Kissoon, Narayan R; Watson, James C; Boes, Christopher J; Kantarci, Orhun H
Background The association of trigeminal neuralgia with pontine lesions has been well documented in multiple sclerosis, and we tested the hypothesis that occipital neuralgia in multiple sclerosis is associated with high cervical spinal cord lesions. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 29 patients diagnosed with both occipital neuralgia and demyelinating disease by a neurologist from January 2001 to December 2014. We collected data on demographics, clinical findings, presence of C2-3 demyelinating lesions, and treatment responses. Results The patients with both occipital neuralgia and multiple sclerosis were typically female (76%) and had a later onset (age > 40) of occipital neuralgia (72%). Eighteen patients (64%) had the presence of C2-3 lesions and the majority had unilateral symptoms (83%) or episodic pain (78%). All patients with documented sensory loss (3/3) had C2-3 lesions. Most patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (6/8) had C2-3 lesions. Of the eight patients with C2-3 lesions and imaging at onset of occipital neuralgia, five (62.5%) had evidence of active demyelination. None of the patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (3/3) responded to occipital nerve blocks or high dose intravenous steroids, whereas all of the other phenotypes with long term follow-up (eight patients) had good responses. Conclusions A cervical spine MRI should be considered in all patients presenting with occipital neuralgia. In patients with multiple sclerosis, clinical features in occipital neuralgia that were predictive of the presence of a C2-3 lesion were unilateral episodic symptoms, sensory loss, later onset of occipital neuralgia, and progressive multiple sclerosis phenotype. Clinical phenotype predicted response to treatment.
Albulaihe, Hana; Alabdali, Majed; Alsulaiman, Abdulla; Abraham, Alon; Breiner, Ari; Barnett, Carolina; Katzberg, Hans D; Lovblom, Leif E; Perkins, Bruce A; Bril, Vera
Evaluation of disease status in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is often done by a combination of clinical evaluation and electrodiagnostic studies. A CIDP disease activity status (CDAS) was developed to standardize outcomes in CIDP patients. We aimed to determine if the CDAS was concordant with classical evaluation and whether CDAS enables benchmarking of CIDP. We performed a retrospective chart review of 305 CIDP patients and identified 206 patients with >1 visit and applied the CDAS to this cohort. We examined relationships between the CDAS and classical evaluation as to outcomes and compared our cohort to other CIDP cohorts who had CDAS. We found that the CDAS mirrored disease severity as measured by electrophysiology and vibration perception thresholds in that CDAS class 5 had more severe neuropathy. Our results are similar to other cohorts in the middle CDAS strata with the exception of fewer subjects in CDAS 1 and more in CDAS 5. The only demographic factor predicting CDAS 5 in our cohort was age, and the overall treatment response rate using the CDAS classification was 79.3%. CDAS appears to have sufficient face-validity as a grading system to assess disease activity in relation to treatment status. The use of CDAS appears to allow benchmarking of patients with CIDP that may be useful in subject selection for clinical trials and also to highlight differences in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Carra, Adriana; de Castillo, Ibis Soto; Florentin, Sara; Diaz de Bedoya, Fernando Hamuy; Mandler, Raul; de Siervi, Luiza Campanella; Pimentel, Maria Lúcia Vellutini; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Alvarenga, Marcos Papais; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Gama Pereira, Ana Beatriz Calmon; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Velasquez, Carolina; Soublette, Carlos; Fleitas, Cynthia Veronica; Diniz, Denise Sisteroli; Armas, Elizabeth; Batista, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Freda; Pereira, Fernanda Ferreira Chaves da Costa; Siqueira, Heloise Helena; Cabeça, Hideraldo; Sanchez, Jose; Brooks, Joseph Bruno Bidin; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinicius; Barroso, Maria Cristina Del Negro; Ravelo, Maria Elena; Castillo, Maria Carlota; Ferreira, Maria Lúcia Brito; Rocha, Maria Sheila Guimarães; Parolin, Monica Koncke Fiuza; Molina, Omaira; Marinho, Patricia Beatriz Christino; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Brant de Souza, Renata; Pessanha Neto, Silvio; Camargo, Solange Maria das Graças; Machado, Suzana Costa; Neri, Vanderson Carvalho; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alvarenga, Helcio; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos
The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=<0.001). This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect
Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Carra, Adriana; de Castillo, Ibis Soto; Florentin, Sara; Diaz de Bedoya, Fernando Hamuy; Mandler, Raul; de Siervi, Luiza Campanella; Pimentel, Maria Lúcia Vellutini; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Papais Alvarenga, Marcos; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Gama Pereira, Ana Beatriz Calmon; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Velasquez, Carolina; Soublette, Carlos; Fleitas, Cynthia Veronica; Diniz, Denise Sisteroli; Armas, Elizabeth; Batista, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Freda; Pereira, Fernanda Ferreira Chaves da Costa; Siqueira, Heloise Helena; Cabeça, Hideraldo; Sanchez, Jose; Brooks, Joseph Bruno Bidin; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinicius; Barroso, Maria Cristina Del Negro; Ravelo, Maria Elena; Castillo, Maria Carlota; Ferreira, Maria Lúcia Brito; Rocha, Maria Sheila Guimarães; Parolin, Monica Koncke Fiuza; Molina, Omaira; Marinho, Patricia Beatriz Christino; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Brant de Souza, Renata; Pessanha Neto, Silvio; Camargo, Solange Maria das Graças; Machado, Suzana Costa; Neri, Vanderson Carvalho; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alvarenga, Helcio; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos
The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients’ demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=<0.001). This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect
Rajabally, Y A; Cassereau, J; Robbe, A; Nicolas, G
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) may have variable evolution profiles, which have not been compared between cohorts. The relationship of disease status with motor strength, function and electrophysiology is uncertain. Disease status was studied with a simplified proposed scale in two patient cohorts totalling 72 subjects from Leicester, U.K., and Angers, France. Clinical and electrophysiological records were analysed. Independent ascertainment of disease status in each cohort revealed similar rates of remission (P = 0.23), stable/improving disease (P = 0.34) and unstable/active disease (P = 1). No correlation was ascertained with strength or function. Median nerve compound muscle action potential was the only independent electrophysiological predictor of disease status ascertained (P = 0.046). Disease status distribution may represent an important comparative indicator for management of CIDP cohorts and could be useful for benchmarking service and treatment provision. Degree of upper limb motor axonal loss may represent a useful electrophysiological marker of disease status in CIDP. © 2015 EAN.
Kim, Suji; Kang, Seok-Jae; Oh, Ki-Wook; Ahn, Byung Kyu; Lee, Hang Lak; Han, Dong Soo; Jang, Kiseok; Kim, Young Seo
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare complication of Crohn's disease (CD), and it is uncertain whether it is associated with CD itself or with its treatment. We describe a case of CIDP-like neuropathy as an initial symptom of CD. The neurologic symptoms of the patient which responded partially to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) recovered after resection of the appendiceal CD. A 17-year-old male had experienced three separate attacks of motor weakness and paresthesia of all four extremities over a period of 7 months. The electrophysiologic findings revealed a demyelinating sensory-motor polyneuropathy which was compatible with CIDP. However, repeated intravenous IVIG (2 g/kg) treatment gave only a partial response. Four days after the last discharge, he was diagnosed as appendiceal CD after surgical resection of a periappendiceal abscess. His neurologic symptoms and electrophysiologic findings recovered without any maintenance therapy. CIDP-like neuropathy can be an initial presentation of CD, and recovery of the CIDP symptoms may result from resection of the CD. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of CD in patients with intractable CIDP symptoms.
Gabreëls-Festen, A A; Hageman, A T; Gabreëls, F J; Joosten, E M; Renier, W O; Weemaes, C M; ter Laak, H J
A familial occurrence of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is reported. The diagnostic problems in distinguishing the progressive form of this disease in childhood from hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy types I and III are discussed. Criteria for a definite diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are proposed. Images PMID:3456424
Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.
Opinion statement Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. Most clinical neurologists will be involved in the management of patients with these disorders, and should be familiar with available therapies for CIDP. We review the distinctive clinical, laboratory, and electro-diagnostic features that aid in diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of clinical patterns that define treatment responsiveness and the most appropriate therapies in order to improve prognosis. PMID:23564314
Fujisawa, Miwako; Sano, Yasuteru; Omoto, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Jyun-Ichi; Koga, Michiaki; Takashima, Hiroshi; Kanda, Takashi
We report a 59-year-old Japanese male who developed gradually worsening weakness and numbness of distal four extremities since age 50. His parents were first cousins, and blood and cerebral spinal examinations were unremarkable. Homozygous mutation of MME gene was detected and thus he was diagnosed as autosomal-recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2T (AR-CMT2T); however, electrophysiological examinations revealed scattered demyelinative changes including elongated terminal latency in several peripheral nerve trunks. Sural nerve biopsy showed endoneurial edema and a lot of thinly myelinated nerve fibers with uneven distribution of remnant myelinated fibers within and between fascicles. Immunoglobulin treatment was initiated considering the possibility of superimposed inflammation and demyelination, and immediate clinical as well as electrophysiological improvements were noted. Our findings indicate that AR-CMT2T caused by MME mutation predisposes to a superimposed inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy. This is the first report which documented the co-existence of CMT2 and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP); however, in the peripheral nervous system, neprilysin, a product of MME gene, is more abundant in myelin sheath than in axonal component. The fragility of myelin sheath due to mutated neprilysin may trigger the detrimental immune response against peripheral myelin in this patient.
