentation without thoracoplasty; (iii) posterior fusion with instrumentation without thoracoplasty; (iv) anterior fusion with instrumentation and without thoracoplasty; (v) video assisted anterior fusion with instrumentation without thoracoplasty; and (vi) any scoliosis surgery with additional thoracoplasty. Anterior spinal fusion with instrumentation, any scoliosis surgery with concomitant thoracoplasty, or video-assisted anterior fusion with instrumentation for AIS had similar absolute PFTs at their 2 year postoperative follow up compared with their preoperative PFTs (effect sizes ranging from -0.2-0.2 with all CI crossing "0"). Posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation (with or without an anterior release) demonstrated small to moderate increases in PFTs 2 years postoperatively (effect sizes ranging from 0.35-0.65 with all CI not crossing "0"). Anterior fusion with instrumentation, regardless of the approach, and any scoliosis surgery with concomitant thoracoplasty do not lead to significant change in pulmonary functions 2 year after surgery. Posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation
Li, Jingfeng; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Samartzis, Dino; Ganal-Antonio, Anne K B; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Ming; Luk, Keith D K
The following study was a prospective radiographic and retrospective clinical data assessment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had undergone a key-vertebral screws strategy (KVSS) at a single institution, with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up. The aim of the study was to introduce the KVSS for the operative treatment of AIS of the main thoracic curve, and to address the role of the fulcrum-bending radiograph (FBR) in predicting the outcome of surgical management by this method. The application of multilevel pedicle screws for the main thoracic curve in AIS patients is popular in an effort to provide spinal stability, enhance fusion outcome, and provide optimal curve correction. However, with the application of pedicle screw also comes a potential risk for soft tissue and neural injury and increased health care costs. It remains unknown whether limited screw placement can provide proper curve correction without compromising patient outcome. A total of 17 consecutive patients with AIS extending to the main thoracic spine, who had undergone posterior fusion and fixation by the KVSS, a procedure in which screws are placed at important strategic points in the spine (ie, bilaterally at the upper and lower end segments of the fusion block, apical vertebra on the convex side, adjacent cephalad, and caudal screw placement on the concave side), at a single institution, with a minimum of 2 year' follow-up, were included. The assessment of preoperative standing posteroanterior and sagittal, FBR, and postoperative standing posteroanterior and sagittal plain radiographs were assessed in all patients. The flexibility of the curve as well as the fulcrum-bending correction index (FBCI) were calculated for all patients. Postoperatively, radiographs were assessed at the immediate (ie, 1 wk) and last follow-up. Clinical assessment entailed evaluation of patient demographics and the presence of any intraoperative or postoperative complications. The mean age at the
Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Mercier, Pierre; Descarreaux, Martin; Simoneau, Martin
This work identifies, among adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, those demonstrating impaired sensorimotor control through a classification procedure comparing the amplitude of their vestibular-evoked postural responses. The sensorimotor control of healthy adolescents (n=17) and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (n=52) with either mild (Cobb angle≥15° and ≤30°) or severe (Cobb angle >30°) spine deformation was assessed through galvanic vestibular stimulation. A classification procedure sorted out adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis whether the amplitude of their vestibular-evoked postural response was dissimilar or similar to controls. Compared to controls, galvanic vestibular stimulation evoked larger postural response in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, the classification procedure revealed that only 42.5% of all patients showed impaired sensorimotor control. Consequently, identifying patients with sensorimotor control impairment would allow to apply personalized treatments, help clinicians to establish prognosis and hopefully improve the condition of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lindeman, M; Behm, K
Psychological determinants of brace-wear compliance were analyzed among 113 patients who used a brace because of an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (92%), kyphosis (5%), or both (3%). The results showed that noncompliant girls did not expect to succeed in dealing with scoliosis and that they were anxious about the possibility of failure. They also had low self-esteem and did not seek social support from other people. Noncompliant boys, in contrast, had high self-esteem and high achievement success expectation. Among patients with a short time of brace use, low compliance was best predicted by low amount of reflective thinking and a good body-image. In turn, among patients who had used the brace for >6 months, low compliance was best predicted by high amount of reflective thinking, poor body-image, low social success expectation, and low master orientation in social behavior. Only sleeping problems predicted compliance across gender and the time of brace use: the more the patients experienced sleeping problems, the less they used the brace.
Little, J P; Pearcy, M J; Izatt, M T; Boom, K; Labrom, R D; Askin, G N; Adam, C J
Segmental biomechanics of the scoliotic spine are important since the overall spinal deformity is comprised of the cumulative coronal and axial rotations of individual joints. This study investigates the coronal plane segmental biomechanics for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients in response to physiologically relevant axial compression. Individual spinal joint compliance in the coronal plane was measured for a series of 15 idiopathic scoliosis patients using axially loaded magnetic resonance imaging. Each patient was first imaged in the supine position with no axial load, and then again following application of an axial compressive load. Coronal plane disc wedge angles in the unloaded and loaded configurations were measured. Joint moments exerted by the axial compressive load were used to derive estimates of individual joint compliance. The mean standing major Cobb angle for this patient series was 46°. Mean intra-observer measurement error for endplate inclination was 1.6°. Following loading, initially highly wedged discs demonstrated a smaller change in wedge angle, than less wedged discs for certain spinal levels (+2,+1,-2 relative to the apex, (p<0.05)). Highly wedged discs were observed near the apex of the curve, which corresponded to lower joint compliance in the apical region. While individual patients exhibit substantial variability in disc wedge angles and joint compliance, overall there is a pattern of increased disc wedging near the curve apex, and reduced joint compliance in this region. Approaches such as this can provide valuable biomechanical data on in vivo spinal biomechanics of the scoliotic spine, for analysis of deformity progression and surgical planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tarola, G A
This report of two cases illustrates the potential effect of chiropractic manipulative therapy on back pain and curve progression in the at-risk, skeletally mature patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Two patients suffering from lumbar scoliosis and chronic back pain. Both had scoliosis that had progressed after skeletal maturity. Diversified type chiropractic manipulative therapy was used palliatively for back pain relief in one case, and routinely 1-2 times per month in the other case. The manipulation was applied manually, with the patients in the prone and side-posture positions. Vertebral levels manipulated were identified as fixated/dysfunctional segments based on static and/or motion palpation. They were generally applied to areas above and/or below the curve apex. When applied at the apex, cavitation was more easily achieved when the direction of thrust was into the concave side. This was also tolerated better by the patient. No attempt was made to "straighten the curve" by thrusting into the convex side. Gentle manual intersegmental mobilization, stretching and muscle massage techniques were also applied. The case treated palliatively had curve progression consistent with the literature over an 8-yr period. The case treated routinely did not. The procedure was effective in both cases for subjective relief of back pain. Diversified-type CMT has a favorable effect on acute back pain when used palliatively. The procedure may also have a favorable long term effect of preventing recurrence of back pain and on retarding curve progression when used routinely 1-2 times per month.
Mallau, Sophie; Bollini, Gérard; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Assaiante, Christine
Locomotor balance control assessment was performed to study the effect of idiopathic scoliosis on head-trunk coordination in 17 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and 16 control subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the functional effects of structural spinal deformations like idiopathic scoliosis on the balance strategies used during locomotion. Up to now, the repercussion of the idiopathic scoliosis on head-trunk coordination and balance strategies during locomotion is relatively unknown. Seventeen patients with AIS (mean age 14 years 3 months, 10 degrees < Cobb angle > 30 degrees) and 16 control subjects (mean age 14 years 1 month) were tested during various locomotor tasks: walking on the ground, walking on a line, and walking on a beam. Balance control was examined in terms of rotation about the vertical axis (yaw) and on a frontal plane (roll). Kinematics of foot, pelvis, trunk, shoulder, and head rotations were measured with an automatic optical TV image processor in order to calculate angular dispersions and segmental stabilizations. Decreasing the walking speed is the main adaptive strategy used in response to balance problems in control subjects as well as patients with AIS. However, patients with AIS performed walking tasks more slowly than normal subjects (around 15%). Moreover, the pelvic stabilization is preserved, despite the structural changes affecting the spine. Lastly, the biomechanical defect resulting from idiopathic scoliosis mainly affects the yaw head stabilization during locomotion. Patients with AIS show substantial similarities with control subjects in adaptive strategies relative to locomotor velocity as well as balance control based on segmental stabilization. In contrast, the loss of the yaw head stabilization strategies, mainly based on the use of vestibular information, probably reflects the presence of vestibular deficits in the patients with AIS.
Health-related quality of life and low back pain of patients surgically treated for scoliosis after 21 years or more of follow-up: comparison among nonidiopathic scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, and healthy subjects.
Akazawa, Tsutomu; Minami, Shohei; Kotani, Toshiaki; Nemoto, Tetsuharu; Koshi, Takana; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
A case-control study. To compare health-related quality of life and low back pain of healthy subjects with those of patients with nonidiopathic scoliosis (non-IS) and idiopathic scoliosis (IS) 21 years or more after surgery. There have been a very small number of reports on long-term results of surgery for non-IS. There have not been any reports that compare non-IS, IS, and healthy subjects. The subjects with scoliosis were 602 patients who had undergone surgery between 1968 and 1988. The Scoliosis Research Society Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and our institution's original questionnaire were used for evaluating long-term clinical outcomes. The 136 respondents consisted of 56 patients with non-IS (non-IS group) and 80 patients with IS (IS group). The control group (CTR group) consisted of 80 healthy volunteers who were age- and body mass index-matched to the scoliosis groups. In the SRS-22, the 3 groups had no significant differences in pain and mental health. For function and self-image, the non-IS group and the IS group had a significantly lower score than the CTR group. In the RDQ, the non-IS group had significantly more severe low back pain than the CTR group. There was no significant difference in low back pain between the non-IS group and IS group or between the IS group and CTR group. The non-IS group had a significantly lower marriage rate than the IS and CTR groups. The patients with non-IS and IS had similar health-related quality of life and low back pain. The patients with non-IS were found to have lower function and self-image in the SRS-22 questionnaire and more severe low back pain in the RDQ than healthy subjects. The patients with non-IS had a significantly lower marriage rate than the other 2 groups.
De Korvin, G; Randriaminahisoa, T; Cugy, E; Cheze, L; de Sèze, M
The progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is typically monitored via regular radiographic follow-up. The Cobb angle (as measured on whole-spine radiographs) is considered as the gold standard in scoliosis monitoring. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of back surface topography parameters, with a view to detecting changes in the Cobb angle. One hundred patients (mean age: 13.3) with Cobb angles greater than 10 degrees were included. Topographic parameters were measured in a standard position and in a position with hunched shoulders. Gibbosities and spinal curvatures were evaluated. An increase of more than 2 degrees in any one gibbosity or in the sum of the gibbosities (in either of the two examination positions) enabled the detection of a five-degree increase in the Cobb angle with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 50%. If the present results are confirmed by other studies, analysis with back surface topography parameters may reduce the number of X-ray examinations required to detect increases in the Cobb angle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Danielsson, Aina J; Ekerljung, Linda; Hallerman, Kerstin Lofdahl
Consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis diagnosed before age 10 attended a clinical follow-up at least 10 years after treatment. To evaluate the pulmonary function in adulthood after treatment with brace or surgery before maturity. Long-term studies of these patients have not been published. One hundred twenty-four patients (69% of the original group) underwent radiography, spirometry, and answered symptom questionnaires. A total of 73 patients had spirometries before treatment enabling longitudinal evaluation. Overall, 68 braced only (BT) and 56 surgically treated (ST) were analyzed in detail. A population-based control group was used. At follow-up, the mean age was 41.5 years and the mean curve size 36 degrees (26% of the curves >45 degrees). The full patient group had a significantly reduced pulmonary function (as measured by the forced vital capacity [FVC], percentage of predicted) compared with the control group, mean 85% versus 102% (p < .0001). Both subgroups of BT and ST patients showed a significant reduction, more in the ST than the BT group (means 79% and 90%, respectively, p = .0003). The most important risk factor for a low lung function at follow-up was a low initial FVC value. Initial curve size correlated with pulmonary function both before treatment and at follow-up. Most surgically treated patients, who had larger curves before treatment, did not improve their pulmonary function after surgery. Both braced and surgically treated patients had reduced pulmonary function at the age of around 40 years. The pulmonary function did not worsen over time in most patients. There was no difference in terms of symptoms between patient groups and controls. Initial curve size was found to be of great importance for pulmonary function. Initial spirometry and follow-up in selected patients is important. III. Copyright © 2015 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Picelli, Alessandro; Negrini, Stefano; Zenorini, Andrea; Iosa, Marco; Paolucci, Stefano; Smania, Nicola
To date etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis appears complex and still remains unclear. A distorted body schema has been proposed to be a part of a sequence of pathological events in the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To investigate the awareness of trunk misalignment in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Information about 44 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis was collected as follows: age; sex; handedness; family history of scoliosis; back pain; sport practice; shoulder and waist line symmetry; leg length; dorsal kyphosis; back hump; rehabilitation; scoliotic curve; Risser sign. We evaluated awareness of trunk misalignment with a graphic table displaying pictures of progressively increasing scoliotic curves. Patients were asked to indicate which picture corresponded to their perceived own spinal alignment. Patients with thoracolumbar scoliosis overestimated their actual thoracic spine curve. Patients with thoracic-thoracolumbar scoliosis underestimated their actual thoracolumbar spine curve and overestimated their actual lumbar spine curve. Scoliotic curve > 15°, double curve, younger age, back pain, family history of scoliosis and lower Risser score related with a misperception of trunk alignment. Our results support the hypothesis that adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis have an altered corporeal awareness of their trunk alignment.
Xu, Xi-Ming; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Bai, Yu-Shu; Li, Ming
Abstract The relationship between spinal sagittal alignment and pelvic parameters is well known in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. However, few studies have reported the sagittal spinopelvic relationship after selective posterior fusion of thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves. We evaluated the relationship between spinal sagittal alignment and the pelvis, and analyzed how the pelvic sagittal state is adjusted in Lenke type 5C patients. We conducted a retrospective study of 36 patients with Lenke type 5C curves who received selective posterior TL/L curve fusion. Coronal and spinopelvic sagittal parameters were pre and postoperatively compared. Pearson coefficients were used to analyze the correlation between all spinopelvic sagittal parameters before and after surgery. We also evaluated 3 pelvic morphologies (anteverted, normal, and retroverted) before and after surgery. Preoperatively, the mean pelvic incidence was 46.0°, with a pelvic tilt and sacral slope (SS) of 8.2° and 37.8°, respectively, and 25% (9/36) of patients had an anteverted pelvis, whereas the other 75% had a normal pelvis. Postoperatively, 42% (15/36) of patients had a retroverted pelvis, 53% (19/36) had a normal pelvis, and 2 patients had an anteverted pelvis. Logistic regression analyses yielded 2 factors that were significantly associated with the risk for a postoperative unrecovered anteverted pelvis, including increased lumbar lordosis (LL) (odds ratio [OR] 4.8, P = 0.029) and increased SS (OR 5.6, P = 0.018). Four factors were significantly associated with the risk of a postoperative newly anteverted pelvis, including LL at the final follow-up (OR 6.9, P = 0.009), increased LL (OR 8.9, P = 0.003), LL below fusion (OR 9.4, P = 0.002), and increased SS (OR 11.5, P = 0.001). The pelvic state may be adjusted after selective posterior TL/L curve fusion in Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. It is difficult to improve an anteverted pelvis in patients who have
Bekki, Hirofumi; Harimaya, Katsumi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Okada, Seiji; Doi, Toshio; Iwamoto, Yukihide
A computed tomography study. The aim of the study was to clarify the position of the aorta relative to the spine in patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Several authors have examined the position of the aorta in patients with scoliosis; however, their analysis included several types of curve. There is a possibility that the position of the aorta differs according to the scoliosis curve type. Thirty-eight patients with Lenke type 1 were analyzed. The angle (left pedicle aorta [LtP-Ao] angle) and distance (LtP-Ao distance) from the insertion point of the left pedicle screw to the aorta were measured from T4 through L2. The measured data were evaluated from 4 levels above to 4 levels below the apical vertebra. The difference between lumbar modifiers A and C was examined. Dangerous pedicles, which were defined as those in which the aorta entered the expected area based on the screw direction error and length, were counted from T10 to L2. The aorta was located posterolaterally and adjacent to the vertebra at the middle thoracic level, and anteromedially and distant at the thoracolumbar level. LtP-Ao angle was largest at 1 level above the apical vertebra, and LtP-Ao distance was shortest at 2 levels above. LtP-Ao angle of Lenke 1A was significantly larger than 1C from T11 to L2, and LtP-Ao distance of 1A was significantly shorter than 1C from T11 to L1. When the screw length was 40 mm and the direction error was within 10°, there were a large number of dangerous pedicles at T11, regardless of the lumbar modifier. The direction error has a potential risk of injuring the aorta around the apical vertebra. The selection of screws of the proper length is necessary to avoid a breach of the anterior vertebral wall at thoracolumbar level, especially at T11. 3.
Skalli, Wafa; Vergari, Claudio; Ebermeyer, Eric; Courtois, Isabelle; Drevelle, Xavier; Kohler, Remi; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman; Dubousset, Jean
Early detection of progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was assessed based on 3D quantification of the deformity. Based on 3D quantitative description of scoliosis curves, the aim is to assess a specific phenotype that could be an early detectable severity index for progressive AIS. Early detection of progressive scoliosis is important for adapted treatment to limit progression. However, progression risk assessment is mainly based on the follow up, waiting for signs of rapid progression that generally occur during the growth peak. Sixty-five mild scoliosis (16 boys, 49 girls, Cobb Angle between 10 and 20°) with a Risser between 0 and 2 were followed from their first examination until a decision was made by the clinician, either considering the spine as stable at the end of growth (26 patients) or planning to brace because of progression (39 patients). Calibrated biplanar x-rays were performed and 3D reconstructions of the spine allowed calculating six local parameters related to main curve deformity. For progressive curve 3D phenotype assessment, data were compared with those previously assessed for 30 severe scoliosis (Cobb Angle > 35°), 17 scoliosis before brace (Cobb Angle > 29°) and 53 spines of nonscoliosis subjects. A predictive discriminant analysis was performed to assess similarity of mild scoliosis curves either to those of scoliosis or nonscoliosis spines, yielding a severity index (S-index). S-index value at first examination was compared with clinical outcome. At the first exam, 53 out of 65 predictions (82%) were in agreement with actual clinical outcome. Approximately, 89% of the curves that were predicted as progressive proved accurate. Although still requiring large scale validation, results are promising for early detection of progressive curves. 2.
Banse, X.; Mousny, M.; Detrembleur, C.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a progressive growth disease that affects spinal anatomy, mobility, and left-right trunk symmetry. Consequently, AIS can modify human locomotion. Very few studies have investigated a simple activity like walking in a cohort of well-defined untreated patients with scoliosis. The first goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of scoliosis and scoliosis severity on kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) gait variables compared to an able-bodied population. The second goal is to look for any asymmetry in these parameters during walking. Thirteen healthy girls and 41 females with untreated AIS, with left thoracolumbar or lumbar primary structural curves were assessed. AIS patients were divided into three clinical subgroups (group 1 < 20°, group 2 between 20 and 40°, and group 3 > 40°). Gait analysis included synchronous bilateral kinematic and EMG measurements. The subjects walked on a treadmill at 4 km/h (comfortable speed). The tridimensional (3D) shoulder, pelvis, and lower limb motions were measured using 22 reflective markers tracked by four infrared cameras. The EMG timing activity was measured using bipolar surface electrodes on quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles. Statistical comparisons (ANOVA) were performed across groups and sides for kinematic and EMG parameters. The step length was reduced in AIS compared to normal subjects (7% less). Frontal shoulder, pelvis, and hip motion and transversal hip motion were reduced in scoliosis patients (respectively, 21, 27, 28, and 22% less). The EMG recording during walking showed that the quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, gluteus medius, and semitendinosus muscles contracted during a longer part of the stride in scoliotic patients (46% of the stride) compared with normal subjects (35% of the stride). There was no significant difference between scoliosis groups 1, 2, and 3 for
Mahaudens, P; Banse, X; Mousny, M; Detrembleur, C
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a progressive growth disease that affects spinal anatomy, mobility, and left-right trunk symmetry. Consequently, AIS can modify human locomotion. Very few studies have investigated a simple activity like walking in a cohort of well-defined untreated patients with scoliosis. The first goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of scoliosis and scoliosis severity on kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) gait variables compared to an able-bodied population. The second goal is to look for any asymmetry in these parameters during walking. Thirteen healthy girls and 41 females with untreated AIS, with left thoracolumbar or lumbar primary structural curves were assessed. AIS patients were divided into three clinical subgroups (group 1 < 20 degrees, group 2 between 20 and 40 degrees, and group 3 > 40 degrees). Gait analysis included synchronous bilateral kinematic and EMG measurements. The subjects walked on a treadmill at 4 km/h (comfortable speed). The tridimensional (3D) shoulder, pelvis, and lower limb motions were measured using 22 reflective markers tracked by four infrared cameras. The EMG timing activity was measured using bipolar surface electrodes on quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles. Statistical comparisons (ANOVA) were performed across groups and sides for kinematic and EMG parameters. The step length was reduced in AIS compared to normal subjects (7% less). Frontal shoulder, pelvis, and hip motion and transversal hip motion were reduced in scoliosis patients (respectively, 21, 27, 28, and 22% less). The EMG recording during walking showed that the quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, gluteus medius, and semitendinosus muscles contracted during a longer part of the stride in scoliotic patients (46% of the stride) compared with normal subjects (35% of the stride). There was no significant difference between scoliosis groups 1
Sud, Alok; Tsirikos, Athanasios I
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity encountered by General Orthopaedic Surgeons. Etiology remains unclear and current research focuses on genetic factors that may influence scoliosis development and risk of progression. Delayed diagnosis can result in severe deformities which affect the coronal and sagittal planes, as well as the rib cage, waistline symmetry, and shoulder balance. Patient's dissatisfaction in terms of physical appearance and mechanical back pain, as well as the risk for curve deterioration are usually the reasons for treatment. Conservative management involves mainly bracing with the aim to stop or slow down scoliosis progression during growth and if possible prevent the need for surgical treatment. This is mainly indicated in young compliant patients with a large amount of remaining growth and progressive curvatures. Scoliosis correction is indicated for severe or progressive curves which produce significant cosmetic deformity, muscular pain, and patient discontent. Posterior spinal arthrodesis with Harrington instrumentation and bone grafting was the first attempt to correct the coronal deformity and replace in situ fusion. This was associated with high pseudarthrosis rates, need for postoperative immobilization, and flattening of sagittal spinal contour. Segmental correction techniques were introduced along with the Luque rods, Harri-Luque, and Wisconsin systems. Correction in both coronal and sagittal planes was not satisfactory and high rates of nonunion persisted until Cotrel and Dubousset introduced the concept of global spinal derotation. Development of pedicle screws provided a powerful tool to correct three-dimensional vertebral deformity and opened a new era in the treatment of scoliosis.
Chan, Priscella; Skaggs, David L; Sanders, Austin E; Villamor, Gabriela A; Choi, Paul D; Tolo, Vernon T; Andras, Lindsay M
Prospective cross-sectional study. To evaluate patients' and parents' concerns so they can be addressed with appropriate preoperative counseling. Despite much research on outcomes for posterior spinal fusion (PSF) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), little is available about preoperative fears or concerns. Patients with AIS undergoing PSF, their parents, and surgeons were prospectively enrolled and asked to complete a survey on their fears and concerns about surgery at their preoperative appointment. Forty-eight patients and parents completed surveys. Four attending pediatric spine surgeons participated and submitted 48 responses. Mean age of patients was 14.2 years. On a scale of 0 to 10, mean level of concern reported by parents (6.9) was higher than that reported by patients (4.6). Surgeons rated the procedure's complexity on a scale of 0 to 10 and reported a mean of 5.2. Neither patients' nor parents' level of concern correlated with the surgeons' assessment of the procedure's complexity level (R = 0.19 and 0.12, P = 0.20 and P = 0.42, respectively). Top three concerns for patients were pain (25%), ability to return to activities (21%), and neurologic injury (17%). Top three concerns for parents were pain (35%), neurologic injury (21%), and amount of correction (17%). Top three concerns for surgeons were postoperative shoulder balance (44%), neurologic injury (27%), and lowest instrumented vertebrae selection (27%). Patients reported the same concerns 23% of the time as parents, and 17% of the time as surgeons. Parents and surgeons reported the same concerns 21% of the time. Pain was the greatest concern for both patients and parents but was rarely listed as a concern by surgeons. Parent and patient level of concern did not correlate to the surgeon's assessment of the procedure's complexity. Neurologic injury was a top concern for all groups, but otherwise there was little overlap between physician, patient, and parent concerns. 3.
Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Caltoum, Christine; Petcharaporn, Maty; Bastrom, Tracey P; Pawelek, Jeff B; Betz, Randal R; Clements, David H; Lenke, Lawrence G; Lowe, Thomas G; Newton, Peter O
A multicenter study of changes in Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome measures after surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To evaluate changes in patient determined outcome measures between 2 and 5 years after AIS surgery. Current surgical procedures have been shown to improve subjective measures in patients with AIS. At 2-year follow-up, AIS patients reported significant improvement in all 4 preoperative domains of the SRS questionnaire. In addition, the major Cobb angle was shown to be negatively correlated with preoperative scores in the pain, general self-image, and general function domains. Five-year SRS scores have not been evaluated previously. A multicenter, prospectively generated database was used to obtain perioperative, radiographic, and SRS-24 outcomes data. The inclusion criteria were: a diagnosis of AIS, surgical treatment (anterior, posterior, or combined), a comprehensive set of radiographic measures, and completed preoperative, 2-year, and 5-year SRS questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare changes in patient responses for each of the 7 outcome domains. Univariate analysis of variance was used to compare the change in pain score at 5 years to the level of the lowest instrumented vertebrae and surgical approach. A correlation analysis was used to determine the association between changes in any of the radiographic variables and changes in SRS scores. The data were checked for normality and equal variances, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.01. Forty-nine patients (42 women, 7 men; 14.2 +/- 2.1 year old; 5.4 +/- 0.6 years follow-up) met the inclusion criteria for this study. Thirty-seven of 49 (76%) of these patients underwent an open or thoracoscopic anterior procedure. SRS-24 scores improved significantly in 3 of the 4 preoperative domains at the 2-year visit. At 5 years postop, a statistically significant decrease in the pain score (4.2 +/- 0.6 to 3.9 +/- 0.9, P = 0
Xu, Ximing; Wang, Fei; Yang, Mingyuan; Huang, Qikai; Chang, Yifan; Wei, Xianzhao; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming
Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ)-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace are the most widely used instruments for evaluating stress levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under brace treatment, and good reliability and validity have been demonstrated across different cultures. Great stress has been found among many adolescents, becoming a major concern for professionals. However, no previous research has addressed the cultural adaptations and psychometric testing of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace in China or the stress levels in AIS patients. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace and to investigate stress levels in Chinese (AIS) patients under brace treatment.The original (German) versions of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace were cross-culturally translated according to international guidelines. Psychometric properties such as reliability and construct validity were tested. Eighty-six AIS patients were included in our study, and 50 patients paid a second visit 3 to 7 days later to test reproducibility. Cronbach α and the intraclass coefficient were determined to assess internal consistency and reproducibility. Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) was applied to evaluate construct validity.The mean BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace scores were 15.3 and 13.4 points, respectively. Severe stress was observed in 12% of patients due to brace treatment. Item analysis demonstrated that each item was scored under a normal distribution with no redundancy. Psychometric analysis revealed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.85 and 0.80, respectively) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85 and 0.90, respectively) for BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace. The correlation coefficients of BSSQ-Deformity, BSSQ-Brace and SRS-22 were 0.48 and 0.63, respectively.In conclusion, BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace have been successfully
Xu, Ximing; Wang, Fei; Yang, Mingyuan; Huang, Qikai; Chang, Yifan; Wei, Xianzhao; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming
Abstract Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ)-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace are the most widely used instruments for evaluating stress levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under brace treatment, and good reliability and validity have been demonstrated across different cultures. Great stress has been found among many adolescents, becoming a major concern for professionals. However, no previous research has addressed the cultural adaptations and psychometric testing of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace in China or the stress levels in AIS patients. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace and to investigate stress levels in Chinese (AIS) patients under brace treatment. The original (German) versions of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace were cross-culturally translated according to international guidelines. Psychometric properties such as reliability and construct validity were tested. Eighty-six AIS patients were included in our study, and 50 patients paid a second visit 3 to 7 days later to test reproducibility. Cronbach α and the intraclass coefficient were determined to assess internal consistency and reproducibility. Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) was applied to evaluate construct validity. The mean BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace scores were 15.3 and 13.4 points, respectively. Severe stress was observed in 12% of patients due to brace treatment. Item analysis demonstrated that each item was scored under a normal distribution with no redundancy. Psychometric analysis revealed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.85 and 0.80, respectively) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85 and 0.90, respectively) for BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace. The correlation coefficients of BSSQ-Deformity, BSSQ-Brace and SRS-22 were 0.48 and 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace have been
Background Much attention has been paid to peak height velocity (PHV) as a possible predictor of curve progression in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the magnitude of the Cobb angle at PHV and scoliosis progression, defined as having surgery prior to skeletal maturity in female patients with IS. Methods A retrospective review identified 56 skeletally immature female IS patients who were followed until maturity. The mean age and the mean pubertal status at the initial visit were 10 years and 24 months before menarche respectively, with a follow-up period of 5 years. They were divided into two groups: non-surgery group (NS) and surgery group (S), depending on their treatment method in use at the final follow-up visit. Surgery group was defined as an ultimately having surgery due to Cobb angle greater than 45 degrees prior to skeletal maturity regardless of conservative management. Height measurements were recorded at each visit; height velocity was calculated as the height change, in cm, divided by the time interval, in years. The PHV, chronological age at PHV (APHV), height at PHV (HPHV), and final height (FH) were determined for each group. In patients with Cobb angle greater than 30 degrees, the corrected height was calculated by Kono formula and corrected height velocity values were provided. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating -characteristic (ROC) analysis were calculated to predict spinal curve progression for various Cobb-angle cutoff values at PHV. Results The corrected PHV had a mean value of 8.5 and 8.9 cm/year in the NS-group and S-group, respectively. The APHV was 11.9 and 11 years, the corrected HPHV was 152.9, and 149.3 cm, and the corrected FH was 159.9 and 159.3 cm, respectively. When a Cobb angle of 31.5 degrees was at PHV, ROC analysis revealed 78% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and an AUC of 0.93, acceptable values for curve
Ito, Kenyu; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki
Sagittal balance has recently been the focus of studies aimed at understanding the correction force required for both coronal and sagittal malalignment. However, the correlation between cervical kyphosis and sagittal balance in AIS patients has yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to clarify the correlation between cervical alignment and spinal balance in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Here, we hypothesized that cervical kyphosis patients can be classified into groups by the apex of thoracic kyphosis. This study included 92 AIS patients (84 females, 8 males; mean age, 15.1 years). Patients were divided into the cervical lordosis (CL), cervical sigmoid (CS), or cervical kyphosis (CK) groups and further classified according to the apex of thoracic kyphosis into High (above T3), Middle (T4-T9), and Low (below T10) groups. There were 17 (18.5 %), 22 (23.9 %), and 53 (57.6 %) patients with CL, CS, and CK, respectively. In the CK group, 13 had CK-High, 35 had CK-Middle, and 5 had CK-Low. The C7 sagittal vertical axis (C7SVA) measurements were most backward in CK-High and most forward in CK-Low. The T5-12 kyphosis (TK) measurement was significantly lower in CK-High. Most AIS patients had kyphotic cervical alignment. Patients with CK can be classified as having CK-High, CK-Middle, or CK-Low according to the apex of thoracic kyphosis. CK-High is due to thoracic hypokyphosis with a backward balanced C7SVA. CK-Middle is well-balanced cervical kyphosis. CK-Low has forward-bent global kyphosis of the cervicothoracic spine that positioned the C7SVA forward.
Tolk, Jaap J; Willems, Paul C; Punt, Ilona M; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W; van Ooij, André
Three patients with late-onset infection after multilevel instrumented anterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis, using the Cotrel-Dubousset-Hopf (CDH) system, are presented. The CDH-system is an anterior instrumentation with high biomechanical stability and rigidity, ensuring a stable primary fixation. Unlike after posterior spinal fusion, infection after anterior spinal fusion (ASF) for idiopathic scoliosis has rarely been reported. The files of three patients who developed an infection after ASF for scoliosis using the CDH-system, were reviewed. The clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. All three patients had a late-onset infection of the CDH-system, which was difficult to diagnose because of nonspecific symptoms. Radiographs and technetium bone scan appeared to be of low value. When an abscess was present, this could accurately be diagnosed with MRI or CT imaging. Operative treatment with implant removal and antibiotic therapy was successful in all cases. Late onset infections after ASF using the CDH-system presented with few and nonspecific symptoms. The clinical presentation was mainly characterized by vague abdominal- or back-pain after an interval of normal postoperative recovery, moderately raised infection parameters and inconclusive findings with imaging modalities. As treatment, implant removal, debridement and parenteral antibiotics are recommended. It should be noted though that implant removal poses serious risks for vascular and visceral structures.
Canavese, Federico; Kaelin, André
The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°–40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°–25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed. PMID:21221217
Erdogan, Mehmet Ali; Ozgul, Ulku; Ucar, Muharrem; Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Aydogan, Mustafa Said; Ozkan, Ahmet Selim; Colak, Cemil; Durmus, Mahmut
A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of patient-controlled intermittent bolus epidural analgesia (PCIEA) and patient-controlled continuous epidural analgesia (PCCEA) for postoperative pain control in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Epidural analgesia is an accepted efficacious and safe procedure for postoperative pain management in scoliosis surgery. However, the PCIEA has not been adequately investigated for postoperative pain control in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Forty-seven patients, 8 to 18 years of age, who were undergoing posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis were randomized to either the PCIEA or PCCEA group. An epidural catheter was inserted by a surgeon under direct visualization. The PCIEA group received 0.2 mg/mL of morphine, 0.25 mL/kg of morphine bolus, additional doses of 0.25 mL/kg morphine with a 1-hour lockout given by patient-controlled demand, and no infusion. The PCCEA group received the following: 0.2 mg/mL morphine, an initial morphine loading set at 0.1 mL/kg, followed by a 0.05 mL/kg/h continuous infusion of morphine, and a 0.025 mL/kg bolus dose of morphine. There was a 30-minute lockout interval. The primary outcome was morphine usage. The secondary outcomes were pain score, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pruritus. Cumulative morphine consumption was lower in the PCIEA group than in the PCCEA group. Both methods provided effective pain control. There were no differences in pain scores between the groups. Postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pruritus were lower in the PCIEA group. The two epidural analgesia techniques studied are both safe and effective methods for postoperative pain control after posterior spinal fusion in idiopathic scoliosis. Nausea, vomiting and pruritus were considerably higher in the PCCEA group. Concerns regarding side effects associated with epidural opioids can be avoided by an intermittent bolus
Idiopathic scoliosis afflicts 2-3% of the population. For mild curvatures, observation is the treatment of choice. Though this passive "wait and see" approach has been used for many years, the practice is inconsistent among different countries. In Anglo-Saxon countries where scoliosis specific exercises are not practised, observation is indicated for curvatures below 25° in growing children and adolescents. In countries, such as France, Germany, Italy and Poland where scoliosis specific corrective exercises are employed, only patients with no signs of maturity and with curvatures below 15° are treated by observation. Patients with curvatures between 15 - 25° are treated by scoliosis specific exercises. In view of the unpredictability of the progression of scoliosis curvatures in immature patients and the lack of knowledge of long term biomechanical repercussions of mild idiopathic scoliosis on lumbar spine and lower extremities, it is proposed that active intervention through scoliosis specific exercises rather than passive observation be employed in the treatment of mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Siu King Cheung, Catherine; Tak Keung Lee, Warren; Kit Tse, Yee; Ping Tang, Sheng; Man Lee, Kwong; Guo, Xia; Qin, Lin; Chun Yiu Cheng, Jack
A cross-sectional study of anthropometric parameters in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To compare anthropometric parameters and growth pattern of AIS girls versus normal controls during peri-puberty. Abnormal pattern of growth has been reported in AIS patients. The sequential changes of growth and the correlation with curve severity have not been properly studied. Five hundred ninety-eight AIS girls and 307 healthy girls entered the study. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), arm span, sitting height, and leg length were determined using standard techniques. Height and sitting height were adjusted by using the greatest Cobb angle to correct for spinal deformity (Bjure's formula). Puberty was graded by Tanner's staging. AIS girls had significantly shorter height (P = 0.001), corrected height (P = 0.005), arm span (P = 0.022), sitting height (P = 0.005) and leg length (P = 0.004) than the controls at pubertal stage I. From pubertal stages II through V, corrected height (P
Holewijn, R M; Kingma, I; de Kleuver, M; Schimmel, J J P; Keijsers, N L W
Previous studies show a limited alteration of gait at normal walking speed after spinal fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), despite the presumed essential role of spinal mobility during gait. This study analyses how spinal fusion affects gait at more challenging walking speeds. More specifically, we investigated whether thoracic-pelvic rotations are reduced to a larger extent at higher gait speeds and whether compensatory mechanisms above and below the stiffened spine are present. 18 AIS patients underwent gait analysis at increasing walking speeds (0.45 to 2.22m/s) before and after spinal fusion. The range of motion (ROM) of the upper (thorax, thoracic-pelvic and pelvis) and lower body (hip, knee and ankle) was determined in all three planes. Spatiotemporal parameters of interest were stride length and cadence. Spinal fusion diminished transverse plane thoracic-pelvic ROM and this difference was more explicit at higher walking speeds. Transversal pelvis ROM was also decreased but this effect was not affected by speed. Lower body ROM, step length and cadence remained unaffected. Despite the reduction of upper body ROM after spine surgery during high speed gait, no altered spatiotemporal parameters or increased compensatory ROM above or below the fusion (i.e. in the shoulder girdle or lower extremities) was identified. Thus, it remains unclear how patients can cope so well with such major surgery. Future studies should focus on analyzing the kinematics of individual spinal levels above and below the fusion during gait to investigate possible compensatory mechanisms within the spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nault, Marie-Lyne; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Turgeon, Isabelle; deGuise, Jacques; Labelle, Hubert
Study Design. This is a prospective case-control study. Objective. The objective of this study was to compare 3-dimensional (3D) morphological parameters of the spine at the first visit between a nonprogressive (NP) and a progressive (P) group of immature adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Summary of Background Data. Prediction of curve progression remains challenging in AIS at the first visit. Prediction of progression is based on curve type, curve magnitude, and skeletal or chronological age. Methods. A prospective cohort of 133 AIS was followed from skeletal immaturity to maturity (mean, 37 mo). The first group was made up of patients with AIS with a minimum 6-degree progression of the major curve between the first and last follow-up (P) (n = 53) and the second group was composed of patients with NP who reached maturity with less than 6-degree progression (n = 81). Computerized measurements were taken on reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) spine radiographs of the first visit. There were 6 categories of measurements: angle of plane of maximum curvature, Cobb angles (kyphosis, lordosis), 3D wedging (apical vertebra, apical disks), rotation (upper and lower junctional vertebra, apical vertebra, and thoracolumbar junction), torsion, and slenderness (height/width ratio). t tests were also conducted. Results. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups for age and initial Cobb angle. P presented significant hypokyphosis, and parameters related to rotation presented significant statistical differences between NP and P (plane of maximal curvature, torsion, and apical axial rotation). Depth slenderness also presented statistical differences. Conclusion. This study confirms that even at the initial visit, 3D morphological differences exist between P and NP AIS. It supports the use of 3D reconstructions of the spine in the initial evaluation of AIS to help predict outcome. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24776699
Gao, Bo; Gao, Wenjie; Chen, Chong; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Shaochun; Xu, Caixia; Huang, Dongsheng; Su, Peiqiang
Describing the morphologic features of the thoracic pedicle in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for placement of pedicle screws. Previous studies showed inadequate reliability owing to small sample size and heterogeneity of the patients surveyed. To use CT scans (1) to describe the morphologic features of 2718 thoracic pedicles from 60 female patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 60 age-, sex-, and height-matched controls; and (2) to classify the pedicles in three types based on pedicle width and analyze the distribution of each type. A total of 2718 pedicles from 60 female patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 60 matched female controls were analyzed via CT. All patients surveyed were diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, Lenke Type 1, at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, and all underwent pedicle screw fixation between January 2008 and December 2013 with preoperative radiographs and CT images on file. We routinely obtained CT scans before these procedures; all patients who underwent surgery during that period had CT scans, and all were available for analysis here. Control subjects had CT scans for other clinical indications and had no abnormal findings of the spine. The control subjects were chosen to match patients in terms of age (15 ± 2.6 years versus 15 ± 2.6 years) and sex. Height of the two groups also was matched (154 ± 9 cm versus 155 ± 10 cm; mean difference, -1.06 cm; 95% CI, -1.24 to -0.81 cm; p < 0.001). Pedicle width and length were measured from T1 to T12. The thoracic spine was classified in four regions: apical vertebra in the structural curve (AV-SC), nonapical vertebra in the structural curve (NAV-SC), apical vertebra in the nonstructural curve (AV-NSC), and nonapical vertebra in the nonstructural curve (NAV-NSC). Pedicles were classified in three types: pedicle width less than 2 mm as Type I, 2 mm to 4 mm as Type II, and greater than
Yagi, Mitsuru; Takemitsu, Masakazu; Machida, Masafumi
Retrospective case series of surgically treated adolescent patients with scoliosis. To assess the prevalence and independent risk factors for postoperative shoulder imbalance in surgically treated adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Despite recent reports that have identified risk factors for postoperative shoulder imbalance, the relative risks remain unclear. A retrospective review of 85 consecutive patients treated with thoracic fusion with a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean, 3.1 yr) was conducted to investigate the patient radiographical measurements and demographics. Shoulder height difference (SHD) was measured as the graded height difference of the soft tissue shadows. A SHD more than 2 cm indicated an unbalanced shoulder. Patient demographics and radiographical data were studied to determine risk factors for postoperative SHD. The potential risk factors included age, sex, Risser sign, Cobb angle, flexibility, and apical vertebral rotation (AVR) of the main curve, upper-instrumented vertebra level, SHD, and clavicle chest cage angle difference (CCAD). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent risk factors for postoperative shoulder imbalance. Of the 85 patients, 21 patients presented postoperative shoulder imbalance. The univariate analysis indicated age, Risser sign, Cobb angle of the main curve, AVR of the main curve, and CCAD as risk factors, but the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only AVR of the main curve and CCAD were independent risk factors for postoperative shoulder imbalance (AVR, P = 0.04, odds ratio (OR): 3.54; CCAD, P = 0.01, OR: 5.10). Postoperative shoulder imbalance was observed in 25% of the surgically treated adolescent patients. The CCAD and AVR of the main thoracic curve were independent risk factors for postoperative shoulder imbalance in surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The significant correlation between CCAD and
Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek
CT scans of structural thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were reviewed in nine patients admitted to our department for scoliosis surgery. The apical vertebra scans were chosen and the following parameters were evaluated: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 4) the rotation angle to the sagittal plane. The constant deviation of the spinous process towards the convex side of the curve was observed. The vertebral body itself was distorted towards the concavity of the curve. The angle between the spinous process and the transverse process was smaller on the convex side of the curve. The torsional, intravertebral deformity of the apical vertebra was a factor acting in the direction opposite to the rotation, in the sense to reduce the deformity of the spine in idiopathic scoliosis.
Khanal, Minoo; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Samadian, Mohammad; Hutchins, Stephen W; Kashani, Reza Vahab; Mardani, Mohammad A; Tari, Hossein Vahid; Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Curran, Sarah; Sadeghi, Heidar
Idiopathic scoliosis patients have postural equilibrium problems. The objective of this study was to assess postural control in subjects with idiopathic scoliosis following a 4-month intervention in an unbraced position. Quasi-experimental. Eight healthy girls and eight girls with idiopathic scoliosis took part. A Kistler force platform was used with a frequency of 100 Hz for recording data. The center of pressure was recorded in different positions out of brace for scoliosis and healthy subjects. Test conditions were single limb and double limb stance, with eyes open and closed, and foam and rigid surfaces. The data reflected a weak balance of idiopathic scoliosis subjects compared to healthy subjects. After 1 and 4 months of wearing the brace, center of pressure and center of gravity sway increased in the majority of the tests, although there were no significant differences in any of the test conditions (p > 0.05). While the center of pressure sway in medio-lateral direction decreased after 4 months of wearing a brace, in other variables center of pressure and center of gravity sway increased. Idiopathic scoliosis patients have weak balance in comparison to healthy subjects. In addition, following a period of 4 months of wearing a brace, balance parameters in the scoliosis subjects did not improve. The results show that we need more follow-up of orthoses wearing in idiopathic scoliosis subjects and suggest more studies at least 1-year follow-up to identify the efficiency of brace wear on balance. Scoliosis can alter postural stability and balance performance during quiet standing. Spinal deformity can alter a subject's ability to compensate for postural changes and cause gait deviations. This study investigated balance differences between the healthy and idiopathic scoliosis patients and the results of thoraco lumbo sacral orthosis brace wear. It might provide some new insight into the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis patients for
Talić, Goran; Ostojić, Ljerka; Bursać, Snježana Novaković; Nožica-Radulović, Tatjana; Stevanović-Papić, Đurđica
Idiopathic scoliosis, defined as a three-dimensional spine and trunk deformity, which appears in otherwise healthy subjects, exhibits complex relations with various forms of personal well-being and psychopathology. Most research studies have documented a higher proportion of psychological disturbances (e.g., self-criticism, negative body image, low self-esteem) and mental disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders, personality disorders) among idiopathc scoliosis patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, there are some reports, although more systematic research is warranted, on the role of mental health and personality traits in relation to the adherence to conservative treatment. Given the increasing role of surgical treatment in the management of scoliosis, as well as several reports on negative psychological outcomes of such interventions, there is a growing need for ongoing screening and mental health care in this population. It seems this also holds true for non-operative treatments, particularly bracing therapy. One should keep in mind that these scoliosis-psychopathology relations are deduced from a limited number of empirical studies, usually conducted on small sample sizes, suggesting the need for further large-scale investigations, preferrably those with longitudinal research designs. Understanding the complex interplay between personality/psychopathology and spinal deformities within the framework of personalized mind-body medicine, should help clinicians tailor more individualized and specific treatments and predict therapeutic outcomes in this clinical population.
Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Jakub; Głowacki, Maciej; Okręt, Adam
We aimed to provide a complex assessment of adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) after a minimum of 23 years after completed Milwaukee brace treatment. In the present study, a comparison between healthy female and AIS patients' perception of trunk disfigurement, self-image, mental health, pain level and everyday activity was made. Thirty AIS patients with a mean of 27.77 yrs (SD 3.30) after the treatment were included in the study. The control group consisted of 42 females, matching the age profile of the patient group. Study participants from both groups were examined using the same protocol, except for the radiological evaluation. Patients and healthy controls completed the Polish versions of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) and Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ). Patients additionally filled the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity (BSSQ-Deformity) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace (BSSQ-Brace). The study group's SAQ results differ significantly in regard to the total score and all individual domains, indicating better functioning among healthy controls. Except for the General domain (p = 0.002), among the remaining subscales the study group's results differed significantly at p<0.001. Considering SRS-22 results, it was revealed that the patient group scored higher, signaling better functioning with reference to pain level (p = 0.016), function/activity (p<0.001) and the total score (p<0.001). The findings add to the complexity of long-term effect evaluations of AIS, particularly amongst females treated with a Milwaukee brace. Long-term results were not conclusive in terms of nonverbal assessment of body image and emotional tension regarding the experiences of brace-wearing. Future patients can be reassured that scoliosis treated conservatively does not negatively affect everyday activity, pain level, childbearing and mental health. Subjects who declared to have psychological problems due to scoliosis had a
Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Kandasamy, Gokulakannan; Arnell, Tracey
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine which is usually not symptomatic and which can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity. In adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. Although surgery is usually recommended for curvatures exceeding 40° to 50° to stop curvature progression, recent reviews have shed some light on the long-term complications of such surgery and to the lack of evidence for such complicated procedures within the scientific literature. Furthermore, a number of patients are very fearful of having surgery and refuse this option or live in countries where specialist scoliosis surgery is not available. Other patients may be unable to afford the cost of specialist scoliosis surgery. For these patients the only choice is an alternative non-surgical treatment option. To examine the impact of different management options in patients with severe AIS, with a focus on trunk balance, progression of scoliosis, cosmetic issues, quality of life, disability, psychological issues, back pain, and adverse effects, at both the short-term (a few months) and the long-term (over 20 years). We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and two other databases up to January 2016 with no language limitations. We also checked the reference lists of relevant articles and conducted an extensive hand search of the grey literature. We searched for randomised controlled trials as well as prospective and retrospective controlled trials comparing spinal fusion surgery with no treatment or conservative treatment in AIS patients with a Cobb angle greater than 40°. We did not identify any evidence of superiority of effectiveness of operative compared to nonoperative interventions for patients with severe AIS. Within the present literature there is no clear evidence to suggest that a specific type of treatment is superior to
Chan, Emily W; Gannon, Stephen R; Shannon, Chevis N; Martus, Jeffrey E; Mencio, Gregory A; Bonfield, Christopher M
OBJECTIVE Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common type of scoliosis, often presents immediately prior to a woman's childbearing years; however, research investigating the impact of AIS on women's health, particularly pregnancy delivery outcomes, is sparse, with existing literature reporting mixed findings. Similarly limited are studies examining the change in scoliotic curve during or after pregnancy. Therefore, this study aims to determine 1) the impact of scoliotic curvature on obstetric complications (preterm births, induction of labor, and urgent/emergency caesarean section delivery), 2) regional anesthetic decision making and success during delivery for these patients, and 3) the effect of pregnancy on curve progression. METHODS Records of all pregnant patients diagnosed with AIS at the authors' institution who delivered between January 2002 and September 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic information, pre- and postpartum radiographic Cobb angles, and clinical data for each pregnancy and delivery were recorded and analyzed. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS Fifty-nine patients (84 deliveries) were included; 14 patients had undergone prior posterior spinal fusion. The median age at AIS diagnosis was 15.2 years, and the median age at delivery was 21.8 years. Overall, the median major Cobb angle prior to the first pregnancy was 25° (IQR 15°-40°). Most births were by spontaneous vaginal delivery (n = 45; 54%); elective caesarean section was performed in 17 deliveries (20%). Obstetric complications included preterm birth (n = 18; 21.4%), induction of labor (n = 20; 23.8%), and urgent/emergency caesarean section (n = 12; 14.0%); none were associated with severity of scoliosis curve or prior spinal fusion. Attempts at spinal anesthesia were successful 99% of the time (70/71 deliveries), even among the patients who had undergone prior spinal fusion (n = 13). There
Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Marc Michael; Borysov, Maksym; Lee, Sang Gil; Nan, Xiaofeng; Moramarco, Kathryn Ann
Long-term follow-up of untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) indicates that, with the exception of some extremely severe cases, AIS does not have a significant impact on quality of life and does not result in dire consequences. In view of the relatively benign nature of AIS and the long-term complications of surgery, the indications for treatment should be reviewed. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that scoliosis-specific exercises focusing on postural rehabilitation can positively influence the spinal curvatures in growing adolescents. Experiential postural re-education is a conservative, non-invasive approach, and its role in the management of AIS warrants further study. This article reviews current evidence for the inclusion of various forms of postural reeducation in the management of AIS. Recent comprehensive reviews have been researched including a manual and PubMed search for evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical/postural re-education/physiotherapy programs in growing AIS patients. This search revealed that there were few studies on the application of postural re-education in the management of AIS. These studies revealed that postural re-education in the form of exercise rehabilitation programs may have a positive influence on scoliosis; however, the various programs were difficult to compare. More research is necessary. There is at present Level 1 evidence for the effectiveness of Schroth scoliosis exercises in the management of AIS. Whether this evidence can be extrapolated to include other forms of scoliosis- pattern-specific exercises requires further investigation. Because corrective postures theoretically reduce the asymmetric loading of the spinal deformities and reverse the vicious cycle of spinal curvature progression, their integration into AIS programs may be beneficial and should be further examined. PMID:27340540
Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Choon Sung; Kim, Hyojune; Lee, Dong-Ho; Cho, Jae Hwan
Coronal imbalance is a complication of corrective surgeries in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, few studies about immediate coronal decompensation in Lenke-5C curves have reported its incidence, prognosis, and related factors. To evaluate the development of coronal imbalance after selective thoracolumbar-lumbar (TL/L) fusion (SLF) in Lenke-5C AIS, and to reveal related factors. Retrospective comparative study. This study included 50 consecutive patients with Lenke-5C AIS who underwent SLF at a single center. Whole-spine anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were used to measure radiological parameters. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of coronal imbalance (distance between C7 plumb line and central sacral vertical line >2 cm) in the early (1 month) postoperative period. Various radiological parameters were statistically compared between groups. Of the patients, 28% (14 of 50) showed coronal imbalance in the early postoperative period; however, most of them (13 of 14) showed spontaneous correction during follow-up. The development of coronal imbalance was related to less flexibility of the TL/L curve (51.3% vs. 52.6%, p=.040), greater T10-L2 kyphosis (11.7° vs. 6.4°, p=.034), and greater distal junctional angle (6.0° vs. 3.7°, p=.025) in preoperative radiographs. Lowermost instrumented vertebra (LIV) tilt was greater in the decompensation [+] group in the early postoperative period (8.8° vs. 4.4°, p=.009). However, this difference disappeared in final follow-up with the decrease of LIV tilt in the decompensation [+] group. Less flexibility of the TL/L curve, greater TL kyphosis, and greater distal junctional angle preoperatively were predictive factors for immediate coronal imbalance in Lenke-5C curves. Although coronal imbalance was frequently detected in the early postoperative period after SLF, it was mostly corrected spontaneously with a decrease of LIV tilt. Thus, SLF for Lenke-5C curves can be
Jung, Ji-Yong; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Kim, Jung-Ja
The effects of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis on postural balance during sitting were studied by measuring inclination angles, pressure distribution, and electromyography. Participants were classified into a control group, pelvic asymmetry group, scoliosis group, and scoliosis with pelvic asymmetry and then performed anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting on the unstable board for 5 seconds to assess their postural balance. Inclination and obliquity angles between the groups were measured by an accelerometer located on the unstable board. Pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) was analyzed using a capacitive seat sensor. In addition, surface electrodes were attached to the abdominal and erector spinae muscles of each participant. Inclination and obliquity angles increased more asymmetrically in participants with both pelvic asymmetry and scoliosis than with pelvic asymmetry or scoliosis alone. Maximum forces and peak pressures of each group showed an asymmetrical pressure distribution caused by the difference in height between the left and right pelvis and curve type of the patients' spines when performing anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting. Muscle contraction patterns of external oblique, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, and lumbar multifidus muscles may be influenced by spine curve type and region of idiopathic scoliosis. Asymmetrical muscle activities were observed on the convex side of scoliotic patients and these muscle activity patterns were changed by the pelvic asymmetry. From these results, it was confirmed that pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis cause postural asymmetry, unequal weight distribution, and muscular imbalance during sitting.
