Science.gov

Sample records for idiopathic torsion dystonia

  1. The DYT1 gene on 9q34 is responsible for most cases of early limb-onset idiopathic torsion dystonia in non-Jews

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, P.L.; Heiman, G.A.; Leon, D. de

    1994-09-01

    Idiopathic torsion dystonia (ITD) is characterized by involuntary twisting movements and postures. A gene for this disorder, DYT1, was mapped to chromosome 9q34 in 12 Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) families and one large non-Jewish kindred. In the AJ population, strong linkage disequilibrium exists between DYT1 and adjacent markers within a 2-cM region. The associated haplotype occurs in >90% of early limb-onset AJ cases. The authors examined seven non-Jewish ITD families of northern European and French Canadian descent to determine the extent to which early-onset ITD in non-Jews maps to DYT1. Results are consistent with linkage to the DYT1 region. Affected individualsmore » in these families are clinically similar to the AJ cases, i.e., the site of onset is predominantly in the limbs and at least one individual in each pedigree had onset before age 12 years. None carries the AJ haplotype; therefore, they probably represent different mutations in the DYT1 gene. The two French Canadian families, however, display the same haplotype. Estimates of penetrance in non-Jewish families range from .40 to .75. They identified disease gene carriers and, with adjustments for age at onset, obtained a direct estimate of penetrance of .46. This is consistent with estimates of 30%-40% in the AJ population. Two other non-Jewish families with atypical ITD (later onset and/or cranial or cervical involvement) are not linked to DYT1, which indicates involvement of other genes in dystonia. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

  2. Dystonia Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-24

    Dystonia; Dystonia; Idiopathic; Dystonia, Primary; Dystonia, Secondary; Dystonia, Familial; Dystonia Disorder; Dystonias, Sporadic; Dystonia; Orofacial; Dystonia Lenticularis; Dystonia, Paroxysmal; Dystonia 6; Dystonia 5; Dystonia 8; Dystonia 9; Dystonia 19; Dystonia 10; Dystonia 11; Dystonia 20; Dystonia 12; Dystonia, Focal; Dystonia of Head; Dystonia, Diurnal

  3. Rest tremor in idiopathic adult-onset dystonia.

    PubMed

    Gigante, A F; Berardelli, A; Defazio, G

    2016-05-01

    Tremor in dystonia has been described as a postural or kinetic abnormality. In recent series, however, patients with idiopathic adult-onset dystonia also displayed rest tremor. The frequency and distribution of rest tremor were studied in a cohort of 173 consecutive Italian patients affected by various forms of idiopathic adult-onset dystonia attending our movement disorder clinic over 8 months. Examination revealed tremor in 59/173 patients (34%): 12 patients had head tremor, 34 patients had arm tremor, whilst 13 patients presented tremor in both sites. Head tremor was postural in all patients, whereas arm tremor was postural/kinetic in 28 patients, only at rest in one and both postural/kinetic and at rest in 18 patients. Patients with tremor were more likely to have segmental/multifocal dystonia. Patients who had rest tremor (either alone or associated with action tremor) had a higher age at dystonia onset and a greater frequency of dystonic arm involvement than patients with action tremor alone or without tremor. Both action and rest tremor are part of the tremor spectrum of adult-onset dystonia and are more frequently encountered in segmental/multifocal dystonia. The higher age at dystonia onset and the greater frequency of arm dystonia in patients with rest tremor may have pathophysiological implications and may account, at least in part, for the previous lack of identification of rest tremor as one possible type of tremor present in dystonia. © 2016 EAN.

  4. Secondary dystonia in a botulinum toxin clinic: clinical characteristics, neuroanatomical substrate and comparison with idiopathic dystonia.

    PubMed

    Strader, Scott; Rodnitzky, Robert L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The analysis of patients with secondary dystonia has been valuable to explore the anatomical, pharmacological and physiological bases of this disorder. The goal of this study is to compare the clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary dystonia and analyze the neuroanatomical bases of a subgroup of patients with lesion-induced dystonia. We identified patients evaluated in our Botulinum Toxin Clinic from 1/2000 to 7/2009 with an ICD code for "dystonia". Medical records of all subjects were reviewed, recording demographic, clinical, therapeutic and neuroimaging data. A total of 230 patients were included in the study. Idiopathic/primary dystonia was diagnosed in 162 and secondary dystonia in 58, while in 10 the etiology was uncertain. We found a female predominance (2.4:1 and 1.9:1 for primary and secondary dystonia, respectively). The cervical region was most commonly affected in primary dystonia and the limbs in secondary cases. The age at presentation was higher in primary (54.4 ± 14.1) than secondary (49 ± 17.9) dystonia. Among patients with secondary dystonia, a focal lesion was the presumed etiology in 32, with localizing diagnostic studies available in 16. The most common lesions were strokes involving the corticospinal pathway. All of those patients exhibited limb dystonia, except one with cervical dystonia following a thalamic infarct. In conclusion, primary and secondary dystonias are more prevalent in women, suggesting a sex-related predisposition to the development of this movement disorder. Lesion-induced dystonia most frequently involves the limbs and is caused by lesions in the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    PubMed

    Kimmich, Okka; Bradley, David; Whelan, Robert; Mulrooney, Nicola; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Siobhan; O'Riordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige's syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1/61 (2%) control subjects, 27/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20/36; 56%), offspring (11/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  6. Sensory Alterations in Patients with Isolated Idiopathic Dystonia: An Exploratory Quantitative Sensory Testing Analysis.

    PubMed

    Paracka, Lejla; Wegner, Florian; Blahak, Christian; Abdallat, Mahmoud; Saryyeva, Assel; Dressler, Dirk; Karst, Matthias; Krauss, Joachim K

    2017-01-01

    Abnormalities in the somatosensory system are increasingly being recognized in patients with dystonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sensory abnormalities are confined to the dystonic body segments or whether there is a wider involvement in patients with idiopathic dystonia. For this purpose, we recruited 20 patients, 8 had generalized, 5 had segmental dystonia with upper extremity involvement, and 7 had cervical dystonia. In total, there were 13 patients with upper extremity involvement. We used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) at the back of the hand in all patients and at the shoulder in patients with cervical dystonia. The main finding on the hand QST was impaired cold detection threshold (CDT), dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA), and thermal sensory limen (TSL). The alterations were present on both hands, but more pronounced on the side more affected with dystonia. Patients with cervical dystonia showed a reduced CDT and hot detection threshold (HDT), enhanced TSL and DMA at the back of the hand, whereas the shoulder QST only revealed increased cold pain threshold and DMA. In summary, QST clearly shows distinct sensory abnormalities in patients with idiopathic dystonia, which may also manifest in body regions without evident dystonia. Further studies with larger groups of dystonia patients are needed to prove the consistency of these findings.

  7. Physical mapping of the torsion dystonia region of human chromosome 9q34

    SciTech Connect

    Ozelius, L.J.; Hewett, J.; Shalish, C.

    1994-09-01

    Torsion dystonia is a syndrome characterized by loss of voluntary movements appearing as sustained muscle contractions and/or abnormal postures. The DYT1 gene is responsible for a subtype of torsion dystonia in which onset of symptoms tends to occur in a limb at an early age (mean 13 years) and to progress to a generalized state. Expression of the disease gene follows an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with reduced penetrance. We initially mapped this gene to human chromosome 9q34 and have now defined its location to a < 1 cM region near the ASS locus based on historic recombination eventsmore » around a founder mutation in the Ashkenazic Jewish population. Using the CEPH YAC library and a chromosome 9 flow-sorted YAC library, we have generated a YAC contig spanning about 500 kb of this region. These YACs are being used to identify cosmids by direct hybridization to chromosome 9-specific cosmid libraries. Cosmids are being aligned by restriction digest patterns and by hybridization with oligonucleotide repeat probes. In addition, the cosmids are being {open_quotes}trapped{close_quotes} by exon amplification and these exons used to screen cDNA libraries. Thus far we have identified several candidate transcripts in this region.« less

  8. Dystonia.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernandez, Eduardo; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-09-01

    Dystonia is a clinically heterogeneous group of hyperkinetic movement disorders. Recent advances have provided a better understanding of these conditions with significant clinical impact. Peer reviewed journals and reviews. PubMed.gov. A recent consensus classification, including the assessment of phenomenology and identification of the dystonia syndromes, has provided a helpful tool for the clinical assessment. New forms of monogenic dystonia have been recently identified. Despite recent advances in the understanding of dystonia, treatment remains symptomatic in most patients. Recent advances in genetics have provided a better understanding of the potential pathogenic mechanisms involved in dystonia. Deep brain stimulation has shown to improve focal and combined forms of dystonia and its indications are constantly expanding. Growing understanding of the disease mechanisms involved will allow the development of targeted and disease-modifying therapies in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Morgante, Francesca; Klein, Christine

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the classification, phenomenology, pathophysiology, and treatment of dystonia. A revised definition based on the main phenomenologic features of dystonia has recently been developed in an expert consensus approach. Classification is based on two main axes: clinical features and etiology. Currently, genes have been reported for 14 types of monogenic isolated and combined dystonia. Isolated dystonia (with dystonic tremor) can be caused by mutations in TOR1A (DYT1), TUBB4 (DYT4), THAP1 (DYT6), PRKRA (DYT16), CIZ1 (DYT23), ANO3 (DYT24), and GNAL (DYT25). Combined dystonias (with parkinsonism or myoclonus) are further subdivided into persistent (GCHI [DYT5], SGCE [DYT11], and ATP1A3 [DYT12], with TAF1 most likely but not yet proven to be linked to DYT3) and paroxysmal (PNKD [DYT8], PRRT2 [DYT10], and SLC2A1 [DYT18]). Recent insights from neurophysiologic studies identified functional abnormalities in two networks in dystonia: the basal ganglia-sensorimotor network and, more recently, the cerebellothalamocortical pathway. Besides the well-known lack of inhibition at different CNS levels, dystonia is specifically characterized by maladaptive plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex and loss of cortical surround inhibition. The exact role (modulatory or compensatory) of the cerebellar-cortical pathways still has to be further elucidated. In addition to botulinum toxin for focal forms, deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus is increasingly recognized as an effective treatment for generalized and segmental dystonia. The revised classification and identification of new genes for different forms of dystonia, including adult-onset segmental dystonia, enable an improved diagnostic approach. Recent pathophysiologic insights have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the disease mechanisms and impact on treatment, such as functional neurosurgery and nonpharmacologic treatment options.

  10. Dystonias

    MedlinePlus

    ... or walking some distance—or a worsening in handwriting after writing several lines. In other instances, the ... and sometimes the forearm, and only occurs during handwriting. Similar focal dystonias have also been called typist's ...

  11. Dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... advocacy groups, as well as private sector pharmaceutical companies. This extensive cooperation will greatly facilitate research because there are many types of dystonia, often seen by different subspecialists, and ...

  12. Global geometric torsion estimation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kadoury, Samuel; Shen, Jesse; Parent, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Several attempts have been made to measure geometrical torsion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and quantify the three-dimensional (3D) deformation of the spine. However, these approaches are sensitive to imprecisions in the 3D modeling of the anatomy and can only capture the effect locally at the vertebrae, ignoring the global effect at the regional level and thus have never been widely used to follow the progression of a deformity. The goal of this work was to evaluate the relevance of a novel geometric torsion descriptor based on a parametric modeling of the spinal curve as a 3D index of scoliosis. First, an image-based approach anchored on prior statistical distributions is used to reconstruct the spine in 3D from biplanar X-rays. Geometric torsion measuring the twisting effect of the spine is then estimated using a technique that approximates local arc-lengths with parametric curve fitting centered at the neutral vertebra in different spinal regions. We first evaluated the method with simulated experiments, demonstrating the method's robustness toward added noise and reconstruction inaccuracies. A pilot study involving 65 scoliotic patients exhibiting different types of deformities was also conducted. Results show the method is able to discriminate between different types of deformation based on this novel 3D index evaluated in the main thoracic and thoracolumbar/lumbar regions. This demonstrates that geometric torsion modeled by parametric spinal curve fitting is a robust tool that can be used to quantify the 3D deformation of AIS and possibly exploited as an index to classify the 3D shape.

  13. Torsional deformity of apical vertebra in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek

    2002-01-01

    CT scans of structural thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were reviewed in nine patients admitted to our department for scoliosis surgery. The apical vertebra scans were chosen and the following parameters were evaluated: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 4) the rotation angle to the sagittal plane. The constant deviation of the spinous process towards the convex side of the curve was observed. The vertebral body itself was distorted towards the concavity of the curve. The angle between the spinous process and the transverse process was smaller on the convex side of the curve. The torsional, intravertebral deformity of the apical vertebra was a factor acting in the direction opposite to the rotation, in the sense to reduce the deformity of the spine in idiopathic scoliosis.

  14. Cervical sensorimotor control in idiopathic cervical dystonia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Joke; Mercelis, Rudy; Hallemans, Ann; Michiels, Sarah; Truijen, Steven; Cras, Patrick; De Hertogh, Willem

    2017-09-01

    Patients with idiopathic adult-onset cervical dystonia (CD) experience an abnormal head posture and involuntary muscle contractions. Although the exact areas affected in the central nervous system remain uncertain, impaired functions in systems stabilizing the head and neck are apparent such as the somatosensory and sensorimotor integration systems. The aim of the study is to investigate cervical sensorimotor control dysfunction in patients with CD. Cervical sensorimotor control was assessed by a head repositioning task in 24 patients with CD and 70 asymptomatic controls. Blindfolded participants were asked to reposition their head to a previously memorized neutral head position (NHP) following an active movement (flexion, extension, left, and right rotation). The repositioning error (joint position error, JPE) was registered via 3D motion analysis with an eight-camera infrared system (VICON ® T10). Disease-specific characteristics of all patients were obtained via the Tsui scale, Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58), and Toronto Western Spasmodic Rating Scale. Patients with CD showed larger JPE than controls (mean difference of 1.5°, p  <   .006), and systematically 'overshoot', i.e. surpassed the NHP, whereas control subjects 'undershoot', i.e. fall behind the NHP. The JPE did not correlate with disease-specific characteristics. Cervical sensorimotor control is impaired in patients with CD. As cervical sensorimotor control can be trained, this might be a potential treatment option for therapy, adjuvant to botulinum toxin injections.

  15. Tibial rotational osteotomy for idiopathic torsion. A comparison of the proximal and distal osteotomy levels.

    PubMed

    Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction.

  16. Associations of specific psychiatric disorders with isolated focal dystonia, and monogenic and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Steinlechner, Susanne; Hagenah, Johann; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Bäumer, Tobias; Brüggemann, Norbert; Kasten, Meike; Münchau, Alexander; Klein, Christine; Lencer, Rebekka

    2017-06-01

    Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with movement disorders is common. Often, psychiatric symptoms manifest before the onset of the movement disorder, thus not representing a mere reaction to its burden. How the disease mechanisms of psychiatric and movement disorders are related is still poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence rates of specific psychiatric disorders between different movement disorders including isolated focal dystonia (IFD, N = 91), monogenic Parkinson's disease (PD, N = 41), idiopathic PD (N = 45), and a sample from a Northern Germany general population (TACOS Study; N = 4075). Our results indicate an odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0] for general axis I disorders in IFD, an OR of 2.5 (CI 1.4-4.7) in monogenic PD, and an OR of 1.4 (CI 0.8-2.6) in idiopathic PD. More specifically, the monogenic PD group showed the highest ORs for affective disorders including depression (OR = 4.9), bipolar disorder (OR = 17.4), and hypomanic episodes (OR = 17.0), whereas IFD expressed the highest rates of anxiety disorders (OR = 3.3). Psychotic symptoms were only observed in the PD groups but not in IFD. Our findings underline the notion that psychiatric disorders are part of the phenotypic spectrum of movement disorders. Moreover, they suggest that IFD, monogenic PD, and idiopathic PD are associated with specific psychiatric disorders indicating disturbances in a different neural circuitry for sensorimotor control.

  17. Motor cortical hyperexcitability in idiopathic scoliosis: could focal dystonia be a subclinical etiological factor?

    PubMed Central

    Tormos, José María; Barrios, Carlos; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the spine deformity could be the expression of a subclinical nervous system disorder. A defective sensory input or an anomalous sensorimotor integration may lead to an abnormal postural tone and therefore the development of a spine deformity. Inhibition of the motor cortico-cortical excitability is abnormal in dystonia. Therefore, the study of cortico-cortical inhibition may shed some insight into the dystonia hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of IS. Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to study cortico-cortical inhibition and facilitation in nine adolescents with IS, five teenagers with congenital scoliosis (CS) and eight healthy age-matched controls. The effect of a previous conditioning stimulus (80% intensity of resting motor threshold) on the amplitude of the motor-evoked potential induced by the test stimulus (120% of resting motor threshold) was examined at various interstimulus intervals (ISIs) in both abductor pollicis brevis muscles. The results of healthy adolescents and those with CS showed a marked inhibitory effect of the conditioning stimulus on the response to the test stimulus at interstimulus intervals shorter than 6 ms. These findings do not differ from those reported for normal adults. However, children with IS revealed an abnormally reduced cortico-cortical inhibition at the short ISIs. Cortico-cortical inhibition was practically normal on the side of the scoliotic convexity while it was significantly reduced on the side of the scoliotic concavity. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that a dystonic dysfunction underlies in IS. Asymmetrical cortical hyperexcitability may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IS and represents an objective neurophysiological finding that could be used clinically. PMID:20033462

  18. Mental rotation of body parts and non-corporeal objects in patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiaschi, Antonio; Moretto, Giuseppe; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2007-06-11

    Mental rotation of body parts is performed through inner simulation of actual movements, and is likely to rely upon cortical and subcortical systems (e.g. motor and premotor areas and basal ganglia) involved in motor planning and execution. Studies indicate that sensory and motor deficits, such as for example pain, limb amputation or focal hand dystonia, bring about a specific impairment in mental rotation of the affected body parts. Here we explored the ability of patients affected by idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) to mentally rotate affected (neck) and unaffected (hands and feet) body districts. The experimental stimuli consisted of realistic photos of left or right hands or feet and the head of a young men with a black patch on the left or the right eye. As non-corporeal stimulus the front view of a car with a black patch on the left or the right headlight was used. The stimuli were presented at six different degrees of orientations. Twelve CD patients and 12 healthy participants were asked to verbally report whether the hands or feet were left or right, or whether the patch was on the left or the right eye or headlight. Reaction times and accuracy in performing the laterality tasks on the four stimuli were collected. Results showed that CD patients are slow in mental rotation of stimuli representing body parts, namely hand, foot and head. This abnormality was not due to a general impairment in mental rotation per se, since patients' ability to rotate a non-corporeal object (a car) was not significantly different from that of healthy participants. We posit that the deficit in mental rotation of body parts in CD patients may derive from a defective integration of body- and world-related knowledge, a process that is likely to allow a general representation of "me in the external world".

  19. Dystonia in Ashkenazi Jews: clinical characterization of a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Bressman, S B; de Leon, D; Kramer, P L; Ozelius, L J; Brin, M F; Greene, P E; Fahn, S; Breakefield, X O; Risch, N J

    1994-11-01

    A gene (DYT1) for idiopathic torsion dystonia maps to chromosome 9q34 in Ashkenazi Jewish families with early onset of symptoms. Further, there is linkage disequilibrium between DYT1 and a particular haplotype of alleles at 9q34 loci in this population. This implies that a large proportion of early-onset idiopathic torsion dystonia in Ashkenazi Jews is due to a founder mutation in DYT1. To characterize the phenotypic range of this mutation, we studied 174 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals affected with idiopathic torsion dystonia. We used GT(n) markers on chromosome 9q34 (D9S62, D9S63, and ASS) and classified individuals as having ("carriers"), not having ("noncarriers"), or being ambiguous with respect to a DYT1-associated haplotype. We assessed clinical features and found marked clinical differences between haplotype carriers and noncarriers. There were 90 carriers, 70 noncarriers, and 14 ambiguous individuals. The mean age at onset of symptoms was significantly lower in carriers than in noncarriers (12.5 +/- 8.2 vs 36.5 +/- 16.4 years). In 94% of carriers, symptoms began in a limb (arm or leg equally); rarely the disorder started in the neck (3.3%) or larynx (2.2%). In contrast, the neck, larynx, and other cranial muscles were the sites of onset in 79% of noncarriers; onset in the arms occurred in 21% and onset in the legs never occurred. Limb onset, leg involvement in the course of disease, and age at onset distinguished haplotype carriers from noncarriers with 90% accuracy. In conclusion, there are clinical differences between Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with idiopathic torsion dystonia who do or do not have a unique DYT1 mutation, as determined by a DYT1-associated haplotype of 9q34 alleles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Different mechanisms may generate sustained hypertonic and rhythmic bursting muscle activity in idiopathic dystonia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuguang; Yianni, John; Wang, Shouyan; Bain, Peter G; Stein, John F; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2006-03-01

    Despite that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is emerging as the favored intervention for patients with medically intractable dystonia, the pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia are largely unclear. In eight patients with primary dystonia who were treated with bilateral chronic pallidal stimulation, we correlated symptom-related electromyogram (EMG) activity of the most affected muscles with the local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the globus pallidus electrodes. In 5 dystonic patients with mobile involuntary movements, rhythmic EMG bursts in the contralateral muscles were coherent with the oscillations in the pallidal LFPs at the burst frequency. In contrast, no significant coherence was seen between EMG and LFPs either for the sustained activity separated out from the compound EMGs in those 5 cases, or in the EMGs in 3 other cases without mobile involuntary movements and rhythmic EMG bursts. In comparison with the resting condition, in both active and passive movements, significant modulation in the GPi LFPs was seen in the range of 8-16 Hz. The finding of significant coherence between GPi oscillations and rhythmic EMG bursts but not sustained tonic EMG activity suggests that the synchronized pallidal activity may be directly related to the rhythmic involuntary movements. In contrast, the sustained hypertonic muscle activity may be represented by less synchronized activity in the pallidum. Thus, the pallidum may play different roles in generating different components of the dystonic symptom complex.

  1. Oromandibular Dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscles and lips of musicians who play wind instruments is called embouchure dystonia. Dystonia that specifically affects ... Dystonia Coalition About DMRF Mission People Dystonia Dialogue Financials For the Media Connect Contact Us Privacy Policy ...

  2. Factors influencing response to Botulinum toxin type A in patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia: results from an international observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Edvard; Zakine, Benjamin; Maisonobe, Pascal; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Real-life data on response to Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) in cervical dystonia (CD) are sparse. An expert group of neurologists was convened with the overall aim of developing a definition of treatment response, which could be applied in a non-interventional study of BoNT-A-treated subjects with CD. Design International, multicentre, prospective, observational study of a single injection cycle of BoNT-A as part of normal clinical practice. Setting 38 centres across Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Portugal, Russia and the UK. Participants 404 adult subjects with idiopathic CD. Most subjects were women, aged 41–60 years and had previously received BoNT-A. Outcome measures Patients were classified as responders if they met all the following four criteria: magnitude of effect (≥25% improvement Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale), duration of effect (≥12-week interval between the BoNT-A injection day and subject-reported waning of treatment effect), tolerability (absence of severe related adverse event) and subject's positive Clinical Global Improvement (CGI). Results High rates of response were observed for magnitude of effect (73.6%), tolerability (97.5%) and subject's clinical global improvement (69.8%). The subjective duration of effect criterion was achieved by 49.3% of subjects; 28.6% of subjects achieved the responder definition. Factors most strongly associated with response were age (<40 years; OR 3.9, p<0.05) and absence of baseline head tremor (OR 1.5; not significant). Conclusions Three of four criteria were met by most patients. The proposed multidimensional definition of response appears to be practical for routine practice. Unrealistically high patient expectation and subjectivity may influence the perception of a quick waning of effect, but highlights that this aspect may be a hurdle to response in some patients. Clinical registration number (NCT00833196; ClinicalTrials.gov). PMID

  3. Surgical treatment of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Kalia, Suneil Kumar; Shah, Binit Bipin; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Prashanth, Lingappa Kumar; Moro, Elena

    2018-05-28

    Treatment of dystonia should be individualized and tailored to the specific needs of patients. Surgical treatment is an important option in medically refractory cases. Several issues regarding type of the surgical intervention, targets, and predict factors of benefit are still under debate. Areas covered: To date, several clinical trials have proven the benefit and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for inherited and idiopathic isolated dystonia, whereas there is still insufficient evidence in combined and acquired dystonia. The globus pallidus internus (GPi) is the target with the best evidence, but data on the subthalamic nucleus seems also to be promising. Evidence suggests that younger patients with shorter disease duration experience greater benefit following DBS. Pallidotomy and thalamotomy are currently used in subset of carefully selected patients. The development of MRI-guided focused ultrasound might bring new options to ablation approach in dystonia. Expert commentary: GPi-DBS is effective and safe in isolated dystonia and should not be delayed when symptoms compromise quality of life and functionality. Identifying the best candidates to surgery on acquired and combined dystonias is still necessary. New insights about pathophysiology of dystonia and new technological advances will undoubtedly help to tailor surgery and optimize clinical effects.

  4. Postural control and the relation with cervical sensorimotor control in patients with idiopathic adult-onset cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, J; Mercelis, R; Hallemans, A; Van Gils, G; Truijen, S; Cras, P; De Hertogh, W

    2018-03-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions leading to an abnormal head posture or movements of the neck. Dysfunctions in somatosensory integration are present and previous data showed enlarged postural sway in stance. Postural control during quiet sitting and the correlation with cervical sensorimotor control were investigated. Postural control during quiet sitting was measured via body sway parameters in 23 patients with CD, regularly receiving botulinum toxin treatment and compared with 36 healthy controls. Amplitude and velocity of displacements of the center of pressure (CoP) were measured by two embedded force plates at 1000 Hz. Three samples of 30 s were recorded with the eyes open and closed. Disease-specific characteristics were obtained in all patients by the Tsui scale, Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58) and Toronto Western Spasmodic Rating Scale (TWSTRS). Cervical sensorimotor control was assessed with an infrared Vicon system during a head repositioning task. Body sway amplitude and velocity were increased in patients with CD compared to healthy controls. CoP displacements were doubled in patients without head tremor and tripled in patients with a dystonic head tremor. Impairments in cervical sensorimotor control were correlated with larger CoP displacements (r s ranged from 0.608 to 0.748). Postural control is impaired and correlates with dysfunction in cervical sensorimotor control in patients with CD. Treatment is currently focused on the cervical area. Further research towards the potential value of postural control exercises is recommended.

  5. Peripherally induced oromandibular dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, C.; Lai, E.; Jankovic, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary muscle contractions producing repetitive, patterned mouth, jaw, and tongue movements. Dystonia is usually idiopathic (primary), but in some cases it follows peripheral injury. Peripherally induced cervical and limb dystonia is well recognised, and the aim of this study was to characterise peripherally induced OMD.
METHODS—The following inclusion criteria were used for peripherally induced OMD: (1) the onset of the dystonia was within a few days or months (up to 1 year) after the injury; (2) the trauma was well documented by the patient's history or a review of their medical and dental records; and (3) the onset of dystonia was anatomically related to the site of injury (facial and oral).
RESULTS—Twenty seven patients were identified in the database with OMD, temporally and anatomically related to prior injury or surgery. No additional precipitant other than trauma could be detected. None of the patients had any litigation pending. The mean age at onset was 50.11 (SD 14.15) (range 23-74) years and there was a 2:1 female preponderance. Mean latency between the initial trauma and the onset of OMD was 65 days (range 1 day-1 year). Ten (37%) patients had some evidence of predisposing factors such as family history of movement disorders, prior exposure to neuroleptic drugs, and associated dystonia affecting other regions or essential tremor. When compared with 21 patients with primary OMD, there was no difference for age at onset, female preponderance, and phenomenology. The frequency of dystonic writer's cramp, spasmodic dysphonia, bruxism, essential tremor, and family history of movement disorder, however, was lower in the post-traumatic group (p<0.05). In both groups the response to botulinum toxin treatment was superior to medical therapy (p<0.005). Surgical intervention for temporomandibular disorders was more frequent in the post-traumatic group and was associated with

  6. Oromandibular Dystonia: Demographics and Clinical Data from 240 Patients.

    PubMed

    Slaim, Linda; Cohen, Myriam; Klap, Patrick; Vidailhet, Marie; Perrin, Alain; Brasnu, Daniel; Ayache, Denis; Mailly, Marie

    2018-05-01

    To report demographic data from a large cohort of patients with oromandibular dystonia (OMD). This is a retrospective review of patients with OMD referred to our institution between 1989 and 2015. Demographic (age of onset, gender, and familial history of dystonia) and clinical (type of OMD, associated dystonia, and etiology of dystonia) data were collected from a cohort of 240 individuals. The mean age of onset of OMD was 51.6 years old, with a female predominance (2:1). A family history of dystonia was found in 6 patients (2.5%). One hundred and forty-nine patients (62.1%) had the jaw-opening type of OMD, 48 patients (20.0%) had the jaw-closing type, and 43 patients (17.9%) had a mixed form of OMD. Lingual dystonia was also present in 64 (26.7%) of these patients. Eighty-two patients (34.2%) had a focal dystonia, 131 patients (54.6%) had a segmental dystonia, and 27 patients (11.3%) had a generalized dystonia. One hundred and seventy-one patients (71.3%) had idiopathic OMD. OMD is a chronic and disabling focal dystonia. Our study found a prevalence of female patients, an onset in middle age and a predominantly idiopathic etiology. Unlike other studies, jaw-opening was found to be the most frequent clinical type of OMD.

  7. Psychiatric co-morbidity is highly prevalent in idiopathic cervical dystonia and significantly influences health-related quality of life: Results of a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Smit, M; Kuiper, A; Han, V; Jiawan, V C R; Douma, G; van Harten, B; Oen, J M T H; Pouwels, M E; Dieks, H J G; Bartels, A L; Tijssen, M A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and factors influencing health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in cervical dystonia (CD) patients, in the context of objective dystonia motor severity. We studied 50 CD patients and 50 matched healthy controls. Psychiatric assessment included the MINI-PLUS interview and quantitative questionnaires. Dystonia motor severity (based on video evaluation), pain and disability were determined with the TWSTRS rating scale. In addition, severity of tremor and jerks was evaluated with the 7-point CGI-S scale. HR-QoL was determined with the RAND-36 item Health Survey and predictors of HR-QoL were assessed using multiple regression analysis. In CD patients, the MINI-PLUS revealed a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders (64% vs. 28%, p = 0.001), with substantially more depression (32% vs. 14%) and anxiety disorders (42% vs. 8%). This was confirmed by the quantitative rating scales. Disease characteristics did not differ between patients with and without a psychiatric diagnosis. HR-QoL in dystonia patients was significantly lowered. The most important predictors of HR-QoL appeared severity of depressive symptoms, pain and disability, but not severity of motor symptoms. Psychiatric co-morbidity is highly prevalent and is an important predictor of HR-QoL in CD patients, rather than dystonia motor severity. Our findings support the theory of a shared neurobiology for motor and non-motor features and highlight the need for systematic research into psychiatric disorders in dystonia. Adequate treatment of psychiatric symptoms could significantly contribute to better overall quality of life of CD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Voice, Speech, and Swallowing Disorders in Oromandibular Dystonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreisler, Alexandre; Vepraet, Anne Caroline; Veit, Solène; Pennel-Ployart, Odile; Béhal, Hélène; Duhamel, Alain; Destée, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To better define the clinical characteristics of idiopathic oromandibular dystonia, we studied voice, speech, and swallowing disorders and their impact on activities of daily living. Method: Fourteen consecutive patients with idiopathic oromandibular dystonia and 14 matched, healthy control subjects were included in the study. Results:…

  9. Musician's Dystonias

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Doctor Find a Doctor Finding Support Emotional & Mental Health When a Child is Diagnosed - Resources for Families Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Get Involved Donate Stay Connected Special Events Calendar Promote Awareness Join a Support Group Become a Legislative Advocate ...

  10. The BiP Molecular Chaperone Plays Multiple Roles during the Biogenesis of TorsinA, an AAA+ ATPase Associated with the Neurological Disease Early-onset Torsion Dystonia*

    PubMed Central

    Zacchi, Lucía F.; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Bell, Samantha L.; Millen, Linda; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Thomas, Philip J.; Zolkiewski, Michal; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Early-onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and sustained muscle contractions that can lead to paralysis and abnormal posture. EOTD is associated with the deletion of a glutamate (ΔE) in torsinA, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident AAA+ ATPase. To date, the effect of ΔE on torsinA and the reason that this mutation results in EOTD are unclear. Moreover, there are no specific therapeutic options to treat EOTD. To define the underlying biochemical defects associated with torsinAΔE and to uncover factors that might be targeted to offset defects associated with torsinAΔE, we developed a yeast torsinA expression system and tested the roles of ER chaperones in mediating the folding and stability of torsinA and torsinAΔE. We discovered that the ER lumenal Hsp70, BiP, an associated Hsp40, Scj1, and a nucleotide exchange factor, Lhs1, stabilize torsinA and torsinAΔE. BiP also maintained torsinA and torsinAΔE solubility. Mutations predicted to compromise specific torsinA functional motifs showed a synthetic interaction with the ΔE mutation and destabilized torsinAΔE, suggesting that the ΔE mutation predisposes torsinA to defects in the presence of secondary insults. In this case, BiP was required for torsinAΔE degradation, consistent with data that specific chaperones exhibit either pro-degradative or pro-folding activities. Finally, using two independent approaches, we established that BiP stabilizes torsinA and torsinAΔE in mammalian cells. Together, these data define BiP as the first identified torsinA chaperone, and treatments that modulate BiP might improve symptoms associated with EOTD. PMID:24627482

  11. Tremor in dystonia.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay; Sarma, Neelav

    2016-08-01

    Tremor has been recognized as an important clinical feature in dystonia. Tremor in dystonia may occur in the body part affected by dystonia known as dystonic tremor or unaffected body regions known as tremor associated with dystonia. The most common type of tremor seen in dystonia patients is postural and kinetic which may be mistaken for familial essential tremor. Similarly familial essential tremor patients may have associated dystonia leading to diagnostic uncertainties. The pathogenesis of tremor in dystonia remains speculative, but its neurophysiological features are similar to dystonia which helps in differentiating it from essential tremor patients. Treatment of tremor in dystonia depends upon the site of involvement. Dystonic hand tremor is treated with oral pharmacological therapy and dystonic head, jaw and voice tremor is treated with injection botulinum toxin. Neurosurgical interventions such as deep brain stimulation and lesion surgery should be an option in patients not responding to the pharmacological treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical Dystonia (Spasmodic Torticollis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many people who have cervical dystonia also experience neck pain that can radiate into the shoulders. The disorder also can cause headaches. In some people, the pain from cervical dystonia can be exhausting and disabling. Causes In ...

  13. Dystonia gene in Ashkenazi Jewish population is located on chromosome 9q32-34.

    PubMed

    Kramer, P L; de Leon, D; Ozelius, L; Risch, N; Bressman, S B; Brin, M F; Schuback, D E; Burke, R E; Kwiatkowski, D J; Shale, H

    1990-02-01

    Idiopathic torsion dystonia (ITD) is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions that appear as twisting movements of the limbs, trunk, and/or neck, which can progress to abnormal postures. Most familial forms of ITD follow autosomal dominant transmission with reduced penetrance. The frequency of ITD in the Ashkenazi Jewish population is five to ten times greater than that in other groups. Recently, a gene for ITD (DYT1) in a non-Jewish kindred was located on chromosome 9q32-34, with tight linkage to the gene encoding gelsolin (GSN). In the present study linkage analysis using DNA polymorphisms is used to locate a gene responsible for susceptibility to ITD in 12 Ashkenazi Jewish families. This dystonia gene exhibits close linkage with the gene encoding argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), and appears by multipoint analysis to lie in the q32-34 region of chromosome 9, a region that also contains the loci for gelsolin and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. The same gene may be responsible for ITD both in the non-Jewish kindred mentioned above and in the Ashkenazi Jewish families presented here. However, because there is substantial difference between the penetrance of the dominant allele in these two groups, two different mutations may be operating to produce susceptibility to this disease in the two groups.

  14. Epidemiological, clinical and genetic aspects of adult onset isolated focal dystonia in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Williams, L; McGovern, E; Kimmich, O; Molloy, A; Beiser, I; Butler, J S; Molloy, F; Logan, P; Healy, D G; Lynch, T; Walsh, R; Cassidy, L; Moriarty, P; Moore, H; McSwiney, T; Walsh, C; O'Riordan, S; Hutchinson, M

    2017-01-01

    Adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia presents with a number of phenotypes. Reported prevalence rates vary considerably; well-characterized cohorts are important to our understanding of this disorder. To perform a nationwide epidemiological study of adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia in the Republic of Ireland. Patients with adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia were recruited from multiple sources. Diagnosis was based on assessment by a neurologist with an expertise in movement disorders. When consent was obtained, a number of clinical features including family history were assessed. On the prevalence date there were 592 individuals in Ireland with adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia, a point prevalence of 17.8 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval 16.4-19.2). Phenotype numbers were cervical dystonia 410 (69.2%), blepharospasm 102 (17.2%), focal hand dystonia 39 (6.6%), spasmodic dysphonia 18 (3.0%), musician's dystonia 17 (2.9%) and oromandibular dystonia six (1.0%). Sixty-two (16.5%) of 375 consenting index cases had a relative with clinically confirmed adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia (18 multiplex and 24 duplex families). Marked variations in the proportions of patients with tremor, segmental spread, sensory tricks, pain and psychiatric symptoms by phenotype were documented. The prevalence of adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia in Ireland is higher than that recorded in many similar service-based epidemiological studies but is still likely to be an underestimate. The low proportion of individuals with blepharospasm may reflect reduced environmental exposure to sunlight in Ireland. This study will serve as a resource for international comparative studies of environmental and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of the disorder. © 2016 EAN.

  15. Art and dystonia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Sitek, Emilia J; Martinez Castrillo, Juan Carlos

    2015-09-15

    Dystonia has a recent history in medicine. Focal dystonia was described in the 19th century by classic authors including Gowers, whilst generalized dystonia was described at the turn of the century. However, it is possible to find precise descriptions of dystonia in art, centuries before the medical definition. We have reviewed several pieces of art (sculpture, painting and literature) across the history that might represent descriptions of dystonia, from ancient period to nowadays. In classic times, the first reference to abnormal postures can be tracked back to the new Empire of Egypt (equinus foot), not to mention some recently described examples of dystonia from the Moche sculptures in Peru or Veracruz culture from Mexico. In Middle Ages it is possible to find many examples of sculptures in European cathedrals representing peasants with dramatic, presumably dystonic postures that coexist with amputation of limbs. This unique combination of dystonia and limb amputation probably represents ergotism. The painters Brueghel, Ribera and Velazquez also represented figures with postures likely to be dystonic. Literature is also a source of precise pre-neurological descriptions, especially during the 19th century. In David Copperfield, Dickens depicts characters with generalized dystonia (Uriah Heep), cervical dystonia (Mr. Sharp) and spasmodic dysphonia (Mr Creakle). Finally, even in modern Art (19th and 20th centuries), there are dramatic descriptions of abnormal postures that are likely to be dystonic, such as painful cervical dystonia (Brancusi), cervical dystonia with sensory trick (Modigliani) and upper limb dystonia (Wyspianski). However some postures presented in works of art may simply be a form of artistic expression and only bear unintentional resemblance to the dystonic postures. Art may be a source of neurological information, and that includes primary and secondary dystonia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: dystonia 6

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck, causing problems with speaking (dysarthria) and eating (dysphagia). Eyelid twitching (blepharospasm) may also occur. Involvement of ... dystonia, DYT6 type The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia and Parkinson Foundation: What Is Dystonia? Patient Support and Advocacy ...

  17. Abnormal tactile temporal discrimination in psychogenic dystonia.

    PubMed

    Morgante, F; Tinazzi, M; Squintani, G; Martino, D; Defazio, G; Romito, L; Albanese, A; Di Matteo, A; Quartarone, A; Girlanda, P; Fiorio, M; Berardelli, A

    2011-09-20

    Neurophysiologic studies demonstrated that patients with primary torsion dystonia (PTD) and with psychogenic dystonia (Psy-D) share similar abnormalities in the motor system. In this study, we evaluated somatosensory function in Psy-D by testing temporal discrimination threshold (TDT), and compared the results with those obtained in patients with PTD. TDT of tactile stimuli was assessed in 10 patients with Psy-D, 10 patients with PTD, and 16 control subjects. The 2 groups of patients were matched for age, gender, disease duration, and distribution of dystonia. Tactile stimuli consisted of pairs of non-noxious electrical shocks delivered to the right or left hand at interstimulus interval increasing from 0 to 400 msec, in 10-msec steps. TDT was defined as the value at which subjects recognized the 2 stimuli as asynchronous. TDT was higher in Psy-D and PTD compared to control subjects, for both the right and the left hand. In a subgroup of patients with unilateral dystonia (Psy-D = 4, PTD = 5), TDT did not differ between the affected and the unaffected side in both groups of patients. Disease duration was not correlated to the increased TDT value. Our study suggests an impaired processing of somatosensory inputs in both Psy-D and PTD. These abnormalities might represent a neurophysiological trait predisposing to develop a dystonic posture triggered by psychiatric and psychological factors.

  18. Dopamine Dysfunction in DYT1 Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    20mM Tris-Cl (pH 7.6), 137 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20, the membranes were incubated overnight at 4°C with rabbit anti-tor- sinA antibody (1:500; Abcam...during the juvenile period to changes in tor- sinA expression or function. Another consideration is the potential compensatory effects of torsinB, which...Buckley AC, Burdette AJ, et al. (2010) Chemical enhancement of tor- sinA function in cell and animal models of torsion dystonia. Dis Model Mech 3: 386–396

  19. How Many Dystonias? Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Literary reports on dystonia date back to post-Medieval times. Medical reports are instead more recent. We review here the early descriptions and the historical establishment of a consensus on the clinical phenomenology and the diagnostic features of dystonia syndromes. Lumping and splitting exercises have characterized this area of knowledge, and it remains largely unclear how many dystonia types we are to count. This review describes the history leading to recognize that focal dystonia syndromes are a coherent clinical set encompassing cranial dystonia (including blepharospasm), oromandibular dystonia, spasmodic torticollis, truncal dystonia, writer's cramp, and other occupational dystonias. Papers describing features of dystonia and diagnostic criteria are critically analyzed and put into historical perspective. Issues and inconsistencies in this lumping effort are discussed, and the currently unmet needs are critically reviewed.

  20. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... straight. Soft, sunken chairs and sofas do not foster proper alignment and may affect the position of ... dystonia, one should consider modifying the task to foster posture and muscle control. A person with trouble ...

  1. Task-specific Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Russotto, Diego; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2009-01-01

    Task-specific dystonias are primary focal dystonias characterized by excessive muscle contractions producing abnormal postures during selective motor activities that often involve highly skilled, repetitive movements. Historically these peculiar postures were considered psychogenic but have now been classified as forms of dystonia. Writer’s cramp is the most commonly identified task-specific dystonia and has features typical of this group of disorders. Symptoms may begin with lack of dexterity during performance of a specific motor task with increasingly abnormal posturing of the involved body part as motor activity continues. Initially, the dystonia may manifest only during the performance of the inciting task, but as the condition progresses it may also occur during other activities or even at rest. Neurological exam is usually unremarkable except for the dystonia-related abnormalities. Although the precise pathophysiology remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests reduced inhibition at different levels of the sensorimotor system. Symptomatic treatment options include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, neurosurgical procedures, and adaptive strategies. Prognosis may vary depending upon body part involved and specific type of task affected. Further research may reveal new insights into the etiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and improved treatment of these conditions. PMID:18990127

  2. Table tennis dystonia.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, Anne; Vidailhet, Marie; Flamand-Rouvière, Constance; Grabli, David; Mayer, Jean-Michel; Gonce, Michel; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-02-15

    Focal task-specific dystonia (FTSD) occurs exclusively during a specific activity that usually involves a highly skilled movement. Classical FTSD dystonias include writer's cramp and musician's dystonia. Few cases of sport-related dystonia have been reported. We describe the first four cases of FTSD related to table tennis (TT), two involving professional international competitors. We also systematically analyzed the literature for reports of sport-related dystonia including detailed clinical descriptions. We collected a total of 13 cases of sport-related dystonia, including our four TT players. Before onset, all the patients had trained for many years, for a large number of hours per week. Practice time had frequently increased significantly in the year preceding onset. As TT is characterized by highly skilled hand/forearm movements acquired through repetitive exercises, it may carry a higher risk of FTSD than other sports. Intensive training may result in maladaptive responses and overwhelm homeostatic mechanisms that regulate cortical plasticity in vulnerable individuals. Our findings support the importance of environmental risk factors in sport-related FTSD, as also suggested in classical FTSD, and have important implications for clinical practice. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Botulinum toxin therapy for limb dystonias.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, D M; Aminoff, M J; Olney, R K

    1992-03-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in 17 patients with limb dystonias (10 with occupational cramps, three with idiopathic dystonia unrelated to activity, and two each with post-stroke and parkinsonian dystonia) in a placebo-controlled, blinded study. We identified affected muscles clinically and by recording the EMG from implanted wire electrodes at rest and during performance of tasks that precipitated abnormal postures. There were three injections given with graded doses of toxin (average doses, 5 to 10, 10 to 20, and 20 to 40 units per muscle) and one with placebo, in random order. Subjective improvement occurred after 53% of injections of botulinum toxin, and this was substantial in 24%. Only one patient (7%) improved after placebo injection. Subjective improvement occurred in 82% of patients with at least one dose of toxin, lasting for 1 to 4 months. Response rates were similar between clinical groups. Objective evaluation failed to demonstrate significant improvement following treatment with toxin compared with placebo. The major side effect was transient focal weakness after 53% of injections of toxin.

  4. Dystonia: Related and Differential Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... respond, too. What is the difference between a Parkinson's disease patient with dystonia and a dystonia patient with Parkinson's symptoms? Parkinson's disease is a neurological movement disorder with a wide ...

  5. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

  6. Treatment strategies for dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Cloud, Leslie J; Jinnah, HA

    2012-01-01

    Importance of the field Dystonia is a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary twisting movements and unnatural postures. It has many different manifestations and causes, and many different treatment options are available. These options include physical and occupational therapy, oral medications, intramuscular injection of botulinum toxins, and neurosurgical interventions. Areas covered in this review In this review, we first summarize the treatment options available, then we provide suggestions from our own experience for how these can be applied in different types of dystonia. In preparing this review article, an extensive literature search was undertaken using PubMed. Only selected references from 1970 to 2008 are cited. What the reader will gain This review is intended to provide the clinician with a practical guide to the treatment of dystonia. Take home message Treatment of dystonia begins with proper diagnosis and classification, followed by an appropriate search for underlying etiology, and an assessment of the functional impairment associated with the dystonia. The therapeutic approach, which is usually limited to symptomatic therapy, must then be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. PMID:20001425

  7. Testicular torsion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 545. Ferri FF. Testicular torsion. In: ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1255-1255. Kryger JV. Acute and chronic ...

  8. Recent Developments in Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Jinnah, H. A.; Teller, Jan K.; Galpern, Wendy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The dystonias are a family of related disorders with many different clinical manifestations and causes. This review summarizes recent developments regarding these disorders, focusing mainly on advances with direct clinical relevance from the past two years. Recent findings The dystonias are generally defined by their clinical characteristics, rather than by their underlying genetic or neuropathological defects. The many varied clinical manifestations and causes contribute to the fact that they are one of the most poorly recognized of all movement disorders. A series of recent publications has addressed these issues offering a revised definition and more logical means for classifying the many subtypes. Our understanding of the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for different types of dystonias also has grown rapidly, creating new opportunities and challenges for diagnosis and identifying increasing numbers of rare subtypes for which specific treatments are available. Summary Recent advances in describing the clinical phenotypes and determining associated genotypes have pointed to the need for new strategies for diagnosis, classification and treatment of the dystonias. PMID:26110799

  9. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Doctor Find a Doctor Finding Support Emotional & Mental Health When a Child is Diagnosed - Resources for Families Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Get Involved Donate Stay Connected Special Events Calendar Promote Awareness Join a Support Group Become a Legislative Advocate ...

  10. Forms of Dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Doctor Find a Doctor Finding Support Emotional & Mental Health When a Child is Diagnosed - Resources for Families Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Get Involved Donate Stay Connected Special Events Calendar Promote Awareness Join a Support Group Become a Legislative Advocate ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hypermanganesemia with dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hypermanganesemia with dystonia , called hypermanganesemia with dystonia , polycythemia, and cirrhosis (HMDPC) and hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2, ... have an increased number of red blood cells (polycythemia) and low levels of iron stored in the ...

  12. Surgery for Dystonia and Tremor.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Jason L; Shah, Binit B

    2016-03-01

    Surgical procedures for dystonia and tremor have evolved over the past few decades, and our understanding of risk, benefit, and predictive factors has increased substantially in that time. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most utilized surgical treatment for dystonia and tremor, though lesioning remains an effective option in appropriate patients. Dystonic syndromes that have shown a substantial reduction in severity secondary to DBS are isolated dystonia, including generalized, cervical, and segmental, as well as acquired dystonia such as tardive dystonia. Essential tremor is quite amenable to DBS, though the response of other forms of postural and kinetic tremor is not nearly as robust or consistent based on available evidence. Regarding targeting, DBS lead placement in the globus pallidus internus has shown marked efficacy in dystonia reduction. The subthalamic nucleus is an emerging target, and increasing evidence suggests that this may be a viable target in dystonia as well. The ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus is the preferred target for essential tremor, though targeting the subthalamic zone/caudal zona incerta has shown promise and may emerge as another option in essential tremor and possibly other tremor disorders. In the carefully selected patient, DBS and lesioning procedures are relatively safe and effective for the management of dystonia and tremor.

  13. [Focal dystonia in musicians: Phenomenology and musical triggering factors].

    PubMed

    Aránguiz, R; Chana-Cuevas, P; Alburquerque, D; Curinao, X

    2015-06-01

    Dystonias are defined as a joint sustained and involuntary contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles, which can cause torsion, repetitive abnormal involuntary movements, and/or abnormal postures. One special group of dystonias are those known as occupational, which include dystonia disorders triggered by a repetitive motor activity associated with a specific professional activity or task. Musicians are a population particularly vulnerable to these types of dystonia, which are presented as a loss of coordination and voluntary motor control movements highly trained in musical interpretation. Our aim is to describe a clinical series of focal dystonias in musicians evaluated and treated in our centre. Data is presented on a clinical series of 12 musicians with occupational dystonia. Their history and phenomenology are described, as well as well as their outcome after therapy. Demographic details: Mean age 34.8 ± 11.8 years, 10 males (83.3%) and 2 females (16.7%). History of trauma in dystonic segment, 6 patients (50%); family history of neurological diseases in first-degree relatives, 6 patients (50%); occupational history according to music category, 8 patients (66.6%) were classical musicians and 4 patients (33.3%) were popular musicians. The dystonia syndrome was characterised by having a mean age of onset of 28.2 ± 11.3 years (range 18-57 years). The segment affected was the hand (91.7%) in 11 patients. Of all the musicians seen in the clinic, 9 of them (75%) received therapy. The majority of patients appeared to have triggering factors specific to musical execution and linked to the requirement of fine motor control. It should be mentioned that 50% of the musicians treated maintained their professional activity or position in the orchestra to which they belonged. The majority of our phenomenological findings are consistent with those reported in the current literature. However, it is worth mentioning the presence of triggering factors attributed to the

  14. Strategies for treatment of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Dirk; Altenmueller, Eckart; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Bohlega, Saeed; Chana, Pedro; Chung, Tae Mo; Frucht, Steven; Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Kaelin, Alain; Kaji, Ryuji; Kanovsky, Petr; Laskawi, Rainer; Micheli, Federico; Orlova, Olga; Relja, Maja; Rosales, Raymond; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Timerbaeva, Sofia; Warner, Thomas T; Saberi, Fereshte Adib

    2016-03-01

    Treatment of dystonias is generally symptomatic. To produce sufficient therapy effects, therefore, frequently a multimodal and interdisciplinary therapeutic approach becomes necessary, combining botulinum toxin therapy, deep brain stimulation, oral antidystonic drugs, adjuvant drugs and rehabilitation therapy including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, re-training, speech therapy, psychotherapy and sociotherapy. This review presents the recommendations of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders Special Task Force on Interdisciplinary Treatment of Dystonia. It reviews the different therapeutic modalities and outlines a strategy to adapt them to the dystonia localisation and severity of the individual patient. Hints to emerging and future therapies will be given.

  15. Age-Related Sexual Dimorphism in Temporal Discrimination and in Adult-Onset Dystonia Suggests GABAergic Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Butler, John S; Beiser, Ines M; Williams, Laura; McGovern, Eavan; Molloy, Fiona; Lynch, Tim; Healy, Dan G; Moore, Helena; Walsh, Richard; Reilly, Richard B; O'Riordan, Seán; Walsh, Cathal; Hutchinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset isolated focal dystonia (AOIFD) presenting in early adult life is more frequent in men, whereas in middle age it is female predominant. Temporal discrimination, an endophenotype of adult-onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia, shows evidence of sexual dimorphism in healthy participants. We assessed the distinctive features of age-related sexual dimorphism of (i) sex ratios in dystonia phenotypes and (ii) sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination in unaffected relatives of cervical dystonia patients. We performed (i) a meta-regression analysis of the proportion of men in published cohorts of phenotypes of adult-onset dystonia in relation to their mean age of onset and (ii) an analysis of temporal discrimination thresholds in 220 unaffected first-degree relatives (125 women) of cervical dystonia patients. In 53 studies of dystonia phenotypes, the proportion of men showed a highly significant negative association with mean age of onset (p < 0.0001, pseudo-R (2) = 59.6%), with increasing female predominance from 40 years of age. Age of onset and phenotype together explained 92.8% of the variance in proportion of men. Temporal discrimination in relatives under the age of 35 years is faster in women than men but the age-related rate of deterioration in women is twice that of men; after 45 years of age, men have faster temporal discrimination than women. Temporal discrimination in unaffected relatives of cervical dystonia patients and sex ratios in adult-onset dystonia phenotypes show similar patterns of age-related sexual dimorphism. Such age-related sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination and adult-onset focal dystonia may reflect common underlying mechanisms. Cerebral GABA levels have been reported to show similar age-related sexual dimorphism in healthy participants and may be the mechanism underlying the observed age-related sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination and the sex ratios in AOIFD.

  16. Diagnosis & Treatment of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Jinnah, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. There are many different clinical manifestations and many different causes. A careful assessment of the clinical manifestations is helpful for identifying syndromic patterns that focus diagnostic testing on potential causes. If a cause can be identified, specific etiology-based treatments may be available. However, in the majority of cases, a specific cause cannot be identified, and treatments are based on symptoms. Treatment options include counseling and education, oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and several surgical procedures. A substantial reduction in symptoms and improved quality of life can be achieved in the majority of patients by combining these various options. PMID:25432724

  17. Causes of failure of pallidal deep brain stimulation in cases with pre-operative diagnosis of isolated dystonia.

    PubMed

    Pauls, K Amande M; Krauss, Joachim K; Kämpfer, Constanze E; Kühn, Andrea A; Schrader, Christoph; Südmeyer, Martin; Allert, Niels; Benecke, Rainer; Blahak, Christian; Boller, Jana K; Fink, Gereon R; Fogel, Wolfgang; Liebig, Thomas; El Majdoub, Faycal; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Kessler, Josef; Mueller, Joerg; Voges, Juergen; Wittstock, Matthias; Wolters, Alexander; Maarouf, Mohammad; Moro, Elena; Volkmann, Jens; Bhatia, Kailash P; Timmermann, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an effective therapy for isolated dystonia, but 10-20% of patients show improvement below 25-30%. We here investigated causes of insufficient response to GPi-DBS in isolated dystonia in a cross-sectional study. Patients with isolated dystonia at time of surgery, and <30% improvement on the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia-rating-scale (BFMDRS) after ≥6 months of continuous GPi-DBS were videotaped ON and OFF stimulation, and history, preoperative videos, brain MRI, medical records, stimulation settings, stimulation system integrity, lead location, and genetic information were obtained and reviewed by an expert panel. 22 patients from 11 centres were included (8 men, 14 women; 9 generalized, 9 segmental, 3 focal, 1 bibrachial dystonia; mean (range): age 48.7 (25-72) years, disease duration 22.0 (2-40) years, DBS duration 45.5 (6-131) months). Mean BFMDRS-score was 31.7 (4-93) preoperatively and 32.3 (5-101) postoperatively. Half of the patients (n = 11) had poor lead positioning alone or in combination with other problems (combined with: other disease n = 6, functional dystonia n = 1, other problems n = 2). Other problems were disease other than isolated inherited or idiopathic dystonia (n = 5), fixed deformities (n = 2), functional dystonia (n = 3), and other causes (n = 1). Excluding patients with poor lead location from further analysis, non-isolated dystonia accounted for 45.5%, functional dystonia for 27.3%, and fixed deformities for 18.2%. In patients with true isolated dystonia, lead location was the most frequent problem. After exclusion of lead placement and stimulation programming issues, non-isolated dystonia, functional dystonia and fixed deformities account for the majority of GPi-DBS failures in dystonia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Familial dopa-responsive cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S A; Mohire, M D; Trender-Gerhard, I; Asmus, F; Sweeney, M; Davis, M; Gasser, T; Wood, N W; Bhatia, K P

    2006-02-28

    The authors present four cases from two unrelated families with young-onset predominant cervical dystonia with a dramatic sustained response to levodopa. Onset age was 12 years (range 9 to 15). Additional symptoms included postural hand tremor and laryngeal dystonia. Genetic testing for GTP cyclohydrolase I, tyrosine hydroxylase, and sepiapterin reductase was negative. These cases may represent new forms of dopa-responsive dystonia. Levodopa is advisable in all patients with young-onset cervical dystonia.

  19. Modulation of the Muscle Activity During Sleep in Cervical Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Provini, Federica; Scaglione, Cesa M L; Mignani, Francesco; Rundo, Francesco; Vandi, Stefano; Fabbri, Margherita; Pizza, Fabio; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Paolo; Liguori, Rocco

    2017-07-01

    Impaired sleep has been reported as an important nonmotor feature in dystonia, but so far, self-reported complaints have never been compared with nocturnal video-polysomnographic (PSG) recording, which is the gold standard to assess sleep-related disorders. Twenty patients with idiopathic isolated cervical dystonia and 22 healthy controls (HC) underwent extensive clinical investigations, neurological examination, and questionnaire screening for excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep-related disorders. A full-night video PSG was performed in both patients and HC. An ad hoc montage, adding electromyographic leads over the muscle affected with dystonia, was used. When compared to controls, patients showed significantly increased pathological values on the scale assessing self-reported complaints of impaired nocturnal sleep. Higher scores of impaired nocturnal sleep did not correlate with any clinical descriptors but for a weak correlation with higher scores on the scale for depression. On video-PSG, patients had significantly affected sleep architecture (with decreased sleep efficiency and increased sleep latency). Activity over cervical muscles disappears during all the sleep stages, reaching significantly decreased values when compared to controls both in nonrapid eye movements and rapid eye movements sleep. Patients with cervical dystonia reported poor sleep quality and showed impaired sleep architecture. These features however cannot be related to the persistence of muscle activity over the cervical muscles, which disappears in all the sleep stages, reaching significantly decreased values when compared to HC. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Neuropathology of Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Prudente, C.N.; Pardo, C.A.; Xiao, J.; Hanfelt, J.; Hess, E.J.; LeDoux, M.S.; Jinnah, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to search for neuropathological changes in postmortem brain tissue of individuals with cervical dystonia (CD). Multiple regions of formalin-preserved brains were collected from patients with CD and controls and examined with an extensive battery of histopathological stains in a two-stage study design. In stage one, 4 CD brains underwent a broad screening neuropathological examination. In stage two, these 4 CD brains were combined with 2 additional CD brains, and the subjective findings were quantified and compared to 16 age-matched controls. The initial subjective neuropathological assessment revealed only two regions with relatively consistent changes. The substantia nigra had frequent ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions known as Marinesco bodies. Additionally, the cerebellum showed patchy loss of Purkinje cells, areas of focal gliosis and torpedo bodies. Other brain regions showed minor or inconsistent changes. In the second stage of the analysis, quantitative studies failed to reveal significant differences in the numbers of Marinesco bodies in CD versus controls, but confirmed a significantly lower Purkinje cell density in CD. Molecular investigations revealed 4 of the CD cases and 2 controls to harbor sequence variants in non-coding regions of THAP1, and these cases had lower Purkinje cell densities regardless of whether they had CD. The findings suggest that subtle neuropathological changes such as lower Purkinje cell density may be found in primary CD when relevant brain regions are investigated with appropriate methods. PMID:23195594

  1. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Results Thirty six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be “recommended”: the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two “recommended” scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for “suggested” and seven scales met criteria for “listed”. All the scales are individually reviewed in the online appendix. Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. PMID:23893443

  2. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Polites, Michael E.