Negrini, Stefano; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Maruyama, Toru; Rigo, Manuel; Weiss, Hans Rudolf
Background Medicine is a scientific art: once science is not clear, choices are made according to individual and collective beliefs that should be better understood. This is particularly true in a field like adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, where currently does not exist definitive scientific evidence on the efficacy either of conservative or of surgical treatments. Aim of the study To verify the philosophical choices on the final outcome of a group of people believing and engaged in a conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Methods We performed a multifaceted study that included a bibliometric analysis, a questionnaire, and a careful Consensus reaching procedure between experts in the conservative treatment of scoliosis (SOSORT members). Results The Consensus reaching procedure has shown to be useful: answers changed in a statistically significant way, and 9 new outcome criteria were included. The most important final outcomes were considered Aesthetics (100%), Quality of life and Disability (more than 90%), while more than 80% of preferences went to Back Pain, Psychological well-being, Progression in adulthood, Breathing function, Scoliosis Cobb degrees (radiographic lateral flexion), Needs of further treatments in adulthood. Discussion In the literature prevail outcome criteria driven by the contingent treatment needs or the possibility to have measurement systems (even if it seems that usual clinical and radiographic methods are given much more importance than more complex Disability or Quality of Life instruments). SOSORT members give importance to a wide range of outcome criteria, in which clinical and radiographic issues have the lowest importance. Conclusion We treat our patients for what they need for their future (Breathing function, Needs of further treatments in adulthood, Progression in adulthood), and their present too (Aesthetics, Disability, Quality of life). Technical matters, such as rib hump or radiographic lateral alignment and rotation
Diarbakerli, Elias; Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Gerdhem, Paul
Cross-sectional. To describe physical activity level and fracture rates in adults with idiopathic scoliosis, diagnosed before maturity, and to compare with a control group. A previous study found a lower level of sporting activities in adults treated for idiopathic scoliosis compared with controls. Other studies have shown a lower bone mass in adults with idiopathic scoliosis compared with controls. One thousand two hundred seventy-eight adults (aged 18-71 yr) with idiopathic scoliosis and 214 controls (aged 18-70 yr) were included and answered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and questions about previous fractures. The three scoliosis treatment groups (untreated n = 360, brace n = 460, and surgically treated n = 458) were compared. Furthermore, a comparison based on onset (juvenile n = 169 or adolescent n = 976) was performed. Achieved weekly moderate activity level and metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes/week were assessed for patients and controls. Statistical comparisons were made with analysis of covariance with adjustments for age, body mass index, and sex. The proportion achieving weekly moderate activity level was 962 out of 1278 for individuals with idiopathic scoliosis (75%) and 157 out of 214 (73%) for controls (P = 0.40). The scoliosis patients reported 2016 MET-minutes/week (median value) and the controls 2456 (P = 0.06). Fracture rates did not differ (P = 0.72). Fewer surgically treated individuals achieved moderate activity level (P = 0.046) compared with the untreated and the previously braced individuals. No difference was seen regarding MET-minutes/week (P = 0.86). No differences were seen between individuals with a juvenile onset compared with individuals with an adolescent onset (all P ≥ 0.05). Adults with idiopathic scoliosis have similar physical activity level and do not sustain more fractures compared with controls. Adults with surgically treated
Whyte Ferguson, Lucy
The treatment of severe chronic pain in young people following surgery for the correction of curvatures of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is presented through two case histories. Effective treatment involved release of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) known to refer pain into the spine, and treatment of related fascia and joint dysfunction. The TrPs found to be contributing to spinal area pain were located in muscles at some distance from the spine rather than in the paraspinal muscles. Referred pain from these TrPs apparently accounted for pain throughout the base of the neck and thoracolumbar spine. Exploratory surgery was considered for one patient to address pain following rod placement but the second surgery became unnecessary when the pain was controlled with treatment of the myofascial pain and joint dysfunction. The other individual had both scoliosis and hyperkyphosis, had undergone primary scoliosis surgery, and subsequently underwent a second surgery to remove hardware in an attempt to address her persistent pain following the initial surgery (and because of dislodged screws). The second surgery did not, however, reduce her pain. In both cases these individuals, with severe chronic pain following scoliosis corrective surgery, experienced a marked decrease of pain after myofascial treatment. As will be discussed below, despite the fact that a significant minority of individuals who have scoliosis corrective surgery are thought to require a second surgery, and despite the fact that pain is the most common reason leading to such revision surgery, myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) had apparently not previously been considered as a possible factor in their pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benli, I T; Akalin, S; Aydin, E; Baz, A; Citak, M; Kiş, M; Duman, E
Since the definition of three-dimensional components of the scoliotic deformity, there have been important improvements in the surgical treatment of the problem. A derotation maneuver was proposed as a treatment option with CD instrumentation, but the reports of imbalance and decompensation with this system repopularized sublaminar wiring and translation as a corrective maneuver. Isola spinal instrumentation is one of the modern systems that utilizes vertebral translation instead of rod rotation. This study analyzes the results of 24 patients with idiopathic scoliosis who had been followed up for at least 2 years, and were surgically treated with titanium Isola Spinal Instrumentation in the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Ankara Social Security Hospital. Patients were grouped according to the King-Moe classification. Patients with type III, IV or V curves received only posterior instrumentation while this procedure followed anterior release and discectomy in the same session in patients with type I or II curves. A translation maneuver was utilized in the correction of scoliotic curves using the cantilever technique, either alone or supplemented by sublaminar wiring with Songer multifilament titanium cables. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of this technique in the frontal and sagittal plane curves and the trunk balance. The balance was analyzed clinically and radiologically by measurement of the lateral trunk shift (LT), shift of stable vertebra (SS), and shift of head (SH) in vertebral units (VU). The postoperative correction was significant in the frontal plane for all types of curves (p < 0.05). The postoperative correction was 80.9% +/- 9.5% in type III curves. Overall, the mean Cobb angle of the major curve value in the frontal plane was 66.9 degrees +/- 18.8 degrees, and it was corrected by 62.8% +/- 20.1%. The correction loss of Cobb angles in the frontal plane was 5.4 degrees +/- 5.5 degrees at the last follow-up visit. A normal
Mahaudens, P; Detrembleur, C; Mousny, M; Banse, X
Walking is a very common activity for the human body. It is so common that the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems are optimized to have the minimum energetic cost at 4 km/h (spontaneous speed). A previous study showed that lumbar and thoracolumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients exhibit a reduction of shoulder, pelvic, and hip frontal mobility during gait. A longer contraction duration of the spinal and pelvic muscles was also noted. The energetic cost (C) of walking is normally linked to the actual mechanical work muscles have to perform. This total mechanical work (W(tot)) can be divided in two parts: the work needed to move the shoulders and lower limbs relative to the center of mass of the body (COM(b)) is known as the internal work (W(int)), whereas additional work, known as external work (W(ext)), is needed to accelerate and lift up the COM(b) relative to the ground. Normally, the COM(b) goes up and down by 3 cm with every step. Pathological walking usually leads to an increase in W (tot) (often because of increased vertical displacement of the COM(b)), and consequently, it increases the energetic cost. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of scoliosis and scoliosis severity on the mechanical work and energetic cost of walking. Fifty-four female subjects aged 12 to 17 were used in this study. Thirteen healthy girls were in the control group, 12 were in scoliosis group 1 (Cobb angle [Cb] < or = 20 degrees), 13 were in scoliosis group 2 (20 degrees < Cb < 40 degrees), and 16 were in scoliosis group 3 (Cb > or = 40 degrees). They were assessed by physical examination and gait analysis. The 41 scoliotic patients had an untreated progressive left thoracolumbar or lumbar AIS. During gait analysis, the subject was asked to walk on a treadmill at 4 km h(-1). Movements of the limbs were followed by six infrared cameras, which tracked markers fixed on the body. W(int) was calculated from the kinematics. The movements of the COM
Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Li, Yanming; Zhao, Yingchuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhang, Guoyou; Fan, Jianping; Ni, Haijian; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming
Abstract A retrospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of 3-dimensional rapid prototyping (3DRP) technology in corrective surgery for Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. 3DRP technology has been widely used in medical field; however, no study has been performed on the effectiveness of 3DRP technology in corrective surgery for Lenke 1 AIS patients. Lenke 1 AIS patients who were preparing to undergo posterior corrective surgery from a single center between January 2010 and January 2012 were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In group A, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology was used to create subject-specific spine models in the preoperative planning process. Group B underwent posterior corrective surgery as usual (by free hand without image guidance). Perioperative and postoperative clinical outcomes were compared between 2 groups, including operation time, perioperative blood loss, transfusion volume, postoperative hemoglobin (Hb), postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay. Radiological outcomes were also compared, including the assessment of screw placement, postoperative Cobb angle, coronal balance, sagittal vertical axis, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Subgroup was also performed according to the preoperative Cobb angle: mean Cobb angle <50° and mean Cobb angle >50°. Besides, economic evaluation was also compared between 2 groups. A total of 126 patients were included in this study (group A, 50 and group B, 76). Group A had significantly shorter operation time, significantly less blood loss and transfusion volume, and higher postoperative Hb (all, P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in complication rate, length of hospital stay, and postoperative radiological outcomes between 2 groups (all, P>0.05). There was also no significant difference in misplacement of screws in total populations (16.90% vs 18.82%, P = 0.305), whereas a low misplacement rate
Karavidas, Nikos; Moramarco, Marc; Moramarco, Kathryn
Currently, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is principally regarded as benign, but some researchers have cited serious or extreme effects, including severe pain, cardiopulmonary compromise, social isolation, and even early death. Therefore, exploration of the long-term effects of AIS, the most common type of idiopathic scoliosis, is warranted. The purpose of this review was to examine the long-term studies on the natural history of AIS and/or reviews concerning the long-term effects of untreated AIS. A PubMed search was conducted using the key words idiopathic scoliosis, long-term effects and idiopathic scoliosis, natural history. For further analysis, references cited in those studies were reviewed for additional, related evidence not retrieved in the initial PubMed search. A review of the pertinent bibliography showed that older natural history studies did not distinguish between late-onset scoliosis (referred to in this paper as AIS) and early-onset scoliosis (EOS). The more recent studies offer such important distinction and reach to the general conclusion that untreated AIS does not lead to severe consequences with respect to signs and symptoms of scoliosis. It is possible that earlier studies may have included patient populations with EOS, leading to the perception of untreated scoliosis as having an unusually high morbidity rate. Studies on the long-term effects of AIS that specifically excluded EOS patients conclude that AIS is a benign disorder. This indicates that for research and reporting purposes, it is important to distinguishing between AIS and EOS. This will allow the practitioner and patient and their families to decide on an optimal treatment plan based on the most appropriate prognosis. PMID:27994795
Atici, Yunus; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Atici, Aysegul; Buyukkuscu, Mehmet Ozbey; Arikan, Yavuz; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent
This study investigated the short-term effects of KT on back pain (BP) in patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). We chosen Lenke Type 1 scoliosis who have had only back pain (the localization of the pain: the only in the apical convex edge). Forty patients suffering from BP with Lenke Type 1 AIS were randomly separated into two groups, Group 1 (20 patients) and Group 2 (20 patients). Group 1 was given KT with tension and home exercises and Group 2 was given KT without tension and home exercises. KT and home exercises was applied to the thoracic area of the patients in both groups for four weeks. Pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) and SRS-22 (subtotal SRS-20) before and after treatment. Mean age of both groups was 16.1 years. Mean Cobb angle of the thoracic scoliosis was 31.8° (range: 17°-44°) in Group 1 and 32.8° (range: 19°-43°) in Group 2 before the treatment. The decrease in VAS score of Group 1 after taping was higher than that of Group 2. The difference between the pre- and post-treatment VAS scores of both groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The increase in mean SRS-20 score of Group 1 following taping application was significantly higher than the increase in the control group (p < 0.05). Results demonstrated that KT application with tension effectively leads to back pain relief shortly after application. In addition, KT has a positive impact on quality of life. Thus, KT may be a suitable intervention in treating back pain of patients with AIS. Level 1, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamath, Vijay H D; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Mak, Kin Cheung; Wong, Yat Wa; Cheung, Wai Yuen; Luk, Keith Dip Kei; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee
There is much variation in the choice, timing and duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis for preventing surgical site infections (SSI) but no guideline exists for scoliosis surgery. The aim of study was to compare the efficacy of two antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) protocols with cephazolin in preventing SSI in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A retrospective comparative analysis of two post-operative AMP protocols (two postoperative doses versus continued antibiotics till drain removal) was performed. Patient characteristics, pre-operative, intra- and post-operative risk factors for infection, drain use, generic drug name and number of doses administered were recorded from 226 patients with AIS who had undergone posterior spinal fusion. Details of superficial or deep SSI and wound healing aberrations, and serious adverse events were recorded. Analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the pre-, intra- and post-operative variables between the two groups. 155 patients received 2 postoperative doses of AMP and 71 patients had antibiotics till drain removal. The average follow-up was 43 months. The overall rate of SSI was 1.7 % for the spine wound and 1.3 % for the iliac crest wound. 1.9 % of patients with 2 doses of AMP and 1.4 % of patients with antibiotics till drain removal had SSI. No adverse reactions attributable to cephazolin were observed. This is the first study on the AMP protocol in scoliosis surgery for SSI prevention. Results suggest that two doses of AMP are as effective as continued antimicrobial use until drain removal. Cephazolin appears to be effective and safe for prophylaxis.
Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F
Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Seven hundred forty-four patients (621 females and 123 males) were included. On average, males were 1 year older than females. There were no differences between sexes in Risser grade, bracing history, maximum curve magnitude, or correction after surgery. Both males and females had similar improvement in all SRS-30 domains after surgery. Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for
De la Garza Ramos, Rafael; Goodwin, C Rory; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Jain, Amit; Miller, Emily K; Huang, Nicole; Kebaish, Khaled M; Sponseller, Paul D; Sciubba, Daniel M
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following idiopathic scoliosis surgery in adolescents. METHODS The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to identify patients 10-18 years of age who had undergone spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) from 2002 to 2011. Twenty-three unique in-hospital postoperative complications, including death, were examined. A series of logistic regressions was used to determine if any demographic, comorbid, or surgical parameter was associated with complication development. Results of multiple logistic regression analyses were reported as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were performed after the application of discharge weights to produce national estimates. RESULTS A total of 36,335 patients met the study inclusion criteria, 7.6% of whom (95% CI 6.3%-8.9%) developed at least one in-hospital complication. The 3 most common complications were respiratory failure (3.47%), reintubation (1.27%), and implant related (1.14%). Major complications such as death, pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, visual loss, spinal cord injury, cardiac arrest, sepsis, nerve root injury, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, shock, malignant hyperthermia, myocardial infarction, and iatrogenic stroke each had an incidence ≤ 0.2%. On multiple logistic regression analysis, an increasing age (OR 0.80) was associated with significantly lower odds of complication development; patients who were male (OR 1.80) or who had anemia (OR 2.10), hypertension (OR 2.51), or hypothyroidism (OR 2.27) or underwent revision procedures (OR 5.55) were at a significantly increased risk for complication development. The rates of postoperative complications for posterior, anterior, and combined approaches were 6.7%, 10.0%, and 19.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Length of fusion (< 8 vs ≥ 8 levels) was not associated with complication development
Hundozi-Hysenaj, Hajrije; Dallku, Iliriana Boshnjaku; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rrecaj, Shkurte
Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformation of the spine with a lateral curvature or deviation greater than 10 degrees and associated with vertebral rotation. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their effectiveness is still questioned. The objective of this study was to define the effectiveness of braces and individual physiotherapy for the comprehensive treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. A retrospective study of 57 children with idiopathic thoracic dextroscoliosis with the magnitude of the thoracic curve between 20 degrees-35 degrees, treated in Orthopedic and Physiatrist Clinic as well as National Ortho-prosthetic Center within University Clinical Center of Kosova in Prishtina, during the period of 2003-2006. Inclusion of kinesitherapy in the comprehensive management of idiopathic scoliosis varied in the improvement of the muscle strength (satisfied and moderate) in almost 80% of the children while the correction of the curve was small in approximately 42.1% of cases. For children with idiopathic scoliosis, who require braces, an exercise program helps chest mobility, muscle strength, proper breathing flexibility in the spine, correct posture and keeps muscles in tone so that the transition period after brace removal is easier.
Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Mercier, Pierre; Descarreaux, Martin; Simoneau, Martin
This study aims at verifying if impaired sensorimotor control observed in adolescents and young adults with scoliosis is also present in adult patients who underwent surgery to reduce their spine deformation. The study included ten healthy adults and ten adults with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent surgery to reduce their spine deformation. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was delivered to assess sensorimotor control. Vertical forces under each foot and horizontal displacement of the upper body were measured before, during and after stimulation. Balance control was assessed by calculating the root mean square values of kinematic and kinetic variables. The amplitude of the vestibular-evoked postural response was 3.4 % (0.8-6.0 %) and 4.5 % (-0.4 to 9.5 %) of the maximal range of motion. Therefore, spine surgery did not limit the postural response. Patients with idiopathic scoliosis exhibited larger body sway than the healthy controls during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. The maximal normalized lateral displacement of the body was 0.85 and 0.40 cm/m and maximal normalized vertical force was 0.78 vs. 0.39 N/kg, for idiopathic scoliosis and healthy groups, respectively. This result suggests that dysfunctional sensorimotor integration is still present even in adult idiopathic scoliosis that underwent spine deformation correction.
Goto, Manabu; Kawakami, Noriaki; Azegami, Hideyuki; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Takeuchi, Kenzen; Sasaoka, Ryu
Computational analysis using the finite-element method was used to examine a possible etiology of idiopathic scoliosis. To compare changes in the coronal and the transverse planes of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis with changes produced in a finite-element buckling model, and to investigate the influence of bone modeling on the buckling spine. Although it is now widely accepted that growth is related strongly to the onset and progression of scoliosis, the pathomechanism or etiology of idiopathic scoliosis still is not clear. A previous study showed that a buckling phenomenon caused by anterior spinal overgrowth can produce scoliosis, and that the fourth buckling mode matched the clinical characteristics associated with the thoracic type of idiopathic scoliosis. The fourth buckling mode occurs when the first, second, and third buckling modes are prevented. The spinal finite-element model used in this study consisted of 68,582 elements and 84,603 nodes. The transverse changes seen in the computed tomography images of 41 patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis (apex, T8; average Cobb angle, 52.5 degrees) were compared with those produced in the fourth buckling mode. Bone modeling (bone formation and resorption) was simulated as heat deformation caused by changes in temperature. The bone formation and resorption were simulated, respectively, by positive and negative volume changes in proportion to the stress that occurred in the buckling spine. Computed tomography images of scoliosis show that as the scoliosis becomes more severe, the thoracic cage decreases on the convex side of the curve and increases on the concave side. The opposite thoracic cage deformation was obtained in the fourth buckling mode. In patients with scoliosis, the sternum essentially remains in its original position with respect to the vertebrae, but in the linear buckling model, it shifted in the direction of vertebral body rotation. In contrast to clinical data, the incremental deformation
Takeuchi, Kenzen; Azegami, Hideyuki; Murachi, Shunji; Kitoh, Junzoh; Ishida, Yoshito; Kawakami, Noriaki; Makino, Mitsunori
A hypothesis that the thoracic idiopathic scoliosis is buckling phenomenon of the fourth mode induced by the growth of thoracic vertebral bodies was presented in the previous work by the authors using numerical simulations with finite element model of the spine. If the hypothesis is acceptable, sensitivity function with respect to the critical growth of thoracic vertebrae on the maximization problem of buckling load with the fourth buckling mode gives us useful information to improve and develop treatments for the idiopathic scoliosis. The numerical results analyzed by the finite element method demonstrated that the sensitivity function is high at the articular capsules of the intervertebral joints, the intervertebral disks, the costotransverse joints and the constovertebral joints around the apex of the curvature in the case of the thoracic idiopathic scoliosis.
Miriutova, N F; Kirichuk, S V; Lipina, E V
Examination of 1326 children and adolescents revealed physiological asymmetry of neuro-orthopedic status in 57% of the subjects, functional scoliosis in 33%, and structural scoliosis in 4.5%. Only 5.5% of the examined children and adolescents did not show clinical and functional signs of spinal pathology. Treatment with mechanical vibrations (vibro-massage or "swing" therapy), pulsed extremely high frequency (EHF) waves and electrical current yielded good therapeutic effect in cases with idiopathic scoliosis. Specifically, it resulted in a diminished angle of curvature of the spine and improved muscular support of the spine.
We aimed to provide a complex assessment of adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) after a minimum of 23 years after completed Milwaukee brace treatment. In the present study, a comparison between healthy female and AIS patients’ perception of trunk disfigurement, self-image, mental health, pain level and everyday activity was made. Thirty AIS patients with a mean of 27.77 yrs (SD 3.30) after the treatment were included in the study. The control group consisted of 42 females, matching the age profile of the patient group. Study participants from both groups were examined using the same protocol, except for the radiological evaluation. Patients and healthy controls completed the Polish versions of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) and Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ). Patients additionally filled the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity (BSSQ-Deformity) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace (BSSQ-Brace). The study group’s SAQ results differ significantly in regard to the total score and all individual domains, indicating better functioning among healthy controls. Except for the General domain (p = 0.002), among the remaining subscales the study group’s results differed significantly at p<0.001. Considering SRS-22 results, it was revealed that the patient group scored higher, signaling better functioning with reference to pain level (p = 0.016), function/activity (p<0.001) and the total score (p<0.001). The findings add to the complexity of long-term effect evaluations of AIS, particularly amongst females treated with a Milwaukee brace. Long-term results were not conclusive in terms of nonverbal assessment of body image and emotional tension regarding the experiences of brace-wearing. Future patients can be reassured that scoliosis treated conservatively does not negatively affect everyday activity, pain level, childbearing and mental health. Subjects who declared to have psychological problems due to scoliosis had
The Impact of the Derotational Mobilization of Manual Therapy According to Kaltenborn-Evjenth on the Angle of Trunk Rotation in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis--Pilot Study, Direct Observation.
Wnuk, Bartosz; Blicharska, Irmina; Błaszczak, Edward; Durmała, Jacek
The use of manual therapy in the treatment of scoliosis has been controversial. Scientific reports do not clearly indicate its effectiveness or harmfulness. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of passive and active derotation techniques of manual therapy according to Kaltenborn-Evjent on the reduction of the angle of trunk rotation in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The study enrolled 33 female patients from the Department of Rehabilitation who were diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The patients were divided into two groups according to the curve location (SRS classification). Group A consisted of 17 women, aged 14.±2.4 years, with single-curve scoliosis in the thoracolumbar segment and group B was composed of 16 women, aged 15±2.24 years, with double-curve scoliosis in the thoracic and lumbar segments. In both groups, the angle of trunk rotation, the magnitude of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were measured twice, before and after each session of derotation techniques. Both groups demonstrated a positive impact of active and passive derotation techniques on the angle of trunk inclination. The greatest difference was observed after a session of active derotation in the patients with lumbar scoliosis. The angle of trunk rotation decreased on average by 4.5°±1.14°. No correlations were found between the curve angle values and the degree of thoracic derotation after the application of these techniques. Derotational mobilization techniques may be a valuable complement to scoliosis treatment methods as they increase their effectiveness.
Ng, Bobby Kin Wah; Chau, Wai-Wang; Hui, Chak-Na; Cheng, Po-Yin; Wong, Chau-Yuet; Wang, Bin; Cheng, Jack Chun Yiu; Lam, Tsz Ping
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcome questionnaire, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-30, had been well received since its establishment in 2003. Literatures from Asia on the use of SRS-30 mainly focused on the translation process and validation process, but not on measuring outcomes, particularly in the Chinese community. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate the HRQoL of Chinese AIS adolescents with severe scoliosis after surgery. One hundred and four Chinese AIS patients with severe scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion between 2009 and 2013 were recruited in this study. They completed SRS-30 questions before surgery, before hospital discharge, and at follow-up. Mean scores and percentages of individual scores in different domains, and composite scores in terms of subtotal and total scores were calculated referring to the scoring system. Gender-specific and period-specific descriptive analyses were described. Correlation of mean domain scores at the three time points were explored to look for any time-specific relationship. Linear regression analysis looking for potential risk factors on domain scores at different time points by gender were also carried out. Mean age was 16.28 at surgery, and 83.6% were female. Significant correlations between pre-op scores and scores after surgery were observed in function/activity domain (p=0.05) in males, and pain (p=0.04) and satisfaction with management (p=0.04) domains in females. No gender difference in all 5 domain scores at the 3 time points was found. Pre-op maximum Cobb angle and corrected angle were found to be risk factors on self-image, as well as satisfaction with management, in male and female patients. This is the first report on the evaluation of the clinical HRQoL outcomes of Chinese AIS patients with severe scoliosis after surgery. Medical professionals should pay attention to take care of the difference in personal perceptions of feelings between boys and girls. Special care
Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O
Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P < 0.001), whereas the SRS-22 scores were significantly lower than the SRS-24 for self-image (P < 0.001). Preoperative ceiling effect was only noted in 1 domain each. Both versions were able to discriminate between large (80°+) and small (<45°) preoperative curves in all domains and total scores (P < 0.05). Postoperatively, the SRS-22 scores for all shared domains and total score were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P < 0.001). Ceiling effects in 5 of 5 domain scores were noted postoperatively for SRS-22 and in 4 of 7 for SRS-24. With a smaller range of deformity postoperatively, only the SRS-22 self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of
Wang, Liang; Yu, Bin; Zhuang, Qian-yu; Wang, Yi-Peng
Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768) were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS. PMID:26421281
Jada, Ajit; Mackel, Charles E; Hwang, Steven W; Samdani, Amer F; Stephen, James H; Bennett, James T; Baaj, Ali A
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a 3D spinal deformity affecting children between the ages of 11 and 18, without an identifiable etiology. The authors here reviewed the available literature to provide spine surgeons with a summary and update on current management options. Smaller thoracic and thoracolumbar curves can be managed conservatively with observation or bracing, but corrective surgery may be indicated for rapidly growing or larger curves. The authors summarize the atypical features to look for in patients who may warrant further investigation with MRI during diagnosis and review the fundamental principles of the surgical management of AIS. Patients with AIS can be managed very well with a combination of conservative and surgical options. Outcomes for these children are excellent with sustained longer-term results.
Bago, J; Ramirez, M; Pellise, F; Villanueva, C
This study presents a survivorship analysis of Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation in the surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Between 1987 and 1995, a total of 133 patients with idiopathic scoliosis received posterior spine fusion and instrumentation with the CD system at our center. The patients' mean age at surgery was 16.5 years (range 11-43 years). The magnitude of the thoracic scoliosis averaged 62.7 degrees (range 40 degrees -125 degrees ) and that of the lumbar curve was 58.8 degrees (range 40 degrees -100 degrees ). On average, 12.2 segments were fused (range 8-17) and, excluding the rods, 14.1 implants were set for each patient (range 10-21). Survivorship analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method. Implant removal was considered the terminal event, or "death". The effect of several variables on survival rate was determined with the Cox regression method. The patients remained in the study for 56.7 months (range 2-120 months). One-hundred and ten patients were withdrawn ("censored"): 90 "alive" (did not require repeat surgery and attended follow-up control in 1997) and 20 "lost" (did not attend control in 1997). Twenty-three patients attained the terminal event of implant removal for a variety of reasons: acute infection (three cases), late infection (ten cases), implant failure requiring revision (six cases) and local pain (four cases). The survival rate was 95.5% at 3 months, 94.7% at 6 months, 93.9% at 1 year, 91.5% at 2 years, 82.2% at 5 years and 76.5% at 10 years. The magnitude of the curves, total number of implants and number of fused segments did not correlate with survival probability. A positive correlation was found between survival rate and correction loss between surgery and last control. A survival rate of 76.5% at 10 years is unexpectedly low. Current data suggest that the incapacity to maintain correction after initial surgery plays a major roll in the long-term evolution of Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation.
Théroux, Jean; Stomski, Norman; Losco, Christine Dominique; Khadra, Christelle; Labelle, Hubert; Le May, Sylvie
The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of clinical trials of spinal manipulative therapy for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Search strategies were developed for PubMed, CINHAL, and CENTRAL databases. Studies were included through June 2016 if they were prospective trials that evaluated spinal manipulative therapy (eg, chiropractic, osteopathic, physical therapy) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Data were extracted and assessed by 2 independent reviewers. Cochrane risk of bias tools were used to assess the quality of the included studies. Data were reported qualitatively because heterogeneity prevented statistical pooling. Four studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. The findings of the included studies indicated that spinal manipulative therapy might be effective for preventing curve progression or reducing Cobb angle. However, the lack of controls and small sample sizes precluded robust estimation of the interventions' effect sizes. There is currently insufficient evidence to establish whether spinal manipulative therapy may be beneficial for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The results of the included studies suggest that spinal manipulative therapy may be a promising treatment, but these studies were all at substantial risk of bias. Further high-quality studies are warranted to conclusively determine if spinal manipulative therapy may be effective in the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Trobisch, Per D; Samdani, Amer F; Betz, Randal R; Bastrom, Tracey; Pahys, Joshua M; Cahill, Patrick J
Iatrogenic flattening of lumbar lordosis in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was a major downside of first generation instrumentation. Current instrumentation systems allow a three-dimensional scoliosis correction, but flattening of lumbar lordosis remains a significant problem which is associated with decreased health-related quality of life. This study sought to identify risk factors for loss of lumbar lordosis in patients who had surgical correction of AIS with the use of segmental instrumentation. Patients were included if they had surgical correction for AIS with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation Lenke type 1 or 2 and if they had a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Two groups were created, based on the average loss of lumbar lordosis. The two groups were then compared and multivariate analysis was performed to identify parameters that correlated to loss of lumbar lordosis. Four hundred and seventeen patients were analyzed for this study. The average loss of lumbar lordosis at 24 months follow-up was an increase of 10° lordosis for group 1 and a decrease of 15° for group 2. Risk factors for loss of lumbar lordosis included a high preoperative lumbar lordosis, surgical decrease of thoracic kyphosis, and the particular operating surgeon. The lowest instrumented vertebra or spinopelvic parameters were two of many parameters that did not seem to influence loss of lumbar lordosis. This study identified important risk factors for decrease of lumbar lordosis in patients who had surgical treatment for AIS with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, including a high preoperative lumbar lordosis, surgical decrease of thoracic kyphosis, and factors attributable to a particular operating surgeon that were not quantified in this study.
Suzuki, Shigeru; Kotani, Toshiaki; Mori, Kazuetsu; Kawamura, Ken; Ohtake, Akira
While the association between scoliosis and cardiac and respiratory function impairments has been well characterized in clinical practice and research, the potential effect of scoliosis on urinary tract structure and renal function has received little attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the preoperative clinical characteristics of urinary tract structure and renal function in pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis, using a combination of blood tests, urinalysis, and imaging. Preoperative measures of urinary tract structure and renal function were obtained for 16 patients, 13-17 years old, scheduled for corrective surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. Preoperative assessment included blood test and urinalysis, combined with structural imaging on ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance urography (MRU), and radioisotope tracing (RI), using technetium-99 m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ( 99m Tc-MAG3). Differences in blood and urine tests between patients with and without urinary tract obstruction (UTO) were evaluated for significance using Mann-Whitney U test. For all 16 patients, blood tests and MRU were within normal limits. Dilatation of the renal pelvis was identified on US in eight patients (50.0%). UTO was identified on RI in six patients (37.5%). UTO was associated with elevated β2-microglobulin concentration. Urinary β2-microglobulin concentration >0.7 μg/mg Cr differentiated patients with UTO from those without UTO, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 70%. β2-Microglobulin concentration may be a useful marker to screen for asymptomatic UTO in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Porte, M; Patte, K; Dupeyron, A; Cottalorda, J
Many practitioners, pediatricians, and general practitioners prescribe physical therapy when tracking scoliosis. However, has physical therapy alone proved its efficacy in the care of the scoliosis to slow down progression? Our purpose is to report the results of a literature review on the effectiveness of rehabilitation in idiopathic scoliosis. No current study presents sufficient scientific proof to validate the efficacy of isolated exercise therapy in scoliosis. Learned societies recognize, however, the efficacy of combining conservative therapy (brace+physiotherapy) in idiopathic scoliosis. Should we then still prescribe rehabilitation without brace treatment? Although physical therapy alone does not seem effective in treating scoliosis, it can limit potential painful phenomena and be beneficial for respiratory function. The physical therapist can also teach the teenager the classic principles of hygiene of the back. It may therefore be appropriate to prescribe physical therapy, but the principles and objectives must be explained to the patient and family in light of current evidence-based medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hayes, Madeline; Gao, Xiaochong; Yu, Lisa X; Paria, Nandina; Henkelman, R. Mark; Wise, Carol A.; Ciruna, Brian
Scoliosis is a complex genetic disorder of the musculoskeletal system, characterized by three-dimensional rotation of the spine. Curvatures caused by malformed vertebrae (congenital scoliosis (CS)) are apparent at birth. Spinal curvatures with no underlying vertebral abnormality (idiopathic scoliosis (IS)) most commonly manifest during adolescence. The genetic and biological mechanisms responsible for IS remain poorly understood due largely to limited experimental models. Here we describe zygotic ptk7 (Zptk7) mutant zebrafish, deficient in a critical regulator of Wnt signalling, as the first genetically defined developmental model of IS. We identify a novel sequence variant within a single IS patient that disrupts PTK7 function, consistent with a role for dysregulated Wnt activity in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that embryonic loss-of-gene function in maternal-zygotic ptk7 mutants (MZptk7) leads to vertebral anomalies associated with CS. Our data suggest novel molecular origins of, and genetic links between, congenital and idiopathic forms of disease. PMID:25182715
Gussous, Yazeed M; Tarima, Sergey; Zhao, Shi; Khan, Safdar; Caudill, Angela; Sturm, Peter; Hammerberg, Kim W
Serial derotational casting has been used as a definitive treatment or as delaying strategy in progressive idiopathic (IS) and non-idiopathic (NIS) early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Retrospective chart and radiographic review of patients who underwent serial casting for progressive EOS between 2005 and 2012 at a single institution. A total of 74 consecutive patients entered serial cast treatment. Twenty-eight were currently being casted, 30 completed cast treatment and were converted to thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO), 9 were treated surgically, 6 were lost to follow-up, and 1 had no further treatment. The researchers diagnosed IS in 41 patients; 33 had NIS. At presentation the IS group had an average Cobb angle (CA) of 49° and a rib vertebral angle difference (RVAD) of 37°. The NIS group had a CA of 51° (p = .69) and RVAD of 37° (p = .94). In patients currently being casted, 19 IS patients had a decreased CA, from 47° to 27°. The 9 NIS patients had a decreased CA, from 62° to 57° (p = .0002). Cobb angle improvement was significantly better in IS (p = .0005). In the TLSO group the 17 IS patients had a decreased average CA, from 46° to 18°, after serial casting and the 13 NIS patients decreased CA from 42° to 32°. Patients with IS had better improvement in CA than the NIS group (p < .001). At last follow-up, this was reduced to 11° in the IS group and maintained at 32° in the NIS. In the IS group, 5 of 41 patients were converted to growth constructs, and 4 of 26 in the NIS group. Casting initiated before age 2 years yielded better curve correction for IS (p < .01) compared with NIS. Progressive idiopathic scoliosis patients had better curve correction with casting than NIS patients. Casting in IS patients before age 24 months yielded better curve correction. Patients who required surgery had a higher age and Cobb angle at presentation than those who transitioned to a TLSO. The surgical group was observed for a similar duration of time and there was no
Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L; Aggabao, Patricia C; Chavez, Thomas A; Broom, Alexander M; Wren, Tishya A L; Skaggs, David L; Gilsanz, Vicente
When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm(2); P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm(2); P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis.
Sharma, Shallu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Andersen, Thomas; Sun, Haolin; Wu, Chunsen; Hansen, Ebbe Stender
To examine correlation between postoperative radiographic and cosmetic improvements in Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with patients' self-rated outcomes of health and disability at follow-up as determined by the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-30), Oswestry Disability Index score (ODI) and measure of overall health quality Euroqol-5d (EQ-5D). 24 Lenke 1C scoliosis patients, mean age 16.5 (12.8-38.1) years, treated with posterior pedicle screw-only construct, were included. The coronal profile indices (radiographic and cosmetic) regarding magnitude of spinal deformity and truncal balance were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. A comprehensive index of overall back symmetry was also measured by means of the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). Pearson's correlation analysis determined the association between the radiographic-cosmetic indices and patient-rated outcomes. Mean follow-up for the cohort was 4.4 (±1.86) years. The thoracic apical vertebra-first thoracic vertebra horizontal distance (AV-TI) correction had significant correlation with function, self-image, and mental health SRS-30 scores (0.55, 0.54, 0.66). Similarly, thoracic apical vertebra horizontal translation from central sacral vertical line (AV-CSVL) correction at follow-up had significant correlation with self-image and management domains (0.57, 0.50). Follow-up POTSI correlated well with SRS-30 and EQ-5D scores (r = -0.64, -0.54). Postoperative leftward trunk shift/spinal imbalance did not influence overall cosmesis and outcomes; significant spinal realignment was evident in follow-up resulting in physiological balance and acceptable cosmesis and outcomes. Significant, but less than "perfect" correlations were observed between the radiographic, cosmetic measures and patient-rated outcomes. Thoracic AV-CSVL, AV-T1 correction and POTSI associated significantly with SRS-30 scores. Whereas, thoracic Cobb angle, Cobb correction, and
Le Huec, J C; Cogniet, A; Mazas, S; Faundez, A
Degenerative de novo scoliosis is commonly present in older adult patients. The degenerative process including disc bulging, facet arthritis, and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy contributes to the appearance of symptoms of spinal stenosis. Idiopathic scoliosis has also degenerative changes that can lead to spinal stenosis. The aetiology, prevalence, biomechanics, classification, symptomatology, and treatment of idiopathic and degenerative lumbar scoliosis in association with spinal stenosis are reviewed. Review study is based on a review of pertinent but non-exhaustive literature of the last 20 years in PubMed in English language. Retrospective analysis of studies focused on all parameters concerning scoliosis associated with stenosis. Very few publications have focused specifically on idiopathic scoliosis and stenosis, and this was before the advent of modern segmental instrumentation. On the other hand, many papers were found for degenerative scoliosis and stenosis with treatment methods based on aetiology of spinal canal stenosis and analysis of global sagittal and frontal parameters. Satisfactory clinical results after operative treatment range from 83 to 96 % but with increased percentage of complications. Recent literature analysed the importance of stabilizing or not the spine after decompression in such situation knowing the increasing risk of instability after facet resection. No prospective randomized studies were found to support short instrumentation. Long instrumentation and fusion to prevent distabilization after decompression were always associated with higher complication rates. Imbalance patients with unsatisfactory compensation capacities were at risk of complications. Operative treatment using newly proposed classification system of lumbar scoliosis with associated canal stenosis is useful. Sagittal balance and rotatory dislocation are the main parameters to analyse to determine the length of fusion.
Jiang, Jun; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-Zhang
To date, no study had reported the phenomenon of deteriorated postoperative cervical tilt in Lenke type 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cervical tilt in Lenke type 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with right-elevated shoulder treated by either full fusion or partial/non fusion of the proximal thoracic curve. A total of 30 Lenke type 2 AIS patients with preoperative right-elevated shoulder underwent posterior spinal instrumentation from 2009 to 2011 were included in this study. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups according to the selection of upper instrumented vertebra. There were 14 cases proximally fused to T1 or T2 (Group A) and 16 cases proximally fused to T3 or below (Group B). Both standing anteroposterior and sagittal X-ray films of the spine obtained preoperatively, one week after the operation, and at a minimum of two-year follow-up were analyzed with respect to the following parameters: cervical tilt, T1 tilt, proximal thoracic Cobb angle, main thoracic Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation of proximal thoracic curve, apical vertebral translation of main thoracic curve, radiographic shoulder height, cervical lordosis, proximal thoracic kyphosis and main thoracic kyphosis. Most (83.3%) of the patients in these two groups gained satisfactory shoulder balance after surgery. However, the cervical tilt significantly improved in group A (p < 0.001) but deteriorated in group B (p < 0.001). In group A, the decrease of cervical tilt significantly positively correlated with that of T1 tilt (p < 0.001). In group B, the increase of cervical tilt significantly positively correlated with both the increase of T1 tilt (p < 0.001) and the increase of apical vertebral translation of proximal thoracic curve (p < 0.05). Lenke type 2 AIS patients with right-elevated shoulder gain improved shoulder but deteriorated cervical tilt after partial/non fusion of proximal thoracic curve. Full
Gur, Gozde; Turgut, Elif; Ayhan, Cigdem; Baltaci, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz
Bracing is the most common nonsurgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spinal braces affect glenohumeral and scapulothoracic motion because they restrict trunk movements. However, the potential spinal-bracing effects on scapular kinematics are unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the acute effects of spinal bracing on scapular kinematics in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scapular kinematics, including scapular internal/external rotation, posterior/anterior tilting, and downward/upward rotation during scapular plane elevation, were evaluated in 27 in-brace and out-of-brace adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with a three-dimensional electromagnetic tracking system. Data on the position and orientation of the scapula at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° humerothoracic elevation were used for statistical comparisons. The paired t-test was used to assess the differences between the mean values of in-brace and out-of-brace conditions. The in-brace condition showed significantly increased (P<0.05) scapular anterior tilting and decreased internal rotation in the resting position on the convex and concave sides; increased scapular downward rotation at 120° humerothoracic elevation on the convex side and at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° humerothoracic elevation on the concave side; increased scapular anterior tilt at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° humerothoracic elevation on the convex and concave sides; and decreased (P<0.05) maximal humerothoracic elevation of the arm. Spinal bracing affects scapular kinematics. Observed changes in scapular kinematics with brace may also affect upper extremity function for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, clinicians should include assessments of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints when designing rehabilitation protocols for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming
Abstract Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies. The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies. Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P < 0.001 for both). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the 3 strategies for sagittal parameters at the immediate postoperative and last postoperative follow-up periods, though there were significant differences in the Cobb angle between the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods among the 3 groups, but not between the immediate postoperative and last follow-up periods. The amount of hospital charges in the SPSS group was significantly
Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming
Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies.The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies.Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery.There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P < 0.001 for both). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the 3 strategies for sagittal parameters at the immediate postoperative and last postoperative follow-up periods, though there were significant differences in the Cobb angle between the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods among the 3 groups, but not between the immediate postoperative and last follow-up periods. The amount of hospital charges in the SPSS group was significantly higher than
Qu, Yang; Xu, Jinyu; Zhou, Haohan; Dong, Rongpeng; Kang, Mingyang; Zhao, Jianwu
Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily). The average follow-up was one month, and infection severity and side effects were analyzed. The effects of COS on isolated pathogens were analyzed. SSI rates were 2%, 3% and 8% for spine wounds and 1%, 2% and 7% for iliac wound in CG, EG and PG ( p < 0.05), respectively. COS reduces the side effects caused by antibiotics ( p < 0.05). COS improved biochemical indexes and reduced the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. COS reduced the antibiotics dose and antibiotics-caused side effects in AIS patients with spinal fusion surgery by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. COS should be developed as potential adjuvant for antibiotics therapies.
dos Santos Alves, Vera Lucia; Alves da Silva, Renato Jose Azevedo Leite; Avanzi, Osmar
Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) have lower potential for physical activity because of lung dysfunction and lower muscle strength, which can be reversed by the cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal conditioning provided by standardized physical activities. We conducted a study to determine if a preoperative protocol of aerobic exercise would improve quality of life (QoL) both before and after training and if there would be any differences between patients who received the therapy and those who did not. Patients with the indication of surgical correction of AIS were randomized to receive or not receive a 4-month preoperative course of aerobic physical training. At baseline and after 4 months, they were evaluated with the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36). QoL scores improved for the study group but did not change for the control group. In all QoL domains, the study group's mean score increased significantly between baseline and 4 months. We concluded that the proposed preoperative physical therapy protocol improved the QoL of patients with AIS.
Latalski, Michal; Danielewicz-Bromberek, A; Fatyga, M; Latalska, M; Kröber, M; Zwolak, P
Scoliosis occurs in about 0.2-0.6% of the general population. In the majority of cases the cause of this entity remains mostly unidentified. The search for the causes covers almost all aspects of its possible origin. We collected and systematised the contemporary theories and concepts concerning the aetiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Genetic and hereditary factors are commonly accepted as possible causes; however, the identification of the single gene responsible for the development of this condition seems impossible, which suggests multifactorial mechanism of its formation. Dysfunctions of the nervous system are recognised risks related to the development of scoliosis, but they are classified as belonging to a separate aetiological category. Scoliosis develops at the quickest rate during the child's growth spurt, which prompted the research on the role of the growth hormone in scoliosis aetiology. Melatonin is another hormone that is studied as a possible factor involved in development of this entity. In cases of progressive scoliosis, increased activity of calmodulin-a protein that regulates the levels of calcium ions-has been observed. The scientists have characterised numerous qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition of the tissue of intervertebral discs, spinal ligaments and paraspinal muscles. Some of the theories, explaining the nature of this entity, presented in this review seem to have only a purely theoretical value; their proliferation only confirms the fact that the actual nature of this condition has not been unveiled yet, and suggests its multifactorial aetiology.
Background Importance of hereditary factors in the etiology of Idiopathic Scoliosis is widely accepted. In clinical practice some of the IS patients present with positive familial history of the deformity and some do not. Traditionally about 90% of patients have been considered as sporadic cases without familial recurrence. However the exact proportion of Familial and Sporadic Idiopathic Scoliosis is still unknown. Housekeeping genes encode proteins that are usually essential for the maintenance of basic cellular functions. ACTB and GAPDH are two housekeeping genes encoding respectively a cytoskeletal protein β-actin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of glycolysis. Although their expression levels can fluctuate between different tissues and persons, human housekeeping genes seem to exhibit a preserved tissue-wide expression ranking order. It was hypothesized that expression ranking order of two representative housekeeping genes ACTB and GAPDH might be disturbed in the tissues of patients with Familial Idiopathic Scoliosis (with positive family history of idiopathic scoliosis) opposed to the patients with no family members affected (Sporadic Idiopathic Scoliosis). An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed that could serve to differentiate between familial and sporadic cases of idiopathic scoliosis based on the expression levels of ACTB and GAPDH in different tissues of scoliotic patients. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the expression levels of ACTB and GAPDH in different tissues of idiopathic scoliosis patients could be used as a source of data for specially developed artificial neural network in order to predict the positive family history of index patient. Results The comparison of developed models showed, that the most satisfactory classification accuracy was achieved for ANN model with 18 nodes in the first hidden layer and 16 nodes in the second hidden layer. The classification accuracy for positive Idiopathic
Menon, Venugopal K; Tahasildar, Naveen; Pillay, Haroon M; M, Anbuselvam
Prospective observational study. To study axial plane deformation of the shoulder in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and try to correlate it with curve type and surgical correction. It is established that AIS is a 3-dimensional deformity. The rib hump is the most common manifestation of axial plane deformations; the least common manifestation seems to be upper trunk and shoulder rotation, which has been hitherto undescribed. Fourteen consecutive, operated cases of AIS were analyzed prospectively. Preoperative and postoperative x-rays of the spine and clinical photographs were studied. Clinical photographs (top view) were taken with patients in the sitting position, to show shoulder level in relation to the axis of the head and pelvis. Chest computed tomography scans were also studied to determine the direction of apical vertebra and trunk torsion. All 14 patients in this series had their right shoulders anteriorly rotated preoperatively (anticlockwise). The direction of rotation seemed unrelated to the curve type and shoulder elevation, although most had rib humps on the right. This shoulder rotation was corrected postoperatively by routine maneuvers done for scoliosis correction. Minor residual rotation was seen in 6 patients who also had minimal persisting rib hump. In 1 case the axial plane rotation worsened, although the shoulder level and trunk symmetry improved significantly. The apical vertebral rotation on computed tomography had little bearing on the direction of shoulder rotation. Axial plane rotation of the shoulder is a hitherto un-described dimension of AIS deformity complex. Much of it corrects spontaneously with correction of the thoracic spinal deformity.
Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional structural deformity of the spine that occurs in children and adolescents. Recent reviews on bracing and exercise treatment have provided some evidence for effect of these interventions. The purpose of this study is to improve the evidence base regarding the effectiveness of conservative treatments for preventing curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. Methods/design Patients: Previously untreated girls and boys with idiopathic scoliosis, 9 to 17 years of age with at least one year of remaining growth and a curve Cobb angle of 25–40 degrees will be included. A total of 135 participants will be randomly allocated in groups of 45 patients each to receive one of the three interventions. Interventions: All three groups will receive a physical activity prescription according to the World Health Organisation recommendations. One group will additionally wear a hyper-corrective night-time brace. One group will additionally perform postural scoliosis-specific exercises. Outcome: Participation in the study will last until the curve has progressed, or until cessation of skeletal growth. Outcome variables will be measured every 6 months. The primary outcome variable, failure of treatment, is defined as progression of the Cobb angle more than 6 degrees, compared to the primary x-ray, seen on two consecutive spinal standing x-rays taken with 6 months interval. Secondary outcome measures include the SRS-22r and EQ5D-Y quality of life questionnaires, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form, and Cobb angle at end of the study. Discussion This trial will evaluate which of the tested conservative treatment approaches that is the most effective for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Trial registration NCT01761305 PMID:24007599
Ciortan, Ionica; Goţia, D G
Acquired deformations of spinal cord (scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis) represent a frequent pathology in child; their treatment is complex, with variable results which depend on various parameters. Mild scoliosis, with an angle less than 30 degrees, is treated with physiotherapy and regular follow-up. If the angle is higher than 30 degrees, the orthopedic corset is required; the angle over 45 degrees impose surgically correction. The indications of every therapeutic method depend on many factors, the main target of the treatment is to prevent the aggravation of the curvature; concerning the surgery, the goal is to obtain a correction as normal as possible of the spinal axis.
Chwała, Wiesław; Koziana, Agnieszka; Kasperczyk, Tadeusz; Płaszewski, Maciej
Background. The question of how to correct and rehabilitate scoliosis remains one of the most difficult problems of orthopaedics. Controversies continue to arise regarding various types of both symmetric and asymmetric scoliosis-specific therapeutic exercises. Objective. The aim of the present paper was to conduct an electromyographic assessment of functional symmetry of paraspinal muscles during symmetric and asymmetric exercises in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted in a group of 82 girls, mean age 12.4 ± 2.3 years with single- or double-major-idiopathic scoliosis, Cobb angle 24 ± 9.4°. The functional biopotentials during isometric work of paraspinal muscles in “at rest” position and during two symmetric and four asymmetric exercises were measured with the use of the Muscle Tester ME 6000 electromyograph. Results. In general, asymmetric exercises were characterised by larger differences in bioelectrical activity of paraspinal muscles, in comparison with symmetric exercises, both in the groups of patients with single-curve and double-curve scoliosis. Conclusion. During symmetric and asymmetric exercises, muscle tension patterns differed significantly in both groups, in comparison with the examination at rest, in most cases generating positive corrective patterns. Asymmetric exercises generated divergent muscle tension patterns on the convex and concave sides of the deformity. PMID:25258713
Opinions differ in the international literature about the efficacy of conservative approaches to scoliosis treatment. Because this divergence of opinion corresponds to a great discrepancy in the standards applied to conservative treatment methods, it is not astonishing that the results of conservative treatment as described in the literature also differ. Scoliosis normally does not have such dramatic effects that immediate surgery would be indicated.Moreover, it is clear from the published literature that it is the functional and physiological impairments of scoliosis patients--including pain, torso deformity, psychological disturbance, and pulmonary dysfunction--which require therapeutic intervention. In Germany the triad of outpatient physiotherapy, intensive inpatient rehabilitation, and bracing has proven effective in conservative scoliosis treatment.Indication, content, and results of the individual treatment procedures are described and discussed. The positive outcomes of this practice validate a policy of offering conservative scoliosis treatment as an alternative to patients, including those for whom surgery is indicated.
Abbott, Allan; Möller, Hans; Gerdhem, Paul
Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional structural deformity of the spine that occurs in children and adolescents. Recent reviews on bracing and exercise treatment have provided some evidence for effect of these interventions. The purpose of this study is to improve the evidence base regarding the effectiveness of conservative treatments for preventing curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. Previously untreated girls and boys with idiopathic scoliosis, 9 to 17 years of age with at least one year of remaining growth and a curve Cobb angle of 25-40 degrees will be included. A total of 135 participants will be randomly allocated in groups of 45 patients each to receive one of the three interventions. All three groups will receive a physical activity prescription according to the World Health Organisation recommendations. One group will additionally wear a hyper-corrective night-time brace. One group will additionally perform postural scoliosis-specific exercises. Participation in the study will last until the curve has progressed, or until cessation of skeletal growth. OUTCOME variables will be measured every 6 months. The primary outcome variable, failure of treatment, is defined as progression of the Cobb angle more than 6 degrees, compared to the primary x-ray, seen on two consecutive spinal standing x-rays taken with 6 months interval. Secondary outcome measures include the SRS-22r and EQ5D-Y quality of life questionnaires, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form, and Cobb angle at end of the study. This trial will evaluate which of the tested conservative treatment approaches that is the most effective for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. NCT01761305.
Apart from the recommended specific physiotherapy, the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) also incorporates non-specific manual therapy (NMT). The aim of this paper is to assess the efficacy of NMT (manual therapy, chiropractic, osteopathy) used in the treatment of children and adolescents with IS. The study analysed systematic reviews (Analysis 1) and other recent scientific publications (Analysis 2). Analysis 1 encompassed papers on the use of NMT in patients with IS. Works concerning specific physiotherapy (SP) or bracing (B) and other types of scoliosis were excluded from the analysis. Inclusion criteria for Analysis 2 were: treatment with NMT; subjects aged 10-18 years with IS. The following types of papers were excluded: works analysing NMT combined with SP or B, reports concerning adult pa tients, analyses of single cases and publications included in Analysis 1. Analysis 1: six systematic reviews contained 6 papers on the efficacy of NMT in the treatment of IS. The results of these studies are contradictory, ranging from Cobb angle reduction to no treatment effects whatsoever. The papers analysed are characterised by poor methodological quality: small group sizes, incomplete descriptions of the study groups, no follow-up and no control groups. Analysis 2: in total, 217 papers were found. None of them met the criteria set for the analysis. 1. Few papers verifying the efficacy of manual therapy, chiropractic and osteopathy in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis have been published to date. 2. The majority are experimental studies with poor methodology or observational case studies. 3. At present, the efficacy of non-specific manual therapy in the treatment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis cannot be reliably evaluated. 4. It is necessary to conduct further research based on appropriate methods (prospective, rando mi s ed, controlled studies) in order to reliably assess the usefulness of non-specific manual therapy in the treatment of idiopathic
Soucacos, P K; Soucacos, P N; Beris, A E
We assessed preoperative curve elasticity in 49 consecutive patients with juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who were operated on with Harrington distraction rods. Preoperatively, the curve was determined from posteroanterior radiographs taken in the standing position and in the supine position, with traction. In the latter, the radiographs were taken at the moment of maximal traction when one technician applied traction to the ankles and another to the wrists. The scoliotic curve in the 10 patients with juvenile scoliosis averaged 59 degrees and 32 degrees in the standing and supine positions with traction, respectively. Immediately postoperatively, the curve averaged 19 degrees. 39 patients with adolescent scoliosis had a scoliotic curve which averaged 58 degrees in the standing position and 32 degrees in the supine position with traction. The mean postoperative measurement was 21 degrees. These findings suggest that manual traction is a simple and reliable means of predicting the minimal correction of the scoliotic curve to be expected, using Harrington distraction rods.
Wong, M S; Cheng, J C Y; Wong, M W; So, S F
A study was conducted to compare the CAD/CAM method with the conventional manual method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Ten subjects were recruited for this study. Efficiency analyses of the two methods were performed from cast filling/ digitization process to completion of cast/image rectification. The dimensional changes of the casts/ models rectified by the two cast rectification methods were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the CAD/CAM method was faster than the conventional manual method in the studied processes. The mean rectification time of the CAD/CAM method was shorter than that of the conventional manual method by 108.3 min (63.5%). This indicated that the CAD/CAM method took about 1/3 of the time of the conventional manual to finish cast rectification. In the comparison of cast/image dimensional differences between the conventional manual method and the CAD/CAM method, five major dimensions in each of the five rectified regions namely the axilla, thoracic, lumbar, abdominal and pelvic regions were involved. There were no significant dimensional differences (p < 0.05) in 19 out of the 25 studied dimensions. This study demonstrated that the CAD/CAM system could save the time in the rectification process and offer a relatively high resemblance in cast rectification as compared with the conventional manual method.
Kadoury, Samuel; Shen, Jesse; Parent, Stefan
Several attempts have been made to measure geometrical torsion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and quantify the three-dimensional (3D) deformation of the spine. However, these approaches are sensitive to imprecisions in the 3D modeling of the anatomy and can only capture the effect locally at the vertebrae, ignoring the global effect at the regional level and thus have never been widely used to follow the progression of a deformity. The goal of this work was to evaluate the relevance of a novel geometric torsion descriptor based on a parametric modeling of the spinal curve as a 3D index of scoliosis. First, an image-based approach anchored on prior statistical distributions is used to reconstruct the spine in 3D from biplanar X-rays. Geometric torsion measuring the twisting effect of the spine is then estimated using a technique that approximates local arc-lengths with parametric curve fitting centered at the neutral vertebra in different spinal regions. We first evaluated the method with simulated experiments, demonstrating the method's robustness toward added noise and reconstruction inaccuracies. A pilot study involving 65 scoliotic patients exhibiting different types of deformities was also conducted. Results show the method is able to discriminate between different types of deformation based on this novel 3D index evaluated in the main thoracic and thoracolumbar/lumbar regions. This demonstrates that geometric torsion modeled by parametric spinal curve fitting is a robust tool that can be used to quantify the 3D deformation of AIS and possibly exploited as an index to classify the 3D shape.
Lateur, G; Grobost, P; Gerbelot, J; Eid, A; Griffet, J; Courvoisier, A
The objective of the present study was to assess, at skeletal maturity, the efficacy of non-operative treatment by isolated nighttime brace in the prevention of progression of progressive idiopathic scoliosis of less than 25°. Isolated nighttime brace treatment is effective in the prevention of progression of mild progressive idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb<25°). A single-center retrospective study included 142 patients managed by nighttime brace for progressive idiopathic scoliosis with Cobb angle<25°, with assessment at skeletal maturity. Mean Cobb angle at start of treatment was 15.5° (range, 10-25°). Mean values for Cobb angle and sagittal parameters before treatment and at skeletal maturity were compared on Student t-test. Change in Cobb angle over time was also analyzed. Mean Cobb angle at skeletal maturity was 16.3°, showing significant increase over baseline (15.5°; P=0.04), although the difference was less than the uncertainty of measurement (±6°). In baseline Risser 0 or 1, mean change in Cobb angle at skeletal maturity (16.2°) was not significant (P=0.1). Cobb angle diminished in 26 cases (18%), increased in 24 (17%) and was unchanged in 92 (65%). The present study confirmed the efficacy of non-operative treatment by nighttime brace in mild progressive idiopathic scoliosis (<25°) in a large majority of cases. A nighttime brace thus seems to be an effective option for the treatment of adolescent scoliosis, ensuring a safe curve of around 20°. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Berney, Mark J; Dawson, Peter H; Phillips, Margaret; Lui, Darren F; Connolly, Paul
The aim of this study was to compare transfusion requirements in patients before and after the introduction of tranexamic acid as standard in patients undergoing spinal surgery for idiopathic scoliosis in a national orthopaedic hospital. A retrospective chart review of 56 idiopathic scoliosis patients who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion between 2009 and 2013 at our institution. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were measured. Patients who received tranexamic acid as standard (n = 31) showed a trend towards a decrease in transfusion requirements compared with those who received no tranexamic acid (n = 25). These patients had a statistically significant decrease in operative time (223 vs 188 min, p = 0.005), and estimated intraoperative blood loss was reduced by nearly 50% in the tranexamic acid group. They also had an associated reduced decrease in haemoglobin between preoperative and postoperative levels (4 vs 5 g/dL, p = 0.01). Since February 2012, no patient has required intraoperative or postoperative allogeneic blood product transfusion in this hospital. The routine use of antifibrinolytic medications in patients undergoing surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has effectively eliminated the need for allogeneic blood products.
Yusof, Mohd Imran; Shaharudin, Shazlin; Sivalingarajah, Prema
Comparative cross-sectional study. We measured the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) of the hip, knee, and ankle joints during normal gait in normal patients, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with a Cobb angle <40° and in AIS patients with spinal fusion. We aimed to investigate whether vGRF in the aforementioned joints is altered in these three groups of patients. vGRF of the lower limb joints may be altered in these groups of patients. Although it is known that excessive force in the joints may induce early arthritis, there is limited relevant information in the literatures. We measured vGRF of the hip, knee, and ankle joints during heel strike, early stance, mid stance, and toe-off phases in normal subjects (group 1, n=14), AIS patients with Cobb angle <40° (group 2, n=14), and AIS patients with spinal fusion (group 3, n=13) using a gait analysis platform. Fifteen auto-reflective tracking markers were attached to standard anatomical landmarks in both the lower limbs. The captured motion images were used to define the orientations of the body segments and force exerted on the force plate using computer software. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and analysis of variance to examine differences between the right and left sides as well as those among the different subject groups. The measurements during the four gait phases in all the groups did not show any significant difference ( p >0.05). In addition, no significant difference was found in the vGRF measurements of all the joints among the three groups ( p >0.05). A Cobb angle <40° and spinal fusion did not significantly create imbalance or alter vGRF of the lower limb joints in AIS patients.
Romano, Michele; Minozzi, Silvia; Zaina, Fabio; Saltikov, Josette Bettany; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Hennes, Axel Maier; Negrini, Stefano
Systematic review of interventions. To evaluate the efficacy of scoliosis-specific exercise (SSE) in adolescent patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). AIS is a 3-dimensional deformity of the spine. Although AIS can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity, it is usually not symptomatic. However, in adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. The use of SSEs to reduce progression of AIS and postpone or avoid other more invasive treatments is controversial. The following databases (up to March 30, 2011) were searched with no language limitations: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, issue 2), MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), CINHAL (from January 1982), SPORTDiscus (from January 1975), PsycINFO (from January 1887), and PEDro (from January 1929). We screened reference lists of articles and conducted an extensive hand search of gray literature. randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies with a control group comparing exercises with no treatment, other treatment, surgery, and different types of exercises. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Two studies (154 participants) were included. There is low-quality evidence from 1 randomized controlled study that exercises as an adjunctive to other conservative treatments to increase the efficacy of these treatments (thoracic curve reduced: mean difference 9.00, [95% confidence interval, 5.47-12.53]; lumbar curve reduced: mean difference 8.00, [95% confidence interval, 5.08-10.92]). There is very low-quality evidence from a prospective controlled cohort study that SSEs structured within an exercise program can reduce brace prescription (risk ratio, 0.24; [95% confidence interval, 0.06-1.04]) as compared with "usual physiotherapy" [many different kinds of general exercises according to the preferences of the
Sathira-Angkura, Vera; Pithankuakul, Kongkit; Sakulpipatana, Susana; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Kunakornsawat, Sombat
Cross-sectional observational study to investigate psychometric properties of an adapted Thai version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Thai version of the refined SRS-22 questionnaire. The SRS-22 questionnaire is a valid instrument for assessing the health-related quality of life for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Recently, the questionnaire has been translated and validated in many languages for non-English-speaking countries. Translation/retranslation of the English version of the SRS-22 was conducted, and the cross-cultural adaptation process was performed. The Thai version SRS-22 and previously validated Thai version Short-Form survey version 2.0 (SF-36V2) questionnaires were administered to 77 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had surgical treatment. Fifty-eight patients (52 adolescent girls) had filled out the first set of questionnaires. Thirty patients of the first-time responders completed the second set of questionnaires. The mean age at the time of operation was 14.6 years and the mean age at the time of the final follow-up was 18.7 years. The mean preoperative scoliosis curve magnitude was 55.4° (range, 30°-95°) and postoperative curve magnitude was 20.1° (range, 0°-60°). Internal consistency was determined with Cronbach α coefficient. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used for test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36V2 questionnaire, using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The mean overall Cronbach α coefficient of the adapted Thai version SRS-22 was 0.76. The 2 of corresponding domains (mental health = 0.80 and self-image = 0.83) had satisfactory internal consistency and the remaining domains (pain = 0.78; function/activity = 0.74; and satisfaction = 0.76) were good. The intraclass correlation coefficient for 5 domains was ranged from
Wei, Hui; Xu, Jinyuan; Jiang, Zhong; Ye, Shuliang; Song, Hongquan; Ning, Xitao; Huang, Huanmin; Chen, Wei; Pei, Jianwei; Jiang, Nengyi; Chen, Shao; Du, Honggen
To evaluate the effectiveness of a combined Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy versus conventional treatment on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. One hundred twenty outpatients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into a TCM group (TCMG) and a brace group (CG). TCMG patients underwent Daoyin, Tuina, and acupotomology therapies. CG patients were treated with a Milwaukee brace. Each patient's Cobb angle was measured after 12 and 24 months of treatment, and pulmonary function was determined after 12 months of treatment. Average electromyogram (AEMG) ratio of the surface electromyogram was measured after 6 and 12 months of treatment and followed-up after 18 and 24 months. The Cobb angle significantly decreased in both groups after 12 months of treatment compared with before treatment (P< 0.05). The percentages of original Cobb angle in TCMG and CG were 51.4% and 47.8% (P > 0.05) after 12 months and 62.5% and 34.7% (P < 0.05) after 24 months, respectively. Pulmonary function significantly improved after 12 months in TCMG (P < 0.05) but significantly decreased in CG (P < 0.05). The AEMG ratio was significantly lower (P < 0.01) and tended to remain at 1 after stopping treatment in TCMG, but increased in CG (P < 0.05). TCM combined therapy can prevent the progression of scoliosis. The AEMG ratio is a promising index that could replace radiography in the evaluation of treatment effect and progression in scoliosis.
Rackham, Matthew D; Cundy, Thomas P; Antoniou, Georgia; Freeman, Brian J C; Sutherland, Leanne M; Cundy, Peter J
Prospective cohort study. To determine the predictors of serum chromium levels after stainless steel posterior spinal instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Abnormally elevated serum chromium levels have been detected in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after stainless steel instrumentation. To date, the relationship among serum chromium levels, time of implantation, and implant characteristics (including surface area, rod length, numbers of hooks, screws, and cross connectors) has not been studied. Thirty patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis using stainless steel implants between 1998 and 2002 were prospectively studied. Serum chromium levels were measured between October 2006 and June 2007. Postoperative radiographs were used to measure rod lengths, number of hooks, screws, cross-connectors, and cables. The surface area of each component and the total surface area for each patient were calculated. Possible associations between serum chromium levels, time of implantation, and implant characteristics were investigated. Implant exposure, whether expressed in the form of total metal implant surface area, rod length, or number of metal interfaces, was found to be positively associated with serum chromium levels. Specifically, chromium levels increased by a multiplicative factor of 1.0060 for every additional square centimeter of total metal implant surface area (P = 0.02). In addition, the chromium level was found to decrease by a multiplicative factor of 0.7766 for every additional year since surgery (P = 0.02). After adjusting for the number of years since surgery, metal implant exposure is positively associated with elevated serum chromium levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with stainless steel posterior spinal implants. This is the first study to identify statistically significant positive associations between specific spinal implant characteristics (other than
Alotaibi, Saad; Harder, James; Spier, Sheldon
Introduction Patients with severe idiopathic scoliosis are reported to have significant pulmonary complications, including recurrent chest infections, alveolar hypoventilation and respiratory failure. Case presentation We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with moderate-to-severe scoliosis resulting in torsion or twisting of the bronchus intermedius, which contributed to airflow obstruction defects, as revealed by both spirometry and bronchoscopy. Conclusion We recommend that inspection of the shape of the maximal expiratory flow-volume loop obtained from spirometry, as well as other parameters suggestive of obstructive lung disease, may be important in children with scoliosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a child in which pulmonary function testing and direct visualization via a flexible bronchoscope have been used to characterize intrathoracic large airway obstruction. PMID:18498624
Wilson, Philip L; Newton, Peter O; Wenger, Dennis R; Haher, Thomas; Merola, Andrew; Lenke, Larry; Lowe, Thomas; Clements, David; Betz, Randy
A multicenter study examining the association between radiographic and outcomes measures in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To evaluate the association between an objective radiographic scoring system and patient quality of life measures as determined by the Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument. Although surgical correction of scoliosis has been reported to be positively correlated with patient outcomes, studies to date have been unable to demonstrate an association between radiographic measures of deformity and outcomes measures in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A standardized radiographic deformity scoring system and the Scoliosis Research Society outcome tool were used prospectively in seven scoliosis centers to collect data on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 354 data points for 265 patients consisting of those with nonoperative or preoperative curves >or=10 degrees, as well as those with surgically treated curves, were analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed to identify significant relationships between any of the radiographic measures, the Harms Study Group radiographic deformity scores (total, sagittal, coronal), and the seven Scoliosis Research Society outcome domains (Total Pain, General Self-Image, General Function, Activity, Postoperative Self-Image, Postoperative Function, and Satisfaction) as well as Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument total scores. Radiographic measures that were identified as significantly correlated with Scoliosis Research Society outcome scores were then entered into a stepwise regression analysis. The coronal measures of thoracic curve and lumbar curve magnitude were found to be significantly correlated with the Total Pain, General Self-Image, and total Scoliosis Research Society scores (P < 0.0001). The thoracic and upper thoracic curve magnitudes were also correlated with General Function (P < 0.002). The "coronal" subscore as well as the "total" score of the
D'Agata, Elisabetta; Sánchez-Raya, Judith; Bagó, Juan
A large number of studies about adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis focus on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, only a few articles aim at evaluating the personality of these patients. Therefore, the purpose of the present research is to assess the personality traits of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and their relationship with HRQOL.Our hypothesis is that adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis present the principal personality trait of introversion, defined as self-reliance and inhibition in social relationships. This was a cross-sectional study. The examined group consisted of 43 patients (only 4 boys), mean age = 14.3 (SD = 2.23). On the day of the visit, HRQOL tools (Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire (SRS-22) and Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS)) and a personality test (16 Personality Factors-Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ)) were completed; in addition, a posterior-anterior radiography was performed. Correlations among demographic and medical data and HRQOL and personality tests were assessed. Results for SRS-22 were as follows: Function 4.5 (SD = .4), Pain 4.3 (SD = .5), Self-image 3.6 (SD = .7), Mental Health 3.8. (SD = .7), and Subtotal 4.2 (SD = .7). Mean TAPS was 3.5 (SD = .6).In personality, the lowest values were assessed for Extroversion ( M = 29.4, SD = 24.7) and Self-reliance ( M = 71, SD = 25.3).Independence was negatively related to Self-image ( r = -.51), Mental Health ( r = -.54), and Subtotal SRS-22 ( r = -.60) ( p < .01). Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis presented a common style of personality, characterized by social inhibition (introversion), preference for staying alone, and being self-sufficient (self-reliance).Specific programs in promoting social abilities may help adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis in finding a way to express themselves and to become more sociable. Correlational studies between personality and HRQOL need to be
Weiss, H-R; Goodall, D
Traditionally, the treatment options for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common form of scoliosis, are exercises; in-patient rehabilitation; braces and surgery. The outcomes of treatments are usually compared with the natural history or observation (non-intervention). The aim of this paper was to provide a synopsis of all treatment options in the light of evidence based practice (EBP). A systematic review was carried out using the most encompassing databases available. Literature has been searched for the outcome parameter ''rate of progression'' and only prospective controlled studies that have considered the treatment versus the natural history have been included. The search strategy included the following terms: ''adolescent idiopathic scoliosis''; ''idiopathic scoliosis''; ''natural history''; ''observation''; ''physiotherapy''; ''physical therapy''; ''rehabilitation''; ''bracing''; ''orthotics'' and ''surgery''. Prospective short-term studies have been found to support outpatient physiotherapy. One prospective controlled study was found to support scoliosis in-patient rehabilitation (SIR). One prospective multi-centre study, a long-term prospective controlled study and a meta-analysis have been found to support bracing. No controlled study, neither short, mid nor long-term, was found to reveal any substantial evidence to support surgery as a treatment for this condition. There is some evidence supporting the conservative treatment for AIS. No substantial evidence has been found in terms of prospective controlled studies to support surgical intervention. In light of the unknown long-term effects of surgery, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) seems necessary. Due to the presence of evidence to support conservative treatments, a plan to compose a RCT for conservative treatment options seems unethical. But it is also important to conclude that the evidence for conservative treatments is weak in number and length.
Huber, Maxime; Gilbert, Guillaume; Roy, Julien; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Périé, Delphine
To measure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters including relaxation times (T 1 ρ, T 2 ), magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion parameters (mean diffusivity [MD], fractional anisotropy [FA]) of intervertebral discs in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, and to investigate the sensitivity of these MR parameters to the severity of the spine deformities. Thirteen patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and three control volunteers with no history of spine disease underwent an MRI acquisition at 3T including the mapping of T 1 ρ, T 2 , MT, MD, and FA. The apical zone included all discs within the scoliotic curve while the control zone was composed of other discs. The severity was analyzed through low (<32°) versus high (>40°) Cobb angles. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) were performed. Significant differences were found between the apical zone and the control zone for T 2 (P = 0.047), and between low and high Cobb angles for T 2 (P = 0.014) and MT (P = 0.002). AHC showed two distinct clusters, one with mainly low Cobb angles and one with mainly high Cobb angles, for the MRI parameters measured within the apical zone, with an accuracy of 0.9 and a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.8. Within the control zone, the AHC showed no clear classification (accuracy of 0.6 and MCC of 0.2). We successfully performed an in vivo multiparametric MRI investigation of young patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The MRI parameters measured within the intervertebral discs were found to be sensitive to intervertebral disc degeneration occurring with scoliosis and to the severity of scoliosis. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1123-1131. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Wong, Christian; Gosvig, Kasper; Sonne-Holm, Stig
Muscle imbalance has been suggested as implicated in the pathology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The specific "pathomechanic" role of the paravertebral muscles as being scoliogenic (inducing scoliosis) or counteracting scoliosis in the initial development and maintenance of this spinal deformity has yet to be clarified in humans. In the present study, we investigated the radiographic changes of temporal paralysis using botulinum toxin A as localized injection therapy (ITB) in the psoas major muscle in AIS patients. Nine patients with AIS were injected one time with ITB using ultrasonic and EMG guidance in the selected spine muscles. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed before and 6 weeks after the injection. Primary outcome parameters of radiological changes were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and binomial test, and secondary outcome parameters of short- and long-term clinical effects were obtained. Significant radiological corrective changes were seen in the frontal plane in the thoracic and lumbar spine as well as significant derotational corrective change in the lumbar spine according to Cobb's angle measurements and to Nash and Moe's classification, respectively. No serious adverse events were detected at follow-up. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the psoas major muscle do play a role into the pathology in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by maintaining the curvature of the lumbar spine and thoracic spine. EudraCT number 2008-004584-19.
Niesluchowski, W; Dabrowska, A; Kedzior, K; Zagrajek, T
The size asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres may predispose to head tilt and asymmetric blocking of the zygapophysial joints, potentially leading to the development of compensatory curvatures in the lower segments of the spine. To analyze the effects of spinal manipulation, maintained by an exercise program, on the progression of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis in 2 children aged 6 and 10. The scoliosis found was 16 and 60 degrees. For diagnosis and monitoring of therapy, we recorded qualitative parameters of shoulder asymmetry, axillary line asymmetry, and scapular angle position. Manual treatment consisted of the examinations of all sliding motion in zygapophysial joints and both sacroiliac joints and removing the limitations of the sliding motions according to the method of Karel Lewit. The treatment procedure consisted of 3 or 4 manipulations within 17 months and an exercise program. The manipulation effects were maintained by the exercise program. The exercises were done in 2 or 3 sessions weekly for a year. In both patients we observed that scoliosis decompensation was successfully stopped and the effects of the correction persisted for 10 years. Brain and head asymmetry may be only a transient state, predisposing to asymmetric blocking at the atlanto-occipital level. Removal of blocking may prevent curve progression in children who had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The manipulative therapy may also have a promising effect on retarding curve progression when used in skeletally immature patient.
Feise, R J
The primary aim of this study was to (1) determine the clinical management approach of practicing chiropractors with regard to patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and (2) measure the response rate of a telephone survey. A survey instrument was developed and pretested, and a case-specific clinical vignette was generated for a hypothetical typical 12-year-old girl with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The instrument addressed 3 domains: the specific management of idiopathic scoliosis, elements guiding the general selection of treatment recommendations, and demographics of respondents. The sample frame consisted of 62,000 US chiropractors, of whom 165 were randomly selected for the survey sample. Interviews were conducted by telephone through use of the tested survey instrument. The response rate was 69% (114/165). Of the 51 nonrespondents, 15 did not have a listed business telephone number and 24 were not in active practice. The response rate of those who met the inclusion criteria (practicing chiropractor with a listed telephone number) was 90% (114/126). The gender, chiropractic college, and years in practice of respondents in this survey were similar to those of respondents in 3 other national surveys. In general, the respondents would provide 6 months of "intensive" chiropractic therapy, then follow the patient for 4 years (near skeletal maturity). Eighty-two percent of respondents named diversified technique as their primary adjustive treatment, 87% would use exercise, and 30% would use electric muscle stimulation as an adjunct to manual therapy. Most surveyed chiropractors would use similar methods (frequency and length of treatment, manipulation technique, and exercise) in the treatment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A high response rate to a national survey can be achieved through use of telephone contact.
Kalichman, Leonid; Kendelker, Liron; Bezalel, Tomer
Various conservative therapies are available for treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), however, the disparities between them and the evidence of their efficacy and effectiveness is still unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness of different conservative treatments on AIS. A literature-based narrative review of the English language medical literature. The most appropriate treatment for each patient should be chosen individually and based on various parameters. Bracing has been found to be a most effective conservative treatment for AIS. There is limited evidence that specific physical exercises also an effective intervention for AIS. Exercise-based physical therapy, if correctly administered, can prevent a worsening of the curve and may decrease need for bracing. In addition, physical exercises were found to be the only treatment improving respiratory function. Combining bracing with exercise increases treatment efficacy compared with a single treatment. Additional, well-designed and good quality studies are required to assess the effectiveness of different conservative methods in treating AIS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morel, Baptiste; Moueddeb, Sonia; Blondiaux, Eleonore; Richard, Stephen; Bachy, Manon; Vialle, Raphael; Ducou Le Pointe, Hubert
The aim of this study was to compare the radiation dose, image quality and 3D spine parameter measurements of EOS low-dose and micro-dose protocols for in-brace adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. We prospectively included 25 consecutive patients (20 females, 5 males) followed for AIS and undergoing brace treatment. The mean age was 12 years (SD 2 years, range 8-15 years). For each patient, in-brace biplanar EOS radiographs were acquired in a standing position using both the conventional low-dose and micro-dose protocols. Dose area product (DAP) was systematically recorded. Diagnostic image quality was qualitatively assessed by two radiologists for visibility of anatomical structures. The reliability of 3D spine modeling between two operators was quantitatively evaluated for the most clinically relevant 3D radiological parameters using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean DAP for the posteroanterior and lateral acquisitions was 300 ± 134 and 433 ± 181 mGy cm 2 for the low-dose radiographs, and 41 ± 19 and 81 ± 39 mGy cm 2 for micro-dose radiographs. Image quality was lower with the micro-dose protocol. The agreement was "good" to "very good" for all measured clinical parameters when comparing the low-dose and micro-dose protocols (ICC > 0.73). The micro-dose protocol substantially reduced the delivered dose (by a factor of 5-7 compared to the low-dose protocol) in braced children with AIS. Although image quality was reduced, the micro-dose protocol proved to be adapted to radiological follow-up, with adequate image quality and reliable clinical measurements. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
Lee, Choon Sung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lim, Eic Ju; Lee, Dong-Ho; Cho, Jae Hwan
OBJECTIVE Postoperative shoulder imbalance (PSI) is a critical consideration after corrective surgery for a double thoracic curve (Lenke Type 2); however, the radiographic factors related to PSI remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the radiographic factors related to PSI after corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in patients with a double thoracic curve. METHODS This study included 80 patients with Lenke Type 2 AIS who underwent corrective surgery. Patients were grouped according to the presence [PSI(+)] or absence [PSI(-)] of shoulder imbalance at the final follow-up examination (differences of 20, 15, and 10 mm were used). Various radiographic parameters, including the Cobb angle of the proximal and middle thoracic curves (PTC and MTC), radiographic shoulder height (RSH), clavicle angle, T-1 tilt, trunk shift, and proximal and distal wedge angles (PWA and DWA), were assessed before and after surgery and compared between groups. RESULTS Overall, postoperative RSH decreased with time in the PSI(-) group but not in the PSI(+) group. Statistical analyses revealed that the preoperative Risser grade (p = 0.048), postoperative PWA (p = 0.028), and postoperative PTC/MTC ratio (p = 0.011) correlated with PSI. Presence of the adding-on phenomenon was also correlated with PSI, although this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.089). CONCLUSIONS Postoperative shoulder imbalance is common after corrective surgery for Lenke Type 2 AIS and correlates with a higher Risser grade, a larger postoperative PWA, and a higher postoperative PTC/MTC ratio. Presence of the distal adding-on phenomenon is associated with an increased PSI trend, although this result was not statistically significant. However, preoperative factors other than the Risser grade that affect the development of PSI were not identified by the study. Additional studies are required to reveal the risk factors for the development of PSI.
Daryabor, Aliyeh; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Sharifi, Guive; Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Golchin, Navid
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a progressive growth disease that affects spinal anatomy, mobility, and left-right trunk symmetry. The disease can modify human gait. We aimed to review articles describing the measurement of gait parameters and energy consumption in AIS during walking without any intervention. Literature review. The search strategy was based on the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome method and included all relevant articles published from 1996 to 2015. Articles were searched in MEDLINE via PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. We selected 33 studies investigating the effect of scoliosis deformity on gait parameters and energy expenditure during walking. Most of the studies concluded no significant differences in walking speed, cadence and step width in scoliosis patients and normal participants. However, patients showed decreased hip and pelvic motion, excessive energy cost of walking, stepping pattern asymmetry and ground reaction force asymmetry. We lack consistent evidence of the effect of scoliosis on temporal spatial and kinematic parameters in AIS patients as compared with normal people. However, further research is needed to assess the effect of scoliosis on gait and energy consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ciazynski, D; Czernicki, K; Durmala, J
The aim of the study was to determine the level of basic knowledge about idiopathic scoliosis (IS) among students of physiotherapy. The study included 37 students of Medical University of Silesia (17F and 20M aged 22-25, mean 22.6), attending the 3(rd) year of a 1(st) degree of physiotherapy. All students had credits in kinesiotherapy, including methods of conservative treatment of IS. Students were examined using a questionnaire, comprising general knowledge of IS, questions related to sagittal plane correction, influence of various physical activities on IS and known methods of conservative treatment. 81 students considered IS as 3-D deformity. 62.2% of those questioned would diagnose IS when the Cobb angle reaches 10 degrees . All students agreed that the aetiology of IS remains unknown. 54.1% considered forcible extensory exercises of back as favourable in IS. Questioned students mostly preferred swimming (94.6%), yoga (73.0%) and martial arts (32.4%) as beneficial to IS. The methods of conservative treatment which were known best were: Lehnert-Schroth-Weiss (94.6%), Klapp (91.9%), Majoch (89.2%) and Dobosiewicz (78.4%). The conclusions indicate that the average level of knowledge of idiopathic scoliosis among students of physiotherapy is unsatisfactory, despite the education programme including the SOSORT guidelines. Education in the field of scoliosis should be comprehensive and meet contemporary guidelines and standards.
Smania, Nicola; Picelli, Alessandro; Romano, Michele; Negrini, Stefano
Knowledge on mechanisms of neurophysiological control of trunk movement and posture could help in the development of rehabilitation programs and brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Reviewing up-to-date research on neurophysiology of movement and posture control with the aim of providing basis for new researches in the field of AIS rehabilitation and background understanding for clinicians engaged in management of AIS. Review of literature. We considered several neurophysiological issues relevant for AIS rehabilitation, namely, the peculiar organization of patterns of trunk muscle recruitment, the structure of the neural hardware subserving axial and arm muscle control, and the relevance of cognitive systems allowing mapping of spatial coordinates and building of body schema. We made clear the reason why trunk control is generally carried out by means of very fast, feedforward or feedback driven patterns of muscle activation which are deeply rooted in our neural control system and very difficult to modify by training. We hypothesized that augmented sensory feedback and strength exercises could be an important stage in a rehabilitation program aimed at hindering, or possibly reversing, scoliosis progression. In this context we considered bracing not only as a corrective biomechanical device but also as a tool for continuous sensory stimulation that could help awareness of body misalignment. Future research aimed at developing strategies of trunk postural control learning is essential in the rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Korbel, Krzysztof; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Stoliński, Łukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz
According to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a curvature of more than 10° Cobb angle, affecting 2-3% of pediatric population. Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80% of all scoliosis cases. Non-operative principles in the therapy of idiopathic scoliosis, including Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and guidelines proposed by the experts of the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORTS) were presented. The possibility to carry out quality of life assessments in a conservative procedure was also demonstrated. Based on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, SRS criteria, SOSORT 2008 experts' opinion and the knowledge of the possibilities of psychological assessment of conservative IS treatment, rules were proposed regarding nonsurgical IS therapy procedures, with special consideration being paid to the proper treatment start time (age, Risser test, biological maturity, Cobb angle), possibility of curvature progression, the importance of physiotherapy and psychological assessment. The knowledge of SRS criteria and SOSORT guidelines regarding the conservative treatment of IS are essential for proper treatment (the right time to start treatment), and supports establishment of interdisciplinary treatment teams, consisting of a physician, a physiotherapist, an orthopedic technician and a psychologist.
Liu, Zhen; Hu, Zong-Shan; Qiu, Yong; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Han, Xiao; Zhu, Ze-Zhang
To evaluate the role of preoperative clavicle chest cage angle difference (CCAD) on postoperative radiographic shoulder imbalance, patient's satisfaction and surgeon's fulfillment in Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). CCAD, as a novel radiographic parameter, has proven to be a reliable predictor for postoperative shoulder imbalance in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the value of CCAD in predicting shoulder balance has never been evaluated in Lenke 5 AIS patients. A total of 42 Lenke 5C AIS patients aged from 10 to 18 years old with a minimum 2-year follow-up were enrolled for evaluation. All patients underwent selective posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion using the all segmental pedicle screw technique by the same surgical team. The fusion levels were determined according to the Lenke criteria. Shoulder height difference (SHD) and CCAD were measured on anteroposterior (AP) standing radiographs. The patients' satisfaction and the surgeons' fulfillment were evaluated using a questionnaire. A receiver operative characteristic curve analysis was performed to explore the threshold values of preoperative CCAD in the prediction of the final follow-up radiographic shoulder imbalance, patients' satisfaction and surgeons' fulfillment. The average preoperative Cobb angle of the main curve was 46.8° ± 4.8°, and the average immediate postoperative Cobb angle was 13.3° ± 2.6°, representing an average surgical correction rate of 75.6% ± 8.5%. The average follow-up time was 29.2 months. At the last follow-up, the value of preoperative CCAD was significantly higher in patients with unbalanced shoulders (SHD ≥ 10 mm). At the final follow-up, 66.7% (28/42) of the patients were satisfied with their appearance, while 33.3% (14/42) of the patients were not satisfied with their appearance. At the final follow-up, 61.9% (26/42) of the surgeons were fulfilled with their operation, while 38.1% (16/42) of the surgeons were not. For patients' satisfaction and
Romano, Michele; Negrini, Stefano
Background The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is contingent upon many variables. Simple observation is enough for less serious curvatures, but for very serious cases surgical intervention could be proposed. Between these there is a wide range of different treatments. Manual therapy is commonly used: the aim of this paper is to verify the data existing in the literature on the efficacy of this approach. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature published internationally has been performed. We have included in the term manual therapy all the manipulative and generally passive techniques performed by an external operator. In a more specific meaning, osteopathic, chiropractic and massage techniques have been considered as manipulative therapeutic methods. We performed our systematic research in Medline, Embase, Cinhal, Cochrane Library, Pedro with the following terms: idiopathic scoliosis combined with chiropractic; manipulation; mobilization; manual therapy; massage; osteopathy; and therapeutic manipulation. The criteria for inclusion were as follows: Any kind of research; diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; patients treated exclusively by one of the procedures established as a standard for this review (chiropractic manipulation, osteopathic techniques, massage); and outcome in Cobb degrees. Results We founded 145 texts, but only three papers were relevant to our study. However, no one of the three satisfied all the required inclusion criteria because they were characterized by a combination of manual techniques and other therapeutic approaches. Conclusion The lack of any kind of serious scientific data does not allow us to draw any conclusion on the efficacy of manual therapy as an efficacious technique for the treatment of Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:18211702
Romano, Michele; Negrini, Stefano
The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is contingent upon many variables. Simple observation is enough for less serious curvatures, but for very serious cases surgical intervention could be proposed. Between these there is a wide range of different treatments. Manual therapy is commonly used: the aim of this paper is to verify the data existing in the literature on the efficacy of this approach. A systematic review of the scientific literature published internationally has been performed. We have included in the term manual therapy all the manipulative and generally passive techniques performed by an external operator. In a more specific meaning, osteopathic, chiropractic and massage techniques have been considered as manipulative therapeutic methods. We performed our systematic research in Medline, Embase, Cinhal, Cochrane Library, Pedro with the following terms: idiopathic scoliosis combined with chiropractic; manipulation; mobilization; manual therapy; massage; osteopathy; and therapeutic manipulation. The criteria for inclusion were as follows: Any kind of research; diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; patients treated exclusively by one of the procedures established as a standard for this review (chiropractic manipulation, osteopathic techniques, massage); and outcome in Cobb degrees. We founded 145 texts, but only three papers were relevant to our study. However, no one of the three satisfied all the required inclusion criteria because they were characterized by a combination of manual techniques and other therapeutic approaches. The lack of any kind of serious scientific data does not allow us to draw any conclusion on the efficacy of manual therapy as an efficacious technique for the treatment of Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Panek, Sławomir; Ignyś-O'Byrne, Anna; Głowacki, Jakub; Ignyś, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Piątek, Jacek
There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and rural environments, by use of the Polish version of the SRS-24 questionnaire. Forty urban and 20 rural postoperative patients with adolescent scoliosis with a minimum 2-year follow-up period after surgery were included in the study. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the IQOLA Project. General results of the Polish SRS-24 equalled 4.1 (SD 0.5) and 4.0 (SD.0.5) in the rural and urban groups of patients, respectively. The 2 groups do not differ in incidence of floor and ceiling effects. The Cronbach's alpha values are excellent for the general result of SRS-24 in urban and rural groups (0.85 and 0.85, respectively). The sub-groups differed significantly in the self-image after surgery domain (p=0.048). Patients from the rural group scored higher in the self-image after surgery domain but reported higher pain levels when compared to urban patients. The associations between SRS-24 results and radiographic parameters in the rural group of patients were strong, compared with moderate relations reported in the urban group.
Penha, Patrícia Jundi; Penha, Nárima Lívia Jundi; De Carvalho, Bárbarah Kelly Gonçalves; Andrade, Rodrigo Mantelatto; Schmitt, Ana Carolina Basso; João, Sílvia Maria Amado
The objective of this study was to describe the posture patterns of adolescents diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in a scoliosis school screening (SSS). Two-dimensional photogrammetry was used to assess the posture of 37 adolescents diagnosed with scoliosis (scoliosis group, SG) (Cobb angle ≥10°) and 76 adolescents with a false positive diagnosis (false positive group, FPG) (Cobb angle <10°, angle of trunk rotation ≥7°). In total, 2562 10- to 14-year-old adolescents were enrolled in the SSS, which was performed in public schools in the cities of Amparo, Pedreira, and Mogi Mirim in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Their posture was analyzed using Postural Analysis Software. Continuous variables were tested using Student t test, and categorical variables were tested using a χ2 test. The SG, FPG, simple curve group, and double curve group were all compared. Bivariate analysis was used to identify associations between postural deviations and scoliosis. The adopted significance level was α = .05. The SG (2.7 ± 1.9°) had greater shoulder obliquity than the FPG (1.9 ± 1.4°) (P = .010), and this deviation was associated with scoliosis (odds ratio [95% CI] P = 1.4 [1.1-1.8] 0.011). The SG had asymmetry between the right- and left-side lower limb frontal angle, shoulder sagittal alignment, and knee angle. The double curve group (3 ± 1.7°) presented a greater value of the vertical alignment of the torso than the simple curve group did (1.9 ± 1°; P = .032). Adolescents diagnosed with AIS in an SSS had greater shoulder obliquity and asymmetry between the right and left sides. Shoulder obliquity was the only postural deviation associated with AIS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zebracki, Kathy; Thawrani, Dinesh; Oswald, Timothy S; Anadio, Jennifer M; Sturm, Peter F
Patients with idiopathic scoliosis, although otherwise healthy, often have significant concerns about their self-image and appearance. In a group of juveniles and adolescents, this can impact adjustment in school, functioning in peer groups, and general sense of well-being. There are limited data to help physicians reliably and precisely identify those who are at higher risk of poor emotional adjustment even after spine deformity correction. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of emotional maladjustment in juvenile and adolescent patients after surgical correction of idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 233 juveniles, mean age 11.26 ± 1.02 (range, 8 to 12) years and 909 adolescents, mean age 14.91 ± 1.61 (range, 13 to 21) years, who underwent surgical correction for idiopathic scoliosis and who were participating in a prospective longitudinal multicenter database, were enrolled in the study. Participants completed the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire before surgery and 2 years postoperatively. Radiographs were used to measure Cobb angle and surface measurements were used to determine decompensation and trunk shift. Adolescents reported poorer mental health preoperatively (P<0.05) and 2 years postoperatively (P<0.001) than juveniles; however, both groups reported improved mental health (P<0.001) and self-image (P<0.01) postoperatively. Mental health 2 years postoperatively was predicted by preoperative self-image (P<0.05), mental health (P<0.001), and main thoracic Cobb angle (P<0.05) in the juvenile group. Within the adolescent group, mental health 2 years postoperatively was predicted by preoperative mental health (P<0.001); self-image 2 years postoperatively was predicted by preoperative mental health (P<0.01) and self-image (P<0.001). Self-image and mental health are significantly improved after spine deformity correction in juveniles and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. However, consistent with normative development
Pasha, Saba; Baldwin, Keith
Clinical evaluation of the postural balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has been measured by sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance. The impact of the scoliotic deformity in three planes on balance has not been fully investigated. 47 right thoracic and left lumbar curves adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 10 non-scoliotic controls were registered prospectively. 13 spinopelvic postural parameters were calculated from the 3-dimantional reconstructions of X-rays. 7 balance variables describing the position and sway of the center of pressure were recorded using a pressure mat. A regression analysis was used to predict sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance from the 7 balance variables. A canonical correlation analysis was performed between all the postural parameters and balance variables and the significant associations between the postural and balance variables were determined. sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance were not significantly associated with the position or sway of the center of pressure (p>0.05). Canonical correlation analysis showed significant associations between the postural variables in the 3 planes and center of pressure position (R 2 =0.81) and sway (R 2 =0.62), p<0.05. Frontal Cobbs, apical rotations, distal kyphosis, pelvic incidence, sacral slope, sagittal vertical axis, and frontal balance contributed to the postural balance in the cohort. The compensatory role of the pelvis and distal kyphosis in sagittal plane was underlined. Multidimensional analyses between the postural and balance variables showed the alignment of the thoracic, lumbar, and pelvis in the 3 planes, in addition to the global head-pelvic position impact on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuru, Tuğba; Yeldan, İpek; Dereli, E Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu R; Dikici, Fatih; Çolak, İlker
To compare the efficacy of three-dimensional (3D) Schroth exercises in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A randomised-controlled study. An outpatient exercise-unit and in a home setting. Fifty-one patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Forty-five patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into three groups. Schroth's 3D exercises were applied to the first group in the clinic and were given as a home program for the second group; the third group was the control. Scoliosis angle (Cobb method), angle of rotation (scoliometer), waist asymmetry (waist - elbow distance), maximum hump height of the patients and quality of life (QoL) (SRS-23) were assessed pre-treatment and, at the 6(th), 12(th) and 24(th) weeks. The Cobb (-2.53°; P=0.003) and rotation angles (-4.23°; P=0.000) significantly decreased, which indicated an improvement in the clinic exercise group compared to the other groups. The gibbosity (-68.66mm; P=0.000) and waist asymmetry improved only in the clinic exercise group, whereas the results of the other groups worsened. QoL did not change significantly in either group. According to the results of this study the Schroth exercise program applied in the clinic under physiotherapist supervision was superior to the home exercise and control groups; additionally, we observed that scoliosis progressed in the control group, which received no treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sitoula, Prakash; Verma, Kushagra; Holmes, Laurens; Gabos, Peter G; Sanders, James O; Yorgova, Petya; Neiss, Geraldine; Rogers, Kenneth; Shah, Suken A
Retrospective case series. This study aimed to validate the Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System and to assess its correlation to curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. The Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System has been used to predict curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. This study intended to validate that initial study with a larger sample size. We retrospectively reviewed 1100 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis between 2005 and 2011. Girls aged 8 to 14 years (<2 yr postmenarche) and boys aged 10 to 16 years who had obtained at least 1 hand and spine radiograph on the same day for evaluation of skeletal age and scoliosis curve magnitude were followed to skeletal maturity (Risser stage 5 or fully capped Risser stage 4), curve progression to 50° or greater, or spinal fusion. Patients with nonidiopathic curves were excluded. There were 161 patients: 131 girls (12.3 ± 1.2 yr) and 30 boys (13.9 ± 1.1 yr). The distribution of patients within Sanders stage (SS) 1 through 7 was 7, 28, 41, 45, 7, 31, and 2 patients, respectively; modified Lenke curve types 1 to 6 were 26, 12, 63, 5, 38, and 17 patients, respectively. All patients in SS2 with initial Cobb angles of 25° or greater progressed, and patients in SS1 and SS3 with initial Cobb angles of 35° or greater progressed. Similarly, all patients with initial Cobb angles of 40° or greater progressed except those in SS7. Conversely, none of the patients with initial Cobb angles of 15° or less or those in SS5, SS6, and SS7 with initial Cobb angles of 30° or less progressed. Predictive progression of 67%, 50%, 43%, 27%, and 60% was observed for subgroups SS1/30°, SS2/20°, SS3/30°, SS4/30°, and SS6/35° respectively. This larger cohort shows a strong predictive correlation between SS and initial Cobb angle for probability of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. 3.
Sui, Wen-yuan; Ye, Fang; Yang, Jun-lin
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery usually require prolonged operative times with extensive soft tissue dissection and significant perioperative blood loss, and allogeneic blood products are frequently needed. Methods to reduce the requirement for transfusion would have a beneficial effect on these patients. Although many previous studies have revealed the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in spinal surgery, there is still a lack of agreement concerning the reduction of both blood loss and transfusion requirements of large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The objective of this study was to elevate the efficacy and safety of a large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery using a retrospective study designed with historical control group. One hundred thirty seven consecutive AIS patients who underwent surgery treatment with posterior spinal pedicle systems from August 2011 to March 2015 in our scoliosis center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups, the TXA group and the historical recruited no TXA group (NTXA). Preoperative demographics, radiographic parameters, operative parameters, estimated blood loss (EBL), total irrigation fluid, number of patients requiring blood transfusion, mean drop of Hb (Pre-op Hb-Post-op Hb), haematocrit pre and post-surgery, mean volume of blood transfusion, hospitalization time, and adverse effect were recorded and compared. All the patients were successfully treated with satisfied clinical and radiographic outcomes. There were 71 patients in the TXA group and 66 patients in the NTXA group. The preoperative demographics were homogeneity between two groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant difference in average operative time between two groups (209 min vs 215 min, p >0.05). Number of patients in the TXA group showed a significant decrease in
Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS.
Su, Alvin W; McIntosh, Amy L; Schueler, Beth A; Milbrandt, Todd A; Winkler, Jennifer A; Stans, Anthony A; Larson, A Noelle
Intraoperative C-arm fluoroscopy and low-dose O-arm are both reasonable means to assist in screw placement for idiopathic scoliosis surgery. Both using pediatric low-dose O-arm settings and minimizing the number of radiographs during C-arm fluoroscopy guidance decrease patient radiation exposure and its deleterious biological effect that may be associated with cancer risk. We hypothesized that the radiation dose for C-arm-guided fluoroscopy is no less than low-dose O-arm scanning for placement of pedicle screws. A multicenter matched-control cohort study of 28 patients in total was conducted. Fourteen patients who underwent O-arm-guided pedicle screw insertion for spinal fusion surgery in 1 institution were matched to another 14 patients who underwent C-arm fluoroscopy guidance in the other institution in terms of the age of surgery, body weight, and number of imaged spine levels. The total effective dose was compared. A low-dose pediatric protocol was used for all O-arm scans with an effective dose of 0.65 mSv per scan. The effective dose of C-arm fluoroscopy was determined using anthropomorphic phantoms that represented the thoracic and lumbar spine in anteroposterior and lateral views, respectively. The clinical outcome and complications of all patients were documented. The mean total effective dose for the O-arm group was approximately 4 times higher than that of the C-arm group (P<0.0001). The effective dose for the C-arm patients had high variability based on fluoroscopy time and did not correlate with the number of imaged spine levels or body weight. The effective dose of 1 low-dose pediatric O-arm scan approximated 85 seconds of the C-arm fluoroscopy time. All patients had satisfactory clinical outcomes without major complications that required returning to the operating room. Radiation exposure required for O-arm scans can be higher than that required for C-arm fluoroscopy, but it depends on fluoroscopy time. Inclusion of more medical centers and surgeons
Sieberg, Christine B; Manganella, Juliana; Manalo, Gem; Simons, Laura E; Hresko, M Timothy
There is a need to better assess patient satisfaction and surgical outcomes. The purpose of the current study is to identify how preoperative expectations can impact postsurgical satisfaction among youth with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing spinal fusion surgery. The present study includes patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing spinal fusion surgery enrolled in a prospective, multicentered registry examining postsurgical outcomes. The Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire-Version 30, which assesses pain, self-image, mental health, and satisfaction with management, along with the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire, which measures surgical expectations was administered to 190 patients before surgery and 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Regression analyses with bootstrapping (with n=5000 bootstrap samples) were conducted with 99% bias-corrected confidence intervals to examine the extent to which preoperative expectations for spinal appearance mediated the relationship between presurgical mental health and pain and 2-year postsurgical satisfaction. Results indicate that preoperative mental health, pain, and expectations are predictive of postsurgical satisfaction. With the shifting health care system, physicians may want to consider patient mental health, pain, and expectations before surgery to optimize satisfaction and ultimately improve clinical care and patient outcomes. Level I-prognostic study.