    1994-05-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  3. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  4. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Polites, Michael E.

    1995-08-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  5. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  6. [Penile torsion. Case report].

    PubMed

    Arch Canas, Albert; Gutiérfz del Pozo, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    To report the clinical characteristics and therapeutic options of penile torsion. We report the case of a male with asymptomatic penile torsion as an incidental finding after consultation for other reasons. The patient was treated conservatively because it was not an important aesthetic trouble and it was asymptomatic. Penile torsion is rare. Surgical treatment is reserved for very important degrees of torsion, symptomatic patients or, when patient feels discomfort with the aesthetic alteration.

  7. Pharyngeal Dystonia Mimicking Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lucy L; Simpson, C Blake; Hapner, Edie R; Jinnah, Hyder A; Johns, Michael M

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the presentation of pharyngeal dystonia (PD), which can occur as a focal or segmental dystonia with a primarily pharyngeal involvement for the discussion of treatment methods for controlling consequent symptoms. PD is specific to speech-related tasks. A retrospective medical record review of four patients with PD was performed. All patients were initially misdiagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia and failed standard treatment with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). On laryngoscopy, the patients were discovered to have segmental or focal dystonia primarily affecting the pharyngeal musculature contributing to their vocal manifestations. A novel treatment regimen was designed, which involved directing BTX injections into the muscles involved in spasmodic valving at the oropharyngeal level. After titrating to an optimal dose, all patients showed improvement in their voice and speech with only mild dysphagia. These patients have maintained favorable results with repeat injections at 6- to 12-week intervals. PD, or dystonia with predominant pharyngeal involvement, is a rare entity with vocal manifestations that are not well described. It can be easily mistaken for spasmodic dysphonia. PD is specific to speech-related tasks. A novel method of BTX injections into the involved muscles results in a significant improvement in voice without significant dysphagia. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rating scales for musician's dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Berque, Patrice; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart; Frucht, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a focal adult-onset dystonia most commonly involving the hand. It has much greater relative prevalence than non-musician’s focal hand dystonias, exhibits task specificity at the level of specific musical passages, and is a particularly difficult form of dystonia to treat. For most MD patients, the diagnosis confirms the end of their music performance careers. Research on treatments and pathophysiology is contingent upon measures of motor function abnormalities. In this review, we comprehensively survey the literature to identify the rating scales used in MD and the distribution of their use. We also summarize the extent to which the scales have been evaluated for their clinical utility, including reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity to MD, and practicality for a clinical setting. Out of 135 publications, almost half (62) included no quantitative measures of motor function. The remaining 73 studies used a variety of choices from among 10 major rating scales. Most used subjective scales involving either patient or clinician ratings. Only 25% (18) of the studies used objective scales. None of the scales has been completely and rigorously evaluated for clinical utility. Whether studies involved treatments or pathophysiologic assays, there was a heterogeneous choice of rating scales used with no clear standard. As a result, the collective interpretive value of those studies is limited because the results are confounded by measurement effects. We suggest that the development and widespread adoption of a new clinically useful rating scale is critical for accelerating basic and clinical research in MD. PMID:23884039

  9. Dissecting the links between cerebellum and dystonia.

    PubMed

    Malone, Ailish; Manto, Mario; Hass, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Dystonia is a common movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions. These contractions generate twisting and repetitive movements or typical abnormal postures, often exacerbated by voluntary movement. Dystonia can affect almost all the voluntary muscles. For several decades, the discussion on the pathogenesis has been focused on basal ganglia circuits, especially striatal networks. So far, although dystonia has been observed in some forms of ataxia such as dominant ataxias, the link between the cerebellum and dystonia has remained unclear. Recent human studies and experimental data mainly in rodents show that the cerebellum circuitry could also be a key player in the pathogenesis of some forms of dystonia. In particular, studies based on behavioral adaptation paradigm shed light on the links between dystonia and cerebellum. The spectrum of movement disorders in which the cerebellum is implicated is continuously expanding, and manipulation of cerebellar circuits might even emerge as a candidate therapy in the coming years.

  10. Acute Cervical Dystonia Induced by Clebopride.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyo; Hong, Jin Yong

    2017-01-01

    Antidopaminergic drugs are known to induce extrapyramidal symptoms. Clebopride, a dopamine antagonist, also can produce parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia, hemifacial dystonia, or oculogyric crisis; however, acute dystonic reaction caused by clebopride has not been reported in adults. We report two young men who experienced acute cervical dystonia within a few days of taking clebopride. The patients recovered after discontinuation of the drug. Physicians prescribing clebopride should be aware of the adverse effects of this drug.

  11. Acute Cervical Dystonia Induced by Clebopride

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Antidopaminergic drugs are known to induce extrapyramidal symptoms. Clebopride, a dopamine antagonist, also can produce parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia, hemifacial dystonia, or oculogyric crisis; however, acute dystonic reaction caused by clebopride has not been reported in adults. We report two young men who experienced acute cervical dystonia within a few days of taking clebopride. The patients recovered after discontinuation of the drug. Physicians prescribing clebopride should be aware of the adverse effects of this drug. PMID:29333306

  12. Case report: Physical therapy management of axial dystonia.

    PubMed

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Oliveira, Tatiana de Paula; Piemonte, Maria Elisa Pimentel; Barbosa, Egberto Reis

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have described physical therapy approaches to provide functional independence and reduce pain in individuals with dystonia. This report describes the physical therapy treatment of a 46-year-old woman diagnosed with idiopathic segmental axial dystonia. For two years, the patient was treated with kinesiotherapy (active and resisted movements and stretching of neck and trunk muscles), abdominal taping (kinesiotaping techniques), functional training, and sensory tricks. She was assessed with parts I, II and III of Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-I, TWSTRS-II and TWSTRS-III), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Six-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT), and the motor domain of Functional Independence Measure (FIM-motor) before and after the two-year treatment and after the one year follow-up. Postural control and symmetry improved (TWSTRS-I: from 30 to 18), functional independence increased (TWSTRS-II: from 27 to 15; BBS: from 36 to 46; 6-MWT: from 0 to 480 meters (m); FIM-motor: from 59 to 81), and the pain diminished (TWSTRS-III: from 12 to 5). The functional improvement was retained after one year (TWSTRS-I: 14/35; TWRTRS-II: 12/30; TWRTRS-III: 5/20; BBS: 48/56; 6-MWT: 450 m; FIM-motor: 81/91). This program showed efficacy on providing a better control of the dystonic muscles and thus the doses of botulinum toxin needed to treat them could be reduced. Outcomes support the therapeutic strategies used to deal with this type of dystonia.

  13. Testicular torsion repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fertility. Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Images Male reproductive anatomy Testicular torsion repair - series References Elder JS. Disorders and anomalies of the scrotal contents. In: ...

  14. Finger muscle control in children with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Young, Scott J; van Doornik, Johan; Sanger, Terence D

    2011-06-01

    Childhood dystonia is a disorder that involves inappropriate muscle activation during attempts at voluntary movement. Few studies have investigated the muscle activity associated with dystonia in children, and none have done so in the hands. In this study, we measured surface electromyographic activity in four intrinsic hand muscles while participants attempted to perform an isometric tracking task using one of the muscles. Children with dystonia had greater tracking error with the task-related muscle and greater overflow to non-task muscles. Both tracking error and overflow correlated with the Barry-Albright Dystonia scale of the respective upper limb. Overflow also decreased when participants received visual feedback of non-task muscle activity. We conclude that two of the motor deficits in childhood dystonia--motor overflow and difficulties in actively controlling muscles--can be seen in the surface electromyographic activity of individual muscles during an isometric task. As expected from results in adults, overflow is an important feature of childhood dystonia. However, overflow may be at least partially dependent on an individual's level of awareness of their muscle activity. Most importantly, poor single-muscle tracking shows that children with dystonia have deficits of individual muscle control in addition to overflow or co-contraction. These results provide the first quantitative measures of the muscle activity associated with hand dystonia in children, and they suggest possible directions for control of dystonic symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Recent Advances in the Genetics of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Vemula, Satya R.

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia, a common and genetically heterogeneous neurological disorder, was recently defined as “a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both.” Via the application of whole-exome sequencing, the genetic landscape of dystonia and closely related movement disorders is becoming exposed. In particular, several “novel” genetic causes have been causally associated with dystonia or dystonia-related disorders over the past 2 years. These genes include PRRT2 (DYT10), CIZ1 (DYT23), ANO3 (DYT24), GNAL (DYT25), and TUBB4A (DYT4). Despite these advances, major gaps remain in identifying the genetic origins for most cases of adult-onset isolated dystonia. Furthermore, model systems are needed to study the biology of PRRT2, CIZ1, ANO3, Gαolf, and TUBB4A in the context of dystonia. This review focuses on these recent additions to the family of dystonia genes, genotype-phenotype correlations, and possible cellular contributions of the encoded proteins to the development of dystonia. PMID:24952478

  16. A case of Parkinson's disease following dystonia.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Chiharu; Takei, Takanobu; Uozumi, Takenori; Toyota, Tomoko; Yuhi, Tomoaki; Adachi, Hiroaki

    2016-09-29

    Parkinsonism and dystonia are both disorders of the extrapyramidal motor system, and some patients exhibit a complex of the two symptoms. Although several reports have referred to the coexistence of these disorders as parkinsonian disorders with dystonia, in the majority of cases, dystonia appeared after parkinsonism. DAT-scan is useful for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other types of parkinsonism such as dementia with Lewy bodies. This case report describes a 67-year old woman diagnosed with axial dystonia without parkinsonism 6 years previously, which had worsened despite treatment with Botulinum toxin injections, and hindered the patient's gait. The patient visited the hospital because of gait disturbances and DAT-scan showed a levodopa transducer decrease in the putamen. A few weeks later, she was re-admitted to hospital and exhibited Parkinsonism. Levodopa improved the gait disturbances but axial dystonia was unchanged, and a clinical diagnosis of PD was made. In the authors' opinion, this was a rare case of parkinsonian disorders with dystonia, characterized by the development of PD after dystonia. DAT-scan may be helpful for the diagnosis of patients with parkinsonian disorders with dystonia.

  17. Successful treatment of open jaw and jaw deviation dystonia with botulinum toxin using a simple intraoral approach.

    PubMed

    Moscovich, Mariana; Chen, Zhongxing Peng; Rodriguez, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia that involves the mouth, jaw, and/or tongue. It can be classified as idiopathic, tardive dystonia or secondary to other neurological disorders and subdivided into jaw opening, jaw closing, jaw deviation and lip pursing. The muscles involved in jaw opening dystonia are usually the digastrics and lateral pterygoids. It is known that the lateral pterygoids may be approached both internally and externally. The external approach is the most common; however neurologists experienced in treating patients with botulinum toxin can safely and with no extra cost perform the intraoral procedure. We report our experience in the treatment of jaw opening and jaw deviation dystonia using the intraoral injection approach. Eight patients were selected from the University of Florida with a clinical diagnosis of open jaw/jaw deviation dystonia. All of them were injected with onabotulinum toxin A using the internal approach and the clinical global impression scale was applied. The mean age of the patients was 67 (standard deviation [SD] 10.2) years, with a disease duration of 10.2 (SD 7.7) years and the mean distance they traveled to our institution was 448 km (278 miles). After treatment, six patients scored as very much improved in the clinical global impression scale and two patients scored as much improved. Only one patient reported an adverse event of nasal speech following one of the injections that improved after 4 weeks. Botulinum toxin injections for open jaw/jaw deviation dystonia can be safely performed with the intraoral approach without the need of special devices other than electromyography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Idiopathic anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fenny, Nana; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic anaphylaxis is a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes have been thoroughly evaluated and excluded. The pathogenesis of idiopathic anaphylaxis remains uncertain, although increased numbers of activated lymphocytes and circulating histamine-releasing factors have been implicated. Signs and symptoms of patients diagnosed with idiopathic anaphylaxis are indistinguishable from the manifestations of other forms of anaphylaxis. Treatment regimens are implemented based on the frequency and severity of patient symptoms and generally include the use of epinephrine autoinjectors, antihistamines, and steroids. The prognosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis is generally favorable with well-established treatment regimens and effective patient education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Finger Muscle Control in Children with Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Young, Scott J.; van Doornik, Johan; Sanger, Terence D.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood dystonia is a disorder that involves inappropriate muscle activation during attempts at voluntary movement. Few studies have investigated the muscle activity associated with dystonia in children, and none have done so in the hands. In this study, we measured surface electromyographic activity in four intrinsic hand muscles while participants attempted to perform an isometric tracking task using one of the muscles. Children with dystonia had greater tracking error with the task-related muscle and greater overflow to non-task muscles. Both tracking error and overflow correlated with the Barry-Albright Dystonia scale of the respective upper limb. Overflow also decreased when participants received visual feedback of non-task muscle activity. We conclude that two of the motor deficits in childhood dystonia—motor overflow and difficulties in actively controlling muscles—can be seen in the surface electromyographic activity of individual muscles during an isometric task. As expected from results in adults, overflow is an important feature of childhood dystonia. However, overflow may be at least partially dependent on an individual’s level of awareness of their muscle activity. Most importantly, poor single-muscle tracking shows that children with dystonia have deficits of individual muscle control in addition to overflow or co-contraction. These results provide the first quantitative measures of the muscle activity associated with hand dystonia in children, and they suggest possible directions for control of dystonic symptoms. PMID:21449015

  20. Markedly severe dystonia in Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kalita, J; Misra, U K

    2000-11-01

    Encephalitis has been reported to be a rare cause of severe dystonia. We describe five patients with markedly severe dystonia from Japanese encephalitis. These patients with markedly severe dystonia were seen during the past 8 years as a subgroup of 50 patients with Japanese encephalitis. The diagnosis of markedly severe dystonia was based on increasingly frequent episodes of generalized dystonia with bulbar, respiratory, or metabolic derangement or leading to exhaustion or pain. The diagnosis of JE was based on clinicoradiologic features and a fourfold increase of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers in paired serum. The outcome of the patients was defined as a good, partial, or poor recovery on the basis of 1-year clinical status. All the patients were males, and their ages ranged from 6 to 19 years. Movement disorders appeared 1 to 3 weeks after the illness as the level of consciousness started improving. During the next 1 to 4 weeks, patients began to experience markedly severe dystonia. It was associated with marked axial dystonia resulting in opisthotonus and retrocollis in five patients, jaw-opening dystonia in two patients, teeth clenching in one patient, and oculogyric crisis and neck deviation in another patient. The attacks of markedly severe dystonia lasted for 2 to 30 minutes and occurred as many as 20 to 30 times daily. Other developments included fixed limb dystonia in one patient, severe spasticity and rigidity in five patients, and focal muscle wasting in one patient. These patients had only a modest improvement after treatment. Markedly severe dystonia abated by 2 to 6 months in all the patients who were followed up. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral thalamic involvement in all patients, brainstem involvement in three patients, and basal ganglia involvement in two patients. At the 3-month follow-up, all patients had a poor outcome. At 1 year, one patient had a complete recovery; one had a partial recovery; and two were

  1. Genetics Home Reference: myoclonus-dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Esapa CT, Waite A, Locke M, Benson MA, Kraus M, McIlhinney RA, Sillitoe RV, Beesley PW, ... PubMed Gerrits MC, Foncke EM, Koelman JH, Tijssen MA. Pediatric writer's cramp in myoclonus-dystonia: maternal imprinting ...

  2. Emerging Common Molecular Pathways for Primary Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    LeDoux, Mark S; Dauer, William T; Warner, Thomas T

    2013-01-01

    Background The dystonias are a group of hyperkinetic movement disorders whose principal cause is neuron dysfunction at one or more interconnected nodes of the motor system. The study of genes and proteins which cause familial dystonia provides critical information about the cellular pathways involved in this dysfunction which disrupts the motor pathways at systems level. In recent years study of the increasing number of DYT genes has implicated a number of cell functions which appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of dystonia. Methods Review of literature published in English language publications available on Pubmed relating to the genetics and cellular pathology of dystonia Results and Conclusions Numerous potential pathogenetic mechanisms have been identified. We describe those which fall into three emerging thematic groups: cell cycle and transcriptional regulation in the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope function, and control of synaptic function. PMID:23893453

  3. Facial recognition in primary focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Martina; Benecke, Cord; Bartha, Lisa; Entner, Tanja; Poewe, Werner; Mueller, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    The basal ganglia seem to be involved in emotional processing. Primary dystonia is a movement disorder considered to result from basal ganglia dysfunction, and the aim of the present study was to investigate emotion recognition in patients with primary focal dystonia. Thirty-two patients with primary cranial (n=12) and cervical (n=20) dystonia were compared to 32 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational level on the facially expressed emotion labeling (FEEL) test, a computer-based tool measuring a person's ability to recognize facially expressed emotions. Patients with cognitive impairment or depression were excluded. None of the patients received medication with a possible cognitive side effect profile and only those with mild to moderate dystonia were included. Patients with primary dystonia showed isolated deficits in the recognition of disgust (P=0.007), while no differences between patients and controls were found with regard to the other emotions (fear, happiness, surprise, sadness, and anger). The findings of the present study add further evidence to the conception that dystonia is not only a motor but a complex basal ganglia disorder including selective emotion recognition disturbances. Copyright (c) 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Multilingual website and cyberconsultations for oromandibular dystonia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuya

    2018-03-30

    Oromandibular dystonia is a focal dystonia that manifests as involuntary masticatory and/or tongue muscle contractions. This movement disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as a temporomandibular disorder. Hence, it would be useful to establish a method that makes it possible for patients with the condition to find appropriate medical institutions by themselves. The author produced a website Involuntary movements of the stomatognathic region (https://sites. google.com/site/oromandibulardystoniaenglish/) for patients with oromandibular dystonia, which is available in twenty languages. It has been viewed more than 1,000,000 times by individuals from all over the world. The visitors to the site have completed questionnaires and/or sent images or videos of their involuntary movements over the internet. Cyberconsultations (remote diagnosis) were also performed via Skype ™ . Approximately 1000 patients with involuntary stomatognathic movements visited our department. Only 12.5% of the patients had previously been diagnosed with or were suspected to have dystonia. The findings of this study suggest that the multilingual website has contributed to increasing awareness of oromandibular dystonia and that the provision of basic telemedicine via the internet can aid the diagnosis and treatment of oromandibular dystonia.

  5. Tremor associated with focal and segmental dystonia.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, M; Krawczyk, M; Wójcik-Pędziwiatr, M; Szczudlik, A; Wasielewska, A

    2013-01-01

    Tremor occurs in 10-85% of patients with focal dystonia as so-called dystonic tremor or tremor associated with dystonia. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to characterize parameters of tremor accompanying focal and segmental dystonia. One hundred and twenty-three patients with diagnosis of focal and segmental dystonia together with 51 healthy controls were included in the study. For each participant, clinical examination and objective assessment (accelerometer, electromyography, graphic tablet) of hand tremor was performed. Frequency and severity of tremor were assessed in three positions: at rest (rest tremor); with hands extended (postural tremor); during 'finger-to-nose' test and during Archimedes spiral drawing (kinetic tremor). Based on the mass load test, type of tremor was determined as essential tremor type or enhanced physiological type. The incidence of tremor was significantly higher in dystonic patients as compared to controls (p = 0.0001). In clinical examination, tremor was found in 50% of dystonic patients, and in instrumental assessment in an additional 10-20%. The most frequent type of tremor was postural and kinetic tremor with 7 Hz frequency and featured essential tremor type. In the control group, tremor was detected in about 10% of subjects as 9-Hz postural tremor of enhanced physiological tremor type. No differences were found between patients with different types of dystonia with respect to the tremor incidence, type and parameters (frequency and severity). No correlations between tremor severity and dystonia severity were found either.

  6. Multilingual website and cyberconsultations for oromandibular dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuya

    2018-01-01

    Oromandibular dystonia is a focal dystonia that manifests as involuntary masticatory and/or tongue muscle contractions. This movement disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as a temporomandibular disorder. Hence, it would be useful to establish a method that makes it possible for patients with the condition to find appropriate medical institutions by themselves. The author produced a website Involuntary movements of the stomatognathic region (https://sites. google.com/site/oromandibulardystoniaenglish/) for patients with oromandibular dystonia, which is available in twenty languages. It has been viewed more than 1,000,000 times by individuals from all over the world. The visitors to the site have completed questionnaires and/or sent images or videos of their involuntary movements over the internet. Cyberconsultations (remote diagnosis) were also performed via Skype™. Approximately 1000 patients with involuntary stomatognathic movements visited our department. Only 12.5% of the patients had previously been diagnosed with or were suspected to have dystonia. The findings of this study suggest that the multilingual website has contributed to increasing awareness of oromandibular dystonia and that the provision of basic telemedicine via the internet can aid the diagnosis and treatment of oromandibular dystonia. PMID:29844890

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Giovanni; Jankovic, Joseph; Giel, Jennifer L; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon

    2013-01-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia, has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with variable clinical features, leading to difficulties and delays in diagnosis. Owing to the lack of reviews specifically focusing on the frequency of primary CD in the general population, we performed a systematic literature search to examine its prevalence/incidence and analyze methodological differences among studies. We performed a systematic literature search to examine the prevalence data of primary focal CD. Sixteen articles met our methodological criteria. Because the reported prevalence estimates were found to vary widely across studies, we analyzed methodological differences and other factors to determine whether true differences exist in prevalence rates among geographic areas (and by gender and age distributions), as well as to facilitate recommendations for future studies. Prevalence estimates ranged from 20-4,100 cases/million. Generally, studies that relied on service-based and record-linkage system data likely underestimated the prevalence of CD, whereas population-based studies suffered from over-ascertainment. The more methodologically robust studies yielded a range of estimates of 28-183 cases/million. Despite the varying prevalence estimates, an approximate 2:1 female:male ratio was consistent among many studies. Three studies estimated incidence, ranging from 8-12 cases/million person-years. Although several studies have attempted to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CD, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiological studies on primary CD that include large populations; use defined CD diagnostic criteria; and stratify for factors such as age, gender, and ethnicity.

  8. Dystonia: an update on phenomenology, classification, pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Balint, Bettina; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2014-08-01

    This article will highlight recent advances in dystonia with focus on clinical aspects such as the new classification, syndromic approach, new gene discoveries and genotype-phenotype correlations. Broadening of phenotype of some of the previously described hereditary dystonias and environmental risk factors and trends in treatment will be covered. Based on phenomenology, a new consensus update on the definition, phenomenology and classification of dystonia and a syndromic approach to guide diagnosis have been proposed. Terminology has changed and 'isolated dystonia' is used wherein dystonia is the only motor feature apart from tremor, and the previously called heredodegenerative dystonias and dystonia plus syndromes are now subsumed under 'combined dystonia'. The recently discovered genes ANO3, GNAL and CIZ1 appear not to be a common cause of adult-onset cervical dystonia. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity underlie myoclonus-dystonia, dopa-responsive dystonia and deafness-dystonia syndrome. ALS2 gene mutations are a newly recognized cause for combined dystonia. The phenotypic and genotypic spectra of ATP1A3 mutations have considerably broadened. Two new genome-wide association studies identified new candidate genes. A retrospective analysis suggested complicated vaginal delivery as a modifying risk factor in DYT1. Recent studies confirm lasting therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation in isolated dystonia, good treatment response in myoclonus-dystonia, and suggest that early treatment correlates with a better outcome. Phenotypic classification continues to be important to recognize particular forms of dystonia and this includes syndromic associations. There are a number of genes underlying isolated or combined dystonia and there will be further new discoveries with the advances in genetic technologies such as exome and whole-genome sequencing. The identification of new genes will facilitate better elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms and possible corrective

  9. Dystonias

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... Diversity Resources Jobs at NINDS Director, Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels ...

  10. Developing Gene Silencing for the Study and Treatment of Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    cause abnormal twisting postures. DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal dominant disease with onset of dystonia during childhood . The most common early onset...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Dystonia is a debilitating neurological disease with no cure. In dystonia, there are involuntary muscle contractions that...is a debilitating neurological disease with no cure that is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal twisting postures

  11. Dysgraphia as a Mild Expression of Dystonia in Children with Absence Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Renzo; Melani, Federico; Brancati, Claudia; Ferrari, Anna Rita; Brovedani, Paola; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Pellacani, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Background Absence epilepsy (AE) is etiologically heterogeneous and has at times been associated with idiopathic dystonia. Objectives Based on the clinical observation that children with AE often exhibit, interictally, a disorder resembling writer’s cramp but fully definable as dysgraphia, we tested the hypothesis that in this particular population dysgraphia would represent a subtle expression of dystonia. Methods We ascertained the prevalence of dysgraphia in 82 children with AE (mean age 9.7) and average intelligence and compared them with 89 age-, gender- and class-matched healthy children (mean age 10.57) using tests for handwriting fluency and quality, based on which we divided patients and controls into four subgroups: AE/dysgraphia, AE without dysgraphia, controls with dysgraphia and healthy controls. We compared the blink reflex recovery cycle in children belonging to all four subgroups. Results We identified dysgraphia in 17/82 children with AE and in 7/89 controls (20.7 vs 7.8%; P = 0.016) with the former having a 3.4-times higher risk of dysgraphia regardless of age and gender (odd ratio: 3.49; 95% CI 1.2, 8.8%). The AE/dysgraphia subgroup performed worse than controls with dysgraphia in one test of handwriting fluency (P = 0.037) and in most trials testing handwriting quality (P< 0.02). In children with AE/dysgraphia the blink reflex showed no suppression at short interstimulus intervals, with a difference for each value emerging when comparing the study group with the three remaining subgroups (P<0.001). Conclusions In children with AE, dysgraphia is highly prevalent and has a homogeneous, distinctive pathophysiological substrate consistent with idiopathic dystonia. PMID:26132164

  12. Planar torsion spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

  13. Tibiotalar torsion: bioengineering paradigm.

    PubMed

    Michele, A A; Nielsen, P M

    1976-10-01

    1. Medial tibiotalar torsion is the most common disorder peculiar to mankind. 2. The pathogonomic findings are (a) an axial medially rotated and adducted distal third of the shaft of the tibia, (b) the plafond of the tibia with its mortise containing the "track-bound" talus, which is deflected strongly toward the tibial side, (c) an exaggerated midtarsal equinus, (d) ostensible restriction of dorsiflexion of the hindfoot against the tibia, (e) mild separation of the distal tibiofibular articulation, and (f) forward displacement of the gravitational axis to the naviculocunei-form joint. 3. Faulty leg crossing in utero resulting in an abnormal pelvofemoral-tibial design is discussed and its important consequences in the vulnerable 40 per cent of the population are emphasized. 4. The kinesiomechanics of the leg, ankle and foot is reviewed. 5. The radiographic parameters of medial tibiotalar torsion are presented, as well as the multiple facets of the clinical examination. 6. Methods of treatment depending on age and severity of the disorder are recommended. Surgery, detortional casts, and corrective footwear are discussed. Shoes presently available are inadequate for tibiotalar torsion and therefore engineering principles must be applied in the design and construction of all footwear, including sneakers and sportswear. This can be done only if the pathological biomechanics of this group of disorders is recognized. Biplane proximal tibial osteotomy is recommended in refractory cases, especially when tibiotalar torsion is demonstrated. 7. After 30 years of experience, the author finds that results with these patients have been uniformly good to excellent, depending on age and mode of treatment. 8. In medial tibiotalar torsion, the consequent adaptive changes are readily observed, but rarely are they recognized as the inevitable sequelae of medial tibiotalar torsion. 9. Adaptive compensating disorders are identified and their mechanism described. 10. The management of

  14. Acute hemifacial dystonia possibly induced by clebopride.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Plastino, Massimiliano; Marcello, Maria Giovanna; Mungari, Pasquale; Fava, Antonietta

    2009-01-01

    Dystonic reactions produce twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal posturing. Severe dystonic reactions have been shown to occur in concert with numerous medications. This report details the case of a patient who developed hemifacial dystonia as acute side reaction from administration of clebopride for dyspeptic prophylaxis. When the drug was immediately stopped, the dystonic posture disappeared completely within 2 weeks. The use of clebopride may be associated with not only a reversible or persistent parkinsonism syndrome but also hemifacial dystonia; therefore, attention must be drawn to this possible side effect.

  15. [Bilateral Pallidotomy for Tardive Dystonia:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Kohara, Kotaro; Taira, Takaomi; Horisawa, Shiro; Hanada, Tomoko; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2017-11-01

    Tardive dystonia is a movement disorder related to the use of dopamine-receptor-blocking drugs. Several reports have shown that deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus(GPi-DBS)is effective in treating tardive dystonia. However, a few reports demonstrated the efficacy of ablation of the GPi(pallidotomy). We herein report a case of tardive dystonia successfully treated with bilateral pallidotomy. A 32-year-old man developed severe tardive dystonia 10 years after the chronic use of antipsychotic drugs. Withdrawal of the drugs and botulinum toxin injections were ineffective. The patient underwent bilateral pallidotomy for tardive dystonia because of rejection of the implanted DBS devices. Significant improvement was observed, with a 95% decrease in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale(BFMDRS)movement score, and no severe adverse events occurred. Symptomatic relief persisted for nine months. Pallidotomy is a feasible and efficacious procedure for tardive dystonia treatment without the use of hardware implantations.

  16. Specific muscle EMG biofeedback for hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Deepak, K K; Behari, M

    1999-12-01

    Currently available therapies have only limited success in patients having hand dystonia (writer's cramp). We employed specific muscle EMG biofeedback (audio feedback of the EMG from proximal large muscles of the limb that show abnormally high activity during writing) in 10 of 13 consecutive patients (age, 19-62 years; all males) with a duration of illness from 6 months to 8 years. In three patients, biofeedback was not applicable due to lack of abnormal EMG values. Nine patients showed dystonic posture during writing and had hypertrophy of one or more large muscles of the dominant hand. The remaining four patients showed either involvement of small muscles or muscle wasting. Ten patients were given four or more sessions of EMG audio biofeedback from the proximal large limb muscles, which showed maximum EMG activity. They also practiced writing daily with the relaxed limb for 5 to 10 min. Nine patients showed improvement from 37 to 93% in handwriting, alleviation of discomfort, and pain (assessed on a visual analogue scale). One patient did not show any improvement. Thus EMG biofeedback improved the clinical and electromyographic picture in those patients with hand dystonia who showed EMG overactivity of proximal limb muscles during writing. This specific type of EMG biofeedback appears to be a promising tool for hand dystonia and might also be applied to other types of dystonias.

  17. Inherited dystonias: clinical features and molecular pathways.

    PubMed

    Weisheit, Corinne E; Pappas, Samuel S; Dauer, William T

    2018-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed dramatic increases in understanding of the genetics of dystonia - a movement disorder characterized by involuntary twisting and abnormal posture. Hampered by a lack of overt neuropathology, researchers are investigating isolated monogenic causes to pinpoint common molecular mechanisms in this heterogeneous disease. Evidence from imaging, cellular, and murine work implicates deficiencies in dopamine neurotransmission, transcriptional dysregulation, and selective vulnerability of distinct neuronal populations to disease mutations. Studies of genetic forms of dystonia are also illuminating the developmental dependence of disease symptoms that is typical of many forms of the disease. As understanding of monogenic forms of dystonia grows, a clearer picture will develop of the abnormal motor circuitry behind this relatively common phenomenology. This chapter focuses on the current data covering the etiology and epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of four monogenic forms of isolated dystonia: DYT-TOR1A, DYT-THAP1, DYT-GCH1, and DYT-GNAL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mind the gap: temporal discrimination and dystonia.

    PubMed

    Sadnicka, A; Daum, C; Cordivari, C; Bhatia, K P; Rothwell, J C; Manohar, S; Edwards, M J

    2017-06-01

    One of the most widely studied perceptual measures of sensory dysfunction in dystonia is the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) (the shortest interval at which subjects can perceive that there are two stimuli rather than one). However the elevated thresholds described may be due to a number of potential mechanisms as current paradigms test not only temporal discrimination but also extraneous sensory and decision-making parameters. In this study two paradigms designed to better quantify temporal processing are presented and a decision-making model is used to assess the influence of decision strategy. 22 patients with cervical dystonia and 22 age-matched controls completed two tasks (i) temporal resolution (a randomized, automated version of existing TDT paradigms) and (ii) interval discrimination (rating the length of two consecutive intervals). In the temporal resolution task patients had delayed (P = 0.021) and more variable (P = 0.013) response times but equivalent discrimination thresholds. Modelling these effects suggested this was due to an increased perceptual decision boundary in dystonia with patients requiring greater evidence before committing to decisions (P = 0.020). Patient performance on the interval discrimination task was normal. Our work suggests that previously observed abnormalities in TDT may not be due to a selective sensory deficit of temporal processing as decision-making itself is abnormal in cervical dystonia. © 2017 EAN.

  19. Bruxism in craniocervical dystonia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Borie, Laetitia; Langbour, Nicolas; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Ella, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Bruxism pathophysiology remains unclear, and its occurrence has been poorly investigated in movement disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of bruxism in patients with craniocervical dystonia vs. normal controls and to determine its associated clinical features. This is a prospective-control study. A total of 114 dystonic subjects (45 facial dystonia, 69 cervical dystonia) and 182 controls were included. Bruxism was diagnosed using a hetero-questionnaire and a clinical examination performed by trained dentists. Occurrence of bruxism was compared between the different study populations. A binomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine which clinical features influenced bruxism occurrence in each population. The frequency of bruxism was significantly higher in the dystonic group than in normal controls but there was no difference between facial and cervical dystonia. It was also higher in women than in men. Bruxism features were similar between normal controls and dystonic patients except for a higher score of temporomandibular jaw pain in the dystonic group. The higher frequency of bruxism in dystonic patients suggests that bruxism is increased in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction but that its nature does not differ from that seen in bruxers from the normal population.

  20. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  1. ANIMAL MODELS OF DYSTONIA: LESSONS FROM A MUTANT RAT

    PubMed Central

    LeDoux, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a motor sign characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which produce abnormal postures. Genetic factors contribute significantly to primary dystonia. In comparison, secondary dystonia can be caused by a wide variety of metabolic, structural, infectious, toxic and inflammatory insults to the nervous system. Although classically ascribed to dysfunction of the basal ganglia, studies of diverse animal models have pointed out that dystonia is a network disorder with important contributions from abnormal olivocerebellar signaling. In particular, work with the dystonic (dt) rat has engendered dramatic paradigm shifts in dystonia research. The dt rat manifests generalized dystonia caused by deficiency of the neuronally-restricted protein caytaxin. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies have shown that defects at the climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapse in the dt rat lead to abnormal bursting firing patterns in the cerebellar nuclei, which increases linearly with postnatal age. In a general sense, the dt rat has shown the scientific and clinical communities that dystonia can arise from dysfunctional cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, work with the dt rat has provided evidence that dystonia (1) is a neurodevelopmental network disorder and (2) can be driven by abnormal cerebellar output. In large part, work with other animal models has expanded upon studies in the dt rat and shown that primary dystonia is a multi-nodal network disorder associated with defective sensorimotor integration. In addition, experiments in genetically-engineered models have been used to examine the underlying cellular pathologies that drive primary dystonia. PMID:21081162

  2. Efficacy of Zolpidem for Dystonia: A Study Among Different Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yoshimichi; Sako, Wataru; Asanuma, Kotaro; Izumi, Yuishin; Miki, Tetsuro; Kaji, Ryuji

    2012-01-01

    Although there are some newly developed options to treat dystonia, its medical treatment is not always satisfactory. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine agonist with a high affinity on benzodiazepine subtype receptor BZ1 (ω1), was found to improve clinical symptoms of dystonia in a limited number of case reports. To investigate what subtype of dystonia is responsive to the therapy, we conducted an open label study to assess the efficacy of zolpidem (5–20 mg) in 34 patients suffering from miscellaneous types of dystonia using the Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Patients were entered into the study if they had been refractory to other medications as evaluated by BFMDRS (no change in the previous two successive visits). After zolpidem therapy, the scores in the patients as a whole were decreased from 7.2 ± 7.9 to 5.5 ± 5.0 (P = 0.042). Patients with generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome/blepharospasm, and hand dystonia improved in the scale by 27.8, 17.8, and 31.0%, respectively, whereas no improvement was found in cervical dystonia patients. Overall response rate among patients were comparable to that of trihexyphenidyl. Zolpidem may be a therapeutic option for generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome, and hand dystonia including musician’s. Drowsiness was the dose-limiting factor. PMID:22529836

  3. Torsion in gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieh, H. T.

    2018-02-01

    The potential conflict between torsion and gauge symmetry in the Riemann-Cartan curved spacetime was noted by Kibble in his 1961 pioneering paper and has since been discussed by many authors. Kibble suggested that, to preserve gauge symmetry, one should forgo the covariant derivative in favor of the ordinary derivative in the definition of the field strength Fμ ν for massless gauge theories, while for massive vector fields, covariant derivatives should be adopted. This view was further emphasized by Hehl et al. in their influential 1976 review paper. We address the question of whether this deviation from normal procedure by forgoing covariant derivatives in curved spacetime with torsion could give rise to inconsistencies in the theory, such as the quantum renormalizability of a realistic interacting theory. We demonstrate in this paper the one-loop renormalizability of a realistic gauge theory of gauge bosons interacting with Dirac spinors, such as the SU(3) chromodynamics, for the case of a curved Riemann-Cartan spacetime with totally antisymmetric torsion. This affirmative confirmation is one step toward providing justification for the assertion that the flat-space definition of the gauge-field strength should be adopted as the proper definition.

  4. Idiopathic hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Billiard, Michel; Sonka, Karel

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic hypersomnia continues to evolve from the concept of "sleep drunkenness" introduced by Bedrich Roth in Prague in 1956 and the description of idiopathic hypersomnia with two forms, polysymptomatic and monosymptomatic, by the same Bedrich Roth in 1976. The diagnostic criteria of idiopathic hypersomnia have varied with the successive revisions of the International classifications of sleep disorders, including the recent 3rd edition. No epidemiological studies have been conducted so far. Disease onset occurs most often during adolescence or young adulthood. A familial background is often present but rigorous studies are still lacking. The key manifestation is hypersomnolence. It is often accompanied by sleep of long duration and debilitating sleep inertia. Polysomnography (PSG) followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) is mandatory, as well as a 24 h PSG or a 2-wk actigraphy in association with a sleep log to ensure a total 24-h sleep time longer than or equal to 66O minutes, when the mean sleep latency on the MSLT is longer than 8 min. Yet, MSLT is neither sensitive nor specific and the polysomnographic diagnostic criteria require continuous readjustment and biologic markers are still lacking. Idiopathic hypersomnia is most often a chronic condition though spontaneous remission may occur. The condition is disabling, sometimes even more so than narcolepsy type 1 or 2. Based on neurochemical, genetic and immunological analyses as well as on exploration of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep, various pathophysiological hypotheses have been proposed. Differential diagnosis involves a number of diseases and it is not yet clear whether idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy type 2 are not the same condition. Until now, the treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia has mirrored that of the sleepiness of narcolepsy type 1 or 2. The first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of modafinil have just been published, as well as a double

  5. Dystonia and Paroxysmal Dyskinesias: Under-Recognized Movement Disorders in Domestic Animals? A Comparison with Human Dystonia/Paroxysmal Dyskinesias

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Angelika; Hamann, Melanie; Wissel, Jörg; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements, and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis, and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e., dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals. PMID:26664992

  6. Dystonia and Paroxysmal Dyskinesias: Under-Recognized Movement Disorders in Domestic Animals? A Comparison with Human Dystonia/Paroxysmal Dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Richter, Angelika; Hamann, Melanie; Wissel, Jörg; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements, and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis, and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e., dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals.

  7. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-02-15

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ε-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients.

  8. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T.; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients. PMID:22080833

  9. Intermittent Ovarian Torsion in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Young, Randall; Cork, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian torsion during pregnancy is a fairly uncommon complication with a high patient morbidity and fetal mortality if not immediately treated. Ovarian torsion should be considered a clinical diagnosis, and a high level of clinical suspicion is needed by the practitioner to ensure that this diagnosis is not missed. We present an unusual case of intermittent ovarian torsion discussing both the presentation and the operative and post-operative management. PMID:29849404

  10. Current and future medical treatment in primary dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Delnooz, Cathérine C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder, characterized by involuntary and sustained contractions of opposing muscles causing twisting movements and abnormal postures. It is often a disabling disorder that has a significant impact on physical and psychosocial wellbeing. The medical therapeutic armamentarium used in practice is quite extensive, but for many of these interventions formal proof of efficacy is lacking. Exceptions are the use of botulinum toxin in patients with cervical dystonia, some forms of cranial dystonia (in particular, blepharospasm) and writer’s cramp; deep brain stimulation of the pallidum in generalized and segmental dystonia; and high-dose trihexyphenidyl in young patients with segmental and generalized dystonia. In order to move this field forward, we not only need better trials that examine the effect of current treatment interventions, but also a further understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia as a first step to design and test new therapies that are targeted at the underlying biologic and neurophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:22783371

  11. Current and emerging strategies for treatment of childhood dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both (Sanger et al. 2003). Dystonia is a devastating neurological condition that prevents the acquisition of normal motor skills during critical periods of development in children. Moreover, it is particularly debilitating in children when dystonia affects the upper extremities such that learning and consolidation of common daily motor actions are impeded. Thus, the treatment and rehabilitation of dystonia is a challenge that continuously requires exploration of novel interventions. This review will initially describe the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of the motor impairments found in childhood dystonia followed by the clinical measurement tools that are available to document the presence and severity of symptoms. Finally, we will discuss the state-of-the-art of therapeutic options for childhood dystonia, with particular emphasis on emergent and innovative strategies. PMID:25835254

  12. Pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with primary generalised or segmental dystonia: 5-year follow-up of a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Jens; Wolters, Alexander; Kupsch, Andreas; Müller, Jörg; Kühn, Andrea A; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Poewe, Werner; Hering, Sascha; Eisner, Wilhelm; Müller, Jan-Uwe; Deuschl, Günther; Pinsker, Marcus O; Skogseid, Inger-Marie; Roeste, Geir Ketil; Krause, Martin; Tronnier, Volker; Schnitzler, Alfons; Voges, Jürgen; Nikkhah, Guido; Vesper, Jan; Classen, Joseph; Naumann, Markus; Benecke, Reiner

    2012-12-01

    after surgery, pallidal neurostimulation continues to be an effective and relatively safe treatment option for patients with severe idiopathic dystonia. This long-term observation provides further evidence in favour of pallidal neurostimulation as a first-line treatment for patients with medically intractable, segmental, or generalised dystonia. Medtronic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sporadic adult onset dystonia: sensory abnormalities as an endophenotype in unaffected relatives

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Richard; O'Dwyer, John P; Sheikh, Ifthikar H; O'Riordan, Sean; Lynch, Tim; Hutchinson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Most patients with adult onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) have the sporadic form of the disease. They may however be the only manifesting family members of a poorly penetrant genetic disorder. Sensory changes, including structural abnormalities of the primary sensory cortex, are found in AOPTD. Spatial discrimination threshold (SDT), a measure of sensory cortical organisation, is abnormal in AOPTD and in unaffected relatives of patients with familial AOPTD. Our hypothesis was that abnormal SDTs might be found in unaffected relatives of patients with sporadic AOPTD. Methods SDTs were assessed at the index finger bilaterally by a grating orientation task. Normal age related SDTs were derived from 141 control subjects aged 20–64 years. SDTs were considered abnormal when greater than 2.5 SD above the control mean. In total, 105 of 171 (61%) eligible unaffected siblings and offspring of patients with cervical dystonia had SDT examined. Results Fourteen of 48 siblings (29%) and 10 of 57 (18%) offspring were found to have an abnormal SDT. Only five of the 20 patients examined had abnormal SDTs. In 11 of the 25 families, no abnormality was found in an unaffected relative. In the 14 families where at least one unaffected relative had an abnormal SDT, 14 of 37 siblings (38%) and 10 of 33 offspring (30%) had abnormal SDTs. Conclusion Sensory abnormalities found in unaffected relatives of patients with apparently sporadic AOPTD may be a surrogate marker for the carriage of an abnormal gene. PMID:17702779

  14. The neurophysiological features of myoclonus-dystonia and differentiation from other dystonias.

    PubMed

    Popa, Traian; Milani, Paolo; Richard, Aliénor; Hubsch, Cécile; Brochard, Vanessa; Tranchant, Christine; Sadnicka, Anna; Rothwell, John; Vidailhet, Marie; Meunier, Sabine; Roze, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a combination of myoclonic jerks and mild to moderate dystonia. The syndrome is related to ε-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene mutations in about half the typical cases. Whether the M-D phenotype reflects a primary dysfunction of the cerebellothalamocortical pathway or of the striatopallidothalamocortical pathway is unclear. The exact role of an additional cortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of M-D is also unknown. To clarify the neurophysiological features of M-D and discuss whether M-D due to SGCE deficiency differs from other primary dystonias. We studied a referred sample of 12 patients with M-D (mean [SD] age, 28.8 [6.2] years; age range, 19-38 years; 5 women) belonging to 11 unrelated families with a proven mutation or deletion of the SGCE gene and a group of 12 age- and sex-matched healthy control individuals. Every participant underwent 3 sessions exploring the excitability of the primary motor cortex, the response of the primary motor cortex to a plasticity-inducing protocol, and the cerebellar-dependent eye-blink classic conditioning (EBCC). The clinical evaluation of patients included the Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale and Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Myoclonus-dystonia with a proven SGCE mutation. We measured resting and active motor thresholds, and short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation. The plasticity of the motor cortex was evaluated before and for 30 minutes after 600 pulses of rapid paired associative stimulation. The cerebellar functioning was evaluated with the number of conditioned responses during the 6 blocks of EBCC and 1 extinction block. All data were compared between the 2 groups. For patients, correlations were explored between electrophysiological data and clinical scores. We found lower membrane excitability of the corticocortical axons and normal intracortical γ-aminobutyric acid inhibition in contrast with what has been described in other

  15. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias.

    PubMed

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Altenmüller, Eckart; Alter, Katharine; Alterman, Ron L; Chen, Robert; Frucht, Steven; Furuya, Shinichi; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H A; Kimberley, Teresa J; Lungu, Codrin; Perlmutter, Joel S; Prudente, Cecília N; Hallett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer's cramp, runner's dystonia, or musician's dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including: the development of

  16. Successful treatment of childhood onset symptomatic dystonia with levodopa.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, N A; Thompson, P D; Scadding, J W; Marsden, C D

    1993-01-01

    Three patients with childhood onset symptomatic dystonia responded to levodopa. None fulfilled criteria for a diagnosis of "dopa responsive dystonia" (Segawa's disease). One may have had athetoid cerebral palsy for almost 25 years. All obtained dramatic and sustained benefit from levodopa therapy. A therapeutic trial of levodopa is advised in all patients in whom dystonia has developed in childhood or early adult life, regardless of suspected aetiology or duration of symptoms. PMID:8350101

  17. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Altenmüller, Eckart; Alter, Katharine; Alterman, Ron L.; Chen, Robert; Frucht, Steven; Furuya, Shinichi; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H. A.; Kimberley, Teresa J.; Lungu, Codrin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Prudente, Cecília N.; Hallett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including: the development of

  18. A pilot trial of square biphasic pulse deep brain stimulation for dystonia: The BIP dystonia study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Leonardo; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Ahmed, Bilal; Deeb, Wissam; Jesus, Sol De; Skinner, Jared; Terza, Matthew J; Akbar, Umer; Raike, Robert S; Hass, Chris J; Okun, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    Dystonia often has inconsistent benefits and requires more energy-demanding DBS settings. Studies suggest that squared biphasic pulses could provide significant clinical benefit; however, dystonia patients have not been explored. To assess safety and tolerability of square biphasic DBS in dystonia patients. This study included primary generalized or cervical dystonia patients with bilateral GPi DBS. Square biphasic pulses were implemented and patients were assessed at baseline, immediately postwashout, post-30-minute washout, 1 hour post- and 2 hours postinitiation of investigational settings. Ten participants completed the study. There were no patient-reported or clinician-observed side effects. There was improvement across time on the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (χ 2  = 10.7; P = 0.031). Similar improvement was detected in objective gait measurements. Square biphasic stimulation appears safe and feasible in dystonia patients with GPi DBS. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effectiveness particularly in cervical and gait features. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Dystonia and Cerebellar Degeneration in the Leaner Mouse Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Raike, Robert S.; Hess, Ellen J.; Jinnah, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar degeneration is traditionally associated with ataxia. Yet, there are examples of both ataxia and dystonia occurring in individuals with cerebellar degeneration. There is also substantial evidence suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction alone may cause dystonia. The types of cerebellar defects that may cause ataxia, dystonia, or both have not been delineated. In the current study, we explored the relationship between cerebellar degeneration and dystonia using the leaner mouse mutant. Leaner mice have severe dystonia that is associated with dysfunctional and degenerating cerebellar Purkinje cells. Whereas the density of Purkinje cells was not significantly reduced in 4 week-old leaner mice, approximately 50% of the neurons were lost by 34 weeks of age. On the other hand, the dystonia and associated functional disability became significantly less severe during this same interval. In other words, dystonia improved as Purkinje cells were lost, suggesting that dysfunctional Purkinje cells, rather than Purkinje cell loss, contribute to the dystonia. These results provide evidence that distorted cerebellar function may cause dystonia and support the concept that different types of cerebellar defects can have different functional consequences. PMID:25791619

  20. Dystonia and Tremor: The Clinical Syndromes with Isolated Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del

    2016-01-01

    Background Dystonia and tremor share many commonalities. Isolated tremor is part of the phenomenological spectrum of isolated dystonia and of essential tremor. The occurrence of subtle features of dystonia may allow one to differentiate dystonic tremor from essential tremor. Diagnostic uncertainty is enhanced when no features of dystonia are found in patients with a tremor syndrome, raising the question whether the observed phenomenology is an incomplete form of dystonia. Methods Known forms of syndromes with isolated tremor are reviewed. Diagnostic uncertainties between tremor and dystonia are put into perspective. Results The following isolated tremor syndromes are reviewed: essential tremor, head tremor, voice tremor, jaw tremor, and upper-limb tremor. Their varied phenomenology is analyzed and appraised in the light of a possible relationship with dystonia. Discussion Clinicians making a diagnosis of isolated tremor should remain vigilant for the detection of features of dystonia. This is in keeping with the recent view that isolated tremor may be an incomplete phenomenology of dystonia. PMID:27152246

  1. Impaired Inhibitory Force Feedback in Fixed Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Mugge, Winfred; Schouten, Alfred C; van Hilten, Jacobus J; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2016-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a multifactorial disorder associated with an aberrant host response to tissue injury. About 25% of CRPS patients suffer poorly understood involuntary sustained muscle contractions associated with dysfunctional reflexes that result in abnormal postures (fixed dystonia). A recent modeling study simulated fixed dystonia (FD) caused by aberrant force feedback. The current study aims to validate this hypothesis by experimentally recording the modulation of reflexive force feedback in patients with FD. CRPS patients with and without FD, patients with FD but without CRPS, as well as healthy controls participated in the experiment. Three task instructions and three perturbation characteristics were used to evoke a wide range of responses to force perturbations. During position tasks ("maintain posture"), healthy subjects as well as patients resisted the perturbations, becoming more stiff than when being relaxed (i.e., the relax task). Healthy subjects and CRPS patients without FD were both more compliant during force tasks ("maintain force") than during relax tasks, meaning they actively gave way to the imposed forces. Remarkably, the patients with FD failed to do so. A neuromuscular model was fitted to the experimental data to separate the distinct contributions of position, velocity and force feedback, as well as co-contraction to the motor behavior. The neuromuscular modeling indicated that inhibitory force feedback is deregulated in patients with FD, for both CRPS and non-CRPS patients. From previously published simulation results and the present experimental study, it is concluded that aberrant force feedback plays a role in fixed dystonia.

  2. [Sotos syndrome associated with focal dystonia].

    PubMed

    Bravo, M; Chacón, J; Bautista, E; Pérez-Camacho, I; Trujillo, A; Grande, M A

    Sotos syndrome is a form of infantile gigantism characterized by excessive body size from the time of birth, particular facies, acromegalic changes and signs of non-progressive cerebral involvement. The etiology is unknown. Diagnosis is based on somatometric data and the particular phenotype traits. Biochemical and endocrine studies are normal. Torticollis is a focal dystonia and therefore more common in adults. A 20 year old woman with macrosomic features since birth presented with: weight 104 kg, height 182 cm; prognathism, hypertelorism, a broad over hanging forehead with a high hair line; large ears, hands and feet; torticollis towards the right with elevation and anteroversion of the right shoulder which caused symptomatic scoliosis. She was bradypsychic and rather slow in speech. The complementary tests done (cerebral and cervical CT and MR, bone gammography, evoked potentials, EMG-ENG, sural nerve biopsy, biopsy of skin and muscle, EEG and hormone and biochemistry studies) were normal. The torticollis was treated with botulinus toxin and improved considerably, as did the scoliosis. To date, dystonia has not been described in association with Sotos syndrome. This may be a causal association, or even perhaps hereditary, since the patient's mother had dystonia (in the form of blepharospasm).

  3. Idiopathic Hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) is a chronic neurologic disorder of daytime sleepiness, accompanied by long sleep times, unrefreshing sleep, difficulty in awakening, cognitive dysfunction, and autonomic symptoms. The cause is unknown; a genetic predisposition is suggested. Autonomic, inflammatory, or immune dysfunction has been proposed. Diagnosis involves a clinical history and objective testing. There are no approved treatments for IH, but modafinil is typically considered first-line. A substantial fraction of patients with IH are refractory or intolerant to standard treatments, and different treatment strategies using novel therapeutics are necessary. Even with current treatment options, quality of life and safety may remain impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Connectome-Wide Phenotypical and Genotypical Associations in Focal Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Fuertinger, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Isolated focal dystonia is a debilitating movement disorder of unknown pathophysiology. Early studies in focal dystonias have pointed to segregated changes in brain activity and connectivity. Only recently has the notion that dystonia pathophysiology may lie in abnormalities of large-scale brain networks appeared in the literature. Here, we outline a novel concept of functional connectome-wide alterations that are linked to dystonia phenotype and genotype. Using a neural community detection strategy and graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data in human patients with the laryngeal form of dystonia (LD) and healthy controls (both males and females), we identified an abnormally widespread hub formation in LD, which particularly affected the primary sensorimotor and parietal cortices and thalamus. Left thalamic regions formed a delineated functional community that highlighted differences in network topology between LD patients with and without family history of dystonia. Conversely, marked differences in the topological organization of parietal regions were found between phenotypically different forms of LD. The interface between sporadic genotype and adductor phenotype of LD yielded four functional communities that were primarily governed by intramodular hub regions. Conversely, the interface between familial genotype and abductor phenotype was associated with numerous long-range hub nodes and an abnormal integration of left thalamus and basal ganglia. Our findings provide the first comprehensive atlas of functional topology across different phenotypes and genotypes of focal dystonia. As such, this study constitutes an important step toward defining dystonia as a large-scale network disorder, understanding its causative pathophysiology, and identifying disorder-specific markers. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The architecture of the functional connectome in focal dystonia was analyzed in a large population of patients with laryngeal dystonia. Breaking with the

  5. Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

  6. High rates of fatigue and sleep disturbances in dystonia.

    PubMed

    Wagle Shukla, A; Brown, R; Heese, K; Jones, J; Rodriguez, R L; Malaty, I M; Okun, M S; Kluger, B M

    2016-10-01

    Nonmotor symptoms in dystonia are increasingly recognized to impair the quality of life. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of fatigue and sleep disturbances in dystonia and to ascertain their impact on quality of life using standardized questionnaires. Dystonia patients presenting to a Botulinum toxin clinic were prospectively administered Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) for assessment of fatigue and sleep disturbances. Health-related Quality of life (HRQOL) was determined using MOS SF-36 scale and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Ninety-one patients with dystonia participated (66 women, 25 men, mean age 60 ± 17 years). Nine subjects had generalized dystonia, 18 segmental dystonia and 64 had focal dystonia. Moderate to severe fatigue was present in 43% of the cohort (FSS), excessive daytime somnolence in 27% (ESS) and other sleep disturbances in 26% (PDSS). FSS and MFI scores correlated significantly with HRQOL even when controlled for depression and sleep disturbances. Excessive daytime somnolence and nocturnal sleep disturbances correlated significantly with the HRQOL; however, these effects were not seen for daytime somnolence when controlled for depression. Psychometric testing found adequate reliabilities and convergent validities for both fatigue and sleep scales. Fatigue and sleep disturbances revealed high prevalence rates in this large, first of its dystonia study. They negatively impacted the quality of life even when controlled for comorbid depression.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset primary dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as seizures or a loss of intellectual function (dementia). Early-onset primary dystonia does not affect a person's intelligence. On ... of torsinA. The altered protein's effect on the function of nerve cells in the brain ... with early-onset primary dystonia do not have a loss of nerve ...

  8. Focal dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, pathophysiology, triggering factors, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2010-03-01

    Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder that manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians develop musician's dystonia, and in many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. The pathophysiology of the disorder is not completely clarified. Findings include 1) reduced inhibition at different levels of the central nervous system, 2) maladaptive plasticity and altered sensory perception, and 3) alterations in sensorimotor integration. Epidemiological data demonstrate a higher risk for those musicians who play instruments requiring maximal fine-motor skills. For instruments where workload differs across hands, focal dystonia appears more often in the more intensely used hand. In psychological studies, musicians with dystonia have more anxiety and perfectionist tendencies than healthy musicians. These findings strengthen the assumption that behavioral factors may be involved in the etiology of musician's dystonia. Preliminary findings also suggest a genetic contribution to focal task-specific dystonia with phenotypic variations including musician's dystonia. Treatment options include pharmacological interventions, such as trihexyphenidyl or botulinum toxin-A, as well as retraining programs and ergonomic changes in the instrument. Patient-tailored treatment strategies may significantly improve the situation of musicians with focal dystonia. Positive results after retraining and unmonitored technical exercises underline the benefit of an active involvement of patients in the treatment process. Only a minority of musicians, however, return to normal motor control using the currently available therapies.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome (XDP): clinical and molecular genetic analysis. Brain Pathol. 1992 Oct;2(4):287-95. Review. Citation on PubMed Kaji R, Goto S, Tamiya G, Ando S, Makino S, Lee LV. Molecular dissection and anatomical basis of dystonia: X-linked ...

  10. Torsion Tests of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.

  11. Feedforward somatosensory inhibition is normal in cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa R; Ganos, Christos; Bhatia, Kailash P; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Insufficient cortical inhibition is a key pathophysiological finding in dystonia. Subliminal sensory stimuli were reported to transiently inhibit somatosensory processing. Here we investigated whether such subliminal feedforward inhibition is reduced in patients with cervical dystonia. Sixteen cervical dystonia patients and 16 matched healthy controls performed a somatosensory detection task. We measured the drop in sensitivity to detect a threshold-level digital nerve shock when it was preceded by a subliminal conditioning shock, compared to when it was not. Subliminal conditioning shocks reduced sensitivity to threshold stimuli to a similar extent in both patients and controls, suggesting that somatosensory subliminal feedforward inhibition is normal in cervical dystonia. Somatosensory feedforward inhibition was normal in this group of cervical dystonia patients. Our results qualify previous concepts of a general dystonic deficit in sensorimotor inhibitory processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Botulinum toxin for treatment of the focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yusaku

    2017-07-29

    Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscles contraction causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be tremulous. The precis diagnosis of dystonia is difficult for physicians because neurological brain imaging does not provide enough practical information. The diagnosis is depend on clinical experience of physicians. Botulinum toxin treatment is the accepted standard of care for patients with focal dystonia. Botulinum toxin treatment results in significant improvement of decreasing the symptom of dystonia. The success of treatment is dependent on muscle selection for treating involved muscles. Usually performance of botulinum toxin treatment is injected according to clinical experience of surface anatomy or clinical location method. However, the benefit of guidance of botulinum toxin treatment is improve outcome in dystonia. Injection techniques with ultra sound echogram or EMG guidance to identify dystonic muscles can be more benefit for patients.

  13. Embouchure dystonia--Portrait of a task-specific cranial dystonia.

    PubMed

    Frucht, Steven J

    2009-09-15

    Focal task-specific dystonia (FTSD) is an unusual disorder of motor control, which typically affects the hand but may also involve the face, jaw, and tongue. We report 89 musicians with dystonia of the embouchure (ED), the muscles of the lower face, jaw, and tongue used to control the flow of air into the mouthpiece of a woodwind or brass instrument. Symptoms of ED began at an average age of 36, were typically painless and only rarely were preceded by trauma. Specific musical techniques commonly triggered dystonia, often in one instrumental register. Task-specific embouchure tremor and lip-pulling ED phenotypes were common among high-register brass players (trumpet and French horn), whereas lip-locking occurred exclusively in low-register brass players (trombone and tuba). Jaw and tongue ED phenotypes occurred predominantly in woodwind players, and once present, frequently spread to speaking or eating. Six percent of all ED patients had coincident writer's cramp, suggesting a possible genetic predisposition to develop dystonia. We assessed two-point sensory discrimination in the upper lip, lower lip, and hand in ED patients, normal musicians, and nonmusician age-matched controls--there were no differences between groups. Once present, symptoms of ED did not remit and often disrupted careers and livelihoods. Better treatments are urgently needed for this unusual disorder of oral motor control.

  14. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes

  15. Does abnormal interhemispheric inhibition play a role in mirror dystonia?

    PubMed

    Sattler, Virginie; Dickler, Maya; Michaud, Martin; Meunier, Sabine; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2014-05-01

    The presence of mirror dystonia (dystonic movement induced by a specific task performed by the unaffected hand) in the dominant hand of writer's cramp patients when the nondominant hand is moved suggests an abnormal interaction between the 2 hemispheres. In this study we compare the level of interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) in 2 groups of patients with writer's cramp, one with the presence of a mirror dystonia and the other without as well as a control group. The level of bidirectional IHI was measured in wrist muscles with dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation with a 10-millisecond (short IHI) and a 40-millisecond (long IHI) interstimulus interval during rest and while holding a pen in 9 patients with mirror dystonia 7 without mirror dystonia, and 13 controls. The group of patients without mirror dystonia did not differ from the controls in their IHI level. In contrast, IHI was significantly decreased in the group of patients with mirror dystonia in comparison with the group without mirror dystonia and the controls in both wrist muscles of both the dystonic and unaffected hand whatever the resting or active condition (P = 0.001). The decrease of IHI level in the group of patients with mirror dystonia was negatively correlated with the severity and the duration of the disease: the weaker the level of IHI, the more severe was the disease and the longer its duration. Interhemispheric inhibition disturbances are most likely involved in the occurrence of mirror dystonia. This bilateral deficient inhibition further suggests the involvement of the unaffected hemisphere in the pathophysiology of unilateral dystonia. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Inverse problems for torsional modes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, C.

    1984-01-01

    Considers a spherically symmetric, non-rotating Earth consisting of an isotropic, perfect elastic material where the density and the S-wave velocity may have one or two discontinuities in the upper mantle. Shows that given the velocity throughout the mantle and the crust and given the density in the lower mantle, then the freqencies of the torsional oscillations of one angular order (one torsional spectrum), determine the density in the upper mantle and in the crust uniquely. If the velocity is known only in the lower mantle, then the frequencies of the torsional oscillations of two angular orders uniquely determine both the density and the velocity in the upper mantle and in the crust. In particular, the position and size of the discontinuities in the density and velocity are uniquely determined by two torsional spectra.-Author

  17. Torsional vibration of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurenbaum, Karl

    1932-01-01

    Exhaustive torsional-vibration investigations are required to determine the reliability of aircraft engines. A general outline of the methods used for such investigations and of the theoretical and mechanical means now available for this purpose is given, illustrated by example. True vibration diagrams are usually obtained from vibration measurements on the completed engine. Two devices for this purpose and supplementing each other, the D.V.L. torsiograph and the D.V.L. torsion recorder, are described in this report.

  18. [The adnexal torsion in children].

    PubMed

    Khemakhem, Rachid; Barhoumi, Amel; Matoussi, Nadia; Hidouri, Saida; Ghorbel, Sofiane; Nouira, Faouzi; Jlidi, Said; Ben Becheur, Saida; Chaouachi, Béji

    2008-05-01

    Adnexal torsion is the most frequent gynaecological emergency in children. It requires an early diagnosis and an urgent surgical treatment. to study the clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic aspect of adnexal torsion in paediatric population. This is a retrospective review of nine girls with the diagnosis of ovarian torsion observed over a 7 years period (January 1999 to December 2005). The average age is 9 years (extreme 6 to 13 years). This pathology was located in 5 cases on the right side and in 3 cases on the left side; a case of bilateral torsion of poly-cystic ovary was encountered in a girl with down syndrome. Clinical presentation is made in all the cases by abdominal pains and vomiting. The disorders of the transit and the urinary signs are associated in 3 and 2 cases respectively, the clinical examination objectified a pelvic defense in all the cases and an abdominal mass in 2 cases. Pelvic ultra-sonography was made in 6 observations and give the diagnosis of torsion of the ovary in 4 cases, whereas it was doubtful in the 2 remaining cases when an ovarian mass was observed. In the 3 remaining cases, this examination was not performed since one the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was retained and the patient operated in emergency. All the children of our series were operated; in 1/3 of the cases we found a necrosis of the ovary. 4 cases out of 9 present a torsion on pathologic ovary (cyst, dysplasia), whereas in the 5 remaining cases, we noted a torsion on healthy ovary. 4 young girls have undergoes a annexectomy, of which one was bilateral. The evolution was favorable in all the cases. Adnexal torsion is a surgical emergency that need an early diagnosis and management to preserve ovarian function in girls and Doppler sonography every must be done every time there is a pelvic pain without fever in girls

  19. Isolated penile torsion in newborns.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Egemen; Gundogdu, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    We reported on the incidence of isolated penile torsion among our healthy children and our approach to this anomaly. Between 2011 and 2014, newborn babies with penile torsion were classified according to the angle of torsion. Surgical correction (penile degloving and reattachment for moderate cases and dorsal dartos flap technique in case of resistance) after 6 months was advised to the babies with rotations more than 45°. Among 1000 newborn babies, 200 isolated penile torsions were found, and among these, 43 had torsions more than 45°, and 4 of these had angles greater than 90°. The mean angle of the rotations was found 30.45° (median: 20°). In total, 8 children with 60° torsions were previously circumcised. Surgery was performed on 19 patients, with a mean patient age of 12 ± 2 months. Of these 19, 13 babies were corrected with degloving and reattachment. This technique was not enough on the remaining 6 patients; therefore, derotational dorsal dartos flap was added to correct the torsion. After a mean of 15.6 ± 9.8 months, residual penile rotation, less than 15°, was found only in 2 children. The incidence of isolated penile torsion is 20% in newborns. However, rotation more than 45° angles are seen in 4.3% of male babies. Correction is not necessary in mild degrees, and penile degloving with reattachment is enough in most cases. If the initial correction is insufficient, dorsal dartos flap rotation is easy and effective. Prior circumcision neither disturbs the operative procedure nor affects the outcomes.

  20. Secondary Dystonia-Clinical Clues and Syndromic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder defined by involuntary sustained muscle spasms and unusual postures. Etiologically, dystonic syndromes can be broadly divided into primary and secondary forms, dystonia-plus syndromes and heredodegenerative forms. In particular, diagnosis of secondary dystonic syndromes can be challenging in view of the variety of causes. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight some clinical clues and syndromic associations as well as investigational findings which may be helpful in the approach to a patient with suspected secondary dystonia. Methods: We outline characteristic clinical and neuroimaging findings which may be directive in the diagnostic process of dystonia patients and facilitate making the correct diagnosis, thus allowing initiating the best treatment. Results: Secondary causes of dystonia include, among others, strategic brain lesions of various origins, metabolic disease, neurodegenerative conditions, and previous exposure to drugs or toxins. Presence of clinical signs including prominent oromandibular involvement, eye movement disorders, retinitis pigmentosa, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, parkinsonism or progressive dementia should alert the clinician to consider a secondary cause. Strategic lesions within the basal ganglia, but also within the brainstem, cerebellum or cortical areas may underlie dystonia and should thus be excluded. Conclusions: When thorough clinical examination reveals features atypical of primary dystonia, syndromic associations may help the clinician to narrow down the list of differential diagnosis. Directive investigations like neuroimaging may confirm the clinical suspicion. PMID:24868358

  1. The genetics of dystonia: new twists in an old tale

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Gavin; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2013-01-01

    Dystonia is a common movement disorder seen by neurologists in clinic. Genetic forms of the disease are important to recognize clinically and also provide valuable information about possible pathogenic mechanisms within the wider disorder. In the past few years, with the advent of new sequencing technologies, there has been a step change in the pace of discovery in the field of dystonia genetics. In just over a year, four new genes have been shown to cause primary dystonia (CIZ1, ANO3, TUBB4A and GNAL), PRRT2 has been identified as the cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dystonia and other genes, such as SLC30A10 and ATP1A3, have been linked to more complicated forms of dystonia or new phenotypes. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding genetic forms of dystonia—related to both new and well-known genes alike—and incorporating genetic, clinical and molecular information. We discuss the mechanistic insights provided by the study of the genetic causes of dystonia and provide a helpful clinical algorithm to aid clinicians in correctly predicting the genetic basis of various forms of dystonia. PMID:23775978

  2. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan B; Delong, Mahlon R; Fahn, Stanley; Fung, Victor S C; Hallett, Mark; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, Hyder A; Klein, Christine; Lang, Anthony E; Mink, Jonathan W; Teller, Jan K

    2013-06-15

    This report describes the consensus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus development methodology during 3 in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be tremulous. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Dystonia is classified along 2 axes: clinical characteristics, including age at onset, body distribution, temporal pattern and associated features (additional movement disorders or neurological features); and etiology, which includes nervous system pathology and inheritance. The clinical characteristics fall into several specific dystonia syndromes that help to guide diagnosis and treatment. We provide here a new general definition of dystonia and propose a new classification. We encourage clinicians and researchers to use these innovative definition and classification and test them in the clinical setting on a variety of patients with dystonia. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan B.; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Fahn, Stanley; Fung, Victor S.C.; Hallett, Mark; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H.A.; Klein, Christine; Lang, Anthony E.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Teller, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the consensus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus development methodology during three in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be tremulous. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Dystonia is classified along two axes: clinical characteristics, including age at onset, body distribution, temporal pattern and associated features (additional movement disorders or neurological features), and etiology, which includes nervous system pathology and inheritance. The clinical characteristics fall into several specific dystonia syndromes that help to guide diagnosis and treatment. We provide here a new general definition of dystonia and propose a new classification. We encourage clinicians and researchers to use these innovative definition and classification and test them in the clinical setting on a variety of patients with dystonia. PMID:23649720

  4. [Paroxysmal stereotypy-tic-dystonia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-López, J C; Martí-Herrero, M; Fernández-Burriel, M; Toledo-Bravo de Laguna, L; Domínguez-Ramírez, S; Fortea-Sevilla, S

    We report the cases of four males from four different families, who presented paroxysmal episodes from the 1st 2nd year. These episodes were characterised by asymmetrical bilateral dystonia of the upper limbs, predominantly in both hands, and were associated with orofacial dyskinesias, stereotipies (jumping, arm flapping, etc.), facial tics and, occasionally, phonic tics. Consciousness is not affected in any of the cases. These movements are triggered in situations where the patient is relaxed or excited. They occur daily and last from a few seconds to 30 minutes. Between the bouts, they remain asymptomatic. Family cases suggest it is inherited by autosomal dominant transmission, perhaps linked to the X chromosome; in addition, two cases are sporadic. In the only adult, the movements progress to a series of rhythmic bilateral dystonic myoclonias and facial tics dyskinesias. All the studies carried out, EEG, hemogram, biochemical analysis, neuroimaging, copper and ceruloplasmin levels, were normal. 1. We report a non epileptic paroxysmal disorder originating in the extrapyramidal tracts with its own characteristics, with onset during early childhood, which is associated with stereotipies, tics and dystonia; 2. It occurs predominantly in males; 3. It is inherited by autosomal dominant transmission, or perhaps sex linked autosomal dominant inheritance, and there are also sporadic cases; 4. The range of clinical features is very wide and includes cases in which there are few symptoms to others where the extent and gravity of the disorder is very significant.

  5. Life satisfaction of musicians with focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Eich, C; Ioannou, C I; Altenmüller, E

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of musicians' dystonia (MD) on patients' life satisfaction. To assess general life satisfaction in patients with MD with regard to their health and jobs, in relation to the duration and course of the condition. We asked patients with MD and a group of healthy musicians (controls) to complete a life satisfaction questionnaire. We analysed responses from those who had to change their profession and those who did not, and we assessed life satisfaction scores in relation to the duration and the course of the condition. Of the 642 patients contacted, 295 responded (46%). We excluded 52 amateur musicians and analysed a sample of 243 patients with MD. We contacted an unknown number of healthy musicians and 57 responded. We found no differences in life satisfaction between patients and controls or between patients who had to change their profession and those who did not and no correlations between life satisfaction and the duration or the course of the disease. Musicians find a way to cope with dystonia, irrespective of the course of the disease or a change of profession. Patients should be made aware of self-regulatory mechanisms and the probability of being able to cope and be supported in selecting their goals and achieving them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...

  7. Quality of life in patients with craniocervical dystonia: Italian validation of the "Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58)" and the "Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24)".

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Margherita; Superbo, Maria; Defazio, Giovanni; Scaglione, Cesa Lorella Maria; Antelmi, Elena; Basini, Giacomo; Nassetti, Stefania; Pizza, Fabio; Plasmati, Rosaria; Liguori, Rocco

    2014-07-01

    Dystonia is a disabling and disfiguring disorder that can often affect many aspects of patients' daily lives, and lower their self-esteem. To date, quality of life (QoL) has been assessed in dystonic patients using generic measures that do not address the specific problems of this diagnostic group. Recently, two disease-specific scales "The Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58)" and the "Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24)" were validated for measuring QoL in craniocervical dystonia patients. No disease-specific scales for QoL for dystonic patients are currently available in Italian. The aim of our study was to produce and validate the Italian version of the CDIP-58 and CDQ-24. We obtained the Italian version of CDQ-24 and CDIP-58 with a back-translation design. Both scales were applied to a population of 94 craniocervical dystonia patients along with the Short Form 36 health-survey questionnaire (SF-36), both before and 4 weeks after botulinum toxin therapy. A group of 65 controls matched for sex, age and comorbidity underwent the SF-36. Internal consistency was satisfactory for all subscales. Both the CDIP-58 and CDQ-24 showed moderate to high correlations with similar items of the SF-36. Sensitivity to change was confirmed by highly significant improvements in all CDQ-24 subscales and by moderate improvements in three out of eight CDIP-58 subscales and total score. This is the first Italian study on QoL in dystonia patients. We validated the Italian version of two disease-specific questionnaires to evaluate QoL in craniocervical dystonia patients. These scales could be useful for both clinical practice and clinical trials.

  8. Constraining torsion with Gravity Probe B

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Yi; Guth, Alan H.; Cabi, Serkan

    2007-11-15

    It is well-entrenched folklore that all torsion gravity theories predict observationally negligible torsion in the solar system, since torsion (if it exists) couples only to the intrinsic spin of elementary particles, not to rotational angular momentum. We argue that this assumption has a logical loophole which can and should be tested experimentally, and consider nonstandard torsion theories in which torsion can be generated by macroscopic rotating objects. In the spirit of action=reaction, if a rotating mass like a planet can generate torsion, then a gyroscope would be expected to feel torsion. An experiment with a gyroscope (without nuclear spin) suchmore » as Gravity Probe B (GPB) can test theories where this is the case. Using symmetry arguments, we show that to lowest order, any torsion field around a uniformly rotating spherical mass is determined by seven dimensionless parameters. These parameters effectively generalize the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism and provide a concrete framework for further testing Einstein's general theory of relativity (GR). We construct a parametrized Lagrangian that includes both standard torsion-free GR and Hayashi-Shirafuji maximal torsion gravity as special cases. We demonstrate that classic solar system tests rule out the latter and constrain two observable parameters. We show that Gravity Probe B is an ideal experiment for further constraining nonstandard torsion theories, and work out the most general torsion-induced precession of its gyroscope in terms of our torsion parameters.« less

  9. [Severe generalized dystonia due to postradiotherapy cerebral calcifications].

    PubMed

    Chanson, J-B; Anheim, M; Lagha-Boukbiza, O; Fleury, M; Sellal, F; Tranchant, C

    2008-05-01

    Cerebral calcifications are a cause of secondary dystonia and may be an uncommon complication of radiotherapy. We report a very severe case of generalized dystonia due to postradiotherapy basal ganglia calcifications. An 8-year-old girl received 53 grays radiotherapy after surgery for craniopharyngioma. One year later she developed generalized dystonia. Computed tomography showed bilateral basal ganglia calcifications, especially of the lenticular nuclei. Pharmacological treatment with tetrabenazine, clonazepam and trihexiphenydile allowed a very limited improvement of dystonia; the course was complicated by dystonic storms and decompensations resulting from the iatrogenous panhypopituitarism. This case illustrates a severe complication of cranial irradiation which should be considered in the indications of this treatment, especially for children.

  10. Abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and impaired motor learning in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Yang, Guang; Li, Jindong; Doroodchi, Atbin; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-02-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonia. DYT11 M-D is caused by mutations in SGCE which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. SGCE is maternally imprinted and paternally expressed. Abnormal nuclear envelope has been reported in mouse models of DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia. However, it is not known whether similar alterations occur in DYT11 M-D. We developed a mouse model of DYT11 M-D using paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knockout (Sgce KO) mice and reported that they had myoclonus and motor coordination and learning deficits in the beam-walking test. However, the specific brain regions that contribute to these phenotypes have not been identified. Since ɛ-sarcoglycan is highly expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, here we examined the nuclear envelope in these cells using a transmission electron microscope and found that they are abnormal in Sgce KO mice. Our results put DYT11 M-D in a growing family of nuclear envelopathies. To analyze the effect of loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, we produced paternally inherited cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific Sgce conditional knockout (Sgce pKO) mice. Sgce pKO mice showed motor learning deficits, while they did not show abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, robust motor deficits, or myoclonus. The results suggest that ɛ-sarcoglycan in the cerebellar Purkinje cells contributes to the motor learning, while loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in other brain regions may contribute to nuclear envelope abnormality, myoclonus and motor coordination deficits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and impaired motor learning in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T.; Yang, Guang; Li, JinDong; Doroodchi, Atbin; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2011-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonia. DYT11 M-D is caused by mutations in SGCE which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. SGCE is maternally imprinted and paternally expressed. Abnormal nuclear envelope has been reported in mouse models of DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia. However, it is not known whether similar alterations occur in DYT11 M-D. We developed a mouse model of DYT11 M-D using paternally-inherited Sgce heterozygous knockout (Sgce KO) mice and reported that they had myoclonus and motor coordination and learning deficits in the beam-walking test. However, the specific brain regions that contribute to these phenotypes have not been identified. Since ε-sarcoglycan is highly expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, here we examined the nuclear envelope in these cells using a transmission electron microscope and found that they are abnormal in Sgce KO mice. Our results put DYT11 M-D in a growing family of nuclear envelopathies. To analyze the effect of loss of ε-sarcoglycan function in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, we produced paternally-inherited cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific Sgce conditional knockout (Sgce pKO) mice. Sgce pKO mice showed motor learning deficits, while they did not show abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, robust motor deficits, or myoclonus. The results suggest that ε-sarcoglycan in the cerebellar Purkinje cells contributes to the motor learning, while loss of ε-sarcoglycan in other brain regions may contribute to nuclear envelope abnormality, myoclonus and motor coordination deficits. PMID:22040906

  12. Developing Gene Silencing for the Study and Treatment of Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0282 TITLE: Developing Gene Silencing for the Study and Treatment of Dystonia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Pedro...30/2014-9/29/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing Gene Silencing for the Study and Treatment of Dystonia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...function. More importantly, we will check if no side effects or toxicity occurs. Successful completion of our studies will move us a step closer to

  13. DYT1 dystonia increases risk taking in humans.

    PubMed

    Arkadir, David; Radulescu, Angela; Raymond, Deborah; Lubarr, Naomi; Bressman, Susan B; Mazzoni, Pietro; Niv, Yael

    2016-06-01

    It has been difficult to link synaptic modification to overt behavioral changes. Rodent models of DYT1 dystonia, a motor disorder caused by a single gene mutation, demonstrate increased long-term potentiation and decreased long-term depression in corticostriatal synapses. Computationally, such asymmetric learning predicts risk taking in probabilistic tasks. Here we demonstrate abnormal risk taking in DYT1 dystonia patients, which is correlated with disease severity, thereby supporting striatal plasticity in shaping choice behavior in humans.

  14. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-10-01

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  15. Development of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale: Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Comella, Cynthia L.; Fox, Susan H.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M.; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R.; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J.; Galpern, Wendy R.; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies. PMID:27088112

  16. Development of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale: Methodology.

    PubMed

    Comella, Cynthia L; Fox, Susan H; Bhatia, Kailash P; Perlmutter, Joel S; Jinnah, Hyder A; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J; Galpern, Wendy R; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2015-06-01

    We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies.

  17. Mental rotation and working memory in musicians' dystonia.

    PubMed

    Erro, Roberto; Hirschbichler, Stephanie T; Ricciardi, Lucia; Ryterska, Agata; Antelmi, Elena; Ganos, Christos; Cordivari, Carla; Tinazzi, Michele; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2016-11-01

    Mental rotation of body parts engages cortical-subcortical areas that are actually involved in the execution of a movement. Musicians' dystonia is a type of focal hand dystonia that is grouped together with writer's cramp under the rubric of "occupational dystonia", but it is unclear to which extent these two disorders share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous research has demonstrated patients with writer's cramp to have deficits in mental rotation of body parts. It is unknown whether patients with musicians' dystonia would display similar deficits, reinforcing the concept of shared pathophysiology. Eight patients with musicians' dystonia and eight healthy musicians matched for age, gender and musical education, performed a number of tasks assessing mental rotation of body parts and objects as well as verbal and spatial working memories abilities. There were no differences between patients and healthy musicians as to accuracy and reaction times in any of the tasks. Patients with musicians' dystonia have intact abilities in mentally rotating body parts, suggesting that this disorder relies on a highly selective disruption of movement planning and execution that manifests only upon playing a specific instrument. We further demonstrated that mental rotation of body parts and objects engages, at least partially, different cognitive networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Basic Timing Abilities Stay Intact in Patients with Musician's Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    van der Steen, M. C.; van Vugt, Floris T.; Keller, Peter E.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control group (N = 15) on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo). In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument. PMID:24667273

  19. Is focal hand dystonia associated with psychopathology?

    PubMed

    Grafman, J; Cohen, L G; Hallett, M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with focal hand dystonia have any significant psychopathology. We studied 20 patients with hand cramps who were participating in a therapeutic trial of botulinum toxin injections. Patients were interviewed and administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, a finger tapping test, and a choice serial reaction time test. Behavioral ratings were also obtained. Group statistics indicated that all personality scale scores and performances on motor tasks were within normal limits. Four out of 20 patients demonstrated mild depression. Trait anxiety scores were higher than state anxiety scores, suggesting that receiving medical treatment had a beneficial effect on mood. The number of depressive symptoms endorsed on the MMPI was correlated with reaction time speed but not finger dexterity. None of the 20 patients reported a remarkable psychiatric history. These results indicate that hand cramps are not associated with serious psychopathology.

  20. Infantile parkinsonism-dystonia: a dopamine "transportopathy".

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Craig

    2009-06-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) retrieves the neurotransmitter dopamine from the synaptic cleft at dopaminergic synapses. Variations in solute carrier family 6A, member 3 (SLC6A3/DAT1), the human gene encoding DAT, have been implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity and bipolar disorders, and DAT is a prominent site of action for drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine. In this issue of the JCI, Kurian et al. report that an autosomal recessive infantile parkinsonism-dystonia is caused by loss-of-function mutations in DAT that impair dopamine reuptake (see the related article beginning on page 1595). Though this might be predicted to result in dopamine excess in the synaptic cleft, it likely also causes depletion of presynaptic dopamine stores and possibly downregulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptor function, resulting in impairments in dopaminergic neurotransmission consistent with the clinical presentation. This is the first report of a genetic alteration in DAT function underlying a parkinsonian disorder.

  1. Memantine-induced chorea and dystonia.

    PubMed

    Borges, Letizia Goncalves; Bonakdarpour, Borna

    2017-04-01

    Memantine is an uncompetitive N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist and probably also has an indirect dopaminergic action at high concentrations. We describe a person with Alzheimer's disease who developed chorea and dystonia after inadvertently doubling of her daily dose by taking extended-release (XR) memantine twice daily, rather than once daily (planned dose memantine XR, 21 mg once daily), after the drug was switched from immediate release (IR, 10 mg twice daily). Memantine is rarely associated with movement disorders, but this case emphasises the need for awareness of potential problems when switching from memantine IR to XR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Torsion and buckling of open sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, H; Pretschner, W

    1936-01-01

    Following an abstract of the well-known theory of torsion in compression, the writers give directions for the practical calculation of the values of C(sub BT) (resistance to flexure and torsion) and i(sub SP(exp 2)), which determine the torsion. The second part treats the experiments in support of the theory of torsion of plain and flanged angle sections.

  3. Pancreatic torsion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579

  4. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri) En Español Read in Chinese What is idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder that ...

  5. Clinimetric Testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Comella, C. L.; Perlmutter, J.S.; Jinnah, H. A.; Waliczek, T. A.; Rosen, A. R.; Galpern, W. R.; Adler, C. H.; Barbano, R. L.; Factor, S. A.; Goetz, C.G.; Jankovic, J.; Reich, S. G.; Rodriguez, R. L.; Severt, W. L.; Zurowski, M.; Fox, S. H.; Stebbins, G.T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the clinimetric properties of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale. Background This is a modular scale with modifications of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (composed of three subscales assessing motor severity, disability and pain) now referred to as the revised Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Scale-2.; a newly developed psychiatric screening instrument; and the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 as a quality of life measure. Methods Ten dystonia experts rated subjects with cervical dystonia using the comprehensive scale. Clinimetric techniques assessed each module of the scale for reliability, item correlation and factor structure. Results There were 208 cervical dystonia patients (73% women, age 59±10 years, duration 15±12 years). The internal consistency of the motor severity subscale was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.57). Item to total correlations showed that elimination of items with low correlations (<0.20) increased alpha to 0.71. Internal consistency estimates for the subscales for disability and pain were 0.88 and 0.95 respectively. The psychiatric screening scale had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84 and satisfactory item to total correlations. When the subscales of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis scale -2 were combined with the psychiatric screening scale, Cronbach's alpha was 0.88, and construct validity assessment demonstrated four rational factors: motor, disability, pain and psychiatric disorders. The Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 had an alpha of 0.98 and its construction was validated through a confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusions The modules of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale are internally consistent with a logical factor structure. PMID:26971359

  6. Increased task-uncorrelated muscle activity in childhood dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lunardini, Francesca; Maggioni, Serena; Casellato, Claudia; Bertucco, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra L G; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-06-12

    Even if movement abnormalities in dystonia are obvious on observation-based examinations, objective measures to characterize dystonia and to gain insights into its pathophysiology are still strongly needed. We hypothesize that motor abnormalities in childhood dystonia are partially due to the inability to suppress involuntary variable muscle activity irrelevant to the achievement of the desired motor task, resulting in the superposition of unwanted motion components on the desired movement. However, it is difficult to separate and quantify appropriate and inappropriate motor signals combined in the same muscle, especially during movement. We devise an innovative and practical method to objectively measure movement abnormalities during the performance of a continuous figure-eight writing task in 7 children with dystonia and 9 age-matched healthy controls. During the execution of a continuous writing task, muscle contractions should occur at frequencies that match the frequencies of the writing outcome. We compare the power spectra of kinematic trajectories and electromyographic signals of 8 upper limb muscles to separate muscle activity with the same frequency content of the figure-eight movement (task-correlated) from activity occurring at frequencies extraneous to the task (task-uncorrelated). Children with dystonia present a greater magnitude of task-uncorrelated muscle components. The motor performance achieved by children with dystonia is characterized by an overall lower quality, with high spatial and temporal variability and an altered trade-off between speed and accuracy. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that, in childhood dystonia, the ability to appropriately suppress variable and uncorrelated elements of movement is impaired. Here we present a proof-of-concept of a promising tool to characterize the phenomenology of movement disorders and to inform the design of neurorehabilitation therapies.

  7. Temporal discrimination, a cervical dystonia endophenotype: penetrance and functional correlates.

    PubMed

    Kimmich, Okka; Molloy, Anna; Whelan, Robert; Williams, Laura; Bradley, David; Balsters, Joshua; Molloy, Fiona; Lynch, Tim; Healy, Daniel G; Walsh, Cathal; O'Riordan, Seán; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The pathogenesis of adult-onset primary dystonia remains poorly understood. There is variable age-related and gender-related expression of the phenotype, the commonest of which is cervical dystonia. Endophenotypes may provide insight into underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia. The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT)-the shortest time interval at which two separate stimuli can be detected as being asynchronous-is abnormal both in patients with cervical dystonia and in their unaffected first-degree relatives. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that putaminal activation positively correlates with the ease of temporal discrimination between two stimuli in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination would exhibit similar age-related and gender-related penetrance as cervical dystonia and that unaffected relatives with an abnormal TDT would have reduced putaminal activation during a temporal discrimination task. TDTs were examined in a group of 192 healthy controls and in 158 unaffected first-degree relatives of 84 patients with cervical dystonia. In 24 unaffected first-degree relatives, fMRI scanning was performed during a temporal discrimination task. The prevalence of abnormal TDTs in unaffected female relatives reached 50% after age 48 years; whereas, in male relatives, penetrance of the endophenotype was reduced. By fMRI, relatives who had abnormal TDTs, compared with relatives who had normal TDTs, had significantly less activation in the putamina and in the middle frontal and precentral gyri. Only the degree of reduction of putaminal activity correlated significantly with worsening of temporal discrimination. These findings further support abnormal temporal discrimination as an endophenotype of cervical dystonia involving disordered basal ganglia circuits. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  9. Improvement of both dystonia and tics with 60 Hz pallidal deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hwynn, Nelson; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron L; Limotai, Natlada; Zeilman, Pamela; Malaty, Irene A; Foote, Kelly D; Morishita, Takashi; Okun, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation has been utilized in both dystonia and in medication refractory Tourette syndrome. We present an interesting case of a patient with a mixture of disabling dystonia and Tourette syndrome whose coexistent dystonia and tics were successfully treated with 60 Hz-stimulation of the globus pallidus region.

  10. Temporal expectation in focal hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Martino, Davide; Martino, Isadora; Pelosin, Elisa; Vicario, Carmelo M; Bove, Marco; Defazio, Gianni; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Patients with writer's cramp present sensory and representational abnormalities relevant to motor control, such as impairment in the temporal discrimination between tactile stimuli and in pure motor imagery tasks, like the mental rotation of corporeal and inanimate objects. However, only limited information is available on the ability of patients with dystonia to process the time-dependent features (e.g. speed) of movement in real time. The processing of time-dependent features of movement has a crucial role in predicting whether the outcome of a complex motor sequence, such as handwriting or playing a musical passage, will be consistent with its ultimate goal, or results instead in an execution error. In this study, we sought to evaluate the implicit ability to perceive the temporal outcome of different movements in a group of patients with writer's cramp. Fourteen patients affected by writer's cramp in the right hand and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Subjects were asked to perform a temporal expectation task by predicting the end of visually perceived human body motion (handwriting, i.e. the action performed by the human body segment specifically affected by writer's cramp) or inanimate object motion (a moving circle reaching a spatial target). Videos representing movements were shown in full before experimental trials; the actual tasks consisted of watching the same videos, but interrupted after a variable interval ('pre-dark') from its onset by a dark interval of variable duration. During the 'dark' interval, subjects were asked to indicate when the movement represented in the video reached its end by clicking on the space bar of the keyboard. We also included a visual working memory task. Performance on the timing task was analysed measuring the absolute value of timing error, the coefficient of variability and the percentage of anticipation responses. Patients with writer's cramp exhibited greater absolute timing

  11. The challenge of diagnosing focal hand dystonia in musicians.

    PubMed

    Rosset-Llobet, J; Candia, V; Fàbregas i Molas, S; Dolors Rosinés i Cubells, D; Pascual-Leone, A

    2009-07-01

    To most clinicians, medical problems in musicians, particularly those concerning focal hand dystonia, constitute an unfamiliar domain difficult to manage. The latter can importantly influence diagnostics and the course of treatment. The purpose of this study was to enlighten the issue and to identify possible problems in diagnosing musicians' cramp within the Spanish medical community. We used a brief questions' catalog and clinical histories of 665 musicians seen at our clinic for performing artists. We analyzed patients' diagnosis records in 87 cases of focal hand dystonia (13.1%). In so doing, we surveyed previous diagnoses and diverse treatments prescriptions prior to referral to our clinic. Referrals came primarily from orthopaedists and neurologists. The 52.9% arrived at our clinic without a diagnosis or a suspicion of suffering from focal dystonia. The most frequently attempted diagnoses other than musicians' dystonia included nerve compression, tendonitis and trigger fingers. Commonly prescribed treatments included rest, various surgical procedures, physiotherapy and oral anti-inflammatory medication. This data depicts the diagnostic challenges of medical professionals may encounter when confronted with musician's focal dystonia.

  12. Mood and energy determinants of quality of life in dystonia.

    PubMed

    Soeder, Anne; Kluger, Benzi M; Okun, Michael S; Garvan, Cynthia W; Soeder, Thomas; Jacobson, Charles E; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Turner, Rick; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2009-06-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that dystonia patients may have reductions in numerous measures of quality of life (QOL) when compared to healthy age-matched controls. However, the determinants of QOL in this patient population have not been fully specified. To address this issue, we administered the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire along with the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS), and the State and Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) to 73 patients diagnosed with primary dystonia. Dystonia patients demonstrated lower QOL on all subscales of the SF-36 compared to normative healthy age-matched data. While the UDRS, a predominantly motor scale, was not significantly correlated with QOL (r = -0.19, P = 0.11), the BDI (r = -0.79, P < 0.0001), the STAI (r = -0.63, P < 0.0001) and multiple subscales of the VAMS revealed significant correlations. The tired subscale was the item most strongly correlated with overall QOL (r = -0.52, P < 0.0001), and particularly QOL related to physical function. The association of tiredness with QOL remained significant even when adjusting for the BDI and STAI scores (P < 0.0001). This study highlights the importance of mood and energy in QOL among a cohort of patients with dystonia. Further studies will be needed to determine the effect of treatment on these associations and whether disturbances in energy are related to sleep disturbances or to primary fatigue issues.

  13. The challenge of diagnosing focal hand dystonia in musicians

    PubMed Central

    Rosset-Llobet, J.; Candia, V.; Molas, S. Fàbregas i; Dolors Rosinés i Cubells, D.; Pascual-Leone, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose To most clinicians, medical problems in musicians, particularly those concerning focal hand dystonia, constitute an unfamiliar domain difficult to manage. The latter can importantly influence diagnostics and the course of treatment. The purpose of this study was to enlighten the issue and to identify possible problems in diagnosing musicians’ cramp within the Spanish medical community. Methods We used a brief questions’ catalog and clinical histories of 665 musicians seen at our clinic for performing artists. We analyzed patients’ diagnosis records in 87 cases of focal hand dystonia (13.1%). In so doing, we surveyed previous diagnoses and diverse treatments prescriptions prior to referral to our clinic. Results Referrals came primarily from orthopaedists and neurologists. The 52.9% arrived at our clinic without a diagnosis or a suspicion of suffering from focal dystonia. The most frequently attempted diagnoses other than musicians’ dystonia included nerve compression, tendonitis and trigger fingers. Commonly prescribed treatments included rest, various surgical procedures, physiotherapy and oral anti-inflammatory medication. Conclusions This data depicts the diagnostic challenges of medical professionals may encounter when confronted with musician’s focal dystonia. PMID:19473363

  14. Pain Relief in Cervical Dystonia with Botulinum Toxin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Cattai, Lígia; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by intermittent or sustained muscle contractions that cause abnormal, usually repetitive, movements and postures. Dystonic movements can be tremulous and twisting and often follow a pattern. They are frequently associated with overflow muscle activation and may be triggered or worsened by voluntary action. Most voluntary muscles can be affected and, in the case of the neck muscles, the condition is referred to as cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of dystonia. The high incidence of pain distinguishes CD from other focal dystonias and contributes significantly to patient disability and low quality of life. Different degrees of pain in the cervical region are reported by more than 60% of patients, and pain intensity is directly related to disease severity. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is currently considered the treatment of choice for CD and can lead to an improvement in pain and dystonic symptoms in up to 90% of patients. The results for BoNT/A and BoNT/B are similar. The complex relationship between pain and dystonia has resulted in a large number of studies and more comprehensive assessments of dystonic patients. When planning the application of BoNT, pain should be a key factor in the choice of muscles and doses. In conclusion, BoNT is highly effective in controlling pain, and its analgesic effect is sustained for a long time in most CD patients. PMID:26110508

  15. Pain Relief in Cervical Dystonia with Botulinum Toxin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Cattai, Lígia; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

    2015-06-23

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by intermittent or sustained muscle contractions that cause abnormal, usually repetitive, movements and postures. Dystonic movements can be tremulous and twisting and often follow a pattern. They are frequently associated with overflow muscle activation and may be triggered or worsened by voluntary action. Most voluntary muscles can be affected and, in the case of the neck muscles, the condition is referred to as cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of dystonia. The high incidence of pain distinguishes CD from other focal dystonias and contributes significantly to patient disability and low quality of life. Different degrees of pain in the cervical region are reported by more than 60% of patients, and pain intensity is directly related to disease severity. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is currently considered the treatment of choice for CD and can lead to an improvement in pain and dystonic symptoms in up to 90% of patients. The results for BoNT/A and BoNT/B are similar. The complex relationship between pain and dystonia has resulted in a large number of studies and more comprehensive assessments of dystonic patients. When planning the application of BoNT, pain should be a key factor in the choice of muscles and doses. In conclusion, BoNT is highly effective in controlling pain, and its analgesic effect is sustained for a long time in most CD patients.

  16. Isolated and combined dystonia syndromes - an update on new genes and their phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Balint, B; Bhatia, K P

    2015-04-01

    Recent consensus on the definition, phenomenology and classification of dystonia centres around phenomenology and guides our diagnostic approach for the heterogeneous group of dystonias. Current terminology classifies conditions where dystonia is the sole motor feature (apart from tremor) as 'isolated dystonia', while 'combined dystonia' refers to dystonias with other accompanying movement disorders. This review highlights recent advances in the genetics of some isolated and combined dystonic syndromes. Some genes, such as ANO3, GNAL and CIZ1, have been discovered for isolated dystonia, but they are probably not a common cause of classic cervical dystonia. Conversely, the phenotype associated with TUBB4A mutations expanded from that of isolated dystonia to a syndrome of hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC syndrome). Similarly, ATP1A3 mutations cause a wide phenotypic spectrum ranging from rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism to alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Other entities entailing dystonia-parkinsonism include dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome (SLC63 mutations); dopa-responsive dystonias; young-onset parkinsonism (PARKIN, PINK1 and DJ-1 mutations); PRKRA mutations; and X-linked TAF1 mutations, which rarely can also manifest in women. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity also characterizes myoclonus-dystonia, which includes not only the classical phenotype associated with epsilon-sarcoglycan mutations but rarely also presentation of ANO3 gene mutations, TITF1 gene mutations typically underlying benign hereditary chorea, and some dopamine synthesis pathway conditions due to GCH1 and TH mutations. Thus, new genes are being recognized for isolated dystonia, and the phenotype of known genes is broadening and now involves different combined dystonia syndromes. © 2015 EAN.

  17. Electromyographic and Joint Kinematic Patterns in Runner's Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Omar F; Ghosh, Pritha; Stanley, Christopher; Karp, Barbara; Hallett, Mark; Lungu, Codrin; Alter, Katharine

    2018-04-20

    Runner’s dystonia (RD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of the lower limbs that occurs when running. In this retrospective case series, we present surface electromyography (EMG) and joint kinematic data from thirteen patients with RD who underwent instrumented gait analysis (IGA) at the Functional and Biomechanics Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health. Four cases of RD are described in greater detail to demonstrate the potential utility of EMG with kinematic studies to identify dystonic muscle groups in RD. In these cases, the methodology for muscle selection for botulinum toxin therapy and the therapeutic response is discussed. Lateral heel whip, a proposed novel presentation of lower-limb dystonia, is also described.

  18. Electromyographic and Joint Kinematic Patterns in Runner’s Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Omar F.; Ghosh, Pritha; Stanley, Christopher; Karp, Barbara; Hallett, Mark; Lungu, Codrin

    2018-01-01

    Runner’s dystonia (RD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of the lower limbs that occurs when running. In this retrospective case series, we present surface electromyography (EMG) and joint kinematic data from thirteen patients with RD who underwent instrumented gait analysis (IGA) at the Functional and Biomechanics Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health. Four cases of RD are described in greater detail to demonstrate the potential utility of EMG with kinematic studies to identify dystonic muscle groups in RD. In these cases, the methodology for muscle selection for botulinum toxin therapy and the therapeutic response is discussed. Lateral heel whip, a proposed novel presentation of lower-limb dystonia, is also described. PMID:29677101

  19. Shock Waves in the Treatment of Muscle Hypertonia and Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Laura; Currà, Antonio; Molfetta, Luigi; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Since 1997, focused shock waves therapy (FSWT) has been reported to be useful in the treatment of muscle hypertonia and dystonia. More recently, also radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) has been successfully used to treat muscle hypertonia. The studies where FSWT and RSWT have been used to treat muscle hypertonia and dystonia are reviewed in this paper. The more consistent and long lasting results were obtained in the lower limb muscles of patients affected by cerebral palsy with both FSWT and RSWT and in the distal upper limb muscles of adult stroke patients using FSWT. The most probable mechanism of action is a direct effect of shock waves on muscle fibrosis and other nonreflex components of muscle hypertonia. However, we believe that up to now the biological effects of shock waves on muscle hypertonia and dystonia cannot be clearly separated from a placebo effect. PMID:25309915

  20. A unifying motor control framework for task-specific dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, John C.; Edwards, Mark J.

    2018-01-01

    Task-specific dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by the development of a painless loss of dexterity specific to a particular motor skill. This disorder is prevalent among writers, musicians, dancers and athletes. No current treatment is predictably effective and the disorder generally ends the careers of affected individuals. There are a number of limitations with traditional dystonic disease models for task-specific dystonia. We therefore review emerging evidence that the disorder has its origins within normal compensatory mechanisms of a healthy motor system in which the representation and reproduction of motor skill is disrupted. We describe how risk factors for task-specific dystonia can be stratified and translated into mechanisms of dysfunctional motor control. The proposed model aims to define new directions for experimental research and stimulate therapeutic advances for this highly disabling disorder. PMID:29104291

  1. Neurophysiological correlates of abnormal somatosensory temporal discrimination in dystonia.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Elena; Erro, Roberto; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Liguori, Rocco; Tinazzi, Michele; Di Stasio, Flavio; Berardelli, Alfredo; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2017-01-01

    Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold is often prolonged in patients with dystonia. Previous evidence suggested that this might be caused by impaired somatosensory processing in the time domain. Here, we tested if other markers of reduced inhibition in the somatosensory system might also contribute to abnormal somatosensory temporal discrimination in dystonia. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold was measured in 19 patients with isolated cervical dystonia and 19 age-matched healthy controls. We evaluated temporal somatosensory inhibition using paired-pulse somatosensory evoked potentials, spatial somatosensory inhibition by measuring the somatosensory evoked potentials interaction between simultaneous stimulation of the digital nerves in thumb and index finger, and Gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) sensory inhibition using the early and late components of high-frequency oscillations in digital nerves somatosensory evoked potentials. When compared with healthy controls, dystonic patients had longer somatosensory temporal discrimination thresholds, reduced suppression of cortical and subcortical paired-pulse somatosensory evoked potentials, less spatial inhibition of simultaneous somatosensory evoked potentials, and a smaller area of the early component of the high-frequency oscillations. A logistic regression analysis found that paired pulse suppression of the N20 component at an interstimulus interval of 5 milliseconds and the late component of the high-frequency oscillations were independently related to somatosensory temporal discrimination thresholds. "Dystonia group" was also a predictor of enhanced somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold, indicating a dystonia-specific effect that independently influences this threshold. Increased somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold in dystonia is related to reduced activity of inhibitory circuits within the primary somatosensory cortex. © 2016 International Parkinson and

  2. Regaining motor control in musician's dystonia by restoring sensorimotor organization.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Butler, Katherine; Williamon, Aaron; Rothwell, John C

    2009-11-18

    Professional musicians are an excellent model of long-term motor learning effects on structure and function of the sensorimotor system. However, intensive motor skill training has been associated with task-specific deficiency in hand motor control, which has a higher prevalence among musicians (musician's dystonia) than in the general population. Using a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm, we previously found an expanded spatial integration of proprioceptive input into the hand motor cortex [sensorimotor organization (SMO)] in healthy musicians. In musician's dystonia, however, this expansion was even larger. Whereas motor skills of musicians are likely to be supported by a spatially expanded SMO, we hypothesized that in musician's dystonia this might have developed too far and now disrupts rather than assists task-specific motor control. If so, motor control should be regained by reversing the excessive reorganization in musician's dystonia. Here, we test this hypothesis and show that a 15 min intervention with proprioceptive input (proprioceptive training) restored SMO in pianists with musician's dystonia to the pattern seen in healthy pianists. Crucially, task-specific motor control improved significantly and objectively as measured with a MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) piano, and the amount of behavioral improvement was significantly correlated to the degree of sensorimotor reorganization. In healthy pianists and nonmusicians, the SMO and motor performance remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest that the differentiation of SMO in the hand motor cortex and the degree of motor control of intensively practiced tasks are significantly linked and finely balanced. Proprioceptive training restored this balance in musician's dystonia to the behaviorally beneficial level of healthy musicians.

  3. Early Illustrations of Geste Antagoniste in Cervical and Generalized Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Broussolle, Emmanuel; Laurencin, Chloé; Bernard, Emilien; Thobois, Stéphane; Danaila, Teodor; Krack, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Geste antagoniste, or sensory trick, is a voluntary maneuver that temporarily reduces the severity of dystonic postures or movements. We present a historical review of early reports and illustrations of geste antagoniste. Results In 1894, Brissaud described this phenomenon in Paris in patients with torticollis. He noted that a violent muscular contraction could be reversed by a minor voluntary action. He considered the improvement obtained by what he called “simple mannerisms, childish behaviour or fake pathological movements” was proof of the psychogenic origin of what he named mental torticollis. This concept was supported by photographical illustrations of the patients. The term geste antagoniste was used by Brissaud’s pupils, Meige and Feindel, in their 1902 monograph on movement disorders. Other reports and illustrations of this sign were published in Europe between 1894 and 1906. Although not mentioned explicitly, geste antagoniste was also illustrated in a case report of generalized dystonia in Oppenheim’s 1911 seminal description of dystonia musculorum deformans in Berlin. Discussion Brissaud-Meige’s misinterpretation of the geste antagoniste unfortunately anchored the psychogenic origin of dystonia for decades. In New York, Herz brought dystonia back into the realm of organic neurology in 1944. Thereafter, it was given prominence by other authors, notably Fahn and Marsden in the 1970–1980s. Nowadays, neurologists routinely investigate for geste antagoniste when a dystonic syndrome is suspected, because it provides a further argument in favor of dystonia. The term alleviating maneuver was proposed in 2014 to replace sensory trick or geste antagoniste. This major sign is now part of the motor phenomenology of the 2013 Movement Disorder Society’s classification of dystonia. PMID:26417535

  4. Developing Gene Silencing for the Study and Treatment of Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    eliminate the symptoms? Are the motor deficits in DYT1 dystonia reversible? We propose to use a novel rat model of DYT1 dystonia and infuse antisense...suppressing expression of mutant torsinA in striatum or cerebellum using AAV1 reverses the motor phenotype in aged DYT1 rats . 4. IMPACT What was...different areas of the brain, and w e w ill measure if they are able to reverse known abnormalities that occur in the brain of DYT1 rats , including abnormal

  5. DYT1 dystonia increases risk taking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Arkadir, David; Radulescu, Angela; Raymond, Deborah; Lubarr, Naomi; Bressman, Susan B; Mazzoni, Pietro; Niv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to link synaptic modification to overt behavioral changes. Rodent models of DYT1 dystonia, a motor disorder caused by a single gene mutation, demonstrate increased long-term potentiation and decreased long-term depression in corticostriatal synapses. Computationally, such asymmetric learning predicts risk taking in probabilistic tasks. Here we demonstrate abnormal risk taking in DYT1 dystonia patients, which is correlated with disease severity, thereby supporting striatal plasticity in shaping choice behavior in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14155.001 PMID:27249418

  6. Lessons from a remarkable family with dopa-responsive dystonia.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, G; Hierons, R; Fletcher, N A; Marsden, C D

    1994-01-01

    A family is described in which dopa-responsive dystonia affected six members and segregated in an autosomal dominant fashion. Patients either presented in childhood with dystonia of the legs, going to develop parkinsonism and pseudo-pyramidal deficits, or in adult life with parkinsonian tremor and rigidity, with pseudo-pyramidal signs. Remarkably, in the three cases with childhood onset the symptoms and signs of the condition were abolished 36 to 52 years later by small doses of levodopa. No long term side effects of levodopa have appeared after 15 years of treatment. PMID:8163996

  7. Newton-Cartan gravity and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Romano, Luca; Rosseel, Jan

    2017-10-01

    We compare the gauging of the Bargmann algebra, for the case of arbitrary torsion, with the result that one obtains from a null-reduction of General Relativity. Whereas the two procedures lead to the same result for Newton-Cartan geometry with arbitrary torsion, the null-reduction of the Einstein equations necessarily leads to Newton-Cartan gravity with zero torsion. We show, for three space-time dimensions, how Newton-Cartan gravity with arbitrary torsion can be obtained by starting from a Schrödinger field theory with dynamical exponent z = 2 for a complex compensating scalar and next coupling this field theory to a z = 2 Schrödinger geometry with arbitrary torsion. The latter theory can be obtained from either a gauging of the Schrödinger algebra, for arbitrary torsion, or from a null-reduction of conformal gravity.

  8. Abnormal experimentally- and behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity in focal hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, Daniele; Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Parvez, Ahmad Khandker; Agostino, Rocco; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-02-01

    Idiopathic focal hand dystonia (FHD) arises from abnormal plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) possibly reflecting abnormal sensori-motor integration processes. In this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in FHD, we evaluated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) and paired associative stimulation (PAS), techniques that elicit different forms of experimentally-induced long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in M1. We also examined behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity as reflected by early motor learning of a simple motor task. We studied 14 patients with FHD and 14 healthy subjects. MEPs were recorded before and after iTBS and PAS at the 25 ms interstimulus interval (PAS(25)) in separate sessions. Subjects did a simple motor task entailing repetitive index finger abductions. To measure early motor learning we tested practice-related improvement in peak velocity and peak acceleration. In FHD patients iTBS failed to elicit the expected MEP changes and PAS(25) induced abnormally increased MEPs in target and non-target muscles. In the experiment testing early motor learning, patients lacked the expected practice-related changes in kinematic variables. In FHD, the degree of early motor learning correlated with patients' clinical features. We conclude that experimentally-induced (iTBS and PAS) and behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity are both altered in FHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New onset of idiopathic bilateral ear tics in an adult.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit; Shrestha, Rabin

    2009-04-01

    Tic disorders are commonly considered to be childhood syndromes. Newly presenting tic disorders during adulthood are uncommon and mostly described in relation to an acquired brain lesion or as incidental tics, particularly in context with other neurological or psychiatric diseases. Tic disorder involving the ears is extremely uncommon with only few studies in English literature. In the present case, we describe an adult patient with new-onset idiopathic tics disorder involving both ears, causing social embarrassment. In addition, our patient had recent onset of the tics without any childhood or family history of tic disorders. The single most important component of management is an accurate diagnosis. At the same time, tics should be differentiated from other movement disorders such as chorea, stereotypy, and dystonias.

  10. A role for cerebellum in the hereditary dystonia DYT1

    PubMed Central

    Fremont, Rachel; Tewari, Ambika; Angueyra, Chantal; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    DYT1 is a debilitating movement disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in torsinA. How these mutations cause dystonia remains unknown. Mouse models which have embryonically targeted torsinA have failed to recapitulate the dystonia seen in patients, possibly due to differential developmental compensation between rodents and humans. To address this issue, torsinA was acutely knocked down in select brain regions of adult mice using shRNAs. TorsinA knockdown in the cerebellum, but not in the basal ganglia, was sufficient to induce dystonia. In agreement with a potential developmental compensation for loss of torsinA in rodents, torsinA knockdown in the immature cerebellum failed to produce dystonia. Abnormal motor symptoms in knockdown animals were associated with irregular cerebellar output caused by changes in the intrinsic activity of both Purkinje cells and neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei. These data identify the cerebellum as the main site of dysfunction in DYT1, and offer new therapeutic targets. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22775.001 PMID:28198698

  11. Ataxia telangiectasia presenting as dopa-responsive cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Mohire, Mahavir D.; Schneider, Susanne A.; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the cause of cervical dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) in a Muslim Indian family inherited in an apparently autosomal recessive fashion, as previously described in this journal. Methods: Previous testing for mutations in the genes known to cause DRD (GCH1, TH, and SPR) had been negative. Whole exome sequencing was performed on all 3 affected individuals for whom DNA was available to identify potentially pathogenic shared variants. Genotyping data obtained for all 3 affected individuals using the OmniExpress single nucleotide polymorphism chip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) were used to perform linkage analysis, autozygosity mapping, and copy number variation analysis. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm all variants. Results: After filtering of the variants, exome sequencing revealed 2 genes harboring potentially pathogenic compound heterozygous variants (ATM and LRRC16A). Of these, the variants in ATM segregated perfectly with the cervical DRD. Both mutations detected in ATM have been shown to be pathogenic, and α-fetoprotein, a marker of ataxia telangiectasia, was increased in all affected individuals. Conclusion: Biallelic mutations in ATM can cause DRD, and mutations in this gene should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained DRD, particularly if the dystonia is cervical and if there is a recessive family history. ATM has previously been reported to cause isolated cervical dystonia, but never, to our knowledge, DRD. Individuals with dystonia related to ataxia telangiectasia may benefit from a trial of levodopa. PMID:23946315

  12. Regaining motor control in musician's dystonia by restoring sensorimotor organisation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Butler, Katherine; Williamon, Aaron; Rothwell, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Professional musicians are an excellent human model of long term effects of skilled motor training on the structure and function of the motor system. However, such effects are accompanied by an increased risk of developing motor abnormalities, in particular musician's dystonia. Previously we found that there was an expanded spatial integration of proprioceptive input into the hand area of motor cortex (sensorimotor organisation, SMO) in healthy musicians as tested with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm. In musician's dystonia, this expansion was even larger, resulting in a complete lack of somatotopic organisation. We hypothesised that the disordered motor control in musician's dystonia is a consequence of the disordered SMO. In the present paper we test this idea by giving pianists with musician's dystonia 15 min experience of a modified proprioceptive training task. This restored SMO towards that seen in healthy pianists. Crucially, motor control of the affected task improved significantly and objectively as measured with a MIDI piano, and the amount of behavioural improvement was significantly correlated to the degree of sensorimotor re-organisation. In healthy pianists and non-musicians, the SMO and motor performance remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest a link between the differentiation of SMO in the hand motor cortex and the degree of motor control of intensively practiced tasks in highly skilled individuals. PMID:19923295

  13. Ondansetron-induced dystonia, hypoglycemia, and seizures in a child.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aneet; Mittal, Shweta; Manchanda, Samiksha; Puliyel, Jacob Mammen

    2011-01-01

    To document ondansetron-induced dystonia, hypoglycemia, and seizures in a child. A 4-year-old boy was admitted with dystonia following an intravenous dose of ondansetron 2 mg (0.13 mg/kg) that he had received for vomiting that day. In the emergency department, he developed generalized tonicclonic seizures lasting for a few minutes. He was administered lorazepam 1.5 mg (0.1 mg/kg) to control the seizures. His blood glucose level was 10 mg/dL; the hypoglycemia responded promptly to intravenous dextrose 10% (7 mL/kg). Serum electrolytes, renal profile, capillary blood gas, and results of a computed tomography scan of the brain were normal. Subsequent blood glucose values were within normal range. On follow-up after 7 days, the child was healthy with no recurrences of the symptoms. A provisional diagnosis of ondansetron-induced acute dystonia with seizures and hypoglycemia was made. Ondansetron is an antiemetic known for its safety profile. There have been a few case reports of extrapyramidal adverse effects and seizures from this drug but none of ondansetron-associated hypoglycemia. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(3)) receptors are involved in arginine vasopressin-mediated release of adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol in response to stress. Blunting of this stress response by ondansetron, a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, could have caused the hypoglycemia in this patient. According to the Naranjo scale, ondansetron was probably the cause of the dystonia and seizures, and possibly the cause of the hypoglycemia. Other potential explanations for hypoglycemia were considered but were thought to be less likely. Dystonia and seizures have been associated with ondansetron in a few case reports. In addition, clinicians need to consider hypoglycemia as a possible adverse effect of ondansetron.

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21452260 . Long AR, Rouster-Stevens KA. The role of exercise therapy ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21131338 . Wu EY, Bryan AR, Rabinovich CE. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In: Kliegman RM, ...

  15. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata presenting as omental torsion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chjoong Howe Alvin; Ho, Bernard Chi Shern; Shelat, Vishalkumar; Tan, Cher Heng

    2012-04-01

    Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata is usually asymptomatic or mimics widespread malignancy; acute presentation is rare. We describe a patient with right iliac fossa and lower abdominal pain. Two masses were detected via computed tomography, but at surgery, one of these implanted leiomyomas had undergone acute omental torsion. This case illustrates a rare complication of omental leiomyoma torsion clinically mimicking acute appendicitis.

  16. Idiopathic paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in Malaysia, a multi-racial Southeast Asian country.

    PubMed

    Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Lim, Shen-Yang; Tan, Chong Tin

    2010-08-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a rare disorder, and there are few reports of Asian patients with this condition. We reviewed the clinical features of all patients with idiopathic paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) seen at a major neurological centre in Malaysia. The charts of 11 patients with idiopathic PKD seen between 1995 and 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 9:2. Ten patients were of Chinese ethnicity, and one was Malay. Three patients (from two families) had a family history of PKD. The involuntary movement was dystonia in 73% of patients. In one patient, attacks were precipitated by vestibular stimulation. One patient had generalized epilepsy. Another patient who did not have epilepsy demonstrated epileptiform discharges. Only slightly over one-quarter of patients had a positive family history. Males, and people of Chinese ancestry, seem to be affected more frequently by PKD in certain Asian populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optically probing torsional superelasticity in spider silks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thakur, Ashish; Panda, Biswajit

    2013-11-11

    We investigate torsion mechanics of various spider silks using a sensitive optical technique. We find that spider silks are torsionally superelastic in that they can reversibly withstand great torsion strains of over 10{sup 2−3} rotations per cm before failure. Among various silks from a spider, we find the failure twist-strain is greatest in the sticky capture silk followed by dragline and egg-case silk. Our in situ laser-diffraction measurements reveal that torsional strains on the silks induce a nano-scale transverse compression in its diameter that is linear and reversible. These unique torsional properties of the silks could find applications in silk-basedmore » materials and devices.« less

  18. Torsion balances with fibres of zero length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speake, Clive C.; Collins, Christopher J.