Morse, Lee Jae; Kawakami, Noriaki; Lenke, Lawrence G; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Diab, Mohammad
Retrospective comparative study. To report preoperative differences in the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-30) between multiple US ethnicities and native Japanese and Korean children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The SRS-24 was developed in a US cohort with AIS. Comparative studies using the SRS-24 between US and Japanese patients showed differences, suggesting that culture might affect functional outcome. Preoperative SRS-30 outcomes were collected from 1853 children with AIS from 6 different ethnic groups: US white (1234), black (213), Hispanic (78), and Asian (29), as well as native Japanese (192) and Koreans (107). Analysis of covariance of 4 SRS-30 domains (pain, appearance, activity, and mental) was compared between groups adjusting for differences in age, sex, major curve magnitude, and body mass index. Pairwise comparisons of the 4 SRS-30 domains were adjusted for multiple comparisons, using Bonferroni correction. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Significant differences between ethnicities were found in all domains (P < 0.001). Whites reported more pain than Japanese or Koreans (Japanese = 4.52, Korean = 4.47, white = 4.04). Korean and Japanese patients had the lowest appearance scores (Japanese = 2.89, Korean = 2.73, US Asian = 3.55, Hispanic = 3.11, black = 3.47, white = 3.29). Koreans also had the lowest activity (Korean = 3.64, Japanese = 4.24, US Asian = 4.07, Hispanic = 4.02, black = 4.06, white = 4.16), mental (Korean = 3.70, Japanese = 4.23, US Asian = 4.05, Hispanic = 3.75, black = 4.03, white = 3.94), and total scores (Korean = 3.63, Japanese = 3.92, US Asian = 4.02, Hispanic = 3.75, black = 3.92, and white = 3.84). Culture and ethnicity influence SRS-30 outcomes in AIS. Whites reported more pain than Japanese and Koreans. Japanese and Koreans had the lowest appearance scores. Koreans additionally were distinguished by the lowest activity, mental, and total scores. These cultural and ethnic
Background It has been proposed that in-brace correction is the best guideline for prediction of the results of brace treatment for patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). However, bracing may be a stressful experience for patients and bracing non-compliance could be psychologically related. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between brace compliance, in-brace correction and QoL of patients with AIS. Methods Fifty-five patients with a diagnosis of AIS were recruited. All were female and aged 10 years or above when a brace was prescribed, none had undergone prior treatment, and all had a Risser sign of 0–2 and a Cobb angle of 25-40°. The patients were examined in three consecutive visits with 4 to 6 months between each visit. The Chinese translated Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), the Chinese translated Brace Questionnaires (BrQ) and the Chinese translated SRS-22 Questionnaires were used in the study. The in-brace Cobb angle, vertebral rotation and trunk listing were also measured. Patients’ compliance, in-brace correction and patients’ QoL were assessed. To identify the relationship among these three areas, logistic regression model and generalized linear model were used. Result For the compliance measure, a significant difference (p = 0.008) was detected on TAPS mean score difference between Visit 1 and Visit 2 in the least compliant group (0–8 hours) and the most compliant group (17–23 hours). In addition, a significant difference (p = 0.000) was detected on BrQ mean score difference between Visit 2 and Visit 3 in the least compliant group (0–8 hours) and the most compliant group (17–23 hours). For the orthosis effectiveness measure, no significant difference was detected between the three groups of bracing hours (0–8 hours, 9–16 hours, 17–23 hours) on in-brace correction (below 40% and 40% or above). For the QoL measure, no significant difference was detected between the two
Rushton, Paul R P; Elmalky, Mahmoud; Tikoo, Agnivesh; Basu, Saumyajit; Cole, Ashley A; Grevitt, Michael P
Determine impact of metal density on curve correction and costs in thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Ascertain if increased metal density is required for larger or stiffer curves. Multicentre retrospective case series of patients with Lenke 1-2 AIS treated with single-stage posterior only surgery using a standardized surgical technique; constructs using >80 % screws with variable metal density. All cases had >2-year follow up. Outcomes measures included coronal and sagittal radiographic outcomes, metal density (number of instrumented pedicles vs total available), fusion length and cost. 106 cases included 94 female. 78 Lenke 1. Mean age 14 years (9-26). Mean main thoracic (MT) Cobb angle 63° corrected to 22° (66 %). No significant correlations were present between metal density and: (a) coronal curve correction rates of the MT (r = 0.13, p = 0.19); (b) lumbar curve frontal correction (r = -0.15, p = 0.12); (c) correction index in MT curve (r = -0.10, p = 0.32); and (d) correction index in lumbar curve (r = 0.11, p = 0.28). Metal density was not correlated with change in thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.22, p = 0.04) or lumbosacral lordosis (r = 0.27, p = 0.01). Longer fusions were associated with greater loss of thoracic kyphosis (r = -0.31, p = 0.003). Groups differing by preoperative curve size and stiffness had comparable corrections with similar metal density. The pedicle screw cost represented 21-29 % of overall cost of inpatient treatment depending on metal density. Metal density affects cost but not the coronal and sagittal correction of thoracic AIS. Neither larger nor stiffer curves necessitate high metal density.
Lenke, L G; Engsberg, J R; Ross, S A; Reitenbach, A; Blanke, K; Bridwell, K H
Prospective evaluation of gait and spinal-pelvic balance parameters in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing a spinal fusion. To evaluate changes in gait and three-dimensional alignment and balance of the spine relative to the pelvis as a consequence of spinal fusion. Preoperative and postoperative spinal radiographs have been the major forms of outcome analysis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis fusions. The use of optoelectronic analysis for posture and gait has gained acceptance recently. However, there is a paucity of data quantifying, comparing, and correlating structural and functional changes in patients undergoing scoliosis fusion surgery including upright posture and gait. Thirty patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing an instrumented spinal fusion were prospectively evaluated. Coronal and sagittal vertical alignment was evaluated on radiographs (CVA-R, SVA-R), during upright posture (CVA-P and SVA-P), and during gait (CVA-G, SVA-G). Transverse plane alignment was evaluated by the acromion-pelvis angle during gait. Gait speed was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) between preoperative (129 +/- 16 cm/sec) and 2-year postoperative (119 +/- 16 cm/sec) testing sessions. Decreasing gait speed was the result of significantly reduced cadence and decreased stride length. There were no significant differences for lower extremity kinematics over the entire gait cycle. Spinal-pelvic balance parameters showed significant improvement in mean CVA-R, CVA-G (P < 0.05), then unchanged CVA-P at 2 years postoperation. CVA-P was relatively unchanged while the mean CVA-G also showed significant improvement from preoperation (2.2 +/- 2.4 cm) to 2 years postoperation (1.3 +/- 1.3 cm)(P < 0.05). The mean SVA-R, SVA-P, and SVA-G were unchanged at 2 years postoperation (P > 0.05). The acromion-pelvis angle during gait at maximum shoulder rotation was statistically improved at 1 year (P = 0.002) and 2 years (P = 0.001) after surgery. Importantly
Dolan, Lori A; Donnelly, Melanie J; Spratt, Kevin F; Weinstein, Stuart L
To determine if community equipoise exists concerning the effectiveness of bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bracing is the standard of care for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis despite the lack of strong reasearch evidence concerning its effectiveness. Thus, some researchers support the idea of a randomized trial, whereas others think that randomization in the face of a standard of care would be unethical. A random of Scoliosis Research Society and Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America members were asked to consider 12 clinical profiles and to give their opinion concerning the radiographic outcomes after observation and bracing. An expert panel was created from the respondents. They expressed a wide array of opinions concerning the percentage of patients within each scenario who would benefit from bracing. Agreement was noted concerning the risk due to bracing for post-menarchal patients only. : This study found a high degree of variability in opinion among clinicians concerning the effectiveness of bracing, suggesting that a randomized trial of bracing would be ethical.
Dolan, Lori A.; Donnelly, Melanie J.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Weinstein, Stuart L.
Objective To determine if community equipoise exists concerning the effectiveness of bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Background Data Bracing is the standard of care for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis despite the lack of strong reasearch evidence concerning its effectiveness. Thus, some researchers support the idea of a randomized trial, whereas others think that randomization in the face of a standard of care would be unethical. Methods A random of Scoliosis Research Society and Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America members were asked to consider 12 clinical profiles and to give their opinion concerning the radiographic outcomes after observation and bracing. Results An expert panel was created from the respondents. They expressed a wide array of opinions concerning the percentage of patients within each scenario who would benefit from bracing. Agreement was noted concerning the risk due to bracing for post-menarchal patients only. Conclusions This study found a high degree of variability in opinion among clinicians concerning the effectiveness of bracing, suggesting that a randomized trial of bracing would be ethical. PMID:17414008
Lee, Jin-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Han Jo; Suh, Bo-Kyung; Nam, Ji Hoon; Jung, Jae Kyun; Lee, Hwan-Mo
Purpose School screening allows for early detection and early treatment of scoliosis, with the purpose of reducing the number of patients requiring surgical treatment. Children between 10 and 14 years old are considered as good candidates for school screening tests of scoliosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the epidemiological findings of idiopathic scoliosis in 11-year-old Korean adolescents. Materials and Methods A total of 37856 11-year-old adolescents were screened for scoliosis. There were 17110 girls and 20746 boys. Adolescents who were abnormal by Moiré topography were subsequently assessed by standardized clinical and radiological examinations. A scoliotic curve was defined as 10° or more. Results The prevalence of scoliosis was 0.19% and most of the curves were small (10° to 19°). The ratio of boys to girls was 1:5.5 overall. Sixty adolescents (84.5%) exhibited single curvature. Thoracolumbar curves were the most common type of curve identified, followed by thoracic and lumbar curves. Conclusion The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis among 11-year-old Korean adolescents was 0.19%. PMID:24719147
Urbanski, Wiktor; Wolanczyk, Michal J; Jurasz, Wojciech; Kulej, Miroslaw; Morasiewicz, Piotr; Dragan, Szymon Lukasz; Sasiadek, Marek; Dragan, Szymon Feliks
Recent developments of spinal instruments allow to address nearly all components of idiopathic scoliosis. Direct vertebral rotation (DVR) maneuver was introduced to correct apical axial vertebral rotation. It is however still not well established how efficiently DVR affects results of scoliosis correction. The object of the study was to evaluate en bloc apical vertebral rotation (DVR) and its impact on coronal and sagittal correction of the spine in patients undergoing surgical scoliosis treatment. Thirty-six consecutive patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion with pedicle screws only constructs for idiopathic scoliosis. Fifteen patients (20 curves) were corrected by rod derotation only and 21 patients (26 curves) had both rod derotation and DVR. Curve measurements were performed on x-rays obtained before and postoperatively-coronal curves, kyphosis (T2-T12, T5-T12). Spine flexibility was assessed on prone bending x-rays. Apical axial rotation was determined on CT scans obtained intraoperatively and postoperatively. Rotation angle (RAsag) was measured according to Aaro and Dahlborn. We observed reduction of RAsag in all patients; however, in DVR group, decrease was greater, by 31.8% comparing to non-DVR group, by 8.6% (p = 0.0003). Mean coronal correction in DVR group was 68.8% and in rod derotation group without DVR 55% (p = 0.002). No significant correlation was found between degree of derotation obtained and coronal correction. In DVR group T2-T12 kyphosis has increased in 28 (65%) patients whereas in non-DVR group in 31 (69%) cases. Mean value of T2-T12 kyphosis growth was 16.7% in DVR and 22.1% in non-DVR group. These differences however did not occur statistically significant. Direct vertebral rotation (DVR) maneuver reduces significantly apical rotation of the spine, enhances ability of coronal correction, and it does not reduce thoracic kyphosis.
Background Studies investigating the outcome of conservative scoliosis treatment differ widely with respect to the inclusion criteria used. This study has been performed to investigate the possibility to find useful inclusion criteria for future prospective studies on physiotherapy (PT). Materials and methods A PubMed search for outcome papers on PT was performed in order to detect study designs and inclusion criteria used. Results Real outcome papers (start of treatment in immature samples/end results after the end of growth; controlled studies in adults with scoliosis with a follow-up of more than 5 years) have not been found. Some papers investigated mid-term effects of exercises, most were retrospective, few prospective and many included patient samples with questionable treatment indications. Conclusion There is no outcome paper on PT in scoliosis with a patient sample at risk for being progressive in adults or in adolescents followed from premenarchial status until skeletal maturity. However, papers on bracing are more frequently found and bracing can be regarded as evidence-based in the conservative management and rehabilitation of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. PMID:22277541
Rocławski, Marek; Sabiniewicz, Robert; Potaz, Piotr; Smoczyński, Andrzej; Lorczyński, Adam; Pankowski, Rafał; Bieniecki, Michał
Surgery, particularly thoracotomy in the thoracic area in infancy has been implicated in the development of scoliosis of thoracogenic origin. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of lateral thoracotomy on scoliosis development in subjects with patent ductus arteriosus. A group of 69 patients with patent ductus arteriosus was evaluated. 38 patients were operated using left lateral thoracotomy and 31 patients were treated non-operatively using intravascular coil implantation. A spinal examination together with the evaluation of spinal roentgenograms was conducted. There was clinical scoliosis in 55% of operated, in 16% of non-operated patients. Scoliosis ranged between 10 and 42 degrees. 76% of operated patients with scoliosis had thoracic curves and in 57% of them left sided curves were found. All curves were right sided in non-operated subjects. Scoliosis in the operated group occurred in 68% of males and in 37% of females. Prevalence of scoliosis after thoracotomy was significantly higher than in the average population and after non-surgical methods of treatment of patent ductus arteriosus. The rate of single thoracic and the rate of left thoracic curves in patients after thoracotomy is higher than the rate in non-operated patients and in idiopathic scoliosis. Female to male ratio with scoliosis and after thoracotomy is significantly lower than in idiopathic scoliosis.
Sullivan, T Barrett; Reighard, Fredrick G; Osborn, Emily J; Parvaresh, Kevin C; Newton, Peter O
Loss of thoracic kyphosis has been associated with thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Modern 3-dimensional (3D) imaging systems allow more accurate characterization of the scoliotic deformity than traditional radiographs. In this study, we utilized 3D calculations to characterize the association between increasing scoliosis severity and changes in the sagittal and axial planes. Patients evaluated in a scoliosis clinic and determined to have either a normal spine or idiopathic scoliosis were included in the analysis. All underwent upright, biplanar radiography with 3D reconstructions. Two-dimensional (2D) measurements of the magnitude of the thoracic major curve and the thoracic kyphosis were recorded. Image processing and MATLAB analysis were utilized to produce a 3D calculation of thoracic kyphosis and apical vertebral axial rotation. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation of 2D kyphosis, 3D kyphosis, and apical axial rotation with the magnitude of the thoracic major curve. The 442 patients for whom 2D and 3D data were collected had a main thoracic curve magnitude ranging from 1° to 118°. Linear regression analysis of the 2D and 3D T5-T12 kyphosis versus main thoracic curve magnitude yielded significant models (p < 0.05). The 2D model had a minimally negative slope (-0.07), a small R value (0.02), and a poor correlation coefficient (-0.14). In contrast, the 3D model had a strongly negative slope (-0.54), a high R value (0.56), and a strong correlation coefficient (-0.75). Curve magnitude also had a strong correlation with loss of 3D T1-T12 kyphosis and increasing apical axial rotation. Segmentally calculated 3D thoracic kyphosis had a strongly negative correlation with the magnitude of the main thoracic curve. With near uniformity, 3D thoracic kyphosis progressively decreased as scoliosis magnitude increased, at a rate of more than half the increase in the main thoracic curve magnitude. Analysis confirmed a surprisingly strong correlation
Correlation between Topographic Parameters Obtained by Back Surface Topography Based on Structured Light and Radiographic Variables in the Assessment of Back Morphology in Young Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis.
Pino-Almero, Laura; Mínguez-Rey, María Fe; Cibrián-Ortiz de Anda, Rosa María; Salvador-Palmer, María Rosario; Sentamans-Segarra, Salvador
Optical cross-sectional study. To study the correlation between asymmetry of the back (measured by means of surface topography) and deformity of the spine (quantified by the Cobb angle). The Cobb angle is considered the gold standard in diagnosis and follow-up of scoliosis but does not correctly characterize the three-dimensional deformity of scoliosis. Furthermore, the exposure to ionizing radiation may cause harmful effects particularly during the growth stage, including breast cancer and other tumors. Patients aged 13.15±1.96 years (range, 7-17 years; n=88) with Cobb angle greater than 10° were evaluated with X-rays and our back surface topography method through three variables: axial plane (DHOPI), coronal plane (POTSI), and profile plane (PC). Pearson's correlation was applied to determine the correlation between topographic and radiographic variables. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni correction were used to compare groups with different grades of scoliosis. Significance was set at p <0.01 and, in some cases, at p <0.05. We detected a positive, statistically significant correlation between Cobb angle with DHOPI ( r =0.810) and POTSI ( r =0.629) and between PC variables with thoracic kyphosis angle ( r =0.453) and lordosis lumbar angle ( r =0.275). In addition, we found statistically significant differences for DHOPI and POTSI variables according to the grade of scoliosis. Although the back surface topography method cannot substitute for radiographs in the diagnosis of scoliosis, correlations between radiographic and topographic parameters suggest that it offers additional quantitative data that may complement radiologic study.
Sánchez-Márquez, J M; Sánchez Pérez-Grueso, F J; Pérez Martín-Buitrago, M; Fernández-Baíllo, N; García-Fernández, A; Quintáns-Rodríguez, J
The aim of this work is to evaluate and compare the radiographic results and complications of the surgical treatment of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis greater than 75 degrees, using a double approach (DA) or an isolated posterior approach with hybrid instruments (posterior hybrid [PH]), or with «all-pedicle screws» (posterior screws [PS]). A retrospective review was performed on 69 patients with idiopathic scoliosis greater than 75°, with a follow-up of more than 2 years, to analyze the flexibility of the curves, the correction obtained, and the complications depending on the type of surgery. The Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric variables was used for the statistical analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between the 3 patient groups in the pre-surgical Cobb angle values (DA=89°, PH=83°, PS=83°), in the immediate post-surgical (DA=34°, PH=33°, PS=30°), nor at the end of follow-up (DA=36°, PH=36°, PS=33°) (P>.05). The percentage correction (DA=60%, PH=57%, PS=60%) was similar between groups (P>.05). The percentage of complications associated with the procedure was 20.8% in DA, 10% in PH and 20% in PS. Two patients in the PS group showed changes, with no neurological lesions, in the spinal cord monitoring, and one patient in the same group suffered a delayed and transient incomplete lesion. No significant differences were observed in the correction of severe idiopathic scoliosis between patients operated using the double or isolated posterior approach, regardless of the type of instrumentation used. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
McIntire, Kevin L; Asher, Marc A; Burton, Douglas C; Liu, Wen
Background Recent reports have suggested a rotational strength weakness in rotations to the concave side in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. There have been no studies presenting normative values of female adolescent trunk rotational strength to which a comparison of female adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis could be made. The purpose of this study was to determine trunk rotational strength asymmetry in a group of female adolescents with AIS and a comparison group of healthy female adolescents without scoliosis. Methods Twenty-six healthy adolescent females served as the healthy group (HG) (average age 14 years) and fourteen otherwise healthy adolescent females with idiopathic scoliosis served as the idiopathic scoliosis group (ISG) (average age 13.5 years, average Cobb 28°). Participant's isometric trunk rotational strength was measured in five randomly ordered trunk positions: neutral, 18° and 36° of right and left pre-rotation. Rotational strength asymmetry was compared within each group and between the two groups using several different measures. Results The HG showed strength asymmetry in the 36° pre-rotated trunk positions when rotating towards the midline (p < 0.05). The ISG showed strength asymmetry when rotating towards the concavity of their primary curve from the neutral position (p < 0.05) and when rotating towards the concavity from the 18° (p < 0.05) and 36° (p < 0.05) concave pre-rotated positions. The ISG is significantly weaker than the HG when rotating away from the midline toward the concave (ISG)-left (HG) side from the concave/left pre-rotated 18° (p < 0.05) and 36° (p < 0.05) positions. Conclusion The AIS females were found to be significantly weaker when contracting toward their main curve concavity in the neutral and concave pre-rotated positions compared to contractions toward the convexity. These weaknesses were also demonstrated when compared to the group of healthy female adolescent controls. Possible mechanisms for the
Fazal, Akil; Lakdawala, Riaz H
To evaluate the radiological and functional outcome of surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using fourth-generation posterior spinal instrumentation at The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Case series. The Aga Khan University Hospital after a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. A total of 20 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were recruited into the study and evaluated for radiological and functional outcome. The study period was from 2000 to 2005. Radiological outcome was assessed using Cobb angle measurement pre and postoperatively, hence assessing percentage correction. The lower instrumented vertebra was taken as the neutral vertebra and the level was recorded. Functional outcome was determined using the Scoliosis Research Society patient administered questionnaire. All patients were called to the clinic and asked to fill in the form. Those patients who were out of the city were mailed the forms and requested via telephone to complete and return. Of the 20 patients operated on, twelve were female and eight were male. The average age at operation was 12.7 years. The mean Cobb angle was 69° preoperatively and 20° postoperatively, representing a percentage correction of 71%. The average duration of follow-up was 3.6 years. There was one major complication involving neurological injury post-op and two minor complications involving wound infection. The average Scoliosis Research Society score (on a scale of 1-5, with 5 being best) for pain was 4.5, self-image was 4.2, functional status was 4.1, mental status was 3.8, and satisfaction was 4.4. There was no relationship between the percentage correction of scoliosis and the functional outcome. Those patients with a high preoperative Cobb angle tended to have a better outcome for functional and mental status postoperatively. There was no relation between the lower instrumented vertebra and functional outcome. In the correct indications, fourth-generation posterior instrumentation
Gür, Gözde; Ayhan, Cigdem; Yakut, Yavuz
Core stabilization training is used to improve postural balance in musculoskeletal problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of stabilization training in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A randomized controlled trial, pretest-posttest design. In total, 25 subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into two groups: stabilization group ( n = 12) and control group ( n = 13). The stabilization group received core stabilization in addition to traditional rehabilitation, and the control group received traditional rehabilitation for 10 weeks. Assessment included Cobb's angle on radiograph, apical vertebral rotation in Adam's test, trunk asymmetry (Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index), cosmetic trunk deformity (Trunk Appearance Perception Scale), and quality of life (Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire). Inter-group comparisons showed significantly greater improvements in the mean change in lumbar apical vertebral rotation degree and the pain domain of Scoliosis Research Society-22 in the stabilization group than those in the control group ( p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for other measurements between the groups; however, trends toward greater improvement were observed in the stabilization group. Core stabilization training in addition to traditional exercises was more effective than traditional exercises alone in the correction of vertebral rotation and reduction of pain in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Clinical relevance Stabilization exercises are more effective in reducing rotation deformity and pain than traditional exercises in the conservative rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. These improvements suggest that stabilization training should be added to rehabilitation programs in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Hackenberg, Lars; Hierholzer, Eberhard; Bullmann, Viola; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Götze, Christian
The forward bending test according to Adams and rib hump quantification by scoliometer are common clinical examination techniques in idiopathic scoliosis, although precise data about the change of axial surface rotation in forward bending posture are not available. In a pilot study the influence of leg length inequalities on the back shape of five normal subjects was clarified. Then 91 patients with idiopathic scoliosis with Cobb-angles between 20 degrees and 82 degrees were examined by rasterstereography, a 3D back surface analysis system. The axial back surface rotation in standing posture was compared with that in forward bending posture and additionally with a scoliometer measurement in forward bending posture. The changes of back shape in forward bending posture were correlated with the Cobb-angle, the level of the apex of the scoliotic primary curve and the age of the patient. Averaged over all patients, the back surface rotation amplitude increased from 23.1 degrees in standing to 26.3 degrees in forward bending posture. The standard deviation of this difference was high (6.1 degrees ). The correlation of back surface rotation amplitude in standing with that in forward bending posture was poor (R (2)=0.41) as was the correlation of back surface rotation in standing posture with the scoliometer in forward bending posture measured rotation (R (2)=0.35). No significant correlation could be found between the change of back shape in forward bending and the degree of deformity (R (2)=0.07), likewise no correlation with the height of the apex of the scoliosis (R (2)=0.005) and the age of the patient (R (2)=0.001). Before forward bending test leg length inequalities have to be compensated accurately. Compared to the standing posture, forward bending changes back surface rotation. However, this change varies greatly between patients, and is independent of the type and degree of scoliosis. Furthermore remarkable differences were found between scoliometer measurement
Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Rosenstein, Benjamin E; Johnston, Charles E; Regelmann, Warren E; Nuckley, David J; Polly, David W
Scoliosis deformity has been linked with deleterious changes in the thoracic cavity that affect pulmonary function. The causal relationship between spinal deformity and pulmonary function has yet to be fully defined. It has been hypothesized that deformity correction improves pulmonary function by restoring both respiratory muscle efficiency and increasing the space available to the lungs. This research aims to correlate pulmonary function and thoracic volume before and after scoliosis correction. Retrospective correlational analysis between thoracic volume modeling from plain x-rays and pulmonary function tests was conducted. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients enrolled in a multicenter database were sorted by pre-operative Total Lung Capacities (TLC) % predicted values from their Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT). Ten patients with the best and ten patients with the worst TLC values were included. Modeled thoracic volume and TLC values were compared before and 2 years after surgery. Scoliosis correction resulted in an increase in the thoracic volume for patients with the worst initial TLCs (11.7%) and those with the best initial TLCs (12.5%). The adolescents with the most severe pulmonary restriction prior to surgery strongly correlated with post-operative change in total lung capacity and thoracic volume (r 2 = 0.839; p < 0.001). The mean increase in thoracic volume in this group was 373.1 cm 3 (11.7%) which correlated with a 21.2% improvement in TLC. Scoliosis correction in adolescents was found to increase thoracic volume and is strongly correlated with improved TLC in cases with severe restrictive pulmonary function, but no correlation was found in cases with normal pulmonary function. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:175-182, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vitamin D Receptor gene (VDR) transcripts in bone, cartilage, muscles and blood and microarray analysis of vitamin D responsive genes expression in paravertebral muscles of Juvenile and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis patients
Background VDR may be considered as a candidate gene potentially related to Idiopathic Scoliosis susceptibility and natural history. Transcriptional profile of VDR mRNA isoforms might be changed in the structural tissues of the scoliotic spine and potentially influence the expression of VDR responsive genes. The purpose of the study was to determine differences in mRNA abundance of VDR isoforms in bone, cartilage and paravertebral muscles between tissues from curve concavity and convexity, between JIS and AIS and to identify VDR responsive genes differentiating Juvenile and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in paravertebral muscles. Methods In a group of 29 patients with JIS and AIS, specimens of bone, cartilage, paravertebral muscles were harvested at the both sides of the curve apex together with peripheral blood samples. Extracted total RNA served as a matrix for VDRs and VDRl mRNA quantification by QRT PCR. Subsequent microarray analysis of paravertebral muscular tissue samples was performed with HG U133A chips (Affymetrix). Quantitative data were compared by a nonparametric Mann Whitney U test. Microarray results were analyzed with GeneSpring 11GX application. Matrix plot of normalized log-intensities visualized the degree of differentiation between muscular tissue transcriptomes of JIS and AIS group. Fold Change Analysis with cutoff of Fold Change ≥2 identified differentially expressed VDR responsive genes in paravertebral muscles of JIS and AIS. Results No significant differences in transcript abundance of VDR isoforms between tissues of the curve concavity and convexity were found. Statistically significant difference between JIS and AIS group in mRNA abundance of VDRl isoform was found in paravertebral muscles of curve concavity. Higher degree of muscular transcriptome differentiation between curve concavity and convexity was visualized in JIS group. In paravertebral muscles Tob2 and MED13 were selected as genes differentially expressed in JIS and AIS
Negrini, Alessandra; Negrini, Maria Gabriella; Donzelli, Sabrina; Romano, Michele; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano
Scoliosis fusion surgery is generally considered the only means to stop the progression of adult idiopathic scoliosis (ADIS), but for patients refusing surgery there is lack of evidence in favour of conservative treatment. The aim of the present study was to verify the possible effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises when facing ADIS progression. We designed a retrospective cohort study. We included 34 ADIS patients in treatment at our Institute (5 males and 29 females, mean age was 38.0 ± 11.0), exclusively treated with specific Scoliosis Specific SEAS exercises. SEAS exercises are scoliosis-specific exercises. In adult patients they are aimed to recover postural collapse, postural control and vertebral stability through an active self-correction. Postural integration is a key element, including the neuromotor integration of correct postures and an ergonomic education program. Therapy includes at least two weekly exercise sessions each lasting 45 min. Radiographic progression was the main outcome and it was analysed as a continuous variable. One way ANOVA and paired t-test were applied for continuous data, while chi-square test was applied for categorical data. Alpha was set at 0.05. The mean Cobb angle of the patients included into the present study, was 55.8 ± 13.2 °. Fifteen patients had previous x-rays testifying scoliosis progression: the average curve progression (worsening) was 9.8 ± 6.6 ° at a median of 25 (range 17-48) years. The remaining were characterized by more severe curves, exceeding 40 ° Cobb (mean curvature 50.9 ± 13.6) but it was not possible to prove that the curves had progressed in these cases. After an average period of 2 years of treatment (range 1-18y), 68 % of the patients experienced an improvement in their scoliosis. However in one patient (3 %) the scoliosis worsened by 5 ° in 18 years (progression rate reduced from 0.5 ° to 0.27 ° per year). Patients improved 4.6 ± 5.0 ° Cobb
Crijns, Tom Joris; Stadhouder, Agnita; Smit, Theodoor Henri
An experimental model study and a short review of literature. The purpose of this study was to explore a new hypothesis suggesting that the curvatures seen in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) originate from restrained differential growth between the vertebral column and the surrounding musculo-ligamentary structures. Despite decades of research, there is no generally accepted theory on the physical origin of the severe spinal deformations seen in AIS. The prevailing theories tend to focus on left-right asymmetry, rotational instability, or the sagittal spinal profile in idiopathic scoliosis. We test our hypothesis with a physical model of the spine that simulates growth, counteracted by ligaments and muscles, modeled by tethers and springs. Growth of the spine is further restrained by an anterior band representing the thorax, the linea alba, and abdominal musculature. We also explore literature in search of molecular mechanisms that may induce differential growth. Differential growth in the restrained spine model first induces hypokyphosis and mild lateral bending of the thoracic spine, but then suddenly escalates into a scoliotic deformity, consistent with clinical observations of AIS. The band simulating the ventral structures of the body had a pivotal effect on sagittal curvature and the initiation of lateral bending and rotation. In literature, several molecular mechanisms were found that may explain the occurrence of differential growth between the spine and the musculo-ligamentary structures. While AIS is a three-dimensional deformation of the spine, it appears that restrained differential growth in the sagittal plane can result in lateral bending and rotation without a pre-existing left-right asymmetry. This supports the concept that AIS may result from a growth imbalance rather than a local anatomical defect. N/A.
Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Owens, Douglas K; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, a lateral curvature of the spine of unknown cause with a Cobb angle of at least 10°, occurs in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form and usually worsens during adolescence before skeletal maturity. Severe spinal curvature may be associated with adverse long-term health outcomes (eg, pulmonary disorders, disability, back pain, psychological effects, cosmetic issues, and reduced quality of life). Early identification and effective treatment of mild scoliosis could slow or stop curvature progression before skeletal maturity, thereby improving long-term outcomes in adulthood. To update the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for idiopathic scoliosis in asymptomatic adolescents. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The USPSTF found no direct evidence on screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and health outcomes and no evidence on the harms of screening. The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on treatment with exercise and surgery. It found adequate evidence that treatment with bracing may slow curvature progression in adolescents with mild or moderate curvature severity (Cobb angle <40° to 50°); however, evidence on the association between reduction in spinal curvature in adolescence and long-term health outcomes in adulthood is inadequate. The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on the harms of treatment. Therefore, the USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient and that the balance of benefits and harms of screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cannot be determined. The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. (I statement).
Kotwicki, Tomasz; Kinel, Edyta; Stryla, Wanda; Szulc, Andrzej
Background The shape of the torso in patients with idiopathic scoliosis is considered to reflect the shape of the vertebral column, however the direct correlation between parameters describing clinical deformity and those characterizing radiological curvature was reported to be weak. It is not clear if the management proposed for scoliosis (physiotherapy, brace, surgery) affects equally the shape of the axial skeleton and the surface of the body. The aim of the study was to compare clinical deformity of (1) idiopathic scoliosis girls being under brace treatment for radiological curves of 25 to 40 degrees and (2) non treated scoliotic girls matched for age and Cobb angle. Methods Cross-sectional study of 24 girls wearing the brace versus 26 girls without brace treatment, matched for age and Cobb angle. Hypothesis: Patients wearing the brace for more than 6 months, when comparing to patients without brace, may present different external morphology of the trunk, in spite of having similar Cobb angle. Material. Inclusion criteria: girls, idiopathic scoliosis, growing age (10–16 years), Cobb angle minimum 25°, maximum 40°. The braced group consisted of girls wearing a TLSO brace (Cheneau) for more than 6 months with minimum of 16 hours per day. The non-braced group consisted of girls first seen for their spinal deformity, previously not treated. The groups presented similar curve pattern. Methods. Scoliometer exam: angle of trunk rotation at three levels of the spine: upper thoracic, main thoracic, lumbar or thoracolumbar. The maximal angle was noted at each level and the sum of three levels was calculated. Posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI) and Hump Sum were measured using surface topography. Results Cobb angle was 34.9° ± 4.8° in braced and 32.7° ± 4.9° in un-braced patients (difference not significant). The age was 14.1 ± 1.6 years in braced patients and 13.1 ± 1.9 years in un-braced group (p = 0.046). The value of angle of trunk rotation in the main
Kotwicki, Tomasz; Kinel, Edyta; Stryla, Wanda; Szulc, Andrzej
The shape of the torso in patients with idiopathic scoliosis is considered to reflect the shape of the vertebral column, however the direct correlation between parameters describing clinical deformity and those characterizing radiological curvature was reported to be weak. It is not clear if the management proposed for scoliosis (physiotherapy, brace, surgery) affects equally the shape of the axial skeleton and the surface of the body. The aim of the study was to compare clinical deformity of (1) idiopathic scoliosis girls being under brace treatment for radiological curves of 25 to 40 degrees and (2) non treated scoliotic girls matched for age and Cobb angle. Cross-sectional study of 24 girls wearing the brace versus 26 girls without brace treatment, matched for age and Cobb angle. Patients wearing the brace for more than 6 months, when comparing to patients without brace, may present different external morphology of the trunk, in spite of having similar Cobb angle. Material. girls, idiopathic scoliosis, growing age (10-16 years), Cobb angle minimum 25 degrees , maximum 40 degrees . The braced group consisted of girls wearing a TLSO brace (Cheneau) for more than 6 months with minimum of 16 hours per day. The non-braced group consisted of girls first seen for their spinal deformity, previously not treated. The groups presented similar curve pattern. Methods. Scoliometer exam: angle of trunk rotation at three levels of the spine: upper thoracic, main thoracic, lumbar or thoracolumbar. The maximal angle was noted at each level and the sum of three levels was calculated. Posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI) and Hump Sum were measured using surface topography. Cobb angle was 34.9 degrees +/- 4.8 degrees in braced and 32.7 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees in un-braced patients (difference not significant). The age was 14.1 +/- 1.6 years in braced patients and 13.1 +/- 1.9 years in un-braced group (p = 0.046). The value of angle of trunk rotation in the main curvature was 8
SILVA, RICARDO TEIXEIRA E; FERNANDES, RENAN JOSE RODRIGUES; ONO, ALLAN HIROSHI DE ARAÚJO; MARCON, RAPHAEL MARTUS; CRISTANTE, ALEXANDRE FOGAÇA; BARROS, TARCISIO ELOY PESSOA DE
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the hormonal profile of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and its relationship to the severity of the curvature and quality of life. Method: Patients with scoliosis (Cobb angle above 10°), of both genders, diagnosed after 10 years of age were included, excluding those who presented other condition that could lead to scoliosis. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), cortisol and gastrin were correlated with Cobb angle and quality of life, measured by the SRS-30 questionnaire. Results: The levels of 25-OHD decreased in 97% of patients. There was an inverse relationship between gastrin levels and quality of life (p = 0.016). Moreover, there was an inverse correlation between the value of Cobb angle and quality of life (p = 0.036). There were no changes in cortisol levels. There was no correlation between Cobb angle and any of the hormones measured. Conclusion: The patients had levels of 25-OHD diminished, strengthening the hypothesis of its involvement in the development of AIS. This study also suggests that increased gastrin levels may be associated with a worse quality of life in patients with AIS. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Study. PMID:28642644
Wu, Hongbo; Bailey, Chris; Rasoulinejad, Parham; Li, Shuo
Automated quantitative estimation of spinal curvature is an important task for the ongoing evaluation and treatment planning of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). It solves the widely accepted disadvantage of manual Cobb angle measurement (time-consuming and unreliable) which is currently the gold standard for AIS assessment. Attempts have been made to improve the reliability of automated Cobb angle estimation. However, it is very challenging to achieve accurate and robust estimation of Cobb angles due to the need for correctly identifying all the required vertebrae in both Anterior-posterior (AP) and Lateral (LAT) view x-rays. The challenge is especially evident in LAT x-ray where occlusion of vertebrae by the ribcage occurs. We therefore propose a novel Multi-View Correlation Network (MVC-Net) architecture that can provide a fully automated end-to-end framework for spinal curvature estimation in multi-view (both AP and LAT) x-rays. The proposed MVC-Net uses our newly designed multi-view convolution layers to incorporate joint features of multi-view x-rays, which allows the network to mitigate the occlusion problem by utilizing the structural dependencies of the two views. The MVC-Net consists of three closely-linked components: (1) a series of X-modules for joint representation of spinal structure (2) a Spinal Landmark Estimator network for robust spinal landmark estimation, and (3) a Cobb Angle Estimator network for accurate Cobb Angles estimation. By utilizing an iterative multi-task training algorithm to train the Spinal Landmark Estimator and Cobb Angle Estimator in tandem, the MVC-Net leverages the multi-task relationship between landmark and angle estimation to reliably detect all the required vertebrae for accurate Cobb angles estimation. Experimental results on 526 x-ray images from 154 patients show an impressive 4.04° Circular Mean Absolute Error (CMAE) in AP Cobb angle and 4.07° CMAE in LAT Cobb angle estimation, which demonstrates the MVC
Yang, Mingyuan; Yang, Changwei; Chen, Ziqiang; Wei, Xianzhao; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Jian; Shao, Jie; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Ming
A retrospective study. To explore the relationship between the change of lumbar lordosis (LL) and thoracic kyphosis (TK) in AIS patients after correction surgery. TK tends to decrease in Lenke 1 and Lenke 2 AIS patients after correction surgery using pedicle screws, with the compensation of LL decrease. We hypothesize that lumbar lordosis minus thoracic kyphosis (LL-TK) remains constant after correction surgery to achieve the sagittal balance in AIS patients. Medical records of Lenke 1 or Lenke 2 AIS patients who received posterior correction surgery using pedicle screws in our hospital from January 2010 to January 2013 were reviewed. General characters of patients and radiological parameters were evaluated before the surgery and at two years' follow-up. Correlation analysis between TK and LL was conducted. LL-TK and the change of LL and TK were analyzed at preoperation and final follow-up. A total of 76 Lenke 1 and Lenke 2 AIS patients were included. Both TK and LL decreased significantly after correction surgery (P = 0.019 and P = 0.040, respectively). There were significant correlations between TK and LL before and after surgery, respectively (preoperative: r = 0.234, P = 0.042; postoperative: r = 0.310, P = 0.006). Preoperative and postoperative LL-TK was 23.80° and 25.09°, respectively, and no significant difference of LL-TK was observed (P = 0.372). The same tendency was observed in the change of LL and TK, and significant correlation was also found between the change of TK and LL (r = 0.626, P = 0.002). The same change of LL and TK and no significant difference in LL-TK indicated that LL-TK might be an important compensatory mechanism in keeping sagittal balance.
Menger, Richard P; Kalakoti, Piyush; Pugely, Andrew J; Nanda, Anil; Sin, Anthony
OBJECTIVE Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of scoliosis. Limited literature exists defining risk factors associated with outcomes during initial hospitalization in these patients. In this study, the authors investigated patient demographics, clinical and hospital characteristics impacting short-term outcomes, and costs in adolescent patients undergoing surgical deformity correction for idiopathic scoliosis. Additionally, the authors elucidate the impact of hospital surgical volume on outcomes for these patients. METHODS Using the National Inpatient Sample database and appropriate International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes, the authors identified adolescent patients (10-19 years of age) undergoing surgical deformity correction for idiopathic scoliosis during 2001-2014. For national estimates, appropriate weights provided by the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality were used. Multivariable regression techniques were employed to assess the association of risk factors with discharge disposition, postsurgical neurological complications, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization costs. RESULTS Overall, 75,106 adolescent patients underwent surgical deformity correction. The rates of postsurgical complications were estimated at 0.9% for neurological issues, 2.8% for respiratory complications, 0.8% for cardiac complications, 0.4% for infections, 2.7% for gastrointestinal complications, 0.1% for venous thromboembolic events, and 0.1% for acute renal failure. Overall, patients stayed at the hospital for an average of 5.72 days (median 5 days) and on average incurred hospitalization costs estimated at $54,997 (median $47,909). As compared with patients at low-volume centers (≤ 50 operations/year), those undergoing surgical deformity correction at high-volume centers (> 50/year) had a significantly lower likelihood of an unfavorable discharge (discharge to rehabilitation) (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p = 0.016) and
Kotwicki, Tomasz; Durmała, Jacek; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Głowacki, Maciej; Kołban, Maciej; Snela, Sławomir; Sliwiński, Zbigniew; Kowalski, Ireneusz M
Idiopathic scoliosis, defined as a lateral curvature of the spine of above 10 degrees (Cobb angle), is seen in 2-3% of the growing age population, while curves above 20 degrees , requiring conservative treatment, are found in 0.3-0.5%. In our observation, both under-treatment of progressive curves and over-treatment of stable cases are common during conservative management of scoliosis. A model of therapeutic management is presented based on the experience of Polish clinicians specialising in the treatment of scoliosis as well as the effects of work of a panel of experts of SOSORT (Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment). The model comprises the indications for conservative treatment according to age, curve type and size and Risser grading. The aetiology, classifications, usefulness of the Lonstein and Carlson factor of progression and other methods of determining the probability of scoliosis progression, as well as the psychological aspects of conservative management are presented. Based on the knowledge of the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, factors of progression and on the SOSORT experts' opinion, guidelines are proposed for clinicians treating children and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, including the timing and course of brace treatment and the types of exercises. Uniform practical guidelines developed by experts may represent an essential step towards establishing standards of conservative scoliosis care in our country.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0469 TITLE: Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1 and Scoliosis...31Jul2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER "Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1 and Scoliosis." 5b...ABSTRACT Dystrophic or non-dystrophic forms of scoliosis are skeletal manifestations of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Dystrophic scoliosis has a more
Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano
A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187 consecutive adolescent girls with a diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis (mean Cobb angle 26°, range 11-73°, age 15.2±2.5; 24% juveniles, 76% adolescent type) and 93 schoolgirls as controls (age 14.9±1.0). All of the participants answered the Italian validated questionnaire EAT-26 about eating habits in order to identify any eating disorders. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all participants and compared to reference data. chi-square test, Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient. Only 3 (1.6%; 95% CI -0.2-3.4%) participants in the scoliosis group showed EAT-26 scores suggestive for eating disorders versus 7 (7.5%; 95% CI 2.2-12.9%) in the school population (p<0.05). The BMI was slightly lower (p<0.05) for scoliosis patients (19±0.2) than for school girls (21±0.3). EAT-26 is recognized among the most valid questionnaires for eating disorders and has been widely applied in various countries. By applying this questionnaire, a lower incidence of eating disorders in female scoliosis patients was found than in the general population (using both our own controls and Italian reference values). This contrasts with some expert opinions and a recent study performed in Italy. The low BMI already reported in the literature as being typical of scoliosis participants is confirmed by our data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marti, Cindy L; Glassman, Steven D; Knott, Patrick T; Carreon, Leah Y; Hresko, Michael T
Attitudes regarding non-operative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) may be changing with the publication of BRAiST. Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis Specific Exercises (PSSE) are used to treat AIS, but high-quality evidence is limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of members of the Scoliosis Research Society towards PSSE. A survey was sent to all SRS members with questions on use of Physical Therapy (PT) and PSSE for AIS. The majority of the 263 respondents were from North America (175, 67 %), followed by Asia (37, 14 %) and Europe (36, 14 %). The majority of respondents (166, 63 %) prescribed neither PT nor PSSE, 28 (11 %) prescribed both PT and PSSE, 39 (15 %) prescribe PT only and 30 (11 %) prescribe PSSE only. PT was prescribed by 67 respondents, as an adjunct to bracing (39) and in small curves (32); with goals to improve aesthetics (27) and post-operative outcomes (25). Of the 196 who do not prescribe PT, the main reasons were lack of evidence (149) and the perception that PT had no value (112). PSSE was prescribed by 58 respondents. The most common indication was as an adjunct to bracing (49) or small curves (41); with goals to improve aesthetics (36), prevent curve progression (35) and improve quality of life (31). Of the respondents who do not prescribe PSSE, the main reasons were lack of supporting research (149), a perception that PSSE had no value (108), and lack of access (63). Most respondents state that evidence of efficacy may increase the role of PSSE, with 85 % (223 of 263) favoring funding PSSE studies by the SRS. The results show that 22 % of the respondents use PSSE for AIS, skepticism remains regarding the benefit of PSSE for AIS. Support for SRS funded research suggests belief that there is potential benefit from PSSE and the best way to assess that potential is through evidence development.
Background Over the last years, evidence has accumulated in support of bracing as an effective treatment option in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Yet, little information is available on the impact of compliance on the outcome of conservative treatment in scoliotic subjects. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the association between compliance to brace treatment and the progression of scoliotic curve in patients with idiopathic adolescent (AIS) or juvenile scoliosis (JIS). Methods Among 1.424 patients treated for idiopathic scoliosis, 645 were eligible for inclusion criteria. Three outcomes were distinguished in agreement with the SRS criteria: curve correction, curve stabilization and curve progression. Brace wearing was assessed by one orthopaedic surgeon (LA) and scored on a standardized form. Compliance to treatment was categorized as complete (brace worn as prescribed), incomplete A (brace removed for 1 month), incomplete B (brace removed for 2 months), incomplete C (brace removed during school hours), and incomplete D (brace worn overnight only). Chi square test, T test or ANOVA and ANOVA for repeated measures tests were used as statistical tests. Results The results from our study showed that at follow-up the compliance was: Complete 61.1%; Incomplete A 5.2%; Incomplete B 10.7%; Incomplete C 14.2%; Incomplete D 8.8%. Curve correction was accomplished in 301/319 of Complete, 19/27 Incomplete A, 25/56 Incomplete B, 52/74 Incomplete C, 27/46 Incomplete D. Cobb mean value was 29.8 ± 7.5 SD at beginning and 17.1 ± 10.9 SD at follow-up. Both Cobb and Perdriolle degree amelioration was significantly higher in patients with complete compliance over all other groups, both in juvenile, both in adolescent scoliosis. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the rate of surgical treatment was 2.1% among patients with definite outcome and 12.1% among those with drop-out. Treatment compliance showed significant interactions with time
Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody
A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were investigated with at least 2 years follow-up at the time of receiving a posted self-administered questionnaire. Forty-four patients were treated with Boston brace (B) only, 41 patients had surgery (S), and 33 patients were treated both with brace and surgery (BS). The Cobb angles of the three treatment groups did not differ significantly after completed treatment. The outcome in terms of the total SRS 24 score was not significantly different among the three groups. B patients had a significantly better general (not treatment related) self-image and higher general activity level than the total group of surgically treated patients, while surgically treated patients scored significantly better in post-treatment self-image and satisfaction. Comparing B with BS we found a significantly higher general activity level in B patients, while the BS group had significantly higher satisfaction. There were no significant differences between BS and S patients in any of the domain scores. All treatment groups scored "fair or better" in all domain scores of the SRS 24 questionnaire, except in post-treatment function, where all groups scored worse than "fair". Improvement of appearance by means of surgical correction increases mean scores for post-treatment self-image and post-treatment satisfaction. Double-treatment by brace and surgery does not appear to jeopardize a good final outcome.
Negrini, Stefano; Zaina, Fabio; Romano, Michele; Negrini, Alessandra; Parzini, Silvana
To compare the effect of Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis (SEAS) exercises with "usual care" rehabilitation programmes in terms of the avoidance of brace prescription and prevention of curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Prospective controlled cohort observational study. Seventy-four consecutive outpatients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, mean 15 degrees (standard deviation 6) Cobb angle, 12.4 (standard deviation 2.2) years old, at risk of bracing who had not been treated previously. Thirty-five patients were included in the SEAS exercises group and 39 in the usual physiotherapy group. The primary outcome included the number of braced patients, Cobb angle and the angle of trunk rotation. There were 6.1% braced patients in the SEAS exercises group vs 25.0% in the usual physiotherapy group. Failures of treatment in the worst-case analysis were 11.5% and 30.8%, respectively. In both cases the differences were statistically significant. Cobb angle improved in the SEAS exercises group, but worsened in the usual physiotherapy group. In the SEAS exercises group, 23.5% of patients improved and 11.8% worsened, while in the usual physiotherapy group 11.1% improved and 13.9% worsened. These data confirm the effectiveness of exercises in patients with scoliosis who are at high risk of progression. Compared with non-adapted exercises, a specific and personalized treatment (SEAS) appears to be more effective.
Background Some patients with mild or moderate thoracic scoliosis (Cobb angle <50-60 degrees) suffer disproportionate impairment of pulmonary function associated with deformities in the sagittal plane and reduced flexibility of the spine and chest cage. Long-term improvement in the clinical signs and symptoms of childhood onset scoliosis in an adult, without surgical intervention, has not been documented previously. Case presentation A diagnosis of thoracic scoliosis (Cobb angle 45 degrees) with pectus excavatum and thoracic hypokyphosis in a female patient (DOB 9/17/52) was made in June 1964. Immediate spinal fusion was strongly recommended, but the patient elected a daily home exercise program taught during a 6-week period of training by a physical therapist. This regime was carried out through 1992, with daily aerobic exercise added in 1974. The Cobb angle of the primary thoracic curvature remained unchanged. Ongoing clinical symptoms included dyspnea at rest and recurrent respiratory infections. A period of multimodal treatment with clinical monitoring and treatment by an osteopathic physician was initiated when the patient was 40 years old. This included deep tissue massage (1992-1996); outpatient psychological therapy (1992-1993); a daily home exercise program focused on mobilization of the chest wall (1992-2005); and manipulative medicine (1994-1995, 1999-2000). Progressive improvement in chest wall excursion, increased thoracic kyphosis, and resolution of long-standing respiratory symptoms occurred concomitant with a >10 degree decrease in Cobb angle magnitude of the primary thoracic curvature. Conclusion This report documents improved chest wall function and resolution of respiratory symptoms in response to nonsurgical approaches in an adult female, diagnosed at age eleven years with idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:20003501
Leszczewska, Justyna; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Kotwicki, Tomasz
Stress level due to existing body deformity as well as to the treatment with a corrective brace is one of factors influencing the quality of life of children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing non-surgical management. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the stress level among children suffering from idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and the parameters of the deformity. Seventy-three patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. Fifty-two children were treated by means of physiotherapy, while 21 patients were treated with both Cheneau corrective brace and physiotherapy. To assess the stress level related to the deformity itself and to the method of treatment with corrective brace, the two Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQs) were applied, the BSSQ Deformity and the BSSQ Brace, respectively. PMID:22919333
Leszczewska, Justyna; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Kotwicki, Tomasz
Stress level due to existing body deformity as well as to the treatment with a corrective brace is one of factors influencing the quality of life of children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing non-surgical management. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the stress level among children suffering from idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and the parameters of the deformity. Seventy-three patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. Fifty-two children were treated by means of physiotherapy, while 21 patients were treated with both Cheneau corrective brace and physiotherapy. To assess the stress level related to the deformity itself and to the method of treatment with corrective brace, the two Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQs) were applied, the BSSQ Deformity and the BSSQ Brace, respectively.