    2018-04-01

    Torsion balances have good immunity to tilt and low rotational stiffness. However precise control of the position of the suspended torsion 'bob' is difficult in the presence of ground vibrations and tilt and this is a limiting factor in applications where Casimir forces or putative non-Newtonian short-range forces are being measured. We describe how the desirable characteristics of torsion balances can be reproduced in a rigid body that is suspended using applied forces rather than a torsion fibre. The suspension system can then provide a more precise control of the degrees of freedom of the suspended body. We apply these ideas to a superconducting levitated torsion balance, developed by the authors, and a generic electrostatic suspension. We present results of preliminary experiments that provide support for our analyses.

  19. Torsion of partial cleft of ear lobule.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, M; Waiker, Veena P

    2014-02-01

    Torsion is a well-known phenomenon involving organs with long mesentery. Torsion in the ear lobule is rare. Ear lobule is very well vascularized. In cases of partial cleft ear lobule, there is a small segment of lobule inferior to the cleft which is vascularized through the pedicles on either side of the cleft. A lady aged 89 years presented with discoloration of the ear lobule. She was diagnosed as having gangrene of the central part of lobule. The segment of the lobule had undergone more than 360° torsion. She underwent debridement of gangrenous part and lobuloplasty. In our case laxity of the stretched lobule caused the torsion of the segment followed by gangrene. This rare complication indicates the need for correction of the cleft lobule not only for esthetic purpose, but also for the prevention of torsion. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Torsion Profiling of Proteins Using Magnetic Particles

    PubMed Central

    van Reenen, A.; Gutiérrez-Mejía, F.; van IJzendoorn, L.J.; Prins, M.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    We report a method to profile the torsional spring properties of proteins as a function of the angle of rotation. The torque is applied by superparamagnetic particles and has been calibrated while taking account of the magnetization dynamics of the particles. We record and compare the torsional profiles of single Protein G-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG-IgG complexes, sandwiched between a substrate and a superparamagnetic particle, for torques in the range between 0.5 × 103 and 5 × 103 pN·nm. Both molecular systems show torsional stiffening for increasing rotation angle, but the elastic and inelastic torsion stiffnesses are remarkably different. We interpret the results in terms of the structural properties of the molecules. The torsion profiling technique opens new dimensions for research on biomolecular characterization and for research on bio-nanomechanical structure-function relationships. PMID:23473490

  1. Limb amputations in fixed dystonia: a form of body integrity identity disorder?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark J; Alonso-Canovas, Araceli; Schrag, Arnette; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Thompson, Philip D; Bhatia, Kailash

    2011-07-01

    Fixed dystonia is a disabling disorder mainly affecting young women who develop fixed abnormal limb postures and pain after apparently minor peripheral injury. There is continued debate regarding its pathophysiology and management. We report 5 cases of fixed dystonia in patients who sought amputation of the affected limb. We place these cases in the context of previous reports of patients with healthy limbs and patients with chronic regional pain syndrome who have sought amputation. Our cases, combined with recent data regarding disorders of mental rotation in patients with fixed dystonia, as well as previous data regarding body integrity identity disorder and amputations sought by patients with chronic regional pain syndrome, raise the possibility that patients with fixed dystonia might have a deficit in body schema that predisposes them to developing fixed dystonia and drives some to seek amputation. The outcome of amputation in fixed dystonia is invariably unfavorable. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Limb Amputations in Fixed Dystonia: A Form of Body Integrity Identity Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mark J; Alonso-Canovas, Araceli; Schrag, Arnette; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Thompson, Philip D; Bhatia, Kailash

    2011-01-01

    Fixed dystonia is a disabling disorder mainly affecting young women who develop fixed abnormal limb postures and pain after apparently minor peripheral injury. There is continued debate regarding its pathophysiology and management. We report 5 cases of fixed dystonia in patients who sought amputation of the affected limb. We place these cases in the context of previous reports of patients with healthy limbs and patients with chronic regional pain syndrome who have sought amputation. Our cases, combined with recent data regarding disorders of mental rotation in patients with fixed dystonia, as well as previous data regarding body integrity identity disorder and amputations sought by patients with chronic regional pain syndrome, raise the possibility that patients with fixed dystonia might have a deficit in body schema that predisposes them to developing fixed dystonia and drives some to seek amputation. The outcome of amputation in fixed dystonia is invariably unfavorable. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society PMID:21484872

  3. Task-specific singing dystonia: vocal instability that technique cannot fix.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Lucinda A; McBroom, Deanna M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw

    2015-01-01

    Singer's dystonia is a rare variation of focal laryngeal dystonia presenting only during specific tasks in the singing voice. It is underdiagnosed since it is commonly attributed to technique problems including increased muscle tension, register transition, or wobble. Singer's dystonia differs from technique-related issues in that it is task- and/or pitch-specific, reproducible and occurs independently from the previously mentioned technical issues.This case series compares and contrasts profiles of four patients with singer's dystonia to increase our knowledge of this disorder. This retrospective case series includes a detailed case history, results of singing evaluations from individual voice teachers, review of singing voice samples by a singing voice specialist, evaluation by a laryngologist with endoscopy and laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), and spectral analysis of the voice samples by a speech-language pathologist. Results demonstrate the similarities and unique differences of individuals with singer's dystonia. Response to treatment and singing status varied from nearly complete relief of symptoms with botulinum toxin injections to minor relief of symptoms and discontinuation of singing. The following are the conclusions from this case series: (1) singer's dystonia exists as a separate entity from technique issues, (2) singer's dystonia is consistent with other focal task-specific dystonias found in musicians, (3) correctly diagnosing singer's dystonia allows singer's access to medical treatment of dystonia and an opportunity to modify their singing repertoire to continue singing with the voice they have, and (4) diagnosis of singer's dystonia requires careful sequential multidisciplinary evaluation to isolate the instability and confirm dystonia by LEMG and spectral voice analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Creation of a Mouse with Stress-Induced Dystonia: Control of an ATPase Chaperone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    was successful, and a mouse with the desired dystonic symptoms was obtained. It has two mutations , one a dominantly inherited gene with 100...the hallmark of dystonia. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dystonia, genetically modified mice, stress, gene mutations , animal model of disease. 16...there are a variety of hypotheses that should be testable if there were a realistic animal model. Mice with mutations in genes known to cause dystonia

  5. Surgical management of gastric torsion.

    PubMed

    Parks, J

    1979-05-01

    Considerable investigation has been devoted to the gastric dilatation-torsion complex. An adequate explanation of its cause has yet to be made, or a means of prevention described. We do know of its highly lethal nature, especially if not aggressively treated, of the high incidence of recurrence, and of the associated pathophysiology. As surgeons, we must approach the patient in an aggressive systematic manner. Decompression and patient stabilization must be achieved prior to definitive surgical management. The surgery planned must correct the obvious pathologic state and include procedures designed to prevent recurrence of this condition. The tube gastrostomy technique promotes gastric fixation by dense adhesion bands exceeding that attainable by gastropexy alone. The procedure is easy to perform, requires little surgical time, and does not appear to be discomforting to the patient. In addition, the tube gastrostomy acts as a convenient decompressive pathway during the postoperative period, circumventing gastric intubation or pharyngostomy tube placement should distention occur.

  6. Update on the Use of Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Focal and Task-Specific Dystonias.

    PubMed

    Lungu, Codrin; Ahmad, Omar F

    2016-02-01

    Focal dystonia is defined by anatomical distribution and represents a distinct entity from generalized dystonia. Task-specific dystonia occurs in the context of specific patterns of movement. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are the treatment of choice in most cases. Several formulations are available; the approved indications, dosing, and some administration details, differ between them. The major forms of focal and task-specific dystonia are reviewed, along with the evidence for BoNT therapy, the expected benefit and side effects, and practical points guiding the injections. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Sonographic alteration of lenticular nucleus in focal task-specific dystonia of musicians.

    PubMed

    Walter, Uwe; Buttkus, Franziska; Benecke, Reiner; Grossmann, Annette; Dressler, Dirk; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    In distinct movement disorders, transcranial sonography detects alterations of deep brain structures with higher sensitivity than other neuroimaging methods. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography, thought to be caused by increased local copper content, has been reported as a characteristic finding in primary spontaneous dystonia. Here, we wanted to find out whether deep brain structures are altered in task-specific dystonia. The frequency of sonographic brainstem and basal ganglia changes was studied in an investigator-blinded setting in 15 musicians with focal task-specific hand dystonia, 15 musicians without dystonia, and 15 age- and sex-matched nonmusicians without dystonia. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity was found in 12 musicians with task-specific dystonia, but only in 3 nondystonic musicians (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.001) and 2 nonmusicians (p < 0.001). The degree of lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity in affected musicians correlated with age, but not with duration of music practice or duration of dystonia. In 2 of 3 affected musicians with normal echogenic lenticular nucleus, substantia nigra hyperechogenicity was found. Our findings support the idea of a pathogenetic link between primary spontaneous and task-specific dystonia. Sonographic basal ganglia alteration might indicate a risk factor that in combination with extensive fine motor training promotes the manifestation of task-specific dystonia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Capturing the true burden of dystonia on patients: the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58).

    PubMed

    Cano, S J; Warner, T T; Linacre, J M; Bhatia, K P; Thompson, A J; Fitzpatrick, R; Hobart, J C

    2004-11-09

    To develop a new rating scale for measuring the health impact of cervical dystonia (CD) that includes patients' perceptions and complements existing observer dependent clinician rating scales. Scale development was in three stages. In Stage 1, a large pool of items was generated from patient interviews (n = 25), expert opinion, and literature review. In Stage 2, these items were administered by postal survey to people with CD. The resulting data were analyzed using Rasch item analysis to construct, from the item pool, a rating scale that satisfied criteria for rigorous measurement. In Stage 3, the measurement properties of this rating scale were examined in an independent sample of people with CD. In Stage 1, 150 items concerning the health impact of CD were generated. In Stage 2, 556 people completed questionnaires (87% response rate) and a 58-item rating scale measuring the health impact of CD in eight areas was constructed (CD Impact Profile, CDIP-58). In Stage 3, CDIP-58 data from 391 people (87% response rate) were received. Analyses supported the measurement of eight unidimensional constructs (infit mean square range 0.62 to 1.50), item calibration (33.37 to 67.56), and patient separation statistics (2.59 to 3.38). Items demonstrated stable calibrations in subgroups of people with CD supporting the stability of the CDIP-58. The CDIP-58 is a reliable and valid patient-based rating scale measuring the health impact of CD in eight health dimensions.

  9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Boros, Christina; Whitehead, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood, occurring in approximately 1:500 children. Despite a recent expansion in treatment options and improvement of outcomes, significant morbidity still occurs. This article outlines the clinical manifestations, assessment, detection of complications, treatment options and monitoring requirements, with the aid of guidelines recently published by The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, which provide practical support for general practitioners to ensure best practice care and to prevent lifelong disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. General practice plays an important role in the early detection, initial management and ongoing monitoring of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Early detection involves understanding the classification framework for subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and being aware of the clinical manifestations and how to look for them, through history, examination and appropriate investigation. The major extra-articular manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis are uveitis and growth disturbance. Treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate, biologic agents, and corticosteroids. Management using a multidisciplinary approach can prevent long term sequelae. Unfortunately, approximately 50% of children will have active disease as adults.

  10. Reduced striatal D2 receptor binding in myoclonus-dystonia.

    PubMed

    Beukers, R J; Booij, J; Weisscher, N; Zijlstra, F; van Amelsvoort, T A M J; Tijssen, M A J

    2009-02-01

    To study striatal dopamine D(2) receptor availability in DYT11 mutation carriers of the autosomal dominantly inherited disorder myoclonus-dystonia (M-D). Fifteen DYT11 mutation carriers (11 clinically affected) and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were studied using (123)I-IBZM SPECT. Specific striatal binding ratios were calculated using standard templates for striatum and occipital areas. Multivariate analysis with corrections for ageing and smoking showed significantly lower specific striatal to occipital IBZM uptake ratios (SORs) both in the left and right striatum in clinically affected patients and also in all DYT11 mutation carriers compared to control subjects. Our findings are consistent with the theory of reduced dopamine D(2) receptor (D2R) availability in dystonia, although the possibility of increased endogenous dopamine, and consequently, competitive D2R occupancy cannot be ruled out.

  11. Lack of efficacy of levetiracetam in oromandibular and cranial dystonia.

    PubMed

    Park, J E; Srivanitchapoom, P; Maurer, C W; Mathew, P; Sackett, J; Paine, R; Ramos, V L; Hallett, M

    2017-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of levetiracetam in oromandibular or cranial dystonia. We recruited seven subjects with oromandibular or cranial dystonia. Five completed the study, median age was 71 years (range 42-79 years), median disease duration was 12 years (range 2-30 years). Participants were randomized to receive levetiracetam or placebo and were then crossed over. They titrated up to a total daily dose of 4000 mg or the maximum tolerated dose over 3 weeks and maintained that dose for another 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the percent change of the eyes, mouth, speech, and swallowing Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) subscores from baseline to weeks 6 and 14. Additional endpoints included the BFM subscore at weeks 3 and 11, and the global dystonia severity (GDS) subscore at weeks 3, 6, 11, and 14, as well as all adverse side effects. The mean percent increase in the BFM subscore (placebo: 31.25%, levetiracetam: 12.16%) was not significantly different between the two arms according to the Friedman analysis. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that these percent changes were not significant, indicating that there was no statistical clinical worsening in either arm. The mean percent change of the BFM subscore at weeks 3 and 11 and the mean percent change of the GDS subscore at weeks 3, 6, 11, and 14 were not significantly different between the two arms, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test did not show statistical significance. Levetiracetam does not appear to be efficacious in patients with oromandibular or cranial dystonia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.

  13. Cannabis in the Treatment of Dystonia, Dyskinesias, and Tics.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Barbara S

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis has been used for many medicinal purposes, including management of spasms, dystonia, and dyskinesias, with variable success. Its use for tetanus was described in the second century BCE, but the literature continues to include more case reports and surveys of its beneficial effects in managing symptoms of hyperkinetic movement disorders than randomized controlled trials, making evidence-based recommendations difficult. This paper reviews clinical research using various formulations of cannabis (botanical products, oral preparations containing ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and/or cannabidiol) and currently available preparations in the USA (nabilone and dronabinol). This has been expanded from a recent systematic review of cannabis use in several neurologic conditions to include case reports and case series and results of anonymous surveys of patients using cannabis outside of medical settings, with the original evidence classifications marked for those papers that followed research protocols. Despite overlap in some patients, dyskinesias will be treated separately from dystonia and chorea; benefit was not established beyond individual patients for these conditions. Tics, usually due to Tourettes, did respond to cannabis preparations. Side effects reported in the trials will be reviewed but those due to recreational use, including the dystonia that can be secondary to synthetic marijuana preparations, are outside the scope of this paper.

  14. Surmounting retraining limits in musicians' dystonia by transcranial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Nitsche, Michael A; Paulus, Walter; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-05-01

    Abnormal cortical excitability is evident in various movement disorders that compromise fine motor control. Here we tested whether skilled finger movements can be restored in musicians with focal hand dystonia through behavioral training assisted by transcranial direct current stimulation to the motor cortex of both hemispheres. The bilateral motor cortices of 20 pianists (10 with focal dystonia, 10 healthy controls) were electrically stimulated noninvasively during bimanual mirrored finger movements. We found improvement in the rhythmic accuracy of sequential finger movements with the affected hand during and after cathodal stimulation over the affected cortex and simultaneous anodal stimulation over the unaffected cortex. The improvement was retained 4 days after intervention. Neither a stimulation with the reversed montage of electrodes nor sham stimulation yielded any improvement. Furthermore, the amount of improvement was positively correlated with the severity of the symptoms. Bihemispheric stimulation without concurrent motor training failed to improve fine motor control, underlining the importance of combined retraining and stimulation for restoring the dystonic symptoms. For the healthy pianists, none of the stimulation protocols enhanced movement accuracy. These results suggest a therapeutic potential of behavioral training assisted by bihemispheric, noninvasive brain stimulation in restoring fine motor control in focal dystonia. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  15. Reversible generalized dystonia and encephalopathy from thiamine transporter 2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Mercedes; Rebollo, Mónica; Depienne, Christel; Rastetter, Agnès; Fernández-Álvarez, Emilio; Muchart, Jordi; Martorell, Loreto; Artuch, Rafael; Obeso, José A; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén

    2012-09-01

    Thiamine transporter-2 deficiency, a condition resulting from mutations in the SLC19A3 gene, has been described in patients with subacute dystonia and striatal necrosis. The condition responds extremely well to treatment with biotin and has thus been named biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease. Recently, this deficiency has also been related to Wernicke's-like encephalopathy and atypical infantile spasms, showing heterogeneous responses to biotin and/or thiamine. Two Spanish siblings with a biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease phenotype and mutations in SLC19A3 presented with acute episodes of generalized dystonia, rigidity, and symmetrical lesions involving the striatum, midline nuclei of the thalami, and the cortex of cerebral hemispheres as shown by magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical features resolved rapidly after thiamine administration. Despite the rarity of thiamine transporter-2 deficiency, it should be suspected in patients with acute dystonia and basal ganglia injury, as thiamine can halt disease evolution and prevent further episodes. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Torsion sensing based on patterned piezoelectric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; You, Hangil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the sensing characteristics of piezoelectric beams under torsional loads. We used partially patterned piezoelectric beams to sense torsion. In particular, the piezoelectric patches are located symmetrically with respect to the line of the shear center of the beam. The patterned piezoelectric beam is modeled as a slender beam, and its electrical responses are obtained by piezoelectric electromechanical equations. To validate the modeling framework, experiments are performed using a setup that forces pure torsional deformation. Three different geometric configurations of the patterned piezoelectric layer are used for the experiments. The frequency and amplitude of the forced torsional load are systematically varied in order to study the behavior of the piezoelectric sensor. Experimental results demonstrate that two voltage outputs of the piezoelectric beam are approximately out of phase with identical amplitude. Moreover, the length of the piezoelectric layers has a significant influence on the sensing properties. Our theoretical predictions using the model support the experimental findings.

  17. Methamphetamine use can mimic testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael H; Gerscovich, Eugenio O; Corwin, Michael T; Wilkendorf, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    We report the case of a patient presenting with the classic clinical appearance of testicular torsion. Ultrasound showed testicular ischemia supporting the clinical diagnosis, but the lack of visualization of spermatic cord torsion was of concern. An attempt of clinical detorsion was considered unsuccessful and the patient was explored. No torsion was found. On postoperative review of the patient's medical history, we found methamphetamine use, with a positive urine test at the time of his emergent consultation for the scrotal pain episode. The use of amphetamines has been previously reported as the cause of ischemia of multiple organs, but we could not find previous reports of involvement of the testis mimicking torsion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Torsional Stability of Aluminum Alloy Seamless Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Paul, D A

    1939-01-01

    Torsion tests were made on 51ST aluminum-alloy seamless tubes having diameter-to-thickness ratios of from 77 to 139 and length-to-diameter ratios of from 1 to 60. The torsional strengths developed in the tubes which failed elastically (all tubes having lengths greater than 2 to 6 times the diameter) were in most cases within 10 percent of the value indicated by the theories of Donnel, Timoshenko, and Sturm, assuming a condition of simply supported ends.

  19. Torsional Optomechanics of a Levitated Nonspherical Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ma, Yue; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Robicheaux, F.; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Li, Tongcang

    2016-09-01

    An optically levitated nanoparticle in vacuum is a paradigm optomechanical system for sensing and studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. While its center-of-mass motion has been investigated intensively, its torsional vibration has only been studied theoretically in limited cases. Here we report the first experimental observation of the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum. We achieve this by utilizing the coupling between the spin angular momentum of photons and the torsional vibration of a nonspherical nanoparticle whose polarizability is a tensor. The torsional vibration frequency can be 1 order of magnitude higher than its center-of-mass motion frequency, which is promising for ground state cooling. We propose a simple yet novel scheme to achieve ground state cooling of its torsional vibration with a linearly polarized Gaussian cavity mode. A levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum will also be an ultrasensitive nanoscale torsion balance with a torque detection sensitivity on the order of 10-29 N m /√{Hz } under realistic conditions.

  20. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  1. Central Motor Conduction Studies and Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Severe Primary and Secondary Dystonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Verity; Mills, Kerry; Siddiqui, Ata; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Dystonia in childhood has many causes. Imaging may suggest corticospinal tract dysfunction with or without coexistent basal ganglia damage. There are very few published neurophysiological studies on children with dystonia; one previous study has focused on primary dystonia. We investigated central motor conduction in 62 children (34 males, 28…

  2. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  3. Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Brad J; Elmore, James M; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-02-01

    Scrotal lymphedema (scrotal elephantiasis) is a condition that has historically been described in areas endemic to filariasis. We present a unique case of a 22-year-old man with idiopathic lymphedema isolated to the scrotum. After acquired causes of lymphedema were ruled out, the patient was treated with scrotectomy and scrotal reconstruction.

  4. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders including polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathies (NMs). The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies share many similarities. They present acutely, subacutely, or chronically with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for associated distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies also share a variable degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and a nonspecifically abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy. The muscle pathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates of variable distribution within the muscle fascicle. Despite these similarities, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group. The overlap syndrome (OS) refers to the association of PM, DM, or NM with connective tissue disease, such as scleroderma or systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition to elevated antinuclear antibodies (ANA), patients with OS may be weaker in the proximal arms than the legs mimicking the pattern seen in some muscular dystrophies. In this review, we focus on DM, PM, and NM and examine current and promising therapies. PMID:23117947

  5. Idiopathic central diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary; Balachandran, Venu; Menon, Sooraj

    2011-10-01

    Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder characterized clinically by polyuria and polydipsia, and an abnormal urinary concentration without any identified etiology. We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a 60-year-old lady in the absence of secondary causes like trauma, infection, and infiltrative disorders of brain.

  6. Cross-shaped torsional spring

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, M.M.; Pratt, G.A.

    1999-06-08

    The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section. 30 figs.

  7. Cross-shaped torsional spring

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Matthew M.; Pratt, Gill A.

    1999-06-08

    The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.

  8. Exhaustive Analysis of BH4 and Dopamine Biosynthesis Genes in Patients with Dopa-Responsive Dystonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clot, Fabienne; Grabli, David; Cazeneuve, Cecile; Roze, Emmanuel; Castelnau, Pierre; Chabrol, Brigitte; Landrieu, Pierre; Nguyen, Karine; Ponsot, Gerard; Abada, Myriem; Doummar, Diane; Damier, Philippe; Gil, Roger; Thobois, Stephane; Ward, Alana J.; Hutchinson, Michael; Toutain, Annick; Picard, Fabienne; Camuzat, Agnes; Fedirko, Estelle; San, Chankannira; Bouteiller, Delphine; LeGuern, Eric; Durr, Alexandra; Vidailhet, Marie; Brice, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Dopa-responsive dystonia is a childhood-onset dystonic disorder, characterized by a dramatic response to low dose of L-Dopa. Dopa-responsive dystonia is mostly caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the "GCH1" gene (GTP cyclohydrolase1) and more rarely by autosomal recessive mutations in the "TH" (tyrosine hydroxylase) or "SPR" (sepiapterin…

  9. Integration of sensory force feedback is disturbed in CRPS-related dystonia.

    PubMed

    Mugge, Winfred; van der Helm, Frans C T; Schouten, Alfred C

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. The origin of this movement disorder is poorly understood, although recent insights suggest involvement of disturbed force feedback. Assessment of sensorimotor integration may provide insight into the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia. Sensory weighting is the process of integrating and weighting sensory feedback channels in the central nervous system to improve the state estimate. It was hypothesized that patients with CRPS-related dystonia bias sensory weighting of force and position toward position due to the unreliability of force feedback. The current study provides experimental evidence for dysfunctional sensory integration in fixed dystonia, showing that CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia weight force and position feedback differently than controls do. The study shows reduced force feedback weights in CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia, making it the first to demonstrate disturbed integration of force feedback in fixed dystonia, an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia.

  10. The non-motor syndrome of primary dystonia: clinical and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Edwards, Mark J.; Hallett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Dystonia is typically considered a movement disorder characterized by motor manifestations, primarily involuntary muscle contractions causing twisting movements and abnormal postures. However, growing evidence indicates an important non-motor component to primary dystonia, including abnormalities in sensory and perceptual functions, as well as neuropsychiatric, cognitive and sleep domains. Here, we review this evidence and discuss its clinical and pathophysiological implications. PMID:21933808

  11. Striatal cholinergic dysfunction as a unifying theme in the pathophysiology of dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Jaunarajs, K.L. Eskow; Bonsi, P.; Chesselet, M.F.; Standaert, D.G.; Pisani, A.

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is a movement disorder of both genetic and non-genetic causes, which typically results in twisted posturing due to abnormal muscle contraction. Evidence from dystonia patients and animal models of dystonia indicate a crucial role for the striatal cholinergic system in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review, we focus on striatal circuitry and the centrality of the acetylcholine system in the function of the basal ganglia in the control of voluntary movement and ultimately clinical manifestion of movement disorders. We consider the impact of cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) on dopamine-acetylcholine interactions and examine new evidence for impairment of ChIs in dysfunction of the motor systems producing dystonic movements, particularly in animal models. We have observed paradoxical excitation of ChIs in the presence of dopamine D2 receptor agonists and impairment of striatal synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia, which are improved by administration of recently developed M1 receptor antagonists. These findings have been confirmed across multiple animal models of DYT1 dystonia and may represent a common endophenotype by which to investigate dystonia induced by other types of genetic and non-genetic causes and to investigate the potential effectiveness of pharmacotherapeutics and other strategies to improve dystonia. PMID:25697043

  12. Cognitive function in children with primary dystonia before and after deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Owen, Tamsin; Gimeno, Hortensia; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is characterised by involuntary movements (twisting, writhing and jerking) and postures. The effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery on the motor aspect of primary dystonias have been well reported, however, there is a paucity of research investigating its impact on cognitive function, particularly in childhood dystonia. We performed a follow-up of cognitive function in children with primary dystonia following DBS pallidal surgery. Cognitive function was measured in a cohort of 13 children with primary or primary plus dystonia who had undergone DBS surgery using a retrospective case series design. Baseline pre-DBS neuropsychological measures were compared to scores obtained at least one year following DBS. Cognitive function was assessed using standardised measures of intellectual ability and memory. All children demonstrated improvements with regard to dystonia reduction, as measured by the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Overall, cognition remained stable following DBS in the majority of the cohort. Individual case analysis revealed improvements in some domains of cognitive function in eight members of the cohort and a deterioration of certain domains in four. Cognition largely remained stable in children with primary/primary plus dystonia following DBS surgery, although further research with a larger sample is necessary to explore this statistically. Notwithstanding the limitations of a small size, this preliminary data has potentially positive implications for the impact of DBS on cognitive functioning within a paediatric population. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Update on Deep Brain Stimulation for Dyskinesia and Dystonia: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    TODA, Hiroki; SAIKI, Hidemoto; NISHIDA, Namiko; IWASAKI, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been an established surgical treatment option for dyskinesia from Parkinson disease and for dystonia. The present article deals with the timing of surgical intervention, selecting an appropriate target, and minimizing adverse effects. We provide an overview of current evidences and issues for dyskinesia and dystonia as well as emerging DBS technology. PMID:27053331

  14. Hydroxyl free radical production during torsional phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Aust, Steven D; Hebdon, Thomas; Humbert, Jordan; Dimalanta, Ramon

    2010-12-01

    To quantitate free radical generation during phacoemulsification using an ultrasonic phacoemulsification device that includes a torsional mode and evaluate tip designs specific to the torsional mode. Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Experiments were performed using the Infiniti Vision System and OZil handpiece. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the aspirated irrigation solution during torsional phacoemulsification were quantitated as nanomolar malondialdehyde (nM MDA) and determined spectrophotometrically using the deoxyribose assay. The mean free radical production during phacoemulsification with torsional modality at 100% amplitude was 30.1 nM MDA ± 5.1 (SD) using a 0.9 mm 45-degree Kelman tapered ABS tip. With other tip designs intended for use with the torsional modality, free radical production was further reduced when fitted with the 0.9 mm 45-degree Kelman mini-flared ABS tip (13.2 ± 5.6 nM MDA) or the 0.9 mm 45-degree OZil-12 mini-flared ABS tip (14.3 ± 6.7 nM MDA). Although the measurements resulting from the use of the latter 2 tips were not statistically significantly different (P ≈ .25), they were different from those of the tapered tip (P<.0001). The MDA concentration in the aspirated irrigation solution using the torsional modality was approximately one half that reported for the handpiece's longitudinal modality in a previous study using the same bent-tip design (Kelman tapered, P<.0001). The level of MDA was further reduced approximately one half with torsional-specific tips. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Torsional oscillations of magnetized relativistic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messios, Neophytos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2001-12-01

    Strong magnetic fields in relativistic stars can be a cause of crust fracturing, resulting in the excitation of global torsional oscillations. Such oscillations could become observable in gravitational waves or in high-energy radiation, thus becoming a tool for probing the equation of state of relativistic stars. As the eigenfrequency of torsional oscillation modes is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field, we study torsional modes in magnetized relativistic stars. We derive the linearized perturbation equations that govern torsional oscillations coupled to the oscillations of a magnetic field, when variations in the metric are neglected (Cowling approximation). The oscillations are described by a single two-dimensional wave equation, which can be solved as a boundary-value problem to obtain eigenfrequencies. We find that, in the non-magnetized case, typical oscillation periods of the fundamental l=2 torsional modes can be nearly a factor of 2 larger for relativistic stars than previously computed in the Newtonian limit. For magnetized stars, we show that the influence of the magnetic field is highly dependent on the assumed magnetic field configuration, and simple estimates obtained previously in the literature cannot be used for identifying normal modes observationally.

  16. Heat production: Longitudinal versus torsional phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Keun; Miller, Kevin M

    2009-10-01

    To compare the heat production of longitudinal versus torsional phacoemulsification under strict laboratory test conditions. Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA. Two Infiniti phacoemulsification handpieces were inserted into silicone test chambers filled with a balanced salt solution and imaged serially using a thermal camera. Incision compression was simulated by suspending 25.3 g weights from the silicone chambers. To simulate occlusion of the phacoemulsification tip, the aspiration line was clamped. Peak temperatures were measured 0, 10, 30, 60, and 120 seconds after the commencement of continuous ultrasound power. The 2 handpieces, operating exclusively in longitudinal or torsional modes, were compared 3 ways: (1) using the same power displayed on the instrument console, (2) using identical stroke lengths, and (3) using the same applied energy, a product of stroke length and frequency. For all 3 comparisons, torsional phacoemulsification resulted in lower temperatures at each time point. At the same displayed power setting, the scenario most familiar to cataract surgeons, longitudinal phacoemulsification elevated temperatures up to 41.5 degrees C more than torsional phacoemulsification. Torsional phacoemulsification generated less heat than longitudinal phacoemulsification in all 3 comparison tests. Lower operating temperatures indicate lower heat generation within the same volume of fluid, and this may provide additional thermal protection during cataract surgery.

  17. The broadening application of chemodenervation in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (Part II): an open-label experience with botulinum toxin-A (Dysport®) injections for oromandibular, lingual, and truncal-axial dystonias.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Raymond L; Ng, Arlene R; Santos, Mary Mildred Delgado-Delos; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2011-01-01

    While the majority of chemodenervation clinics worldwide typically use botulinum toxins for the treatment of common conditions such as blepharopsams, cervical dystonia, limb dystonia, and spasticity, the unusually high concentration of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) has allowed us to collect and describe our experience in the use of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on rarer dystonic patterns. BoNT-A (Dysport®) was injected in a total 109 dystonias of XDP. Our cohort included: 50 cases in the oromandibular area (jaw opening: 32 cases, jaw closing: 12 cases, and jaw deviation: 6 cases); 35 cases in the lingual area (tongue protrusion: 27 cases and tongue curling: 8 cases); and, 24 cases in the truncal-axial area (flexor: 12 cases, extensor: 7 cases, and lateral-extensor: 5 cases). Interestingly, pain, often a nonprominent symptom of dystonias, was frequently reported in 40/50 XDP cases with oromandibular dystonia and 18/24 XDP cases with truncal-axial dystonia. All BoNT-A procedures were performed under electromyography guidance. A "high potency, low dilution" BoNT-A protocol was applied for oromandibular, lingual, cranial, cervical, and distal limb dystonias; whereas for dystonias of the abdominal, paraspinal, and proximal limb muscles, a "low potency, high dilution" BoNT-A injection protocol was applied. Outcomes measures included: the global dystonia rating scale (DRS) and pain visual analog scale (VAS) reduction at week 4; duration of BoNT-A effects; and, side effect profile. The median DRS score after 4 weeks was 3 ("substantial improvement") for oromandibular and lingual dystonias and 2 ("moderate improvement") for truncal-axial dystonias. Pain reduction was significantly reduced (75%-80% in oromandibular; 30%-80% in truncal-axial dystonias). The median duration of BoNT-A effect was 16 weeks for oromandibular, 12 weeks for lingual, and 11 weeks for truncal-axial dystonias. Compared to a generally safe and well-tolerated BoNT-A injections for truncal

  18. Rating scales for dystonia in cerebral palsy: reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Monbaliu, E; Ortibus, E; Roelens, F; Desloovere, K; Deklerck, J; Prinzie, P; de Cock, P; Feys, H

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females; mean age 13 y 3 mo, SD 5 y 2 mo, range 5-22 y). One patient each was classified at levels I-IV in the Gross Motor Function Classification System and six patients were classified at level V. Reliability was measured by (1) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for interrater reliability, (2) standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable difference (SDD), and (3) Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Validity was assessed by Pearson's correlations among the three scales used and by content analysis. Moderate to good interrater reliability was found for total scores of the three scales (ICC: BADS=0.87; BFMMS=0.86; UDRS=0.79). However, many subitems showed low reliability, in particular for the UDRS. SEM and SDD were respectively 6.36% and 17.72% for the BADS, 9.88% and 27.39% for the BFMMS, and 8.89% and 24.63% for the UDRS. High internal consistency was found. Pearson's correlations were high. Content validity showed insufficient accordance with the new CP definition and classification. Our results support the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scales; however, taking into consideration the limitations in reliability, including the large SDD values and the content validity, further research on methods of assessment of dystonia is warranted.

  19. Alcohol responsiveness in laryngeal dystonia: A survey study

    PubMed Central

    Kirke, Diana N.; Frucht, Steven J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of unknown pathophysiology affecting speech production. We examined the demographics of anecdotally reported alcohol use and its effects on LD symptoms using an online survey based on Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap™) and National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association’s patient registry. From 641 participants, 531 were selected for data analysis, and 110 were excluded because of unconfirmed diagnosis. A total of 406 patients (76.5%) had LD and 125 (23.5%) had LD and voice tremor (LD/VT). The consumption of alcohol was reported by 374 LD (92.1%) and 109 LD/VT (87.2%) patients. Improvement of voice symptoms after alcohol ingestion was noted by 227 LD (55.9% of all patients) and 73 LD/VT (58.4%), which paralleled the improvement observed by patient’s family and/or friends in 214 LD (57.2%) and 69 LD/VT (63.3%) patients. The benefits lasted 1–3 hours in both groups with the maximum effect after 2 drinks in LD patients (p = 0.002), whereas LD/VT symptoms improved independent of the consumed amount (p = 0.48). Our data suggest that isolated dystonic symptoms, such as in LD, are responsive to alcohol intake and this responsiveness is not attributed to the presence of VT, which is known to have significant benefits from alcohol ingestion. Alcohol may modulate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying abnormal neurotransmission of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in dystonia and as such provide new avenues for novel therapeutic options in these patients. PMID:25929664

  20. Characteristics of bilateral hand function in individuals with unilateral dystonia due to perinatal stroke: sensory and motor aspects.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Kukke, Sahana N; Hallett, Mark; Alter, Katharine E; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-05-01

    The authors assessed bilateral motor and sensory function in individuals with upper limb dystonia due to unilateral perinatal stroke and explored interrelationships of motor function and sensory ability. Reach kinematics and tactile sensation were measured in 7 participants with dystonia and 9 healthy volunteers. The dystonia group had poorer motor (hold time, reach time, shoulder/elbow correlation) and sensory (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) outcomes than the control group on the nondominant side. On the dominant side, only sensation (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) was poorer in the dystonia group compared with the control group. In the dystonia group, although sensory and motor outcomes were uncorrelated, dystonia severity was related to poorer stereognosis, longer hold and reach times, and decreased shoulder/elbow coordination. Findings of bilateral sensory deficits in dystonia can be explained by neural reorganization. Visual compensation for somatosensory changes in the nonstroke hemisphere may explain the lack of bilateral impairments in reaching.

  1. Characteristics of bilateral hand function in individuals with unilateral dystonia due to perinatal stroke: sensory and motor aspects

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Kukke, Sahana N.; Hallett, Mark; Alter, Katharine E.; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed bilateral motor and sensory function in individuals with upper limb dystonia due to unilateral perinatal stroke and explored interrelationships of motor function and sensory ability. Reach kinematics and tactile sensation were measured in seven participants with dystonia and nine healthy volunteers. The dystonia group had poorer motor (hold time, reach time, shoulder/elbow correlation) and sensory (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) outcomes than the control group on the non-dominant side. On the dominant side, only sensation (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) was poorer in the dystonia group compared to the control group. In the dystonia group, although sensory and motor outcomes were uncorrelated, dystonia severity was related to poorer stereognosis, longer hold and reach times, and decreased shoulder/elbow coordination. Findings of bilateral sensory deficits in dystonia may be explained by neural reorganization. Visual compensation for somatosensory changes in the non-stroke hemisphere may explain the lack of bilateral impairments in reaching. PMID:24396131

  2. Exploring factors related to physical activity in cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Lena; Urell, Charlotte; Anens, Elisabeth

    2015-12-01

    People with disabilities have reported worse health status than people without disabilities and receiving fewer preventive health services such as counseling around exercise habits. This is noteworthy considering the negative consequences associated with physical inactivity. No research has been conducted on physical activity in cervical dystonia (CD), despite its possible major impact on self-perceived health and disability. Considering the favorable consequences associated with physical activity it is important to know how to promote physical activity behavior in CD. Knowledge of variables important for such behavior in CD is therefore crucial. The aim of this study was to explore factors related to physical activity in individuals with cervical dystonia. Subjects included in this cross-sectional study were individuals diagnosed with CD and enrolled at neurology clinics (n = 369). Data was collected using one surface mailed self-reported questionnaire. Physical activity was the primary outcome variable, measured with the Physical Activity Disability Survey. Secondary outcome variables were: impact of dystonia measured with the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale; fatigue measured with the Fatigue Severity Scale; confidence when carrying out physical activity measured with the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale; confidence in performing daily activities without falling measured with the Falls Efficacy Scale; enjoyment of activity measured with Enjoyment of Physical Activity Scale, and social influences on physical activity measured with Social Influences on Physical Activity in addition to demographic characteristics such as age, education level and employment status. The questionnaire was completed by 173 individuals (47% response rate). The multivariate association between related variables and physical activity showed that employment, self-efficacy for physical activity, education level and consequences for daily activities explained 51% of the variance in physical

  3. [Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3D spinal deformity in frontal, sagittal and axial planes, with high relevance in the pediatric population especially in adolescents and females between 10 years of age and the end of growth spurt and skeletal maturity. The radiographic manifestation is a curve greater than 10° measured by Cobb method associated with vertebral rotation. "Idiopathic" diagnosis has to be done after neuroanatomical anomalies of the posterior cerebral fosa and spinal canal have been ruled out. The physical finding of a thoracic or lumbar hump is the clinical manifestation of vertebral rotation seen in a forward bending test (Adam's Test). It is recommended that all curves with a magnitude greater than 20° have to be controlled and treated by a spinal surgeon being observation, bracing and surgery the different treatment options based on the extent, progression of deformity and basically the clinical condition of the patient. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. Idiopathic toe walking.

    PubMed

    Oetgen, Matthew E; Peden, Sean

    2012-05-01

    Toe walking is a bilateral gait abnormality in which a normal heel strike is absent and most weight bearing occurs through the forefoot. This abnormality may not be pathologic in patients aged <2 years, but it is a common reason for referral to an orthopaedic surgeon. Toe walking can be caused by several neurologic and developmental abnormalities and may be the first sign of a global developmental problem. Cases that lack a definitive etiology are categorized as idiopathic. A detailed history, with careful documentation of the developmental history, and a thorough physical examination are required in the child with a primary report of toe walking. Treatment is based on age and the severity of the abnormality. Management includes observation, stretching, casting, bracing, chemodenervation, and surgical lengthening of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex and/or Achilles tendon. An understanding of idiopathic toe walking as well as treatment options and their outcomes can help the physician individualize treatment to achieve optimal results.

  5. Aeroelastic considerations for torsionally soft rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantay, W. R.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A research study was initiated to systematically determine the impact of selected blade tip geometric parameters on conformable rotor performance and loads characteristics. The model articulated rotors included baseline and torsionally soft blades with interchangeable tips. Seven blade tip designs were evaluated on the baseline rotor and six tip designs were tested on the torsionally soft blades. The designs incorporated a systemmatic variation in geometric parameters including sweep, taper, and anhedral. The rotors were evaluated in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at several advance ratios, lift and propulsive force values, and tip Mach numbers. A track sensitivity study was also conducted at several advance ratios for both rotors. Based on the test results, tip parameter variations generated significant rotor performance and loads differences for both baseline and torsionally soft blades.

  6. Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Ipekci, Tumay; Kazimoglu, Hatem

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis is a rare scrotal benign disease. Its distinct features are painless, non-pruritic, semi-soft palpable calcific transdermal nodules. We report a 42-year-old-man with asymptomatic multiple calcified scrotal skin nodules for 10 years. Under spinal anesthesia, the affected scrotal skin was excised and the nodules removed. We aim to explain the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment modalities of this rare disease.

  7. Ozil IP torsional mode versus combined torsional/longitudinal microcoaxial phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Helvacioglu, Firat; Tunc, Zeki; Yeter, Celal; Oguzhan, Hasan; Sencan, Sadik

    2012-01-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed with the Ozil Intelligent Phaco (IP) torsional mode and combined torsional/longitudinal ultrasound (US) mode using the Infiniti Vision System (Alcon Laboratories). In this prospective randomized comparative study, 60 eyes were assigned to 2.2-mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the Ozil IP torsional mode (group 1) or combined torsional/longitudinal US mode (group 2). The primary outcome measures were US time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), longitudinal and torsional ultrasound amplitudes, mean operation time, mean volume of balanced salt solution (BSS) used, and surgical complications. Both groups included 30 eyes. Mean UST, CDE, and longitudinal and torsional ultrasound amplitudes in group 1 were 1 minute 15±34.33 seconds, 8.74±5.64, 0.43±0.74, and 25.56±8.56, respectively, and these parameters in group 2 were 1 minute 40±51.44 seconds, 9.28±5.99, 3.64±1.55, and 3.71±1.34, respectively. UST and longitudinal amplitudes were found to be significantly low in group 1 (p<0.001, p<0.001), whereas torsional amplitude was found to be significantly high in this group (p=0.001). Mean volumes of BSS used in groups 1 and 2 were 63.30±18.00 cc and 84.50±28.65 cc, respectively (p=0.001). The Ozil IP torsional mode may provide more effective lens removal than the combined torsional/longitudinal US mode with a lower UST and volume of BSS used.

  8. An fMRI study of musicians with focal dystonia during tapping tasks.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Sekiguchi, Hirofumi; Kohno, Yutaka; Amako, Masatoshi; Arino, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Koichi; Sakai, Naotaka

    2010-07-01

    Musician's dystonia is a type of task specific dystonia for which the pathophysiology is not clear. In this study, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the motor-related brain activity associated with musician's dystonia. We compared brain activities measured from subjects with focal hand dystonia and normal (control) musicians during right-hand, left-hand, and both-hands tapping tasks. We found activations in the thalamus and the basal ganglia during the tapping tasks in the control group but not in the dystonia group. For both groups, we detected significant activations in the contralateral sensorimotor areas, including the premotor area and cerebellum, during each tapping task. Moreover, direct comparison between the dystonia and control groups showed that the dystonia group had greater activity in the ipsilateral premotor area during the right-hand tapping task and less activity in the left cerebellum during the both-hands tapping task. Thus, the dystonic musicians showed irregular activation patterns in the motor-association system. We suggest that irregular neural activity patterns in dystonic subjects reflect dystonic neural malfunction and consequent compensatory activity to maintain appropriate voluntary movements.

  9. Slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and cervical dystonia: clinical presentation of a new form of spinocerebellar ataxia?

    PubMed

    Kuoppamäki, Mikko; Giunti, Paula; Quinn, Niall; Wood, Nicholas W; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2003-02-01

    We describe 5 cases with a rare combination of young-onset, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and cervical dystonia. Two were sporadic, whereas the other 3 were familial, including 2 from one family. The age of onset of these cases was between 16 and 37 years. The presenting symptom was cervical dystonia and/or dystonic head tremor in 3 patients and hand or lower limb tremor in 2. In 2 cases, cervical dystonia and/or dystonic head tremor developed approximately 6 to 10 years before cerebellar dysfunction, and in three they developed at the same time. Apart from cervical dystonia, there was mild dystonic limb involvement in 2 cases, but generalized dystonia was not seen. Cerebellar ataxia was slowly progressive. A literature search showed 10 cases of cervical dystonia associated with genetically undetermined (n = 5) or genetically proven (n = 5) spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). When the genotype was known, these patients had either SCA3, 6, 7, or 12. However, our 5 cases (or their first-degree relatives) tested negative for SCA1, 2, 3, 6, and 7, and in the 4 cases (or their first-degree relatives) tested for SCA12, the result was negative. We propose that this rare phenotype manifesting as a combination of cerebellar ataxia and cervical dystonia may represent one or more new, as yet uncharacterized, genotypes of inherited young-onset spinocerebellar ataxia. Copyright Movement Disorder Society

  10. Functional Analysis of Dopaminergic Systems in a DYT1 Knock-in Mouse Model of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chang-Hyun; Fan, Xueliang; Exeter, Cicely J.; Hess, Ellen J.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by involuntary twisting movements and abnormal posturing. The most common of the inherited dystonias is DYT1 dystonia, which is due to deletion of a single GAG codon (ΔE) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Since some forms of dystonia have been linked with dysfunction of brain dopamine pathways, the integrity of these pathways was explored in a knock-in mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. In DYT1(ΔE) knock-in mice, neurochemical measures revealed only small changes in the content of dopamine or its metabolites in tissue homogenates from caudoputamen or midbrain, but microdialysis studies revealed robust decreases in baseline and amphetamine-stimulated extracellular dopamine in the caudoputamen. Quantitative stereological methods revealed no evidence for striatal or midbrain atrophy, but substantia nigra neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase were slightly reduced in numbers and enlarged in size. Behavioral studies revealed subtle abnormalities in gross motor activity and motor coordination without overt dystonia. Neuropharmacological challenges of dopamine systems revealed normal behavioral responses to amphetamine and a minor increase in sensitivity to haloperidol. These results demonstrate that this DYT1(ΔE) knock-in mouse model of dystonia harbors neurochemical and structural changes of the dopamine pathways, as well as motor abnormalities. PMID:22659308

  11. The occurrence of dystonia in upper-limb multiple sclerosis tremor.

    PubMed

    Van der Walt, A; Buzzard, K; Sung, S; Spelman, T; Kolbe, S C; Marriott, M; Butzkueven, H; Evans, A

    2015-12-01

    The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) tremor is uncertain with limited phenotypical studies available. To investigate whether dystonia contributes to MS tremor and its severity. MS patients (n = 54) with and without disabling uni- or bilateral upper limb tremor were recruited (39 limbs per group). We rated tremor severity, writing and Archimedes spiral drawing; cerebellar dysfunction (SARA score); the Global Dystonia Scale (GDS) for proximal and distal upper limbs, dystonic posturing, mirror movements, geste antagoniste, and writer's cramp. Geste antagoniste, mirror dystonia, and dystonic posturing were more frequent and severe (p < 0.001) and dystonia scores were correlated with tremor severity in tremor compared to non-tremor patients. A 1-unit increase in distal dystonia predicted a 0.52-Bain unit (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.97), p = 0.022) increase in tremor severity and a 1-unit (95% CI 0.48-1.6, p = 0.001) increase in drawing scores. A 1-unit increase in proximal dystonia predicted 0.93-Bain unit increase (95% CI 0.45-1.41, p < 0.001) in tremor severity and 1.5-units (95% CI 0.62-2.41, p = 0.002) increase in the drawing score. Cerebellar function in the tremor limb and tremor severity was correlated (p < 0.001). Upper limb dystonia is common in MS tremor suggesting that MS tremor pathophysiology involves cerebello-pallido-thalamo-cortical network dysfunction. © The Author(s), 2015.

  12. Energy harvesting from torsions of patterned piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; You, Hangil

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from the torsions using a piezoelectric beam. The piezoelectric beam is partially patterned and is tested in an experimental setup to force pure torsional deformation. In particular, the beam consists of two identical piezoelectric parts attached on one side of a supporting substrate. We propose a model for the energy harvesting system through the equations for a slender composite beam with the physical properties and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The theoretical predictions are validated by the comparison with the experimental results.

  13. Mental rotation of body parts and sensory temporal discrimination in fixed dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig, Petra; Edwards, Mark J; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Aguirregomozcorta, Maria; Kägi, Georg; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2010-06-15

    Fixed dystonia is an uncommon but severely disabling condition typically affecting young women following a minor peripheral injury. There is no evidence of any structural lesions of the central nervous system nor any clear peripheral nerve or root damage. Electrophysiological techniques such as short intracortical inhibition, cortical silent period and a plasticity inducing protocol have revealed similarities but also differences compared to classical mobile dystonia. To further explore the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia we compared mental rotation of body parts and sensory temporal discrimination in 11 patients with fixed dystonia, 11 patients with classical mobile dystonia and 10 healthy controls. In the mental rotation task subjects were presented with realistic photos of left or right hands, feet and the head of a young women with a black patch covering the left or the right eye in six different orientations. Subjects had to verbally report the laterality of the presented stimuli. To assess sensory temporal discrimination subjects were asked to discriminate whether pairs of visual, tactile (electrical), or visuo-tactile stimuli were simultaneous or sequential (temporal discrimination threshold) and in the latter case which stimulus preceded the other (temporal order judgement). In accordance with previous studies patients with mobile dystonia were abnormal in mental rotation and temporal discrimination, whereas patients with fixed dystonia were only impaired in mental rotation. Possible explanations for this deficit may include the influence of the abnormal body posture itself, a shared predisposing pathophysiology for mobile and fixed dystonia, or a body image disturbance. These findings add information to the developing pathophysiological picture of fixed dystonia. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Functional Characterization of Rare RAB12 Variants and Their Role in Musician's and Other Dystonias.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Eva; Borngräber, Friederike; Schmidt, Alexander; Rakovic, Aleksandar; Brænne, Ingrid; Weissbach, Anne; Hampf, Jennie; Vollstedt, Eva-Juliane; Größer, Leopold; Schaake, Susen; Müller, Michaela; Manzoor, Humera; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Kasten, Meike; Kostic, Vladimir S; Gasser, Thomas; Zeuner, Kirsten E; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok; Bauer, Peter; Altenmüller, Eckart; Klein, Christine; Lohmann, Katja

    2017-10-18

    Mutations in RAB (member of the Ras superfamily) genes are increasingly recognized as cause of a variety of disorders including neurological conditions. While musician's dystonia (MD) and writer's dystonia (WD) are task-specific movement disorders, other dystonias persistently affect postures as in cervical dystonia. Little is known about the underlying etiology. Next-generation sequencing revealed a rare missense variant (c.586A>G; p.Ile196Val) in RAB12 in two of three MD/WD families. Next, we tested 916 additional dystonia patients; 512 Parkinson's disease patients; and 461 healthy controls for RAB12 variants and identified 10 additional carriers of rare missense changes among dystonia patients (1.1%) but only one carrier in non-dystonic individuals (0.1%; p = 0.005). The detected variants among index patients comprised p.Ile196Val ( n = 6); p.Ala174Thr ( n = 3); p.Gly13Asp; p.Ala148Thr; and p.Arg181Gln in patients with MD; cervical dystonia; or WD. Two relatives of MD patients with WD also carried p.Ile196Val. The two variants identified in MD patients (p.Ile196Val; p.Gly13Asp) were characterized on endogenous levels in patient-derived fibroblasts and in two RAB12-overexpressing cell models. The ability to hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP), so called GTPase activity, was increased in mutants compared to wildtype. Furthermore, subcellular distribution of RAB12 in mutants was altered in fibroblasts. Soluble Transferrin receptor 1 levels were reduced in the blood of all three tested p.Ile196Val carriers. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enrichment of missense changes among dystonia patients. Functional characterization revealed altered enzyme activity and lysosomal distribution in mutants suggesting a contribution of RAB12 variants to MD and other dystonias.

  15. The clinical spectrum of laryngeal dystonia includes dystonic cough: observations of a large series.

    PubMed

    Payne, Susannah; Tisch, Stephen; Cole, Ian; Brake, Helen; Rough, Judy; Darveniza, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Laryngeal dystonia is a movement disorder of the muscles within the larynx, which most commonly manifests as spasmodic dysphonia (SD). Rarer reported manifestations include dystonic respiratory stridor and dyscoordinate breathing. Laryngeal dystonia has been treated successfully with botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) injections since 1984. We reviewed prospectively collected data in a consecutive series of 193 patients with laryngeal dystonia who were seen at St. Vincent's Hospital between 1991 and 2011. Patient data were analyzed in Excel, R, and Prism. Laryngeal dystonia manifested as SD (92.7%), stridor (11.9%), dystonic cough (6.2%), dyscoordinate breathing (4.1%), paroxysmal hiccups (1.6%), and paroxysmal sneezing (1.6%). There were more women (68.4%) than men (31.6%), and the average age at onset was 47 years. A positive family history of dystonia was present in 16.1% of patients. A higher incidence of extra-laryngeal dystonia (ie, torticollis and blepharospasm) and concurrent manifestations of laryngeal dystonia were present in patients with dystonic cough, dyscoordinate breathing, paroxysmal sneezing, and hiccups than in other patients (P = 0.003 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The average starting dose of BTX decreased from 2.3 to 0.5 units between 1991 and 2011. The median treatment rating was excellent across all subgroups. Patients with adductor SD, stridor, extra-laryngeal dystonia and male patients had relatively better treatment outcomes. Technical failures were rare (1.1%). Dysphonia secondary to vocal cord paresis followed 38.7% of treatments. Laryngeal dystonia manifests predominantly as SD, but other manifestations include stridor, dyscoordinate breathing, paroxysmal cough, hiccups, and sneezing. BTX injections are very effective across all subgroups. Severe adverse events are rare. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Plant-based torsional actuator with memory

    Treesearch

    Nayomi Plaza; Samuel L. Zelinka; Don S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes

    2013-01-01

    A bundle of a few loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) cells are moisture-activated torsional actuators that twist multiple revolutions per cm length in direct proportion to moisture content. The bundles generate 10 N m kg􀀀1 specific torque during both twisting and untwisting, which is higher than an electric motor. Additionally, the bundles exhibit a moisture-...

  17. Pseudotopological quasilocal energy of torsion gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Sheng-Lan; Lin, Feng-Li; Ning, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Torsion gravity is a natural extension to Einstein gravity in the presence of fermion matter sources. In this paper we adopt Wald's covariant method of calculating the Noether charge to construct the quasilocal energy of the Einstein-Cartan-fermion system, and find that its explicit expression is formally independent of the coupling constant between the torsion and axial current. This seemingly topological nature is unexpected and is reminiscent of the quantum Hall effect and topological insulators. However, a coupling dependence does arise when evaluating it on shell, and thus the situation is pseudotopological. Based on the expression for the quasilocal energy, we evaluate it for a particular solution on the entanglement wedge and find agreement with the holographic relative entropy obtained before. This shows the equivalence of these two quantities in the Einstein-Cartan-fermion system. Moreover, the quasilocal energy in this case is not always positive definite, and thus it provides an example of a swampland in torsion gravity. Based on the covariant Noether charge, we also derive the nonzero fermion effect on the Komar angular momentum. The implications of our results for future tests of torsion gravity in gravitational-wave astronomy are also discussed.

  18. Ovarian torsion in children: management and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Geimanaite, Lina; Trainavicius, Kestutis

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical symptoms, diagnosis, management, and outcomes in children with ovarian torsion. The charts of 50 patients with 53 cases of ovarian torsion treated between January 1989 and March 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Long term follow up was available for 20 girls who had their ovaries left in the abdominal cavity after detorsion. In 22 cases ovaries were removed, and in 31 cases the torsion was relieved and the ovaries left in the abdominal cavity. Twenty-five of the salvaged ovaries were black-bluish and 10 bluish in color. Since 2005, after a change in preferred treatment, all ovaries treated by detorsion were left in the abdominal cavity. The long term results were observed clinically and by ultrasound in 20 girls. Multifollicular ovaries were found in 17 girls. One girl had a normal size paucifollicular ovary, a one-year-old girl had a normal size ovary with microfollicles, and one girl had no ovarian material detectable by ultrasound. Long term analysis of the treatment of ovarian torsion revealed that ovaries treated by detorsion and left in the abdominal cavity preserved their normal anatomy and function. Conservative surgical treatment proved to be safe. None of the girls had thromboembolism or peritonitis, and no malignant tumors were found in the operated ovaries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Torsional Oscillations of the Earths's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, Raymond; Boggs, Dale H.; Dickey, Jean O.

    1997-01-01

    Torsional oscillations of the Earth's liquid metallic outer core are investigated by diving the core into twenty imaginary e1qui-volume annuli coaxial with the axis of ratation of the Earth and determining temproal fluctuations in the axial component of angular memonetum of each annulus under the assumption of iso-rotation on cylindrical surfaces.

  20. Torsional ultrasound mode versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound mode phacoemulsification for eyes with hard cataract.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, Mohamed A; El Shazly, Malak I

    2011-01-01

    To compare torsional versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound modes in hard cataract surgery regarding ultrasound energy and time and effect on corneal endothelium. Kasr El Aini hospital, Cairo University, and International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Ninety-eight eyes of 63 patients were enrolled in this prospective comparative randomized masked clinical study. All eyes had nuclear cataracts of grades III and IV using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III). Two groups were included, each having an equal number of eyes (49). The treatment for group A was combined torsional and conventional US mode phacoemulsification, and for group B torsional US mode phacoemulsification only. Pre- and post-operative assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp evaluation, and fundoscopic evaluation. Endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured preoperatively, 1 day, 7 days, and 1 month postoperatively. All eyes were operated on using the Alcon Infiniti System (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) with the quick chop technique. All eyes were implanted with AcrySof SA60AT (Alcon) intraocular lens (IOL). The main phaco outcome parameters included the mean ultrasound time (UST), the mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the percent of average torsional amplitude in position 3 (%TUSiP3). Improvement in BCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.001). Comparing UST and CDE for both groups revealed results favoring the pure torsional group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for UST; P = 0.058 and P = 0.009 for CDE). As for %TUSiP3, readings were higher for the pure torsional group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01). All changes of CCT, and ECD over time were found statistically significant using one-way ANOVA testing (P < 0.001). Both modes are safe in hard cataract surgery, however the pure torsional mode showed less US energy used.