Le Berre, Morgane; Guyot, Marc-Alexandre; Agnani, Olivier; Bourdeauducq, Isabelle; Versyp, Marie-Christine; Donze, Cécile; Thévenon, André; Catanzariti, Jean-Francois
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spinal column of unknown etiology. Multiple factors could be involved, including neurosensory pathways and, potentially, an elective disorder of dynamic proprioception. The purpose of this study was to determine whether routine balance tests could be used to demonstrate an elective alteration of dynamic proprioception in AIS. This was a multicentre case-control study based on prospectively collected clinical data, in three hospitals pediatric, with spine consultation, from January 2013 through April 2015. From an original population of 547 adolescents, inclusion and non-inclusion criteria indentified 114 adolescents with right thoracic AIS (mean age 14.5 ± 1.9 years, Cobb angle 35.7 ± 15.3°) and 81 matched adolescents without scoliosis (mean age 14.1 ± 1.9 years). Participants performed three routine clinical balance tests to assess the static and dynamic proprioception: the Fukuda-Utenberger stepping test (angle of rotation in degrees and distance of displacement in cm) to assess dynamic balance; the sharpened Romberg test and the unipedal stance test (eyes closed) to assess static balance. There was no significant difference between AIS subjects and controls for the static tests, but there was a significant difference for the dynamic test for both measures: distance of displacement (p < 0.01) and angle of rotation (p < 0.0001). This result confirms our initial these: the dynamic proprioception is altered electively in AIS. These findings confirm recent AIS studies. Our results might be related to immature central integration of dynamic proprioceptive input leading to a poorly adapted motor response, particularly for postural control of the, in AIS. These balance tests can be performed in routine practice. Their validity as a biomarker for screening and monitoring purposes should be assessed.
Moreau, S; Lonjon, G; Mazda, K; Ilharreborde, B
Management for early onset scoliosis has recently changed, with the development of new surgical procedures. However, multiple surgeries are often required and high complication rates are still reported. Conservative management remains an alternative, serial casting achieving excellent results in young children. Better compliance and improvement over natural history have been reported with night-time bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but this treatment has never been reported in early onset idiopathic scoliosis (EIOS). All patients treated for progressive EOIS by detorsion night-time bracing (DNB), and meeting the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria for brace studies were reviewed. Recommendations were given to wear the DNB 8h/night and no restriction was given regarding sports activities. Radiological parameters were compared between referral and latest follow-up. Based on the SRS criteria defined for AIS, a similar classification was used as follows to analyze the course of the curves: success group: patients with a progression of 5° or less; unsuccess group (progression or failure): patients with a progression>5°, patients with curves exceeding 45° at maturity, or who have had recommendation for/undergone surgery, or patients who changed orthopaedic treatment, or who were lost to follow-up. Thirty-three patients were included (21 girls and 12 boys), with a median Cobb angle of 31° (Q1-Q3: 22-40). Age at brace initiation averaged 50months (Q1-Q3: 25-60). Median follow-up was 102-months (Q1-Q3: 63-125). Fifteen patients (45.5%) had reached skeletal maturity at last follow-up. The success rate was 67% (22 patients), with a median Cobb angle reduction of 15° (P<0.001). Four patients stopped DNB due to an important regression. Eleven patients were in the unsuccessful group (33%). Only one had surgery. All patients remained balanced in the frontal plane and normokyphotic. Initial curve magnitude and age at brace initiation appeared to be
Driscoll, Mark; Moreau, Alain; Villemure, Isabelle; Parent, Stefan
Inadequate understanding of risk factors involved in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis restrains initial treatment to observation until the deformity shows signs of significant aggravation. The purpose of this analysis is to explore whether the concave–convex biases associated with scoliosis (local degeneration of the intervertebral discs, nucleus migration, and local increase in trabecular bone-mineral density of vertebral bodies) may be identified as progressive risk factors. Finite element models of a 26° right thoracic scoliotic spine were constructed based on experimental and clinical observations that included growth dynamics governed by mechanical stimulus. Stress distribution over the vertebral growth plates, progression of Cobb angles, and vertebral wedging were explored in models with and without the biases of concave–convex properties. The inclusion of the bias of concave–convex properties within the model both augmented the asymmetrical loading of the vertebral growth plates by up to 37% and further amplified the progression of Cobb angles and vertebral wedging by as much as 5.9° and 0.8°, respectively. Concave–convex biases are factors that influence the progression of scoliotic curves. Quantifying these parameters in a patient with scoliosis may further provide a better clinical assessment of the risk of progression. PMID:19130096
Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Andersson, Mats; Vavruch, Ludvig; Tropp, Hans; Knutsson, Hans
Reliable measurements of spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis are vital, since they are used for assessing the degree of scoliosis, deciding upon treatment and monitoring the progression of the disease. However, commonly used two dimensional methods (e.g. the Cobb angle) do not fully capture the three dimensional deformity at hand in scoliosis, of which axial vertebral rotation (AVR) is considered to be of great importance. There are manual methods for measuring the AVR, but they are often time-consuming and related with a high intra- and inter-observer variability. In this paper, we present a fully automatic method for estimating the AVR in images from computed tomography. The proposed method is evaluated on four scoliotic patients with 17 vertebrae each and compared with manual measurements performed by three observers using the standard method by Aaro-Dahlborn. The comparison shows that the difference in measured AVR between automatic and manual measurements are on the same level as the inter-observer difference. This is further supported by a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.971-0.979), obtained when comparing the automatic measurements with the manual measurements of each observer. Hence, the provided results and the computational performance, only requiring approximately 10 to 15 s for processing an entire volume, demonstrate the potential clinical value of the proposed method.
Ng, Shu-Yan; Nan, Xiao-Feng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Tournavitis, Nico
Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis-Specific Exercises (PSSE) and bracing have been found to be effective in the stabilization of curves in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). Yet, the difference among the many PSSEs and braces has not been studied. The present review attempts to investigate the role of curve correction in the outcome of treatment for PSSEs and braces. A PubMed manual search has been conducted for studies on the role of correction in the effectiveness of PSSE and bracing. For the PSSEs, the key words used were "adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, correction, physiotherapy, physical therapy, exercise, and rehabilitation." For bracing, the key words used were "adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, correction and brace". Only papers that were published from 2001-2017 were included and reviewed, as there were very few relevant papers dating earlier than 2001. The search found no studies on the role of correction on the effectiveness of different PSSEs. The effectiveness of different PSSEs might or might not be related to the magnitude of curve correction during the exercises. However, many studies showed a relationship between the magnitude of in-brace correction and the outcome of the brace treatment. The role of correction on the effectiveness of PSSE has not been studied. In-brace correction, however, has been found to be associated with the outcome of brace treatment. An in-brace correction of < 10% was associated with an increased rate of failure of brace treatment, whereas an in-brace correction of >40-50% was associated with an increased rate of brace treatment success ( i.e . stabilization or improvement of curves). Thus, in the treatment of AIS, patients should be advised to use highly corrective braces, in conjunction with PSSE since exercises have been found to help stabilize the curves during weaning of the brace. Presently, no specific PSSE can be recommended. Braces of high in-brace correction should be used in conjunction with PSSEs in
Khoshbin, Amir; Caspi, Liora; Law, Peggy W; Donaldson, Sandra; Stephens, Derek; da Silva, Trevor; Bradley, Catharine S; Wright, James G
Retrospective comparative study. To evaluate the outcome of bracing in patients with juvenile idiopathic scoliosis (JIS) at either skeletal maturity or time of scoliosis surgery. JIS is generally thought to have poor outcomes with high rates of surgical fusion. All patients with JIS between the ages of 4 and 10 years treated with a brace at the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) between 1989 and 2011 were eligible. Data were collected from patient health records until either 2 years after skeletal maturity or date of surgery. The average age at diagnosis of 88 patients with JIS was 8.4 ± 1.4 years, with a female to male ratio of approximately 8:1. Pretreatment, Risser score was zero for 80 patients (91%); 72 (92%) of the females were premenarche; and primary Cobb angles ranged from 20° to 71°. Of the 88 patients, 60 (68%) had used a thoracolumbosacral orthosis exclusively; 28 (32%) patients used "other braces" (Milwaukee, Charleston, or a combination of braces), with an average treatment duration of 3.6 ± 1.9 years.As per Scoliosis Research Society definitions, a "non-curve-progression" (≤5° change) group consisted of 25 (28%) patients; and a "curve-progression" group consisted of 63 (72%) patients where the curve had progressed 6° or more.Of the 88 patients, 44 (50%) underwent surgery. The operative rate was higher for patients with curves 30° or more than those with curves 20° to 29° prior to brace treatment (37/58 [64%] vs. 7/30 [23%], respectively; P = 0.001); other braces compared with thoracolumbosacral orthosis (19/28 [68%] vs. 25/60 [42%], respectively; P = 0.02); Lenke I and III curves compared with Lenke VI curves (33/54 [61%] vs. 2/14 [14%], respectively; P = 0.007).
Noh, Dong Koog; You, Joshua Sung-H; Koh, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hoseong; Kim, Donghyun; Ko, Sung-Mok; Shin, Ji-Youn
To compare the therapeutic effects of a 3-dimensional corrective spinal technique (CST) and a conventional exercise program (CE) on altered spinal curvature and health related quality-of-life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (N=32, 6 males and 26 females) between 10 and 19 years of age (14.34 ± 2.60 years) were recruited and underwent the CST or CE for 60 minutes/day, 2-3 times a week, and an average of total 30 sessions. Diagnostic X-ray imaging technique was used to determine intervention-related changes in the Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral slope, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, and vertebral rotation (Nash-Moe method). The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) health related quality-of-life questionnaire was used. Data were analysed using independent t-test, paired t-test, and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test at p < 0.05. CST showed greater improvements in Cobb angle (p=0.003), vertebral rotation (p=0.000), and SRS-22 scores (self-image and treatment satisfaction subscale scores and total score, p=0.026, p=0.039, and p=0.041, respectively) as compared to the controls. There were no significant changes in the other measures between the two groups. This is the first clinical trial to investigate the effects of the 3-dimensional CST on spinal curvatures and health related quality-of-life in AIS, providing the important clinical rationale and compelling evidence for the effective management of AIS.
Davis, Colin M; Grant, Caroline A; Pearcy, Mark J; Askin, Geoffrey N; Labrom, Robert D; Izatt, Maree T; Adam, Clayton J; Little, J Paige
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine characterized by deformities in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Spinal fusion using pedicle screw instrumentation is a widely used method for surgical correction in severe (coronal deformity, Cobb angle > 45°) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves. Understanding the anatomic difference in the pedicles of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is essential to reduce the risk of neurovascular or visceral injury through pedicle screw misplacement. To use CT scans (1) to analyze pedicle anatomy in the adolescent thoracic scoliotic spine comparing concave and convex pedicles and (2) to assess the intra- and interobserver reliability of these measurements to provide critical information to spine surgeons regarding size, length, and angle of projection. Between 2007 and 2009, 27 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis underwent thoracoscopic anterior correction surgery by two experienced spinal surgeons. Preoperatively, each patient underwent a CT scan as was their standard of care at that time. Twenty-two patients (mean age, 15.7 years; SD, 2.4 years; range, 11.6-22 years) (mean Cobb angle, 53°; SD, 5.3°; range, 42°-63°) were selected. Inclusion criteria were a clinical diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, female, and Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the major curve confined to the thoracic spine. Using three-dimensional image analysis software, the pedicle width, inner cortical pedicle width, pedicle height, inner cortical pedicle height, pedicle length, chord length, transverse pedicle angle, and sagittal pedicle angles were measured. Randomly selected scans were remeasured by two of the authors and the reproducibility of the measurement definitions was validated through limit of agreement analysis. The concave pedicle widths were smaller compared with the convex pedicle widths at T7, T8, and T9 by 37% (3.44 mm ± 1.16 mm vs 4
Ahmed, Syed Imraan; Bastrom, Tracey P; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O
An actuarial "survivorship" analysis. The aim of this study was to define the incidence and cause of surgical revision 5 years after scoliosis surgery. Data on contemporary revision surgery rates after idiopathic scoliosis surgery beyond the 2 years postoperatively in the adolescent and young adult population are limited. Patients enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, idiopathic scoliosis surgical registry from 1995 to 2009 were reviewed. Any spine reoperation was defined as a "terminal event." An actuarial survivorship analysis that adjusts for patients lost to follow-up was performed to determine cumulative survival. Time intervals were defined as 0 to <3 months, 3 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <5 years, and 5 to 10 years. Registry data and radiographs were reviewed and five categories for reoperation assigned: 1) implant failure and/or pseudarthrosis, 2) implant misplacement and/or prominence, 3) wound complication and/or infection, 4) residual deformity and/or progression, and 5) other. One thousand four hundred thirty-five patients from 12 sites were included. The majority were female (80%), with major thoracic curves (76% Lenke 1-4), and average age of 15 ± 2 years (10-22) at surgery. Most had posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion (81%). At this time, 75 (5.2%) patients required reoperation. Twenty-two occurred within 3 months postop, 10 more before 1 year, 12 more before 2 years, another 20 by 5 years, and 10 more after 5 years. This corresponded to an actuarial cumulative survival of 98.3% at 3 months, 97.5% at 1 year, 96.6% at 2 years, 93.9% at 5 years, and 89.8% at the final interval (5-10 yrs). Revisions for scoliosis continue to occur well after 2 years with a 5-year survivorship of 93.9%. Reasons for reoperation are not uniformly distributed over time, with implant-related issues and infection the leading cause for early revision, while late infection was the most common cause after 2 years. Long-term follow-up of these
LeBauer, Aaron; Brtalik, Robert; Stowe, Katherine
The lack of evidence of conservative treatment has led to an interest in exploring myofascial release (MFR) as an effective means of controlling spinal curvature progression in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The purpose of this case study is to measure the effects of MFR as a manual therapy technique in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. One 18-year-old female subject underwent 6 weeks of MFR treatment consisting of two sessions each week for 60min. Pain, pulmonary function, and quality of life were measured. Six goniometric measurements were taken encompassing trunk flexion, extension, and rotation. The subject improved with pain levels, trunk rotation, posture, quality of life, and pulmonary function. The results suggest further investigation is needed using MFR, as an effective manual therapy treatment for idiopathic scoliosis.
Avellanet, M; González Viejo, M-A; Sáenz, A; Hijós, M-E
Orthopaedic treatment for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence is indicated with a curve of > or =20 degrees and a Risser score< or =4, because progression of curve is low with Risser scores >4. We present the case of a young man with a left lumbar idiopathic scoliosis (T12-L4) with a curve of 10 degrees, which was stable from 13 years (Risser 0) to 16 years old (Risser 4). The scoliosis progressed quickly after a Risser score of 4 was achieved. The man had been wearing a lift on the left foot since he was 13, because of a leg length discrepancy, and had been under clinical and radiological monitoring. When the boy reached 17 years, the scoliosis rapidly progressed, to a curve of 22 degrees and a Risser score of >4. The scoliosis was effectively treated with a Boston brace. At 20 years, the Risser score was 5, and the left lumbar curve was 13 degrees after discontinuing the use of the brace. To our knowledge, no scientific reference indicates a time limit to orthopaedic treatment for idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. Despite the experts' recommendations, a brace might be indicated with a Risser score > or =4 to stop the progression of the curve.
Background The International Scientific Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT), that produced its first Guidelines in 2005, felt the need to revise them and increase their scientific quality. The aim is to offer to all professionals and their patients an evidence-based updated review of the actual evidence on conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis (CTIS). Methods All types of professionals (specialty physicians, and allied health professionals) engaged in CTIS have been involved together with a methodologist and a patient representative. A review of all the relevant literature and of the existing Guidelines have been performed. Documents, recommendations, and practical approach flow charts have been developed according to a Delphi procedure. A methodological and practical review has been made, and a final Consensus Session was held during the 2011 Barcelona SOSORT Meeting. Results The contents of the document are: methodology; generalities on idiopathic scoliosis; approach to CTIS in different patients, with practical flow-charts; literature review and recommendations on assessment, bracing, physiotherapy, Physiotherapeutic Specific Exercises (PSE) and other CTIS. Sixty-five recommendations have been given, divided in the following topics: Bracing (20 recommendations), PSE to prevent scoliosis progression during growth (8), PSE during brace treatment and surgical therapy (5), Other conservative treatments (3), Respiratory function and exercises (3), Sports activities (6), Assessment (20). No recommendations reached a Strength of Evidence level I; 2 were level II; 7 level III; and 20 level IV; through the Consensus procedure 26 reached level V and 10 level VI. The Strength of Recommendations was Grade A for 13, B for 49 and C for 3; none had grade D. Conclusion These Guidelines have been a big effort of SOSORT to paint the actual situation of CTIS, starting from the evidence, and filling all the gray areas using a scientific
Macke, Jeremy J; Woo, Raymund; Varich, Laura
This is a retrospective review of pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under 18 years of age who underwent robot-assisted corrective surgery. Our primary objective was to characterize the accuracy of pedicle screw placement with evaluation by computed tomography (CT) after robot-assisted surgery in AIS patients. Screw malposition is the most frequent complication of pedicle screw placement and is more frequent in AIS. Given the potential for serious complications, the need for improved accuracy of screw placement has spurred multiple innovations including robot-assisted guidance devices. No studies to date have evaluated this robot-assisted technique using CT exclusively within the AIS population. Fifty patients were included in the study. All operative procedures were performed at a single institution by a single pediatric orthopedic surgeon. We evaluated the grade of screw breach, the direction of screw breach, and the positioning of the patient for preoperative scan (supine versus prone). Of 662 screws evaluated, 48 screws (7.2 %) demonstrated a breach of greater than 2 mm. With preoperative prone position CT scanning, only 2.4 % of screws were found to have this degree of breach. Medial malposition was found in 3 % of screws, a rate which decreased to 0 % with preoperative prone position scanning. Based on our results, we conclude that the proper use of image-guided robot-assisted surgery can improve the accuracy and safety of thoracic pedicle screw placement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This is the first study to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using CT assessment in robot-assisted surgical correction of patients with AIS. In our study, the robot-assisted screw misplacement rate was lower than similarly constructed studies evaluating conventional (non-robot-assisted) procedures. If patients are preoperatively scanned in the prone position, the misplacement rate is further
Kuklo, Timothy R; Potter, Benjamin K; O'Brien, Michael F; Schroeder, Teresa M; Lenke, Lawrence G; Polly, David W
Analysis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) requires a thorough clinical and radiographic evaluation to completely assess the three-dimensional deformity. Recently, these radiographic parameters have been analyzed for reliability and reproducibility following manual measurements; however, most of these parameters have not been analyzed with regard to digital measurements. The purpose of this study is to determine the intra- and interobserver reliability of common scoliosis radiographic parameters using a digital software measurement program. Thirty sets of preoperative (posteroanterior [PA], lateral, and side-bending [SB]) and postoperative (PA and lateral) radiographs were analyzed by three independent observers on two separate occasions using a software measurement program (PhDx, Albuquerque, NM). Coronal measures included main thoracic (MT) and thoracolumbar-lumbar (TL/L) Cobb, SB MT Cobb, MT and TL/L apical vertical translation (AVT), C7 to center sacral vertical line (CSVL), T1 tilt, LIV tilt, disk below lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV), coronal balance, and Risser, whereas sagittal measures included T2-T5, T5-T12, T2-T12, T10-L2, T12-S1, and sagittal balance. Analysis of variance for repeated measures or Cohen three-way kappa correlation coefficient analysis was performed as appropriate to calculate the intra- and interobserver reliability for each parameter. The majority of the radiographic parameters assessed demonstrated good or excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. The relationship of the LIV to the CSVL (intraobserver kappaa = 0.48-0.78, fair to excellent; interobserver kappaa = 0.34-0.41, fair to poor), interobserver measurement of AVT (rho = 0.49-0.73, low to good), Risser grade (intraobserver rho = 0.41-0.97, low to excellent; interobserver rho = 0.60-0.70, fair to good), intraobserver measurement of the angulation of the disk inferior to the LIV (rho = 0.53-0.88, fair to good), apical Nash-Moe vertebral rotation (intraobserver rho
Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar
It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS) (100 - worst possible) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (100 - worst possible), EuroQol (EQ-5D) (1 - best possible), EQ-VAS (100 - best possible), and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22) (5 - best possible). The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48) years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57)°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58)° and 32.5 (7 - 80)°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88) had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53)°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD) GFS was 7.4 (10.8), ODI 9.3 (11.0), EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2), EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8), SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8), mental health 4.1 (0.6), self-image 3.7 (0.7), function 4.0 (0.6), satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0). Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Long-term results were satisfactory in most braced patients and
Anand, Neel; Baron, Eli M; Khandehroo, Babak
Outcomes for minimally invasive scoliosis correction surgery have been reported for mild adult scoliosis. Larger curves historically have been treated with open surgical procedures including facet resections or posterior column osteotomies, which have been associated with high-volume blood loss. Further, minimally invasive techniques have been largely reported in the setting of degenerative scoliosis. We describe the effects of circumferential minimally invasive surgery (cMIS) for moderate to severe scoliosis in terms of (1) operative time and blood loss, (2) overall health and disease-specific patient-reported outcomes, (3) deformity correction and fusion rate, and (4) frequency and types of complications. Between January 2007 and January 2012, we performed 50 cMIS adult idiopathic scoliosis corrections in patients with a Cobb angle of greater than 30° but less than 75° who did not have prior thoracolumbar fusion surgery; this series represented all patients we treated surgically during that time meeting those indications. Our general indications for this approach during that period were increasing back pain unresponsive to nonoperative therapy with cosmetic and radiographic worsening of curves. Surgical times and estimated blood loss were recorded. Functional clinical outcomes including VAS pain score, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36 were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients' deformity correction was assessed on pre- and postoperative 36-inch (91-cm) standing films and fusion was assessed on CT scan. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 48 months; range, 24-77 months). Mean blood loss was 613 mL for one-stage surgery and 763 mL for two-stage surgery. Mean operative time was 351 minutes for one-stage surgery and 482 minutes for two-stage surgery. At last followup, mean VAS and ODI scores decreased from 5.7 and 44 preoperatively to 2.9 and 22 (p < 0.001 and 0.03, respectively) and mean SF-36 score increased from 48 preoperatively to
Thompson, George H; Florentino-Pineda, Ivan; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Armstrong, Douglas G; Son-Hing, Jochen P
A retrospective study of the effectiveness of Amicar (epsilon aminocaproic acid). Evaluate the effectiveness of Amicar in decreasing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in same-day anterior (ASF) and posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI) for idiopathic scoliosis. Preliminary prospective, prospective randomized double-blind, and fibrinogen studies have demonstrated Amicar to be effective in decreasing perioperative blood loss in patients with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing PSF with SSI. Increased fibrinogen secretion is a possible explanation. There were 73 consecutive patients divided into 3 study groups based on the administration of Amicar: Group 1 (n = 16), no Amicar; Group 2 (n = 18), Amicar for the PSF with SSI only; and Group 3 (n = 39), Amicar for both ASF and PSF with SSI. All patients were managed using the same general anesthesia technique, intraoperative procedure, postoperative care path, and indications for transfusion (hemoglobin <7 g/dL). Total perioperative blood loss (estimated intraoperative blood loss for both procedures and measured postoperative chest tube and PSF wound suction drainage) and total transfusion requirements between groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. There were statistically significant decreases in mean estimated intraoperative PSF with SSI, total perioperative blood loss, and transfusion requirements in the 2 Amicar groups. However, Amicar had no significant effect on estimated intraoperative ASF blood loss, chest tube drainage, or PSF wound suction drainage. Total perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements (cell saver, autologous, directed, and allogeneic blood) were: 3442.8 +/- 1344.0 mL and 1537.1 +/- 905.1 mL in Group 1; 2089.8 +/- 684.0 mL and 485.2 +/- 349.8 mL in Group 2; and 2184.1 +/- 1163.7 mL and 531.5 +/- 510.5 mL in Group 3. There were no Amicar related complications. Amicar was highly effective in decreasing total perioperative blood loss and
Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1 and Scoliosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David W. Polly, Jr... Neurofibromatosis 1 and Scoliosis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David. W. Polly Jr., MD 5d. PROJECT...dystrophic scoliosis is one of most common skeletal manifestations of Neurofibromatosis type 1. Dystrophic scoliosis has a more progressive and
Miyanji, Firoz; Slobogean, Gerard P; Samdani, Amer F; Betz, Randal R; Reilly, Christopher W; Slobogean, Bronwyn L; Newton, Peter O
The treatment of patients with large adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves has been associated with increased surgical complexity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgical correction of larger adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves increased the utilization of health-care resources and to identify potential predictors associated with increased perioperative health-care resource utilization. A nested cohort of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with Lenke type 1A and 1B curves were identified from a prospective longitudinal multicenter database. Four perioperative outcomes were selected as the primary health-care resource utilization outcomes of interest: operative time, number of vertebral levels instrumented, duration of hospitalization, and allogeneic blood transfusion. The effect of curve magnitude on these outcomes was assessed with use of univariate and multivariate regression. Three hundred and twenty-five patients with a mean age of 15 ± 2 years were included. The mean main thoracic curve was 54.4° ± 7.8°. Larger curves were associated with longer operative time (p = 0.03), a greater number of vertebral levels instrumented (p = 0.0005), and the need for blood transfusion (with every 10° increase associated with 1.5 times higher odds of receiving a transfusion). In addition to curve magnitude, surgical center, bone graft method, and upper and lower instrumented levels were strong predictors of operative time (R2 = 0.76). The duration of hospitalization was influenced by the surgical center and intraoperative blood loss (R2 < 0.4), whereas the number of levels instrumented was influenced by the curve magnitude, curve correction percentage, upper instrumented vertebra, and surgical center (R2 = 0.64). Correction of larger curves was associated with increased utilization of perioperative health-care resources, specifically longer operative time, a greater number of vertebral levels instrumented, and higher odds of receiving a
Wong, M S; Liu, W C
There are a number of different non-operative interventions which aim to control moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) from progression. Clinicians may find difficulties in the selection of appropriate interventions for AIS. A comprehensive literature review was carried out to study all contemporary non-operative interventions, it was noted that rigid spinal orthoses apparently give more curve control; however, it would compromise the patient's quality of life via those inevitable factors--physical constraint, poor acceptance and psychological disturbance. There is a trend to develop more effective, acceptable and user-friendly interventions. Under such an aspiration, the theories and clinical evidence of different interventions should be developed along the clinical pathway of early intervention with reliable indicators/predictors, patient's active participation, dynamic control mechanism, holistic psychological and psychosocial considerations, and effective and long-lasting outcome.
Yeon, Howard B.; Weinberg, Jacob; Arlet, Vincent; Ouelett, Jean A.
Fifteen skeletally immature patients with double major adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with large lumbar curves and notable L4 and L5 coronal plane obliquity were retrospectively studied. Seven patients who underwent anterior release and fusion of the lumbar curve with segmental anterior instrumentation and subsequent posterior instrumentation ending at L3 were compared with eight patients treated with anterior release and fusion without anterior instrumentation followed by posterior instrumentation to L3 or L4. At 4.5 years follow-up (range 2.5–7 years), curve correction, coronal balance and fusion rate were not statistically different between the two groups; however, the group with anterior instrumentation had improved coronal plane, near normalangulation in the distal unfused segment compared with the group without anterior instrumentation. In cases involving severe lumbar curvatures in the context of double major scoliosis, when as a first stage anterior release is chosen, the addition of instrumentation appears to restore normal coronal alignment of the distal unfused lumbar segment, and may in certain cases save a level compared with traditional fusions to L4. PMID:17464517
Fazal, Akil; Lakdawala, Riaz H
Objective To evaluate the radiological and functional outcome of surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using fourth-generation posterior spinal instrumentation at The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Design Case series. Place and duration of study The Aga Khan University Hospital after a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Patients and methods A total of 20 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were recruited into the study and evaluated for radiological and functional outcome. The study period was from 2000 to 2005. Radiological outcome was assessed using Cobb angle measurement pre and postoperatively, hence assessing percentage correction. The lower instrumented vertebra was taken as the neutral vertebra and the level was recorded. Functional outcome was determined using the Scoliosis Research Society patient administered questionnaire. All patients were called to the clinic and asked to fill in the form. Those patients who were out of the city were mailed the forms and requested via telephone to complete and return. Results Of the 20 patients operated on, twelve were female and eight were male. The average age at operation was 12.7 years. The mean Cobb angle was 69° preoperatively and 20° postoperatively, representing a percentage correction of 71%. The average duration of follow-up was 3.6 years. There was one major complication involving neurological injury post-op and two minor complications involving wound infection. The average Scoliosis Research Society score (on a scale of 1–5, with 5 being best) for pain was 4.5, self-image was 4.2, functional status was 4.1, mental status was 3.8, and satisfaction was 4.4. There was no relationship between the percentage correction of scoliosis and the functional outcome. Those patients with a high preoperative Cobb angle tended to have a better outcome for functional and mental status postoperatively. There was no relation between the lower instrumented vertebra and functional outcome
Moramarco, Kathryn; Borysov, Maksym
The treatment of scoliosis has a long history dating back to Hippocrates and his luxation table. In recent history, conservative rehabilitation treatment methods have come and gone. Some have had more longevity than others and currently there are only a handful of these "schools" for rehabilitation in existence. What is important to note in this twenty-first century world is that any approach to bracing or scoliosis rehabilitation must strive for a correction effect and be as user-friendly as possible. Patients look to achieve some measure of success, whether it be halted Cobb angle, improved breathing function, decreased rotation, or postural improvement via trunk symmetry. Katharina Schroth created her method in 1921 as a result of self-analysis of her own imperfect scoliotic torso and the effect on it as she altered her breathing patterns. It was from these observations and self-experimentation that she devised her rotational angular breathing method. Subsequently, the Schroth method evolved under the leadership of her daughter, Christa Lehnert-Schroth P.T., and grandson, Dr. Hans-Rudolf Weiss. Collaboration with Dr. Jacques Chêneau led to a new Schroth method compatible scoliosis bracing approach. The most recent advancement of Chêneau bracing is the Gensingen Brace® (GBW). Gensingen braces have an asymmetric design and rely on Schroth principles of correction in a smaller, lighter, more wearer-friendly brace. Each brace is designed to be a complementary supportive orthosis. It may be used independently, or in conjunction with Schroth exercise protocols.
Catanzariti, Jean-François; Guyot, Marc-Alexandre; Agnani, Olivier; Demaille, Samantha; Kolanowski, Elisabeth; Donze, Cécile
The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) pathogenesis remains unknown. Certain studies have shown that there is a correlation between manual laterality and scoliotic deviation. A full study of manual laterality needs to be paired with one for visual dominance. With the aim of physiopathological research, we have evaluated the manual and visual laterality in AIS. A retrospective study from prospective data collection is used to evaluate the distribution of eye-hand laterality (homogeneous or crossed) of 65 right thoracic AIS (mean age 14.8 ± 1.8 years; mean Cobb angle: 32.8°) and a control group of 65 sex and age-matched (mean age 14.6 ± 1.8 years). The manual laterality was defined by the modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The evaluation of the visual laterality is done using three tests (kaleidoscope test, hole-in-the-card test, distance-hole-in-the-card test). The group of right thoracic AIS presents a significantly higher frequency of crossed eye-hand laterality (63 %) than the control group (63 vs. 29.2 %; p < 0.001). In the AIS group, the most frequent association, within crossed laterality is "right hand dominant-left eye dominant" (82.9 %). There is no relationship with the Cobb angle. Those with right thoracic AIS show a higher occurrence of crossed eye-hand laterality. This could point physiopathological research of AIS towards functional abnormality of the optic chiasma through underuse of cross visual pathways, and in particular accessory optic pathways. It would be useful to explore this by carrying out research on AISs through neuroimaging and neurofunctional exploration.
Lee, Choon Sung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Dong-Ho; Cho, Jae Hwan
Shoulder imbalance, coronal decompensation, and adding-on phenomenon following corrective surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are known to be related to the fusion level selected. Although many studies have assessed the appropriate selection of the proximal and distal fusion level, no definite conclusions have been drawn thus far. We aimed to assess the problems with fusion level selection for corrective surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to enhance understanding about these problems. This study is a narrative review. We conducted a literature search of fusion level selection in corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Accordingly, we selected and reviewed five debatable topics related to fusion level selection: (1) selective thoracic fusion; (2) selective thoracolumbar-lumbar (TL-L) fusion; (3) adding-on phenomenon; (4) distal fusion level selection for major TL-L curves; and (5) proximal fusion level selection and shoulder imbalance. Selective fusion can be chosen in specific curve types, although there is a risk of coronal decompensation or adding-on phenomenon. Generally, wider indications for selective fusions are usually associated with more frequent complications. Despite the determination of several indications for selective fusion to avoid such complications, no clear guidelines have been established. Although authors have suggested various criteria to prevent the adding-on phenomenon, no consensus has been reached on the appropriate selection of lower instrumented vertebra. The fusion level selection for major TL-L curves primarily focuses on whether distal fusion can terminate at L3, a topic that remains unclear. Furthermore, because of the presence of several related factors and complications, proximal level selection and shoulder imbalance has been constantly debated and remains controversial from its etiology to its prevention. Although several difficult problems in the diagnosis and
Physiotherapy for stabilization of idiopathic scoliosis angle in growing children remains controversial. Notably, little data on effectiveness of physiotherapy in children with Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (EOIS) has been published.The aim of this study was to check results of FITS physiotherapy in a group of children with EOIS.The charts of the patients archived in a prospectively collected database were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were:diagnosis of EOIS based on spine radiography, age below 10 years, both girls and boys, Cobb angle between 118 and 308, Risser zero, FITS therapy, no other treatment (bracing), and a follow-up at least 2 years from the initiation of the treatment. The criterion for curve progression were as follows: the Cobb angle increase of 68 or more, for curve stabilization; the Cobb angle was 58 comparing to the initial radiograph,for curve correction; and the Cobb angle decrease of 68 or more at the final follow-up radiograph.There were 41 children with EOIS, 36 girls and 5 boys, mean age 7.71.3 years (range 4 to 9 years) who started FITS therapy. The curve pattern was single thoracic (5 children), single thoracolumbar (22 children) or double thoracic/thoracolumbar (14 children), totally 55 structural curvatures. The minimum follow-up was 2 years after initiation of the FITS treatment, maximum was 16 years, mean 4.8 years). At follow-up the mean age was 12.53.4 years. Out of 41 children, 10 passed pubertal growth spurt at the final follow-up and 31 were still immature and continued FITS therapy. Out of 41 children, 27 improved, 13 were stable, and one progressed. Out of 55 structural curves, 32 improved, 22 were stable and one progressed. For the 55 structural curves, the Cobb angle significantly decreased from 18.085.48 at first assessment to 12.586.38 at last evaluation,p<0.0001, paired t-test. The angle of trunk rotation decreased significantly from 4.782.98 to 3.282.58 at last evaluation, p<0.0001,paired t
Postoperative perceived health status in adolescent following idiopathic scoliosis surgical treatment: results using the adapted French version of Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes questionnaire (SRS-22).
Chaib, Y; Bachy, M; Zakine, S; Mary, P; Khouri, N; Vialle, R
Assessing functional outcome from patient-based outcomes questionnaires are essential to the evaluation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgical treatment At the minimum follow-up of 2 years, 45 operated on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were mailed the French version of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument (SRS-22) questionnaires containing items on pain, activities of daily living, and satisfaction. Mean values of the SRS-22 domains were 3,66 for the Pain domain, 3,85 for the Self-perceived image domain, 4,32 for the Function domain, 3,52 for the Mental health domain and 4,12 for the Global satisfaction with management domain. Mean value of the global SRS-22 score was 3,88. We showed no differences in functional SRS-22 health status in patients according to the type of curve (Lenke classification). We showed statistically significant correlations between the gain of Cobb angle and Patients self-image and function domain scores. There was a statistically significant correlation between preoperative Cobb angle and patient satisfaction with management. Even if Function and Self-image scores in our patients are close to control group values, indicating good short to mid-term outcome of surgical treatment, scores for pain and mental health status were significantly lower in patients than controls. Long-term follow-up studies conducted by multiple surgeons over successive generations are mandatory to assess clinical significance of these differences. Level IV. Retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Most researchers agree that idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a multifactorial disease influenced by complex genetic and environmental factors. The onset of the spinal deformity that determines the natural course of the disease, usually occurs in the juvenile or adolescent period. Transforming growth factors β (TGF-βs) and their receptors, TGFBRs, may be considered as candidate genes related to IS susceptibility and natural history. This study explores the transcriptional profile of TGF-βs, TGFBRs, and TGF-β responsive genes in the paravertebral muscles of patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (JIS and AIS, resp.). Muscle specimens were harvested intraoperatively and grouped according to the side of the curve and the age of scoliosis onset. The results of microarray and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed significantly higher transcript abundances of TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and TGFBR2 in samples from the curve concavity of AIS patients, suggesting a difference in TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis of juvenile and adolescent curves. Analysis of TGF-β responsive genes in the transcriptomes of patients with AIS suggested overrepresentation of the genes localized in the extracellular region of curve concavity: LTBP3, LTBP4, ITGB4, and ITGB5. This finding suggests the extracellular region of paravertebral muscles as an interesting target for future molecular research into AIS pathogenesis. PMID:25313366
Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kotani, Yoshihisa; Takahata, Masahiko; Sudo, Hideki; Hojo, Yoshihiro; Minami, Akio
The authors present a new posterior correction technique consisting of simultaneous double-rod rotation using 2 contoured rods and polyaxial pedicle screws with or without Nesplon tapes. The purpose of this study is to introduce the basic principles and surgical procedures of this new posterior surgery for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Through gradual rotation of the concave-side rod by 2 rod holders, the convex-side rod simultaneously rotates with the the concave-side rod. This procedure does not involve any force pushing down the spinal column around the apex. Since this procedure consists of upward pushing and lateral translation of the spinal column with simultaneous double-rod rotation maneuvers, it is simple and can obtain thoracic kyphosis as well as favorable scoliosis correction. This technique is applicable not only to a thoracic single curve but also to double major curves in cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Day, Gregory; Szvetko, Attila; Griffiths, Lyn; McPhee, I Bruce; Tuffley, John; LaBrom, Robert; Askin, Geoffrey; Woodland, Peter; McClosky, Eamonn; Torode, Ian; Tomlinson, Francis
Reduced SHOX gene expression has been demonstrated to be associated with all skeletal abnormalities in Turner syndrome, other than scoliosis (and kyphosis). There is evidence to suggest that Turner syndrome scoliosis is clinically and radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis, although the phenotypes are dissimilar. This pilot gene expression study used relative quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of the SHOX (short stature on X) gene to determine whether it is expressed in vertebral body growth plates in idiopathic and congenital scoliosis. After vertebral growth plate dissection, tissue was examined histologically and RNA was extracted and its integrity was assessed using a Bio-Spec Mini, NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and standard denaturing gel electrophoresis. Following cDNA synthesis, gene-specific optimization in a Corbett RotorGene 6000 real-time cycler was followed by qRT-PCR of vertebral tissue. Histological examination of vertebral samples confirmed that only growth plate was analyzed for gene expression. Cycling and melt curves were resolved in triplicate for all samples. SHOX abundance was demonstrated in congenital and idiopathic scoliosis vertebral body growth plates. SHOX expression was 11-fold greater in idiopathic compared to congenital (n = 3) scoliosis (p = 0.027). This study confirmed that SHOX was expressed in vertebral body growth plates, which implies that its expression may also be associated with the scoliosis (and kyphosis) of Turner syndrome. SHOX expression is reduced in Turner syndrome (short stature). In this study, increased SHOX expression was demonstrated in idiopathic scoliosis (tall stature) and congenital scoliosis. Copyright 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society
Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Cazzaniga, Daniele; Rocca, Barbara; Motta, Lorenzo; Cerri, Cesare; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Lovi, Alessio
To evaluate the effects of motor and cognitive rehabilitation on disability in adults with idiopathic scoliosis at lower risk of progression. 130 adults with idiopathic scoliosis (main curve <35°) were randomly assigned to a 20-week rehabilitation programme consisting of active self-correction, task-oriented exercises and cognitive-behavioural therapy (experimental group, 65 subjects, mean age of 51.6, females 48) or general physiotherapy consisting of active and passive mobilizations, stretching, and strengthening exercises of the spinal muscles (control group, 65 subjects, mean age of 51.7, females 46). Before, at the end, and 12 months after treatment, each participant completed the Oswestry disability index (ODI) (primary outcome), the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia, the pain catastrophizing scale, a pain numerical rating scale, and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire. Radiological (Cobb angle) and clinical deformity (angle of trunk rotation) changes were also investigated. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used for each outcome. Significant effects of time, group, and time by group interaction were found for all outcome measures (P < 0.001). After training, the primary outcome showed a clinically significant between-group change (12 % points), which was preserved at follow-up. At follow-up, the radiological deformities showed a significant, although not clinically meaningful, between-group difference of 4° in favour of the experimental group. The experimental programme was superior to general physiotherapy in reducing disability of adults with idiopathic scoliosis. Motor and cognitive rehabilitation also led to improvements in dysfunctional thoughts, pain, and quality of life. Changes were maintained for at least 1 year.
Wetterkamp, Mark; Thielsch, Meinald T; Gosheger, Georg; Boertz, Patrick; Terheyden, Jan Henrik; Schulte, Tobias L
The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire-Scoliosis (BIDQ-S) is a seven-item questionnaire inquiring into patients' worries about back shape and associated problems at school, at work, with friends or family, and whether the patients are avoiding certain activities. The aim of this study was to translate the BIDQ-S into German (G-BIDQ-S), test its reliability, and establish its convergent, divergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity. In a prospective cohort study, 259 patients with idiopathic scoliosis (mean age 30.2; 221 female; mean Cobb angle 43.8°) completed the G-BIDQ-S; Scoliosis Research Society 22-r (SRS 22-r); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9); Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS); Questionnaire on Body Dysmorphic Symptoms (FKS); and WHO-5 Well-Being Index. Healthy control individuals matched by age, sex and BMI (n = 149; mean age 36.1; 133 female; BMI = 23.0) answered the same questions to establish discriminant validity. Discriminant statistics, and Pearson and Spearman correlations were calculated. The G-BIDQ-S proved to be one-factorial, internally consistent (Cronbach alpha = 0.87), and stable over time (total score 2.22 vs. 2.21 during retest; retest reliability r = 0.79, P < 0.001). It correlated significantly with the mean SRS 22-r (r = -0.72, P < 0.001) and with Cobb angles (r = 0.30, P < 0.001)-convergent validity; much less with body mass index (r = 0.19, P < 0.001)-divergent validity; and with the PANAS (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), PHQ-9 (r = 0.53, P < 0.001), FKS (r = 0.67, P < 0.001), and WHO-5 (r = -0.54, P < 0.001)-concurrent validity. The G-BIDQ-S also showed discriminant validity, with a strong difference between the scoliosis group (total score 2.19) and the control group (total score 1.13; P < 0.001). The G-BIDQ-S showed good internal consistency, reliability, and convergent, divergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity. This questionnaire is the first one inquiring into patients
Nambiar, Mithun; Yang, Yi; Liew, Susan; Turner, Peter L; Torode, Ian P
Single or dual-rod instrumentation can be used for the anterior fixation of the spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). We aim to compare the complications, radiographic and functional outcomes of patients with AIS who have undergone single and dual-rod instrumentation. This is a multi-centre study involving the Royal Children's, Royal Melbourne and Epworth hospitals. Three primary surgeons were involved to ensure homogeneity of surgical technique and implants. Patients with AIS and thoracolumbar curves (Lenke 5 and 6) undergoing anterior instrumentation from 1st January 2000 to 30th June 2013 were included. Radiographic data were collected from X-rays. The functional outcome was measured through the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-30). The study included 58 patients (38 single-rod and 20 dual-rod patients). Thirty-nine patients were classified with Lenke 5 curves, while 19 patients had Lenke 6 curves. Structural interbody supports were used in 95 % of cases. In the preoperative to postoperative period, patients with single rods had an improvement of 75 and 51 % for primary and secondary curves, respectively, while patients with dual rods had an improvement of 70 and 38 % for primary and secondary curves, respectively. There were no cases of pseudoarthrosis or metalware failure in either group. Two patients (one single-rod and one dual-rod patient) required further unplanned posterior fusion. 91 % of patients were satisfied with the results of their back management. Pseudoarthrosis and metalware failure are rare complications of anterior instrumentation. Our study found no significant difference in functional or radiographic outcome between single and dual-rod instrumentation. Level III.
Prowse, Ashleigh; Aslaksen, Berit; Kierkegaard, Marie; Furness, James; Gerdhem, Paul; Abbott, Allan
AIM To investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of the Baseline® Body Level/Scoliosis meter for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis postural assessment in three anatomical planes. METHODS This is an observational reliability and concurrent validity study of adolescent referrals to the Orthopaedic department for scoliosis screening at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden between March-May 2012. A total of 31 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (13.6 ± 0.6 years old) of mild-moderate curvatures (25° ± 12°) were consecutively recruited. Measurement of cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvatures, pelvic and shoulder tilt, and axial thoracic rotation (ATR) were performed by two trained physiotherapists in one day. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-examiner reliability (ICC2,1) and the intra-rater reliability (ICC3,3) of the Baseline® Body Level/Scoliosis meter. Spearman’s correlation analyses were used to estimate concurrent validity between the Baseline® Body Level/Scoliosis meter and Gold Standard Cobb angles from radiographs and the Orthopaedic Systems Inc. Scoliometer. RESULTS There was excellent reliability between examiners for thoracic kyphosis (ICC2,1 = 0.94), ATR (ICC2,1 = 0.92) and lumbar lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.79). There was adequate reliability between examiners for cervical lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.51), however poor reliability for pelvic and shoulder tilt. Both devices were reproducible in the measurement of ATR when repeated by one examiner (ICC3,3 0.98-1.00). The device had a good correlation with the Scoliometer (rho = 0.78). When compared with Cobb angle from radiographs, there was a moderate correlation for ATR (rho = 0.627). CONCLUSION The Baseline® Body Level/Scoliosis meter provides reliable transverse and sagittal cervical, thoracic and lumbar measurements and valid transverse plan measurements of mild-moderate scoliosis deformity. PMID:28144582
Prowse, Ashleigh; Aslaksen, Berit; Kierkegaard, Marie; Furness, James; Gerdhem, Paul; Abbott, Allan
To investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis postural assessment in three anatomical planes. This is an observational reliability and concurrent validity study of adolescent referrals to the Orthopaedic department for scoliosis screening at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden between March-May 2012. A total of 31 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (13.6 ± 0.6 years old) of mild-moderate curvatures (25° ± 12°) were consecutively recruited. Measurement of cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvatures, pelvic and shoulder tilt, and axial thoracic rotation (ATR) were performed by two trained physiotherapists in one day. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-examiner reliability (ICC2,1) and the intra-rater reliability (ICC3,3) of the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter. Spearman's correlation analyses were used to estimate concurrent validity between the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter and Gold Standard Cobb angles from radiographs and the Orthopaedic Systems Inc. Scoliometer. There was excellent reliability between examiners for thoracic kyphosis (ICC2,1 = 0.94), ATR (ICC2,1 = 0.92) and lumbar lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.79). There was adequate reliability between examiners for cervical lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.51), however poor reliability for pelvic and shoulder tilt. Both devices were reproducible in the measurement of ATR when repeated by one examiner (ICC3,3 0.98-1.00). The device had a good correlation with the Scoliometer (rho = 0.78). When compared with Cobb angle from radiographs, there was a moderate correlation for ATR (rho = 0.627). The Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter provides reliable transverse and sagittal cervical, thoracic and lumbar measurements and valid transverse plan measurements of mild-moderate scoliosis deformity.