  1. Torsional ultrasound mode versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound mode phacoemulsification for eyes with hard cataract

    PubMed Central

    Fakhry, Mohamed A; Shazly, Malak I El

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare torsional versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound modes in hard cataract surgery regarding ultrasound energy and time and effect on corneal endothelium. Settings Kasr El Aini hospital, Cairo University, and International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Methodology Ninety-eight eyes of 63 patients were enrolled in this prospective comparative randomized masked clinical study. All eyes had nuclear cataracts of grades III and IV using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III). Two groups were included, each having an equal number of eyes (49). The treatment for group A was combined torsional and conventional US mode phacoemulsification, and for group B torsional US mode phacoemulsification only. Pre- and post-operative assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp evaluation, and fundoscopic evaluation. Endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured preoperatively, 1 day, 7 days, and 1 month postoperatively. All eyes were operated on using the Alcon Infiniti System (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) with the quick chop technique. All eyes were implanted with AcrySof SA60AT (Alcon) intraocular lens (IOL). The main phaco outcome parameters included the mean ultrasound time (UST), the mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the percent of average torsional amplitude in position 3 (%TUSiP3). Results Improvement in BCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.001). Comparing UST and CDE for both groups revealed results favoring the pure torsional group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for UST; P = 0.058 and P = 0.009 for CDE). As for %TUSiP3, readings were higher for the pure torsional group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01). All changes of CCT, and ECD over time were found statistically significant using one-way ANOVA testing (P < 0.001). Conclusion Both modes are safe in hard cataract surgery, however the pure torsional mode showed less US energy used. PMID

  2. The Effects of Torsional Preloading on the Torsional Resistance of Nickel-titanium Instruments.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Hei; Ha, Jung-Hong; Kwak, Sang Won; Ahn, Shin Wook; Lee, WooCheol; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of torsional preloading on the torsional resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments. WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and ProTaper Universal F2 (Dentsply Maillefer) files were used. The ultimate torsional strength until fracture was determined for each instrument. In the phase 1 experiment, the ProTaper and WaveOne files were loaded to have a maximum load from 2.0 up to 2.7 or 2.8 Ncm, respectively. In the phase 2 experiment, the number of repetitions of preloading for each file was increased from 50 to 200, whereas the preloading torque was fixed at 2.4 Ncm. Using torsionally preloaded specimens from phase 1 and 2, the torsional resistances were calculated to determine the ultimate strength, distortion angle, and toughness. The results were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Duncan post hoc comparison. The fracture surfaces and longitudinal aspect of 5 specimens per group were examined under a scanning electron microscope. All preloaded groups showed significantly higher ultimate strength than the unpreloaded groups (P < .05). There was no significant difference among all groups for distortion angle and toughness. Although WaveOne had no significant difference between the repetition groups for ultimate strength, fracture angle, and toughness, ProTaper had a higher distortion angle and toughness in the 50-repetition group compared with the other repetition groups (P < .05). Scanning electron microscopic examinations of the fractured surface showed typical features of torsional fracture. Torsional preloading within the ultimate values could enhance the torsional strength of NiTi instruments. The total energy until fracture was maintained constantly, regardless of the alloy type. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recognizing the Common Origins of Dystonia and the Development of Human Movement: A Manifesto of Unmet Needs in Isolated Childhood Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jean-Pierre; Nardocci, Nardo

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia in childhood may be severely disabling and often unremitting and unrecognized. Considered a rare disorder, dystonic symptoms in childhood are pervasive in many conditions including disorders of developmental delay, cerebral palsy (CP), autism, neurometabolic, neuroinflammatory, and neurogenetic disorders. Collectively, there is a need to recognize the role of early postures and movements which characterize phases of normal fetal, infant, and child development as a backdrop to the many facets of dystonia in early childhood neurological disorders and to be aware of the developmental context of dystonic symptoms. The role of cocontraction is explored throughout infancy, childhood, young adulthood, and in the elderly. Under-recognition of pervasive dystonic disorders of childhood, including within CP is reviewed. Original descriptions of CP by Gowers are reviewed and contemporary physiological demonstrations are used to illustrate support for an interpretation of the tonic labyrinthine response as a manifestation of dystonia. Early recognition and molecular diagnosis of childhood dystonia where possible are desirable for appropriate clinical stratification and future precision medicine and functional neurosurgery where appropriate. A developmental neurobiological perspective could also be useful in exploring new clinical strategies for adult-onset dystonia disorders focusing on environmental and molecular interactions and systems behaviors. PMID:28066314

  4. Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Frederick A; Mudgil, Adarsh V; Macias, Edgar S; Karsif, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare breast condition with prominent skin findings. It is typically seen in young parous women. Painful breast masses, draining sinuses, scarring, and breast atrophy are the main clinical manifestations. IGLM can resemble a variety of other inflammatory and neoplastic processes of the breast. It is thought to result from obstruction and rupture of breast lobules. Extravasated breast secretions then induce an inflammatory reaction. Corynebacteria have also been implicated in the pathogenesis. Treatment is surgical, but systemic corticosteroids, methotrexate, and antibiotics also play a role. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Design and analysis of a torsion braid pendulum displacement transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, E.; Bryant, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic properties at various temperatures of braids impregnated with polymer can be measured by using the braid as the suspension of a torsion pendulum. This report describes the electronic and mechanical design of a torsional braid pendulum displacement transducer which is an advance in the state of the art. The transducer uses a unique optical design consisting of refracting quartz windows used in conjunction with a differential photocell to produce a null signal. The release mechanism for initiating free torsional oscillation of the pendulum has also been improved. Analysis of the precision and accuracy of the transducer indicated that the maximum relative error in measuring torsional amplitude was approximately 0. A serious problem inherent in all instruments which use a torsional suspension was analyzed: misalignment of the physical and torsional axes of the torsional member which results in modulation of the amplitude of the free oscillation.

  6. Torsion limits from t t macr production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, F. M. L.; de Andrade, F. R.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Nepomuceno, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Torsion models constitute a well-known class of extended quantum gravity models. In this work, one investigates the phenomenological consequences of a torsion field interacting with top quarks at the LHC. A torsion field could appear as a new heavy state characterized by its mass and couplings to fermions. This new state would form a resonance decaying into a top antitop pair. The latest ATLAS t t ¯ production results from LHC 13 TeV data are used to set limits on torsion parameters. The integrated luminosity needed to observe torsion resonance at the next LHC upgrades are also evaluated, considering different values for the torsion mass and its couplings to Standard Model fermions. Finally, prospects for torsion exclusion at the future LHC phases II and III are obtained using fast detector simulations.

  7. Cranial dystonia, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: clinical features and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, S P; Lang, A E

    1988-01-01

    Blepharospasm, the most frequent feature of cranial dystonia, and hemifacial spasm are two involuntary movement disorders that affect facial muscles. The cause of blepharospasm and other forms of cranial dystonia is not known. Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia may result in severe disability. Hemifacial spasm tends to be much less disabling but may cause considerable distress and embarrassment. Patients affected with these disorders are often mistakenly considered to have psychiatric problems. Although the two disorders are quite distinct pathophysiologically, therapy with botulinum toxin has proven very effective in both. We review the clinical features, proposed pathophysiologic features, differential diagnosis and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin, of cranial dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052771

  8. [Questionnaire survey of musician's dystonia among students of a music college].

    PubMed

    Konaka, Kuni; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Musician's dystonia is known as a task specific dystonia. Though it is thought to occur during a long course of repetitive performance, the actual circumstances that precipitate this condition are not clear. According to factual reports this disease is not commonly known, probably because many of these patients may not have been visiting a hospital. We prepared a questionnaire and did a survey among the students of a music college. This is the first questionnaire survey aimed at finding out the prevalence of musician's dystonia among the students of music. Among the 480 participants of this survey, 29% of the students had knowledge of this disorder and 1.25% of the students had dystonia while performing music.

  9. Integration of Osteopathic Manual Treatments in Management of Cervical Dystonia with Tremor: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Halimi, Miriam; Leder, Adena; Mancini, Jayme D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical dystonia, also known as spasmodic torticollis, is a chronic disorder in which patients exhibit involuntary repetitive contractions of neck muscles resulting in abnormal postures or movements. Occasionally, there is also a dystonic head tremor. The underlying mechanisms for cervical dystonia and dystonic tremor are not clear, and treatments are limited. Case Report In the present cases, two females with head tremor starting in adolescence developed worsening symptoms of cervical dystonia with dystonic tremor in their 60s. On osteopathic physical examination, both had a vertical type strain to the sphenobasilar synchondrosis. Discussion Vertical strains are more frequently found in patients after head trauma, congenital or later in life, than in healthy patients, and head trauma may have been a precipitating factor in these patients. There were improvements in cervical dystonia symptoms, including tremor, in both patients after osteopathic manual treatment. PMID:28119789

  10. Deep Brain Stimulation for Dystonia: A Novel Perspective on the Value of Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Jinnah, H. A.; Alterman, Ron; Klein, Christine; Krauss, Joachim K.; Moro, Elena; Vidailhet, Marie; Raike, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by excessive muscle contractions leading to abnormal movements and postures. There are many different clinical manifestations and underlying causes. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides an effect treatment, but outcomes can vary considerably among the different subtypes of dystonia. Several variables are thought to contribute to this variation including age of onset and duration of dystonia, specific characteristics of the dystonic movements, location of stimulation and stimulator settings, and others. The potential contributions of genetic factors have received little attention. In this review, we summarize evidence that some of the variation in DBS outcomes for dystonia is due to genetic factors. The evidence suggests that more methodical genetic testing may provide useful information in the assessment of potential surgical candidates, and in advancing our understanding of the biological mechanisms that influence DBS outcomes. PMID:28160152

  11. CDIP-58 can measure the impact of botulinum toxin treatment in cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Cano, S J; Hobart, J C; Edwards, M; Fitzpatrick, R; Bhatia, K; Thompson, A J; Warner, T T

    2006-12-26

    We compared the responsiveness of the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58), Medical Outcome Study Short Form-Health Survey (SF-36), Functional Disability Questionnaire (FDQ), and Pain and Activities of Daily Living subscales of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) in participants with cervical dystonia treated with botulinum toxin A. Subscales of CDIP-58 were more sensitive in detecting statistical and clinical change than comparable subscales of the SF-36, FDQ, and TWSTRS.

  12. Temporal discrimination in patients with dystonia and tremor and patients with essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Fasano, Alfonso; Di Matteo, Alessandro; Conte, Antonella; Bove, Francesco; Bovi, Tommaso; Peretti, Alessia; Defazio, Giovanni; Fiorio, Mirta; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether psychophysical techniques assessing temporal discrimination could help in differentiating patients who have tremor associated with dystonia or essential tremor. We tested somatosensory temporal discrimination thresholds (TDT) and temporal discrimination movement thresholds (TDMT) in 39 patients who had tremor associated with dystonia or essential tremor presenting with upper-limb tremor of comparable severity and compared their findings with those from a group of 25 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. TDT was higher in patients who had tremor associated with dystonia than in those with essential tremor and healthy controls (110.6 ± 31.3 vs 63.1 ± 15.2 vs 62.4 ± 9.2; p < 0.001). Conversely, TDMT was higher in patients with essential tremor than in those with tremor associated with dystonia and healthy controls (113.7 ± 14.7 vs 103.4 ± 11.3 vs 100.4 ± 4.2; p < 0.001). Combining the 2 tests in a pattern for essential tremor (abnormal TDMT/normal TDT) and tremor associated with dystonia (normal TDMT/abnormal TDT) yielded a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 70.8% for diagnosing essential tremor and a PPV of 100.0% and NPV of 74.1% for diagnosing tremor associated with dystonia. TDT and TDMT testing should prove a useful tool for differentiating tremor associated with dystonia and essential tremor. Our findings imply that the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying tremor associated with dystonia differ from those for essential tremor.

  13. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Molina-Molina, María

    2017-02-23

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the radiological and/or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Its aetiology is unknown, but probably comprises the action of endogenous and exogenous micro-environmental factors in subjects with genetic predisposition. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic findings of high-resolution computed tomography scans and pulmonary biopsies in absence of interstitial lung diseases of other aetiologies. Its clinical evolution is variable, although the mean survival rate is 2-5 years as of its clinical presentation. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may present complications and comorbidities which modify the disease's clinical course and prognosis. In the mild-moderate disease, the treatment consists of the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. In severe disease, the best therapeutic option is pulmonary transplantation. In this paper we review the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Syndrome of fixed dystonia in adolescents--short term outcome in 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Anirban; López-Casas, Jesús; Poo, Pilar; Colomer, Jaume; Galvan, Marta; Lingappa, Lokesh; Short, Clare; Jardine, Philip E; Fernández-Alvarez, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    We describe the clinical features, investigations and outcome of 4 adolescents aged 13, 16, 17 and 19 years, with fixed dystonia. The diagnosis was made within 6 months of the onset of symptoms. One patient had an identifiable traumatic precipitant. All the affected extremities had pain, sudomotor and vascular changes which were consistent with complex regional pain syndrome. The extremities affected by dystonia were the foot and the hand. The dystonia spread to affect other extremities in one patient. One patient had hemifacial spasm. Examination of the central and peripheral nervous system and allied investigations failed to reveal an organic cause. Common genetic causes for dystonia were excluded. The response to physical treatments for the affected extremities, such as Botulinum Toxin and surgery was poor. In all our cases there were significant psychological and psychiatric factors. Three patients fully met the criteria for psychogenic dystonia and responded well to psychological intervention. Fixed dystonia in adolescents is an uncommon disorder of unknown aetiology, usually presenting in girls, which can be very disabling and difficult to treat. The affected parts of the body are usually painful and show vascular changes. The condition is allied to CRPS. Treatment with multidisciplinary approach including psychological measures and physiotherapy is more likely to be successful and may prevent unnecessary physical measures.

  15. Current Opinions and Areas of Consensus on the Role of the Cerebellum in Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Batla, Amit; Bhatia, Kailash; Dauer, William T; Dresel, Christian; Niethammer, Martin; Eidelberg, David; Raike, Robert S.; Smith, Yoland; Jinnah, H. A.; Hess, Ellen J.; Meunier, Sabine; Hallett, Mark; Fremont, Rachel; Khodakhah, Kamran; LeDoux, Mark S.; Popa, Traian; Gallea, Cécile; Lehericy, Stéphane; Bostan, Andreea C.; Strick, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in causing ataxia, a disorder characterized by uncoordinated movement, is widely accepted. Recent work has suggested that alterations in activity, connectivity, and structure of the cerebellum are also associated with dystonia, a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and sustained muscle contractions often leading to abnormal maintained postures. In this manuscript, the authors discuss their views on how the cerebellum may play a role in dystonia. The following topics are discussed: The relationships between neuronal/network dysfunctions and motor abnormalities in rodent models of dystonia.Data about brain structure, cerebellar metabolism, cerebellar connections, and noninvasive cerebellar stimulation that support (or not) a role for the cerebellum in human dystonia.Connections between the cerebellum and motor cortical and sub-cortical structures that could support a role for the cerebellum in dystonia. Overall points of consensus include: Neuronal dysfunction originating in the cerebellum can drive dystonic movements in rodent model systems.Imaging and neurophysiological studies in humans suggest that the cerebellum plays a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia, but do not provide conclusive evidence that the cerebellum is the primary or sole neuroanatomical site of origin. PMID:27734238

  16. Children With and Without Dystonia Share Common Muscle Synergies While Performing Writing Tasks.

    PubMed

    Lunardini, Francesca; Casellato, Claudia; Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by muscle overflow and variability. This is the first study that investigates upper limb muscle synergies in childhood dystonia with the twofold aim of deepening the understanding of neuromotor dysfunctions and paving the way to possible synergy-based myocontrol interfaces suitable for this neurological population. Nonnegative matrix factorization was applied to the activity of upper-limb muscles recorded during the execution of writing tasks in children with dystonia and age-matched controls. Despite children with dystonia presented compromised kinematics of the writing outcome, a strikingly similarity emerged in the number and structure of the synergy vectors extracted from children in the two groups. The analysis also revealed that the timing of activation of the synergy coefficients did not significantly differ, while the amplitude of the peaks presented a slight reduction. These results suggest that the synergy analysis has the ability of capturing the uncorrupted part of the electromyographic signal in dystonia. Such an ability supports a possible future use of muscle synergies in the design of myocontrol interfaces for children with dystonia.

  17. Current Opinions and Areas of Consensus on the Role of the Cerebellum in Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Shakkottai, Vikram G; Batla, Amit; Bhatia, Kailash; Dauer, William T; Dresel, Christian; Niethammer, Martin; Eidelberg, David; Raike, Robert S; Smith, Yoland; Jinnah, H A; Hess, Ellen J; Meunier, Sabine; Hallett, Mark; Fremont, Rachel; Khodakhah, Kamran; LeDoux, Mark S; Popa, Traian; Gallea, Cécile; Lehericy, Stéphane; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L

    2017-04-01

    A role for the cerebellum in causing ataxia, a disorder characterized by uncoordinated movement, is widely accepted. Recent work has suggested that alterations in activity, connectivity, and structure of the cerebellum are also associated with dystonia, a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and sustained muscle contractions often leading to abnormal maintained postures. In this manuscript, the authors discuss their views on how the cerebellum may play a role in dystonia. The following topics are discussed: The relationships between neuronal/network dysfunctions and motor abnormalities in rodent models of dystonia. Data about brain structure, cerebellar metabolism, cerebellar connections, and noninvasive cerebellar stimulation that support (or not) a role for the cerebellum in human dystonia. Connections between the cerebellum and motor cortical and sub-cortical structures that could support a role for the cerebellum in dystonia. Overall points of consensus include: Neuronal dysfunction originating in the cerebellum can drive dystonic movements in rodent model systems. Imaging and neurophysiological studies in humans suggest that the cerebellum plays a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia, but do not provide conclusive evidence that the cerebellum is the primary or sole neuroanatomical site of origin.

  18. Infantile parkinsonism-dystonia: a dopamine “transportopathy”

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) retrieves the neurotransmitter dopamine from the synaptic cleft at dopaminergic synapses. Variations in solute carrier family 6A, member 3 (SLC6A3/DAT1), the human gene encoding DAT, have been implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity and bipolar disorders, and DAT is a prominent site of action for drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine. In this issue of the JCI, Kurian et al. report that an autosomal recessive infantile parkinsonism-dystonia is caused by loss-of-function mutations in DAT that impair dopamine reuptake (see the related article beginning on page 1595). Though this might be predicted to result in dopamine excess in the synaptic cleft, it likely also causes depletion of presynaptic dopamine stores and possibly downregulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptor function, resulting in impairments in dopaminergic neurotransmission consistent with the clinical presentation. This is the first report of a genetic alteration in DAT function underlying a parkinsonian disorder. PMID:19504720

  19. Restoring balance in focal limb dystonia with botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Sheean, Geoffrey

    2007-12-15

    Focal task-specific dystonia of the hand is rare in the general population, where it usually manifests as writer's cramp, but seems relatively common among musicians. The disability may be so severe as to prevent writing altogether or to end a professional musician's career. The cause is usually unknown but it is thought to be primarily a basal ganglia disorder with dysfunction of cortical-striatothalamic-cortical circuits. Abnormalities have been found in cortical movement preparation, intracortical inhibition, sensory and motor maps, and patterns of cortical activation during movement. Much evidence supports disordered processing of sensory information with disturbed sensorimotor integration. Underlying this may be maladaptive neural plasticity mechanisms. Treatment is difficult. Oral medications are generally ineffective and have troublesome side-effects. Intensive rehabilitation techniques based on neural plasticity theory show promise but are rarely available and are time-intensive. Botulinum toxin injections appear to be effective in writer's cramp and musician's dystonia, at least initially; long-term benefit is less common. Despite definite improvement, some patients abandon treatment because the gain is insufficient for meaningful function: this is particularly so for musicians. Much of the benefit from botulinum toxin injection comes from simply reducing muscle overactivity through muscle paralysis, restoring balance to motor control. However, some evidence suggests that botulinum toxin injections can produce transient improvement in some of the various cortical abnormalities described, probably through alteration of sensory input from the periphery, by direct and indirect means. These changes in cortical function might be usefully combined with those brought about by sensorimotor retraining programs, but such studies are awaited.

  20. Quantitative gait analysis in parkin disease: Possible role of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Anna; Frittoli, Serena; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Del Sorbo, Francesca; Romito, Luigi M; Elia, Antonio E; Albanese, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Parkin disease (PARK2, OMIM 602544) is an autosomal-recessive early-onset parkinsonism characterized by an early occurrence of lower limb dystonia. The aim of this study was to analyze spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameters in patients with parkin disease in the OFF and ON conditions compared to healthy age-matched controls. Fifteen patients with parkin disease and 15 healthy age-matched controls were studied in a gait analysis laboratory with an integrated optoelectronic system. Spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameters at a self-selected speed were recorded in the OFF and ON conditions. A jerk index was computed to quantify the possible reduction of smoothness of joint movements. Compared to controls, parkin patients had, either in the OFF or in the ON conditions, significant reduction of walking velocity, increased step width, and decreased percentage of double support. Kinematic analysis in both conditions showed: increased ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion at the initial contact; maximal flexion and increased range of motion in mid stance; increased hip flexion and max extension in stance at pelvis; and increased mean tilt antiversion. Kinetics showed increased hip and knee power generation in stance in either condition. The jerk index was increased at all joints both in OFF and ON. There were no correlations between individual gait parameters and clinical ratings. Parkin patients have an abnormal gait pattern that does not vary between the OFF and the ON conditions. Variations recorded with instrumented analysis are more evident for kinematic than kinetic parameters at lower limbs. Severity of dystonia does not correlate with any individual kinematic parameter. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Sonographic Alteration of Basal Ganglia in Different Forms of Primary Focal Dystonia: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Sheng, Yu-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Cai-Shan; Ma, Qi; Chen, Han-Bing; Yu, Li-Fang; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Xiong, Kang-Ping; Luo, Wei-Feng; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have addressed whether abnormalities in the lenticular nucleus (LN) are characteristic transcranial sonography (TCS) echo features in patients with primary dystonia. This study aimed to explore alterations in the basal ganglia in different forms of primary focal dystonia. Methods: cross-sectional observational study was performed between December 2013 and December 2014 in 80 patients with different forms of primary focal dystonia and 55 neurologically normal control subjects. TCS was performed in patients and control subjects. Multiple comparisons of multiple rates were used to compare LN hyperechogenicity ratios between control and patient groups. Results: Thirteen individuals were excluded due to poor temporal bone windows, and two subjects were excluded due to disagreement in evaluation by sonologists. Totally, 70 patients (cervical dystonia, n = 30; blepharospasm, n = 30; oromandibular dystonia, n = 10) and 50 normal controls were included in the final analysis. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 51% (36/70) of patients with primary focal dystonia, compared with 12% (6/50) of controls (P < 0.001). Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity did not differ between the two groups. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 73% (22/30) of patients with cervical dystonia, a greater prevalence than in patients with blepharospasm (33%, 10/30, P = 0.002) and oromandibular dystonia (40%, 4/10, P = 0.126). LN hyperechogenicity was more frequently observed in patients with cervical dystonia compared with controls (73% vs. 12%, P < 0.001); however, no significant difference was detected in patients with blepharospasm (33% vs. 12%, P = 0.021) or oromandibular dystonia (40% vs. 12%, P = 0.088). Conclusions: LN hyperechogenicity is more frequently observed in patients with primary focal dystonia than in controls. It does not appear to be a characteristic TCS echo feature in patients with blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia. PMID:27064039

  2. Investigation of the torsional stiffness of flexible disc coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryy, A.; Simonovsky, V.; Obolonik, V.

    2017-08-01

    Calculation of flexible coupling torsional stiffness is required when analyzing the torsional vibrations of the reciprocating machinery train. While having the lowest torsional stiffness of all the elements of the train, flexible coupling has a significant influence on the natural frequencies of torsional vibration. However, considering structural complexity of coupling, precise definition of its torsional stiffness is quite a difficult task. The paper presents a method for calculating the torsional stiffness of flexible disc coupling based on the study of its finite element model response under the action of torque. The analysis of the basic parameters that quantitatively and qualitatively affect the coupling torsional stiffness has been also provided. The results of the calculation as well as model adequacy, sufficient for practical application, have been confirmed at the experimental measurement of flexible disc coupling torsional stiffness. The obtained elastic characteristics (dependences of applied torque and torsional stiffness versus twist angle) are nonlinear in the initial stage of loading. This feature should be taken into account when creating reliable mathematical models of torsional vibrations of reciprocating machinery trains containing flexible disc couplings.

  3. Electronic transport in torsional strained Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Garrido, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    In a recent paper (Muñoz and Soto-Garrido 2017 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 29 445302) we have studied the effects of mechanical strain and magnetic field on the electronic transport properties in graphene. In this article we extended our work to Weyl semimetals (WSM). We show that although the WSM are 3D materials, most of the analysis done for graphene (2D material) can be carried out. In particular, we studied the electronic transport through a cylindrical region submitted to torsional strain and external magnetic field. We provide exact analytical expressions for the scattering cross section and the transmitted electronic current. In addition, we show the node-polarization effect on the current and propose a recipe to measure the torsion angle from transmission experiments.

  4. Torsional Tribological Behavior and Torsional Friction Model of Polytetrafluoroethylene against 1045 Steel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shibo; Niu, Chengchao

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the plane-on-plane torsional fretting tribological behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was studied. A model of a rigid, flat-ended punch acting on an elastic half-space was built according to the experimental conditions. The results indicate that the shape of T–θ curves was influenced by both the torsional angle and the normal load. The torsion friction torque and wear rate of PTFE exponentially decreased when the torsion angle rose. The torsional torque increased from 0.025 N·m under a normal load of 43 N to 0.082 N·m under a normal load of 123 N. With sequentially increasing normal load, the value of torque was maintained. With rising normal load, the wear mass loss of PTFE disks was increased and the wear rate was decreased. Good agreement was found with the calculated torque according to the model and the experimental torque except for that under a normal load of 163 N. The difference under a normal load of 163 N was caused by the coefficient of friction. Usually the coefficient of friction of a polymer decreases with increasing normal load, whereas a constant coefficient of friction was applied in the model. PMID:26799324

  5. Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.

  6. Torsional Oscillations in a Global Solar Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, P.; Charbonneau, P.; Racine, E.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2013-02-01

    We characterize and analyze rotational torsional oscillations developing in a large-eddy magnetohydrodynamical simulation of solar convection (Ghizaru, Charbonneau, and Smolarkiewicz, Astrophys. J. Lett. 715, L133, 2010; Racine et al., Astrophys. J. 735, 46, 2011) producing an axisymmetric, large-scale, magnetic field undergoing periodic polarity reversals. Motivated by the many solar-like features exhibited by these oscillations, we carry out an analysis of the large-scale zonal dynamics. We demonstrate that simulated torsional oscillations are not driven primarily by the periodically varying large-scale magnetic torque, as one might have expected, but rather via the magnetic modulation of angular-momentum transport by the large-scale meridional flow. This result is confirmed by a straightforward energy analysis. We also detect a fairly sharp transition in rotational dynamics taking place as one moves from the base of the convecting layers to the base of the thin tachocline-like shear layer formed in the stably stratified fluid layers immediately below. We conclude by discussing the implications of our analyses with regard to the mechanism of amplitude saturation in the global dynamo operating in the simulation, and speculate on the possible precursor value of torsional oscillations for the forecast of solar-cycle characteristics.

  7. Spacetime thermodynamics in the presence of torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    It was shown by Jacobson in 1995 that the Einstein equation can be derived as a local constitutive equation for an equilibrium spacetime thermodynamics. With the aim to understand if such thermodynamical description is an intrinsic property of gravitation, many attempts have been made so far to generalize this treatment to a broader class of gravitational theories. Here we consider the case of the Einstein-Cartan theory as a prototype of theories with nonpropagating torsion. In doing so, we study the properties of Killing horizons in the presence of torsion, establish the notion of local causal horizon in Riemann-Cartan spacetimes, and derive the generalized Raychaudhuri equation for these kinds of geometries. Then, starting with the entropy that can be associated to these local causal horizons, we derive the Einstein-Cartan equation by implementing the Clausius equation. We outline two ways of proceeding with the derivation depending on whether we take torsion as a geometric field or as a matter field. In both cases we need to add internal entropy production terms to the Clausius equation as the shear and twist cannot be taken to be 0 a priori for our setup. This fact implies the necessity of a nonequilibrium thermodynamics treatment for the local causal horizon. Furthermore, it implies that a nonzero twist at the horizon in general contributes to the Hartle-Hawking tidal heating for black holes with possible implications for future observations.

  8. Aeroelastic considerations for torsionally soft rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantay, W. R.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A research study was initiated to systematically determine the impact of selected blade tip geometric parameters on conformable rotor performance and loads characteristics. The model articulated rotors included baseline and torsionally soft blades with interchangeable tips. Seven blade tip designs were evaluated on the baseline rotor and six tip designs were tested on the torsionally soft blades. The designs incorporated a systemmatic variation in geometric parameters including sweep, taper, and anhedral. The rotors were evaluated in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at several advance ratios, lift and propulsive force values, and tip Mach numbers. A track sensitivity study was also conducted at several advance ratios for both rotors. Based on the test results, tip parameter variations generated significant rotor performance and loads differences for both baseline and torsionally soft blades. Azimuthal variation of elastic twist generated by variations in the tip parameters strongly correlated with rotor performance and loads, but the magnitude of advancing blade elastic twist did not. In addition, fixed system vibratory loads and rotor track for potential conformable rotor candidates appears very sensitive to parametric rotor changes.

  9. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, B; Viskin, S

    1993-06-01

    Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.

  10. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is

  11. Torsion-rotation intensities in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John

    Methanol exists in numerous kinds of astronomical objects featuring a wide range of local conditions. The light nature of the molecule coupled with the internal rotation of the methyl group with respect to the hydroxyl group results in a rich, strong spectrum that spans the entire far-infrared region. As a result, any modest size observational window will have a number of strong methanol transitions. This has made it the gas of choice for testing THz receivers and to extract the local physical conditions from observations covering small frequency windows. The latter has caused methanol to be dubbed the Swiss army knife of astrophysics. Methanol has been increasingly used in this capacity and will be used even more for subsequent investigations into the Herschel archive, and with SOFIA and ALMA. Interpreting physical conditions on the basis of a few methanol lines requires that the molecular data, line positions, intensities, and collision rates, be complete, consistent and accurate to a much higher level than previously required for astrophysics. The need for highly reliable data is even more critical for modeling the two classes of widespread maser action and many examples of optical pumping through the torsional bands. Observation of the torsional bands in the infrared will be a unique opportunity to directly connect JWST observations with those of Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. The theory for the intensities of torsion-rotation transitions in a molecule featuring a single internally rotating methyl group is well developed after 70 years of research. However, other than a recent very preliminary and not completely satisfactory investigation of a few CH3OH torsional bands, this theory has never been experimentally tested for any C3V internal rotor. More alarming is a set of recent intensity calibrated microwave measurements that showed deviations relative to calculations of up to 50% in some ground state rotational transitions commonly used by astronomers to extract

  12. Nonminimal couplings, gravitational waves, and torsion in Horndeski's theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, José; Cordonier-Tello, Fabrizio; Izaurieta, Fernando; Medina, Perla; Narbona, Daniela; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Valdivia, Omar

    2017-10-01

    The Horndeski Lagrangian brings together all possible interactions between gravity and a scalar field that yield second-order field equations in four-dimensional spacetime. As originally proposed, it only addresses phenomenology without torsion, which is a non-Riemannian feature of geometry. Since torsion can potentially affect interesting phenomena such as gravitational waves and early universe inflation, in this paper we allow torsion to exist and propagate within the Horndeski framework. To achieve this goal, we cast the Horndeski Lagrangian in Cartan's first-order formalism and introduce wave operators designed to act covariantly on p -form fields that carry Lorentz indices. We find that nonminimal couplings and second-order derivatives of the scalar field in the Lagrangian are indeed generic sources of torsion. Metric perturbations couple to the background torsion, and new torsional modes appear. These may be detected via gravitational waves but not through Yang-Mills gauge bosons.

  13. Development of a simple computerized torsion test to quantify subjective ocular torsion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y D; Yang, H K; Hwang, J-M

    2017-11-01

    PurposeThe double Maddox-rod test (DMRT) and Lancaster red-green test (LRGT) are the most widely used tests worldwide to assess subjective ocular torsion. However, these tests require equipment and the quantified results of ocular torsion are only provided in rough values. Here we developed a novel computerized torsion test (CTT) for individual assessment of subjective ocular torsion and validated the reliability and accuracy of the test compared with those of the DMRT and LRGT.MethodsA total of 30 patients with cyclovertical strabismus and 30 controls were recruited. The CTT was designed using Microsoft Office PowerPoint. Subjects wore red-green filter spectacles and viewed gradually tilted red and cyan lines on an LCD monitor and pressed the keyboard to go through the slides, until both lines seemed parallel. All subjects underwent the CTT, DMRT, and LRGT. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were analyzed to assess the acceptability of the CTT compared with that of the DMRT.ResultsBoth the DMRT and CTT showed no significant test-retest differences in the strabismus and control groups. The DMRT and CTT results demonstrated an acceptable agreement. The reliability of the CTT was better than that of the DMRT. The LRGT showed low sensitivity for the detection of ocular torsion compared with the DMRT (40.0%) and CTT (39.1%).ConclusionOur results suggest that the assessment of subjective ocular torsion using the CTT based on PowerPoint software is simple, reproducible, and accurate and can be applied in clinical practice.

  14. Motor cortex stimulation does not improve dystonia secondary to a focal basal ganglia lesion.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Isabelle; Aya Kombo, Magaly; Thobois, Stéphane; Derost, Philippe; Pollak, Pierre; Xie, Jing; Pereira, Bruno; Vidailhet, Marie; Burbaud, Pierre; Lefaucheur, Jean Pascal; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Mertens, Patrick; Chabardes, Stephan; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Durif, Franck

    2014-01-14

    To assess the efficacy of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS) on dystonia, spasticity, pain, and quality of life in patients with dystonia secondary to a focal basal ganglia (BG) lesion. In this double-blind, crossover, multicenter study, 5 patients with dystonia secondary to a focal BG lesion were included. Two quadripolar leads were implanted epidurally over the primary motor (M1) and premotor cortices, contralateral to the most dystonic side. The leads were placed parallel to the central sulcus. Only the posterior lead over M1 was activated in this study. The most lateral or medial contact of the lead (depending on whether the dystonia predominated in the upper or lower limb) was selected as the anode, and the other 3 as cathodes. One month postoperatively, patients were randomly assigned to on- or off-stimulation for 3 months each, with a 1-month washout between the 2 conditions. Voltage, frequency, and pulse width were fixed at 3.8 V, 40 Hz, and 60 μs, respectively. Evaluations of dystonia (Burke-Fahn-Marsden Scale), spasticity (Ashworth score), pain intensity (visual analog scale), and quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey) were performed before surgery and after each period of stimulation. Burke-Fahn-Marsden Scale, Ashworth score, pain intensity, and quality of life were not statistically significantly modified by MCS. Bipolar epidural MCS failed to improve any clinical feature in dystonia secondary to a focal BG lesion. This study provides Class I evidence that bipolar epidural MCS with the anode placed over the motor representation of the most affected limb failed to improve any clinical feature in dystonia secondary to a focal BG lesion.

  15. Clinical and genetic features of cervical dystonia in a large multicenter cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Satya R.; Xiao, Jianfeng; Thompson, Misty M.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Wright, Laura J.; Jinnah, H.A.; Rosen, Ami R.; Hedera, Peter; Comella, Cynthia L.; Weissbach, Anne; Junker, Johanna; Jankovic, Joseph; Barbano, Richard L.; Reich, Stephen G.; Rodriguez, Ramon L.; Berman, Brian D.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Severt, Lawrence; Agarwal, Pinky; Stover, Natividad P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the clinical and genetic features of cervical dystonia (CD). Methods: Participants enrolled in the Dystonia Coalition biorepository (NCT01373424) with initial manifestation as CD were included in this study (n = 1,000). Data intake included demographics, family history, and the Global Dystonia Rating Scale. Participants were screened for sequence variants (SVs) in GNAL, THAP1, and Exon 5 of TOR1A. Results: The majority of participants were Caucasian (95%) and female (75%). The mean age at onset and disease duration were 45.5 ± 13.6 and 14.6 ± 11.8 years, respectively. At the time of assessment, 68.5% had involvement limited to the neck, shoulder(s), and proximal arm(s), whereas 47.4% had dystonia limited to the neck. The remaining 31.5% of the individuals exhibited more extensive anatomical spread. A head tremor was noted in 62% of the patients. Head tremor and laryngeal dystonia were more common in females. Psychiatric comorbidities, mainly depression and anxiety, were reported by 32% of the participants and were more common in females. Family histories of dystonia, parkinsonian disorder, and tremor were present in 14%, 11%, and 29% of the patients, respectively. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic SVs in THAP1, TOR1A, and GNAL were identified in 8 participants (0.8%). Two individuals harbored novel missense SVs in Exon 5 of TOR1A. Synonymous and noncoding SVs in THAP1 and GNAL were identified in 4% of the cohort. Conclusions: Head tremor, laryngeal dystonia, and psychiatric comorbidities are more common in female participants with CD. Coding and noncoding variants in GNAL, THAP1, and TOR1A make small contributions to the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:27123488

  16. Neutrino Oscillation in a Space-Time with Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, M.; Shariati, A.

    Using Einstein-Cartan-Dirac theory, we study the effect of torsion on neutrino oscillation. We see that torsion cannot induce neutrino oscillation, but affects it whenever oscillation exists for other reasons. We show that the torsion effect on neutrino oscillation is as important as the neutrino mass effect, whenever the ratio of neutrino number density to neutrino energy is ~ 1069 cm-3/eV, or the number density of the matter is ~ 1069cm-3.

  17. Association of Torsion With Testicular Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Uguz, Sami; Yilmaz, Sercan; Guragac, Ali; Topuz, Bahadır; Aydur, Emin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported with the association of torsion in surgical specimens, and the published data remain scant on the association of torsion with testicular tumors. By retrospective medical record review, we identified 32 patients who had been diagnosed with testicular torsion, 20 of whom had undergone orchiectomy. Of these 20 patients, 2 were diagnosed with a malignancy. Our study, the largest case series to date, has shown an association between testicular torsion and testicular cancer of 6.4%. Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported in association with torsion in surgical specimens. However, the published data remain scant on the association between torsion and the presence of testicular tumors. The present retrospective study explored the association between torsion and testicular cancer in patients with testicular torsion undergoing orchiectomy during scrotal exploration. A medical record review was performed of patients who had had a diagnosis of testicular torsion from January 2003 to February 2015. The clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients were recorded. A total of 32 patients were identified. Their mean age was 21.1 years (range, 7-39 years). All the patients had unilateral testicular torsion, which affected the left side in 17 and the right side in 15. Manual detorsion was successful in 6 patients, and 26 patients underwent emergency surgery with testicular detorsion (6 fixation surgery and 20 orchiectomy). The type of incision was scrotal in 6, inguinal in 10, and unspecified in 4. Pathologic examination of the orchiectomy specimens showed malignancy in 2 cases (seminoma and malign mixed germ cell tumor). To the best of our knowledge, the present single-center case series is the largest case series to date of

  18. Incidence and predictive factors of isolated neonatal penile glanular torsion.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Pierrot E; Sadasivam, Muthurajan

    2007-12-01

    To determine the incidence of isolated neonatal penile glanular torsion, describe the basic characteristics, and explore the relationship between foreskin and glans torsion. A prospective survey was conducted of all male newborns admitted to nursery after delivery, or neonates less than 3 months presenting for circumcision. Cases with associated genital malformations were excluded. The incidence of isolated neonatal penile torsion was 27% (95% CI: 22.2%-31.84%), to the left in 99% of cases. In 3.5% of cases, the penis had an angle <10 degrees, and 9.5% >20 degrees. Using Spearman's correlational coefficient, deviation of penile raphe from the midline at the foreskin tip had a better correlation with glans torsion than deviation of raphe at the coronal sulcus (0.727 vs 0.570; both significant at p<0.01). Isolated neonatal penile torsion is more common than reported. The median raphe of the penis may be normal and mask unexpected glans torsion. Median raphe torsion at foreskin tip can be used as a predictor for glans torsion. Clinical significance and relation to adult penile torsion are beyond the scope of the study.

  19. The Mechanisms of Movement Control and Time Estimation in Cervical Dystonia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lungu, Ovidiu V.; Shaw, Daniel J.; Kasparek, Tomas; Bareš, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the pathophysiology of cervical dystonia has been regarded mainly in relation to neurochemical abnormities in the basal ganglia. Recently, however, substantial evidence has emerged for cerebellar involvement. While the absence of neurological “cerebellar signs” in most dystonia patients may be considered at least provoking, there are more subtle indications of cerebellar dysfunction in complex, demanding tasks. Specifically, given the role of the cerebellum in the neural representation of time, in the millisecond range, dysfunction to this structure is considered to be of greater importance than dysfunction of the basal ganglia. In the current study, we investigated the performance of cervical dystonia patients on a computer task known to engage the cerebellum, namely, the interception of a moving target with changing parameters (speed, acceleration, and angle) with a simple response (pushing a button). The cervical dystonia patients achieved significantly worse results than a sample of healthy controls. Our results suggest that the cervical dystonia patients are impaired at integrating incoming visual information with motor responses during the prediction of upcoming actions, an impairment we interpret as evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:24198973

  20. Pallidal stimulation in children: comparison between cerebral palsy and DYT1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Marks, Warren; Bailey, Laurie; Reed, Maryann; Pomykal, Angela; Mercer, Mary; Macomber, David; Acosta, Fernando; Honeycutt, John

    2013-07-01

    The authors compared the outcomes of 17 children aged 7 to 15 years with DYT1 dystonia or cerebral palsy following deep brain stimulation. While patients with cerebral palsy presented with significantly greater motor disability than the DYT1 cohort at baseline, both groups demonstrated improvement at 1 year (cerebral palsy = 24%; DYT1 = 6%). The group as a whole demonstrated significant improvement on the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale across time. Gains in motor function were apparent in both axial and appendicular distributions involving both upper and lower extremities. Gains achieved by 6 months were sustained in the cerebral palsy group, whereas the DYT1 group demonstrated continued improvement with ongoing pallidal stimulation beyond 18 months. Young patients with dystonia due to cerebral palsy responded comparably to patients with DYT1 dystonia. The severity of motor impairment in patients with cerebral palsy at baseline and follow-up raises the issue of even earlier intervention with neuromodulation in this population to limit long-term motor impairments due to dystonia.

  1. Finger-specific loss of independent control of movements in musicians with focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Furuya, S; Altenmüller, E

    2013-09-05

    The loss of independent control of finger movements impairs the dexterous use of the hand. Focal hand dystonia is characterised by abnormal structural and functional changes at the cortical and subcortical regions responsible for individuated finger movements and by the loss of surround inhibition in the finger muscles. However, little is known about the pathophysiological impact of focal dystonia on the independent control of finger movements. Here we addressed this issue by asking pianists with and without focal dystonia to repetitively strike a piano key with one of the four fingers as fast as possible while the remaining digits kept the adjacent keys depressed. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis to the derived keystroke data, we successfully classified pianists according to the presence or absence of dystonic symptoms with classification rates and cross-validation scores of approximately 90%. This confirmed the effects of focal dystonia on the individuated finger movements. Interestingly, the movement features that contributed to successful classification differed across fingers. Compared to healthy pianists, pianists with an affected index finger were characterised predominantly by stronger keystrokes, whereas pianists with affected middle or ring fingers exhibited abnormal temporal control of the keystrokes, such as slowness and rhythmic inconsistency. The selective alternation of the movement features indicates a finger-specific loss of the independent control of finger movements in focal dystonia of musicians. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Botulinum Toxin Injections Reduce Associative Plasticity in Patients with Primary Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Kojovic, Maja; Caronni, Antonio; Bologna, Matteo; Rothwell, John C.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Edwards, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin injections ameliorate dystonic symptoms by blocking the neuromuscular junction and weakening dystonic contractions. We asked if botulinum toxin injections in dystonia patients might also affect the integrity of sensorimotor cortical plasticity, one of the key pathophysiological features of dystonia. We applied a paired associative stimulation protocol, known to induce long-term potentiation–like changes in the primary motor cortex hand area to 12 patients with cervical dystonia before and 1 and 3 months after botulinum toxin injections to the neck muscles. Primary motor cortex excitability was probed by measuring transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked motor evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation. We also measured the input–output curve, short-interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation, short afferent inhibition, and long afferent inhibition in hand muscles and the clinical severity of dystonia. Before botulinum toxin injections, paired associative stimulation significantly facilitated motor evoked potentials in hand muscles. One month after injections, this effect was abolished, with partial recovery after 3 months. There were significant positive correlations between the facilitation produced by paired associative stimulation and (1) the time elapsed since botulinum toxin injections and (2) the clinical dystonia score. One effect of botulinum toxin injection treatment is to modulate afferent input from the neck. We propose that subsequent reorganization of the motor cortex representation of hand muscles may explain the effect of botulinum toxin on motor cortical plasticity. PMID:21469207

  3. Interventional studies in childhood dystonia do not address the concerns of children and their carers.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, Daniel E; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Kaminska, Margaret; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the main concerns/priorities of the parents and carers of children with dystonia referred to our service and whether medical interventional studies addressed these concerns. Records of children assessed by our service from June 2005-December 2012 were reviewed and expressed parental/carer concerns at initial assessment categorized using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) Framework. Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases were searched for outcome measures of medical and surgical interventional studies in childhood dystonia. Data was collected from 273 children and young people with dystonia. The most commonly expressed concerns were: pain (104/273, 38.1%); difficulties in delivering activities of daily-living (66/273, 24.2%), difficulties with hand-use (59/273, 21.6%) and seating (41/273, 15.0%). Literature review identified 70 interventional studies, 46 neurosurgical and 24 pharmacological. The majority of neurosurgical studies (34/46) used impairment scales to measure change, with pharmacological studies typically reporting more subjective changes in motor symptoms. Only a minority of studies used assessments or scales capable of objectively addressing the concerns reported by our cohort. Existing interventional studies in childhood dystonia poorly address the main concerns of children with dystonia and their carers, limiting the conclusions which may be drawn as to true impact of these interventions in childhood. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  5. Muscle synergies in children with dystonia capture "healthy" patterns regardless the altered motor performance.

    PubMed

    Lunardini, Francesca; Casellato, Claudia; Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Muscle synergies are hypothesized to represent motor modules recruited by the nervous system to flexibly perform subtasks necessary to achieve movement. Muscle synergy analysis may offer a better view of the neural structure underlying motor behaviors and how they change in motor deficits and rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to investigate if muscle synergies are able to encode regularities in the musculoskeletal system organization and dynamic behavior of patients with dystonia, or if they are altered as a consequence of the nervous system dysfunction in dystonia. To do so, we applied muscle synergies analysis to muscle activity recorded during the execution of upper limb writing tasks in 10 children with dystonia and 9 age-matched healthy controls. We show that, although children with dystonia present movement abnormalities compared to control subjects, the muscle synergies extracted from the two groups are very similar, and that the two groups share a significant number of motor modules. Our finding therefore suggests that a regular modular organization of upper limb muscle coordination is preserved for childhood dystonia.

  6. Normalization of sensorimotor integration by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Zittel, S; Helmich, R C; Demiralay, C; Münchau, A; Bäumer, T

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies indicated that sensorimotor integration and plasticity of the sensorimotor system are impaired in dystonia patients. We investigated motor evoked potential amplitudes and short latency afferent inhibition to examine corticospinal excitability and cortical sensorimotor integration, before and after inhibitory 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary sensory and primary motor cortex in patients with cervical dystonia (n = 12). Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle after application of unconditioned transcranial magnetic test stimuli and after previous conditioning electrical stimulation of the right index finger at short interstimulus intervals of 25, 30 and 40 ms. Results were compared to a group of healthy age-matched controls. At baseline, motor evoked potential amplitudes did not differ between groups. Short latency afferent inhibition was reduced in cervical dystonia patients compared to healthy controls. Inhibitory 1 Hz sensory cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation but not motor cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increased motor evoked potential amplitudes in cervical dystonia patients. Additionally, both 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary sensory and primary motor cortex normalized short latency afferent inhibition in these patients. In healthy subjects, sensory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation had no influence on motor evoked potential amplitudes and short latency afferent inhibition. Plasticity of sensorimotor circuits is altered in cervical dystonia patients.

  7. Quality and reporting of guidelines on the diagnosis and management of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Tamás, G; Abrantes, C; Valadas, A; Radics, P; Albanese, A; Tijssen, M A J; Ferreira, J J

    2018-02-01

    The quality of clinical practice guidelines on dystonia has not yet been assessed. Our aim was to appraise the methodological quality of guidelines worldwide and to analyze the consistency of their recommendations. We searched for clinical practice guidelines on dystonia diagnosis/treatment in the National Guideline Clearinghouse, PubMed, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Guidelines International Network and Web of Science databases. We also searched for guidelines on homepages of international neurological societies. We asked for guidelines from every Management Committee member of the BM1101 Action of the Cooperation between Science and Technology European framework and every member of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society with special interest in dystonia. Fifteen guidelines were evaluated. Among guidelines on treatment, only one from the American Academy of Neurology could be considered as high quality. Among guidelines on diagnosis and therapy, the guideline from the European Federation of Neurological Societies was recommended by the appraisers. Clinical applicability and reports of editorial independence were the greatest shortcomings. The rigor of development was poor and stakeholder involvement was also incomplete in most guidelines. Discrepancies among recommendations may result from the weight given to consensus statements and expert opinions due to the lack of evidence, as well as inaccuracy of disease classification. The quality of appraised guidelines was low. It is necessary to improve the quality of guidelines on dystonia, and the applied terminology of dystonia also needs to be standardized. © 2017 EAN.

  8. Pathogenic variants in TUBB4A are not found in primary dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Satya R.; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Momčilović, Dragana; Blitzer, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the contribution of TUBB4A, recently associated with DYT4 dystonia in a pedigree with “whispering dysphonia” from Norfolk, United Kingdom, to the etiopathogenesis of primary dystonia. Methods: High-resolution melting and Sanger sequencing were used to inspect the entire coding region of TUBB4A in 575 subjects with primary laryngeal, segmental, or generalized dystonia. Results: No pathogenic variants, including the exon 1 variant (c.4C>G) identified in the DYT4 whispering dysphonia kindred, were found in this study. Conclusion: The c.4C>G DYT4 mutation appears to be private, and clinical testing for TUBB4A mutations is not justified in spasmodic dysphonia or other forms of primary dystonia. Moreover, given its allelic association with leukoencephalopathy hypomyelination with atrophy of basal ganglia and cerebellum and protean clinical manifestations (chorea, ataxia, dysarthria, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and psychiatric disorders), DYT4 should not be categorized as a primary dystonia. PMID:24598712

  9. Lower KV7.5 Potassium Channel Subunit Expression in an Animal Model of Paroxysmal Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Sander, Svenja E; Diwan, Mustansir; Raymond, Roger; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a hyperkinetic disabling movement disorder. In the dt(sz) hamster, a model of paroxysmal dystonia, pronounced antidystonic effects of the KV7.2-5 potassium channel opener retigabine and aggravation of dystonia by a selective KV7.2-5 blocker indicated a pathophysiological role of an abnormal expression of KV7 channels. We therefore investigated the expression of KV7 subunits in brains of dystonic hamsters. While KV7.2 and KV7.3 subunits were unaltered, lower KV7.5 mRNA levels became evident in motor areas and in limbic structures of dystonic hamsters. The KV7.2/3 subunit-preferring channel opener N-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3,4- difluorobenzamide (ICA 27243; 10-30 mg/kg i.p.) failed to reduce the severity of dystonia in mutant hamsters, suggesting that the previously observed antidystonic action of retigabine is mediated by the activation of KV7.5 channels. The experiments indicate a functional relevance for KV7.5 channels in paroxysmal dystonia. We suggest that compounds highly selective for subtypes of KV7 channels, i.e. for KV7.5, may provide new therapeutic approaches.

  10. The Torsional Spectrum of Doubly Deuterated Methanol CHD_2OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndao, M.; Coudert, L. H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Barros, J.; Margulès, L.; Manceron, Laurent; Roy, P.

    2014-06-01

    Although the torsional spectrum of several isotopic species of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 was analyzed some time ago, it is recently, and only for the monodeuterated species CH_2DOH, that such an analysis was extended to the case of an asymmetrical methyl group. In this talk, based on a Fourier transform high-resolution spectrum recorded in the 20 to 670 wn region, the first analysis of the torsional spectrum of doubly deuterated methanol CHD_2OH will be presented. The Q branch of many torsional subbands could be observed and their assignment was initiated using a theoretical torsion-rotation spectrum computed with an approach accounting for the torsion-rotation Coriolis coupling and for the dependence of the generalized inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. 46 torsional subbands were thus assigned. For 28 of them, their rotational structure could be assigned and fitted using an effective Hamiltonian expressed as a J(J+1) expansion; and for 2 of them microwave transitions within the lower torsional level could also be included in the analysis. In several cases these analysis revealed that the torsional levels are strongly perturbed. In the talk, the torsional parameters retrieved in the analysis of the torsional subband centers will be discussed. The results of the analysis of the rotational structure of the torsional subbands will be presented and we will also try to understand the nature of the perturbations. At last, preliminary results about the analysis of the microwave spectrum will be presented. El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309 Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256 (2009) 204 Quade, Liu, Mukhopadhyay, and Su, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 192 (1998) 378 Pearson, Yu, and Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280 (2012) 119

  11. Toward laboratory torsional spine magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesny, David L.; Orange, N. Brice; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Valletta, David R.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental energy conversion mechanism in nature. Major attempts to study this process in controlled settings on Earth have largely been limited to reproducing approximately two-dimensional (2-D) reconnection dynamics. Other experiments describing reconnection near three-dimensional null points are non-driven, and do not induce any of the 3-D modes of spine fan, torsional fan or torsional spine reconnection. In order to study these important 3-D modes observed in astrophysical plasmas (e.g. the solar atmosphere), laboratory set-ups must be designed to induce driven reconnection about an isolated magnetic null point. As such, we consider the limited range of fundamental resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and kinetic parameters of dynamic laboratory plasmas that are necessary to induce the torsional spine reconnection (TSR) mode characterized by a driven rotational slippage of field lines - a feature that has yet to be achieved in operational laboratory magnetic reconnection experiments. Leveraging existing reconnection models, we show that within a 3$ apparatus, TSR can be achieved in dense plasma regimes ( 24~\\text{m}-3$ ) in magnetic fields of -1~\\text{T}$ . We find that MHD and kinetic parameters predict reconnection in thin current sheets on time scales of . While these plasma regimes may not explicitly replicate the plasma parameters of observed astrophysical phenomena, studying the dynamics of the TSR mode within achievable set-ups signifies an important step in understanding the fundamentals of driven 3-D magnetic reconnection and the self-organization of current sheets. Explicit control of this reconnection mode may have implications for understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical environments, and may even have practical applications to fields such as spacecraft propulsion.

  12. Torsion of the normal fallopian tube.

    PubMed

    Provost, M W

    1972-01-01

    From 1961 to 1970 a number of cases of torsion of the Fallopian tube were seen at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in San Francisco of which 3 cases are reported. Of the many theories of causation, pelvic congestion seemed the most likely. The only universal symptom is pain, located in the quadrant of the affected tube and sometimes radiating to the thigh or flank. Nausea and vomiting are frequent; temperature and white cell count are only slightly elevated or normal. A mass is often felt, depending on the amount of hemorrhage. Correct diagnosis is almost never made preoperatively. The only treatment is laparotomy and surgical correction.

  13. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.; Amato, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) consist of rare heterogenous autoimmune disorders that present with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis (IBM). Besides frequent creatine kinase (CK) elevation, the electromyogram confirms the presence of an irritative myopathy. Extramuscular involvement affects a significant number of cases with interstitial lung disease (ILD), cutaneous in dermatomyositis (DM), systemic or joint manifestations and increased risk of malignancy especially in DM. Myositis specific autoantibodies influence phenotype of the IIM. Jo-1 antibodies are frequently associated with ILD and the newly described HMG-CoA reductase antibodies are characteristic of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). Muscle pathology ranges from inflammatory exudates of variable distribution, to intact muscle fiber invasion, necrosis, phagocytosis and in the case of IBM rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. Despite many similarities, the IIM are a quite heterogeneous from the histopathological and pathogenetic standpoints in addition to some clinical and treatment-response difference. The field has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of these rare disorders. In this review, we focus on DM, polymyositis (PM) and NM and examine current and promising therapies. The reader interested in more details on IBM is referred to the corresponding chapter in this issue. PMID:25037081

  14. Idiopathic (primary) achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farnoosh; Vaezi, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder characterized by esophageal aperistalsis and abnormal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation in response to deglutition. It is a rare disease with an annual incidence of approximately 1/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 1/10,000. The disease can occur at any age, with a similar rate in men and women, but is usually diagnosed between 25 and 60 years. It is characterized predominantly by dysphagia to solids and liquids, bland regurgitation, and chest pain. Weight loss (usually between 5 to 10 kg) is present in most but not in all patients. Heartburn occurs in 27%–42% of achalasia patients. Etiology is unknown. Some familial cases have been reported, but the rarity of familial occurrence does not support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance is a significant etiologic factor. Association of achalasia with viral infections and auto-antibodies against myenteric plexus has been reported, but the causal relationship remains unclear. The diagnosis is based on history of the disease, radiography (barium esophagogram), and esophageal motility testing (esophageal manometry). Endoscopic examination is important to rule out malignancy as the cause of achalasia. Treatment is strictly palliative. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options (pneumatic dilation, surgical myotomy, and pharmacologic agents) aimed at reducing the LES pressure and facilitating esophageal emptying by gravity and hydrostatic pressure of retained food and liquids. Although it cannot be permanently cured, excellent palliation is available in over 90% of patients. PMID:17894899

  15. with idiopathic chronic malnutrition

    PubMed

    Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P < 0.001) and lower leptin levels (2.21 ± 2.0 vs. 5.21 ± 2.4, P < 0.001) than those of the control subjects. Nesfatin-1 levels were significantly associated with only leptin levels, after adjusting for age and BMI (r = –0.371, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The present study is the first to evaluate nesfatin-1 levels in relation with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in children with chronic malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.

  16. Idiopathic inflammatory myositis.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Joanna; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Limaye, Vidya

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) has evolved with the identification of myositis-associated and myositis-specific antibodies, development of histopathological classification and the recognition of how these correlate with clinical phenotype and response to therapy. In this paper, we outline key advances in diagnosis and histopathology, including the more recent identification of antibodies associated with immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Ongoing longitudinal observational cohorts allow further classification of these patients with IIM, their predicted clinical course and response to specific therapies. Registries have been developed worldwide for this purpose. A challenging aspect in IIM, a multisystem disease with multiple clinical subtypes, has been defining disease status and clinically relevant improvement. Tools for assessing activity and damage are now recognised to be important in determining disease activity and guiding therapeutic decision-making. The International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies (IMACS) group has developed such tools for use in research and clinical settings. There is limited evidence for specific treatment strategies in IIM. With significant development in the understanding of IIM and improved classification, longitudinal observational cohorts and trials using validated outcome measures are necessary, to provide important information for evidence-based care in the clinical setting. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Clinical and neurophysiological manifestations of cerebral asymmetry in cervical dystonia].

    PubMed

    Naryshkin, A G; Skoromets, T A; Gorelik, A L; Egorov, A Iu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis of clinical and neurophysiological data with the use of up-to-date methods of EEG processing, the authors discuss a role of cerebral asymmetry (CA) in the pathogenesis of cervical dystonia (CD). Sixty-seven patients (31 male and 36 female) with CD have been studied. The pathological turn of the head to the right side (RT) was observed in 34 patients, to the left side (LT) - in 33 patients. The uni- or bilateral generalization of dystonic symptoms (Meig's syndrome, laterocollis) was found only in one-third of RT patients. The visual analysis of EEG of RT patients revealed the high level of EEG synchronization with signs of cortical irritation, with the prevalence in the left hemisphere, and the presence of focal epileptiform appearances in the temporal leads of the left or both hemispheres with the left-side prevalence. In LT patients, the EEG presentation was similar to normal but more often represented the variants of EEG-pattern. In these cases, the apparent manifestations of CA were not found. The coherent analysis revealed the formation of the network of coherent links, with bilateral spread, in RT patients. This may suggest the functional inequivalence of the peripersonal space of right and left hand and the dominate significance of striopallidar and thalamic structures of the left hemisphere for the total brain activity.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases Dystonia Medical Research Foundation Family Caregiver Alliance National Ataxia Foundation National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) University of Kansas Medical ...

  19. What’s special about task in dystonia? A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion weighted imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Ramdhani, Ritesh A.; Kumar, Veena; Velickovic, Miodrag; Frucht, Steven J.; Tagliati, Michele; Simonyan, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous brain imaging studies have demonstrated structural changes in the basal ganglia, thalamus, sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum across different forms of primary dystonia. However, our understanding of brain abnormalities contributing to the clinically well-described phenomenon of task-specificity in dystonia remained limited. Methods We used high-resolution MRI with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics of fractional anisotropy to examine gray and white matter organization in two task-specific dystonia forms, writer’s cramp and laryngeal dystonia, and two non-task-specific dystonia forms, cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. Results A direct comparison between the both dystonia forms revealed that characteristic gray matter volumetric changes in task-specific dystonia involve the brain regions responsible for sensorimotor control during writing and speaking, such as primary somatosensory cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior/inferior temporal gyrus, middle/posterior cingulate cortex, occipital cortex as well as the striatum and cerebellum (lobules VI-VIIa). These gray matter changes were accompanied by white matter abnormalities in the premotor cortex, middle/inferior frontal gyrus, genu of the corpus callosum, anterior limb/genu of the internal capsule, and putamen. Conversely, gray matter volumetric changes in non-task-specific group were limited to the left cerebellum (lobule VIIa) only, while white matter alterations were found to underlie the primary sensorimotor cortex, inferior parietal lobule and middle cingulate gyrus. Conclusion Distinct microstructural patterns in task-specific and non-task-specific dystonias may represent neuroimaging markers and provide evidence that these two dystonia subclasses likely follow divergent pathophysiological mechanisms precipitated by different triggers. PMID:24925463

  20. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in children with dystonia: a sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Young, Scott J; Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D

    2014-02-01

    Increased motor cortex excitability is a common finding in dystonia, and transcranial direct current stimulation can reduce motor cortex excitability. In an earlier study, we found that cathodal direct-current stimulation decreased motor overflow for some children with dystonia. To investigate this observation further, we performed a sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study of 14 children with dystonia. We found a significant reduction in overflow following real stimulation, when participants performed the experimental task with the hand contralateral to the cathode. While these results suggest that cathodal stimulation may help some children to reduce involuntary overflow, the size of the effect is small. Further research will need to investigate ways to increase the magnitude of the effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation.

  1. Reaching and writing movements: sensitive and reliable tools to measure genetic dystonia in children.

    PubMed

    Casellato, Claudia; Zorzi, Giovanna; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Nardocci, Nardo

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a quantitative assessment of pure dystonia in a group of children. Kinematic and muscular characteristics of unconstrained movements of the upper limb, reaching and writing, were investigated. During reaching, the distinguishing factors of dystonic movement were reduced velocity, loss of muscular activation focalization, and impairment of rest-movement modulation. Muscular parameters were able to linearly discriminate the different levels of severity. These results support the hypothesis that basal ganglia dysfunction is responsible for compromising the motor activity focusing. The handwriting movement revealed that the kinematic coordination was altered depending on dystonia severity scores. The 2 protocols revealed themselves feasible and sensitive for detecting even local and subclinical signs. Hence, this work provides a contribution toward a reliable assessment of pure dystonia, crucial for clinical characterization of patients and evaluation of the different treatment options.

  2. Some Properties and Uses of Torsional Overlap Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhtiev, Mirza A.; Hougen, Jon T.

    1998-01-01

    The first diagonalization step in a rho-axis-method treatment of methyl-top internal rotation problems involves finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a torsional Hamiltonian, which depends on the rotational projection quantum numberKas a parameter. Traditionally the torsional quantum numbervt= 0, 1, 2···is assigned to eigenfunctions of givenKin order of increasing energy. In this paper we propose an alternative labeling scheme, using the torsional quantum numbervT, which is based on properties of theK-dependent torsional overlap integrals . In particular, the quantum numbervTis assigned in such a way that torsional wavefunctions |vT,K> vary as slowly as possible whenKchanges by unity. Roughly speaking,vT=vtfor torsional levels below the barrier, whereasvTis more closely related to the free-rotor quantum number for levels above the barrier. Because of the latter fact, we believevTwill in general be a physically more meaningful torsional quantum number for levels above the barrier. The usefulness of overlap integrals for qualitative prediction of torsion-rotation band intensities and for rationalizing the magnitudes of perturbations involving some excitation of the small-amplitude vibrations in an internal rotor problem is also discussed.

  3. Torsional actuator motor using solid freeform fabricated PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulho; Wu, Carl C. M.; Bender, Barry

    2004-07-01

    A torsional actuator has been developed at NRL utilizing the high piezoelectric shear coefficient, d15. This torsional actuator uses an even number of alternately poled segments of electroactive PZT. Under an applied electric field, the torsional actuator produces large angular displacement and a high torque. The solid freeform fabrication technique of the laminated object manufacturing (LOM) is used for rapid prototyping of torsional actuator with potential cost and time saving. First step to demonstrate the feasibility of the LOM technique for the torsional actuator device fabrication is to make near net shape segments. We report a prototype PZT torsional actuator using LOM prepared PZT-5A segments. Fabrication processes and test results are described. The torsional actuator PZT-5A tube has dimensions of 13 cm long, 2.54 cm OD and 1.9 cm ID. Although the piezoelectric strain is small, it may be converted into large displacement via accumulation of the small single cycle displacements over many cycles using AC driving voltage such as with a rotary 'inchworm' actuator or an ultrasonic rotary motor. A working prototype of a full-cycle motor driven by the piezoelectric torsional actuator has been achieved. The rotational speed is 1,200 rpm under 200 V/cm field at the resonant frequency of 4.5 kHz.

  4. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  5. Comparison of torsional and longitudinal modes using phacoemulsification parameters.

    PubMed

    Rekas, Marek; Montés-Micó, Robert; Krix-Jachym, Karolina; Kluś, Adam; Stankiewicz, Andrzej; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    To compare phacoemulsification parameters of torsional and longitudinal ultrasound modes. Ophthalmology Department, Military Health Service Institute, Warsaw, Poland. This prospective study evaluated eyes 1, 7, and 30 days after phacoemulsification with an Infiniti Vision System using the torsional or longitudinal ultrasound (US) mode. Cataract classification was according to the Lens Opacities Classification System II. Nucleus fragmentation was by the phaco-chop and quick-chop methods. Primary outcome measures were phaco time, mean phaco power, mean torsional amplitude, and aspiration time. Total energy, defined as cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) x aspiration time, and the effective coefficient, defined as aspiration time/phaco time, were also calculated. Four hundred eyes were evaluated. The CDE was statistically significantly lower in the torsional mode for nucleus grades I, II, and III (P<.001) but not for grade IV (P>.05). Aspiration time was statistically significantly shorter in the torsional mode than in the longitudinal mode for nucleus grades III and IV (P<.05). Total energy was significantly lower in the torsional mode for all nucleus densities (P<.05). The effective coefficient was significantly lower in the longitudinal mode except for nucleus grade I (P<.05). Torsional phacoemulsification was more effective than longitudinal phacoemulsification in the amount of applied fluid and the quantity of US energy expended. With the torsional method, it was possible to maintain a constant ratio of amount of fluid flow to quantity of US energy used, regardless of nucleus density.

  6. Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, Daniel G.; Gerth, Howard L.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.

  7. Static vacuum solutions on curved space-times with torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Hamid; Ziaie, Amir Hadi

    2018-06-01

    The Einstein-Cartan-Kibble-Sciama (ECKS) theory of gravity naturally extends Einstein’s general relativity (GR) to include intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of matter. The main feature of this theory consists of an algebraic relation between space-time torsion and spin of matter, which indeed deprives the torsion of its dynamical content. The Lagrangian of ECKS gravity is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar constructed out of a general affine connection so that owing to the influence of matter energy-momentum and spin, curvature and torsion are produced and interact only through the space-time metric. In the absence of spin, the space-time torsion vanishes and the theory reduces to GR. It is however possible to have torsion propagation in vacuum by resorting to a model endowed with a nonminimal coupling between curvature and torsion. In the present work we try to investigate possible effects of the higher order terms that can be constructed from space-time curvature and torsion, as the two basic constituents of Riemann-Cartan geometry. We consider Lagrangians that include fourth-order scalar invariants from curvature and torsion and then investigate the resulting field equations. The solutions that we find show that there could exist, even in vacuum, nontrivial static space-times that admit both black holes and naked singularities.

  8. Functional activity of the sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum relates to cervical dystonia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Burciu, Roxana G; Hess, Christopher W; Coombes, Stephen A; Ofori, Edward; Shukla, Priyank; Chung, Jae Woo; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Okun, Michael S; Vaillancourt, David E

    2017-09-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common type of focal dystonia, causing abnormal movements of the neck and head. In this study, we used noninvasive imaging to investigate the motor system of patients with CD and uncover the neural correlates of dystonic symptoms. Furthermore, we examined whether a commonly prescribed anticholinergic medication in CD has an effect on the dystonia-related brain abnormalities. Participants included 16 patients with CD and 16 healthy age-matched controls. We collected functional MRI scans during a force task previously shown to extensively engage the motor system, and diffusion and T1-weighted MRI scans from which we calculated free-water and brain tissue densities. The dystonia group was also scanned ca. 2 h after a 2-mg dose of trihexyphenidyl. Severity of dystonia was assessed pre- and post-drug using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Motor-related activity in CD was altered relative to controls in the primary somatosensory cortex, cerebellum, dorsal premotor and posterior parietal cortices, and occipital cortex. Most importantly, a regression model showed that increased severity of symptoms was associated with decreased functional activity of the somatosensory cortex and increased activity of the cerebellum. Structural imaging measures did not differ between CD and controls. The single dose of trihexyphenidyl altered the fMRI signal in the somatosensory cortex but not in the cerebellum. Symptom severity was not significantly reduced post-treatment. Findings show widespread changes in functional brain activity in CD and most importantly that dystonic symptoms relate to disrupted activity in the somatosensory cortex and cerebellum. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4563-4573, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Programming Deep Brain Stimulation for Tremor and Dystonia: The Toronto Western Hospital Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Picillo, Marina; Lozano, Andres M; Kou, Nancy; Munhoz, Renato Puppi; Fasano, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for essential tremor (ET) and dystonia. After surgery, a number of extensive programming sessions are performed, mainly relying on neurologist's personal experience as no programming guidelines have been provided so far, with the exception of recommendations provided by groups of experts. Finally, fewer information is available for the management of DBS in ET and dystonia compared with Parkinson's disease. Our aim is to review the literature on initial and follow-up DBS programming procedures for ET and dystonia and integrate the results with our current practice at Toronto Western Hospital (TWH) to develop standardized DBS programming protocols. We conducted a literature search of PubMed from inception to July 2014 with the keywords "balance", "bradykinesia", "deep brain stimulation", "dysarthria", "dystonia", "gait disturbances", "initial programming", "loss of benefit", "micrographia", "speech", "speech difficulties" and "tremor". Seventy-six papers were considered for this review. Based on the literature review and our experience at TWH, we refined three algorithms for management of ET, including: (1) initial programming, (2) management of balance and speech issues and (3) loss of stimulation benefit. We also depicted algorithms for the management of dystonia, including: (1) initial programming and (2) management of stimulation-induced hypokinesia (shuffling gait, micrographia and speech impairment). We propose five algorithms tailored to an individualized approach to managing ET and dystonia patients with DBS. We encourage the application of these algorithms to supplement current standards of care in established as well as new DBS centers to test the clinical usefulness of these algorithms in supplementing the current standards of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    PubMed

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-12-16

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail.

  11. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail. PMID:25516860

  12. Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2008-06-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque.

  13. Torsion of Meckel's Diverticulum in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Nose, Satoko; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Sasaki, Takashi; Nishimura, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is a common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, the majority of cases of which are clinically silent. Patients with asymptomatic MD can unexpectedly develop acute abdominal pain. Making a diagnosis of MD is often difficult due to the lack of specific symptoms caused by this condition. Diagnostic laparotomy can be useful for making an accurate and prompt diagnosis of complicated MD. We herein describe a pediatric case of torsion of a MD in whom we performed laparoscopic-assisted emergency surgery. The patient was an 11-year-old male who developed sudden severe right lower abdominal pain. Clinical and laboratory findings were suggestive of appendicitis, however computed tomography scans showed a large cystic mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparoscopy led to a diagnosis of torsion of a MD, and wedge resection of the gangrenous MD was performed through an umbilical port incision. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. We conclude that diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparoscopy-assisted Meckel's diverticulectomy via an umbilical incision is useful in the treatment of acute abdomen caused by MD. PMID:23466748

  14. Peculiar torsion dynamical response of spider dragline silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dabiao; Yu, Longteng; He, Yuming; Peng, Kai; Liu, Jie; Guan, Juan; Dunstan, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    The torsional properties of spider dragline silks from Nephila edulis and Nephila pilipes spiders are investigated by using a torsion pendulum technique. A permanent torsional deformation is observed after even small torsional strain. This behaviour is quite different from that of the other materials tested here, i.e., carbon fiber, thin metallic wires, Kevlar fiber, and human hair. The spider dragline thus displays a strong energy dissipation upon the initial excitation (around 75% for small strains and more for a larger strain), which correspondingly reduces the amplitude of subsequent oscillations around the new equilibrium position. The variation of torsional stiffness in relaxation dynamics of spider draglines for different excitations is also determined. The experimental result is interpreted in the light of the hierarchical structure of dragline silk.

  15. Focal dystonia of right hand with mirror movements upon use of left arm.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Athar, Aysha

    2013-05-01

    Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures of affected body parts. Here, we present a novel case of focal dystonia of a 51 years old right-handed woman who had developed difficulty in writing and performing fine motor tasks. Due to a discomfort in her right hand at use, she started using her left hand instead and noticed inconsistent mirror movements in her right hand upon use of left hand. She was treated with trihexyphenidyl which allowed her right hand to function better, though writing still remained a problem.

  16. Prospective study of swallowing function in patients with cervical dystonia undergoing selective peripheral denervation

    PubMed Central

    Munchau, A; Good, C; McGowan, S; Quinn, N; Palmer, J; Bhatia, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To characterise swallowing function in patients with cervical dystonia with botulinum toxin treatment failure, before and after selective peripheral denervation surgery.
METHODS—Twelve patients with cervical dystonia had a thorough examination including standardised assessment for cervical dystonia, scoring of subjective dysphagia, and videofluoroscopic swallow. Videofluoroscopy was scored by consensus opinion between a speech and language therapist and an independent blinded radiologist using a validated scoring system.
RESULTS—Seven patients with cervical dystonia experienced no subjective dysphagia either before or after surgery, although in all these patients there was objective videofluoroscopic evidence of underlying mild to moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia preoperatively and postoperatively. The most common finding was delayed initiation of swallow. Three other patients, also without subjective dysphagia before surgery, developed postoperative dysphagia. In these patients, videofluoroscopy showed a delayed swallow reflex before surgery, which was worse postoperatively in two. The remaining two patients had mild subjective dysphagia before surgery that improved postoperatively in one and deteriorated in the other. In the first, videofluoroscopy was normal preoperatively and postoperatively, and in the second, oral bolus preparation was moderately abnormal preoperatively and swallow initiation was delayed postoperatively. Mean subjective dysphagia scores did not change significantly. Apart from a significant improvement of tongue base retraction, videofluoroscopic scores were not significantly different after surgery. Postoperatively there was significant improvement of overall cervical dystonia severity and abnormal head rotation in the group as a whole. There was no correlation between age, duration of symptoms of cervical dystonia, preoperative or postoperative cervical dystonia severity, subjective dysphagia scores, or videofluoroscopic

  17. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jarrah, Adil; Taranikanti, Varna; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Al-Jabri, Asma; Sawhney, Sukhpal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign disorder of the breast whose aetiology is controversial, and is often misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as mammary malignancy; as a result, it may be incorrectly treated. Although no standard treatment is available for this chronic disease, surgery with or without corticosteroids has been tried with controversial results. This study discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, recurrence, and follow-up data of IGM with a review of relevant literature. Methods: From 2009–2012, the Breast Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, conducted a clinical study on 20 patients with breast lumps. Their clinical and radiological examinations were indeterminate, and a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis was established only by histopathology. Results: The majority of the patients were cases of unknown aetiology, who presented with a unilateral breast mass. A few patients had a mass with an abscess, along with axillary lymphadenopathy. A total of 4 patients were suspected of malignancy using radiology. In all patients, sterilised pus was sent for culture and sensitivity. Microscopy showed the characteristic pattern of granulomatous inflammation. All patients were treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks, and the mean follow-up period was 15 months (11–33 months). All patients had complete remission with no further recurrence. Conclusion: This single largest study of cases of IGM in Oman highlights the pitfalls in diagnosing this non-neoplastic disease of unknown aetiology and uncertain pathogenesis. It emphasises IGM’s excellent response to antibiotics, which is crucial, as IGM is a disease which is notoriously difficult and controversial to treat. PMID:23862029

  18. [Idiopathic portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Takahashi, T; García-Tsao, G; Mercado, M A; Diliz, H; Hernández-Ortiz, J

    1991-01-01

    Patients with portal hypertension without a demonstrable cause have been reported in the literature under several different terms, such as tropical splenomegaly, phlebosclerosis, obliterative portal venopathy of the liver, hepatoportal sclerosis, noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH). Such patients have been described worldwide, with a greater frequency in India and Japan. The etiology of IPH is still unknown, although some of the theories that have been proposed are: exposure to toxic substances or drugs, relationship with the hepatitis-B virus, immunologic abnormalities, systemic or intra-abdominal infections and clotting abnormalities. The main histopathologic findings are periportal fibrosis, obliteration of small portal veins and sclerosis of the interhepatic portal system. Although these abnormalities could be secondary to portal hypertension, it has been proposed that the vascular changes are the primary event that leads to portal hypertension. The site of increased resistance in IPH is found at the presinusoidal level with some component at the sinusoidal and postsinusoidal level. The main symptoms and signs in IPH are upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding secondary to esophago-gastric varices, symptoms related to anemia, and splenomegaly. The long-term prognosis for patients with IPH is better than for cirrhotic patients, with a 77% survival at ten years. Variceal bleeding is the main cause of death, and some treatment to prevent bleeding or its recurrence is warranted. Although no comparative trial has been performed in IPH patients, the surgical management could be the first choice for elective treatment in these patient without liver failure, because of the high re-bleeding rates with chronic sclerotherapy. Pharmacologic management could be considered for prophylactic treatment of these patients.

  19. Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Kevin R.; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; King, Talmadge E.; Raghu, Ganesh; Colby, Thomas V.; Wells, Athol; Bassily, Nadir; Brown, Kevin; du Bois, Roland; Flint, Andrew; Gay, Steven E.; Gross, Barry H.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Knapp, Robert; Louvar, Edmund; Lynch, David; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Quick, John; Thannickal, Victor J.; Travis, William D.; Vyskocil, James; Wadenstorer, Frazer A.; Wilt, Jeffrey; Toews, Galen B.; Murray, Susan; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Treatment and prognoses of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) varies by diagnosis. Obtaining a uniform diagnosis among observers is difficult. Objectives: Evaluate diagnostic agreement between academic and community-based physicians for patients with DPLDs, and determine if an interactive approach between clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists improved diagnostic agreement in community and academic centers. Methods: Retrospective review of 39 patients with DPLD. A total of 19 participants reviewed cases at 2 community locations and 1 academic location. Information from the history, physical examination, pulmonary function testing, high-resolution computed tomography, and surgical lung biopsy was collected. Data were presented in the same sequential fashion to three groups of physicians on separate days. Measurements and Main Results: Each observer's diagnosis was coded into one of eight categories. A κ statistic allowing for multiple raters was used to assess agreement in diagnosis. Interactions between clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists improved interobserver agreement at both community and academic sites; however, final agreement was better within academic centers (κ = 0.55–0.71) than within community centers (κ = 0.32–0.44). Clinically significant disagreement was present between academic and community-based physicians (κ = 0.11–0.56). Community physicians were more likely to assign a final diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared with academic physicians. Conclusions: Significant disagreement exists in the diagnosis of DPLD between physicians based in communities compared with those in academic centers. Wherever possible, patients should be referred to centers with expertise in diffuse parenchymal lung disorders to help clarify the diagnosis and provide suggestions regarding treatment options. PMID:17255566

  20. Torsional ARC Effectively Expands the Visual Field in Hemianopia

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Peli, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Exotropia in congenital homonymous hemianopia has been reported to provide field expansion that is more useful when accompanied with harmonios anomalous retinal correspondence (HARC). Torsional strabismus with HARC provides a similar functional advantage. In a subject with hemianopia demonstrating a field expansion consistent with torsion we documented torsional strabismus and torsional HARC. Methods Monocular visual fields under binocular fixation conditions were plotted using a custom dichoptic visual field perimeter (DVF). The DVF was also modified to measure perceived visual directions under dissociated and associated conditions across the central 50° diameter field. The field expansion and retinal correspondence of a subject with torsional strabismus (along with exotropia and right hypertropia) with congenital homonymous hemianopia was compared to that of another exotropic subject with acquired homonymous hemianopia without torsion and to a control subject with minimal phoria. Torsional rotations of the eyes were calculated from fundus photographs and perimetry. Results Torsional ARC documented in the subject with congenital homonymous hemianopia provided a functional binocular field expansion up to 18°. Normal retinal correspondence was mapped for the full 50° visual field in the control subject and for the seeing field of the acquired homonymous hemianopia subject, limiting the functional field expansion benefit. Conclusions Torsional strabismus with ARC, when occurring with homonymous hemianopia provides useful field expansion in the lower and upper fields. Dichoptic perimetry permits documentation of ocular alignment (lateral, vertical and torsional) and perceived visual direction under binocular and monocular viewing conditions. Evaluating patients with congenital or early strabismus for HARC is useful when considering surgical correction, particularly in the presence of congenital homonymous hemianopia. PMID:22885782

  1. Asymmetric pallidal neuronal activity in patients with cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Christian K. E.; Galindo-Leon, Edgar; Sharott, Andrew; Gulberti, Alessandro; Buhmann, Carsten; Koeppen, Johannes A.; Biermann, Maxine; Bäumer, Tobias; Zittel, Simone; Westphal, Manfred; Gerloff, Christian; Hamel, Wolfgang; Münchau, Alexander; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of asymmetric clinical manifestation of symptoms in patients suffering from cervical dystonia (CD) is hitherto poorly understood. Dysregulated neuronal activity in the basal ganglia has been suggested to have a role in the pathophysiology of CD. Here, we re-assessed the question to what extent relative changes occur in the direct vs. indirect basal ganglia pathway in CD, whether these circuit changes are lateralized, and how these alterations relate to CD symptoms. To this end, we recorded ongoing single cell and local field potential (LFP) activity from the external (GPe) and internal pallidal segment (GPi) of 13 CD patients undergoing microelectrode-guided stereotactic surgery for deep brain stimulation in the GPi. We compared pallidal recordings from CD patients operated under local anaesthesia (LA) with those obtained in CD patients operated under general anaesthesia (GA). In awake patients, mean GPe discharge rate (52 Hz) was lower than that of GPi (72 Hz). Mean GPi discharge ipsilateral to the side of head turning was higher than contralateral and correlated with torticollis symptom severity. Lateralized differences were absent at the level of the GPe and in recordings from patients operated under GA. Furthermore, in the GPi of CD patients there was a subpopulation of theta-oscillatory cells with unique bursting characteristics. Power and coherence of GPe– and GPi–LFPs were dominated by a theta peak and also exhibited band-specific interhemispheric differences. Strong cross-frequency coupling of low-gamma amplitude to theta phase was a feature of pallidal LFPs recorded under LA, but not GA. These results indicate that CD is associated with an asymmetric pallidal outflow. Based on the finding of symmetric neuronal discharges in the GPe, we propose that an imbalanced interhemispheric direct pathway gain may be involved in CD pathophysiology. PMID:24574981

  2. [A case of 77-year-old male with spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 with left dominant dystonia].

    PubMed

    Saito, Rie; Kikuno, Shota; Maeda, Meiko; Uesaka, Yoshikazu; Ida, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    We report on the case of a 77-year-old male with genetically proven spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) who had dystonia. He was referred to our hospital for evaluation following a 6-year history of slowly progressive unsteadiness of his left leg during walking and dysarthria at the age of 62 years old. On the basis of his symptoms, we diagnosed him as spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD), and prescribed taltirelin hydrate. However, his symptoms continued to worsen. He required a cane for walking at the age of 63 years, and a wheelchair at the age of 66 years. He was admitted to our hospital following acute cerebral infarction at the age of 77 years. On examination at admission, right hemiparesis and cerebellar ataxia were detected. And left hallux moved involuntarily toward the top surface of the foot at rest, that is dystonia. The dystonia was not associated with cerebral infarction, because it had been several years with dystonia that he got cerebral infarction. Genetic analysis revealed that this patient harbored a heterozygous SCA31 mutation. Previously there have been no reports of SCA31 associated with dystonia. Our case report support clinical heterogeneity of SCA31, and highlight the importance of considering this type in patients with dystonia and ataxia. Patients with the combination of dystonia and ataxia and a family history of a neurodegenerative disorder should be tested for SCA31.

  3. Torsional actuation with extension-torsion composite coupling and a magnetostrictive actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, Christopher M.; Chandra, Ramesh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1995-04-01

    An analytical-experimental study of using magnetostrictive actuators in conjunction with an extension-torsion coupled composite tube to actuate a rotor blade trailing-edge flap to actively control helicopter vibration is presented. Thin walled beam analysis based on Vlasov theory was used to predict the induced twist and extension in a composite tube with magnetostrictive actuation. The study achieved good correlation between theory and experiment. The Kevlar-epoxy systems showed good correlation between measured and predicted twist values.

  4. Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Claire A.; Paley, Grace L.; Xiao, Rui; Kesler, Anat; Eyal, Ori; Ko, Melissa W.; Boisvert, Chantal J.; Avery, Robert A.; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Phillips, Paul H.; Heidary, Gena; McCormack, Shana E.; Liu, Grant T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine anthropometric and maturational characteristics at diagnosis in pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Design Retrospective, international, multisite study. Participants Pediatric patients (2–18 years of age at diagnosis) with IIH. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index (BMI), height, and weight Z-scores; sexual maturation. Methods Cases of IIH were identified retrospectively based on diagnostic code, pediatric neuroophthalmologist databases, or both and updated diagnostic criteria (2013) were applied to confirm definite IIH. Anthropometric measurements were converted into age- and gender-specific height, weight, and BMI Z-scores CDC 2000 growth charts. When available, sexual maturation was noted. Results Two hundred thirty-three cases of definite IIH were identified across 8 sites. In boys, a moderate association between age and BMI Z-scores was noted (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30–0.66; P < 0.001; n = 72), and in girls, a weak association was noted (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.47; P < 0.001; n = 161). The average patient was more likely to be overweight at diagnosis at age 6.7 years in girls and 8.7 years in boys, and obese at diagnosis at age 12.5 years in girls and 12.4 years in boys. Compared with age- and gender-matched reference values, early adolescent patients were taller for age (P = 0.002 in girls and P = 0.02 in boys). Data on Tanner staging, menarchal status, or both were available in 25% of cases (n = 57/233). Prepubertal participants (n = 12) had lower average BMI Z-scores (0.95±1.98) compared with pubertal participants (n = 45; 1.92±0.60), but this result did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). Conclusions With updated diagnostic criteria and pediatric-specific assessments, the present study identifies 3 subgroups of pediatric IIH: a young group that is not overweight, an early adolescent group that is either overweight

  5. Ovarian torsion in a three-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ochsner, Todd Justin; Roos, Joel A; Johnson, Andrew S; Henderson, Janet L

    2010-05-01

    Ovarian torsion is the fifth most encountered gynecological emergency requiring surgery. Representing only 2.7% of surgical emergencies, it is an entity that is worth being familiar with in the emergency department (ED). Untreated ovarian torsion may result in loss of ovarian function, tissue necrosis, and death from thromboembolism or sepsis. Presenting with vague symptoms and abdominal pain, diagnosing ovarian torsion can be difficult, especially in children. The objective of this article is to present a case of pediatric ovarian torsion and to review its epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. A 3-year-old girl presented to the ED with vomiting, fever, anorexia, and abdominal pain. Initially diagnosed with appendicitis by physical examination and computed tomography scan, this patient was taken to the operating room for surgical exploration. The patient was subsequently found to have ovarian torsion, which was treated appropriately. Although a rare phenomenon, this case serves to increase awareness of the clinical presentation of ovarian torsion in the pediatric patient. Abdominal pain in the female child represents a challenging differential diagnosis, for which a physician must consider ovarian torsion. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the cerebellum improves handwriting and cyclic drawing kinematics in focal hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Bradnam, Lynley V; Graetz, Lynton J; McDonnell, Michelle N; Ridding, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum has a role in the pathophysiology of primary focal hand dystonia and might provide an intervention target for non-invasive brain stimulation to improve function of the affected hand. The primary objective of this study was to determine if cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves handwriting and cyclic drawing kinematics in people with hand dystonia, by reducing cerebellar-brain inhibition (CBI) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Eight people with dystonia (5 writer's dystonia, 3 musician's dystonia) and eight age-matched controls completed the study and underwent cerebellar anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS in separate sessions. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Writer's Cramp Rating Scale (WRCS) and the Arm Dystonia Disability Scale (ADDS). The kinematic measures that differentiated the groups were; mean stroke frequency during handwriting and fast cyclic drawing and average pen pressure during light cyclic drawing. TMS measures of cortical excitability were no different between people with FHD and controls. There was a moderate, negative relationship between TMS-evoked CBI at baseline and the WRCS in dystonia. Anodal cerebellar tDCS reduced handwriting mean stroke frequency and average pen pressure, and increased speed and reduced pen pressure during fast cyclic drawing. Kinematic measures were not associated with a decrease in CBI within an individual. In conclusion, cerebellar anodal tDCS appeared to improve kinematics of handwriting and circle drawing tasks; but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains uncertain. A study in a larger homogeneous population is needed to further investigate the possible therapeutic benefit of cerebellar tDCS in dystonia.

  7. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the cerebellum improves handwriting and cyclic drawing kinematics in focal hand dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Bradnam, Lynley V.; Graetz, Lynton J.; McDonnell, Michelle N.; Ridding, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum has a role in the pathophysiology of primary focal hand dystonia and might provide an intervention target for non-invasive brain stimulation to improve function of the affected hand. The primary objective of this study was to determine if cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves handwriting and cyclic drawing kinematics in people with hand dystonia, by reducing cerebellar-brain inhibition (CBI) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Eight people with dystonia (5 writer’s dystonia, 3 musician’s dystonia) and eight age-matched controls completed the study and underwent cerebellar anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS in separate sessions. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Writer’s Cramp Rating Scale (WRCS) and the Arm Dystonia Disability Scale (ADDS). The kinematic measures that differentiated the groups were; mean stroke frequency during handwriting and fast cyclic drawing and average pen pressure during light cyclic drawing. TMS measures of cortical excitability were no different between people with FHD and controls. There was a moderate, negative relationship between TMS-evoked CBI at baseline and the WRCS in dystonia. Anodal cerebellar tDCS reduced handwriting mean stroke frequency and average pen pressure, and increased speed and reduced pen pressure during fast cyclic drawing. Kinematic measures were not associated with a decrease in CBI within an individual. In conclusion, cerebellar anodal tDCS appeared to improve kinematics of handwriting and circle drawing tasks; but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains uncertain. A study in a larger homogeneous population is needed to further investigate the possible therapeutic benefit of cerebellar tDCS in dystonia. PMID:26042019

  8. Functional Characterization of Rare RAB12 Variants and Their Role in Musician’s and Other Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Eva; Borngräber, Friederike; Schmidt, Alexander; Rakovic, Aleksandar; Brænne, Ingrid; Weissbach, Anne; Hampf, Jennie; Vollstedt, Eva-Juliane; Größer, Leopold; Schaake, Susen; Müller, Michaela; Manzoor, Humera; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Kasten, Meike; Kostic, Vladimir S.; Gasser, Thomas; Zeuner, Kirsten E.; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok; Bauer, Peter; Altenmüller, Eckart; Klein, Christine; Lohmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in RAB (member of the Ras superfamily) genes are increasingly recognized as cause of a variety of disorders including neurological conditions. While musician’s dystonia (MD) and writer’s dystonia (WD) are task-specific movement disorders, other dystonias persistently affect postures as in cervical dystonia. Little is known about the underlying etiology. Next-generation sequencing revealed a rare missense variant (c.586A>G; p.Ile196Val) in RAB12 in two of three MD/WD families. Next, we tested 916 additional dystonia patients; 512 Parkinson’s disease patients; and 461 healthy controls for RAB12 variants and identified 10 additional carriers of rare missense changes among dystonia patients (1.1%) but only one carrier in non-dystonic individuals (0.1%; p = 0.005). The detected variants among index patients comprised p.Ile196Val (n = 6); p.Ala174Thr (n = 3); p.Gly13Asp; p.Ala148Thr; and p.Arg181Gln in patients with MD; cervical dystonia; or WD. Two relatives of MD patients with WD also carried p.Ile196Val. The two variants identified in MD patients (p.Ile196Val; p.Gly13Asp) were characterized on endogenous levels in patient-derived fibroblasts and in two RAB12-overexpressing cell models. The ability to hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP), so called GTPase activity, was increased in mutants compared to wildtype. Furthermore, subcellular distribution of RAB12 in mutants was altered in fibroblasts. Soluble Transferrin receptor 1 levels were reduced in the blood of all three tested p.Ile196Val carriers. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enrichment of missense changes among dystonia patients. Functional characterization revealed altered enzyme activity and lysosomal distribution in mutants suggesting a contribution of RAB12 variants to MD and other dystonias. PMID:29057844

  9. Torsion Tests of Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Wescoat, C

    1944-01-01

    The design of curved sheet panels to resist shear involves a consideration of several factors: the buckling resistance of the sheet, the stress at which buckling becomes permanent, and the strength which may be developed beyond the buckling limit by tension-field action. Although some experimental as well as theoretical work has been done on the buckling and tension-field phases of this problem, neither of these types of action appears to be very well understood. The problem is of sufficient importance from the standpoint of aircraft design, it is believed, to warrant further experimental investigation. This report presents the results of the first series of torsion tests of stiffened circular cylinders to be completed in connection with this study at Aluminum Research Laboratories. (author)

  10. Covariant formulation of scalar-torsion gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Manuel; Järv, Laur; Ualikhanova, Ulbossyn

    2018-05-01

    We consider a generalized teleparallel theory of gravitation, where the action contains an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar and a scalar field, f (T ,ϕ ) , thus encompassing the cases of f (T ) gravity and a nonminimally coupled scalar field as subclasses. The action is manifestly Lorentz invariant when besides the tetrad one allows for a flat but nontrivial spin connection. We derive the field equations and demonstrate how the antisymmetric part of the tetrad equations is automatically satisfied when the spin connection equation holds. The spin connection equation is a vital part of the covariant formulation, since it determines the spin connection associated with a given tetrad. We discuss how the spin connection equation can be solved in general and provide the cosmological and spherically symmetric examples. Finally, we generalize the theory to an arbitrary number of scalar fields.

  11. [Idiopathic facial paralysis in children].

    PubMed

    Achour, I; Chakroun, A; Ayedi, S; Ben Rhaiem, Z; Mnejja, M; Charfeddine, I; Hammami, B; Ghorbel, A

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic facial palsy is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy in children. Controversy exists regarding treatment options. The objectives of this study were to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the outcome of idiopathic facial palsy in children to suggest appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of idiopathic facial palsy from 2007 to 2012. A total of 37 cases (13 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 13.9 years were included in this analysis. The mean duration between onset of Bell's palsy and consultation was 3 days. Of these patients, 78.3% had moderately severe (grade IV) or severe paralysis (grade V on the House and Brackmann grading). Twenty-seven patients were treated in an outpatient context, three patients were hospitalized, and seven patients were treated as outpatients and subsequently hospitalized. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight of them also received antiviral treatment. The complete recovery rate was 94.6% (35/37). The duration of complete recovery was 7.4 weeks. Children with idiopathic facial palsy have a very good prognosis. The complete recovery rate exceeds 90%. However, controversy exists regarding treatment options. High-quality studies have been conducted on adult populations. Medical treatment based on corticosteroids alone or combined with antiviral treatment is certainly effective in improving facial function outcomes in adults. In children, the recommendation for prescription of steroids and antiviral drugs based on adult treatment appears to be justified. Randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population are recommended to define a strategy for management of idiopathic facial paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of Isolated Myoclonus Phenotype in Myoclonus Dystonia after Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramdhani, Ritesh A.; Frucht, Steven J.; Behnegar, Anousheh; Kopell, Brian H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Myoclonus–dystonia is a condition that manifests predominantly as myoclonic jerks with focal dystonia. It is genetically heterogeneous with most mutations in the epsilon sarcoglycan gene (SGCE). In medically refractory cases, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to provide marked sustainable clinical improvement, especially in SGCE-positive patients. We present two patients with myoclonus–dystonia (one SGCE positive and the other SGCE negative) who have the isolated myoclonus phenotype and had DBS leads implanted in the bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi). Methods We review their longitudinal Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale scores along with their DBS programming parameters and compare them with published cases in the literature. Results Both patients demonstrated complete amelioration of all aspects of myoclonus within 6–12 months after surgery. The patient with the SGCE-negative mutation responded just as well as the patient who was SGCE positive. High-frequency stimulation (130 Hz) with amplitudes greater than 2.5 V provided therapeutic benefit. Discussion This case series demonstrates that high frequency GPi-DBS is effective in treating isolated myoclonus in myoclonus–dystonia, regardless of the presence of SGCE mutation. PMID:26989574

  13. Changes in resting-state connectivity in musicians with embouchure dystonia.

    PubMed

    Haslinger, Bernhard; Noé, Jonas; Altenmüller, Eckart; Riedl, Valentin; Zimmer, Claus; Mantel, Tobias; Dresel, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses. Patients showed increased functional connectivity of the bilateral sensorimotor mouth area and right secondary somatosensory cortex, but reduced functional connectivity of the bilateral sensorimotor hand representation, left inferior parietal cortex, and mesial premotor cortex within the lateral motor function network. Within the auditory function network, the functional connectivity of bilateral secondary auditory cortices, right posterior parietal cortex and left sensorimotor hand area was increased, the functional connectivity of right primary auditory cortex, right secondary somatosensory cortex, right sensorimotor mouth representation, bilateral thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex was reduced. Negative functional connectivity between the cerebellar and lateral motor function network and positive functional connectivity between the cerebellar and primary visual network were reduced. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of sensorimotor representations of affected and unaffected body parts suggests a pathophysiological predisposition for abnormal sensorimotor and audiomotor integration in embouchure dystonia. Altered connectivity to the cerebellar network highlights the important role of the cerebellum in this disease. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. [Myths and evidence on the use of botulinum toxin: neuropharmacology and dystonia].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ruiz, P J; Sanz-Cartagena, P; Martinez-Castrillo, J C; Ares-Pensado, B; Aviles-Olmos, I; Blazquez-Estrada, M; Fanjul-Arbos, S; Garcia-Caldentey, J; Gazulla, J; Gutierrez-Garcia, J; Huete-Anton, B; Lucas-Rodenas, C; Luquin, M R; Martinez-Torres, I; Medialdea-Natera, P; Mendoza-Rodriguez, A; Mir-Rivera, P; Posada, I J; Ruiz-Martinez, J; Sanchez-Alonso, P; Trejo-Gabriel Y Galan, J M; Vela, L; Pena-Segura, J L

    2018-03-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is a bacterial endotoxin, whose therapeutic use has had a dramatic impact on different neurological disorders, such as dystonia and spasticity. To analyze and summarize different questions about the use of BTA in our clinical practice. A group of experts in neurology developed a list of topics related with the use of BTA. Two groups were considered: neuropharmacology and dystonia. A literature search at PubMed, mainly for English language articles published up to June 2016 was performed. The manuscript was structured as a questionnaire that includes those questions that, according to the panel opinion, could generate more controversy or doubt. The initial draft was reviewed by the expert panel members to allow modifications, and after subsequent revisions for achieving the highest degree of consensus, the final text was then validated. Different questions about diverse aspects of neuropharmacology, such as mechanism of action, bioequivalence of the different preparations, immunogenicity, etc. were included. Regarding dystonia, the document included questions about methods of evaluation, cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, etc. This review does not pretend to be a guide, but rather a tool for continuous training of residents and specialists in neurology, about different specific areas of the management of BTA.

  15. Adaptation of feedforward movement control is abnormal in patients with cervical dystonia and tremor.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Ravaschio, Andrea; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bonassi, Gaia; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Pelosin, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    It is under debate whether the cerebellum plays a role in dystonia pathophysiology and in the expression of clinical phenotypes. We investigated a typical cerebellar function (anticipatory movement control) in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) with and without tremor. Twenty patients with CD, with and without tremor, and 17 healthy controls were required to catch balls of different load: 15 trials with a light ball, 25 trials with a heavy ball (adaptation) and 15 trials with a light ball (post-adaptation). Arm movements were recorded using a motion capture system. We evaluated: (i) the anticipatory adjustment (just before the impact); (ii) the extent and rate of the adaptation (at the impact) and (iii) the aftereffect in the post-adaptation phase. The anticipatory adjustment was reduced during adaptation in CD patients with tremor respect to CD patients without tremor and controls. The extent and rate of adaptation and the aftereffect in the post-adaptation phase were smaller in CD with tremor than in controls and CD without tremor. Patients with cervical dystonia and tremor display an abnormal predictive movement control. Our findings point to a possible role of cerebellum in the expression of a clinical phenotype in dystonia. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic immobilisation for small guitar player’s dystonia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Waissman, Flavia; Pereira, João Santos; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M

    2009-01-01

    The development of focal hand dystonia through repetitive tasks is a result of degradation of cortical somatosensory representation due to repetitive fast stimuli sufficient to alter the sensory-motor stimulus, harming the motor control. A sensory-motor training program can modify this disorder. A behavioural intervention focusing on movement could help reduce or eliminate these conditions. PMID:21686815

  17. 5D Lovelock gravity: New exact solutions with torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, B.; Simić, D.

    2016-10-01

    Five-dimensional Lovelock gravity is investigated in the first order formalism. A new class of exact solutions is constructed: the Bañados, Teitelboim, Zanelli black rings with and without torsion. We show that our solution with torsion exists in a different sector of the Lovelock gravity, as compared to the Lovelock Chern-Simons sector or the one investigated by Canfora et al. The conserved charges of the solutions are found using Nester's formula, and the results are confirmed by the canonical method. We show that the theory linearized around the background with torsion possesses two additional degrees of freedom with respect to general relativity.

  18. Can Gravity Probe B usefully constrain torsion gravity theories?

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, Eanna E.; Rosenthal, Eran

    2007-06-15

    In most theories of gravity involving torsion, the source for torsion is the intrinsic spin of matter. Since the spins of fermions are normally randomly oriented in macroscopic bodies, the amount of torsion generated by macroscopic bodies is normally negligible. However, in a recent paper, Mao et al. (arXiv:gr-qc/0608121) point out that there is a class of theories, including the Hayashi-Shirafuji (1979) theory, in which the angular momentum of macroscopic spinning bodies generates a significant amount of torsion. They further argue that, by the principle of action equals reaction, one would expect the angular momentum of test bodies to couplemore » to a background torsion field, and therefore the precession of the Gravity Probe B gyroscopes should be affected in these theories by the torsion generated by the Earth. We show that in fact the principle of action equals reaction does not apply to these theories, essentially because the torsion is not an independent dynamical degree of freedom. We examine in detail a generalization of the Hayashi-Shirafuji theory suggested by Mao et al. called Einstein-Hayashi-Shirafuji theory. There are a variety of different versions of this theory, depending on the precise form of the coupling to matter chosen for the torsion. We show that, for any coupling to matter that is compatible with the spin transport equation postulated by Mao et al., the theory has either ghosts or an ill-posed initial-value formulation. These theoretical problems can be avoided by specializing the parameters of the theory and in addition choosing the standard minimal coupling to matter of the torsion tensor. This yields a consistent theory, but one in which the action equals reaction principle is violated, and in which the angular momentum of the gyroscopes does not couple to the Earth's torsion field. Thus, the Einstein-Hayashi-Shirafuji theory does not predict a detectable torsion signal for Gravity Probe B. There may be other torsion theories which

  19. Experimental investigation of cyclic thermomechanical deformation in torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, John R.; Castelli, Michael G.; Bakis, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of thermomechanical testing and deformation behavior of tubular specimens under torsional loading is described. Experimental issues concerning test accuracy and control specific to thermomechanical loadings under a torsional regime are discussed. A series of shear strain-controlled tests involving the nickel-base superalloy Hastelloy X were performed with various temperature excursions and compared to similar thermomechanical uniaxial tests. The concept and use of second invariants of the deviatoric stress and strain tensors as a means of comparing uniaxial and torsional specimens is also briefly presented and discussed in light of previous thermomechanical tests conducted under uniaxial conditions.

  20. Gastric dilatation-volvulus after splenic torsion in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Millis, D L; Nemzek, J; Riggs, C; Walshaw, R

    1995-08-01

    Two dogs developed gastric dilatation-volvulus 2 and 17 months, respectively, after splenectomy for treatment of splenic torsion. Splenic displacement and torsion may stretch the gastric ligaments, allowing increased mobility of the stomach. After splenectomy, an anatomic void may be created in the cranioventral part of the abdomen, contributing to the mobility of the stomach. Veterinarians treating dogs with isolated splenic torsion may wish to consider prophylactic gastropexy at splenectomy, to reduce the chance of future gastric dilatation-volvulus. Prophylactic gastropexy should be done only if the dog's hemodynamic status is stable enough to allow for performance of the additional surgery.

  1. Color-coded duplex sonography for diagnosis of testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, G; Ringert, R H

    1991-11-01

    By color-coded duplex sonography moving structures are visualized as red or blue colors within a normal gray-scale B-mode ultrasound image. Thus, blood flow even within small vessels can be visualized clearly. Color-coded duplex sonographic examination was performed in 11 patients who presented with scrotal pain. This method proved to be reliable to differentiate between testicular torsion and testicular inflammation. By clearly demonstrating a lack of intratesticular blood flow in testicular torsion, while avoiding flow in scrotal skin vessels being misinterpreted as intratesticular blood flow, this method significantly decreases the number of patients in whom surgical evaluation is necessary to exclude testicular torsion.

  2. Torsional anharmonicity in the conformational thermodynamics of flexible molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas F., III; Clary, David C.

    We present an algorithm for calculating the conformational thermodynamics of large, flexible molecules that combines ab initio electronic structure theory calculations with a torsional path integral Monte Carlo (TPIMC) simulation. The new algorithm overcomes the previous limitations of the TPIMC method by including the thermodynamic contributions of non-torsional vibrational modes and by affordably incorporating the ab initio calculation of conformer electronic energies, and it improves the conventional ab initio treatment of conformational thermodynamics by accounting for the anharmonicity of the torsional modes. Using previously published ab initio results and new TPIMC calculations, we apply the algorithm to the conformers of the adrenaline molecule.

  3. Critical current degradation behaviour of GdBCO CC tapes in pure torsion and combined tension-torsion modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorospe, Alking; Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung-Seop

    2016-10-01

    Coated conductor (CC) tapes utilized in high-current-density superconducting cables are commonly subjected to different loading modes, primarily torsion and tension especially in the case of twisted stacked-tape cable. Torsion load can occur due to twisting along the length or when winding the CC tapes around a former, while tension load can occur due to pre-tension when coiled and as a hoop stress when the coil is energized. In this study, electromechanical properties of single CC tapes under torsion load were investigated using a new test apparatus. The results could provide basic information for cable designers to fully characterize stacked cables. Copper-electroplated and brass-laminated CC tapes fabricated with different deposition techniques were subjected to pure torsion and combined tension-torsion loading. The critical current, I c degradation behaviours of CC tapes under torsional deformation were examined. Also, the effect of further external lamination on the I c degradation behaviour of the CC tapes under such loading conditions was investigated. In the case of the combined tension-torsion test, short samples were subjected to twist pitches of 200 mm and 100 mm. Critical parameters including reversible axial stress and strain in such twist pitch conditions were also investigated.

  4. Clustering of dystonia in some pedigrees with autosomal dominant essential tremor suggests the existence of a distinct subtype of essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate whether essential tremor (ET) represents a monosymptomatic disorder or other neurologic symptoms are compatible with the diagnosis of ET. Many patients with clinically definite ET develop dystonia. It remains unknown whether tremor associated with dystonia represent a subtype of ET. We hypothesized that ET with dystonia represents a distinct subtype of ET. Methods We studied patients diagnosed with familial ET and dystonia. We included only those patients whose first-degree relatives met diagnostic criteria for ET or dystonia with tremor. This cohort was ascertained for the presence of focal, segmental, multifocal, hemidystonia or generalized dystonia, and ET. Results We included 463 patients from 97 kindreds with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance (AD), defined by the vertical transmission of the disease. ET was the predominant phenotype in every ascertained family and each was phenotypically classified as AD ET. "Pure" ET was present in 365 individuals. Focal or segmental dystonia was present in 98 of the 463 patients; 87 of the 98 patients had ET associated with dystonia, one had dystonic tremor and ten had isolated dystonia. The age of onset and tremor severity did not differ between patients with "pure" ET and ET associated with dystonia. We did not observe a random distribution of dystonia in AD ET pedigrees and all patients with dystonia associated with ET were clustered in 28% of all included pedigrees (27/97, p < 0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that familial ET associated with dystonia may represent a distinct subtype of ET. PMID:20670416

  5. Genotype-phenotype correlations in THAP1 dystonia: molecular foundations and description of new cases

    PubMed Central

    LeDoux, Mark S.; Xiao, Jianfeng; Rudzińska, Monika; Bastian, Robert W.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Van Gerpen, Jay A.; Puschmann, Andreas; Momčilović, Dragana; Vemula, Satya R.; Zhao, Yu

    2012-01-01

    An extensive variety of THAP1 sequence variants have been associated with focal, segmental and generalized dystonia with age of onset ranging from 3 to over 60 years. In previous work, we screened 1,114 subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia (Neurology 2010;74:229-238) and identified 6 missense mutations in THAP1. For this report, we screened 750 additional subjects for mutations in coding regions of THAP1 and interrogated all published descriptions of THAP1 phenotypes (gender, age of onset, anatomical distribution of dystonia, family history and site of onset) to explore the possibility of THAP1 genotype-phenotype correlations and facilitate a deeper understanding of THAP1 pathobiology. We identified 5 additional missense mutations in THAP1 (p.A7D, p.K16E, p.S21C, p.R29Q, and p.I80V). Three of these variants are associated with appendicular tremors, which were an isolated or presenting sign in some of the affected subjects. Abductor laryngeal dystonia and mild blepharospasm can be manifestations of THAP1 mutations in some individuals. Overall, mean age of onset for THAP1 dystonia is 16.8 years and the most common sites of onset are the arm and neck, and the most frequently affected anatomical site is the neck. In addition, over half of patients exhibit either cranial or laryngeal involvement. Protein truncating mutations and missense mutations within the THAP domain of THAP1 tend to manifest at an earlier age and exhibit more extensive anatomical distributions than mutations localized to other regions of THAP1. PMID:22377579

  6. Risk factors for spinal cord lesions in dystonic cerebral palsy and generalised dystonia.

    PubMed

    Guettard, Emilie; Ricard, Damien; Roze, Emmanuel; Elbaz, Alexis; Anheim, Mathieu; Thobois, Stéphane; Lepeintre, Jean-Francois; Galanaud, Damien; Mazel, Christian; Vidailhet, Marie

    2012-02-01

    Cervical myelopathy (CM) in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) is underdiagnosed as symptoms of spinal cord lesions, being similar to those due to dystonia, may be overlooked or identified late. The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors and clinical characteristics of CM in patients with generalised dystonia, including dystonic CP. The authors conducted a case-control study to identify early clinical signs of CM in consecutive patients with generalised dystonia. The authors compared the clinical characteristics and symptoms of those who developed CM (cases) and those who did not (controls). The same clinical information on possible neurological manifestations of CM was collected for cases and controls at the date of the last visit. Out of 54 patients, 17 (31%) developed symptomatic CM during the study period. In all cases, CM occurred after the age of 36 years. 81% of cases and 35% of controls had a Burke-Fahn-Marsden movement subscore for the neck >4. Age (OR per 10 years=2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.2, p=0.006) and severity of neck dystonia (OR=7.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 49.6, p=0.005) were the main risk factors of CM. Gait disorders and falls, wasting of hand muscles and bladder disorders were the best clinical clues of CM. As severity of cervical dystonia and age are the major risk factors for spinal cord lesions, dystonic patients, including patients with dystonic CP, should be screened for CM from the third decade of life onwards. Early recognition of CM is crucial for functional prognosis and impact on autonomy.

  7. Activity and topographic changes in the somatosensory system in embouchure dystonia.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Tobias; Dresel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart; Zimmer, Claus; Noe, Jonas; Haslinger, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling focal task-specific dystonia affecting professional brass players. This study was designed to analyze activity changes along with topographic representations in primary and nonprimary centers for somatosensory processing in patients with embouchure dystonia. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging with automized tactile stimulation of dystonic (upper lip) and nondystonic (forehead and dorsal hand) body regions in 15 professional brass players with and without embouchure dystonia. Statistical analyses included whole-brain between-group comparisons of stimulation-induced activation and region-of-interest-based single patient analyses of topographic activation characteristics. Affected musicians revealed increased stimulation-induced activity in contralateral primary and bilateral secondary somatosensory representations of dystonic and nondystonic body regions as well as in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the left dystonic upper lip. Changes of somatotopic organization with altered intracortical distances and between-group differences of the centers of representations were found in the right primary and the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex and in the left cerebellum. Positional variability of dystonic and nondystonic body regions was reduced with an emphasis on face representations. The present findings are supportive of the concept of an abnormal processing of somatosensory information in embouchure dystonia affecting multiple domains. The underlying neurophysiological mechanisms (eg, changes in inhibition, maladaptive plasticity, changes in baseline activity) remain unclear. The involvement of nondystonic body areas can be viewed in the context of possible compensation or an endophenotypic predisposition. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Non-minimally coupled scalar field cosmology with torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Antonella; Izaurieta, Fernando; Leon, Genly; Medina, Perla; Narbona, Daniela

    2018-04-01

    In this work we present a generalized Brans-Dicke lagrangian including a non-minimally coupled Gauss-Bonnet term without imposing the vanishing torsion condition. In the resulting field equations, the torsion is closely related to the dynamics of the scalar field, i.e., if non-minimally coupled terms are present in the theory, then the torsion must be present. For the studied lagrangian we analyze the cosmological consequences of an effective torsional fluid and we show that this fluid can be responsible for the current acceleration of the universe. Finally, we perform a detailed dynamical system analysis to describe the qualitative features of the model, we find that accelerated stages are a generic feature of this scenario.

  9. Torsional Dynamics of Steerable Needles: Modeling and Fluoroscopic Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Swensen, John P.; Lin, MingDe; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2017-01-01

    Needle insertions underlie a diversity of medical interventions. Steerable needles provide a means by which to enhance existing needle-based interventions and facilitate new ones. Tip-steerable needles follow a curved path and can be steered by twisting the needle base during insertion, but this twisting excites torsional dynamics that introduce a discrepancy between the base and tip twist angles. Here, we model the torsional dynamics of a flexible rod—such as a tip-steerable needle—during subsurface insertion and develop a new controller based on the model. The torsional model incorporates time-varying mode shapes to capture the changing boundary conditions inherent during insertion. Numerical simulations and physical experiments using two distinct setups—stereo camera feedback in semi-transparent artificial tissue and feedback control with real-time X-ray imaging in optically opaque artificial tissue— demonstrate the need to account for torsional dynamics in control of the needle tip. PMID:24860026

  10. Torsion effect on fully developed flow in a helical pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    1987-01-01

    Two techniques, a series expansion method of perturbed Poiseuille flow valid for low Dean numbers and a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation applicable to intermediate Dean values, are used to investigate the torsion effect on the fully developed laminar flow in a helical pipe of constant circular cross section. For the secondary flow patterns, the results show that the presence of torsion can produce a significant effect if the ratio of the curvature to the torsion is of order unity. The secondary flow is distorted in these cases. It is noted that the torsion effect is, however, usually small, and that the secondary flow has the usual pattern of a pair of counter-rotating vortices of nearly equal strength.

  11. Standardized education and parental awareness are lacking for testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ariella A; Ahmed, Haris; Gitlin, Jordan S; Palmer, Lane S

    2016-06-01

    Testicular torsion leads to orchiectomy in 30-50% of cases, which may cause psychological upset and parental guilt over a potentially avertable outcome. Presentation delay is an important modifiable cause of orchiectomy; yet, families are not routinely educated about torsion or its urgency. The present study assessed parental knowledge regarding acute scrotal pain. An anonymous survey was distributed to parents in Urology and ENT offices, asking about their children's gender and scrotal pain history, urgency of response to a child's acute scrotal pain, and familiarity with testicular torsion. Surveys of 479 urology and 59 ENT parents were analyzed. The results between the two were not statistically different. Among the urology parents, 34% had heard of testicular twisting/torsion, most commonly through friends, relatives or knowing someone with torsion (35%); only 17% were informed by pediatricians (Summary Figure). Parents presenting for a child's scrotal pain were significantly more likely to have heard of torsion (69%) than those presenting for other reasons (30%, OR 5.24, P < 0.0001). Only 13% of parents of boys had spoken with their children about torsion. Roughly three quarters of them would seek emergent medical attention - by day (75%) or night (82%) - for acute scrotal pain. However, urgency was no more likely among those who knew about torsion. This was the first study to assess parental knowledge of the emergent nature of acute scrotal pain in a non-urgent setting, and most closely approximating their level of knowledge at the time of pain onset. It also assessed parents' hypothetical responses to the scenario, which was markedly different than documented presentation times, highlighting a potential area for improvement in presentation times. Potential limitations included lack of respondent demographic data, potential sampling bias of a population with greater healthcare knowledge or involvement, and assessment of parents only. Parental knowledge of

  12. Surface Abrasive Torsion for Improved Mechanical Properties and Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Baek, Seung Mi; Lee, Seok Gyu; Yoon, Jae Ik; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2018-05-01

    A novel process of discrete surface abrasion during simple torsion (ST), named "surface abrasive torsion (SAT)," is proposed to overcome the limitation of ST, i.e., insufficient strain for severe plastic deformation (SPD) due to cracks initiated on the surface, by removing the roughened surface region. The effect of SAT on delayed crack initiation was explained using finite element simulations. Larger shear deformation applicable to the specimen in SAT than ST was demonstrated experimentally.

  13. Muscular Basis of Whisker Torsion in Mice and Rats.

    PubMed

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Bagdasarian, Knarik; Shinde, Namrata; Ahissar, Ehud

    2017-09-01

    Whisking mammals move their whiskers in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral directions with simultaneous rolling about their long axes (torsion). Whereas muscular control of the first two types of whisker movement was already established, the anatomic muscular substrate of the whisker torsion remains unclear. Specifically, it was not clear whether torsion is induced by asymmetrical operation of known muscles or by other largely unknown muscles. Here, we report that mystacial pads of newborn and adult rats and mice contain oblique intrinsic muscles (OMs) that connect diagonally adjacent vibrissa follicles. Each of the OMs is supplied by a cluster of motor end plates. In rows A and B, OMs connect the ventral part of the rostral follicle with the dorsal part of the caudal follicle. In rows C-E, in contrast, OMs connect the dorsal part of the rostral follicle to the ventral part of the caudal follicle. This inverse architecture is consistent with previous behavioral observations [Knutsen et al.: Neuron 59 (2008) 35-42]. In newborn mice, torsion occurred in irregular single twitches. In adult anesthetized rats, microelectrode mediated electrical stimulation of an individual OM that is coupled with two adjacent whiskers was sufficient to induce a unidirectional torsion of both whiskers. Torsional movement was associated with protracting movement, indicating that in the vibrissal system, like in the ocular system, torsional movement is mechanically coupled to horizontal and vertical movements. This study shows that torsional whisker rotation is mediated by specific OMs whose morphology and attachment sites determine rotation direction and mechanical coupling, and motor innervation determines rotation dynamics. Anat Rec, 300:1643-1653, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Prelabour uterine torsion complicated by partial abruption and fetal death].

    PubMed

    Agar, N; Canis, M; Accoceberry, M; Bourdel, N; Lafaye, A-L; Gallot, D

    2014-06-01

    Uterine torsion is a rare obstetrical complication whose diagnosis remains challenging. We report a case of 180 degrees dextrogyre torsion at 36(+5) weeks of gestation complicated by partial abruption and in utero fetal death. Emergency cesarean section was performed through an unintentional posterior hysterotomy. Literature reports a few similar cases. Vertical hysterotomy should be advised in this context avoiding incision on lateral sides associated with increased risk of vascular or ureteral injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute focal dystonia induced by a tricyclic antidepressant in a patient with Wilson disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Litwin, T; Chabik, G; Członkowska, A

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 19-year-old patient with Wilson disease (WD) who developed symptoms of acute focal dystonia of the left hand (a 'starfish' hand presentation) shortly after treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine. The diagnosis of WD was made 8 months earlier based on abnormal copper metabolism parameters and was confirmed by genetic testing. Initially, the patient presented with akathisia, sialorrhea, oromandibular dystonia (occasionally grimacing) and slight dysarthria. The patient's symptoms diminished after treatment with d-penicillamine was initiated. No further deterioration was observed after copper-chelating therapy was started. The authors diagnosed acute focal dystonia induced by clomipramine. Botulinum toxin and intensive rehabilitation was initiated; complete regression of hand dystonia was observed. Based on the case, the authors suggest that care should be exercised with regard to starting medications that could potentially impact the extrapyramidal system in WD patients.