Gao, Xiaochong; Gotway, Garrett; Rathjen, Karl; Johnston, Charles; Sparagana, Steven; Wise, Carol A
To test for rare genetic mutations, a cohort of patients with unexplained early-onset scoliosis (EOS) was screened using high-density microarray genotyping. A cohort of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was similarly screened and the results were compared. Patients with scoliosis in infancy or early childhood (EOS) are at high risk for progressive deformity and associated problems including respiratory compromise. Early-onset scoliosis is frequently associated with genetic disorders but many patients present with nonspecific clinical features and without an associated diagnosis. The authors hypothesized that EOS in these patients may be caused by rare genetic mutations detectable by next-generation genomic methods. The researchers identified 24 patients with unexplained EOS from pediatric orthopedic clinics. They genotyped them, along with 39 connecting family members, using the Illumina OmniExpress-12, version 1.0 beadchip. Resulting genotypes were analyzed for chromosomal changes, specifically copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity. They screened 482 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and 744 healthy controls, who were similarly genotyped with the same beadchip, for chromosomal changes identified in the EOS cohort. Copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity analyses revealed a genetic diagnosis of chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome in 1 patient and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a second one. Prior genetic testing and clinical evaluations had been negative in both cases. A large novel chromosome 10 deletion was likely causal in a third EOS patient. These mutations identified in the EOS patients were absent in AIS patients and controls, and thus were not associated with AIS or found in asymptomatic individuals. These data underscore the usefulness of updated genetic evaluations including high-density microarray-based genotyping and other next-generation methods in patients with unexplained
Mardomingo, A; Sánchez-Mariscal, F; Alvarez, P; Pizones, J; Zúñica, L; Izquierdo, E
The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative clinical and radiological results in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves treated by posterior arthrodesis using autogenous bone graft from iliac crest (CI) versus only local autograft bone (HL). A retrospective matched cohort study was conducted on 73 patients (CI n=37 and HL n=36) diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and treated surgically by posterior arthrodesis. The mean post-operative follow-up was 126 months in the CI group vs. 66 months in the HL group. The radiographic data collected consisted of preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up antero-posterior and lateral full-length radiographs. Loss of correction and quality of arthrodesis were evaluated by comparing the scores obtained from the Spanish version of the SRS-22 questionnaire. There were significant differences in the post-operative results as regards the correction of the Cobb angle of the main curve (HL 61 ± 15% vs. CI 51 ± 14%, P<.004), however a greater loss of correction was found in the local bone group (CI 4.5 ± 7.3° vs. HL 8.5 ± 6.3°, P=.02). There were no significant differences as regards the correction of the Cobb angle of the main curve at the end of follow-up. There were no clinical differences between the two groups in the SRS-22 scores. At 5 years of follow-up, there was a statistically significant greater loss of radiographic correction at the end of final follow-up in the local bone graft group. However clinical differences were not observed as regards the SRS-22 scores. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Iorio, Justin; Orlando, Giuseppe; Diefenbach, Chris; Gaughan, John P; Samdani, Amer F; Pahys, Joshua M; Betz, Randal R; Cahill, Patrick J
Serial casting for early-onset scoliosis has been shown to improve curve deformity. Our goal was to define clinical and radiographic features that determine response to treatment. We retrospectively reviewed patients with idiopathic infantile scoliosis with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were: progressive idiopathic infantile scoliosis and initial casting before 6 years of age. Two groups were analyzed and compared: group 1 (≥10-degree improvement in Cobb angle from baseline) and group 2 (no improvement). Twenty-one patients with an average Cobb angle of 48 degrees (range, 24 to 72 degrees) underwent initial casting at an average age of 2.1 years (range, 0.7 to 5.4 y). Average follow-up was 3.5 years (range, 2 to 6.9 y). Sex, age at initial casting, magnitude of spinal deformity, and curve flexibility (defined as change in Cobb angle from pretreatment to first in-cast radiograph) were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05). Group 1 had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than group 2 at the onset of treatment (17.6 vs. 14.8, P<0.05). Univariate analysis of demographic, radiographic, and treatment factors revealed that only BMI was predictive of Cobb improvement (P=0.04; odds ratio=2.38). Group 1 (n=15) had a significantly lower Cobb angle (21 vs. 56 degrees) and rib vertebral angle difference (13 vs. 25 degrees) compared with group 2 at latest follow-up (P<0.05). A significantly larger proportion of children who were casted at less than 1.8 years of age had a Cobb angle <20 degrees at latest follow-up (P=0.03). Group 2 maintained stable clinical and radiograph parameters from pretreatment to most recent follow-up. To maintain a homogeneous cohort, we excluded patients with syndromes and developmental delays. We believe that analyzing a homogeneous group provides more meaningful results than if we studied a heterogeneous sample. BMI was significantly associated with outcome such that for each unit increase in BMI, there is
In the last decade, spine surgeons have been impacted by the "sagittal plane analysis revolution". Significant correlations have been found in adult spinal deformity (ASD) between sagittal lumbo-pelvic parameters and functional outcomes, but most of them do not apply in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Meanwhile, instrumentation and reduction strategies have considerably evolved. This paper aims to describe the preoperative sagittal alignment in AIS, and to report literature evidence regarding the influence of postoperative sagittal balance on complication rates, low back pain incidence and disc degeneration. A bibliographic search in Medline and Google database from 1984 to May 2017 was performed. The keywords included 'adolescent idiopathic scoliosis', 'adult scoliosis', 'sagittal alignment', 'proximal junctional kyphosis', 'distal junctional kyphosis', 'outcomes', 'low back pain' and 'complication', used individually or in combination. Algorithms of sagittal balance analysis and treatment decision have been reported in ASD, but the clinical situation is very different in children. Sagittal alignment greatly varies in AIS among the various Lenke types. Most patients are clinically balanced before surgery, but the spinal harmony is altered, with overgrowth of the anterior column and global sagittal flattening (undersestimated in 2D). The exact role of pelvic incidence and whether or not patients also use pelvic compensation to maintain balance still require further clarification. The incidence of radiological junctional failures remains highly variable, depending on definitions, cohort size and follow-up. Preoperative hyperkyphosis seems to be a consistent and relevant risk factor. Current literature does not support the recent trend to save motion segments (selective fusion), and no significant association was found between the distal level of fusion and the incidence of low back pain. Postoperative sagittal alignment seems to be more important than LIV
Wai, Man Gene Chi; Jun, Wang William Wei; Yee, Yim Annie Po; Ho, Wong Jack; Bun, Ng Tzi; Ping, Lam Tsz; Man, Lee Simon Kwong; Wah, Ng Bobby Kin; Chiu, Wang Chi; Yong, Qiu; Yiu, Cheng Jack Chun
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common orthopedic disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Melatonin and melatonin pathway dysfunction has been widely suspected to play an important role in the pathogenesis. Many different types of animal models have been developed to induce experimental scoliosis mimicking the pathoanatomical features of idiopathic scoliosis in human. The scoliosis deformity was believed to be induced by pinealectomy and mediated through the resulting melatonin-deficiency. However, the lack of upright mechanical spinal loading and inherent rotational instability of the curvature render the similarity of these models to the human counterparts questionable. Different concerns have been raised challenging the scientific validity and limitations of each model. The objectives of this review follow the logical need to re-examine and compare the relevance and appropriateness of each of the animal models that have been used for studying the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in human in the past 15 to 20 years. PMID:25238413
Background Conservative scoliosis therapy according to the FITS Concept is applied as a unique treatment or in combination with corrective bracing. The aim of the study was to present author's method of diagnosis and therapy for idiopathic scoliosis FITS-Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis and to analyze the early results of FITS therapy in a series of consecutive patients. Methods The analysis comprised separately: (1) single structural thoracic, thoracolumbar or lumbar curves and (2) double structural scoliosis-thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves. The Cobb angle and Risser sign were analyzed at the initial stage and at the 2.8-year follow-up. The percentage of patients improved (defined as decrease of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees), stable (+/- 5 degrees), and progressed (increase of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees) was calculated. The clinical assessment comprised: the Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR) initial and follow-up value, the plumb line imbalance, the scapulae level and the distance from the apical spinous process of the primary curve to the plumb line. Results In the Group A: (1) in single structural scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 46,2% were stable and 3,8% progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 30,8% were stable and 19,2% progressed. In the Group B: (1) in single scoliosis 20,0% of patients improved, 80,0% were stable, no patient progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 28,1% of patients improved, 46,9% were stable and 25,0% progressed. Conclusion Best results were obtained in 10-25 degrees scoliosis which is a good indication to start therapy before more structural changes within the spine establish. PMID:22122964
Negrini, S; De Mauroy, J C; Grivas, T B; Knott, P; Kotwicki, T; Maruyama, T; O'Brien, J P; Rigo, M; Zaina, F
Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk. The most common form involve adolescents. The prevalence is 2-3% of the population, with 1 out of 6 patients requiring treatment of which 25% progress to surgery. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) plays a primary role in the so-called conservative treatment of adolescents with IS, since all the therapeutic tools used (exercises and braces) fall into the PRM domain. According to a Cochrane systematic review there is evidence in favor of bracing, even if it is of low quality. Recently, a controlled prospective trial including a randomised arm gave more strength to this conclusion. Another Cochrane review shows that there is evidence in favor of exercises as an adjunctive treatment, but of low quality. Three meta-analysis have been published on bracing: one shows that bracing does not reduce surgery rates, but studies with bracing plus exercises were not included and had the highest effectiveness; another shows that full time is better than part-time bracing; the last focuses on observational studies following the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and shows that not all full time rigid bracing are the same: some have the highest effectiveness, others have less than elastic and nighttime bracing. Two very important RCTs failed in recruitment, showing that in the field of bracing for scoliosis RCTs are not accepted by the patients. Consensuses by the international Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) show that there is no agreement among experts either on the best braces or on their biomechanical action, and that compliance is a matter of clinical more than patients' behavior (there is strong agreement on the management criteria to achieve best results with bracing). A systematic review of all the existing studies shows effectiveness of exercises, and that auto-correction is their main goal. A systematic review shows that there are no
Zaina, Fabio; Fusco, Claudia; Atanasio, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano
The SPoRT (acronym: Symmetrical, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) concept of bracing is a new way to build braces based on our 20 years of experience and the biomechanical principles of scoliosis correction, inclusive of the Sibilla and Sforzesco braces. The concept always requires a custom brace, which is made according to the patient's individual requirements. New technologies such as CAD-CAM can be applied, and often for better results, without the customary use of prebuilt forms whose measurements are stored in databases. Once the initial draft brace is completed, a final test must be made on the patient to modify and adapt it, depending on his or her real interaction between the body and the brace. The results that are today available on the SPoRT concept relate to the Sforzesco brace and are necessarily short-term, because the first treated patients are now reaching the fourth-year follow-up examination and haven't yet completed their treatments. On the basis of the initial evaluations, we can state that the Sforzesco brace is more effective than the Lyon brace after 6 months of treatment and that the Sforzesco brace is equally effective as the Risser Plast brace.
Wibmer, Christine; Groebl, Petra; Nischelwitzer, Alexander; Salchinger, Beate; Sperl, Matthias; Wegmann, Helmut; Holzer, Hans-Peter; Saraph, Vinay
It is important to monitor how patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis comply with their physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE). Physiogame, a newly developed video game using the Game-Trak 3D interactive game controller, combines correct PSSE performance with gaming. It tracks the position of the working limb in 3D space during the exercises as participants aim to hit certain targets and avoid others, and gives direct feedback by stopping the game if the working limb leaves the target 3D space, which is chosen to secure the corrective position according to the Schroth method. Physiogame records the quality and frequency of the exercises performed. We aimed to investigate the influence of this tool on motivation to perform regularly and, correctly, and with self-assessment of performance quality. This case series included 8 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis (thoracolumbar 7, lumbar 1), ages 7-13 years, all female and treated according to SOSORT guidelines; the COBB angle of primary curve at the start of brace therapy was 22-34°. In addition to Full Time Rigid Bracing (FTRB, Cheneau) and PSSE (Schroth), the participants were to perform two standardized Schroth exercises (muscle cylinder in standing position, mainly addressing the thoracic curve, and in side-lying position, mainly addressing the lumbar curve) with video game assistance every day for 6 months. The development (first to last month) of the following parameters was analyzed with descriptive methods: the actual training time to assess motivation, the ratio of the actual playing time versus total playing time to assess exercise improvement, and self-assessment of quality of performance. The average number of sessions with Physiogame was 217 per study participant (range 24 to 572, the study protocol targeted at least 180); actual training time decreased from 79 to 52 min (first to last month). Actual playing time increased from 73% of the total playing time
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0469 TITLE: Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis ...Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1 and Scoliosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David W. Polly, Jr., M.D...2011 – 31 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1
AD_________________ (Leave blank) Award Number: W81HWH-10-1-0469 TITLE: Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with...Neurofibromatosis 1 and Scoliosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David W. Polly, Jr., MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Minneapolis, MN 55455...the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1 and Scoliosis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81HWH-10- -0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0469 TITLE: Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in...Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type I and Scoliosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David W. Polly, Jr., M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University...for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type I and Scoliosis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Deepak, A S; Ong, J Y; Choon, Dsk; Lee, C K; Chiu, C K; Chan, Cyw; Kwan, M K
There is no large population size study on school screening for scoliosis in Malaysia. This study is aimed to determine the prevalence rate and positive predictive value (PPV) of screening programme for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 8966 voluntary school students aged 13-15 years old were recruited for scoliosis screening. Screening was done by measuring the angle of trunk rotation (ATR) on forward bending test (FBT) using a scoliometer. ATR of 5 degrees or more was considered positive. Positively screened students had standard radiographs done for measurement of the Cobb angle. Cobb angle of >10° was used to diagnose scoliosis. The percentage of radiological assessment referral, prevalence rate and PPV of scoliosis were then calculated. Percentage of radiological assessment referral (ATR >5°) was 4.2% (182/4381) for male and 5.0% (228/4585) for female. Only 38.0% of those with ATR >5° presented for further radiological assessment. The adjusted prevalence rate was 2.55% for Cobb angle >10°, 0.59% for >20° and 0.12% for >40°. The PPV is 55.8% for Cobb angle >10°, 12.8% for >20° and 2.6% for > 40°. This is the largest study of school scoliosis screening in Malaysia. The prevalence rate of scoliosis was 2.55%. The positive predictive value was 55.8%, which is adequate to suggest that the school scoliosis screening programme did play a role in early detection of scoliosis. However, a cost effectiveness analysis will be needed to firmly determine its efficacy.
Du, Qing; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Jian A; He, Xiao H; Liang, Ju P; Zhao, Li; Yang, Xiao Y; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Shu X; Chen, Pei J
The aims of this study were to compare the speed-of-sound (SOS) between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and controls using quantitative ultrasound examination and to further analyze the relationship between the SOS and curve type, curve magnitude, maturation status and Risser's sign in AIS patients compared to controls. Seventy-eight female AIS patients and 58 healthy female controls 10 to 16 years of age were recruited to participate. Quantitative ultrasound measurements were performed at the non-dominant distal end of the radius. The standard method for estimating the SOS and z-score was used. Comparisons were made between the SOS values and z-score in AIS patients and age-matched Asian adolescents. The SOS values of the patients were significantly lower than the controls (P < .01). The percentage of cases with low bone quality was 25% in the entire AIS sample. The prevalence of low bone quality in AIS patients was 20.5%. However, there were no correlations between the SOS and types of scoliosis (P > .05). The SOS values among different severity groups were significant, particularly between the 10° to 19° and 20° to 39° groups as well as between 10° to 19° and ≥40° groups. However, there was no significant correlation between the SOS and Cobb angles. Significant correlations were also found between the pre- and post-menarchy status in patients. There was a significant difference in the SOS values for different Rissers' signs (P < .05). Compared to nonscoliotic controls, subjects with AIS had a generally lower SOS, indicating lower bone quality. The age, Risser's sign, or maturation status, may have an effect on the bone quality; however, the curve type and magnitude do not affect the bone quality. The results of this study indicate that slower bone maturation may affect the bone quality in adolescents with AIS. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano
A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…
Gordon, Zachary L; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Thompson, George H
Reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements is important in the operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. This can be achieved with special frames, cell saver systems, pharmacologic aspects, and other techniques. Recently there has been interest in bipolar sealer devices as an adjunct to traditional monopolar electrocautery. However, there is limited information on this device in pediatric spinal deformity surgery. We reviewed our experience with this device in a setting of a standard institutional operative carepath. Perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements of 50 consecutive patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing a posterior spinal fusion and segmental spinal instrumentation and who had a bipolar sealer device used during their surgery was compared with a control group of the 50 preceding consecutive patients who did not. Anesthesia, surgical technique, use of intraoperative epsilon aminocaproic acid (Amicar), postoperative protocol, and indications for transfusions (hemoglobin≤7.0 g/dL) were identical in both groups. The preoperative demographics for the patients in both groups were statistically the same. The bipolar sealer group demonstrated a significant reduction in intraoperative estimated blood loss, total perioperative blood loss, volume of blood products transfused, and overall transfusion rate when compared with the control group. When subgroups consisting of only hybrid or all-pedicle screw constructs were considered individually, these findings remained consistent. There were no complications associated with the use of this device. Using the bipolar sealer device is a significant adjunct in decreasing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Level III-retrospective comparative study.
Bryant, Jessica; Markes, Alexander; Woolridge, Tiana; Cerruti, Dede; Dzeng, Elizabeth; Koenig, Barbara; Diab, Mohammad
Prospective cross-sectional survey. To determine the perspectives of parents of patients undergoing posterior instrumented fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) regarding simultaneous surgery and trainee participation. Simultaneous ("at the same time") surgery is under scrutiny by the public, government, payers and the medical community. The objective of this study is to determine the perspectives of parents of patients undergoing posterior instrumented fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Our goal is to inform the national conversation on this subject with real patient and family voices. A survey was prospectively administered to 31 consecutive parents of patients undergoing posterior instrumented fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis at a large academic medical center. "Overlapping" was defined as simultaneity during "noncritical" parts of an operation. "Concurrent" was defined as simultaneity that includes "critical" part(s) of an operation. Participants were asked to provide levels of agreement with overlapping and concurrent surgery and anesthesia, as well as with trainee involvement. On average, respondents "strongly agree" with the need to be informed about overlapping or concurrent surgery. They "disagree" with both overlapping and concurrent scheduling, and "disagree" with trainees operating without direct supervision, even for "non-critical" parts. Informing parents about the presence of a back-up surgeon or research demonstrating safety of simultaneous surgery did not make them agreeable to simultaneous scheduling. Parents have a strong desire to be informed of simultaneous spinal surgery as part of consent on behalf of their children. Their disagreement with simultaneous surgery, as well as with trainees operating without direct supervision, suggests discordance with current guidelines and practice and should inform the national conversation moving forward. N/A.
Sanders, James O; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sturm, Peter F; Diab, Mohammad
Prospective multicenter database. To identify factors associated with outcomes from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery outcomes and especially poor results. Because AIS is rarely symptomatic during adolescence, excellent surgical results are expected. However, some patients have poor outcomes. This study seeks to identify factors correlating with results and especially those making poor outcomes more likely. Demographic, surgical, and radiographic parameters were compared to 2-year postoperative Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) scores in 477 AIS surgical patients using stepwise linear regression to identify factors predictive of 2-year domain and total scores. Poor postoperative score patients (>2 SD below mean) were compared using t tests to those with better results. The SRS instrument exhibited a strong ceiling effect. Two-year scores showed more improvement with greater curve correction (self-image, pain, and total), and were worse with larger body mass index (pain, mental, total), larger preoperative trunk shift (mental and total), larger preoperative Cobb (self-image), and preoperative symptoms (function). Poor results were more common in those with Lenke 3 curve pattern (pain), less preoperative coronal imbalance, trunk shift and rib prominence (function), preoperative bracing (self-image), and anterior procedures (mental). Poor results also had slightly less average curve correction (50% vs. 60%) and larger curve residuals (31° vs. 23°). Complications, postoperative curve magnitude, and instrumentation type did not significantly contribute to postoperative scores, and no identifiable factors contributed to satisfaction. Curve correction improves patient's self-image whereas pain and poor function before surgery carry over after surgery. Patients with less spinal appearance issues (higher body mass index, Lenke 3 curves) are less happy with their results. Except in surgical patient selection, many of these factors are beyond physician control.
Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette
Background Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Objectives Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Design Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Methods Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute’s hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. Results From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Conclusions Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers
Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette
Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute's hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers labeled as systematic reviews need to be considered in terms
Guo, Jing; Lau, Ajax Hong Yin; Chau, Jack; Ng, Bobby Kin Wah; Lee, Kwong Man; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun Yiu; Lam, Tsz Ping
"Simplified Chinese" version of Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SC-SAQ) for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was available but did not fit for communities using "Traditional Chinese" as their primary language. We developed a traditional Chinese version of SAQ (TC-SAQ) and evaluated its reliability and validity. TC-SAQ was administered to 112 AIS patients, of which 101 bilingual (English and Chinese) patients completed E-SAQ and the traditional Chinese version of Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire (TC-SRS-22). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing TC-SAQ score with E-SAQ score, and convergent validity by comparing TC-SAQ score with TC-SRS-22 self-image domain score, and discriminant validity by analyzing the relationship between TC-SAQ score and patients' characteristics. Internal consistency of individual TC-SAQ domain was high (Cronbach's α = 0.785 to 0.940), except for general (Cronbach's α = 0.665) and shoulders (Cronbach's α = 0.421) domain. Test-retest reliability of TC-SAQ was good (ICCs of each domain from 0.798 to 0.865). Concurrent validity demonstrated an excellent correlation between TC-SAQ and E-SAQ scores (r = 0.820 to 0.954, P < 0.0001 for all domains). Correlation between TC-SAQ domains and TC-SRS-22 self-image domain was weak to moderate. TC-SAQ total score and individual domain scores (except waist and chest domains) were positively correlated to major curve magnitude. TC-SAQ had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity evaluated against the original English version was excellent. TC-SAQ was both reliable and valid for clinical use for AIS patients using traditional Chinese as their primary language.
Riouallon, Guillaume; Bouyer, Benjamin; Wolff, Stéphane
Little is known about the long-term status of patients operated for spine deformities. The aim of this study was to determine the survival of primary fusion in adult idiopathic scoliosis and identify the risk factors of revision surgery. Adult patients who underwent primary fusion for idiopathic scoliosis between 1983 and 2011 were included in a continuous monocentric retrospective series. Any additional surgery was registered for survival analysis. Survival and follow-up were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and an analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of revision surgery. This series included 447 women (86.5 %) and 70 men (13.5 %) reviewed after a mean follow-up of 7 years (range 0-26.4). Mean age was 44.4 years. Fusion was performed on a median 11 levels (range 3-15); revision rate was 13 % (CI 10-17), 18 % (CI 14-23) and 20 % (CI 16-26) at 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively. Revision surgery was associated with age, anterior release, length of fusion, the inferior limit of fusion, post-operative sagittal balance and junctional kyphosis. The length of fusion (HR 1.13 per vertebrae fused, p = 0.007) and the lower limit of fusion (HR 5.9, p < 0.001) remained independent predictors of revision surgery on multivariate analysis. This series evaluated the risk of revision surgery following spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. Our results show that the risk seemed to increase linearly with a rate of nearly 20 % after 10 years. The length and lower limit of fusion are the main risk factors for revision surgery. Level IV (e.g. case series).
Adolphs, Bastian; Oberdiek, Denise; Osada, Nani; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Filler, Timm J.; Marziniak, Martin; Bullmann, Viola
During anterior scoliosis instrumentation with a dual-rod system, the vertebrae are dissected anterolaterally. After surgery, some patients report a change in temperature perception and perspiration in the lower extremities. Sympathetic lesions might be an explanation for this. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate sympathetic function after anterior scoliosis instrumentation. A total of 24 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis (mean age at follow-up, 23.8 years) who had undergone anterior instrumentation on average 6.6 years earlier were included. Due to the suspected relevance of the sympathetic L2 ganglion, two groups were created: a T12 group, in which instrumentation down to T12 was carried out (n = 12), and an L3 group, in which instrumentation down to L3 was done (n = 12). Sympathetic function was assessed by measuring skin temperature at the back of the foot, a plantar ninhydrin sweat test and sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) following electrical stimulation. The side on which the surgical approach was carried out was compared with the contralateral, control side. Health-related quality of life was investigated using the Scoliosis Research Society SRS-22 patient questionnaire. In the T12 group, mean temperatures of 29.6°C on the side of the approach versus 29.5°C on the control side were measured (P > 0.05); in the L3 group, the mean temperatures were 33.2°C on the approach side versus 30.5°C on the control side (P = 0.001). A significant difference between the T12 group and the L3 group (P < 0.001) was observed on the approach side, but not on the control side (P = 0.15). The ninhydrin sweat test showed reduced perspiration in 11 of 12 patients in the L3 group on the approach side in comparison with the control side (P = 0.002). In the T12 group, no significant differences were noted between the left and right feet. SSRs differed significantly between the two groups (P = 0.005). They were detected in all nine
Hall, Rhea K; Rapport, Mary Jane
The purpose of this case report is to describe physical therapy (PT) for a child with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and motor delay. A 10-month-old boy with a 28° left thoracolumbar scoliosis was referred for PT and was seen weekly in his home over a 6-month period following a diagnosis of scoliosis and delayed gross motor milestones. Before the initiation of PT, the child was scheduled to undergo serial casting for correction of the spinal curve and was not yet rolling or transitioning in or out of sitting. By the end of the 6-month intervention period, the spinal curve had resolved to 12° without the need for serial casting and the child was walking independently. PT appeared to have a positive effect on reduction of the spinal curve and achievement of gross motor milestones.
Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that direct vertebral derotation by pedicle screws (PS) causes hypokyphosis of the thoracic spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients, using computer simulation. Methods Twenty AIS patients with Lenke type 1 or 2 who underwent posterior correction surgeries using PS were included in this study. Simulated corrections of each patient’s scoliosis, as determined by the preoperative CT scan data, were performed on segmented 3D models of the whole spine. Two types of simulated extreme correction were performed: 1) complete coronal correction only (C method) and 2) complete coronal correction with complete derotation of vertebral bodies (C + D method). The kyphosis angle (T5-T12) and vertebral rotation angle at the apex were measured before and after the simulated corrections. Results The mean kyphosis angle after the C + D method was significantly smaller than that after the C method (2.7 ± 10.0° vs. 15.0 ± 7.1°, p < 0.01). The mean preoperative apical rotation angle of 15.2 ± 5.5° was completely corrected after the C + D method (0°) and was unchanged after the C method (17.6 ± 4.2°). Conclusions In the 3D simulation study, kyphosis was reduced after complete correction of the coronal and rotational deformity, but it was maintained after the coronal-only correction. These results proved the hypothesis that the vertebral derotation obtained by PS causes hypokyphosis of the thoracic spine. PMID:22691717
Fortin, Carole; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Cheriet, Farida; Gravel, Denis; Gauthier, Frédérique; Labelle, Hubert
To determine overall, test-retest and inter-rater reliability of posture indices among persons with idiopathic scoliosis. A reliability study using two raters and two test sessions. Tertiary care paediatric centre. Seventy participants aged between 10 and 20 years with different types of idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle 15 to 60°) were recruited from the scoliosis clinic. Based on the XY co-ordinates of natural reference points (e.g., eyes) as well as markers placed on several anatomical landmarks, 32 angular and linear posture indices taken from digital photographs in the standing position were calculated from a specially developed software program. Generalisability theory served to estimate the reliability and standard error of measurement (SEM) for the overall, test-retest and inter-rater designs. Bland and Altman's method was also used to document agreement between sessions and raters. In the random design, dependability coefficients demonstrated a moderate level of reliability for six posture indices (ϕ=0.51 to 0.72) and a good level of reliability for 26 posture indices out of 32 (ϕ≥0.79). Error attributable to marker placement was negligible for most indices. Limits of agreement and SEM values were larger for shoulder protraction, trunk list, Q angle, cervical lordosis and scoliosis angles. The most reproducible indices were waist angles and knee valgus and varus. Posture can be assessed in a global fashion from photographs in persons with idiopathic scoliosis. Despite the good reliability of marker placement, other studies are needed to minimise measurement errors in order to provide a suitable tool for monitoring change in posture over time. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Di-qing; Chen, Zi-qiang; Li, Ming
To investigate the reliability of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) and to verify the possibility in the growth evaluation of female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients as a helpful supplementary to the Risser sign. Coronal and lateral full-length spine X-ray film and left hand-wrist radiographs of 77 female adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis were selected from January 2010 to October 2010. The interval period between lateral length of the spine and left hand-wrist radiographs did not exceed 3 months. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas hand-wrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The results were analyzed by Spearman correlation with patients Risser sign, chronological age, and menarche period. There were strong correlations between CVM and SMI or Risser sign (r = 0.862 and 0.762, P < 0.01). While in 26 patients whose Risser sign were 0-I, the correlation between CVM and SMI was more pronounced (r = 0.761, P < 0.01), compared with the correlation between Risser sign and SMI (r = 0.641, P < 0.01). CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth evaluation and can be used as a helpful supplementary to Risser sign.
Zhu, Weiguo; Sun, Weixiang; Xu, Leilei; Sun, Xu; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang
OBJECTIVE Recently, minimally invasive scoliosis surgery (MISS) was introduced for the correction of adult scoliosis. Multiple benefits including a good deformity correction rate and fewer complications have been demonstrated. However, few studies have reported on the use of MISS for the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of posterior MISS assisted by O-arm navigation for the correction of Lenke Type 5C AIS. METHODS The authors searched a database for all patients with AIS who had been treated with either MISS or PSF between November 2012 and January 2014. Levels of fusion, density of implants, operation time, and estimated blood loss (EBL) were recorded. Coronal and sagittal parameters were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the last follow-up. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was assessed according to postoperative axial CT images in both groups. The 22-item Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22) results and complications were collected during follow-up. RESULTS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 45 patients with Lenke Type 5C AIS, 15 who underwent posterior MISS under O-arm navigation and 30 who underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF). The 2 treatment groups were matched in terms of baseline characteristics. Comparison of radiographic parameters revealed no obvious difference between the 2 groups immediately after surgery or at the final follow-up; however, the MISS patients had significantly less EBL (p < 0.001) and longer operation times (p = 0.002). The evaluation of pain and self-image using the SRS-22 showed significantly higher scores in the MISS group (p = 0.013 and 0.046, respectively) than in the PSF group. Postoperative CT showed high accuracy in pedicle placement in both groups. No deep wound infection, pseudarthrosis, additional surgery, implant failure, or neurological complications were recorded in either group
Hosseinpour-Feizi, Hojjat; Soleimanpour, Jafar; Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Arzroumchilar, Ali
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to compare the results of surgery performed based on classification of the scoliosis according to each of these classification systems. Methods The study was conducted in Shohada Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, between 2009 and 2010. First, a reliability assessment was undertaken to assess interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Second, postoperative efficacy and safety of surgery performed based on the Lenke and King classifications were compared. Kappa coefficients of agreement were calculated to assess the agreement. Outcomes were compared using bivariate tests and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results A low to moderate interobserver agreement was observed for the King classification; the Lenke classification yielded mostly high agreement coefficients. The outcome of surgery was not found to be substantially different between the two systems. Conclusion Based on the results, the Lenke classification method seems advantageous. This takes into consideration the Lenke classification’s priority in providing details of curvatures in different anatomical surfaces to explain precise intensity of scoliosis, that it has higher interobserver agreement scores, and also that it leads to noninferior postoperative results compared with the King classification method. PMID:22267934
Hosseinpour-Feizi, Hojjat; Soleimanpour, Jafar; Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Arzroumchilar, Ali
The aim of this study was to investigate the interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to compare the results of surgery performed based on classification of the scoliosis according to each of these classification systems. The study was conducted in Shohada Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, between 2009 and 2010. First, a reliability assessment was undertaken to assess interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Second, postoperative efficacy and safety of surgery performed based on the Lenke and King classifications were compared. Kappa coefficients of agreement were calculated to assess the agreement. Outcomes were compared using bivariate tests and repeated measures analysis of variance. A low to moderate interobserver agreement was observed for the King classification; the Lenke classification yielded mostly high agreement coefficients. The outcome of surgery was not found to be substantially different between the two systems. Based on the results, the Lenke classification method seems advantageous. This takes into consideration the Lenke classification's priority in providing details of curvatures in different anatomical surfaces to explain precise intensity of scoliosis, that it has higher interobserver agreement scores, and also that it leads to noninferior postoperative results compared with the King classification method.
Hawes, M C; Brooks, W J
This case report documents a substantial increase in chest wall expansion in a middle-aged woman with stable right thoracic spinal curvature due to idiopathic scoliosis. Treatment involved intensive psychological and mobilization therapies, including comprehensive manipulative medicine treatments and daily manual traction. Over an 8-year period, a 6-cm increase in resting chest circumference (in the absence of weight gain) and a 7.5-cm increase in chest expansion were correlated with a substantial reduction of incidence of respiratory infections.
Nowakowski, Andrzej; Dworak, Lechosław B.; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek
Summary The objective of this study was to discuss the variables influencing alignment mechanisms of the spine, with particular consideration of post-surgical alignment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The analysis is based on information currently available in the literature, and on the authors’ own experience, which includes surgical material from over 2200 cases of idiopathic scoliosis. Over 50% of cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are decompensated before surgical treatment. Spinal alignment is most significantly influenced by the position of the pelvis. Surgical restoration of lumbar lordosis is more important than attempting to restore thoracic kyphosis in the sagittal plane. The sagittal profile has an essential impact on spinal alignment. The same curves in the coronal plane can have various 3-dimensional configurations. Clinical difficulties in the assessment of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis result from the fact that they undergo constant change with age. Thoracic hypokyphosis diagnosed before surgery is a very frequent symptom of curve progression. The presence of proximal (thoraco-thoracic) and distal (thoraco-lumbar) junctional kyphosis is very important for planning the scope of spondylodesis. The natural tendency of the spine for alignment (compensation) after surgery nowadays occurs more naturally by applying derotational forces through pedicle screws, compared to the distraction devices (eg, Harrington rod) used in the past. PMID:23229319
Sanders, James O; Browne, Richard H; Cooney, Timothy E; Finegold, David N; McConnell, Sharon J; Margraf, Susan A
Prospective longitudinal. Determine correlates of the peak height velocity (PHV) in girls with idiopathic scoliosis. Only identifiable retrospectively, the PHV is the most useful known maturity marker in idiopathic scoliosis. Clinically useful correlates are needed to make PHV timing helpful. A total of 24 immature girls with idiopathic scoliosis were followed with serial heights, sexual staging, skeletal ages, spinal radiographs, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein-3, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estradiol, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels. These markers were correlated to PHV timing. There were 14 girls who had identifiable growth peaks that averaged 10.5 +/- 1.8 cm/y at age 11.7 +/- 1 years. At the PHV, all girls were Risser 0 with open triradiate cartilages. On a skeletal age radiograph, digital uncapped phalangeal epiphyses were indicative of pre-PHV and fused epiphyses of post-PHV. Capped but unfused epiphyses were indeterminate. Tanner stage 1 for breast strongly indicates pre-PHV. Stage 3 for breast and pubic hair occurred at or after the PHV, and stage 4 always occurred after PHV. Higher IGF-1 and estradiol levels after PHV are potentially discriminatory. The PHV occurs during Risser 0 with open triradiate cartilages. If triradiate cartilages are open, then Tanner stages, IGF-1, estradiol levels, and the appearance of the epiphyses on a skeletal age radiograph are useful in determining status before or after PHV.
Caufriez, Marcel; Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Brynhildsvoll, Nils
Our goal is to describe the results of a hypopressive gymnastics (HG) program applied to 3 children with idiopathic scoliosis. Three children (ages ranging from 8 to 15 years) suffering from idiopathic scoliosis were recruited for this study. Thoracic or thoracolumbar curves showed between 15° and 40° Cobb degrees. The evolutionary character of the curves had been confirmed. A study of different clinical and radiological parameters was carried out to compare the measurements before and after (3 months later) the application of a 5 HG daily exercises programme: A radiological study of the spine was carried out to compare the measurements of the vertebral rotation. A radiological study, a plumb line and a measuring tape were used to assess the vertebral tilt in this study. A Scoliometer was used to measure the deformation of the rib cage (gibbosity). The most significant results were: a trend to reach stabilisation in the vertebral tilt and rotation, and stabilisation of gibbosity, which probably might improve the respiratory function of these subjects. Finally, the performance of an ordinary HG exercise program shows a trend to control and stabilise dorsal idiopathic scoliosis progression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Kinel, Edyta; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Podolska, Anna; Białek, Marianna; Stryła, Wanda
Quality of life (QoL) and stress level of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis is under growing consideration by physicians, physiotherapists and other specialists (psychologist, nurses). The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life and stress level in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who are under brace treatment. It involved 45 adolescents, ages ranging between 10.0 and 15.0 years, all with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) with Cobb angle between 20-45 degrees. The adolescents were wearing the same kind of brace (Chêneau orthosis) for more than 3 months for at least 12h per day. Two questionnaires were used: the Brace Questionnaire (BrQ) and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ). The analysis considered the type of treatment, curve location, correlation of the total score with age, Cobb angle and Bunnell rotation angle. The age was 13.6 ± 1.3 years. Cobb angle was 31.7 ± 7.6 degrees. The mean score for BrQ was 78.1 ± 11.3 points. Adolescents revealed higher score with BSSQ Deformity (median = 15) comparing to BSSQ Brace (median = 12). Conservative treatment does not severely impact on the quality of life of scoliotic adolescents. The adolescents who were under brace treatment suffered moderate level of stress from the deformity.
Longworth, Brooke; Fary, Robyn; Hopper, Diana
To determine any differences between the prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in ballet dancers who are girls compared with age-matched nondancers, and to establish if any relations exist between the presence of scoliosis and generalized joint hypermobility, age of menarche, body mass index (BMI), and the number of hours of dance training per week. Cross-sectional, matched pair study. Dance school. Dancers (n=30) between the ages of 9 and 16 years were recruited from a certified dance school in Western Australia; each dancer provided a consenting age-matched nondancer (n=30). Not applicable. Measurements were taken for angle of trunk rotation using a scoliometer (presence of scoliosis) and for height and weight to produce generalized joint hypermobility using Beighton criteria and an age-adjusted BMI, respectively. A subjective questionnaire regarding age of menarche and participation in dance and other sports was completed. Thirty percent of dancers tested positive for scoliosis compared with 3% of nondancers. Odds ratio calculations suggest that dancers were 12.4 times more likely to have scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. There was a higher rate of hypermobility in the dancer group (70%) compared with the nondancers (3%); however, there were no statistically significant relations between scoliosis and hypermobility, age of menarche, BMI, or hours of dance per week. Adolescent dancers, similar to adult dancers, are at significantly higher risk of developing scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. Vigilant screening and improved education of dance teachers and parents of dance students may be beneficial in earlier detection and, consequently, reducing the risk of requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Zezhang; Sha, Shifu; Chu, Winnie C C; Yan, Huang; Xie, Dingding; Liu, Zhen; Sun, Xu; Zhu, Weiguo; Cheng, Jack C Y; Qiu, Yong
Although the more readily available MR imaging has brought about more incidental findings of idiopathic syringomyelia (IS), no published study has specifically addressed the clinical and imaging features of IS-associated scoliosis. Since IS and Chiari I malformation (CMI)-type syringomyelia are hypothesized to share a common underlying developmental pathomechanism, this study aimed to investigate the scoliosis curve patterns and MRI syrinx cord characteristics of patients with IS comparing with those seen in CMI. Sixty-one patients with scoliosis secondary to IS were identified and reviewed retrospectively. The curve pattern and specific curve features were recorded and compared with historic CMI controls. Location, size, and morphological appearance of the syrinx were systematically assessed on MR images. The maximal syrinx/cord ratio and rostrocaudal length of the syrinx in IS averaged 0.43 ± 0.16 (range 0.17-0.78) and 4.6 ± 2.5 (range 2-15) vertebral levels, respectively, both of which were smaller than those reported in CMI-type syringomyelia. Regarding the characteristics of IS-related scoliosis, sagittal profiles as well as the frequency of curve patterns and atypical features were all found to resemble those in patients with CMI (P > .05). Among the 47 individuals with a single thoracic curve, Fisher exact test revealed a significant correlation between curve convexity and the dominant side of deviated syrinx (83.3 % concordance rate, P = .021). In addition, apex of the thoracic curve trended toward being significantly correlated with the level of maximum expansion of the syrinx (P = .066). Radiological characteristics of scoliosis were found to be similar between idiopathic and CMI-type syrinx in both the coronal and sagittal planes, adding further evidence to the concept that these entities may be part of a spectrum of disease sharing a common pathophysiological mechanism. The thoracic spine in IS patients tended to be convex to the deviated side of
Williams, Mark A; Heine, Peter J; Williamson, Esther M; Toye, Francine; Dritsaki, Melina; Petrou, Stavros; Crossman, Richard; Lall, Ranjit; Barker, Karen L; Fairbank, Jeremy; Harding, Ian; Gardner, Adrian; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Coulson, Neil; Lamb, Sarah E
The feasibility of conducting a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises (SSEs) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting a large, multicentre trial of SSE treatment for patients with AIS, in comparison with standard care, and to refine elements of the study design. The objectives were to (1) update a systematic review of controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of SSE in AIS; (2) survey UK orthopaedic surgeons and physiotherapists to determine current practice, patient populations and equipoise; (3) randomise 50 adolescents to a feasibility trial of either usual care or SSE interventions across a range of sites; (4) develop, document and assess acceptability and adherence of interventions; (5) assess and describe training requirements of physiotherapists; and (6) gain user input in all relevant stages of treatment and protocol design. Multicomponent feasibility study including UK clinician survey, systematic literature review and a randomised feasibility trial. The randomised feasibility study involved four secondary care NHS trusts providing specialist care for patients with AIS. The randomised feasibility study recruited people aged 10-16 years with mild AIS (Cobb angle of < 50°). The randomised study allocated participants to standard practice of advice and education or a physiotherapy SSE programme supported by a home exercise plan. Our choice of intervention was informed by a systematic review of exercise interventions for AIS. The main outcome was feasibility of recruitment to the randomised study. Other elements were to inform choice of outcomes for a definitive trial and included curve severity, quality of life, requirement for surgery/brace, adverse events, psychological symptoms, costs and health utilities. A UK survey of orthopaedic consultants and physiotherapists indicated
Trobisch, P D; Samdani, A; O'Neil, C; Betz, R; Cahill, P
Infantile idiopathic scoliosis (IIS) is a rare orthopaedic condition. Braces and casts are popular options in the treatment of IIS but there is a paucity of studies commenting on the outcome of non-operative treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyse failure and success after non-operative treatment for severe forms of IIS. We retrospectively reviewed the data of all children who had been treated for IIS between 2003 and 2009 at a single institution. After calculating the failure and success rates, we additionally performed a risk factor analysis for patients who failed non-operative treatment. Chi (2) and T tests were used for statistical analysis with significance set at p < 0.05. 25 children with an average age of 11 months and an Cobb angle of 46 degrees at presentation were analysed. Seven (28 %) patients were considered as having failed non-operative treatment after an average follow-up of 28 months. The pretreatment Cobb angle was identified as single significant risk factor for failure (55 versus 42) while neither age, gender, nor RVAD seem to influence the outcome. In children who were considered as successfully treated, the Cobb angle decreased from 42 to 18 degrees. Non-operative treatment for IIS is successful in 3 out of 4 patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lamarre, Marie-Eve; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Joncas, Julie; Cabral, Anne; Petit, Yvan
Prospective evaluation of a new suspension test to determine curve flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in comparison with erect side-bending. To verify whether the suspension is a better method than side-bending to estimate curve reducibility and to assess spine flexibility. Spinal flexibility is a decisive biomechanical parameter for the planning of AIS surgery. Side-bending is often referred as the gold standard, but it has a low reproducibility and there is no agreement amongst surgeons about the most advantageous method to use. Even more, every technique evaluates reducibility instead of flexibility since the forces involved in the change in shape of the spine are not considered. Eighteen patients scheduled for AIS surgery were studied. Preoperative radiological evaluation consisted of 4 radiographs: standing posteroanterior, left and right erect side-bending, and suspension. The side-bending and the suspension tests were compared on the basis of the apical vertebrae derotation and the scoliosis curve reduction. Frontal and axial flexibility indices, expressed as the ratio between the moment induced by the body weight and the reduction, were calculated from the suspension data. The average scoliosis curve reduction and apical vertebra derotation were 21 degrees (37%) and 3 degrees (12%), respectively for erect side-bending and 26 degrees (39%) and 7 degrees (28%), respectively for suspension. The erect side-bending test generated a larger curve reduction (P = 0.05) when considering the moderate curves only and the suspension test (P = 0.02) when considering the severe curves. The suspension test produced a larger axial derotation (P = 0.007) when considering all the curves. The average traction force during suspension was 306 N (187 N-377 N). The average estimation for the frontal flexibility index was 1.64 degrees/Nm (0.84-2.82) and 0.51 degrees/Nm (0.01-1.39) for the axial flexibility index. Results of this study demonstrate the feasibility
Radl, R; Maafe, M; Ziegler, S
Scoliosis, a permanent abnormal curvature of the spine to the side, is divided into four forms: idiopathic (infantile, juvenile and adolescent, accounting for 80% of cases), neurogenic, congenital and adult scoliosis. Most patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis initially have mainly cosmetic problems. However, neurogenic, congenital and adult scoliosis can lead to severe clinical symptoms. The leading symptom is back pain caused by secondary changes. In recent years the Lenke classification has been proven to be a reliable tool for disease classification. Non-progressive scoliosis is usually treated conservatively. In the case of Cobb angles of greater than 50°, surgical therapy is recommended in patients presenting before adulthood. Technical improvements in implants and the optimisation of surgical methods have set a trend in the direction of surgical therapy.
Gaudreault, Nathaly; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Larivière, Christian; DeSerres, Sophie J; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire
Background It is known that the back muscles of scoliotic subjects present abnormalities in their fiber type composition. Some researchers have hypothesized that abnormal fiber composition can lead to paraspinal muscle dysfunction such as poor neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue. EMG parameters were used to evaluate these impairments. The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical potential of different EMG parameters such as amplitude (RMS) and median frequency (MF) of the power spectrum in order to assess the back muscles of patients presenting idiopathic scoliosis in terms of their neuromuscular efficiency and their muscular fatigue. Methods L5/S1 moments during isometric efforts in extension were measured in six subjects with idiopathic scoliosis and ten healthy controls. The subjects performed three 7 s ramp contractions ranging from 0 to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and one 30 s sustained contraction at 75% MVC. Surface EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the paraspinal muscles at L5, L3, L1 and T10. The slope of the EMG RMS/force (neuromuscular efficiency) and MF/force (muscle composition) relationships were computed during the ramp contractions while the slope of the EMG RMS/time and MF/time relationships (muscle fatigue) were computed during the sustained contraction. Comparisons were performed between the two groups and between the left and right sides for the EMG parameters. Results No significant group or side differences between the slopes of the different measures used were found at the level of the apex (around T10) of the major curve of the spine. However, a significant side difference was seen at a lower level (L3, p = 0.01) for the MF/time parameter. Conclusion The EMG parameters used in this study could not discriminate between the back muscles of scoliotic subjects and those of control subject regarding fiber type composition, neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue at the level of the apex. The
Di Silvestre, Mario; Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Giacomini, Stefano
This study is a retrospective case series review of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were revised more than 1 year after the index procedure, due to a late-developing deep wound infection, to determine onset, bacteriology, possible influence of implant alloy (titanium vs. stainless-steel) and treatment outcome of patients. From a total of 540 patients who underwent posterior-only fusion for AIS from 1993 through 2005 at our institution, 15 cases (2.77%) were revised due to a late-developing post-operative infection: there were six males and nine females, with an average age at initial surgery of 15.8 years (range 12-18). Late infections occurred at a mean of 70 months (15-95) after the index procedure. The implant alloy used was a stainless-steel instrumentation in 11 patients (4.56% of 241) and a titanium one in 4 patients (1.33% of 299): there was an higher incidence of late infections in stainless-steel alloy group of patients (P < 0.0001). Complete removal of instrumentation was performed in nine patients, obtaining in all cases wound healing and no symptoms of infection, at a minimum 3 years follow-up. In the other six patients, presenting less severe clinical signs of infections, an attempt to save/replace the previous instrumentation was performed, but a complete instrumentation removal had to be performed 11.6 months later (range 3-24) for the persistence or recurrence of infection: all patients healed uneventfully at a minimum 3 years follow-up. Intraoperative cultures were obtained in all 15 cases, being positive in 13 cases (S. epidermidis in 5 patients, S. aureus in 3, Propionibacterium acnes in 1, Serratia marcescens in 1, Propionibacterium acnes + S. epidermidis in 1, S. aureus + S. epidermidis in 1 and coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 1). None presented at latest follow-up scoliosis progression: there was no statistically significant difference between final and pre-operative revision surgery values (P = 0.17). In conclusion
Tsirikos, A I; Mataliotakis, G; Bounakis, N
We present the results of correcting a double or triple curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using a convex segmental pedicle screw technique. We reviewed 191 patients with a mean age at surgery of 15 years (11 to 23.3). Pedicle screws were placed at the convexity of each curve. Concave screws were inserted at one or two cephalad levels and two caudal levels. The mean operating time was 183 minutes (132 to 276) and the mean blood loss 0.22% of the total blood volume (0.08% to 0.4%). Multimodal monitoring remained stable throughout the operation. The mean hospital stay was 6.8 days (5 to 15). The mean post-operative follow-up was 5.8 years (2.5 to 9.5). There were no neurological complications, deep wound infection, obvious nonunion or need for revision surgery. Upper thoracic scoliosis was corrected by a mean 68.2% (38% to 48%, p < 0.001). Main thoracic scoliosis was corrected by a mean 71% (43.5% to 8.9%, p < 0.001). Lumbar scoliosis was corrected by a mean 72.3% (41% to 90%, p < 0.001). No patient lost more than 3° of correction at follow-up. The thoracic kyphosis improved by 13.1° (-21° to 49°, p < 0.001); the lumbar lordosis remained unchanged (p = 0.58). Coronal imbalance was corrected by a mean 98% (0% to 100%, p < 0.001). Sagittal imbalance was corrected by a mean 96% (20% to 100%, p < 0.001). The Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire score improved from a mean 3.6 to 4.6 (2.4 to 4, p < 0.001); patient satisfaction was a mean 4.9 (4.8 to 5). This technique carries low neurological and vascular risks because the screws are placed in the pedicles of the convex side of the curve, away from the spinal cord, cauda equina and the aorta. A low implant density (pedicle screw density 1.2, when a density of 2 represents placement of pedicle screws bilaterally at every instrumented segment) achieved satisfactory correction of the scoliosis, an improved thoracic kyphosis and normal global sagittal balance. Both patient satisfaction and functional
Liu, Tianming; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Young, Geoffrey; Li, Kaiming; Yeung, Benson H.Y.; Guo, Lei; Man, Gene C.W.; Lam, Wynnie W.M.; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Cheng, Jack C.Y.
Purpose To investigate whether regional brain volumes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients differ from matched control subjects as AIS subjects are reported to have poor performance on combined visual and proprioceptive testing and impaired postural balance in previous studies. Materials and Methods Twenty AIS female patients with typical right-convex thoracic curve (age range,11−18 years; mean, 14.1 years) and 26 female controls (mean age, 14.8 years) underwent three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (3D-MPRAGE) MR imaging. Volumes of 99 preselected neuroanatomical regions were compared by statistical parametric mapping and atlas-based hybrid warping. Results Analysis of variance statistics revealed significant mean volumetric differences in 22 brain regions between AIS and controls. Ten regions were larger in AIS including the left frontal gyri and white matter in left frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, corpus callosum and brainstem. Twelve regions were smaller in AIS, including right-sided descending white matter tracts (anterior and posterior limbs of the right internal capsule and the cerebral peduncle) and deep nucleus (caudate), bilateral perirhinal cortices, left hippocampus and amygdala, bilateral precuneus gyri, and left middle and inferior occipital gyri. Conclusion Regional brain volume difference in AIS subjects may help to explain neurological abnormalities in this group. PMID:18302230
Clément, Jean-Luc; Geoffray, Anne; Yagoubi, Fatima; Chau, Edouard; Solla, Federico; Oborocianu, Ioana; Rampal, Virginie
Sagittal spine and pelvic alignment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is poorly described in the literature. It generally reports the sagittal alignment with regard to the type of curve and never correlated to the thoracic kyphosis. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and sagittal pelvic parameters in thoracic AIS. Spinal and pelvic sagittal parameters were evaluated on lateral radiographs of 86 patients with thoracic AIS; patients were separated into hypokyphosis group (n = 42) and normokyphosis group (n = 44). Results were statistically analyzed. The lumbar lordosis was lower in the hypokyphosis group, due to the low proximal lordosis. The thoracic kyphosis was not correlated with any pelvic parameters but with the proximal lordosis. The pelvic incidence was correlated with sacral slope, pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis and highly correlated with distal lumbar lordosis in the two groups. There was a significant linear regression between thoracic kyphosis and proximal lordosis and between pelvic incidence and distal lordosis. We can consider that the proximal part of the lordosis depends on the thoracic kyphosis and the distal part depends on the pelvic incidence. The hypokyphosis in AIS is independent of the pelvic parameters and could be described as a structural parameter, characteristic of the scoliotic deformity.
Bachabi, Malick; McClung, Anna; Pawelek, Jeff B; El Hawary, Ron; Thompson, George H; Smith, John T; Vitale, Michael G; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Sponseller, Paul D
Distraction-based techniques allow spinal growth until skeletal maturity while preventing curve progression. Two multicenter early-onset scoliosis databases were used to identify patients with idiopathic spine abnormalities treated with traditional growing rods (TGR) or vertically expandable titanium ribs (VEPTR). Patients underwent at least 4 lengthenings and had at least 5-year follow-up. Significance was set at P<0.05. In total, 50 patients treated with TGR and 22 treated with VEPTR were included. Mean (±SD) age at surgery was 5.5 (±2.0) years for the TGR group versus 4.3 (±1.9) years for the VEPTR group (P=0.044); other demographic parameters were similar. VEPTR patients had more procedures (mean 15±4.2) than TGR patients (mean 10±4.0) (P=0.001). Unilateral constructs were present in 18% (4 of 22) of VEPTR and 16% (8 of 50) of TGR patients. Bilateral constructs spanned a mean 2.1 additional surgical levels and exposed patients to 1.6 fewer procedures than unilateral constructs. Curve correction was similar between bilateral and unilateral constructs. TGR patients experienced greater curve correction (50%) than VEPTR patients (27%) (P<0.001) and achieved a greater percentage of thoracic height gain (24%) than VEPTR patients (12%) (P=0.024). At latest follow-up, TGR patients had better maintenance of curve correction, less kyphosis, and 15% greater absolute gain in thoracic height versus VEPTR patients. TGR patients had a lower rate of wound complications (14%) than VEPTR patients (41%) (P=0.011). In patients with idiopathic early-onset scoliosis, TGRs produced greater initial curve correction, greater thoracic height gains, less kyphosis, and lower incidence of wound complications compared with VEPTR. Level III.
Negrini, Stefano; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Zaina, Fabio
Recently an RCT confirmed brace efficacy in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Previously, a Cochrane review suggested also producing studies according to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria on the effectiveness of bracing for AIS. Even if the SRS criteria propose a prospective design, until now only one out of 6 published studies was prospective. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of bracing plus exercises following the SRS and the international Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) criteria for AIS conservative treatment. prospective cohort study nested in a clinical database of all outpatients of a clinic specialized in scoliosis conservative treatment. seventy-three patients (60 females), age 12 years 10 months ±17 months, 34.4±4.4 Cobb degrees, who satisfied SRS criteria were included out of 3,883 patients at first evaluation. Cobb angle at the end of treatment according to SRS criteria : (unchanged; worsened 6° or more, over 45° and surgically treated, and rate of improvement of 6° or more).Braces were prescribed for 18-23 hours/day according to curves magnitude and actual international guidelines. Weaning was gradual after Risser 3. All patients performed exercises and were managed according to SOSORT criteria. Results in all patients were analyzed according to intent-to-treat at the end of the treatment. Funding and Conflict of Interest: no. Overall 34 patients (52.3%) improved. Seven patients (9.6%) worsened, of which 1 patient progressed beyond 45° and was fused. Referred compliance was assessed during a mean period of 3 years 4 months ±20 months; the median adherence was 99.1% (range 22.2-109.2%). Employing intent-to-treat analysis, there were failures in 11 patients (15.1%). At start, these patients had statistically significant low BMI and kyphosis, high thoracic rotation and higher Cobb angles. Drop-outs showed reduced compliance and years of treatment; their average scoliosis at
Skibinska, Izabela; Tomaszewski, Marek; Andrusiewicz, Miroslaw; Urbaniak, Paulina; Czarnecka-Klos, Roza; Shadi, Milud; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Kotwicka, Malgorzata
Purpose The aim of this study was to detect and assess the estrogen receptor (ESR) coactivator PELP1 expression within human paraspinal skeletal muscles in patients suffering from idiopathic scoliosis. Methods During surgical correction of scoliosis the muscle biopsies harvested in 29 females. Presence of PELP1, ESR1 and ESR2 genes transcripts was studied using RT-qPCR technique while immunohistochemistry and western blot methods were used to detect the PEPL1 protein presence. Results PELP1 expression in deep paraspinal muscles revealed higher than in superficial back muscles (p = 0.005). Positive immunohistochemical staining for PELP1 was observed in the nuclei of the paraspinal muscle cells. Western blot revealed PELP1 protein in all samples. No significant difference in PELP1 expression between the convex and the concave scoliosis side (p>0.05) was found. In deep paraspinal back muscles, a significant correlation between the PELP1 expression level on the concave side and the Cobb angle (r = 0.4; p<0.05) was noted as well as between the PELP1 and ESR1 expression level (r = 0.7; p<0.05) while no correlation between PELP1 and ESR2 expression level was found. Conclusion To our knowledge, three techniques for the first time demonstrated the presence of the PELP1 in paraspinal muscles of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The PELP1 potential regulatory impact on back muscle function is to be further investigated. PMID:27045366
Fortin, Carole; Feldman, Debbie E; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert
Concurrent validity between postural indices obtained from digital photographs (two-dimensional [2D]), surface topography imaging (three-dimensional [3D]), and radiographs. To assess the validity of a quantitative clinical postural assessment tool of the trunk based on photographs (2D) as compared to a surface topography system (3D) as well as indices calculated from radiographs. To monitor progression of scoliosis or change in posture over time in young persons with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), noninvasive and nonionizing methods are recommended. In a clinical setting, posture can be quite easily assessed by calculating key postural indices from photographs. Quantitative postural indices of 70 subjects aged 10 to 20 years old with IS (Cobb angle, 15 degrees -60 degrees) were measured from photographs and from 3D trunk surface images taken in the standing position. Shoulder, scapula, trunk list, pelvis, scoliosis, and waist angles indices were calculated with specially designed software. Frontal and sagittal Cobb angles and trunk list were also calculated on radiographs. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r) was used to estimate concurrent validity of the 2D clinical postural tool of the trunk with indices extracted from the 3D system and with those obtained from radiographs. The correlation between 2D and 3D indices was good to excellent for shoulder, pelvis, trunk list, and thoracic scoliosis (0.81>r<0.97; P<0.01) but fair to moderate for thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and thoracolumbar or lumbar scoliosis (0.30>r<0.56; P<0.05). The correlation between 2D and radiograph spinal indices was fair to good (-0.33 to -0.80 with Cobb angles and 0.76 for trunk list; P<0.05). This tool will facilitate clinical practice by monitoring trunk posture among persons with IS. Further, it may contribute to a reduction in the use of radiographs to monitor scoliosis progression.
Coronal deformity correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients using the fulcrum-bending radiograph: a prospective comparative analysis of the proximal thoracic, main thoracic, and thoracolumbar/lumbar curves.
Li, Jingfeng; Dumonski, Mark L; Samartzis, Dino; Hong, Joseph; He, Shisheng; Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Chuanfeng; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Albert, Todd J; Li, Ming
The aim of the prospective, comparative radiographic analysis was to determine the role of the fulcrum-bending radiograph (FBR) for the assessment of the proximal thoracic (PT), main thoracic (MT), and the thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves in patients undergoing posterior spinal pedicle screw fixation and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The FBR demonstrated statistically better correction than other preoperative methods for the assessment of frontal plane correction of the MT curves. The fulcrum-bending correction index (FBCI) has been considered a superior method than the correction rate for comparing curve correction undergoing posterior spinal fusion because it accounts for the curve flexibility. However, their applicability to assess the PT and TL/L curves in AIS patients remains speculative. The relation between FBR and correction obtained by pedicle screws fixation is still unknown. Thirty-eight consecutive AIS patients who underwent pedicle screw fixation and posterior fusion were included in this study. The assessment of preoperative radiographs included standing posterior-anterior (PA), FBR, supine side-bending, and postoperative standing PA and lateral plain radiographs. The flexibility of the curve, as well as the FBCI, was calculated for all patients. Postoperatively, radiographs were assessed at immediate (i.e. 1 week), 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, and 2-year follow-up. Cobb angles were obtained from the PT, MT, and TL/L curves. The study consisted of 9 PT, 37 MT, and 12 TL/L curves, with a mean age of 15.1 years. The mean FBR flexibility of the PT, MT, and the TL/L curves was 42.6, 61.1, and 66.2%, respectively. The mean operative correction rates in the PT, MT, and TL/L curves were 43.4, 69.3, and 73.9%, respectively, and the mean FBCI was 103.8, 117.0, and 114.8%, respectively. Fulcrum-bending flexibility was positively correlated with the operative correction rate in PT, MT, and TL/L curves. Although the correction rate in MT and
Fei, Han; Li, Wei-shi; Sun, Zhuo-ran; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Zhong-qiang
Abstract This study aimed to analyze the effect of patient positions on the lordosis and scoliosis of patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS). Seventy-seven patients with DLS were retrospectively analyzed. We measured lordosis and Cobb's angle on preoperative upright x-rays and magnetic resonance imagings in supine position. The lordosis and scoliosis of surgical segments in intraoperative prone position were measured on intraoperative radiographs of 20 patients to compare with that in standing position. Paired t tests were performed to investigate the parameters of the sample. From standing to supine position the whole lordosis increased (29.2 ± 15.7 degree vs. 34.9 ± 11.2 degree), and the whole scoliosis decreased (24.3 ± 11.8 degree vs. 19.0 ± 10.5 degree); 53 of 77 (68.8%) cases had increased lordosis, and 67 of 77 (87%) cases had decreased scoliosis. The lordosis of surgical segments in standing position had no difference with that in intraoprerative prone position. But in changing from supine/standing position to intraoprerative prone position, the scoliosis of surgical segments decreased (14.7 ± 9.4 degree vs. 11.4 ± 7.0 degree; 19.0 ± 11.8 degree vs. 11.4 ± 7.0 degree, respectively), and 18 of 20 (90%) cases had decreased scoliosis in intraoperative prone position than that in standing position. Compared with standing position in DLS patients, supine position increased lordosis and reduced scoliosis, and intraoperative prone position reduced scoliosis significantly. When evaluating the severity of DLS and making preoperative surgical plans, lumbar lordosis in supine position should also be evaluated in addition to upright x-ray, and the effects of different positions should be taken into consideration to reduce deviation. PMID:28796046
Fei, Han; Li, Wei-Shi; Sun, Zhuo-Ran; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Zhong-Qiang
This study aimed to analyze the effect of patient positions on the lordosis and scoliosis of patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS).Seventy-seven patients with DLS were retrospectively analyzed. We measured lordosis and Cobb's angle on preoperative upright x-rays and magnetic resonance imagings in supine position. The lordosis and scoliosis of surgical segments in intraoperative prone position were measured on intraoperative radiographs of 20 patients to compare with that in standing position. Paired t tests were performed to investigate the parameters of the sample.From standing to supine position the whole lordosis increased (29.2 ± 15.7 degree vs. 34.9 ± 11.2 degree), and the whole scoliosis decreased (24.3 ± 11.8 degree vs. 19.0 ± 10.5 degree); 53 of 77 (68.8%) cases had increased lordosis, and 67 of 77 (87%) cases had decreased scoliosis. The lordosis of surgical segments in standing position had no difference with that in intraoprerative prone position. But in changing from supine/standing position to intraoprerative prone position, the scoliosis of surgical segments decreased (14.7 ± 9.4 degree vs. 11.4 ± 7.0 degree; 19.0 ± 11.8 degree vs. 11.4 ± 7.0 degree, respectively), and 18 of 20 (90%) cases had decreased scoliosis in intraoperative prone position than that in standing position.Compared with standing position in DLS patients, supine position increased lordosis and reduced scoliosis, and intraoperative prone position reduced scoliosis significantly. When evaluating the severity of DLS and making preoperative surgical plans, lumbar lordosis in supine position should also be evaluated in addition to upright x-ray, and the effects of different positions should be taken into consideration to reduce deviation.
Kennelly, K P; Stokes, M J
The symmetry of lumbar multifidus size was examined in 20 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, aged 12-19 years. With the subject prone, bilateral real-time ultrasound images were obtained at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebra. Cross-sectional area and linear (horizontal and vertical) measurements were made using on-screen calipers. A pattern of asymmetry of lumbar multifidus cross-sectional area was shown to exist for the different curve types. The cross-sectional area was smaller (P < 0.0001) on the opposite side to the convexity of a primary thoracic curve, and on the convex side of a lumbar or thoracolumbar curve. The combined linear measurements (multiplied) correlated with cross-sectional area (r = 0.95) and could therefore be used for rapid clinical assessment of multifidus size. These preliminary findings provide a basis for further investigation of the role of the musculature in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Fortin, Carole; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert
The objective of this study was to explore whether differences in standing and sitting postures of youth with idiopathic scoliosis could be detected from quantitative analysis of digital photographs. Standing and sitting postures of 50 participants aged 10-20-years-old with idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle: 15° to 60°) were assessed from digital photographs using a posture evaluation software program. Based on the XY coordinates of markers, 13 angular and linear posture indices were calculated in both positions. Paired t-tests were used to compare values of standing and sitting posture indices. Significant differences between standing and sitting positions (p < 0.05) were found for head protraction, shoulder elevation, scapula asymmetry, trunk list, scoliosis angle, waist angles, and frontal and sagittal plane pelvic tilt. Quantitative analysis of digital photographs is a clinically feasible method to measure standing and sitting postures among youth with scoliosis and to assist in decisions on therapeutic interventions.
Lusini, Monia; Donzelli, Sabrina; Minnella, Salvatore; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano
Recently, positive results in bracing patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) above 45° who refused surgery have been presented in a retrospective study. Obviously, this can give only an efficacy (EA) analysis, as there is neither a control group, nor it is possible to know failures because of dropouts. To present the prospective results of bracing patients affected by IS above 45° and still growing. Prospective study including all IS patients with 45° or more, Risser stage 0 to 4, who had their first evaluation in our institute, an outpatient clinic specialized in scoliosis evaluation and conservative treatment, from March 1, 2003 to December 21, 2010 and utterly denied any surgical intervention. Of 59 patients, we excluded 2 patients still in treatment and 57 (11 males) patients were included. At the beginning of the study, they were 15 years 3±22 months of age, had 52.5° Cobb (range, 45°-93°), and Risser 2 (0-4). Thirty-nine accepted a full-time brace treatment (BG) to try avoiding surgery, 18 refused any treatment and served as controls (CG). Physiological measures: radiographic and clinical data. Treatment: A year of full-time Sforzesco brace (23 hours/day) or Risser cast (8-12 months) and gradual weaning after Risser 3; all patients performed exercises; and International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation TREATMENT management criteria were respected. Analyses: EA in patients who completed treatment/observation (34 in BG and 10 in CG) and intent-to-treat (ITT) with worst case analysis in the whole population. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) have been computed. Efficacy: failures were 23.5% in BG and 100% in CG. Intent-to-treat: failures were 20.5% in BG and 55.6% in CG. Relative risks of failure in CG were 4.3 (95% CI, 3.6-4.9) in EA and 2.7 (95% CI, 2.0-3.5) in ITT (p<.05). Percentage of patients (53.8%) improved: RRs of improvement in BG were 1.6 (95% CI, 1.46-1.9) in EA and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6-2.2) in ITT (p<.05
Selection of Fusion Levels Using the Fulcrum Bending Radiograph for the Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients with Alternate Level Pedicle Screw Strategy: Clinical Decision-making and Outcomes.
Samartzis, Dino; Leung, Yee; Shigematsu, Hideki; Natarajan, Deepa; Stokes, Oliver; Mak, Kin-Cheung; Yao, Guanfeng; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C
Selecting fusion levels based on the Luk et al criteria for operative management of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with hook and hybrid systems yields acceptable curve correction and balance parameters; however, it is unknown whether utilizing a purely pedicle screw strategy is effective. Utilizing the fulcrum bending radiographic (FBR) to assess curve flexibility to select fusion levels, the following study assessed the efficacy of pedicle screw fixation with alternate level screw strategy (ALSS) for thoracic AIS. A retrospective study with prospective radiographic data collection/analyses (preoperative, postoperative 1-week and minimum 2-year follow-up) of 28 operative thoracic AIS patients undergoing ALSS was performed. Standing coronal/sagittal and FBR Cobb angles, FBR flexibility, fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI), trunkal shift, radiographic shoulder height (RSH), and list were assessed on x-rays. Fusion level selection was based on the Luk et al criteria and compared to conventional techniques. In the primary curve, the mean preoperative and postoperative 1 week and last follow-up standing coronal Cobb angles were 59.9, 17.2 and 20.0 degrees, respectively. Eighteen patients (64.3%) had distal levels saved (mean: 1.6 levels) in comparison to conventional techniques. Mean immediate and last follow-up FBCIs were 122.6% and 115.0%, respectively. Sagittal alignment did not statistically differ between any assessment intervals (p>0.05). A decrease in trunkal shift was noted from preoperative to last follow-up (p = 0.003). No statistically significant difference from preoperative to last follow-up was noted in RSH and list (p>0.05). No "add-on" of other vertebra or decompensation was noted and all patients achieved fusion. This is the first report to note that using the FBR for decision-making in selecting fusion levels in thoracic AIS patients undergoing management with pedicle screw constructs (e.g. ALSS) is a cost-effective strategy that
Scoliosis causes a sideways curve of your backbone, or spine. These curves are often S- or C-shaped. Scoliosis is most common in late childhood and the ... but not always. Children may get screening for scoliosis at school or during a checkup. If it ...
Sudo, Hideki; Abe, Yuichiro; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Ito, Manabu
There is limited consensus on the optimal surgical strategy for double thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Recent studies have reported that pedicle screw constructs to maximize scoliosis correction cause further thoracic spine lordosis. The objective of this study was to apply a new surgical technique for double thoracic AIS with rigid proximal thoracic (PT) curves and assess its clinical outcomes. Twenty one consecutive patients with Lenke 2 AIS and a rigid PT curve (Cobb angle ≥30º on side-bending radiographs, flexibility ≤30 %) treated with the simultaneous double-rod rotation technique (SDRRT) were included. In this technique, a temporary rod is placed at the concave side of the PT curve. Then, distraction force is applied to correct the PT curve, which reforms a sigmoid double thoracic curve into an approximate single thoracic curve. As a result, the PT curve is typically converted from an apex left to an apex right curve before applying the correction rod for PT and main thoracic curve. All patients were followed for at least 2 years (average 2.7 years). The average main thoracic and PT Cobb angle correction rate at the final follow-up was 74.7 and 58.0 %, respectively. The average preoperative T5-T12 thoracic kyphosis was 9.3°, which improved significantly to 19.0° (p < 0.0001) at the final follow-up. Although 71 % patients had preoperative level shoulders or a positive radiographic shoulder height, all patients had mildly imbalanced or balanced shoulders at the final follow-up. The average preoperative main thoracic apical vertebral rotation angle of 20.7° improved significantly after surgery to 16.4° (p = 0.0046), while the average preoperative total SRS questionnaire score of 3.7 improved significantly to 4.4 (p = 0.0012) at the final follow-up. Radiographic findings and patient outcomes were satisfactory. Thoracic kyphosis can be maintained or improved, while coronal and axial deformities can be corrected using SDRRT for Lenke 2 AIS
Hyun, Seung-Jae; Han, Sanghyun; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Yongjung J; Rhim, Seung-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jib
To determine a neurosurgeon's learning curve of surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. This study is a retrospective analysis. Forty-six patients were treated by a single neurosurgeon between 2011 and 2017 using posterior segmental instrumentation and fusion. According to the time period, the former and latter 23 patients were divided into group 1 and group 2, respectively. Patients' demographic data, curve magnitude, number of levels treated, amount of correction achieved, radiographic/clinical outcomes, and complications were compared between the groups. The majority were females (34 vs. 12) with average ages of 15.0 versus 15.6, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 24.6 months. The average number of fusion levels was similar with 10.3 and 11.5 vertebral bodies in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The average Cobb angle of major curvature was 59.8° and 58.5° in groups 1 and 2, respectively. There observed significant reductions of operative time (324.4 vs. 224.7 minutes, P = 0.007) and estimated blood loss (648.3 vs. 438.0 mL, P = 0.027) in group 2. The correction rate of the major structural curve was greater in group 2 (70.7% vs. 81.0%, P = 0.001). There was no case of neurologic deficit, infection, and revision for screw malposition. One patient of group 1 underwent fusion extension surgery for shoulder asymmetry. Radiographic and clinical outcomes of AIS patients treated by a neurosurgeon were acceptable. AIS surgery may be performed with an acceptable rate of complications after about 20 surgeries. With acquisition of surgical experiences, neurosurgeons could perform deformity surgery for AIS effectively and safely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duramaz, Altuğ; Yılmaz, Semra; Ziroğlu, Nezih; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Kara, Tayfun
The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of deformity correction on body image, quality of life, self-esteem, depression and anxiety in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who underwent surgery. Between June 2014 and July 2015, 41 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for AIS were compared with the control group of 52 healthy patients regarding the changes in the pre- and postoperative quality of life and psychiatric status of patients with deformity correction. Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Piers-Harris self-esteem questionnaire (PH-SEQ) and state-trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used to evaluate the patients. There was a significant decrease in postoperative first-year Cobb angle and trunkal shift imbalance compared with the preoperative values (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0001). Postoperative first-year thoracic kyphosis angle and body height showed a significant increase according to preoperative values (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0001). Postoperative PH-SEQ score and PedsQL total score showed a significant increase in the study group compared to the preoperative level, but no significant difference was found between the control group. Postoperative CDI score, BCS score, STAI-state and STAI-trait scores decreased significantly in the study group compared with preoperative scores. Surgical correction of deformity in AIS provided significant improvements regarding quality of life and psychiatric condition. Spinal surgeons should be aware of the possible psychological problems of AIS patients and should keep in mind that deformity correction not only improves physical health but also improves mental health. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
Shen, Mingkui; Jiang, Honghui; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Wang, Lulu; Xia, Lei
The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS. We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups. Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p < 0.001), and implant costs ($10,191.0 vs. $13,577.3, p = 0.003) in the LD group. Both low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.
Background Generalized joint hypermobility (JHM) refers to increased joint mobility with simultaneous absence of any other systemic disease. JHM involves proprioception impairment, increased frequency of pain within joints and tendency to injure soft tissues while performing physical activities. Children with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) often undergo intensive physiotherapy requiring good physical capacities. Further, some physiotherapy methods apply techniques that increase joint mobility and thus may be contraindicated. The aim of this paper was to assess JHM prevalence in children with idiopathic scoliosis and to analyze the relationship between JHM prevalence and the clinical and radiological parameters of scoliosis. The methods of assessment of generalized joint hypermobility were also described. Materials and methods This case-control study included 70 subjects with IS, aged 9-18 years (mean 13.2 ± 2.2), Cobb angle range 10°-53° (mean 24.3 ± 11.7), 34 presenting single curve thoracic scoliosis and 36 double curve thoracic and lumbar scoliosis. The control group included 58 children and adolescents aged 9-18 years (mean 12.6 ± 2.1) selected at random. The presence of JHM was determined using Beighton scale complemented with the questionnaire by Hakim and Grahame. The relationship between JHM and the following variables was evaluated: curve severity, axial rotation of the apical vertebra, number of curvatures (single versus double), number of vertebrae within the curvature (long versus short curves), treatment type (physiotherapy versus bracing) and age. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistica 8.1 (StatSoft, USA). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, U Mann-Whitney test, Chi2 test, Pearson and Spermann correlation rank were conducted. The value p = 0.05 was adopted as the level of significance. Results JHM was diagnosed in more than half of the subjects with idiopathic scoliosis (51.4%), whilst in the control group it was diagnosed in only 19% of cases (p
Celestre, Paul C; Carreon, Leah Y; Lenke, Lawrence G; Sucato, Daniel J; Glassman, Steven D
Matched cohort. To evaluate thoracic and thoracolumbar sagittal Cobb angles in patients undergoing either selective thoracic fusion (STF) or nonselective thoracic fusion (NSTF) for Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The Lenke classification is used to guide fusion levels in AIS. For some curve types, including 1C, there is a disparity in practice regarding whether the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve should be included in the arthrodesis. The impact of performing an NSTF on sagittal parameters has not been adequately evaluated. A multicenter database of AIS was queried for patients with right-sided 1C curves treated with posterior correction and fusion. A matched cohort for each group was created based on age, gender, preoperative Cobb angles, and Scoliosis Research Society-22R domain scores. Independent t tests for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables were used to compare the STF and NSTF groups. Thirty-eight patients who underwent NSTF were matched to 38 patients in the STF. An average of 8.0 levels were fused in the STF group and 11.6 in the NSTF group (p < .001). Preoperative and radiographic variables were similar between the two groups. Postoperatively, there was a statistically significant difference between the STF and NSTF sagittal Cobb in the thoracic spine, 26.9° and 21.7° (p = .013). The greatest difference was in the thoracolumbar sagittal Cobb, which increased to 4.3° kyphosis in the STF group and decreased to 9° of lordosis in the NSTF group (p < .001). Residual thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis was 25.5° in the STF group and 14.5° in the NSTF group (p < .001). STF in 1C curves preserves lumbar motion segments but may be associated with an increase in thoracic and thoracolumbar kyphosis compared to NSTF. As expected, residual thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis was less in the NSTF group compared to the STF group. Although the long-term implications of these changes are unknown, consideration of sagittal balance
Scherrer, Sophie-Anne; Begon, Mickaël; Leardini, Alberto; Coillard, Christine; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul
Background Vertebral wedging is associated with spinal deformity progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Reporting frontal and sagittal wedging separately could be misleading since these are projected values of a single three-dimensional deformation of the vertebral body. The objectives of this study were to determine if three-dimensional vertebral body wedging is present in mild scoliosis and if there are a preferential vertebral level, position and plane of deformation with increasing scoliotic severity. Methodology Twenty-seven adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls with mild to moderate Cobb angles (10° to 50°) participated in this study. All subjects had at least one set of bi-planar radiographs taken with the EOS® X-ray imaging system prior to any treatment. Subjects were divided into two groups, separating the mild (under 20°) from the moderate (20° and over) spinal scoliotic deformities. Wedging was calculated in three different geometric planes with respect to the smallest edge of the vertebral body. Results Factorial analyses of variance revealed a main effect for the scoliosis severity but no main effect of vertebral Levels (apex and each of the three vertebrae above and below it) (F = 1.78, p = 0.101). Main effects of vertebral Positions (apex and above or below it) (F = 4.20, p = 0.015) and wedging Planes (F = 34.36, p<0.001) were also noted. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated a greater wedging in the inferior group of vertebrae (3.6°) than the superior group (2.9°, p = 0.019) and a significantly greater wedging (p≤0.03) along the sagittal plane (4.3°). Conclusions Vertebral wedging was present in mild scoliosis and increased as the scoliosis progressed. The greater wedging of the inferior group of vertebrae could be important in estimating the most distal vertebral segment to be restrained by bracing or to be fused in surgery. Largest vertebral body wedging values obtained in the sagittal plane support the claim
Hitier, Martin; Hamon, Michèle; Denise, Pierre; Lacoudre, Julien; Thenint, Marie-Aude; Mallet, Jean-François; Moreau, Sylvain; Quarck, Gaëlle
Introduction Despite its high incidence and severe morbidity, the physiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is still unknown. Here, we looked for early anomalies in AIS which are likely to be the cause of spinal deformity and could also be targeted by early treatments. We focused on the vestibular system, which is suspected of acting in AIS pathogenesis and which exhibits an end organ with size and shape fixed before birth. We hypothesize that, in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, vestibular morphological anomalies were already present at birth and could possibly have caused other abnormalities. Materials and Methods The vestibular organ of 18 adolescents with AIS and 9 controls were evaluated with MRI in a prospective case controlled study. We studied lateral semicircular canal orientation and the three semicircular canal positions relative to the midline. Lateral semicircular canal function was also evaluated by vestibulonystagmography after bithermal caloric stimulation. Results The left lateral semicircular canal was more vertical and further from the midline in AIS (p = 0.01) and these two parameters were highly correlated (r = -0.6; p = 0.02). These morphological anomalies were associated with functional anomalies in AIS (lower excitability, higher canal paresis), but were not significantly different from controls (p>0.05). Conclusion Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis exhibit morphological vestibular asymmetry, probably determined well before birth. Since the vestibular system influences the vestibulospinal pathway, the hypothalamus, and the cerebellum, this indicates that the vestibular system is a possible cause of later morphological, hormonal and neurosensory anomalies observed in AIS. Moreover, the simple lateral SCC MRI measurement demonstrated here could be used for early detection of AIS, selection of children for close follow-up, and initiation of preventive treatment before spinal deformity occurs. PMID:26186348
Kim, Woong-Beom; Park, Young-Seop; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Yongjung J.
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiographic/clinical outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated by a Korean neurosurgeon. Methods Ten AIS patients were treated by a single neurosurgeon between January 2011 and September 2013 utilizing segmental instrumentation with pedicle screws. Basic demographic information, curve pattern by Lenke classification, number of levels treated, amount of correction achieved, radiographic/clinical outcomes [by Scolisis Resarch Society (SRS-22r) questionnaire] and complications were evaluated to determine the surgical results. Pulmonary function test was utilized to assess forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) before and after surgery. Results The average percentage of correction of the major structural curve was 73.6% (ranged from 64% to 81.5%). Preoperative and final postoperative absolute FVC averaged 3.03 L and 3.76 L (0.73 L increase, p=0.046), and absolute FEV1 averaged 2.63 L and 3.49 L (0.86 L increase, p=0.021). Preoperative and final postoperative average self-image and function scores of SRS-22r were, 2.6±0.5, 3.3±0.1, 4.0±0.5, and 4.6±0.0, respectively. There was a significant improvement of the self-image and function scores of SRS-22r questionnaires before and after surgery (p<0.05). There was no case of neurological deficit, infection and revision for screw malposition. One patient underwent a fusion extension surgery for shoulder asymmetry. Conclusion Radiographic/clinical outcomes of AIS patients treated by a Korean neurosurgeon were acceptable. Fundamental understanding of pediatric spinal deformity is essential for the practice of AIS surgery. PMID:26279813
Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Woong-Beom; Park, Young-Seop; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Yongjung J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiographic/clinical outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated by a Korean neurosurgeon. Ten AIS patients were treated by a single neurosurgeon between January 2011 and September 2013 utilizing segmental instrumentation with pedicle screws. Basic demographic information, curve pattern by Lenke classification, number of levels treated, amount of correction achieved, radiographic/clinical outcomes [by Scolisis Resarch Society (SRS-22r) questionnaire] and complications were evaluated to determine the surgical results. Pulmonary function test was utilized to assess forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) before and after surgery. The average percentage of correction of the major structural curve was 73.6% (ranged from 64% to 81.5%). Preoperative and final postoperative absolute FVC averaged 3.03 L and 3.76 L (0.73 L increase, p=0.046), and absolute FEV1 averaged 2.63 L and 3.49 L (0.86 L increase, p=0.021). Preoperative and final postoperative average self-image and function scores of SRS-22r were, 2.6±0.5, 3.3±0.1, 4.0±0.5, and 4.6±0.0, respectively. There was a significant improvement of the self-image and function scores of SRS-22r questionnaires before and after surgery (p<0.05). There was no case of neurological deficit, infection and revision for screw malposition. One patient underwent a fusion extension surgery for shoulder asymmetry. Radiographic/clinical outcomes of AIS patients treated by a Korean neurosurgeon were acceptable. Fundamental understanding of pediatric spinal deformity is essential for the practice of AIS surgery.
Kuo, Fang-Chuan; Wang, Nai-Hwei; Hong, Chang-Zern
A cross-sectional study of balance control in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To investigate the impact of visual and somatosensory deprivation on the dynamic balance in AIS patients and to discuss electromyographic (EMG) and posture sway findings. Most studies focus on posture sway in quiet standing controls with little effort on examining muscle-activated patterns in dynamic standing controls. Twenty-two AIS patients and 22 age-matched normal subjects were studied. To understand how visual and somatosensory information could modulate standing balance, balance tests with the Biodex stability system were performed on a moving platform under 3 conditions: visual feedback provided (VF), eyes closed (EC), and standing on a sponge pad with visual feedback provided (SV). Muscular activities of bilateral lumbar multifidi, gluteus medii, and gastrocnemii muscles were recorded with a telemetry EMG system. AIS patients had normal balance index and amplitude and duration of EMG similar to those of normal subjects in the balance test. However, the onset latency of right gastrocnemius was earlier in AIS patients than in normal subjects. In addition, body-side asymmetry was noted on muscle strength and onset latency in AIS subjects. Under EC condition, lumbar multifidi, and gluteus medii activities were higher than those under SV and VF conditions (P < 0.05). Under SV condition, the medial-lateral tilting angle was less than that under VF and EC conditions. In addition, the active duration of right gluteus medius was shorter under SV condition (P < 0.05). The dynamic balance control is particularly disruptive under visual deprivation with increasing lumbar multifidi and gluteus medii activities for compensation. Sponge pad can cause decrease in frontal plane tilting and gluteus medii effort. The asymmetric muscle strength and onset timing are attributed to anatomic deformation as opposed to neurologic etiological factors.
Jones, Kristen E; Butler, Elissa K; Barrack, Tara; Ledonio, Charles T; Forte, Mary L; Cohn, Claudia S; Polly, David W
Multilevel posterior spine fusion is associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces intraoperative blood loss. The goal of this study was to compare the percent of total blood volume lost during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with or without tranexamic acid in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Thirty-six AIS patients underwent PSF in 2011-2014; the last half (n=18) received intraoperative tranexamic acid. We retrieved relevant demographic, hematologic, intraoperative and outcomes information from medical records. The primary outcome was the percent of total blood volume lost, calculated from estimates of intraoperative blood loss (numerator) and estimated total blood volume per patient (denominator, via Nadler's equations). Unadjusted outcomes were compared using standard statistical tests. Tranexamic acid and no-tranexamic acid groups were similar (all p>0.05) in mean age (16.1 vs. 15.2 years), sex (89% vs. 83% female), body mass index (22.2 vs. 20.2 kg/m2), preoperative hemoglobin (13.9 vs. 13.9 g/dl), mean spinal levels fused (10.5 vs. 9.6), osteotomies (1.6 vs. 0.9) and operative duration (6.1 hours, both). The percent of total blood volume lost (TBVL) was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid-treated vs. no-tranexamic acid group (median 8.23% vs. 14.30%, p = 0.032); percent TBVL per level fused was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than without it (1.1% vs. 1.8%, p=0.048). Estimated blood loss (milliliters) was similar across groups. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the percentage of total blood volume lost versus no tranexamic acid in AIS patients who underwent PSF using a standardized blood loss measure.Level of Evidence: 3. Institutional Review Board status: This medical record chart review (minimal risk) study was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.
Wang, Yun-Jia; Yu, Hong-Gui; Zhou, Zhen-Hai; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Long-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Qi
To investigate the underlying mechanisms of low metabolic activity of primary chondrocytes obtained from girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS); AIS is a spine-deforming disease that often occurs in girls. AIS is associated with a lower bone mass than that of healthy individuals and osteopenia. Leptin was shown to play an important role in bone growth. It can also regulate the function of chondrocytes. Changes in leptin and Ob-R levels in AIS patients have been reported in several studies. The underlying mechanisms between the dysfunction of peripheral leptin signaling and abnormal chondrocytes remain unclear; The following parameters were evaluated in AIS patients and the control groups: total serum leptin levels; Ob-R expression in the plasma membrane of primary chondrocytes; JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation status. Then, we inhibited the lysosome and proteasome and knocked down clathrin heavy chain (CHC) expression in primary chondrocytes isolated from girls with AIS and evaluated Ob-R expression. We investigated the effects of leptin combined with a lysosome inhibitor or CHC knockdown in primary chondrocytes obtained from AIS patients; Compared with the controls, AIS patients showed similar total serum leptin levels, reduced JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreased cartilage matrix synthesis in the facet joint. Lower metabolic activity and lower membrane expression of Ob-R were observed in primary chondrocytes from the AIS group than in the controls. Lysosome inhibition increased the total Ob-R content but had no effect on the membrane expression of Ob-R or leptin's effects on AIS primary chondrocytes. CHC knockdown upregulated the membrane Ob-R levels and enhanced leptin's effects on AIS primary chondrocytes; The underlying mechanism of chondrocytes that are hyposensitive to leptin in some girls with AIS is low plasma membrane Ob-R expression that results from an imbalance between the rate of receptor endocytosis and the insertion of newly
Dubousset, J; Machida, M
The unexpected finding in 1959 by Marie-Jeanne Thillard that pinealectomy in young chickens gives way to spinal deformities was confirmed by the authors. In another experiment they found that injected melatonine to the chick at adequate dose and at the same time as surgery, lessen or even totally prevents the occurrence of deformities. On the other hand, at too low dose or delayed after pinealectomy melatonine injection, may not prevent the deformity which will be persisting or even increasing. In a subsequent series of experiments on the rat, pinealectomy results in decreasing the plasmatic amount of melatonine as well as giving way to spinal deformities. The nature of these deformities observed here is dependent on the stature between of the animal. The normal quadrupede rat develops after pinealectomy a standard scoliosis. Inversely the scoliotic deformity occurs when the animal has been forced to a bipede condition, which may be achieved by removing its forelimbs when baby, then forcing it to stand and remain in erect posture by high enough feeding. Melatonine depressing and erect position are in two conditions, when associated, likely to give way to experimental scoliosis. In human, a low nycthemeral level of plasmatic melatonine is correlated with progressive scoliosis. The level of platelets calmoduline, when is normally modulated by melatonine, has been proved by Kindsfater to be increased in progressive scoliosis. Then raises the hypothesis that human idiopathic scoliosis may be due to an inherited disorder of neuro-transmitters from neuro-hormonal origin, associated with bipedal condition, where an horizontal localized neuro-muscular imbalance starts and produces the scoliotic deformity of the fibro-elastic and bony structures axial spinal pilar.
Pizones, Javier; Sánchez-Mariscal, Felisa; Zúñiga, Lorenzo; Izquierdo, Enrique
There is controversy regarding the effect of the Ponte osteotomies in the improvement of coronal correction, its maintenance during follow-up, and the restoration of thoracic kyphosis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Seventy-three AIS patients with Lenke type 1-4 curves were included. A prospective description of 43 consecutive patients who underwent apical Ponte osteotomies and sublaminar wires with hybrid instrumentation was retrospectively compared to a historical cohort of 30 patients without "Ponte osteotomies". The surgical details and complications were recorded. We evaluated the radiological measurements and SRS-22 Questionnaire scores over a 2-year follow-up. The Ponte group achieved better postoperative (70 vs 57 %) and final (62 vs 50 %) main curve correction P < 0.001, with no significant loss of correction (4.2° vs 2.5°) P = 0.2 at the final follow-up (48 vs 106 months). We did not find a difference in thoracic (T5-T12) postoperative (22° vs 24°) and final (25° vs 26°) mean kyphosis angle. However, the "Ponte osteotomies" helped to achieve a normal sagittal profile, increasing preoperative hypokyphotic curves (<10°) from 6° to 17° (control: 9°-12°; P = 0.01); and preoperative hyperkyphotic curves (>40°) from 52° to 26° (control: 46°-39°; P = 0.01). The length of surgery was similar (4.3 vs 4.6 h), as were the SRS-22 scores. No major complications were found. Ponte osteotomies in major thoracic AIS curves treated by sublaminar wires allowed more effective corrective maneuvers, which improved coronal correction without a significant loss during follow-up. The sagittal profile appears to be determined by other variables; however, "Ponte osteotomies" facilitate the contouring of the desired kyphosis.
Nakamura, Yutaka; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Iida, Takahiro; Ozeki, Satoru; Asano, Satoshi; Nohara, Yutaka; Nagai, Toshiro
The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of scoliosis in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patients versus idiopathic scoliosis (IS). We identified 193 PWS patients. Scoliosis was found in 58 PWS patients, 39 of whom were treated with GH. Fifty-five IS patients were consecutively selected from an outpatient clinic. We investigated 113 patients (58 PWS group, 55 IS group) followed for a minimum of 2 years. The mean age was 17.9 and 16.1 years, respectively. Deformity was measured using Lenke classification, Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis at T2-5 and T5-12, lumbar lordosis at T12-S1, and sagittal alignment at the C7 plumb line. BMI was also recorded. According to the Lenke system, patients were classified as (PWS group/IS group): Type 1 (8/26), Type 2 (1/4), Type 3 (3/15), Type 4 (1/0), Type 5 (32/8), and Type 6 (13/2). The average Cobb angles were 32.6° in the PWS and 35.4° in the IS. No significant differences were found for the thoracic kyphosis (T2-5, T5-12), lumbar lordosis (T12-S1) or C7 plumb line between the two groups. BMI was increased in the PWS group not treated previously with GH as compared with the IS group and the PWS group with GH. Most PWS patients presented with lumbar or thoracolumbar curves (Type 5, 6), whereas IS patients typically had thoracic scoliosis (Type 1, 2, 3).
Shigematsu, Hideki; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Bruzzone, Mauro; Matsumori, Hiroaki; Mak, Kin-Cheung; Samartzis, Dino; Luk, Keith Dip Kei
Surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is only complete after achieving fusion to maintain the correction obtained intraoperatively. The instrumented or fused segments can be referred to as the "fusion mass". In patients with AIS, the ideal fusion mass strategy has been established based on fulcrum-bending radiographs for main thoracic curves. Ideally, the fusion mass should achieve parallel endplates of the upper and lower instrumented vertebra and correct any "shift" for truncal balance. Distal adding-on is an important element to consider in AIS surgery. This phenomenon represents a progressive increase in the number of vertebrae included distally in the primary curvature and it should be avoided as it is associated with unsatisfactory cosmesis and an increased risk of revision surgery. However, it remains unknown whether any fusion mass shift, or shift in the fusion mass or instrumented segments, affects global spinal balance and distal adding-on after curve correction surgery in patients with AIS. (1) To investigate the relationship among postoperative fusion mass shift, global balance, and distal adding-on phenomenon in patients with AIS; and (2) to identify a cutoff value of fusion mass shift that will lead to distal adding-on. This was a retrospective study of patients with AIS from a single institution. Between 2006 and 2011 we performed 69 selective thoracic fusions for patients with main thoracic AIS. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively. The Cobb angle between the cranial and caudal endplates of the fusion mass and the coronal shift between them, which was defined as "fusion mass shift", were measured. Patients with a fusion mass Cobb angle greater than 20° were excluded to specifically determine the effect of fusion mass shift on distal adding-on phenomenon. Fusion mass shift was empirically set as 20 mm for analysis. Therefore, of the 69 patients who underwent selective thoracic fusion, only 52 with a
Samaan, M Constantine; Missiuna, Paul; Peterson, Devin; Thabane, Lehana
Introduction Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) affects up to 3% of children around the world. There is limited knowledge of AIS aetiopathogenesis, and this evidence is needed to develop new management strategies. Paraspinal muscle in AIS demonstrates evidence of differential fibrosis based on curve sidedness. Fibrosis is the hallmark of macrophage-driven inflammation and tissue remodelling, yet the mechanisms of fibrosis in paraspinal muscle in AIS are poorly understood. Objectives The primary objective of this study is to determine the influence of curve sidedness on paraspinal muscle inflammation. Secondary objectives include defining the mechanisms of macrophage homing to muscle, and determining muscle–macrophage crosstalk in muscle fibrosis in AIS. Methods and analysis This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary paediatric centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We will recruit boys and girls, 10–17 years of age, who are having surgery to correct AIS. We will exclude children who have an active infection or are on immunosuppressive therapies within 2 weeks of surgery, smokers and pregnant girls. Paraspinal muscle biopsies will be obtained at the start of surgery. Also, blood and urine samples will be collected from participants, who will fill questionnaires about their lifestyle. Anthropometric measures will also be collected including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethics authorisation by the institutional review board. This work will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be presented in oral and poster formats at scientific meetings. Discussion This study will explore the mechanisms of paraspinal muscle inflammation, remodelling and fibrosis in AIS. This will help identify pathways and molecules as potential therapeutic targets to treat and prevent AIS. It may also yield markers that predict scoliosis progression and response to treatment in these children. PMID
Kuo, Fang-Chuan; Hong, Chang-Zern; Lai, Chung-Liang; Tan, Shih-Hsin
Cross-sectional study. To investigate the automatic balance correction related to anticipatory perturbation (AP) and quick backward perturbation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Most previous studies on AIS patients focused on posture sway and lacked analysis of muscle activated patterns in dynamic standing control. Thirty-two AIS patients and 23 age-matched normal subjects received perturbation balance tests on an unstable platform. The tilting angle of the platform and the muscle activity of the bilateral lumbar multifidi, gluteus medii, and gastrocnemii muscles were recorded. Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, onset latencies, and duration were calculated with software accompanied with machine. The AIS group had less posture tilting but higher muscle activities than normal subjects under both perturbation conditions (P < 0.05). Under the AP test, AIS showed earlier onset and prolonged activation of left multifidus and right gastrocnemius compared with normal subjects (P < 0.05). The latency of the multifidus on the lumbar convex side occurred earlier than on the concave side. However, the asymmetric onset timing of the gastrocnemius was the opposite of the multifidi in the AIS group (P < 0.05). In contrast to the AP condition, bilateral leg and trunk muscles activated at similar latencies and durations in the AIS group (P < 0.05). Under the quick backward perturbation test, the control group had longer active duration of right multifidus and bilateral gastrocnemii than AIS to cope with larger platform tilting. In addition, asymmetric onset of gluteus medii and duration of multifidi was observed in the control group (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in posture control patterns between AIS and normal subjects. AIS subjects have asymmetric habitual muscle activities for AP, whereas when coping with sudden balance threats, they react with synchronized recruitment of bilateral postural muscles.
Arlet, Vincent; Shilt, Jeffrey; Bersusky, Ernesto; Abel, Mark; Ouellet, Jean Albert; Evans, Davis; Menon, K V; Kandziora, Frank; Shen, Frank; Lamartina, Claudio; Adams, Marc; Reddi, Vasantha
Considerable variability exists in the surgical treatment and outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This is due to the lack of evidence-based treatment guidelines and outcome measures. Although clinical trials have been extolled as the highest form of evidence for evaluating treatment efficacy, the disadvantage of cost, time, lack of feasibility, and ethical considerations indicate a need for a new paradigm for evidence based research in this spinal deformity. High quality clinical databases offer an alternative approach for evidence-based research in medicine. So, we developed and established Scolisoft, an international, multidimensional and relational database designed to be a repository of surgical cases for AIS, and an active vehicle for standardized surgical information in a format that would permit qualitative and quantitative research and analysis. Here, we describe and discuss the utility of Scolisoft as a new paradigm for evidence-based research on AIS. Scolisoft was developed using dot.net platform and SQL server from Microsoft. All data is deidentified to protect patient privacy. Scolisoft can be accessed at (www.scolisoft.org). Collection of high quality data on surgical cases of AIS is a priority and processes continue to improve the database quality. The database currently has 67 registered users from 21 countries. To date, Scolisoft has 200 detailed surgical cases with pre, post, and follow up data. Scolisoft provides a structured process and practical information for surgeons to benchmark their treatment methods against other like treatments. Scolisoft is multifaceted and its use extends to education of health care providers in training, patients, ability to mine important data to stimulate research and quality improvement initiatives of healthcare organizations.
Lehman, Ronald A; Kang, Daniel G; Lenke, Lawrence G; Sucato, Daniel J; Bevevino, Adam J
There are no guidelines for when surgeons should allow patients to return to sports and athletic activities after spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Current recommendations are based on anecdotal reports and a survey performed more than a decade ago in the era of first/second-generation posterior implants. To identify current recommendations for return to sports and athletic activities after surgery for AIS. Questionnaire-based survey. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after corrective surgery. Type and time to return to sports. A survey was administered to members of the Spinal Deformity Study Group. The survey consisted of surgeon demographic information, six clinical case scenarios, three different construct types (hooks, pedicle screws, hybrid), and questions regarding the influence of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) and postoperative physical therapy. Twenty-three surgeons completed the survey, and respondents were all experienced expert deformity surgeons. Pedicle screw instrumentation allows earlier return to noncontact and contact sports, with most patients allowed to return to running by 3 months, both noncontact and contact sports by 6 months, and collision sports by 12 months postoperatively. For all construct types, approximately 20% never allow return to collision sports, whereas all surgeons allow eventual return to contact and noncontact sports regardless of construct type. In addition to construct type, we found progressively distal LIV resulted in more surgeons never allowing return to collision sports, with 12% for selective thoracic fusion to T12/L1 versus 33% for posterior spinal fusion to L4. Most respondents also did not recommend formal postoperative physical therapy (78%). Of all surgeons surveyed, there was only one reported instrumentation failure/pullout without neurologic deficit after a patient went snowboarding 2 weeks postoperatively. Modern posterior instrumentation allows surgeons to recommend earlier return
Perelló, Marina; Artés, David; Pascuets, Cristina; Esteban, Elisabeth; Ey Batlle, Ana M
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with a six-month follow-up period. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 72-hour dose of subanesthetic ketamine in this surgical procedure reduces postoperative morphine use and to assess whether there are fewer adverse effects, if postoperative recovery is faster, if there is less peri-incisional hyperalgesia, or if there is lower incidence of persistent postsurgical pain. Tissue injury and high opioid requirements following posterior spinal fusion surgery produce central sensitization, which can in turn be associated with hyperalgesia and chronic pain. Clinical trials involving this type of procedure using subanesthetic ketamine doses have assessed pain and morphine requirements with contradictory results. The effects of prolonged subanesthetic ketamine doses on postoperative recovery, mechanical hyperalgesia, and the incidence of chronic pain are unknown. A total of 48 pediatric patients between 10 and 18 years diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were randomized to receive perioperative low-dose ketamine or placebo for 72 hours. They received general anesthesia, intraoperative remifentanil, and morphine postoperatively (patient-controlled analgesia). We measured morphine consumption, pain at rest and during movement (coughing), undesirable effects, and sedation during morphine treatment. The onset of oral intake, ambulation, and hospital stay were recorded. The extent of the peri-incisional hyperalgesia was measured at 72 hours and pain controls were conducted postsurgery. Primary endpoint results (total cumulative morphine consumption while admitted) were obtained in 44 patients. Results were 2.72 (SD 1.13) in the placebo group and 3.13 (SD 1.13) in the study group (P = 0.2903), with no significant differences. Moreover, differences were not found between the experimental group and the placebo group in the secondary endpoints analyzed. Our findings do not support the routine
Fabian, Krzysztof Marek; Rożek-Piechura, Krystyna
Scoliosis is a disorder that leads to dysfunction of a number of systems in the body, especially in young females. Physical capacity is one of the most important elements of good health as well as ofbiological development. Adolescence is a time when physical capacity develops intensively, and the condition of the respiratory system is one of many factors that have an impact on the level of physical capacity. This paper aims to evaluate a short-term application of two methods of physiotherapy and their influence on the level of exercise tolerance in young females suffering from idiopathic scoliosis. The study involved a group of 49 young females aged 14-15 years diagnosed with (2040°) thoracic and lumbar scoliosis who were in-patients at the rehabilitation ward of the Regional Paediatric Rehabilitation Hospital in Jastrzębie Zdrój. The group was divided into two subgroups depending on the method of rehabilitation employed: the first subgroup received asymmetric breathing exercise therapy by Dobosiewicz and the second subgroup practised symmetric remedial exercises. Cobb's angle, the degree of skeletal maturity, i.e. the Risser sign and the degree trunk rotation of the apex of the curvature by means of Raimondi's coefficient were determined once in an x-ray image. Basic somatic features, maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV parameter), selected motor skills and exercise tolerance were assessed on two occasions (before beginning and after completion of the rehabilitation treatment). 1. Young females suffering from (20-40°) thoracic and lumbar scoliosis demonstrate respiratory dysfunction, as shown by decreased maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) in the two subgroups in the present study. Exercises according to Dobosiewicz's method brought about a significantly higher degree of improvement in this parameter. 2. The physiotherapeutic regimen administered to the young girls with scoliosis significantly improved their strength motor skills and exercise tolerance. A
Negrini, Stefano; Donzelli, Sabrina; Aulisa, Angelo Gabriele; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Schreiber, Sanja; de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Diers, Helmut; Grivas, Theodoros B; Knott, Patrick; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Lebel, Andrea; Marti, Cindy; Maruyama, Toru; O'Brien, Joe; Price, Nigel; Parent, Eric; Rigo, Manuel; Romano, Michele; Stikeleather, Luke; Wynne, James; Zaina, Fabio
The International Scientific Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) produced its first guidelines in 2005 and renewed them in 2011. Recently published high-quality clinical trials on the effect of conservative treatment approaches (braces and exercises) for idiopathic scoliosis prompted us to update the last guidelines' version. The objective was to align the guidelines with the new scientific evidence to assure faster knowledge transfer into clinical practice of conservative treatment for idiopathic scoliosis (CTIS). Physicians, researchers and allied health practitioners working in the area of CTIS were involved in the development of the 2016 guidelines. Multiple literature reviews reviewing the evidence on CTIS (assessment, bracing, physiotherapy, physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE) and other CTIS) were conducted. Documents, recommendations and practical approach flow charts were developed using a Delphi procedure. The process was completed with the Consensus Session held during the first combined SOSORT/IRSSD Meeting held in Banff, Canada, in May 2016. The contents of the new 2016 guidelines include the following: background on idiopathic scoliosis, description of CTIS approaches for various populations with flow-charts for clinical practice, as well as literature reviews and recommendations on assessment, bracing, PSSE and other CTIS. The present guidelines include a total of 68 recommendations divided into following topics: bracing ( n = 25), PSSE to prevent scoliosis progression during growth ( n = 12), PSSE during brace treatment and surgical therapy ( n = 6), other conservative treatments ( n = 2), respiratory function and exercises ( n = 3), general sport activities ( n = 6); and assessment ( n = 14). According to the agreed strength and level of evidence rating scale, there were 2 recommendations on bracing and 1 recommendation on PSSE that reached level of
Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans
Detailed analysis of spinal deformity is important within orthopaedic healthcare, in particular for assessment of idiopathic scoliosis. This paper addresses this challenge by proposing an image analysis method, capable of providing a full three-dimensional spine characterization. The proposed method is based on the registration of a highly detailed spine model to image data from computed tomography. The registration process provides an accurate segmentation of each individual vertebra and the ability to derive various measures describing the spinal deformity. The derived measures are estimated from landmarks attached to the spine model and transferred to the patient data according to the registration result. Evaluation of the method provides an average point-to-surface error of 0.9 mm ± 0.9 (comparing segmentations), and an average target registration error of 2.3 mm ± 1.7 (comparing landmarks). Comparing automatic and manual measurements of axial vertebral rotation provides a mean absolute difference of 2.5° ± 1.8, which is on a par with other computerized methods for assessing axial vertebral rotation. A significant advantage of our method, compared to other computerized methods for rotational measurements, is that it does not rely on vertebral symmetry for computing the rotational measures. The proposed method is fully automatic and computationally efficient, only requiring three to four minutes to process an entire image volume covering vertebrae L5 to T1. Given the use of landmarks, the method can be readily adapted to estimate other measures describing a spinal deformity by changing the set of employed landmarks. In addition, the method has the potential to be utilized for accurate segmentations of the vertebrae in routine computed tomography examinations, given the relatively low point-to-surface error.
Yang, Yong; Wu, Zhihong; Zhao, Taimao; Wang, Hai; Zhao, Dong; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Yipeng; Ding, Yaozhong; Qiu, Guixing
The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is undetermined despite years of research. A number of hypotheses have been postulated to explain its development, including growth abnormalities. The irregular expression of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may disturb hormone metabolism, result in a gross asymmetry, and promote the progress of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Initial association studies in complex diseases have demonstrated the power of candidate gene association. Prior to our study, 1 study in this field had a negative result. A replicable study is vital for reliability. To determine the relationship of growth hormone receptor and IGF-1 genes with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, a population-based association study was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with potential function were selected from candidate genes and a distribution analysis was performed. A conclusion was made confirming the insufficiency of an association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and the single-nucleotide polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor and IGF-1 genes in Han Chinese.
Luo, Hong-Ji; Lin, Shi-Xiang; Wu, Shyi-Kuen; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Lee, Shwn-Jen
Postural rehabilitation emphasizing on motor control training of segmental spinal movements has been proposed to effectively reduce the scoliotic spinal deformities in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, information regarding the impairments of segmental spinal movement control involving segmental spinal stabilizers in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis remains limited. Examination of segmental spinal movement control may provide a window for investigating the features of impaired movement control specific to spinal segments that may assist in the development of physiotherapeutic management of AIS. To compare segmental spinal movement control in adolescents with and without idiopathic scoliosis using modified pressure biofeedback unit. Segmental spinal movement control was assessed in twenty adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AISG) and twenty healthy adolescents (CG) using a modified pressure biofeedback unit. Participants performed segmental spinal movements that primarily involved segmental spinal stabilizing muscles with graded and sustained muscle contraction against/off a pressure cuff from baseline to target pressures and then maintained for 1 min. Pressure data during the 1-minute maintenance phase were collected for further analysis. Pressure deviation were calculated and compared between groups. The AISG had significantly greater pressure deviations for all segmental spinal movements of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine than the CG. Pressure biofeedback unit was feasible for assessing segmental spinal movement control in AIS. AISG exhibited poorer ability to grade and sustain muscle activities for local movements of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, suggesting motor control training of segmental spinal movements involving segmental spinal stabilizing muscles on frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes were required.