  16. External torsion in a proximal tibia and internal torsion in a distal tibia occur independently in varus osteoarthritic knees compared to healthy knees.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomoharu; Tanifuji, Osamu; Koga, Yoshio; Hata, Ryosuke; Mori, Takahiro; Nishino, Katsutoshi; Sato, Takashi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Omori, Go; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tanabe, Yuji; Endo, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    The relative torsional angle of the distal tibia is dependent on a deformity of the proximal tibia, and it is a commonly used torsional parameter to describe deformities of the tibia; however, this parameter cannot show the location and direction of the torsional deformity in the entire tibia. This study aimed to identify the detailed deformity in the entire tibia via a coordinate system based on the diaphysis of the tibia by comparing varus osteoarthritic knees to healthy knees. In total, 61 limbs in 58 healthy subjects (age: 54 ± 18 years) and 55 limbs in 50 varus osteoarthritis (OA) subjects (age: 72 ± 7 years) were evaluated. The original coordinate system based on anatomic points only from the tibial diaphysis was established. The evaluation parameters were 1) the relative torsion in the distal tibia to the proximal tibia, 2) the proximal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis, and 3) the distal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis. The relative torsion in the distal tibia to the proximal tibia showed external torsion in both groups, while the external torsion was lower in the OA group than in the healthy group (p < 0.0001). The proximal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis had a higher external torsion in the OA group (p = 0.012), and the distal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis had a higher internal torsion in the OA group (p = 0.004) in comparison to the healthy group. The reverse torsional deformity, showing a higher external torsion in the proximal tibia and a higher internal torsion in the distal tibia, occurred independently in the OA group in comparison to the healthy group. Clinically, this finding may prove to be a pathogenic factor in varus osteoarthritic knees. Level Ⅲ. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Axial-Torsional, Thermomechanical Fatigue Testing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for conducting strain-controlled, thermomechanical, axial-torsional fatigue tests on thin-walled tubular specimens was developed. Three waveforms of loading, namely, the axial strain waveform, the engineering shear strain waveform, and the temperature waveform were required in these tests. The phasing relationships between the mechanical strain waveforms and the temperature and axial strain waveforms were used to define a set of four axial-torsional, thermomechanical fatigue (AT-TMF) tests. Real-time test control (3 channels) and data acquisition (a minimum of 7 channels) were performed with a software program written in C language and executed on a personal computer. The AT-TMF testing technique was used to investigate the axial-torsional thermomechanical fatigue behavior of a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188. The maximum and minimum temperatures selected for the AT-TMF tests were 760 and 316 C, respectively. Details of the testing system, calibration of the dynamic temperature profile of the thin-walled tubular specimen, thermal strain compensation technique, and test control and data acquisition schemes, are reported. The isothermal, axial, torsional, and in- and out-of-phase axial-torsional fatigue behaviors of Haynes 188 at 316 and 760 C were characterized in previous investigations. The cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors of Haynes 188 in AT-TMF tests are compared to the previously reported isothermal axial-torsional behavior of this superalloy at the maximum and minimum temperatures.

  18. Decreased left ventricular torsion in patients with isolated mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kirilmaz, B; Asgun, F; Saygi, S; Ercan, E

    2015-02-01

    Left ventricular (LV) torsion is a sensitive indicator of myocardial contractility and cardiac structure, and has recently been recognized as a sensitive indicator of cardiac performance. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of isolated mitral stenosis on LV torsion. We enrolled 19 patients with isolated mitral stenosis and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects in the study. All patients had a normal sinus rhythm. All study subjects underwent two-dimensional echocardiography. Basal and apical LV rotations and LV torsion were evaluated using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Demographic characteristics, basic echocardiographic measures of LV ejection fraction, LV wall thickness, and LV mass index were similar between the two groups. The degrees of LV torsion (11.3 ± 4.7, 15.4 ± 4.9°, p=0.014) and LV basal rotation (- 3.7 ± 1.9, - 6.5 ± 2.1°, p< 0.001) were significantly decreased in the mitral stenosis group. There was a moderate positive correlation between mitral valve area and LV torsion (r=0.531, p=0.019). We showed significant reductions in LV torsion and LV basal rotation in patients with mitral valve stenosis. Structural and anatomical changes occurring during the progression of mitral stenosis may be responsible for these impaired movements.

  19. Torsional texturing of superconducting oxide composite articles

    DOEpatents

    Christopherson, Craig John; Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Scudiere, John

    2002-01-01

    A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly

  20. Effectiveness of lycopene on experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Mahmut; Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Baştuğ, Osman; Aras, Necip Fazıl; Öztürk, Ayşe Betül; Küçükaydın, Mustafa; Turan, Cüneyt

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to demonstrate the long term effectiveness of lycopene, a precursor of vitamin A, on the testes for ischemia-reperfusion injury. Seventy male Wistar albino rats were used for this experiment. The rats were divided into seven groups. Group 1 served as the control group; group 2 was sham-operated; group 3 received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally); in group 4, the right testes of rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals lived for three days; in group 5, the right testes of rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals lived for ten days; in group 6, the right testes of the rats were kept torted for 2hours and then detorted and the animals received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally) for three days; in group 7, the right testes of the rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally) for ten days. Lycopene was used intraperitoneally. Some of the testes tissues were used for biochemical analyses and the other tissues were used for histological procedures. The Johnsen's score was used for seminiferous tubule deterioration. The TUNEL method was utilized to show apoptosis of testicular tissue. Testosterone levels were measured from blood samples and SOD, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 measurements were recorded from tissue samples. The results were analyzed statistically. In groups 1, 2 and 3 there was normal testicular structure. Rats in groups 4 and 5 had damaged testicular tissues. In groups 6 and 7, in which we used lycopene, the testes were not better than those in groups 4 and 5. The MSTD and JTBS values were better in group 6, but not in group 7 among the torsion groups. As a result, MDA, SOD, TNF-α and IL-1β were increased and serum testosterone and IL-6 levels were decreased in groups 4 and 5 compared to group 1. There was no improvement in the groups treated with lycopene for therapeutic purposes. It was shown that

  1. Distribution and Coexistence of Myoclonus and Dystonia as Clinical Predictors of SGCE Mutation Status: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zutt, Rodi; Dijk, Joke M; Peall, Kathryn J; Speelman, Hans; Dreissen, Yasmine E M; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Tijssen, Marina A J

    2016-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a young onset movement disorder typically involving myoclonus and dystonia of the upper body. A proportion of the cases are caused by mutations to the autosomal dominantly inherited, maternally imprinted, epsilon-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE). Despite several sets of diagnostic criteria, identification of patients most likely to have an SGCE mutation remains difficult. Forty consecutive patients meeting pre-existing diagnostic clinical criteria for M-D underwent a standardized clinical examination (20 SGCE mutation positive and 20 negative). Each video was reviewed and systematically scored by two assessors blinded to mutation status. In addition, the presence and coexistence of myoclonus and dystonia was recorded in four body regions (neck, arms, legs, and trunk) at rest and with action. Thirty-nine patients were included in the study (one case was excluded owing to insufficient video footage). Based on previously proposed diagnostic criteria, patients were subdivided into 24 "definite," 5 "probable," and 10 "possible" M-D. Motor symptom severity was higher in the SGCE mutation-negative group. Myoclonus and dystonia were most commonly observed in the neck and upper limbs of both groups. Truncal dystonia with action was significantly seen more in the mutation-negative group (p < 0.05). Coexistence of myoclonus and dystonia in the same body part with action was more commonly seen in the mutation-negative cohort (p < 0.05). Truncal action dystonia and coexistence of myoclonus and dystonia in the same body part with action might suggest the presence of an alternative mutation in patients with M-D.

  2. Inter-study reproducibility of left ventricular torsion and torsion rate quantification using MR myocardial feature tracking.

    PubMed

    Kowallick, Johannes T; Morton, Geraint; Lamata, Pablo; Jogiya, Roy; Kutty, Shelby; Lotz, Joachim; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Nagel, Eike; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Schuster, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To determine the inter-study reproducibility of MR feature tracking (MR-FT) derived left ventricular (LV) torsion and torsion rates for a combined assessment of systolic and diastolic myocardial function. Steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine LV short-axis stacks were acquired at 9:00 (Exam A), 9:30 (Exam B), and 14:00 (Exam C) in 16 healthy volunteers at 3 Tesla. SSFP images were analyzed offline using MR-FT to assess rotational displacement in apical and basal slices. Global peak torsion, peak systolic and peak diastolic torsion rates were calculated using different definitions ("twist", "normalized twist" and "circumferential-longitudinal (CL) shear angle"). Exam A and B were compared to assess the inter-study reproducibility. Morning and afternoon scans were compared to address possible diurnal variation. The different methods showed good inter-study reproducibility for global peak torsion (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.90-0.92; coefficient of variation [CoV]: 19.0-20.3%) and global peak systolic torsion rate (ICC: 0.82-0.84; CoV: 25.9-29.0%). Conversely, global peak diastolic torsion rate showed little inter-study reproducibility (ICC: 0.34-0.47; CoV: 40.8-45.5%). Global peak torsion as determined by the CL shear angle showed the best inter-study reproducibility (ICC: 0.90;CoV: 19.0%). MR-FT results were not measurably affected by diurnal variation between morning and afternoon scans (CL shear angle: 4.8 ± 1.4°, 4.8 ± 1.5°, and 4.1 ± 1.6° for Exam A, B, and C, respectively; P = 0.21). MR-FT based derivation of myocardial peak torsion and peak systolic torsion rate has high inter-study reproducibility as opposed to peak diastolic torsion rate. The CL shear angle was the most reproducible parameter independently of cardiac anatomy and may develop into a robust tool to quantify cardiac rotational mechanics in longitudinal MR-FT patient studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intestinal Volvulus in Idiopathic Steatorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Warner, H. A.; Kinnear, D. G.; Cameron, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 and 5Fig. 6 PMID:13998948

  4. [Physical therapy for idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Steffan, K

    2015-11-01

    The objective is the description and summary of the current state of idiopathic scoliosis treatment with physical therapy based on new scientific knowledge and concluded from more than 15 years of experience as a leading physician in two well-known clinics specializing in the conservative treatment of scoliosis. Based on current scientific publications on physical therapy in scoliosis treatment and resulting from the considerable personal experience gained working with conservative treatment and consulting scoliosis patients (as inpatients and outpatients), the current methods of physical therapy have been compared and evaluated. Physical therapy according to Schroth and Vojta therapy are at present the most common and effective methods in the physical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. These methods can be applied during inpatient or outpatient treatment or intensified in the practice of specialized therapists. As there are only a few scientific studies on this subject, the author's findings are based mainly on his own experiences of the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Athough these experiences are the results of over 15 years of working in the field of therapy, and the Schroth method in combination with corrective bracing presents highly promising results, it would nevertheless be desirable to conduct detailed scientific studies to verify the effectiveness of conservative treatment.

  5. Epidural premotor cortical stimulation in primary focal dystonia: clinical and 18F-fluoro deoxyglucose positron emission tomography open study.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Stefania; Piacentini, Sylvie; Franzini, Angelo; Panzacchi, Andrea; Cerami, Chiara; Messina, Giuseppe; Ferré, Francesca; Perani, Daniela; Albanese, Alberto

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of epidural premotor stimulation in patients with primary focal dystonia. Seven patients were selected: 6 had cervical dystonia and 1 had right upper limb dystonia. In 2 patients, sustained muscle contractions led to a prevalently fixed head posture. Patients with cervical dystonia received a bilateral implant, whereas the patient with hand dystonia received a unilateral implant. Neurological and neuropsychological evaluations were performed before surgery (baseline), and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months afterward. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden scale (BFMS) and the Toronto Western spasmodic torticollis rating scale (TWSTRS) were administered at the same time points. Patients underwent resting (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans, before and 12 months after surgery. No adverse events occurred. An overall improvement was observed on the BFMS and TWSTRS after surgery. Patients with prevalently fixed cervical dystonia had a reduced benefit. Presurgical neuroimaging revealed a significant bilateral metabolic increase in the sensorimotor areas, which was reduced after surgery. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Cortical activation and inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence in individuals with arm dystonia due to childhood stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kukke, Sahana N.; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Damiano, Diane; Alter, Katharine E.; Patronas, Nicholas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dystonia is a disabling motor disorder often without effective therapies. To better understand the genesis of dystonia after childhood stroke, we analyzed electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in this population. Methods Resting spectral power of EEG signals over bilateral sensorimotor cortices (Powrest), resting inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence (Cohrest), and task-related changes in power (TRPow) and coherence (TRCoh) during wrist extension were analyzed in individuals with dystonia (age 20±3 years) and healthy volunteers (age 17±5 years). Results Ipsilesional TRPow decrease was significantly lower in patients than controls during the more affected wrist task. Force deficits of the affected wrist correlated with reduced alpha TRPow decrease on the ipsilesional and not the contralesional hemisphere. Cohrest was significantly lower in patients than controls, and correlated with more severe dystonia and poorer hand function. Powrest and TRCoh were similar between groups. Conclusions The association between weakness and cortical activation during wrist extension highlights the importance of ipsilesional sensorimotor activation on function. Reduction of Cohrest in patients reflects a loss of inter-hemispheric connectivity that may result from structural changes and neuroplasticity, potentially contributing to the development of dystonia. Significance Cortical and motor dysfunction are correlated in patients with childhood stroke and may in part explain the genesis of dystonia. PMID:25499610

  7. Cortical activation and inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence in individuals with arm dystonia due to childhood stroke.

    PubMed

    Kukke, Sahana N; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Damiano, Diane; Alter, Katharine E; Patronas, Nicholas; Hallett, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Dystonia is a disabling motor disorder often without effective therapies. To better understand the genesis of dystonia after childhood stroke, we analyzed electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in this population. Resting spectral power of EEG signals over bilateral sensorimotor cortices (Powrest), resting inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence (Cohrest), and task-related changes in power (TRPow) and coherence (TRCoh) during wrist extension were analyzed in individuals with dystonia (age 20±3years) and healthy volunteers (age 17±5years). Ipsilesional TRPow decrease was significantly lower in patients than controls during the more affected wrist task. Force deficits of the affected wrist correlated with reduced alpha TRPow decrease on the ipsilesional and not the contralesional hemisphere. Cohrest was significantly lower in patients than controls, and correlated with more severe dystonia and poorer hand function. Powrest and TRCoh were similar between groups. The association between weakness and cortical activation during wrist extension highlights the importance of ipsilesional sensorimotor activation on function. Reduction of Cohrest in patients reflects a loss of inter-hemispheric connectivity that may result from structural changes and neuroplasticity, potentially contributing to the development of dystonia. Cortical and motor dysfunction are correlated in patients with childhood stroke and may in part explain the genesis of dystonia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Control of Torsional Vibrations by Pendulum Masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieglitz, Albert

    1942-01-01

    Various versions of pendulum masses have been developed abroad within the past few years by means of which resonant vibrations of rotating shafts can be eliminated at a given tuning. They are already successfully employed on radial engines in the form of pendulous counterweights. Compared with the commonly known torsional vibration dampers, the pendulum masses have the advantage of being structurally very simple, requiring no internal damping and being capable of completely eliminating certain vibrations. Unexplained, so far, remains the problem of behavior of pendulum masses in other critical zones to which they are not tuned, their dynamic behavior at some tuning other than in resonance, and their effect within a compound vibration system and at simultaneous application of several differently tuned pendulous masses. These problems are analyzed in the present report. The results constitute an enlargement of the scope of application of pendulum masses, especially for in-line engines. Among other things it is found that the natural frequency of a system can be raised by means of a correspondingly tuned pendulum mass. The formulas necessary for the design of any practical version are developed, and a pendulum mass having two different natural frequencies simultaneously is described.

  9. Influence of mistuning on blade torsional flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical technique for the prediction of fan blade flutter was evaluated by utilizing first stage fan flutter data from tests on an advanced high performance engine. The formulation includes both aerodynamic and mechanical coupling among all the blades of the assembly. Mistuning is accounted for in the analysis so that individual blade inertias, frequencies, or damping can be considered. Airfoil stability was predicted by calculating a flutter determinant, the eigenvalues of which indicate the extent of susceptibility to flutter. When blade to blade differences in frequencies are considered, a stable system is predicted for the test points examined. For a tuned system, it was found that torsional flutter can be predicted at a limited number of interblade phase angles. Examination of these phase angles indicated that they were "close" to the condition of acoustic resonance. For the range of Mach numbers and reduced frequencies considered, the so called subcritical flutter cannot be predicted. The essential influence of mechanical coupling among the blades is to change the frequencies of the system with little or no change in damping; however, aerodynamic coupling together with mechanical coupling could change not only frequencies, but also damping in the system, with a trend toward instability.

  10. Patterns of Cortical Synchronization in Isolated Dystonia Compared With Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miocinovic, Svjetlana; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Qasim, Salman; Ostrem, Jill L.; Starr, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Isolated dystonia and Parkinson disease (PD) are disorders of the basal gangliothalamocortical network. They have largely distinct clinical profiles, but both disorders respond to deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the same subcortical targets using similar stimulation paradigms, suggesting pathophysiologic overlap. We hypothesized that, similar to PD, isolated dystonia is associated with elevated cortical neuronal synchronization. OBJECTIVE To investigate the electrophysiologic characteristics of the sensorimotor cortex arm-related area using a temporary subdural electrode strip in patients with isolated dystonia and PD undergoing DBS implantation in the awake state. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational study recruited patients scheduled for DBS at the University of California, San Francisco and the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Data were collected from May 1, 2008, through April 1, 2015. Findings are reported for 22 patients with isolated cervical or segmental dystonia (8 with [DYST-ARM] and 14 without [DYST] arm symptoms] and 14 patients with akinetic rigid PD. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2014, through May 1, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cortical local field potentials, power spectral density, and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). RESULTS Among our 3 groups that together included 36 patients, cortical PAC was present in primary motor and premotor arm-related areas for all groups, but the DYST group was less likely to exhibit increased PAC (P = .008). Similar to what has been shown for patients with PD, subthalamic DBS reversibly decreased PAC in a subset of patients with dystonia who were studied before and during intraoperative test stimulation (n = 4). At rest, broadband gamma (50–200 Hz) power in the primary motor cortex was greater in the DYST-ARM and PD groups compared with the DYST group, whereas alpha (8–13 Hz) and beta (13–30 Hz) power was comparable in all 3 groups. During movement, the DYST

  11. Aristotle's illusion reveals interdigit functional somatosensory alterations in focal hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Marotta, Angela; Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Squintani, Giovanna; Pozzer, Lara; Fiorio, Mirta

    2013-03-01

    In focal hand dystonia, the cortical somatosensory representation of the fingers is abnormal, with overlapping receptive fields and reduced interdigit separation. These abnormalities are associated with deficits in sensory perception, as previously demonstrated by applying tactile stimuli to one finger at a time. What is still unknown is whether the sensory deficits can be observed when tactile perception involves more than one finger. To address this issue, we applied 'Aristotle's illusion' to 15 patients with focal hand dystonia, 15 patients with dystonia not affecting the hand (blepharospasm and cervical dystonia) and 15 healthy control subjects. In this illusion, one object touching the contact point of two crossed fingertips is perceived as two objects by a blindfolded subject. The same object placed between two parallel fingertips is correctly perceived as one. The illusory doubling sensation is because of the fact that the contact point between the crossed fingers consists of non-adjacent and functionally unrelated skin regions, which usually send sensory signals to separate spots in the somatosensory cortex. In our study, participants were touched by one sphere between the second-third digits, the second-fourth digits and the fourth-fifth digits of both hands, either in crossed or in parallel position, and had to refer whether they felt one or two stimuli. The percentage of 'two stimuli' responses was an index of the illusory doubling. Both healthy control subjects and dystonic patients presented Aristotle's illusion when the fingers were crossed. However, patients with focal hand dystonia presented a significant reduction of the illusion when the sphere was placed between the crossed fourth and fifth digits of the affected hand. This reduction correlated with the severity of motor disease at the fingers. Similar findings were not observed in non-hand dystonia and control groups. The reduction of Aristotle's illusion in non-affected fingers and its

  12. Prospective Study Evaluating IncobotulinumtoxinA for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm: Interim Results from the First 145 Subjects with Cervical Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Hubert H; Pagan, Fernando; Danisi, Fabio; Greeley, David; Jankovic, Joseph; Verma, Amit; Sethi, Kapil; Pappert, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    We report the interim results from XCiDaBLE, a large, prospective, observational "naturalistic" study evaluating Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) for Cervical Dystonia or BLEpharospasm in the United States. Subjects (≥ 18 years old) with cervical dystonia (CD) are followed for two treatment cycles and monitored via Interactive Voice/Web Response. The subject's physician must have chosen to treat with incobotulinumtoxinA prior to and independent of enrollment in this study. Subject-reported scales include the Subject Global Impression-Severity and Improvement and Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58), and Work Productivity and Quality of Life (QoL) are assessed by means of an employment questionnaire and work history and the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12v2). Subjects are seen by the investigator for three visits, which include a baseline visit (including the first injection), a second injection visit, and a final study visit (12 weeks after the second injection). This ongoing study includes 145 subjects with a diagnosis of CD. The majority were female (82.3%) and white (91.0%) and had previously been treated with botulinum toxins (77.2%). There were 106 employed at the time of disease onset, but 12.6 years later only 44% were still employed at the time of enrolment into the study, and 20% were either receiving or seeking disability benefits. The mean total dose/treatment of CD was 225.2 units for the first injection. The CDIP-58 total score was significantly improved 4 weeks after the first injection compared to baseline (p≤0.0001). Most subjects noted improvement in their global impression assessment. No new or unexpected adverse events occurred. The results from these interim analyses confirm previous controlled, single-dose studies of incobotulinumtoxinA in terms of efficacy and safety.

  13. Prospective Study Evaluating IncobotulinumtoxinA for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm: Interim Results from the First 145 Subjects with Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Hubert H.; Pagan, Fernando; Danisi, Fabio; Greeley, David; Jankovic, Joseph; Verma, Amit; Sethi, Kapil; Pappert, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Background We report the interim results from XCiDaBLE, a large, prospective, observational “naturalistic” study evaluating Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) for Cervical Dystonia or BLEpharospasm in the United States. Methods Subjects (≥ 18 years old) with cervical dystonia (CD) are followed for two treatment cycles and monitored via Interactive Voice/Web Response. The subject's physician must have chosen to treat with incobotulinumtoxinA prior to and independent of enrollment in this study. Subject-reported scales include the Subject Global Impression-Severity and Improvement and Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58), and Work Productivity and Quality of Life (QoL) are assessed by means of an employment questionnaire and work history and the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12v2). Subjects are seen by the investigator for three visits, which include a baseline visit (including the first injection), a second injection visit, and a final study visit (12 weeks after the second injection). Results This ongoing study includes 145 subjects with a diagnosis of CD. The majority were female (82.3%) and white (91.0%) and had previously been treated with botulinum toxins (77.2%). There were 106 employed at the time of disease onset, but 12.6 years later only 44% were still employed at the time of enrolment into the study, and 20% were either receiving or seeking disability benefits. The mean total dose/treatment of CD was 225.2 units for the first injection. The CDIP-58 total score was significantly improved 4 weeks after the first injection compared to baseline (p≤0.0001). Most subjects noted improvement in their global impression assessment. No new or unexpected adverse events occurred. Discussion The results from these interim analyses confirm previous controlled, single-dose studies of incobotulinumtoxinA in terms of efficacy and safety. PMID:23724362

  14. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.

    PubMed

    Elze, Markus C; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Hutton, Jane L; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, p<0.001), with worse dystonia severity implying worse function. Secondary dystonias had worse dystonia and less function than primary dystonias (p<0.001). A longer proportion of life lived with dystonia is associated with more severe dystonia (rs =0.42, p<0.001). The BFM-M is strongly linked with the GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS, irrespective of aetiology. Each scale offers interrelated but complementary information and is applicable to all aetiologies. Movement disorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  15. All in the blink of an eye: new insight into cerebellar and brainstem function in DYT1 and DYT6 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Sadnicka, A; Teo, J T; Kojovic, M; Pareés, I; Saifee, T A; Kassavetis, P; Schwingenschuh, P; Katschnig-Winter, P; Stamelou, M; Mencacci, N E; Rothwell, J C; Edwards, M J; Bhatia, K P

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally dystonia has been considered a disorder of basal ganglia dysfunction. However, recent research has advocated a more complex neuroanatomical network. In particular, there is increasing interest in the pathophysiological role of the cerebellum. Patients with cervical and focal hand dystonia have impaired cerebellar associative learning using the paradigm eyeblink conditioning. This is perhaps the most direct evidence to date that the cerebellum is implicated in patients. Eleven patients with DYT1 dystonia and five patients with DYT6 dystonia were examined and rates of eyeblink conditioning were compared with age-matched controls. A marker of brainstem excitability, the blink reflex recovery, was also studied in the same groups. Patients with DYT1 and DYT6 dystonia have a normal ability to acquire conditioned responses. Blink reflex recovery was enhanced in DYT1 but this effect was not seen in DYT6. If the cerebellum is an important driver in DYT1 and DYT6 dystonia our data suggest that there is specific cerebellar dysfunction such that the circuits essential for conditioning function normally. Our data are contrary to observations in focal dystonia and suggest that the cerebellum may have a distinct role in different subsets of dystonia. Evidence of enhanced blink reflex recovery in all patients with dystonia was not found and recent studies calling for the blink recovery reflex to be used as a diagnostic test for dystonic tremor may require further corroboration. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  16. Contribution of TMS and rTMS in the Understanding of the Pathophysiology and in the Treatment of Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lozeron, Pierre; Poujois, Aurélia; Richard, Alexandra; Masmoudi, Sana; Meppiel, Elodie; Woimant, France; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop. However, basal ganglia lesions do not consistently produce dystonia and lesions outside basal ganglia can lead to dystonia; mild sensory abnormalities have been reported in the dystonic limb and imaging studies have shown involvement of multiple other brain regions including the cerebellum and the cerebral motor, premotor and sensorimotor cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique of brain stimulation with a magnetic field applied over the cortex allowing investigation of cortical excitability. Hyperexcitability of contralateral motor cortex has been suggested to be the trigger of focal dystonia. High or low frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) can induce excitatory or inhibitory lasting effects beyond the time of stimulation and protocols have been developed having either a positive or a negative effect on cortical excitability and associated with prevention of cell death, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons mediated inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation. rTMS studies as a therapeutic strategy of dystonia have been conducted to modulate the cerebral areas involved in the disease. Especially, when applied on the contralateral (pre)-motor cortex or supplementary motor area of brains of small cohorts of dystonic patients, rTMS has shown a beneficial transient clinical effect in association with restrained motor cortex excitability. TMS is currently a valuable tool to improve

  17. Contribution of TMS and rTMS in the Understanding of the Pathophysiology and in the Treatment of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Lozeron, Pierre; Poujois, Aurélia; Richard, Alexandra; Masmoudi, Sana; Meppiel, Elodie; Woimant, France; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug’s side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop. However, basal ganglia lesions do not consistently produce dystonia and lesions outside basal ganglia can lead to dystonia; mild sensory abnormalities have been reported in the dystonic limb and imaging studies have shown involvement of multiple other brain regions including the cerebellum and the cerebral motor, premotor and sensorimotor cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique of brain stimulation with a magnetic field applied over the cortex allowing investigation of cortical excitability. Hyperexcitability of contralateral motor cortex has been suggested to be the trigger of focal dystonia. High or low frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) can induce excitatory or inhibitory lasting effects beyond the time of stimulation and protocols have been developed having either a positive or a negative effect on cortical excitability and associated with prevention of cell death, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons mediated inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation. rTMS studies as a therapeutic strategy of dystonia have been conducted to modulate the cerebral areas involved in the disease. Especially, when applied on the contralateral (pre)-motor cortex or supplementary motor area of brains of small cohorts of dystonic patients, rTMS has shown a beneficial transient clinical effect in association with restrained motor cortex excitability. TMS is currently a valuable tool to

  18. Using the shared genetics of dystonia and ataxia to unravel their pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nibbeling, Esther A.R.; Delnooz, Cathérine C.S.; de Koning, Tom J.; Sinke, Richard J.; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Tijssen, Marina A.J.; Verbeek, Dineke S.

    2018-01-01

    In this review we explore the similarities between spinocerebellar ataxias and dystonias, and suggest potentially shared molecular pathways using a gene co-expression network approach. The spinocerebellar ataxias are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by coordination problems caused mainly by atrophy of the cerebellum. The dystonias are another group of neurological movement disorders linked to basal ganglia dysfunction, although evidence is now pointing to cerebellar involvement as well. Our gene co-expression network approach identified 99 shared genes and showed the involvement of two major pathways: synaptic transmission and neurodevelopment. These pathways overlapped in the two disorders, with a large role for GABAergic signaling in both. The overlapping pathways may provide novel targets for disease therapies. We need to prioritize variants obtained by whole exome sequencing in the genes associated with these pathways in the search for new pathogenic variants, which can than be used to help in the genetic counseling of patients and their families. PMID:28143763

  19. Continuous involuntary hand movements and schizencephaly: epilepsia partialis continua or dystonia?

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Lucio; Bonzano, Laura; Saitta, Laura; Trompetto, Carlo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    Schizencephaly is regarded as a malformation of cortical development (due to abnormal neuronal organization) and may be associated with continuous involuntary hand movements. The mechanisms underlying these movements are not clear and both dystonia and epilepsia partialis continua have been considered in previously reported cases. We describe a young patient affected by schizencephaly and continuous involuntary movements of the contralateral hand. Functional MRI showed bilateral cerebral activation, while the subject performed tapping movements with the affected hand and no significant difference in the activation pattern after diazepam infusion. Standard and back-averaged EEG showed no alterations. The results obtained from these investigations and the clinical features of the involuntary movements are not in favor of an epileptic genesis, while support the diagnosis of secondary dystonia.

  20. Bronchial obstruction secondary to idiopathic scoliosis in a child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Saad; Harder, James; Spier, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Patients with severe idiopathic scoliosis are reported to have significant pulmonary complications, including recurrent chest infections, alveolar hypoventilation and respiratory failure. Case presentation We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with moderate-to-severe scoliosis resulting in torsion or twisting of the bronchus intermedius, which contributed to airflow obstruction defects, as revealed by both spirometry and bronchoscopy. Conclusion We recommend that inspection of the shape of the maximal expiratory flow-volume loop obtained from spirometry, as well as other parameters suggestive of obstructive lung disease, may be important in children with scoliosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a child in which pulmonary function testing and direct visualization via a flexible bronchoscope have been used to characterize intrathoracic large airway obstruction. PMID:18498624

  1. Rett syndrome: an overlooked diagnosis in women with stereotypic hand movements, psychomotor retardation, Parkinsonism, and dystonia?

    PubMed

    Roze, Emmanuel; Cochen, Valérie; Sangla, Sophie; Bienvenu, Thierry; Roubergue, Anne; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Vidaihet, Marie

    2007-02-15

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder resulting in profound psychomotor retardation. It is usually diagnosed by a pediatrician or pediatric neurologist. Adult neurologists may, therefore, overlook the possibility of Rett syndrome in women with psychomotor retardation of unknown etiology. We report the case of a woman diagnosed with Rett syndrome at age 49 years. This report emphasizes the diagnostic value of movement disorders, including hand stereotypies, Parkinsonism, and dystonia, in adults with Rett syndrome.

  2. [Effects of an hydrotherapy program in the treatment of cervical dystonia. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Useros-Olmo, Ana Isabel; Collado-Vázquez, Susana

    2010-12-01

    Cervical dystonia may also cause limitation in articulation mobility and alteration of the balance, both accompanied with pain. AIM. To evaluate if hydrotherapy produces decrease of pain, increase in mobility and balance in patients diagnosed with cervical dystonia. A pre-post treatment pilot study was carried out without group control, with a sample of 16 patients (13 female and 3 male) diagnosed with cervical dystonia. The patients received an hydrotherapy treatment consisted of three individual sessions and three grupal sessions of aquatic exercises. In the pre-treatment phase the disability, severity and pain were evaluated by means of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS); the balance was evaluated by means of the Get up and Go and Tinetti tests. In addition, the range of active mobility of the neck was measured with tape. The test were measured pre and post-treatment. The Student t showed a significant difference (p < 0, 01) in all the values. The range of active mobility of the neck improved in all movements: flexion (1.3 ± 1.0 cm), right lateralization (3.4 ± 1.7 cm) and left (4.0 ± 3.0 cm) and right rotation (1.6 ± 2.5 cm) and left (2.2 ± 1.5 cm). At the same time, all test improved too: Tinetti (3.0 ± 2.2), Get up and Go (2.3 ± 1.6) and TWSTRS (8.4 ± 5.4). The outcomes of this pilot study show that hydrotherapy can be related a positive influence in cervical dystonia, producing neck mobility and balance improvements and pain decrease. Future studies are necessary.

  3. Electromyographic evidence in support of a knock-in mouse model of DYT1 Dystonia.

    PubMed

    DeAndrade, Mark P; Trongnetrpunya, Amy; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C; Peng, Ning; Wyss, J Michael; Ding, Mingzhou; Li, Yuqing

    2016-11-01

    DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder characterized by abnormal, often repetitive, movements and postures. Its hallmark feature is sustained or intermittent contractions of muscles involving co-contractions of antagonist muscle pairs. The symptoms are relieved with the anticholinergic drug trihexyphenidyl. The primary mutation is a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) in DYT1/TOR1A, which codes for torsinA. Previous studies showed that (1) heterozygous Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice, which have an analogous mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and altered corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in the brain and (2) these deficits can be rescued by trihexyphenidyl. However, brain imaging studies suggest that the Dyt1 knock-in mouse models nonmanifesting mutation carriers of DYT1 dystonia. The aim of this work was to examine the hallmark features of DYT1 dystonia in the Dyt1 knock-in mice by analyzing muscular activities. Wireless telemetry devices with biopotential channels were implanted to the bicep and the rectus femori muscles in Dyt1 knock-in mice, and muscular activities were recorded before and after trihexyphenidyl administration. (1) Consistent with DYT1 dystonia patients, Dyt1 knock-in mice showed sustained contractions and co-contractions of the antagonistic bicep femoris and rectus femoris. (2) The abnormal muscle contractions were normalized by trihexyphenidyl. The results suggest that the motor deficits in Dyt1 knock-in mice are likely produced by abnormal muscle contractions, and Dyt1 knock-in mice can potentially be used as a manifesting disease model to study pathophysiology and develop novel therapeutics. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Seismic cross-coupling noise in torsion pendulums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Tomofumi; Aritomi, Naoki; Shoda, Ayaka; Michimura, Yuta; Ando, Masaki

    2018-05-01

    Detection of low-frequency gravitational waves around 0.1 Hz is one of the important targets for future gravitational wave observation. One of the main sources of the expected signals is gravitational waves from binary intermediate-mass black hole coalescences which is proposed as one of the formation scenarios of supermassive black holes. By using a torsion pendulum, which can have a resonance frequency of a few millihertz, such signals can be measured on the ground since its rotational motion can act as a free mass down to 0.01 Hz. However, sensitivity of a realistic torsion pendulum will suffer from torsional displacement noise introduced from translational ground motion in the main frequency band of interest. Such noise is called seismic cross-coupling noise, and there has been little research on it. In this paper, systematic investigation is performed to identify routes of cross-coupling transfer for standard torsion pendulums. Based on the results, this paper also proposes reduction schemes of cross-coupling noise, and they were demonstrated experimentally in agreement with theory. This result establishes a basic way to reduce seismic noise in torsion pendulums for the most significant coupling routes.

  5. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1992-01-01

    The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  6. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1995-01-01

    The results are reported for high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens of Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-based superalloy. Data are also presented for mean coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. This data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME Boiler and Pressure Code), Manson-Halford, modified multiaxiality factor (proposed in this paper), modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The modified multiaxiality factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  7. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    PubMed

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  8. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1992-06-01

    The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  9. Torsion as a dark matter candidate from the Higgs portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander S.; Thomas, Marc C.; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2017-05-01

    Torsion is a metric-independent component of gravitation, which may provide a more general geometry than the one taking place within general relativity. On the other hand, torsion could lead to interesting phenomenology in both particle physics and cosmology. In the present work it is shown that a torsion field interacting with the SM Higgs doublet and having a negligible coupling to standard model (SM) fermions is protected from decaying by a Z2 symmetry, and therefore becomes a promising dark matter (DM) candidate. This model provides a good motivation for Higgs portal vector DM scenario. We evaluate the DM relic density and explore direct DM detection and collider constraints on this model to understand its consistency with experimental data and establish the most up-to-date limits on its parameter space. We have found in the model when the Higgs boson is only partly responsible for the generation of torsion mass, there is a region of parameter space where torsion contributes 100% to the DM budget of the Universe. Furthermore, we present the first results on the potential of the LHC to probe the parameter space of minimal scenario with Higgs portal vector DM using mono-jet searches and have found that LHC at high luminosity will be sensitive to the substantial part of model parameter space which cannot be probed by other experiments.

  10. Direct torsional actuation of microcantilevers using magnetic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Nalam, Prathima C.; Tam, Qizhan

    2014-09-01

    Torsional mode dynamic force microscopy can be used for a wide range of studies including mapping lateral contact stiffness, torsional frequency or amplitude modulation imaging, and dynamic friction measurements of various materials. Piezo-actuation of the cantilever is commonly used, but it introduces spurious resonances, limiting the frequency range that can be sampled, and rendering the technique particularly difficult to apply in liquid medium where the cantilever oscillations are significantly damped. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables direct torsional actuation of cantilevers with high uniformity over wide frequency ranges by attaching a micrometer-scale magnetic bead on the back side ofmore » the cantilever. We show that when beads are magnetized along the width of the cantilever, efficient torsional actuation of the cantilevers can be achieved using a magnetic field produced from a solenoid placed underneath the sample. We demonstrate the capability of this technique by imaging atomic steps on graphite surfaces in tapping mode near the first torsional resonance of the cantilever in dodecane. The technique is also applied to map the variations in the lateral contact stiffness on the surface of graphite and polydiacetylene monolayers.« less

  11. Altered dorsal premotor-motor interhemispheric pathway activity in focal arm dystonia.

    PubMed

    Koch, Giacomo; Schneider, Susanne; Bäumer, Tobias; Franca, Michele; Münchau, Alexander; Cheeran, Binith; Fernandez del Olmo, Miguel; Cordivari, Carla; Rounis, Elisabeth; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bhatia, Kailash; Rothwell, John C

    2008-04-15

    Given the possible role of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) in the pathophysiology of dystonia, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) methods to study PMd and PMd-primary motor cortex (M1) interactions in patients with focal arm dystonia. Here, we tested the connectivity between left PMd and right M1 as well as the intracortical excitability of PMd in 11 right-handed patients with focal arm/hand dystonia and nine age-matched healthy controls. The results showed that excitability of the inhibitory connection between PMd and M1 was reduced in patients, but there was no significant difference to healthy subjects in the excitability of the facilitatory connection. A triple stimulation technique in which pairs of TMS pulses are given over PMd and their interaction measured in terms of the effect on the baseline PMd-M1 connection failed to reveal the usual pattern of interaction between the pairs of PMd stimuli. Indeed, the results in patients were similar to those seen in a group of young healthy subjects after the excitability of PMd had been changed by pretreatment with high-frequency rTMS. We suggest that reduced transcallosal inhibition from the PMd may be involved in the altered pattern of abnormal muscle contractions of agonists and antagonists (overflow). 2007 Movement Disorder Society

  12. Multiday Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Causes Clinically Insignificant Changes in Childhood Dystonia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Bertucco, Matteo; Young, Scott J; Lee, Annie A; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal motor cortex activity is common in dystonia. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation may alter cortical activity by decreasing excitability while anodal stimulation may increase motor learning. Previous results showed that a single session of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can improve symptoms in childhood dystonia. Here we performed a 5-day, sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, where we measured tracking and muscle overflow in a myocontrol-based task. We applied cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 9 minutes per day). For cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (7 participants), 3 subjects showed improvements whereas 2 showed worsening in overflow or tracking error. The effect size was small (about 1% of maximum voluntary contraction) and not clinically meaningful. For anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (6 participants), none showed improvement, whereas 5 showed worsening. Thus, multiday cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduced symptoms in some children but not to a clinically meaningful extent, whereas anodal transcranial direct current stimulation worsened symptoms. Our results do not support transcranial direct current stimulation as clinically viable for treating childhood dystonia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Interhemispheric difference of pallidal local field potential activity in cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ryun; Kiss, Zelma H T

    2014-03-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) produces involuntary neck muscle contractions that result in abnormal and often asymmetrical postures of the head and neck. Basal ganglia oscillatory activity in the 3-12 Hz band correlating with involuntary muscle activity suggests a role in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. Despite the asymmetrical postures seen with CD, no comparison of interhemispheric differences of pallidal local field potential (LFP) activity has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the interhemispheric differences of LFP power in globus pallidus interna (GPi) in CD patients and compare these with their predominant head excursion identified as torticollis, laterocollis and retrocollis. LFPs were recorded from bilateral GPi in 11 patients with CD using microelectrodes during deep brain stimulation surgery. LFP power was measured in right and left GPi separately. The mean percentage of total GPi LFP power in 4-30 Hz frequency band on each brain side was determined and related to their predominant CD symptoms. Interhemispheric difference in the mean percentage of LFP power in 4-12 Hz and 13-30 Hz band frequencies was found in patients with torticollis and laterocollis regardless of excursion direction. However, patients with retrocollis did not show interhemispheric difference in LFP activity in any band frequency. Interhemispheric differences in synchronisation of pallidal LFP activity in 4-12 Hz and 13-30 Hz bands are related to the CD clinical condition, suggesting that these frequencies are important in the pathophysiology of dystonia.

  14. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evolving concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jay H; Moua, Teng; Daniels, Craig E; Hartman, Thomas E; Yi, Eunhee S; Utz, James P; Limper, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occurs predominantly in middle-aged and older adults and accounts for 20% to 30% of interstitial lung diseases. It is usually progressive, resulting in respiratory failure and death. Diagnostic criteria for IPF have evolved over the years, and IPF is currently defined as a disease characterized by the histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia occurring in the absence of an identifiable cause of lung injury. Understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has shifted away from chronic inflammation and toward dysregulated fibroproliferative repair in response to alveolar epithelial injury. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is likely a heterogeneous disorder caused by various interactions between genetic components and environmental exposures. High-resolution computed tomography can be diagnostic in the presence of typical findings such as bilateral reticular opacities associated with traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis in a predominantly basal and subpleural distribution, along with subpleural honeycombing. In other circumstances, a surgical lung biopsy may be needed. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute deteriorations (acute exacerbation). Although progress continues in unraveling the mechanisms of IPF, effective therapy has remained elusive. Thus, clinicians and patients need to reach informed decisions regarding management options including lung transplant. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed using the search terms idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and usual interstitial pneumonia, limited to human studies in the English language published from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2013, and supplemented by key references published before the year 2000. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GCH1 mutations are common in Serbian patients with dystonia-parkinsonism: Challenging previously reported prevalence rates of DOPA-responsive dystonia.

    PubMed

    Dobričić, Valerija; Tomić, Aleksandra; Branković, Vesna; Kresojević, Nikola; Janković, Milena; Westenberger, Ana; Rašić, Vedrana Milić; Klein, Christine; Novaković, Ivana; Svetel, Marina; Kostić, Vladimir S

    2017-12-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase 1-deficient DOPA-responsive dystonia, caused by autosomal dominant mutation in the gene coding for GTP cyclohydrolase 1, is a rare disorder with a reported prevalence of 0.5 per million. A correct diagnosis of DRD is crucial, given that this is an exquisitely treatable neurogenetic disorder. Although genetic testing is now widely available, we hypothesize that DRD is still underdiagnosed and its prevalence underestimated. Molecular genetic analysis of the GCH1 gene was performed in a representative cohort of 47 Serbian patients with clinical features of DRD and in their 16 available relatives. The DRD prevalence rate in Serbia was estimated based on population size, catchment area, and the centralized Serbian referral system for rare diseases. We identified 9 different GCH1 mutations in 23 individuals from 11 families, 5 of which are novel. Patients displayed a broad range of clinical phenotypes. The estimated prevalence of GCH1-related DOPA-responsive dystonia in Serbia was 2.96 per million individuals and there was no evidence for a common founder. Our data expand the genotypic spectrum of GCH1 and confirm the broad phenotypic spectrum of DRD in the Serbian population. The number of detected mutation carriers in this sample implies that the frequency of DRD in the Serbian population is considerably higher than expected based on published prevalence rates, suggesting that the prevalence of this treatable disease should be revisited also in other populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy with contralateral adnexal torsion after spontaneous conception.

    PubMed

    DiLuigi, Andrea J; Maier, Donald B; Benadiva, Claudio A

    2008-11-01

    To describe a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy and contralateral adnexal torsion after spontaneous conception. Case report. Tertiary university medical center. A 23-year-old multiparous female with severe bilateral pelvic pain and a positive pregnancy test. Operative laparoscopy with detorsion of left adnexa, drainage of left ovarian hemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst, right salpingectomy, and dilation and curettage. Laparoscopy revealed a 5 cm hemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst of the left ovary, torsion of the left ovary and fallopian tube, and a ruptured right ampullary ectopic pregnancy. Normal perfusion of left ovary and fallopian tube after detorsion, resolution of left ovarian hemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst, patent left fallopian tube with chromopertubation, and successful removal of ectopic pregnancy. This is a unique case of adnexal torsion and contralateral ectopic pregnancy occurring after spontaneous conception.

  17. Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications. The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from light perception to 0.3. No complications such as thermal burns of the scleral wound, retinal damage due to flying lens fragments, or difficult lens aspiration occurred during intravitreal phacoemulsification. Mean post-operative BCVA at the final follow-up was 0.5. Two eyes developed cystoid macular edema, which was managed medically. No retinal detachment was noted. Intravitreal phacoemulsification using torsional hand piece is a safe and effective alternative to conventional longitudinal phacofragmentation.

  18. The Spectrum of Torsional Oscillations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudkova, T. V.; Zharkov, V. N.

    2000-11-01

    The diagnostic potentialities of the torsional oscillations for probing the structure of the interiors of the Moon are investigated. Models with no core, a liquid core, and a solid core are considered. The profiles of compressional and shear wave velocities V_P and V_S for the lunar interior estimated by Bills and Ferrari (1977), Goins et al. (1981), and Nakamura (1983) from the Apollo lunar seismic network are used. For all these models, the periods of torsional oscillations for n = 2-100 and four overtones have been calculated. The derivatives of the dimensionless eigenfrequency with respect to the dimensionless shear modulus and density are calculated and tabulated for use. These data can be used to determine corrections to the model density and shear modulus distributions due to their small change. The damping of torsional oscillations is studied. Several trial radial distributions of the dissipative function Q are considered.

  19. Low temperature IR spectroscopic study of torsional vibrations of taurine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Naini; Bhatt, Himal; Vishwakarma, S. R.; Thomas, Susy; Murli, C.; Deo, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    The hydrogen bonding network in amino acids can give information about the structural stability under varying thermodynamic conditions such as temperature and pressure. We have carried out low temperature IR spectroscopic studies on Taurine, an amino acid with various bio-chemical applications in physiology and synthesis, in order to observe the behaviour of torsional modes, i.e. τ(CSH) and τ(NH3), which are very sensitive to the hydrogen bonding interactions. It was observed that the CSH torsional mode showed splitting at low temperature of nearly 250 K and the bandwidth shows linear temperature dependence, which can be attributed to anharmonicity. Another torsional mode, τ(NH3) showed no splitting, but the bandwidth has non-linear temperature dependence. This can be due to orientational changes at low temperature. These observations are strong evidences for a hydrogen bond reorientation induced phase transition at 250 K.

  20. Seismic performance of square RC bridge columns under combined loading including torsion with low shear.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    During earthquake excitations, reinforced concrete bridge columns can be subjected to a combination of axial load, shear force, : flexural moments, and torsional moments. The torsional moment can be much more significant in columns of bridges that ar...

  1. Determining Angle of Humeral Torsion Using Image Software Technique.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sachin; Sethi, Madhu; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-10-01

    Several researches have been done on the measurement of angles of humeral torsion in different parts of the world. Previously described methods were more complicated, not much accurate, cumbersome or required sophisticated instruments. The present study was conducted with the aim to determine the angles of humeral torsion with a newer simple technique using digital images and image tool software. A total of 250 dry normal adult human humeri were obtained from the bone bank of Department of Anatomy. The length and mid-shaft circumference of each bone was measured with the help of measuring tape. The angle of humeral torsion was measured directly from the digital images by the image analysis using Image Tool 3.0 software program. The data was analysed statistically with SPSS version 17 using unpaired t-test and Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient. The mean angle of torsion was 64.57°±7.56°. On the right side it was 66.84°±9.69°, whereas, on the left side it was found to be 63.31±9.50°. The mean humeral length was 31.6 cm on right side and 30.33 cm on left side. Mid shaft circumference was 5.79 on right side and 5.63 cm on left side. No statistical differences were seen in angles between right and left humeri (p>0.001). From our study, it was concluded that circumference of shaft is inversely proportional to angle of humeral torsion. The length and side of humerus has no relation with the humeral torsion. With advancement of digital technology, it is better to use new image softwares for anatomical studies.

  2. Deep learning methods for protein torsion angle prediction.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiou; Hou, Jie; Adhikari, Badri; Lyu, Qiang; Cheng, Jianlin

    2017-09-18

    Deep learning is one of the most powerful machine learning methods that has achieved the state-of-the-art performance in many domains. Since deep learning was introduced to the field of bioinformatics in 2012, it has achieved success in a number of areas such as protein residue-residue contact prediction, secondary structure prediction, and fold recognition. In this work, we developed deep learning methods to improve the prediction of torsion (dihedral) angles of proteins. We design four different deep learning architectures to predict protein torsion angles. The architectures including deep neural network (DNN) and deep restricted Boltzmann machine (DRBN), deep recurrent neural network (DRNN) and deep recurrent restricted Boltzmann machine (DReRBM) since the protein torsion angle prediction is a sequence related problem. In addition to existing protein features, two new features (predicted residue contact number and the error distribution of torsion angles extracted from sequence fragments) are used as input to each of the four deep learning architectures to predict phi and psi angles of protein backbone. The mean absolute error (MAE) of phi and psi angles predicted by DRNN, DReRBM, DRBM and DNN is about 20-21° and 29-30° on an independent dataset. The MAE of phi angle is comparable to the existing methods, but the MAE of psi angle is 29°, 2° lower than the existing methods. On the latest CASP12 targets, our methods also achieved the performance better than or comparable to a state-of-the art method. Our experiment demonstrates that deep learning is a valuable method for predicting protein torsion angles. The deep recurrent network architecture performs slightly better than deep feed-forward architecture, and the predicted residue contact number and the error distribution of torsion angles extracted from sequence fragments are useful features for improving prediction accuracy.

  3. Coated Fused Silica Fibers for Enhanced Sensitivity Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Horowitz, Jordan; Camp, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the fundamental thermal noise limit of a torsion pendulum using a fused silica fiber, we systematically measured and modeled the mechanical losses of thin fused silica fibers coated by electrically conductive thin metal films. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve a thermal noise limit for coated silica lower by a factor between 3 and 9, depending on the silica diameter, compared to the best tungsten fibers available. This will allow a corresponding increase in sensitivity of torsion pendula used for weak force measurements, including the gravitational constant measurement and ground-based force noise testing for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission.

  4. Torsional Rigidity of Positively and Negatively Supercoiled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Paul R.; Cook, David N.; Pon, Ning G.; Bauer, William R.; Klein, Melvin P.; Hearst, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Time-correlated single-photon counting of intercalated ethidium bromide was used to measure the torsion constants of positively supercoiled, relaxed, and negatively supercoiled pBR322 DNA, which range in superhelix density from +0.042 to -0.123. DNA behaves as coupled, nonlinear torsional pendulums under superhelical stress, and the anharmonic term in the Hamiltonian is approximately 15 percent for root-mean-square fluctuations in twist at room temperature. At the level of secondary structure, positively supercoiled DNA is significantly more flexible than negatively supercoiled DNA. These results exclude certain models that account for differential binding affinity of proteins to positively and negatively supercoiled DNA.

  5. Free torsional vibrations of tapered cantilever I-beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. Kameswara; Mirza, S.

    1988-08-01

    Torsional vibration characteristics of linearly tapered cantilever I-beams have been studied by using the Galerkin finite element method. A third degree polynomial is assumed for the angle of twist. The analysis presented is valid for long beams and includes the effect of warping. The individual as well as combined effects of linear tapers in the width of the flanges and the depth of the web on the torsional vibration of cantilever I-beams are investigated. Numerical results generated for various values of taper ratios are presented in graphical form.

  6. A black hole with torsion in 5D Lovelock gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, B.; Simić, D.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze static spherically symmetric solutions of five dimensional (5D) Lovelock gravity in the first order formulation. In the Riemannian sector, when torsion vanishes, the Boulware–Deser black hole represents a unique static spherically symmetric black hole solution for the generic choice of the Lagrangian parameters. We show that a special choice of the Lagrangian parameters, different from the Lovelock Chern–Simons gravity, leads to the existence of a static black hole solution with torsion, the metric of which is asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). We calculate the conserved charges and thermodynamical quantities of this black hole solution.

  7. Singularities and n-dimensional black holes in torsion theories

    SciTech Connect

    Cembranos, J.A.R.; Valcarcel, J. Gigante; Torralba, F.J. Maldonado, E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: jorgegigante@ucm.es, E-mail: fmaldo01@ucm.es

    2017-04-01

    In this work we have studied the singular behaviour of gravitational theories with non symmetric connections. For this purpose we introduce a new criteria for the appearance of singularities based on the existence of black/white hole regions of arbitrary codimension defined inside a spacetime of arbitrary dimension. We discuss this prescription by increasing the complexity of the particular torsion theory under study. In this sense, we start with Teleparallel Gravity, then we analyse Einstein-Cartan theory, and finally dynamical torsion models.

  8. Nonsingular, big-bounce cosmology from spinor-torsion coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popławski, Nikodem

    2012-05-01

    The Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity removes the constraint of general relativity that the affine connection be symmetric by regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. The minimal coupling between the torsion tensor and Dirac spinors generates a spin-spin interaction which is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. We show that such an interaction averts the unphysical big-bang singularity, replacing it with a cusp-like bounce at a finite minimum scale factor, before which the Universe was contracting. This scenario also explains why the present Universe at largest scales appears spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic.

  9. Elastic torsional buckling of thin-walled composite cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlowe, D. E.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Dexter, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    The elastic torsional buckling strength has been determined experimentally for thin-walled cylinders fabricated with glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composite materials and composite-reinforced aluminum and titanium. Cylinders have been tested with several unidirectional-ply orientations and several cross-ply layups. Specimens were designed with diameter-to-thickness ratios of approximately 150 and 300 and in two lengths of 10 in. and 20 in. The results of these tests were compared with the buckling strengths predicted by the torsional buckling analysis of Chao.

  10. Torsional osteotomies of the tibia in patellofemoral dysbalance.

    PubMed

    Dickschas, Jörg; Tassika, Aliki; Lutter, Christoph; Harrer, Jörg; Strecker, Wolf

    2017-02-01

    Anterior knee pain or patellofemoral instability is common symptom of patellofemoral dysbalance or maltracking. Tibial torsional deformities can be the reason of this pathology. After appropriate diagnostic investigation, the treatment of choice is a torsional osteotomy. This study addresses the diagnostic investigation, treatment, and the outcome of torsional osteotomies of the tibia. Does this treatment result in patellofemoral stability and provide pain relief? Forty-nine tibial torsional osteotomies were included. The major symptoms were patellofemoral instability in 19 cases and anterior knee pain in 42 cases. In addition to clinical and radiographic analysis, a torsional angle CT scan was performed pre-operatively. A visual analog scale (VAS), the Japanese Knee Society score, the Tegner activity score, and the Lysholm score were assessed pre-operatively and at the 42-month follow-up. Mean tibial external torsion was 47.4° (SD 5.41; range 37°-66°; standard value 34°). Surgical treatment consisted of an acute supratuberositary tibial internal torsional osteotomy (mean 10.8°; SD 3.01°; range 5°-18°). At the follow-up investigation, the Tegner activity score was increased 0.4 points (p value 0.014) from 3.9 (SD 1.33; range 2-7) to 4.3 (SD 1.25; range 0-7). The Lysholm score increased 26 points (SD 16.32; p value 0.001) from 66 (SD 14.94; range 32-94) to 92 (SD 9.29; range 70-100) and the Japanese Knee Society score increased 18 points (SD 14.70; p value 0.001) from 72 (SD 13.72, range 49-100) to 90 (SD 9.85, range 60-100). VAS was reduced 3.4 points (SD 2.89; p value 0.001) from 5.7 (SD 2.78; range 0-10) to 2.3 (SD 1.83; range 0-7). As regards patellofemoral instability, no redislocation occurred in the follow-up period. The results of this study show that in cases of tibial maltorsion, a torsional osteotomy can lead to patellofemoral stability and pain relief, and should be considered as a treatment option. The improved clinical scores in the present

  11. Singularity-free spinors in gravity with propagating torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Luca

    2017-12-01

    We consider the most general renormalizable theory of propagating torsion in Einstein gravity for the Dirac matter distribution and we demonstrate that in this case, torsion is a massive axial-vector field whose coupling to the spinor gives rise to conditions in terms of which gravitational singularities are not bound to form; we discuss how our results improve those that are presented in the existing literature, and that no further improvement can be achieved unless one is ready to re-evaluate some considerations on the renormalizability of the theory.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Masoud; Tavakol, Marzieh; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Tavakol, Zahra; Momenzadeh, Kaveh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Dabbaghzade, Abbas; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-04-01

    Chronic urticaria is the most common skin diseases, characterized by chronic cutaneous lesions which severely debilitates patients in several aspects of their everyday life. Vitamin D is known to exert several actions in the immune system and to influence function and differentiation of mast cells, central role players in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were recruited in this study along with one hundred and eighty seven sex-matched and age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. For each patient, urticaria activity score was calculated and autologous serum skin test was done. Vitamin D metabolic statue was measured in serum as 25 hydroxyvitamin D using enzyme immunoassay method. Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria significantly showed lower levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. There was a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score. This study showed that patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria had reduced levels of vitamin D, while vitamin D deficiency could increase susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  13. Torsional Splitting in the Degenerate Vibrational States of (70)Ge(2)H(6): Rotation-Torsion Analysis of the nu(7) and nu(9) Fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi; di Lauro C; Bürger; Mkadmi

    2000-09-01

    The rotational and torsional structure of the nu(7) and nu(9) degenerate fundamentals of (70)Ge(2)H(6) has been analyzed under high resolution. The torsional structure of both v(7) = 1 and v(9) = 1 states can be fitted by a simple one-parameter formula. The x,y-Coriolis interaction with the parallel nu(5) fundamental was accounted for in the analysis of nu(7). A strong perturbation of the J structure of the E(3s) torsional component of the KDeltaK = -2 subbranches of nu(9) can be explained by the resonance with an E(3s) excited level of the pure torsional manifold. The perturber is centered at 361.58 cm(-1), very close to the value estimated with a barrier height of 285 cm(-1). This confirms that the fundamental torsional wavenumber is close to 103 cm(-1), in good agreement with the "ab initio" prediction. The torsional splittings of all the infrared active degenerate fundamentals, nu(7), nu(8), and nu(9), follow the trend predicted by theory, and have been fitted by exploratory calculations accounting only for the torsional Coriolis-coupling mechanism of all degenerate vibrational fundamentals in several torsional states. This confirms that torsional Coriolis coupling is the dominant mechanism responsible for the decrease of the torsional splitting in the degenerate vibrational states. A higher value of the barrier had to be used for the nu(9) mode. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Mutations in THAP1/DYT6 reveal that diverse dystonia genes disrupt similar neuronal pathways and functions

    PubMed Central

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Fanutza, Tomas; Bonet, Justine; Readhead, Ben; Zhang, Weijia; Yi, Zhengzi; Beauvais, Genevieve; Zwaka, Thomas P.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Blitzer, Robert D.; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions. Its many forms are genetically, phenotypically and etiologically diverse and it is unknown whether their pathogenesis converges on shared pathways. Mutations in THAP1 [THAP (Thanatos-associated protein) domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1], a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor with DNA binding and protein-interaction domains, cause dystonia, DYT6. There is a unique, neuronal 50-kDa Thap1-like immunoreactive species, and Thap1 levels are auto-regulated on the mRNA level. However, THAP1 downstream targets in neurons, and the mechanism via which it causes dystonia are largely unknown. We used RNA-Seq to assay the in vivo effect of a heterozygote Thap1 C54Y or ΔExon2 allele on the gene transcription signatures in neonatal mouse striatum and cerebellum. Enriched pathways and gene ontology terms include eIF2α Signaling, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Neuron Projection Development, Axonal Guidance Signaling, and Synaptic LongTerm Depression, which are dysregulated in a genotype and tissue-dependent manner. Electrophysiological and neurite outgrowth assays were consistent with those enrichments, and the plasticity defects were partially corrected by salubrinal. Notably, several of these pathways were recently implicated in other forms of inherited dystonia, including DYT1. We conclude that dysfunction of these pathways may represent a point of convergence in the pathophysiology of several forms of inherited dystonia. PMID:29364887

  15. Speed-accuracy trade-off in a trajectory-constrained self-feeding task: a quantitative index of unsuppressed motor noise in children with dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Lunardini, Francesca; Bertucco, Matteo; Casellato, Claudia; Bhanpuri, Nasir; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Sanger, Terence D.