Halanski, Matthew A; Harper, Benjamin L; Cassidy, Jeffry A; Crawford, Haemish A
This is a technique article discussing 3 alternative frames for casting children with infantile scoliosis. To provide surgeons with alternatives to expensive specialized casting tables to allow local treatment of these children utilizing readily available materials present at most institutions. Casting for infantile scoliosis has become more popular as reports have shown promising results with this technique without the morbidity and complications associated with more invasive procedures. However, without a specialized casting table, treating these patients has been limited to a few centers throughout the country often causing patients to travel large distances to receive care. Three different alternatives to commercially available casting frames are presented. Requirements, setup, and techniques are discussed. Each surgeon has had success with each of these frames. These provide adequate support and traction while allowing enough access to the trunk to apply a well-molded cast. Cotrel/Metha casting for infantile scoliosis can be accomplished without a specialized table using commonly available equipment.
Chern, Jen-Suh; Kao, Chia-Chi; Lai, Po-Lian; Lung, Chi-Wen; Chen, Wen-Jer
Center of pressure (CoP) progression during level walking in subjects with Adolescents Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) was measured. Participants were divided into three groups according to scoliosis severity. CoP progression among groups was compared quantitatively and qualitatively. The results showed that scoliosis severity affects CoP progression significantly in the hind-foot and forefoot areas. This result indicated that spine alignment might affect the control of heel, ankle and toe rockers in the ankle-foot complex. The effects of scoliosis severity is mainly on the CoP of right foot plantar surface, indicating asymmetrical influence of IS on bilateral lower limb coordination during walking. These results might contribute to musculoskeletal complains over the apparatus within trunk-foot in the later lives of this population.
Seventy-one children (23 boys and 48 girls, aged 6 to 18 year-old) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) between 11° and 62°, without braces, have been treated manually, only at the level of the neck. To ascertain that non-surgical straightening of AIS is possible (without brace). So far no disease modifying treatment for AIS existed. Braces can only slow down worsening (and this can only be achieved if they are worn 23 hours a day). Surgery is not without important risks. All patients have been treated exclusively with a manual therapy called Brachy-Myotherapy. This method treats spasmed (contractured) muscles by placing them in a shortening position according to a specific protocol. An average straightening of 8° of AIS was observed, with a maximum of 25°. 94% of cases improved, 67 out of 71. The worst prognosis was, the better results. The more advanced AIS was, the better the results. A simple and reliable treatment of AIS is possible. AIS seems to be a compensation mechanism of the body, with the aim of keeping the ears, and thus the labyrinths, at a horizontal level for correct equilibrium. When lasting post-traumatic neck muscle contractures causing a permanent side-bending of the skull have been treated, this compensation mechanism becomes irrelevant and scoliosis tends to subside.
Moramarco, Marc; Fadzan, Maja; Moramarco, Kathryn; Heller, Amy; Righter, Sonia
To investigate the short-term outcomes of treatment utilizing an outpatient scoliosis- specific back school program in thirty-six patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Improved signs and symptoms of AIS have been reported in response to curve-patternspecific exercise therapy programs. Additional outcome studies are needed. Thirty-six patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), 33 females and 3 males, completed a twenty-hour multimodal exercise program (Schroth Best Practice® - SBP) for five to seven days at Scoliosis 3DC(SM). Average age was 13.89 years and average Cobb angles were 36.92° thoracic and 33.92° lumbar. The sample was comprised of patients under treatment from August 2011 to February 2015 who never had scoliosis-related surgery and who were not undergoing brace treatment. SBP program components included physio-logic® exercises, mobilizations, activities of daily living (ADLs), 3-D Made Easy®, and Schroth exercises. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), chest expansion (CE), and angle of trunk rotation (ATR) were clinical parameters used to evaluate results of this outpatient scoliosis-specific exercise program. Highly significant improvements were noted in FVC, FEV1, CE and Scoliometer(TM) readings. A short-term outpatient SBP program was found to have a positive influence on FVC, FEV1, ATR, and CE. We will present long-term results in a subsequent study.
Poe-Kochert, Connie; Tripi, Paul A; Potzman, Jennifer; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Thompson, George H
A retrospective study of postoperative pain management. Evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous intravenous morphine infusion for postoperative pain management in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) and segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI). Postoperative pain is a common problem following surgery for IS. There are no published reports regarding the use of a continuous intravenous morphine infusion for this patient population. We retrospectively reviewed data regarding 339 consecutive patients with IS who underwent PSF and SSI between 1992 and 2006. All patients received intrathecal morphine after the induction of general anesthesia. Following surgery, preordered morphine infusion (0.01 mg/kg/h) was started at first reported pain. The infusion rate was titrated based on vital signs, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores (0-10), and clinical status. It was continued until patients were able to take oral analgesics. We reviewed intrathecal morphine dosage, VAS pain scores through the third postoperative day, interval to start of morphine infusion, total morphine requirements in the first 48 hours, and any adverse reactions (nausea/vomiting, pruritus, respiratory depression, and pediatric intensive care unit admission). Mean intrathecal morphine dose was 15.5 +/- 3.9 microg/kg and mean interval to start of the intravenous morphine infusion was 17.5 +/- 5 hours. Mean VAS pain scores were 3.1, 4.5, 4.5, and 4.6 at 12 hours, 1, 2, and 3 days after surgery, respectively.The total mean morphine dose in the first 48 hours postoperatively was 0.03 +/- 0.01 mg/kg/h. Total morphine received was 1.44 +/- 0.5 mg/kg. Nausea/vomiting and pruritus, related to the morphine infusion occurred in 45 patients (13.3%) and 14 patients (4.1%), respectively. No patients had respiratory depression or required Pediatric Intensive Care Unit admission. A low frequency of adverse events and a mean postoperative VAS pain score of 5 or less
Lin, Tao; Li, Tangbo; Jiang, Heng; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Xuhui
To compare effects of uniplanar and multiaxial pedicle screws on apical vertebral derotation efficiency in patients with Lenke V adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. For this retrospective study, patients with Lenke V adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with uniplanar pedicle screws (group I) and multiaxial pedicle screws (group II) were collected from January 2013 to December 2015. Grade of apical vertebral rotation was evaluated before and after surgery using the Nash-Moe and Upasani methods, respectively. The Scoliosis Research Society-22 scale was also used to evaluate patient satisfaction. There were no significant differences in terms of age, duration of follow-up, correction ratio, and preoperative level of apical rotation between groups (P < 0.05). Group I showed better apical vertebral derotation than group II (level 0, 10.5% vs. 2.3%; level I, 71.1% vs. 38.6%; level II, 18.4% vs. 59.1%; P = 0.001). The progression group showed lower bone maturity (odds ratio 52.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.3-430.7; P < 0.0001) in group I, and similar results were observed in group II (OR 12.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-121.3; P = 0.057). Patients in group I showed better satisfaction than patients in group II based on Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores (P < 0.05). Both types of pedicle screws could provide effective correction, but the uniplanar pedicle screw was better for derotation of vertebrae and provided patients with better satisfaction. Skeleton immaturity was positively correlated with progression of vertebral rotation after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parent, Eric C; Hill, Doug; Mahood, Jim; Moreau, Marc; Raso, Jim; Lou, Edmond
Prospective cross-sectional measurement study. To determine the ability of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire to discriminate among management and scoliosis severity subgroups and to correlate with internal and external measures of curve severity. In earlier studies of the SRS-22 discriminative ability, age was not a controlled factor. The ability of the SRS-22 to predict curve severity has not been thoroughly examined. The SRS-22 was completed by 227 females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using Analysis of covariance analyses controlling for age, the SRS-22 scores were compared among management subgroups (observation, brace, presurgery, and postsurgery) and curve-severity subgroups (in nonoperated subjects: Cobb angles of <30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and >50 degrees). A stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify the SRS-22 domains most discriminative for curve-severity categories. Correlation between SRS-22 scores and radiographic or surface topography measurements was used to determine the predictive ability of the questionnaire. Pain was better for subjects treated with braces than for those planning surgery. Self-image was better for subjects under observation or postsurgery than for those planning surgery. Satisfaction was better for the brace and postsurgery subgroups than for the observation or presurgery subgroups. Statistically significant mean differences between subgroups were all larger than 0.5, which is within the range of minimal clinically important differences recommended for each of the 5-point SRS-22 domain scoring scales. Pain and mental health were worse for those with Cobb angles of >50 degrees than with Cobb angles of 30 degrees to 50 degrees. Self-image and total scores were worse for those with Cobb angles of >50 degrees than both other subgroups. Using discriminant analysis, self-image was the only SRS-22 domain score selected to classify subjects within curve severity subgroups. The percentage of
Giudici, Fabrizio; Galbusera, Fabio; Zagra, Antonino; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Archetti, Marino; Scaramuzzo, Laura
Aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the mechanical properties of the rod and of the characteristics of the patients (age, skeletal maturity, BMI, and Lenke type) in determining the deformity correction, its maintenance over time and the risk of mechanical failure of the instrumentation. From March 2011 to December 2014 120 patients affected by AIS underwent posterior instrumented fusion. Two 5.5-mm CoCr rods were implanted in all patients. For every patient, age, sex, Risser grade, Lenke type curve, flexibility of the main curve, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of correction were recorded. In all patients, the Cobb angle value and rod curvature angle (RC) were evaluated. RC changes were registered and correlated to each factor to establish a possible statistically significance in a multivariate analysis. A biomechanical model was constructed to study the influence of rod diameter and material as well as the density of the anchoring implants in determining stress and deformation of rods after contouring and implantation. Radiographic and biomechanical analysis showed a different mean rod deformation for concave and convex side: 7.8° and 3.9°, respectively. RC mean value at immediate follow-up was 21.8° for the concave side and 14.6° for the convex. At 2-year minimum follow-up, RC value increases 1.5° only for the concave side. At 3.5-year mean follow-up, RC value increases 2.7°, p = 0.003, for the concave side and 1.3° for the convex, p = 0.06. The use of the stiffest material as well as of the lowest diameter resulted in higher stresses in the rods. The use of either a low or a high instrumentation density resulted only in minor differences in the loss of correction. Rod diameter and material as well as patient characteristics such as BMI, age, and Risser grade play an important role in deformity correction and its maintenance over time.
Basques, Bryce A; Long, William D; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Bohl, Daniel D; Samuel, Andre M; Lukasiewicz, Adam M; Webb, Matthew L; Grauer, Jonathan N
Multiple methods are used to measure proximal junctional angle (PJA) and diagnose proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS); however, there is no gold standard. Previous studies using the three most common measurement methods, upper-instrumented vertebra (UIV)+1, UIV+2, and UIV to T2, have minimized the difficulty in obtaining these measurements, and often exclude patients for which measurements cannot be recorded. The purpose of this study is to assess the technical feasibility of measuring PJA and PJK in a series of AIS patients who have undergone posterior instrumented fusion and to assess the variability in results depending on the measurement technique used. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. There were 460 radiographs from 98 patients with AIS who underwent posterior spinal fusion at a single institution from 2006 through 2012. The outcomes for this study were the ability to obtain a PJA measurement for each method, the ability to diagnose PJK, and the inter- and intra-rater reliability of these measurements. Proximal junctional angle was determined by measuring the sagittal Cobb angle on preoperative and postoperative lateral upright films using the three most common methods (UIV+1, UIV+2, and UIV to T2). The ability to obtain a PJA measurement, the ability to assess PJK, and the total number of patients with a PJK diagnosis were tabulated for each method based on established definitions. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of each measurement method was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). A total of 460 radiographs from 98 patients were evaluated. The average number of radiographs per patient was 5.3±1.7 (mean±standard deviation), with an average follow-up of 2.1 years (780±562 days). A PJA measurement was only readable on 13%-18% of preoperative filmsand 31%-49% of postoperative films (range based on measurement technique). Only 12%-31% of films were able to be assessed
Kwan, Mun Keong; Wong, Kai Ann; Lee, Chee Kean; Chan, Chris Yin Wei
To introduce a new clinical neck tilt grading and to investigate clinically and radiologically whether neck tilt and shoulder imbalance is the same phenomenon in AIS patients. 89 AIS Lenke 1 and 2 cases were assessed prospectively using the new clinical neck tilt grading. Shoulder imbalance and neck tilt were correlated with coracoid height difference (CHD), clavicle\\rib intersection distance (CRID), clavicle angle (CA), radiographic shoulder height (RSH), T1 tilt and cervical axis. Mean age was 17.2 ± 3.8 years old. 66.3 % were Lenke type 1 and 33.7 % were type 2 curves. Strong intraobserver (0.79) and interobserver (0.75) agreement of the clinical neck tilt grading was noted. No significant correlation was observed between clinical neck tilt and shoulder imbalance (0.936). 56.3 % of grade 3 neck tilt, 50.0 % grade 2 neck tilt patients had grade 0 shoulder imbalance. In patients with grade 2 shoulder imbalance, 42.9 % had grade 0, 35.7 % grade 1, 14.3 % grade 2 and only 7.1 % had grade 3 neck tilt. CHD, CRID, CA and RSH correlated with shoulder imbalance. T1 tilt and cervical axis measurements correlated with neck tilt. In conclusion, neck tilt is distinct from shoulder imbalance. Clinical neck tilt has poor correlation with clinical shoulder imbalance. Clinical neck tilt grading correlated with cervical axis and T1 tilt whereas clinical shoulder grading correlated with CHD, RSH CRID and CA.
Wong, M S; Mak, A F T; Luk, K D K; Evans, J H; Brown, B
This is a preliminary investigation to detect the body sway and postural changes of patients with AIS under different spatial images. Two pairs of low-power prismatic eye lenses (Fresnel prisms) with 5 dioptre and 10 dioptre were used. In the experiment, the apices of the prisms were orientated randomly at every 22.5 degrees from 0 degrees to 360 degrees to test changes. Four patients with mean age of 11 and Cobb's angle of 30 degrees were recruited and the results showed that the low-power prisms at specific orientations (157.5 degrees and 180 degrees) could cause positive postural changes (2.1 degrees-2.7 degrees reduction of angle of trunk mis-alignment) measured by 3-D motion analysis. This might be used for controlling their scoliotic curves by induced visual bio-feedback. Apart from this laboratory test, a longitudinal study is necessary to investigate the long-term effect of the prisms at different powers and orientations (under both static and dynamic situations) on the patient's posture, spinal muscular activities, vision, eye-hand coordination, psychological state and other daily activities before it becomes an alternative management of AIS.
Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki
OBJECTIVE Corrective surgery for spinal deformities can lead to neurological complications. Several reports have described spinal cord monitoring in surgery for spinal deformity, but only a few have included patients younger than 20 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The goal of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of cases with intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potential (Tc-MEP) waveform deterioration during posterior corrective fusion for AIS. METHODS A prospective database was reviewed, comprising 68 patients with AIS who were treated with posterior corrective fusion in a prospective database. A total of 864 muscles in the lower extremities were chosen for monitoring, and acceptable baseline responses were obtained from 819 muscles (95%). Intraoperative Tc-MEP waveform deterioration was defined as a decrease in intraoperative amplitude of ≥ 70% of the control waveform. Age, Cobb angle, flexibility, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), intraoperative body temperature, blood pressure, number of levels fused, and correction rate were examined in patients with and without waveform deterioration. RESULTS The patients (3 males and 65 females) had an average age of 14.4 years (range 11-19 years). The mean Cobb angles before and after surgery were 52.9° and 11.9°, respectively, giving a correction rate of 77.4%. Fourteen patients (20%) exhibited an intraoperative waveform change, and these occurred during incision (14%), after screw fixation (7%), during the rotation maneuver (64%), during placement of the second rod after the rotation maneuver (7%), and after intervertebral compression (7%). Most waveform changes recovered after decreased correction or rest. No patient had a motor deficit postoperatively. In multivariate analysis, EBL (OR 1.001, p = 0.085) and number of levels fused (OR 1.535, p = 0.045) were associated with waveform deterioration. CONCLUSIONS Waveform deterioration commonly occurred during rotation maneuvers
Kundnani, Vishal K; Zhu, Lisa; Tak, HH; Wong, HK
Background: Multimodal intraoperative neuromonitoring is recommended during corrective spinal surgery, and has been widely used in surgery for spinal deformity with successful outcomes. Despite successful outcomes of corrective surgery due to increased safety of the patients with the usage of spinal cord monitoring in many large spine centers, this modality has not yet achieved widespread popularity. We report the analysis of prospectively collected intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring data of 354 consecutive patients undergoing corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to establish the efficacy of multimodal neuromonitoring and to evaluate comparative sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 354 (female = 309; male = 45) patients undergoing spinal deformity corrective surgery between 2004 and 2008. Patients were monitored using electrophysiological methods including somatosensory-evoked potentials and motor-evoked potentials simultaneously. Results: Mean age of patients was 13.6 years (±2.3 years). The operative procedures involved were instrumented fusion of the thoracic/lumbar/both curves, Baseline somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) and neurogenic motor-evoked potentials (NMEP) were recorded successfully in all cases. Thirteen cases expressed significant alert to prompt reversal of intervention. All these 13 cases with significant alert had detectable NMEP alerts, whereas significant SSEP alert was detected in 8 cases. Two patients awoke with new neurological deficit (0.56%) and had significant intraoperative SSEP + NMEP alerts. There were no false positives with SSEP (high specificity) but 5 patients with false negatives with SSEP (38%) reduced its sensitivity. There was no false negative with NMEP but 2 of 13 cases were false positive with NMEP (15%). The specificity of SSEP (100%) is higher than NMEP (96%); however, the sensitivity of NMEP (100%) is far better than SSEP (51%). Due to
Zhao, Yunfei; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Changwei; Li, Ming
Pelvic rotation (PR) is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), but factors contributing to this phenomenon and its relationship with the surgical outcome are not well established.This retrospective study included 85 IS patients in 2 groups: thoracic curve dominance group (group A) and lumbar curve dominance group (group B). Pre- and postoperative PR was measured on standing posteroanterior radiographs by the left/right ratio (L/R ratio) of horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the inferior ilium (SI) at the sacroiliac joint on the same side in both groups. Other radiographic data, age, sex, and Risser sign of each patient were recorded to analyze their correlations with PR before and after operation.The patients ranged in age from 10 to 35 years with a mean of 17.0 ± 5.2 years. The mean L/R ratio of PR before operation was 0.99 (0.73-1.40) versus 0.98 (0.87-1.26) after operation. The L/R ration was beyond the range of 1 ± 0.1 (indicating the presence of PR) in 17 (20%) patients before operation and in 14 (16.5%) patients after operation. There was no significant difference in PR between the 2 groups of patients either before (P = 0.468) or after (P = 0.944) surgery. The preoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = 0.220, P = 0.043), apex vertebral rotation (AVR) in the proximal thoracic curve (r = 0.242, P = 0.026), and AVR in the lumbar curve (r = 0.213, P = 0.049), while the postoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = -0.341, P = 0.001) and postoperative trunk shift (TS) (r = -0.282, P = 0.009). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that preoperative PR was affected by proximal thoracic curve AVR and lumbar curve AVR.There was no significant difference between PR before operation and 2 years after operation. Preoperative PR was mainly correlated with Risser sign and the rotation status of the
Coillard, Christine; Rivard, Charles-H.; Prince, François
The objective of the present study is to quantify the position of the Centre of Mass (COM) during quiet standing using a force plate and compare this technique to the quantification of the COM with an anthropometric model. The postural control of 18 healthy adolescents and 22 IS patients was evaluated using an Optotrak 3D kinematic system, and two AMTI force plates during quiet standing. The position of anatomical landmarks tracked by the Optotrak system served to estimate the position of the COM of both groups using an anthropometric model (COManth). The force plate served to estimate the position of the COM through double integration of the horizontal ground reaction forces (COMgl). The mean position and root mean square (RMS) amplitude of COMgl, in reference to the base of support (BOS) and the first sacral prominence (S1) were quantified in the Anterior–Posterior (A/P) and Medial–Lateral (M/L) directions. There was a significant difference between the control subjects and IS patients for the displacement of the COMgl in reference to the BOS in both the A/P and M/L directions. There was no difference between groups for the mean position of the COMgl, however, 63% of the IS and 43% of the controls had a lateral position of the COMgl in reference to S1 of greater than 5 mm. There was a significant difference between groups in the A/P and M/L directions for the amplitude of error between the COMgl and COManth techniques. PMID:18183428
Zabjek, Karl F; Coillard, Christine; Rivard, Charles-H; Prince, François
The objective of the present study is to quantify the position of the Centre of Mass (COM) during quiet standing using a force plate and compare this technique to the quantification of the COM with an anthropometric model. The postural control of 18 healthy adolescents and 22 IS patients was evaluated using an Optotrak 3D kinematic system, and two AMTI force plates during quiet standing. The position of anatomical landmarks tracked by the Optotrak system served to estimate the position of the COM of both groups using an anthropometric model (COM(anth)). The force plate served to estimate the position of the COM through double integration of the horizontal ground reaction forces (COM(gl)). The mean position and root mean square (RMS) amplitude of COM(gl, )in reference to the base of support (BOS) and the first sacral prominence (S1) were quantified in the Anterior-Posterior (A/P) and Medial-Lateral (M/L) directions. There was a significant difference between the control subjects and IS patients for the displacement of the COM(gl) in reference to the BOS in both the A/P and M/L directions. There was no difference between groups for the mean position of the COM(gl), however, 63% of the IS and 43% of the controls had a lateral position of the COM(gl )in reference to S1 of greater than 5 mm. There was a significant difference between groups in the A/P and M/L directions for the amplitude of error between the COM(gl) and COM(anth) techniques.
Prediction of Curve Correction Using Alternate Level Pedicle Screw Placement in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Lenke 1 and 2 Using Supine Side Bending (SB) and Fulcrum Bending (FB) Radiograph.
Kwan, Mun Keong; Zeyada, Hassan E; Chan, Chris Yin Wei
Prospective cohort study. To compare side bending (SB) and fulcrum bending (FB) radiographs in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and effect of magnitude and AR curves on curve correctability. The prediction of correction using side bending flexibility (SBF) and fulcrum bending flexibility (FBF) in alternate level pedicle screw (PS) configuration and effect of curve magnitude and AR curves are not well understood. 100 AIS Lenke 1 and 2 were recruited. Curve magnitude was stratified to G1 (41°-60°), G2 (61°-80°), G3 (>80°). The main thoracic (MT) curves were subclassified to AR curves [Miyanji F, Pawelek JB, Van Valin SE, et al. Is the lumbar modifier useful in surgical decision making? Defining two distinct Lenke 1A curve patterns. Spine 2008;33:2545-51]. Preoperatively SBF and FBF were determined whereas postoperative parameters were correction rate (CR), fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI), and side bending correction index (SBCI). Correlation test were carried out between SBF, FBF versus CR for the cohort. There were 38 (G1), 42 (G2), and 20 (G3) patients. 34% were AR curves. SBF for G1, G2, and G3 were 61.3 ± 14.4, 59.2 ± 16.2 and 43.1 ± 13.1% (P = 0.000) whereas FBF for G1, G2, and G3 were 71.1 ± 16.5, 58.3 ± 18.1 and 52.7 ± 17.1% (P = 0.000). The CR was G1 (74.5 ± 11.5%), G2 (69.2 ± 12.7%), and G3 (70.2 ± 8.6%). FBCI was 1.11 ± 0.3 (G1), 1.28 ± 0.4 (G2) and 1.48 ± 0.6 for G3. SBCI was 1.26 ± 0.2 (G1), 1.50 ± 0.5 (G2), and 1.72 ± 0.4 for G3. There was strong correlation for SBF and FBF versus CR for G1 and G2. For G3, a very strong correlation was established between SBF (r = 0.846, r = 0.716) and FBF versus CR (r = 0.700, r = 0.540). AR curves demonstrated higher SBF and FBF. CR remains almost constant in G1, G2, and G3. SBCI and FBCI increase significantly in G1, G2, and G3. Correlation between SBF and FBF and CR was strong for G1, G2, and very strong for G3. AR curves showed better correctability with SB and FB films.
Ni, Haijian; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Ming
Purpose To clarify if CCI or FBCI could fully eliminate the influence of curve flexibility on the coronal correction rate. Methods We reviewed medical record of all thoracic curve AIS cases undergoing posterior spinal fusion with all pedicle screw systems from June 2011 to July 2013. Radiographical data was collected and calculated. Student t test, Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results 60 were included in this study. The mean age was 14.7y (10-18y) with 10 males (17%) and 50 females (83%). The average Risser sign was 2.7. The mean thoracic Cobb angle before operation was 51.9°. The mean bending Cobb angle was 27.6° and the mean fulcrum bending Cobb angle was 17.4°. The mean Cobb angle at 2 week after surgery was 16.3°. The Pearson correlation coefficient r between CCI and BFR was -0.856(P<0.001), and between FBCI and FFR was -0.728 (P<0.001). A modified FBCI (M-FBCI) = (CR-0.513)/BFR or a modified CCI (M-CCI) = (CR-0.279)/FFR was generated by curve estimation has no significant correlation with FFR (r=-0.08, p=0.950) or with BFR (r=0.123, p=0.349). Conclusions Fulcrum-bending radiographs may better predict the outcome of AIS coronal correction than bending radiographs in thoracic curveAIS patients. Neither CCI nor FBCI can fully eliminate the impact of curve flexibility on the outcome of correction. A modified CCI or FBCI can better evaluating the corrective effects of different surgical techniques or instruments. PMID:25984945
Yang, Changwei; Sun, Xiaofei; Li, Chao; Ni, Haijian; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Shichang; Li, Ming
To clarify if CCI or FBCI could fully eliminate the influence of curve flexibility on the coronal correction rate. We reviewed medical record of all thoracic curve AIS cases undergoing posterior spinal fusion with all pedicle screw systems from June 2011 to July 2013. Radiographical data was collected and calculated. Student t test, Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. 60 were included in this study. The mean age was 14.7 y (10-18 y) with 10 males (17%) and 50 females (83%). The average Risser sign was 2.7. The mean thoracic Cobb angle before operation was 51.9°. The mean bending Cobb angle was 27.6° and the mean fulcrum bending Cobb angle was 17.4°. The mean Cobb angle at 2 week after surgery was 16.3°. The Pearson correlation coefficient r between CCI and BFR was -0.856(P<0.001), and between FBCI and FFR was -0.728 (P<0.001). A modified FBCI (M-FBCI) = (CR-0.513)/BFR or a modified CCI (M-CCI) = (CR-0.279)/FFR was generated by curve estimation has no significant correlation with FFR (r=-0.08, p=0.950) or with BFR (r=0.123, p=0.349). Fulcrum-bending radiographs may better predict the outcome of AIS coronal correction than bending radiographs in thoracic curveAIS patients. Neither CCI nor FBCI can fully eliminate the impact of curve flexibility on the outcome of correction. A modified CCI or FBCI can better evaluating the corrective effects of different surgical techniques or instruments.
Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; Sánchez-Soler, Juan Francisco; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Mojal, Sergi; Bagó, Joan; Cáceres, Enric; Ramírez, Manuel
The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to determine whether a low body mass index (BMI) influences surgery outcomes and satisfaction. There were 39 patients in this prospective 3-year cohort study. The BMI, Cobb angle, the Body Shape Questionnaire 14 (BSQ-14), the Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire 22 (SRS-22) and eight satisfaction questions results were obtained. Having a BMI greater than or less than 18 kg/m(2) was used as a determiner to allocate patients to groups. As a low BMI is related to the presence of a disturbance in body perception, patients were also dichotomized by using the BSQ-14. All scales were worse in both slimmer patients and the group with a body perception disorder. The group with a BMI <18 kg/m(2) obtained a total of 82.31 points in the SRS-22, and it was 93.45 points for the group with a BMI >18 kg/m(2) (p = 0.001). In terms of satisfaction, the percentage of patients that would undergo surgery again was 30.8 vs 69.2 % (p = 0.054). Patients with an alteration of physical perception obtained a total SRS-22 of 82.90 points versus 96.10 points in the control group (p < 0.001). No differences in terms of the Cobb correction (p = 0.29) or the percentage of correction (p = 0.841) were found in any case. The alteration of physical perception and a low BMI negatively affect the outcomes in AIS surgery, regardless of the curve magnitude and the percentage of correction. Considerable care should be taken in recommending surgical correction to these patients.
Rożek, Karina; Potaczek, Tomasz; Zarzycka, Maja; Lipik, Ewa; Jasiewicz, Barbara
The SpineCor dynamic brace for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis is designed to maintain the correct position of the spine and a new movement strategy for 20 hours per day. The SpineCor exercise system intensifies and complements the brace treatment. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a comprehensive treatment of idiopathic scoliosis involving the SpineCor system. The study assessed a group of 40 patients (38 girls and 2 boys) with idiopathic scoliosis treated with the SpineCor brace. The average age at beginning of treatment was 13.1 yrs (10-15). Minimum treatment time was 18 months. 28 participants met the SRS criteria. Angles of the curve before and after bracing based on imaging studies were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment, analyzed and compared. Rehabilitation focused on teaching active corrective movement throughout the brace treatment. A control group was formed of 33 patients, including 21 meeting the SRS criteria, who used the SpineCor dynamic brace but did not participate in the associated exercise programme. Among patients from the exercise group who met the SRS criteria, 25% demonstrated reduced curve angles, 35.7% demonstrated curve progression and 39.3% showed stabilization (no change). Among patients meeting the SRS criteria from the control group, a decrease in curve angle was observed in 14.3% of the patients, curve progression in 57.1% and stabilization in 28.6%. 1. The addition of a dedicated physiotherapy programme to SpineCor dynamic bracing improves the chances of obtaining a positive outcome. 2. It is necessary to further analyse the course of the comprehensive treatment, also with regard to other types of braces and kinesiotherapy programmes.
Gao, Junsheng; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Zhiang; Yao, Shuaihui; Gao, Songming
To analyze the correlation between the polymorphism on interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene promoter region-174 locus and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), including the susceptibility, the bracing effectiveness, and the possible mechanism. The 182 AIS patients and 210 healthy controls who met the inclusion criteria between January 2013 and January 2016 were collected as research objects. The genotype of IL-6 gene promoter region-174 locus, the serum IL-6, the bone mineral density (BMD) of femoral neck and vertebrae (L 1-4 ), and the bone metabolism parameters, including bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), bone gla protein (BGP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), urine Ca, and urine Ca/Cr, were detected. All research objects were divided into the AIS group and the control group according to whether they had AIS, the GG, CG, CC groups according to their genotype, and progression-free group and progression group according to the therapeutic effectiveness of 1-year bracing treatment. Statistical analysis for the indexes were conducted respectively. There were significant differences in AIS history, BMD of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae between the AIS group and control group ( P <0.05). According to the therapeutic effecitveness of 1-year bracing treatment, 182 AIS patients were divided into progression-free group in 110 cases and progression group in 72 cases. The results of single factor analysis showed that there were significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of IL-6 gene promoter region-174 locus, BMD of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae, IL-6, TRACP-5b, urine Ca, and urine Ca/Cr between the progression-free group and progression group ( P <0.05). The results of multivariable analysis showed that the BMD of lumbar vertebrae, TRACP-5b, and urine Ca were the influencing factors of bracing efficacy ( P< 0.05). According to the results of genotype detection, all research objects were divided into GG group in 264 cases, CG group in 104
Durmała, Jacek; Blicharska, Irmina; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
A person's image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person's perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the value of the Cobb angle. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), whereas the sexual functioning was assessed via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The trunk deformations were specified with the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). A statistically significant correlation was proved between the amount of points received in the Rosenberg scale evaluation and the POTSI index in Group A (R = -0.56, p = 0.04). Subjects with smaller deformations within the coronal plane had a higher level of self-confidence. The trunk asymmetries in the coronal plane may have a negative effect on women with scoliosis and their self-appraisal.
Luo, Ming; Jiang, Honghui; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Shen, Mingkui; Li, Peng; Xu, Genzhong; Xia, Lei
Previous studies have reported that rod composition and diameter, as well as the correction technique are key factors associated with thoracic kyphosis (TK) restoration. However, few study has analyzed the correlation between screw density and TK restoration in hypokyphotic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Fifty-seven thoracic AIS patients with preoperative TK < 10° treated with all pedicle screw fixation with a minimum 2-year follow-up were recruited. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic measurements, and information of posterior instrumentation were reviewed. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient analysis were used to assess relationships between change in TK and number of variables. Then, the included patients were classified into two groups (Group 1: postoperative TK ≥ 20°; Group 2: postoperative TK < 20°) to evaluate the influence factors of TK restoration. The average preoperative TK was 4.75°, which was significantly restored to 17.30° (P < 0.001). Significant correlations were found between change in TK and flexibility of major thoracic curve (r = 0.357, P = 0.006), preoperative TK (r = -0.408, P = 0.002), and screw density of concave side (r = 0.306, P = 0.021), respectively. In the subgroup comparison, 17 patients (29.8%) maintain the postoperative TK ≥ 20°, increased flexibility of major thoracic curve (P < 0.001), screw number of concave side (P = 0. 029), and cobalt chromium rods (P = 0.041) were found in the group of postoperative TK ≥ 20°. TK restoration remains a challenge for AIS patients with hypokyphosis, especially for the poor flexibility ones. Except for thicker and cobalt chromium rods, screw density of concave side might be another positive predictor of restoring normal kyphosis, which provides a stronger corrective force on the sagittal plane with more pedicle screws.
Mao, Saihu; Xu, Leilei; Zhu, Zezhang; Qian, Bangping; Qiao, Jun; Yi, Long; Qiu, Yong
An association study to comprehensively clarify variations of genetic determinants of peak height velocity (PHV) during puberty in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To investigate whether the genetic determinants of timing and magnitude of PHV during puberty are associated with the susceptibility or curve progression of the female patients with AIS. An involvement of abnormal pubertal growth pattern in the etiopathogenesis of AIS has been implicated in previous studies. However, there is no clear consensus on the anthropometric variations of stature or growth rate. The recent advance in the longitudinally identified genetic determinants of PHV offers new opportunities to facilitate analysis of the association of pubertal growth with the susceptibility or curve severity of AIS. A gene-based association study was conducted using 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, DOT1L, CDK6, C6orf106, and LIN28B with confirmed association with PHV, peak growth age, or adult height. A total of 500 patients with AIS and 494 age-matched healthy controls were genotyped using the PCR-based Invader assay. Case-control study and case-only study were performed to define the contribution of the 9 SNPs to predisposition and curve severity of AIS. Strong associations between rs12459350 in DOT1L, rs4794665 in C17orf67, and susceptibility of AIS were found, with the PHV increasing allele G of rs12459350 and PHV/adult height increasing allele A of rs4794665 both being significant predisposition alleles of AIS (P = 0.001 for rs12459350, odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.27; P = 0.006 for rs4794665, odd ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.62). None of the genotyped SNPs was associated with curve severity in patients with AIS. Polymorphisms of the rs4794665 in C17orf67 and rs12459350 in DOT1L were associated with combined predisposition to AIS susceptibility and higher pubertal PHV, which strongly mirrored the
Ilharreborde, Brice; Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Alison, Marianne; Mazda, Keyvan
Imaging plays a key role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to determine the prognosis and accordingly define the best therapeutic strategy to follow. Conventional radiographs with ionizing radiation have been associated with 1-2 % increased lifetime risk of developing cancer in children, and physicians, therefore, need a sensitive but harmless way to explore patients at risk, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" concept. The EOS system (EOS imaging, Paris, France) is available in routine clinical use since 2007, and allows 3D reconstructions of the trunk in standing position with significant radiation reduction. With recent technical advances, further dose reduction can be obtained, but at the cost of image quality that might alter the reliability of 3D reconstructions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the reproducibility of a "microdose" protocol, and evaluate its use in clinical practice. 32 consecutive patients followed for AIS were prospectively included. Biplanar radiographs were obtained with the EOS system according to the new microdose protocol. From the microdose images obtained, three experienced operators performed 3D reconstructions, two times for each subject in a random order (total, 192 reconstructions). The intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility were evaluated, as recommended by the International Organization for Standardization, for the most clinically relevant 3D radiological parameters. The identification of the required anatomical landmarks for the "fast spine" reconstruction process was possible in all cases. None of the patients required a second acquisition for 3D analysis. Mean time for reconstruction was 5 ± 2 min. The intraoperator repeatability was better than interoperator reproducibility for all parameters, with values ranging between 3° and 8° for frontal and sagittal spinal parameters, and between 1° and 8° for pelvic measurements. The agreement was very good for all clinical
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) in 155 girls with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) (age 9–18 years, mean 13.8 ± 2.3). The control group included 201 healthy girls. The presence of GJH was assessed with Beighton (B) test. GJH was diagnosed in 23.2% of IS girls and in 13.4% of controls (P = 0.02). The prevalence of GJH was significantly (P = 0.01) lower in IS girls aged 16–18 years in comparison with younger individuals. There was no difference regarding GJH occurrence between girls with mild (11–24°), moderate (25–40°), and severe scoliosis (>40°) (P = 0.78), between girls with single thoracic, single lumbar, and double curve scoliosis (P = 0.59), and between girls with thoracic scoliosis length ≤7 and >7 vertebrae (P = 0.25). No correlation between the number of points in B and the Cobb angle (P = 0.93), as well as between the number of points in B and the number of the vertebrae within thoracic scoliosis (P = 0.63), was noticed. GJH appeared more often in IS girls than in healthy controls. Its prevalence decreased with age. No relation between GJH prevalence and curve size, curve pattern, or scoliosis length was found. PMID:24550704
Background In previous studies, many indicator factors have been proposed to select patients who need an MRI screening of the spinal canal. In current study, the clinical and radiologic factors including coronal parameters of the curve were evaluated to find out which indicator is more important. Methods A prospective study included 143 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who were treated between 2010 and 2013 at our spinal clinics. Only patients with normal or subtle neurologic findings were included. All patients were evaluated by a total spine MRI protocol for examination of neuroaxial abnormalities. Known indicators and also coronal shift were analysed in all patients with or without abnormal MRI. Results The incidence of neuroaxial abnormalities was 11.9% (17 of 143); only 5 patients (3.5%) were operated to treat their neuroaxial problem. The significant indicators of the abnormalities in our patients were: younger age at onset, asymmetric superficial abdominal reflex and, coronal shift more than 15 mm (P = 0.03). Some previously known indicators like atypical curves, male gender, double curves and absence of thoracic lordosis were not different between two groups of the patients. Conclusions A total spine MRI is recommended at presentation in patients with younger age, abnormal neurologic findings and severe coronal shift. PMID:25071863
Sharma, Swarkar; Gao, Xiaochong; Londono, Douglas; Devroy, Shonn E.; Mauldin, Kristen N.; Frankel, Jessica T.; Brandon, January M.; Zhang, Dongping; Li, Quan-Zhen; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Dormans, John P.; Herring, John A.; Gordon, Derek; Wise, Carol A.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is an unexplained and common spinal deformity seen in otherwise healthy children. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood despite intensive investigation. Although genetic underpinnings are clear, replicated susceptibility loci that could provide insight into etiology have not been forthcoming. To address these issues, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ∼327 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 419 AIS families. We found strongest evidence of association with chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs in the proximity of the CHL1 gene (P < 8 × 10−8 for rs1400180). We genotyped additional chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs and tested replication in two follow-up case–control cohorts, obtaining strongest results when all three cohorts were combined (rs10510181 odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.29–1.73, P = 2.58 × 10−8), but these were not confirmed in a separate GWAS. CHL1 is of interest, as it encodes an axon guidance protein related to Robo3. Mutations in the Robo3 protein cause horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), a rare disease marked by severe scoliosis. Other top associations in our GWAS were with SNPs in the DSCAM gene encoding an axon guidance protein in the same structural class with Chl1 and Robo3. We additionally found AIS associations with loci in CNTNAP2, supporting a previous study linking this gene with AIS. Cntnap2 is also of functional interest, as it interacts directly with L1 and Robo class proteins and participates in axon pathfinding. Our results suggest the relevance of axon guidance pathways in AIS susceptibility, although these findings require further study, particularly given the apparent genetic heterogeneity in this disease. PMID:21216876
Iunes, Denise H; Cecílio, Maria B B; Dozza, Marina A; Almeida, Polyanna R
Few studies have proved that physical therapy techniques are efficient in the treatment of scoliosis. To analyze the efficiency of the Klapp method for the treatment of scoliosis, through a quantitative analysis using computerized biophotogrammetry. Sixteen participants of a mean age of 15+/-2.61 yrs. with idiopathic scoliosis were treated using the Klapp method. To analyze the results from the treatment, they were all of photographed before and after the treatments, following a standardized photographic method. All of the photographs were analyzed quantitatively by the same examiner using the ALCimagem 2000 software. The statistical analyses were performed using the paired t-test with a significance level of 5%. The treatments showed improvements in the angles which evaluated the symmetry of the shoulders, i.e. the acromioclavicular joint angle (AJ; p=0.00) and sternoclavicular joint angle (SJ; p=0.01). There were also improvements in the angle that evaluated the left Thales triangle (DeltaT; p=0.02). Regarding flexibility, there were improvements in the tibiotarsal angle (TTA; p=0.01) and in the hip joint angles (HJA; p=0.00). There were no changes in the vertebral curvatures and nor improvements in head positioning. Only the lumbar curvature, evaluated by the lumbar lordosis angle (LL; p=0.00), changed after the treatments. The Klapp method was an efficient therapeutic technique for treating asymmetries of the trunk and improving its flexibility. However, it was not efficient for pelvic asymmetry modifications in head positioning, cervical lordosis or thoracic kyphosis.
Villafañe, Jorge H.; Silva, Guillermo B.; Dughera, Andrea
Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe management and outcomes of a patient with scoliosis. Clinical Features A 9-year-old female patient with a double curve pattern with Cobb angles of 18° and 24° (thoracic/thoracolumbar) compatible with scoliosis presented for physical therapy treatment. Intervention and Outcome Physiotherapy treatment with a combination of manipulative and rehabilitation techniques was used. After finishing the treatment, the patient had Cobb angles of 7° and 11°, an improvement of 55% and 54%, respectively. After 6 months, these effects were maintained, as the patient had Cobb angles of 11° and 11°. The clinical appearance of the patient improved after the course of care. The patient was evaluated for psychological outcomes by applying the following tests: Scoliosis Research Society 22, Bad Sobernheim Stress, and the Brace Questionnaire The patient had the maximum score in all tests at the conclusion of therapy. Conclusion The patient responded favorably to manipulative and rehabilitation techniques. At the end of care, the patient did not show psychological sequelae with selected outcome measures. PMID:23204954
Negrini, S; Fusco, C; Minozzi, S; Atanasio, S; Zaina, F; Romano, M
A previously published systematic review (Ped.Rehab.2003 - DARE 2004) documented the existence of the evidence of level 2a (Oxford EBM Centre) on the efficacy of specific exercises to reduce the progression of AIS (Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis). To confirm whether the indication for treatment with specific exercises for AIS has changed in recent years. Systematic review. A bibliographic search with strict inclusion criteria (patients treated exclusively with exercises, outcome Cobb degrees, all study designs) was performed on the main electronic databases and through extensive manual searching. We retrieved 19 studies, including one RCT and eight controlled studies; 12 studies were prospective. A methodological and clinical evaluation was performed. The 19 papers considered included 1654 treated patients and 688 controls. The highest-quality study (RCT) compared two groups of 40 patients, showing an improvement of curvature in all treated patients after six months. We found three papers on Scoliosis Intensive Rehabilitation (Schroth), five on extrinsic autocorrection-based methods (Schroth, side-shift), four on intrinsic autocorrection-based approaches (Lyon and SEAS) and five with no autocorrection (three asymmetric, two symmetric exercises). Apart from one (no autocorrection, symmetric exercises, very low methodological quality), all studies confirmed the efficacy of exercises in reducing the progression rate (mainly in early puberty) and/or improving the Cobb angles (around the end of growth). Exercises were also shown to be effective in reducing brace prescription. In five years, eight more papers have been published to the indexed literature coming from throughout the world (Asia, the US, Eastern Europe) and proving that interest in exercises is not exclusive to Western Europe. This systematic review confirms and strengthens the previous ones. The actual evidence on exercises for AIS is of level 1b.
Abdelaal, Ashraf Abdelaal Mohamed; Abd El Kafy, Ehab Mohamed Abo El Soad; Elayat, Mohamed Salah Eldien Mohamed; Sabbahi, Mohamed; Badghish, Mohamed Salem Saed
Objective This observational cohort study aimed to evaluate ventilatory function (VF) and functional exercise capacity (FEC) in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods Seventy-three adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, aged approximately 10 to 17 years (mean age: 13.43 ± 1.27 years), with a Cobb angle less than 20° (mean: 16.44° ± 1.59°), met the inclusion criteria and were assigned to group A. Another 34 healthy adolescents with normal VF and FEC served as controls (group B). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and FEC (by the 6-minute walk test [6MWT]) were the main outcome measures. Results Post-study mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MVV, and the 6MWT were 2.42 ± 0.36 L and 3.26 ± 0.59 L, 2.14 ± 0.31 L and 3.03 ± 0.43 L, 88.13% ± 3.89% and 91.14% ± 4.67%, 76.96 ± 6.85 L/m and 107.61 ± 11.44 L/m, and 581.12 ± 12.25 m and 627.74 ± 15.27 m in groups A and B, respectively. Between-group comparisons showed significant differences in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MVV, and the 6MWT. Conclusion Mild pulmonary and functional restrictions start early in mild AIS. This issue requires immediate intervention to prevent further deterioration. PMID:28661261
Lee, Nathan J; Guzman, Javier Z; Kim, Jun; Skovrlj, Branko; Martin, Christopher T; Pugely, Andrew J; Gao, Yubo; Caridi, John M; Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio; Cho, Samuel K
Retrospective cohort analysis. A growing number of publications have utilized the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) database, but none have compared it to other large databases. The objective of this study was to compare SRS complications with those in administrative databases. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) captured a greater number of overall complications while the SRS M&M data provided a greater incidence of spine-related complications following adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Chi-square was used to obtain statistical significance, with p < .05 considered significant. The SRS 2004-2007 (9,904 patients), NIS 2004-2007 (20,441 patients) and KID 2003-2006 (10,184 patients) databases were analyzed for AIS patients who underwent fusion. Comparable variables were queried in all three databases, including patient demographics, surgical variables, and complications. Patients undergoing AIS in the SRS database were slightly older (SRS 14.4 years vs. NIS 13.8 years, p < .0001; KID 13.9 years, p < .0001) and less likely to be male (SRS 18.5% vs. NIS 26.3%, p < .0001; KID 24.8%, p < .0001). Revision surgery (SRS 3.3% vs. NIS 2.4%, p < .0001; KID 0.9%, p < .0001) and osteotomy (SRS 8% vs. NIS 2.3%, p < .0001; KID 2.4%, p < .0001) were more commonly reported in the SRS database. The SRS database reported fewer overall complications (SRS 3.9% vs. NIS 7.3%, p < .0001; KID 6.6%, p < .0001). However, when respiratory complications (SRS 0.5% vs. NIS 3.7%, p < .0001; KID 4.4%, p < .0001) were excluded, medical complication rates were similar across databases. In contrast, SRS reported higher spine-specific complication rates. Mortality rates were similar between SRS versus NIS (p = .280) and SRS versus KID (p = .08) databases. There are similarities and differences between the three databases. These discrepancies are likely due to the varying data-gathering methods each organization uses to
Kravtsova, E Yu; Murav'ev, S V; Kravtsov, Yu I
The relevance of the problem arises from the lack of substantiation for the inclusion of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tSDCS) in the comprehensive spa and health resort-based treatment of back pain syndrome in the adolescents presenting with juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation for the comprehensive spa and health resort-based treatment of back pain syndrome in the adolescents presenting with juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 18 patients with scoliosis forming the study group 1 received the traditional comprehensive spa and health resort-based treatment. The course of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation was prescribed to 38 other patients (comprising group 2) in addition to the standard procedures. Another control group was comprised of 15 practically healthy adolescents having no signs of spinal deformations. The visual analog scale for pain, the McGill questionnaire, the scale for the assessment of the situational and personal uneasiness levels (Spilberger Ch.D., Khanin Yu.L.), and the Beck and Tsung depression scales were used, beside the routine clinical methods. Statistical data processing was carried out with the use of the Statistica 6.0 software package. In the group of patients treated with the use of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation, regression of pain syndrome was well apparent. In the boys with the severity of pain estimated at 2 points based on the visual analog scale who received the standard course of the spa and health resort-based treatment, the pain rank index and the index of the number of the selected descriptors decreased significantly but nonetheless remained higher than in the patients treated by means of tSDCS as a component of the combined therapy (p=0.039). Simultaneously, the significantly lower level of situational (Q1=25.00; Me=36.50; Q3=45.00; p=0.036) and
Noshchenko, Andriy; Hoffecker, Lilian; Lindley, Emily M; Burger, Evalina L; Cain, Christopher MJ; Patel, Vikas V; Bradford, Andrew P
AIM: To evaluate published data on the predictors of progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in order to evaluate their efficacy and level of evidence. METHODS: Selection criteria: (1) study design: randomized controlled clinical trials, prospective cohort studies and case series, retrospective comparative and none comparative studies; (2) participants: adolescents with AIS aged from 10 to 20 years; and (3) treatment: observation, bracing, and other. Search method: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PubMed and patent data bases. All years through August 2014 were included. Data were collected that showed an association between the studied characteristics and the progression of AIS or the severity of the spine deformity. Odds ratio (OR), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were also collected. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the pooled OR and predictive values, if more than 1 study presented a result. The GRADE approach was applied to evaluate the level of evidence. RESULTS: The review included 25 studies. All studies showed statistically significant or borderline association between severity or progression of AIS with the following characteristics: (1) An increase of the Cobb angle or axial rotation during brace treatment; (2) decrease of the rib-vertebral angle at the apical level of the convex side during brace treatment; (3) initial Cobb angle severity (> 25o); (4) osteopenia; (5) patient age < 13 years at diagnosis; (6) premenarche status; (7) skeletal immaturity; (8) thoracic deformity; (9) brain stem vestibular dysfunction; and (10) multiple indices combining radiographic, demographic, and physiologic characteristics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the following genes: (1) calmodulin 1; (2) estrogen receptor 1; (3) tryptophan hydroxylase 1; (3) insulin-like growth factor 1; (5) neurotrophin 3; (6) interleukin-17 receptor C; (7) melatonin receptor 1B, and (8) ScoliScore test. Other predictors
Noshchenko, Andriy; Hoffecker, Lilian; Lindley, Emily M; Burger, Evalina L; Cain, Christopher Mj; Patel, Vikas V; Bradford, Andrew P
To evaluate published data on the predictors of progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in order to evaluate their efficacy and level of evidence. (1) study design: randomized controlled clinical trials, prospective cohort studies and case series, retrospective comparative and none comparative studies; (2) participants: adolescents with AIS aged from 10 to 20 years; and (3) treatment: observation, bracing, and other. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PubMed and patent data bases. All years through August 2014 were included. Data were collected that showed an association between the studied characteristics and the progression of AIS or the severity of the spine deformity. Odds ratio (OR), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were also collected. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the pooled OR and predictive values, if more than 1 study presented a result. The GRADE approach was applied to evaluate the level of evidence. The review included 25 studies. All studies showed statistically significant or borderline association between severity or progression of AIS with the following characteristics: (1) An increase of the Cobb angle or axial rotation during brace treatment; (2) decrease of the rib-vertebral angle at the apical level of the convex side during brace treatment; (3) initial Cobb angle severity (> 25(o)); (4) osteopenia; (5) patient age < 13 years at diagnosis; (6) premenarche status; (7) skeletal immaturity; (8) thoracic deformity; (9) brain stem vestibular dysfunction; and (10) multiple indices combining radiographic, demographic, and physiologic characteristics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the following genes: (1) calmodulin 1; (2) estrogen receptor 1; (3) tryptophan hydroxylase 1; (3) insulin-like growth factor 1; (5) neurotrophin 3; (6) interleukin-17 receptor C; (7) melatonin receptor 1B, and (8) ScoliScore test. Other predictors included: (1) impairment of melato