    2015-01-01

    Motor speed and accuracy are both affected in childhood dystonia. Thus, deriving a speed-accuracy function is an important metric for assessing motor impairments in dystonia. Previous work in dystonia studied the speed-accuracy trade-off during point-to-point tasks. To achieve a more relevant measurement of functional abilities in dystonia, the present study investigates upper-limb kinematics and electromyographic activity of 8 children with dystonia and 8 healthy children during a trajectory-constrained child-relevant task that emulates self-feeding with a spoon and requires continuous monitoring of accuracy. The speed-accuracy trade-off is examined by changing the spoon size to create different accuracy demands. Results demonstrate that the trajectory-constrained speed-accuracy relation is present in both groups, but it is altered in dystonia in terms of increased slope and offset towards longer movement times. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis of increased signal-dependent noise in dystonia, which may partially explain the slow and variable movements observed in dystonia. PMID:25895910

  16. Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in a Trajectory-Constrained Self-Feeding Task: A Quantitative Index of Unsuppressed Motor Noise in Children With Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lunardini, Francesca; Bertucco, Matteo; Casellato, Claudia; Bhanpuri, Nasir; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-10-01

    Motor speed and accuracy are both affected in childhood dystonia. Thus, deriving a speed-accuracy function is an important metric for assessing motor impairments in dystonia. Previous work in dystonia studied the speed-accuracy trade-off during point-to-point tasks. To achieve a more relevant measurement of functional abilities in dystonia, the present study investigates upper-limb kinematics and electromyographic activity of 8 children with dystonia and 8 healthy children during a trajectory-constrained child-relevant task that emulates self-feeding with a spoon and requires continuous monitoring of accuracy. The speed-accuracy trade-off is examined by changing the spoon size to create different accuracy demands. Results demonstrate that the trajectory-constrained speed-accuracy relation is present in both groups, but it is altered in dystonia in terms of increased slope and offset toward longer movement times. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis of increased signal-dependent noise in dystonia, which may partially explain the slow and variable movements observed in dystonia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. A 55-Year-Old Man with Right Testicular Pain: Too Old for Torsion?

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu Ho; Yeung, Victor Hip Wo; Chu, Peggy Sau Kwan; Man, Chi Wai

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion is predominantly a disease of adolescence, but age itself should not be an exclusion criterion for the diagnosis. A lack of suspicion for testicular torsion in older patients may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis which jeopardizes the chance of testicular salvage. In this article, we report a case of testicular torsion in a 55-year-old Chinese man.

  18. Determination of the Glass-Transition Temperature of GRPS and CFRPS Using a Torsion Pendulum in Regimes of Freely Damped Vibrations and Quasi-Stastic Torsion of Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, V. O.; Lebedev, M. P.; Molokov, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    A method to measure the glass-transition temperature of polymers and polymeric matrices of composite materials with the help of an inverse torsion pendulum over a wide range of temperatures is considered combining the method of free torsional vibrations and a quasi-static torsion of specimens. The glass-transition temperature Tg of a KMKS-1-80. T10 fiberglass, on increasing the frequency of freely damped torsional vibrations from 0.7 to 9.6 Hz, was found to increase from 132 to 140°C. The value of Tg of these specimens, determined by measuring the work of their torsion through a small fixed angle was 128.6°C ± 0.8°C. It is shown that the use of a torsion pendulum allows one to determine the glass-transition temperature of polymeric or polymer matrices of PCMs in dynamic and quasi-static deformation regimes of specimens.

  19. New Approaches to Data Acquisitions in a Torsion Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Daya; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Haihong; Dai, Qionglin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two simple non-contact and cost-effective methods to acquire data in the student laboratory are applied to investigate the motion of a torsion pendulum. The first method is based on a Hall sensor, while the second makes use of an optical mouse.

  20. Lung lobe torsion in dogs: 22 cases (1981-1999).

    PubMed

    Neath, P J; Brockman, D J; King, L G

    2000-10-01

    To identify breed disposition, postoperative complications, and outcome in dogs with lung lobe torsion. Retrospective study. 22 client-owned dogs. Information on signalment; history; clinical findings; results of clinicopathologic testing, diagnostic imaging, and pleural fluid analysis; surgical treatment; intra- and postoperative complications; histologic findings; and outcome were obtained from medical records. All 22 dogs had pleural effusion; dyspnea was the most common reason for examination. Fifteen dogs were large deep-chested breeds; 5 were toy breeds. Afghan Hounds were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. One dog was euthanatized without treatment; the remaining dogs underwent exploratory thoracotomy and lung lobectomy. Eleven dogs recovered from surgery without complications, but 3 of these later died of thoracic disease. Four dogs survived to discharge but had clinically important complications within 2 months, including chylothorax, mediastinal mesothelioma, gastric dilatation, and a second lung lobe torsion. Six dogs died or were euthanatized within 2 weeks after surgery because of acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, septic shock, pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Chylothorax was diagnosed in 8 of the 22 dogs, including 4 Afghan Hounds. Results suggest that lung lobe torsion is rare in dogs and develops most frequently in large deep-chested dogs, particularly Afghan Hounds. Other predisposing causes were not identified, but an association with chylothorax was evident, especially in Afghan Hounds. Prognosis for dogs with lung lobe torsion was fair to guarded.

  1. Angle of torsion of the femur and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Prasad, R; Vettivel, S; Isaac, B; Jeyaseelan, L; Chandi, G

    1996-01-01

    Unpaired femora (171), devoid of gross pathology and grouped by gender (94 male and 77 female) and side (88 left and 83 right), were used to measure the angle of femoral torsion and the maximum femur length and to score the degree of prominency of the superior cervical tubercle, intertrochanteric line, quadrate tubercle, linea aspera, and adductor tubercle. The angle of torsion ranged from -9 to +35 degrees with a mean of +12.3 degrees. The means were not significantly different either by gender or side. The angle correlated negatively with superior cervical tubercle, intertrochanteric line, and adductor tubercle (P < 0.001), positively with quadrate tubercle (P < 0.001) but not with linea aspera, neck-shaft angle, or length of femur. Bony prominences were significantly more apparent in males. There was no significant association between prominency and side. The torsion seems to be brought about by muscular activity and capsular and ligamentous strain at the hip. This study suggests to clinicians the possibility of correction of torsion defects in certain hip diseases of growing children by suitable alteration in posture of the lower extremity.

  2. 34. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION VIEWED FROM EAST TOWER, 7 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION VIEWED FROM EAST TOWER, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  3. Web flexibility and I-beam torsional oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, N. G.; Wang, P. J.

    1986-08-01

    Two recent theories on torsional oscillation of general doubly-symmetric non-circular cross-section beams incorporate a second order effect, that of in-plane shear deformation involving a change in cross-sectional shape, and are found to give excellent agreement with exact results for an elliptical section rod. For "technical" torsional oscillation theories of I-section beams this in-plane shear has previously been considered within the flanges only; in the present work the greater effect of shear distortion of the web is included, having previously been considered only in static analysis. The theory predicts three modes of wave propagation, one of which is essentially torsional in character; a second mode may be identified with predominatly flange bending according to the second branch of Timoshenko beam theory whilst a new mode involves individual flange torsion with asymmetric web deformation, and has the lowest phase velocity except at the longest wavelength. An alternative symmetric web deformation is also considered.

  4. The exploration of the lunar interior using torsional oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudkova, T. V.; Zharkov, V. N.

    2002-08-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of the torsional oscillations for probing the structure of the interiors of the Moon are investigated. Models with no core, a liquid core, and a solid core are considered. The profiles of compressional and shear wave velocities, VP and VS, for the lunar interior estimated by Bills and Ferrari (J. Geophys. Res. 82 (1977) 1306), Goins et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 86 (1981b) 5061) and Nakamura (J. Geophys. Res. 8 (1983) 677) from the Apollo lunar seismic network are used. For all these models the periods of torsional oscillations for fundamental modes ℓ=2-100 and four overtones have been calculated. The derivatives of the dimensionless eigenfrequency with respect to the dimensionless shear modulus and density are calculated and tabulated for use. These data can be used for the determination of corrections to the model density and shear modulus distributions due to their small change. The damping of torsional oscillations is also studied. Several trial distributions of the dissipative function Q as a function of radius are considered. It is shown, that the torsional modes with ℓ⩾7, n=0 can be recorded. These modes provide information on the external layers down to about 500 km depth.

  5. Torsional Oscillations and Waves Projected on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2008-01-01

    The article "Torsional Oscillations with Lorentz Force" by Paul Gluck provides a glimpse into the major world of ancient physics demonstrations in the late 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. The apparatus that was described and similar pieces of apparatus are the basis for many memorable but long forgotten educational demonstrations. The…

  6. Efficient minimization of multipole electrostatic potentials in torsion space

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Nicholas K.

    2018-01-01

    The development of models of macromolecular electrostatics capable of delivering improved fidelity to quantum mechanical calculations is an active field of research in computational chemistry. Most molecular force field development takes place in the context of models with full Cartesian coordinate degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, a number of macromolecular modeling programs use a reduced set of conformational variables limited to rotatable bonds. Efficient algorithms for minimizing the energies of macromolecular systems with torsional degrees of freedom have been developed with the assumption that all atom-atom interaction potentials are isotropic. We describe novel modifications to address the anisotropy of higher order multipole terms while retaining the efficiency of these approaches. In addition, we present a treatment for obtaining derivatives of atom-centered tensors with respect to torsional degrees of freedom. We apply these results to enable minimization of the Amoeba multipole electrostatics potential in a system with torsional degrees of freedom, and validate the correctness of the gradients by comparison to finite difference approximations. In the interest of enabling a complete model of electrostatics with implicit treatment of solvent-mediated effects, we also derive expressions for the derivative of solvent accessible surface area with respect to torsional degrees of freedom. PMID:29641557

  7. Development of Torsional and Linear Piezoelectrically Driven Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Khanh; Newton, David; Garcia, Ephrahim

    1996-01-01

    The development of rotary and linear inchworm-motors using piezoelectric actuators is presented. The motors' design has the advantage of a macro and micro stepper motor with high load and speed. The torsional design is capable of fast angular positioning with micro level accuracy. Additionally, the rotary motor, as designed, can be used as a clutch/brake mechanism. Constructed prototype motors of both types along with their characteristics are presented. The torsional motor consists of a torsional section that provides angular displacement and torque, and two alternating clamping sections which provide the holding force. The motor relies on the principal piezoelectric coupling coefficient (d33) with no torsional elements, increasing its torque capability. The linear motor consists of a longitudinal vibrator that provides displacement and load, and two alternating clamping sections which provide the holding force. This design eliminates bending moment, tension and shear applied to the actuator elements, increase its load capability and life. Innovative flexure designs have been introduced for both motor types. Critical issues that affect the design and performance of the motors are explored and discussed. Experiments are performed demonstrating the motor prototypes based on the aforementioned design considerations.

  8. Scaled vibratory feedback can bias muscle use in children with dystonia during a redundant, one-dimensional myocontrol task

    PubMed Central

    Liyanagamage, Shanie A.; Bertucco, Matteo; Bhanpuri, Nasir H.; Sanger, Terence D.

    2016-01-01

    Vibratory feedback can be a useful tool for rehabilitation. We examined its use in children with dystonia to understand how it affects muscle activity in a population that does not respond well to standard rehabilitation. We predicted scaled vibration (i.e. vibration that was directly or inversely proportional to muscle activity) would increase use of the vibrated muscle because of task-relevant sensory information, while non-scaled vibration would not change muscle use. The study was conducted on 11 subjects with dystonia and 14 controls. Each subject underwent 4 different types of vibration on the more dystonic biceps muscle (or non-dominant arm in controls) in a one-dimensional, bimanual myocontrol task. Our results showed that only scaled vibratory feedback could bias muscle use without changing overall performance in children with dystonia. We believe there may be a role in rehabilitation for scaled vibratory feedback to retrain abnormal muscle patterns. PMID:27798370

  9. Homozygous mutation of VPS16 gene is responsible for an autosomal recessive adolescent-onset primary dystonia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaodong; Chen, Xin; Wu, Song; Liu, Wenlan; Zhang, Xiejun; Zhang, Doudou; He, Sijie; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Mali; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zongyang; Luo, Kun; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Weiping

    2016-05-12

    Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder that is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Herein, we report the identification a novel homozygous missense mutation, c.156 C > A in VPS16, co-segregating with disease status in a Chinese consanguineous family with adolescent-onset primary dystonia by whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. To assess the biological role of c.156 C > A homozygous mutation of VPS16, we generated mice with targeted mutation site of Vps16 through CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing approach. Vps16 c.156 C > A homozygous mutant mice exhibited significantly impaired motor function, suggesting that VPS16 is a new causative gene for adolescent-onset primary dystonia.

  10. Stuttering in Parkinson's disease after deep brain stimulation: A note on dystonia and low-frequency stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Marcelo D; Barbosa, Raquel; Seromenho-Santos, Alexandra; Reizinho, Carla; Bugalho, Paulo

    2018-04-01

    Stuttering, a speech fluency disorder, is a rare complication of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). We report a 61 years-old patient with PD, afflicted by severe On and Off dystonia, treated with Subthalamic Nucleus DBS that developed post-DBS stuttering while on 130 Hz stimulation. Stuttering reduction was noted when frequency was changed to 80 Hz, but the previously observed dystonia improvement was lost. There are no reports in literature on patients developing stuttering with low-frequency stimulation. We question if low-frequency stimulation could have a role for managing PD's post-DBS stuttering, and notice that stuttering improvement was associated with dystonia worsening suggesting that they are distinct phenomena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Paul J.; Collard, Harold R.; Jones, Kirk D.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with aging that is characterized by the histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Although an understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF is incomplete, recent advances delineating specific clinical and pathologic features of IPF have led to better definition of the molecular pathways that are pathologically activated in the disease. In this review we highlight several of these advances, with a focus on genetic predisposition to IPF and how genetic changes, which occur primarily in epithelial cells, lead to activation of profibrotic pathways in epithelial cells. We then discuss the pathologic changes within IPF fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and we conclude with a summary of how these profibrotic pathways may be interrelated. PMID:24050627

  12. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  13. Telltale teeth: Idiopathic Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Lele, G S; Lakade, L S

    2014-01-01

    The detection of any atypical extraoral or intraoral features warrants a thorough investigation, even if the patient is asymptomatic or unaware of these. At times, dental findings help in the diagnosis of an underlying systemic problem. These findings may or may not be associated with any syndrome. Thus, thorough examination and exhaustive investigations should be carried out for every atypical finding to ensure optimal oral and general health for the patient. This is a case report of seventeen year old male who presented with peculiar/atypical dentition which 'told the tale' and led to the diagnosis of underlying endocrinological problem about which the parents were totally unaware. The patient was short with central obesity and microcephaly. Intraorally, there was presence of thirty six microdonts. Consultation with pediatrician and endocrinologist, and thorough investigations confirmed the condition to be of 'Idiopathic Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism'. The patient underwent not only oral rehabilitation, but also timely consultation and treatment from a pediatrician and an endocrinologist.

  14. Epigenomics of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ivana V

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease of unknown etiology. Development of IPF is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Gene-expression profiling studies have taught us quite a bit about the biology of this fatal disease, but epigenetic marks may be the missing link that connects the environmental exposure in genetically predisposed individuals to transcriptome changes associated with the development of IPF. This review will begin with an introduction to the disease, followed by brief summaries of studies of gene expression in IPF and epigenetic marks associated with exposures relevant to IPF. The majority of the discussion will focus on epigenetic studies conducted so far in IPF, the limitations, challenges and future directions in this field. PMID:22449190

  15. Epigenomics of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ivana V

    2012-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease of unknown etiology. Development of IPF is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Gene-expression profiling studies have taught us quite a bit about the biology of this fatal disease, but epigenetic marks may be the missing link that connects the environmental exposure in genetically predisposed individuals to transcriptome changes associated with the development of IPF. This review will begin with an introduction to the disease, followed by brief summaries of studies of gene expression in IPF and epigenetic marks associated with exposures relevant to IPF. The majority of the discussion will focus on epigenetic studies conducted so far in IPF, the limitations, challenges nd future directions in this field.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... structures at the ends of chromosomes known as telomeres . It is not well understood how defects in ... Collard HR, Wolters PJ, Garcia CK. Effect of telomere length on survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary ...

  17. The Rotation-Torsion Spectrum of CH_2DOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilali, A. El; Coudert, L. H.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R.; Klee, S.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the asymmetry of the CH_2D group, the internal rotation problem in the partially deuterated species of methanol CH_2DOH is a complicated one as, unlike in the normal species CH_3OH, the inertia tensor depends on the angle of internal rotation. The CH_2DOH species also displays a dense far infrared torsional spectrum difficult to assign. Recently 38 torsional subbands of CH_2DOH have been identified, but for most of them there is neither an assignment nor an analysis of their rotational structure. In this paper an analysis of the rotation-torsion spectrum of CH_2DOH will be presented. The rotational structure of 23 torsional subbands have been assigned. These subbands are Δ v_t &ge 1 perpendicular subbands with a value of v'_t up to 10b and values of K' and K'' ranging from 0 to 9. For all subbands, the Q-branch was assigned, for 3 subbands, the R- and P-branches could also be found. The results of the rotational analysis with an expansion in J(J+1) of the new subbands and of already observed ones will be presented. When available, microwave lines within the lower torsional level, recorded in this work or already measured, were added to the data set. A theoretical approach aimed at calculating the rotation-torsion energy levels has also been developed. It is based on an expansion in terms of rotation-torsion operators with C_s symmetry and accounts for the dependence of the inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. This approach will be used to carry out a preliminary global analyses of the wavenumbers and of the frequencies. Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spec. 256 (2009) 204. Quade, Liu, Mukhopadhyay, and Su, J. Mol. Spec. 192 (1998) 378; Mukhopadhyay, J. Mol. Struct. 695-696 (2004) 357. Liu and Quade, J. Mol. Spec. 146 (1991) 252 Mukhopadhyay et al., J. Chem. Phys. 116 (2002) 3710.

  18. Uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Minden, Kirsten; Föll, Dirk; Pleyer, Uwe

    2015-02-06

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common systemic disease causing uveitis in childhood, with a prevalence of 10 per 100 000 persons. JIA often takes a severe inflammatory course, and its complications often endanger vision. This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective literature search up to 18 August 2014 and on the current interdisciplinary S2k guideline on the diagnostic evaluation and anti-inflammatory treatment of juvenile idiopathic uveitis. Uveitis arises in roughly 1 in 10 patients with JIA. Regular eye check-ups should be performed starting as soon as JIA is diagnosed. 75-80% of patients are girls; antinuclear antibodies are found in 70-90%. The risk to vision is higher if JIA begins in the preschool years. As for treatment, only a single, small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a small number of prospective trials have been published to date. Topical corticosteroids should be given as the initial treatment. Systemic immunosuppression is needed if irritation persists despite topical corticosteroids, if new complications arise, or if the topical steroids have to be given in excessively high doses or have unacceptable side effects. If the therapeutic effect remains inadequate, conventional and biological immune modulators can be given as add-on (escalation) therapy. Treatment lowers the risk of uveitis and its complications and thereby improves the prognosis for good visual function. Severely affected patients should be treated in competence centers to optimize their long-term outcome. Multidisciplinary, individualized treatment is needed because of the chronic course of active inflammation and the ensuing high risk of complications that can endanger vision. Future improvements in therapy will be aided by prospective, population-based registries and by basic research on biomarkers for the prediction of disease onset, prognosis, tissue damage, and therapeutic response.

  19. Development of a Meso-Scale SMA-Based Torsion Actuator for Image-Guided Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jun; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Gullapalli, Rao; Simard, J Marc; Desai, Jaydev P

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, and control of a meso-scale torsion actuator based on shape memory alloy (SMA) for image-guided surgical procedures. Developing a miniature torsion actuator is challenging, but it opens the possibility of significantly enhancing the robot agility and maneuverability. The proposed torsion actuator is bi-directionally actuated by a pair of antagonistic SMA torsion springs through alternate Joule heating and natural cooling. The torsion actuator is integrated into a surgical robot prototype to demonstrate its working performance in the humid environment under C-Arm CT image guidance.

  20. The vibrationally adiabatic torsional potential energy surface of trans-stilbene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdary, Praveen D.; Martinez, Todd J.; Gruebele, Martin

    2007-05-01

    The effect of vibrational Zero Point Energy (ZPE) on the torsional barriers of trans-stilbene is studied in the adiabatic approximation. The two torsional modes corresponding to phenyl rotation are explicitly separated, and the remaining modes are treated as normal coordinates. ZPE reduces the adiabatic barrier along the in-phase torsion from 198 to 13 cm -1. A one-dimensional adiabatic potential for the anti-phase torsion, including the ZPE of the in-phase torsion, reduces the adiabatic barrier from 260 to 58 cm -1. Comparison with recent electronic structure benchmark calculations suggests that vibrational corrections play a significant role in trans-stilbene's experimentally observed planar structure.

  1. Development of a Meso-Scale SMA-Based Torsion Actuator for Image-Guided Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jun; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Gullapalli, Rao; Simard, J. Marc; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, and control of a meso-scale torsion actuator based on shape memory alloy (SMA) for image-guided surgical procedures. Developing a miniature torsion actuator is challenging, but it opens the possibility of significantly enhancing the robot agility and maneuverability. The proposed torsion actuator is bi-directionally actuated by a pair of antagonistic SMA torsion springs through alternate Joule heating and natural cooling. The torsion actuator is integrated into a surgical robot prototype to demonstrate its working performance in the humid environment under C-Arm CT image guidance. PMID:28210189

  2. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lepreux, Sébastien; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Vital, Anne

    2018-01-01

    A muscle biopsy is currently requested to assess the diagnosis of an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy overlapping with a systemic disease. During the past few years, the classification of inflammatory myopathy subtypes has been revisited progressively on the basis of correlations between clinical phenotypes, autoantibodies and histological data. Several syndromic entities are now more clearly defined, and the aim of the present review is to clarify the contribution of muscle biopsy in a setting of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases. PMID:29154752

  3. Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Study of 77 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kirstie N.; Pilsworth, Samantha; Sharples, Linda D.; Smith, Ian E.; Shneerson, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To review the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of idiopathic hypersomnia as well as the long-term response to treatment. Setting: The Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Patients and Design: A large database of more than 6000 patients with sleep disorders was reviewed. A retrospective study of the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of 77 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia was performed. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy was performed. The response to drug treatment was assessed in 61 patients over a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. Measurements and Results: Idiopathic hypersomnia was 60% as prevalent as narcolepsy. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy showed that those with idiopathic hypersomnia were more likely to have prolonged unrefreshing daytime naps, a positive family history, increased slow-wave sleep, and a longer sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. The results of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test were not helpful in predicting disease severity or treatment response. The clinical features were heterogeneous and of variable severity. The majority of patients with idiopathic hypersomnia had symptoms that remained stable over many years, but 11% had spontaneous remission, which was never seen in narcolepsy. Two thirds of patients with idiopathic hypersomnolence had a sustained improvement in daytime somnolence with medication, although a third needed high doses or combinations of drugs. Conclusions: Idiopathic hypersomnolence has characteristic clinical and polysomnographic features but the prolonged latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test raises doubt about the validity of this test within the current diagnostic criteria. The disease often responds well to treatment and a substantial minority of patients appear to spontaneously improve. Citation: Anderson KN; Pilsworth S; Sharples LD; Smith IE; Shneerson JM. Idiopathic

  4. Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Neurorehabilitation of Task-Specific Dystonia: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rosset-Llobet, Jaume; Fàbregas-Molas, Sílvia; Pascual-Leone, Álvaro

    2015-09-01

    Task-specific focal hand dystonia can disable affected individuals. Although neurorehabilitation techniques such as sensory motor retuning can result in complete recovery in some patients, it requires many months of treatment. Combining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with neurorehabilitation is a new and promising approach that can help these patients. However, the results in different studies are contradictory. Analyze whether delivering tDCS (cathode over left and anode over right parietal region) during the neurorehabilitation process for musicians with dystonia can increase the effectiveness of therapy. A parallel double-blind randomized design was used to study 30 musicians with right-hand primary focal dystonia. All patients underwent a 2-week course of neurorehabilitation based on sensory motor retuning therapy coupled with either real or sham tDCS for the first 30 minutes of each daily 1-hour therapy session (total 10 sessions). The therapist and patient were blind to the tDCS condition. A dystonia severity score was obtained before and after the 2-week protocol. The therapist also rated the evolution of each patient. Both groups significantly improved their dystonia severity score during the 2 weeks. Score differences were 88.23 (±40.51) and 63.36 (±30.57) for the active and sham groups, respectively. The active group showed a statistically significant greater improvement. Biparietal tDCS with left-sided cathode is a safe technique that does not interfere with the neurorehabilitation procedure and can increase therapy effectiveness in rehabilitation patients with right-hand task-specific focal dystonia.

  5. Cervical dystonia: effectiveness of a standardized physical therapy program; study design and protocol of a single blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions of the neck and abnormal head positions that affect daily life activities and social life of patients. Patients are usually treated with botulinum toxin injections into affected neck muscles to relief pain and improve control of head postures. In addition, many patients are referred for physical therapy to improve their ability to perform activities of daily living. A recent review on allied health interventions in cervical dystonia showed a lack of randomized controlled intervention studies regarding the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions. Methods/design The (cost-) effectiveness of a standardized physical therapy program compared to regular physical therapy, both as add-on treatment to botulinum toxin injections will be determined in a multi-centre, single blinded randomized controlled trial with 100 cervical dystonia patients. Primary outcomes are disability in daily functioning assessed with the disability subscale of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes are pain, severity of dystonia, active range of motion of the head, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Data will be collected at baseline, after six months and one year by an independent blind assessor just prior to botulinum toxin injections. For the cost effectiveness, an additional economic evaluation will be performed with the costs per quality adjusted life-year as primary outcome parameter. Discussion Our study will provide new evidence regarding the (cost-) effectiveness of a standardized, tailored physical therapy program for patients with cervical dystonia. It is widely felt that allied health interventions, including physical therapy, may offer a valuable supplement to the current therapeutic options. A positive outcome will lead to a greater use of the standardized physical therapy program. For the Dutch situation a positive outcome implies that the standardized

  6. Cervical dystonia: effectiveness of a standardized physical therapy program; study design and protocol of a single blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van den Dool, Joost; Visser, Bart; Koelman, J Hans T M; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Tijssen, Marina A J

    2013-07-15

    Cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions of the neck and abnormal head positions that affect daily life activities and social life of patients. Patients are usually treated with botulinum toxin injections into affected neck muscles to relief pain and improve control of head postures. In addition, many patients are referred for physical therapy to improve their ability to perform activities of daily living. A recent review on allied health interventions in cervical dystonia showed a lack of randomized controlled intervention studies regarding the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions. The (cost-) effectiveness of a standardized physical therapy program compared to regular physical therapy, both as add-on treatment to botulinum toxin injections will be determined in a multi-centre, single blinded randomized controlled trial with 100 cervical dystonia patients. Primary outcomes are disability in daily functioning assessed with the disability subscale of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes are pain, severity of dystonia, active range of motion of the head, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Data will be collected at baseline, after six months and one year by an independent blind assessor just prior to botulinum toxin injections. For the cost effectiveness, an additional economic evaluation will be performed with the costs per quality adjusted life-year as primary outcome parameter. Our study will provide new evidence regarding the (cost-) effectiveness of a standardized, tailored physical therapy program for patients with cervical dystonia. It is widely felt that allied health interventions, including physical therapy, may offer a valuable supplement to the current therapeutic options. A positive outcome will lead to a greater use of the standardized physical therapy program. For the Dutch situation a positive outcome implies that the standardized physical therapy program forms the

  7. University of Florida Torsion Pendulum for Testing Key LISA Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, Stephen; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo Janet; Hillsberry, Daniel; Parry, Samantha; Ciani, Giacomo; Wass, Peter; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2018-01-01

    This presentation will describe the design and performance of a new torsion pendulum at the University of Florida used for testing inertial sensors and associated technologies for use in space – based gravitational wave observatories and geodesy missions. In particular this new torsion pendulum facility is testing inertial sensors and associated technology for the upcoming LISA (laser interferometer space antenna) space-based gravitational wave observatory mission. The torsion pendulum apparatus is comprised of a suspended cross bar assembly that has LISA test mass mockups at each of its ends. Two of the test mass mockups are enclosed by capacitive sensors which provide actuation and position sensing. The entire assembly is housed in a vacuum chamber. The pendulum cross-bar converts rotational motion of the test masses about the suspension fiber axis into translational motion. The 22 cm cross bar arm length along with the extremely small torsional spring constant of the suspension fiber results in a near free fall condition in the translational degree-of-freedom orthogonal to both the member and the suspension fiber. The test masses are electrically isolated from the pendulum assembly and their charge is controlled via photoemission using fiber coupled UV LEDS. Position of the test masses is measured using both capacitive and interferometric readout. The broadband sensitivity of the capacitive readout and laser interferometer readout is 30 nm/√Hz and 0.5 nm/√Hz respectively. The performance of the pendulum measured in equivalent acceleration noise acting on a LISA test mass is approximately 3 × 10-13 ms-2/√Hz at 2 mHz. This presentation will also discuss the design and fabrication of a flight-like gravitational reference sensor that will soon be integrated into the torsion pendulum facility. This flight-like GRS will allow for noise performance measurements in a more LISA-like configuration.

  8. Axial Plane Deformity of the Shoulder in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Menon, Venugopal K; Tahasildar, Naveen; Pillay, Haroon M; M, Anbuselvam

    2017-05-01

    Prospective observational study. To study axial plane deformation of the shoulder in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and try to correlate it with curve type and surgical correction. It is established that AIS is a 3-dimensional deformity. The rib hump is the most common manifestation of axial plane deformations; the least common manifestation seems to be upper trunk and shoulder rotation, which has been hitherto undescribed. Fourteen consecutive, operated cases of AIS were analyzed prospectively. Preoperative and postoperative x-rays of the spine and clinical photographs were studied. Clinical photographs (top view) were taken with patients in the sitting position, to show shoulder level in relation to the axis of the head and pelvis. Chest computed tomography scans were also studied to determine the direction of apical vertebra and trunk torsion. All 14 patients in this series had their right shoulders anteriorly rotated preoperatively (anticlockwise). The direction of rotation seemed unrelated to the curve type and shoulder elevation, although most had rib humps on the right. This shoulder rotation was corrected postoperatively by routine maneuvers done for scoliosis correction. Minor residual rotation was seen in 6 patients who also had minimal persisting rib hump. In 1 case the axial plane rotation worsened, although the shoulder level and trunk symmetry improved significantly. The apical vertebral rotation on computed tomography had little bearing on the direction of shoulder rotation. Axial plane rotation of the shoulder is a hitherto un-described dimension of AIS deformity complex. Much of it corrects spontaneously with correction of the thoracic spinal deformity.

  9. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Santi, Maristella; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2018-06-01

     Existing information on acute idiopathic scrotal edema relies on small case series and textbooks.  We searched reports with no date limits on acute idiopathic scrotal edema.  Thirty-seven studies were included. Sixteen case series addressed the prevalence of acute idiopathic scrotal edema among males with acute scrotum: among 3,403 cases, the diagnosis of acute idiopathic scrotal edema was made in 413 cases (12%). Twenty-four reports addressed history, findings, management, and course of acute idiopathic scrotal edema in 311 patients. The patients mostly ranged in age from 5 to 8 years, presented with acute scrotal redness and swelling, associated or not with mild pain. Ninety percent or more of the cases developed in patients without atopic diathesis and were not preceded by inguinoscrotal surgery, acute febrile illnesses, or trauma. They were afebrile; in good general condition; and presented without pruritus, nausea or vomiting, or abdominal pain. The lesions were bilateral in two-thirds and unilateral in one-third of the cases. The condition resolved spontaneously within 2 to 3 days without sequelae. Approximately 10% of the cases experienced a recurrence.  Acute idiopathic scrotal edema is a self-limiting condition that accounts for ≥ 10% of cases of acute scrotum in children and adolescents. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Natural history of idiopathic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gail E; Thomsett, Michael J; Boston, Bruce A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Shulman, Dorothy I; Draznin, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To determine what percentage of diabetes insipidus (DI) in childhood is idiopathic and to assess the natural history of idiopathic DI. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 105 patients with DI who were born or had DI diagnosed between 1980-1989 at 3 medical centers. A second cohort of 30 patients from 6 medical centers in whom idiopathic DI was diagnosed after 1990 was evaluated retrospectively for subsequent etiologic diagnoses and additional hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies and prospectively for quality of life. In the first cohort, 11% of patients had idiopathic DI. In the second cohort, additional hypothalamic/pituitary hormone deficiencies developed in 33%, and 37% received an etiologic diagnosis for DI. Health-related quality of life for all the patients with idiopathic DI was comparable with the healthy reference population. Only a small percentage of patients with DI will remain idiopathic after first examination. Other hormone deficiencies will develop later in one-third of those patients, and slightly more than one-third of those patients will have an etiology for the DI diagnosed. Long-term surveillance is important because tumors have been diagnosed as long as 21 years after the onset of DI. Quality of life for these patients is as good as the reference population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Torsional vibration measurements on rotating shaft system using laser doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ling; Yang, Shixi; Gan, Chunbiao

    2012-11-01

    In this work, a laser torsional vibrameter was used to measure the torsion vibration of a rotating shaft system under electrical network impact. Based on the principles of laser Doppler velocimetry, the laser torsional vibrometer (LTV) are non-contact measurement of torsional oscillation of rotating shafts, offering significant advantages over conventional techniques. Furthermore, a highly complex shafting system is analyzed by a modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix. The system is modeled as a chain consisting of an elastic spring with concentrated mass points, and the multi-segments lumped mass model is established for this shafting system. By the modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix method, an accumulated calculation is effectively eliminated to obtain the natural frequencies. The electrical network impacts can activize the torsional vibration of shaft system, and the activized torsion vibration frequencies contained the natural frequencies of shaft system. The torsional vibrations of the shaft system were measured under electrical network impacts in laser Doppler torsional vibrometer. By comparisons, the natural frequencies by measurement were consistent with the values by calculation. The results verify the instrument is robust, user friendly and can be calibrated in situ. The laser torsional vibrometer represents a significant step forward in rotating machinery diagnostics.

  12. Torsion Bounds from CP Violation α2-DYNAMO in Axion-Photon Cosmic Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    Years ago Mohanty and Sarkar [Phys. Lett. B 433, 424 (1998)] have placed bounds on torsion mass from K meson physics. In this paper, associating torsion to axions a la Campanelli et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 123001 (2005)], it is shown that it is possible to place limits on spacetime torsion by considering an efficient α2-dynamo CP violation term. Therefore instead of Kostelecky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 111102 (2008)] torsion bounds from Lorentz violation, here torsion bounds are obtained from CP violation through dynamo magnetic field amplification. It is also shown that oscillating photon-axion frequency peak is reduced to 10-7 Hz due to torsion mass (or Planck mass when torsion does not propagate) contribution to the photon-axion-torsion action. Though torsion does not couple to electromagnetic fields at classical level, it does at the quantum level. Recently, Garcia de Andrade [Phys. Lett. B 468, 28 (2011)] has shown that the photon sector of Lorentz violation (LV) Lagrangian leads to linear nonstandard Maxwell equations where the magnetic field decays slower giving rise to a seed for galactic dynamos. Torsion constraints of the order of K0≈10-42 GeV can be obtained which are more stringent than the value obtained by Kostelecky et al. A lower bound for the existence of galactic dynamos is obtained for torsion as K0≈10-37 GeV.

  13. Stereotactic ventrooralis thalamotomy for task-specific focal hand dystonia (writer's cramp).

    PubMed

    Taira, Takaomi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2003-01-01

    Writer's cramp is a type of focal dystonia due to dysfunction of the pallido-thalamo-cortical circuit. The symptom is refractory to most conservative treatment, though botulinum toxin injection is generally used for symptomatic relief. As a surgical treatment of dystonia, we performed stereotactic nucleus ventrooralis (Vo) thalamotomy for dystonic cramp of the hand. Twelve patients (5 men, 3 women; age 26-40 years, mean 32.1 years) with medically intractable task-specific focal dystonia of the hand underwent Vo thalamotomy. The stereotactic target was chosen at the junction of the anterior and posterior Vo nuclei. The mean duration of the symptom ranged from 3 to 6 years (mean 4.5 years.) All patients had complained of difficulty in writing. Seven patients were professionals, such as a comic artist, guitarist and barber, and, because of the dystonic symptoms occurring during their work, they had stopped pursuing their profession. All patients showed immediate postoperative disappearance of dystonic symptoms, and the effect was sustained during the follow-up period (3-33 months, mean 13.1 months), except in one case. Two patients showed partial recurrence of the symptom and underwent second thalamotomy 5 months after the initial surgery with satisfactory results. The score on the writer's cramp rating scale decreased significantly (p < 0.001) after Vo thalamotomy. There were no permanent operative complications. There was no mortality or permanent morbidity. Although a longer follow-up is needed, stereotactic Vo thalamotomy is a useful and safe therapeutic option for writer's cramp. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Deep brain stimulation effects in dystonia: time course of electrophysiological changes in early treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruge, Diane; Tisch, Stephen; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Bhatia, Kailash P; Quinn, Niall P; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Limousin, Patricia; Rothwell, John C

    2011-08-15

    Deep brain stimulation to the internal globus pallidus is an effective treatment for primary dystonia. The optimal clinical effect often occurs only weeks to months after starting stimulation. To better understand the underlying electrophysiological changes in this period, we assessed longitudinally 2 pathophysiological markers of dystonia in patients prior to and in the early treatment period (1, 3, 6 months) after deep brain stimulation surgery. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to track changes in short-latency intracortical inhibition, a measure of excitability of GABA(A) -ergic corticocortical connections and long-term potentiation-like synaptic plasticity (as a response to paired associative stimulation). Deep brain stimulation remained on for the duration of the study. Prior to surgery, inhibition was reduced and plasticity increased in patients compared with healthy controls. Following surgery and commencement of deep brain stimulation, short-latency intracortical inhibition increased toward normal levels over the following months with the same monotonic time course as the patients' clinical benefit. In contrast, synaptic plasticity changed rapidly, following a nonmonotonic time course: it was absent early (1 month) after surgery, and then over the following months increased toward levels observed in healthy individuals. We postulate that before surgery preexisting high levels of plasticity form strong memories of dystonic movement patterns. When deep brain stimulation is turned on, it disrupts abnormal basal ganglia signals, resulting in the absent response to paired associative stimulation at 1 month. Clinical benefit is delayed because engrams of abnormal movement persist and take time to normalize. Our observations suggest that plasticity may be a driver of long-term therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation in dystonia. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Inhibitory rTMS applied on somatosensory cortex in Wilson's disease patients with hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lozeron, Pierre; Poujois, Aurélia; Meppiel, Elodie; Masmoudi, Sana; Magnan, Thierry Peron; Vicaut, Eric; Houdart, Emmanuel; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Woimant, France; Kubis, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Hand dystonia is a common complication of Wilson's disease (WD), responsible for handwriting difficulties and disability. Alteration of sensorimotor integration and overactivity of the somatosensory cortex have been demonstrated in dystonia. This study investigated the immediate after effect of an inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the somatosensory cortex on the writing function in WD patients with hand dystonia. We performed a pilot prospective randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover rTMS study. A 20-min 1-Hz rTMS session, stereotaxically guided, was applied over the left somatosensory cortex in 13 WD patients with right dystonic writer's cramp. After 3 days, each patient was crossed-over to the alternative treatment. Patients were clinically evaluated before and immediately after each rTMS session with the Unified Wilson's Disease rating scale (UWDRS), the Writers' Cramp Rating Scale (WCRS), a specifically designed scale for handwriting difficulties in Wilson's disease patients (FAR, flow, accuracy, and rhythmicity evaluation), and a visual analog scale (VAS) for handwriting discomfort. No significant change in UWDRS, WCRS, VAS, or FAR scores was observed in patients treated with somatosensory inhibitory rTMS compared to the sham protocol. The FAR negatively correlated with UWDRS (r = -0.6; P = 0.02), but not with the WCRS score, disease duration, MRI diffusion lesions, or with atrophy scores. In our experimental conditions, a single inhibitory rTMS session applied over somatosensory cortex did not improve dystonic writer cramp in WD patients.

  16. Error-enhancing robot therapy to induce motor control improvement in childhood onset primary dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Robot-generated deviating forces during multijoint reaching movements have been applied to investigate motor control and to tune neuromotor adaptation. Can the application of force to limbs improve motor learning? In this framework, the response to altered dynamic environments of children affected by primary dystonia has never been studied. Methods As preliminary pilot study, eleven children with primary dystonia and eleven age-matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform upper limb movements, triangle-reaching (three directions) and circle-writing, using a haptic robot interacting with ad-hoc developed task-specific visual interfaces. Three dynamic conditions were provided, null additive external force (A), constant disturbing force (B) and deactivation of the additive external force again (C). The path length for each trial was computed, from the recorded position data and interaction events. Results The results show that the disturbing force affects significantly the movement outcomes in healthy but not in dystonic subjects, already compromised in the reference condition: the external alteration uncalibrates the healthy sensorimotor system, while the dystonic one is already strongly uncalibrated. The lack of systematic compensation for perturbation effects during B condition is reflected into the absence of after-effects in C condition, which would be the evidence that CNS generates a prediction of the perturbing forces using an internal model of the environment. The most promising finding is that in dystonic population the altered dynamic exposure seems to induce a subsequent improvement, i.e. a beneficial after-effect in terms of optimal path control, compared with the correspondent reference movement outcome. Conclusions The short-time error-enhancing training in dystonia could represent an effective approach for motor performance improvement, since the exposure to controlled dynamic alterations induces a refining of the existing but

  17. A neuromorphic model of motor overflow in focal hand dystonia due to correlated sensory input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Won Joon; Niu, Chuanxin M.; Sanger, Terence D.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Motor overflow is a common and frustrating symptom of dystonia, manifested as unintentional muscle contraction that occurs during an intended voluntary movement. Although it is suspected that motor overflow is due to cortical disorganization in some types of dystonia (e.g. focal hand dystonia), it remains elusive which mechanisms could initiate and, more importantly, perpetuate motor overflow. We hypothesize that distinct motor elements have low risk of motor overflow if their sensory inputs remain statistically independent. But when provided with correlated sensory inputs, pre-existing crosstalk among sensory projections will grow under spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP) and eventually produce irreversible motor overflow. Approach. We emulated a simplified neuromuscular system comprising two anatomically distinct digital muscles innervated by two layers of spiking neurons with STDP. The synaptic connections between layers included crosstalk connections. The input neurons received either independent or correlated sensory drive during 4 days of continuous excitation. The emulation is critically enabled and accelerated by our neuromorphic hardware created in previous work. Main results. When driven by correlated sensory inputs, the crosstalk synapses gained weight and produced prominent motor overflow; the growth of crosstalk synapses resulted in enlarged sensory representation reflecting cortical reorganization. The overflow failed to recede when the inputs resumed their original uncorrelated statistics. In the control group, no motor overflow was observed. Significance. Although our model is a highly simplified and limited representation of the human sensorimotor system, it allows us to explain how correlated sensory input to anatomically distinct muscles is by itself sufficient to cause persistent and irreversible motor overflow. Further studies are needed to locate the source of correlation in sensory input.

  18. Error-enhancing robot therapy to induce motor control improvement in childhood onset primary dystonia.

    PubMed

    Casellato, Claudia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Zorzi, Giovanna; Rizzi, Giorgio; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Nardocci, Nardo

    2012-07-23

    Robot-generated deviating forces during multijoint reaching movements have been applied to investigate motor control and to tune neuromotor adaptation. Can the application of force to limbs improve motor learning? In this framework, the response to altered dynamic environments of children affected by primary dystonia has never been studied. As preliminary pilot study, eleven children with primary dystonia and eleven age-matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform upper limb movements, triangle-reaching (three directions) and circle-writing, using a haptic robot interacting with ad-hoc developed task-specific visual interfaces. Three dynamic conditions were provided, null additive external force (A), constant disturbing force (B) and deactivation of the additive external force again (C). The path length for each trial was computed, from the recorded position data and interaction events. The results show that the disturbing force affects significantly the movement outcomes in healthy but not in dystonic subjects, already compromised in the reference condition: the external alteration uncalibrates the healthy sensorimotor system, while the dystonic one is already strongly uncalibrated. The lack of systematic compensation for perturbation effects during B condition is reflected into the absence of after-effects in C condition, which would be the evidence that CNS generates a prediction of the perturbing forces using an internal model of the environment.The most promising finding is that in dystonic population the altered dynamic exposure seems to induce a subsequent improvement, i.e. a beneficial after-effect in terms of optimal path control, compared with the correspondent reference movement outcome. The short-time error-enhancing training in dystonia could represent an effective approach for motor performance improvement, since the exposure to controlled dynamic alterations induces a refining of the existing but strongly imprecise motor scheme and

  19. Selective decrease in central nervous system serotonin turnover in children with dopa-nonresponsive dystonia.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Birgit; Köhler, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg F; Heales, Simon; Surtees, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Childhood dystonia that does not respond to treatment with levodopa (dopa-nonresponsive dystonia, DND) has an unclear pathogenesis and is notoriously difficult to treat. To test the hypothesis that there may be abnormalities in serotonin turnover in DND we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of homovanillic (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (HIAA) acids, metabolites of dopamine and serotonin, respectively, in 18 children with dystonia not responsive to levodopa. These were combined with a reference population of 85 children with neurologic or metabolic disease known not to affect dopamine or serotonin metabolism. Because of the known natural age-related decrement in HVA and HIAA concentrations, the results were analyzed using multiple regression using age and DND as predictors of CSF HIAA and HVA concentrations. DND was a highly significant predictor of CSF HIAA concentration (p < 0.001) but not of CSF HVA concentration (p = 0.59). After fitting a regression model, the geometric mean ratio of CSF HIAA in DND compared with the reference range was 0.53 whereas that for CSF HVA was 0.95. We also analyzed CSF HIAA/HVA ratios. After fitting a regression model, we found no dependence on age, and the mean of CSF HIAA/HVA in DND was 0.28 whereas that for the reference range was 0.49 (p < 0.001). We conclude that a significant number of children with DND have reduced CNS serotonin turnover. Treatment with drugs that increase serotonin concentration in the synaptic cleft should be considered in this group of patients.

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves neurorehabilitation of task-specific dystonia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosset-Llobet, Jaume; Fàbregas-Molas, Sílvia; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    Sensory-motor returning (SMR) can help the symptoms of task-specific focal hand dystonia. However, effects vary across patients and take many sessions. Here, we present proof of principle evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance these effects. We compared the effects of a combined tDCS-SMR protocol (n=4 patients) with the efficacy of SMR alone (n=30 patients). All 4 patients treated with the combined protocol showed greater improvement than those undergoing SMR alone. Results encourage a larger, parallel-group clinical trial with sham tDCS control.

  1. A Novel Animal Model for Investigating the Neural Basis of Focal Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    basal ganglia as the predisposing condition and dry eye as an environmental trigger. Based on experiments during the 1st year of the grant, our...experiments and preliminary recordings from the superior colliculus. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dystonia, benign essential blepharospasm, dry eye , motor...that hypersynchronized, 7 Hz neuronal oscilla‐ tions of the basal ganglia created the predisposing condition and that  eye  irritation from  dry   eye  was

  2. Creation of a Mouse with Stress-Induced Dystonia: Control of an ATPase Chaperone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Mice with mutations in genes known to cause dystonia in humans are so far virtually asymptomatic. Only mild motor deficiencies have been seen, such...identified the gene for one of the subunits of Na,K- ATPase, ATP1A3, as the site of mutations in RDP (de Carvalho Aguiar et al. 2004). Our prior work in...first paper, and to be able to give the mouse line an official name based on the mutated gene . Funding has been applied for from the following

  3. Paroxysmal myoclonic dystonia with vocalisations: new entity or variant of preexisting syndromes?

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, T E; Shapiro, A K; Shapiro, E

    1986-01-01

    From among 1377 patients with movement disorders, four patients had an unusual movement disorder characterised by paroxysmal bursts of involuntary, regular, repetitive, rhythmic, bilateral, coordinated, simultaneous, stereotypic myoclonus and vocalisations, often associated with tonic symptoms, interference with voluntary functioning, presence of hyperactivity, attention and learning disabilities, and resistance to treatment with haloperidol and other drugs. This symptom complex may represent a new disease entity, referred to here as paroxysmal myoclonic dystonia with vocalisations or a variant or combination of other movement disorders such as Gilles de la Tourette, myoclonic, or dystonic syndromes. PMID:3457101

  4. Idiopathic Ophthalmodynia and Idiopathic Rhinalgia: A Prospective Series of 16 New Cases.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Montojo, Teresa; Guerrero, Ángel L; Álvarez, Mónica; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Cuadrado, María L

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia were described a few years ago. These conditions seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location in the eye or in the nose. We aimed to present a new prospective series in order to verify the consistency of these syndromes. We performed a descriptive study of all patients referred to our regional neurologic clinics from 2010 to 2014 because of facial pain exclusively felt in the eye or in the nose fulfilling the proposed diagnostic criteria for idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia. There were 9 patients with idiopathic ophthalmodynia and 7 patients with idiopathic rhinalgia, with a clear female preponderance, and a mean age at onset in the fifth decade. The pain was usually moderate and the temporal pattern was generally chronic. Only one patient reported accompaniments (hypersensitivity to the light and to the flow of air in the symptomatic eye). Preventive treatment with amitriptyline, pregabalin, or gabapentin was partially or totally effective. The clinical features of this new series parallels those of the original description, thus indicating that both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia have clear-cut clinical pictures with excellent consistency both inter- and intra-individually. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  5. What parents think and feel about deep brain stimulation in paediatric secondary dystonia including cerebral palsy: A qualitative study of parental decision-making.

    PubMed

    Austin, Allana; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Selway, Richard; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Owen, Tamsin

    2017-01-01

    Dystonia is characterised by involuntary movements and postures. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is effective in reducing dystonic symptoms in primary dystonia in childhood and to lesser extent in secondary dystonia. How families and children decide to choose DBS surgery has never been explored. To explore parental decision-making for DBS in paediatric secondary dystonia. Data was gathered using semi-structured interviews with eight parents of children with secondary dystonia who had undergone DBS. Interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. For all parents the decision was viewed as significant, with life altering consequences for the child. These results suggested that parents were motivated by a hope for a better life and parental duty. This was weighed against consideration of risks, what the child had to lose, and uncertainty of DBS outcome. Decisions were also influenced by the perspectives of their child and professionals. The decision to undergo DBS was an ongoing process for parents, who ultimately were struggling in the face of uncertainty whilst trying to do their best as parents for their children. These findings have important clinical implications given the growing referrals for consideration of DBS childhood dystonia, and highlights the importance of further quantitative research to fully establish the efficacy of DBS in secondary dystonia to enhance informed decision-making. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Perspective: Update on Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B.; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Provide an update on various features of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Design Perspective. Methods Selected articles on the epidemiology, clinical and imaging features, natural history, pathophysiology, and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension were reviewed and interpreted in the context of the authors’ clinical and research experience. Results Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is primarily a disease of obese women of childbearing age, but it can affect patients of any weight, sex, and age. Although a relatively rare disorder, idiopathic intracranial hypertension’s associated costs in the U.S. entail hundreds of millions of dollars. Even following treatment, headaches are frequently persistent and may require the continued involvement of a neurologist. Quality of life reductions and depression are common among idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients. However, visual dysfunction, especially visual field abnormalities, represents the major morbidity of this disorder, and serial automated perimetry remains the primary mode of patient monitoring. Patients who are men, black, very obese, or anemic are at higher risk of visual loss. Vitamin A metabolism, adipose tissue as an actively secreting endocrine tissue, and cerebral venous abnormalities are areas of active study regarding idiopathic intracranial hypertension’s pathophysiology. Treatment studies show that lumbar puncture is a valuable treatment (in addition to its crucial diagnostic role) and that weight management is critical. However, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of acetazolamide, CSF diversion procedures, and cerebral venous stenting. Conclusions Many questions remain unanswered about idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Ongoing studies, especially an ongoing NIH-funded clinical trial of acetazolamide, should provide more insight into this important, yet poorly understood syndrome of isolated intracranial hypertension. PMID:21696699

  7. Idiopathic hypersomnia: a study of 77 cases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Pilsworth, Samantha; Sharples, Linda D; Smith, Ian E; Shneerson, John M

    2007-10-01

    To review the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of idiopathic hypersomnia as well as the long-term response to treatment. The Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK. A large database of more than 6000 patients with sleep disorders was reviewed. A retrospective study of the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of 77 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia was performed. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy was performed. The response to drug treatment was assessed in 61 patients over a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. Idiopathic hypersomnia was 60% as prevalent as narcolepsy. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy showed that those with idiopathic hypersomnia were more likely to have prolonged unrefreshing daytime naps, a positive family history, increased slow-wave sleep, and a longer sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. The results of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test were not helpful in predicting disease severity or treatment response. The clinical features were heterogeneous and of variable severity. The majority of patients with idiopathic hypersomnia had symptoms that remained stable over many years, but 11% had spontaneous remission, which was never seen in narcolepsy. Two thirds of patients with idiopathic hypersomnolence had a sustained improvement in daytime somnolence with medication, although a third needed high doses or combinations of drugs. Idiopathic hypersomnolence has characteristic clinical and polysomnographic features but the prolonged latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test raises doubt about the validity of this test within the current diagnostic criteria. The disease often responds well to treatment and a substantial minority of patients appear to spontaneously improve.

  8. Rechargeable or Nonrechargeable Deep Brain Stimulation in Dystonia: A Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jerome; Gonzalez, Victoria; Cif, Laura; Cyprien, Fabienne; Chan-Seng, Emilie; Coubes, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi DBS) delivered by an implantable neurostimulator (INS) is an established, effective, and safe treatment option for patients with medically refractory primary dystonia. Compared to other DBS targets, the battery life of the INS is substantially shorter due to the higher energy demands required to penetrate the GPi resulting in faster battery depletion and more frequent hospitalizations for INS replacement. We, therefore, performed a cost analysis to compare a rechargeable DBS system, Activa®RC, with nonrechargeable systems, from the perspective of the French public health insurer. To estimate the cost of INS replacement in the nonrechargeable cohort, and costs potentially avoided in the hypothetical Activa ® RC cohort, the medical records of patients who had undergone GPi DBS with a nonrechargeable INS between 1996 and 2010 at a center in France were accessed. Replacement rates were estimated for up to nine years. With Activa ® RC, a total of 315 hospitalizations for replacement procedures would have been avoided over nine years compared with a nonrechargeable INS, resulting in a discounted mean direct medical cost per patient over nine years of €50,119 with a nonrechargeable INS and €33,306 with Activa ® RC, a reduction of 34%. The adoption of a rechargeable instead of a nonrechargeable INS for eligible patients with dystonia may provide substantial savings to the public health insurer in France. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  9. Early structural and functional plasticity alterations in a susceptibility period of DYT1 dystonia mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Marta; Stanic, Jennifer; Tassone, Annalisa; Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Ponterio, Giulia; Vanni, Valentina; Martella, Giuseppina; Imbriani, Paola; Bonsi, Paola; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Pisani, Antonio

    2018-03-05

    The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, although it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a +/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a +/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation. BDNF regulates AMPAR expression during development. Accordingly, both proBDNF and BDNF levels were significantly higher in Tor1a +/Δgag mice. Consistently, antagonism of BDNF rescued synaptic plasticity deficits and AMPA currents. Our findings demonstrate that early loss of functional and structural synaptic homeostasis represents a unique endophenotypic trait during striatal maturation, promoting the appearance of clinical manifestations in mutation carriers. © 2018, Maltese et al.

  10. Early structural and functional plasticity alterations in a susceptibility period of DYT1 dystonia mouse striatum

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Marta; Stanic, Jennifer; Tassone, Annalisa; Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Ponterio, Giulia; Vanni, Valentina; Martella, Giuseppina; Imbriani, Paola; Bonsi, Paola; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2018-01-01

    The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, although it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a+/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a+/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation. BDNF regulates AMPAR expression during development. Accordingly, both proBDNF and BDNF levels were significantly higher in Tor1a+/Δgag mice. Consistently, antagonism of BDNF rescued synaptic plasticity deficits and AMPA currents. Our findings demonstrate that early loss of functional and structural synaptic homeostasis represents a unique endophenotypic trait during striatal maturation, promoting the appearance of clinical manifestations in mutation carriers. PMID:29504938

  11. Medical management of oral motor disorders: dystonia, dyskinesia and drug-induced dystonic extrapyramidal reactions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T

    2006-08-01

    This article reviews three of the involuntary hyperkinetic motor disorders that affect the orofacial region, namely orofacial dystonia, oromandibular dyskinesia, as well as medication-induced extrapyramidal syndrome-dystonic reactions. Specifically, it discusses and contrasts the clinical features and management strategies for spontaneous primary and drug-induced motor disorders in the orofacial region. The article provides a list of medications reported to cause drug-related extrapyramidal motor activity above and beyond the more commonly known antipsychotics medications. It provides a needed update because the number and use of medications causing involuntary jaw muscle activity are increasing. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), stimulant medications and illegal drugs have all been reported to induce an orofacial motor activation as adverse reactions. This article also discusses briefly the genetic and traumatic events associated with spontaneous dystonia. Finally, this article presents an approach for management of the orofacial motor disorders that involves the following three steps: (1) collect a full clinical history and examination, including magnetic resonance imaging of the brain; (2) after ruling out CNS disease, adverse medications reactions and local pathology, try one or more of the motor-suppressive medications that may be helpful in these cases (e.g., cholinergic receptor antagonizers or blockers, and GABA-ergic including benzodiazepines); and (3) if the disorder is severe enough and focal enough to consider, and motor-suppressive medications are not adequate, then consider botulinum toxin injections. The contraindications, side effects, and usual approach for these medications and injections are discussed.

  12. Sensory tricks and brain excitability in cervical dystonia: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Amadio, Stefano; Houdayer, Elise; Bianchi, Francesca; Tesfaghebriel Tekle, Habtom; Urban, Ivan Pietro; Butera, Calogera; Guerriero, Roberta; Cursi, Marco; Leocani, Letizia; Comi, Giancarlo; Del Carro, Ubaldo

    2014-08-01

    Sensory tricks such as touching the face with fingertips often improve cervical dystonia [CD]. This study is to determine whether sensory tricks modulate motor cortex excitability, assessed by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation [p-pTMS]. Eight patients with rotational CD underwent p-pTMS, at rest and when the sensory trick was applied. To test intracortical inhibition [ICI] and facilitation [ICF], the amplitude ratio between co