Balke, M; Wunderlich, G; Brunn, A; Fink, G R; Lehmann, H C
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic progressive or relapsing autoimmune neuropathy with heterogeneous clinical presentation. Symptoms typically include symmetrical, proximal and/or distal paresis and sensory loss. Atypical CIDP variants are increasingly recognized, including subtypes with rapid onset as well as variants with pure sensory, focal or marked asymmetrical deficits. Diagnosis is established by compatible symptoms, characteristic electrophysiological features and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. In unequivocal cases, inflammatory infiltrates in sural nerve biopsy support the diagnosis. Recent studies suggest that diagnostic imaging techniques such as MRI and nerve ultrasound may become useful tools for establishing the diagnosis. First-line therapies include immunoglobulines, steroids, and plasmapheresis. Immunosuppressant agents and monoclonal antibodies are used in therapy-refractory cases or as cortison-saving agents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lewis, Richard A
As a syndrome with typical and atypical cases, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has been a difficult disorder to diagnose and treat. The pathophysiologic basis for CIDP has not been established, contributing to the challenges in dealing with these patients. However, as one of only a handful of treatable peripheral neuropathies, there has been a tendency to diagnose CIDP to attempt a therapeutic intervention. We are also aware that there has also been overtreatment of some patients. This combination of overdiagnosis and prolonged treatment has been a concern. This chapter will review these challenges and discuss recent findings that will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. The factors leading to misdiagnosis of CIDP were explored in a cohort of patients referred to a neuromuscular center. On a more positive note, the identification of two disorders with antibodies directed at paranodal constituents has excited the field. Treatment options have increased and been clarified. Pulse corticosteroids have been compared with oral prednisone and with intravenous immunoglobulin. The clinical trial of subcutaneous immunoglobulin in CIDP has shown both efficacy and a very low side effect profile adding to our therapeutic options. The current review will identify recent developments that show both the challenges and the exciting growth in our ability to diagnose and treat CIDP.
Haliloğlu, Göknur; Yüksel, Deniz; Temoçin, Cağri Mesut; Topaloğlu, Haluk
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, a treatable immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system is less common in childhood compared to adults. Despite different sets of diagnostic criteria, lack of a reliable biologic marker leads to challenges in diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. Our first aim was to review clinical presentation, course, response to treatment, and prognosis in our childhood patients. We also aimed to document diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls and challenges at the bedside. Our original cohort consisted of 23 pediatric patients who were referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy. Seven patients reaching to an alternative diagnosis were excluded. In the remaining patients, diagnostic, treatment and follow-up data were compared in typical patients who satisfied both clinical and electrodiagnostic criteria and atypical patients who failed to meet minimal research chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy electrodiagnostic requirements. Eight of 16 patients (50%) met the minimal chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy research diagnostic requirements. There was only a statistically significant difference (p = 0.010) in terms of European Neuromuscular Centre childhood chronic inflammatory diagnostic mandatory clinical criteria between the two groups. Misdiagnosis due to errors in electrophysiological interpretation (100%, n = 8), cerebrospinal fluid cytoalbuminologic dissociation (100%, n = 4 and/or subjective improvement on any immunotherapy modality (80 ± 19.27%)) was frequent. Pediatric CIDP is challenging in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls at the bedside. Diagnostic errors due to electrophysiological interpretation, cerebrospinal fluid cytoalbuminologic dissociation, and/or subjective improvement on immunotherapy should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi
Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased
Izadi, Sadegh; Karamimagham, Sina; Poursadeghfard, Maryam
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy is an autoimmune disease with progressive and relapsing courses. The main clinical presentations are diffuse deep tendon hyporeflexia or areflexia and symmetric proximal-distal muscles weakness. Myasthenia gravis is also an immune mediated disease with fluctuating ocular and bulbar symptoms and sometimes weakness. Although both myasthenia gravis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are immune mediated disorders, clinical presentations are obviously different in the two diseases. Herein, we will report a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy who presented with isolated unilateral ptosis. Initially, the patient was managed as ocular type of myasthenia gravis, but after progression to general limb weakness and areflexia, the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy was made. Although unilateral ptosis is a typical feature of myasthenia gravis, it may be seen as the first presentation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as well which mimics myasthenia gravis disease.
Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B.; Kiernan, Matthew C.
Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased
Rajabally, Yusuf A
This article focuses on the unconventional treatments used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). First line, evidence-based treatments for CIDP include corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and plasma exchanges. Several unproven treatments are however given in treatment-refractory disease or to reduce requirements in validated therapies for reasons of side effects/practical delivery/cost. Despite methodological issues, IFN-α, azathioprine and methotrexate have not been shown to be useful in randomized controlled trials. Cyclophosphamide, rituximab and, as final resort in highly selected cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplant may be options considered in severely disabled refractory patients. Debatably, azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil are still occasionally used, among others, in milder disease. Physical therapy may be of benefit in CIDP but is not systematically considered as an integral part of management strategies. Current literature relating to unconventional therapies in CIDP is reviewed here and the possible avenues that require consideration in severe refractory disease and less disabling forms are discussed.
Ware, Tyson L; Kornberg, Andrew J; Rodriguez-Casero, M Victoria; Ryan, Monique M
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a rare condition in children. In this article, we report our experience in the management of 10 cases of childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a single center, in the era of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genetic microarray, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy disease activity status. Robust neurophysiologic abnormalities were present in all cases and both MRI and lumbar puncture were useful adjuncts in diagnosis. Genetic microarray is a simple technique useful in excluding the most common hereditary demyelinating neuropathy. Intravenous immunoglobulin was an effective first-line therapy in most cases, with refractory cases responding to corticosteroids and rituximab. We found the chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy disease activity status useful for assessing outcome at final follow-up, whereas the modified Rankin score was better for assessing peak motor disability.
Puttini, Stefania; Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Mermod, Nicolas; Renaud, Susanne; Steck, Andreas J; Kuntzer, Thierry
Chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated disease with no known biomarkers for diagnosing the disease or assessing its prognosis. We performed transcriptional profiling microarray analysis on skin punch biopsies from 20 CIDP patients and 17 healthy controls to identify disease-associated gene expression changes. We demonstrate changes in expression of genes involved in immune and chemokine regulation, growth and repair. We also found a combination of two upregulated genes that can be proposed as a novel biomarker of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ayrignac, Xavier; Viala, Karine; Koutlidis, Régine Morizot; Taïeb, Guillaume; Stojkovic, Tanya; Musset, Lucille; Léger, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Emmanuel; Maisonobe, Thierry; Bouche, Pierre
Sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) can be difficult to diagnose. We report 22 patients with chronic sensory polyneuropathy with ≥1 clinical sign atypical for chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) but no electrodiagnostic criteria for CIDP. Clinical signs atypical for CIAP were: sensory ataxia (59%), generalized areflexia (36%), cranial nerve involvement (32%), rapid upper limb involvement (40%), and age at onset ≤55 years (50%). Additional features were: normal sensory nerve action potentials (36%), abnormal radial/normal sural pattern (23%), abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) (100%), elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein (73%), and demyelinating features in 5/7 nerve biopsies. Over 90% of patients responded to immunotherapy. We conclude that all patients had sensory CIDP. Sensory CIDP patients can be misdiagnosed as having CIAP. If atypical clinical/electrophysiologic features are present, we recommend performing SSEPs and CSF examination. Nerve biopsy should be restricted to disabled patients if other examinations are inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cao, Yiming; Menon, Parvathi; Ching-Fen Chang, Florence; Mahant, Neil; Geevasinga, Nimeshan; Fung, Victor S C; Vucic, Steve
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) typically presents with a combination of sensory and motor impairments. Tremor is recognized as a common and debilitating feature in CIDP, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Clinical tremor severity and disability scores were collected prospectively in 25 CIDP patients and compared with 22 neuromuscular controls. Postural and kinetic tremor were significantly more frequent in CIDP patients (80%) than in neuromuscular controls (35%; P < 0.005). Tremor severity and tremor-related disability were also significantly greater in CIDP patients than in controls. Accelerometry data confirmed the presence of a 5.5 Hz postural tremor and a 5 Hz kinetic tremor. Tremor appears to be a common clinical feature of CIDP that results in significant disability. Sensory and motor impairment may be associated with development of tremor in CIDP. Muscle Nerve 55: 338-343, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Singhal, Neel S; Irodenko, Viktoriya S; Margeta, Marta; Layzer, Robert B
Sarcoid polyneuropathy is a rare and clinically heterogeneous disorder that may be the initial presentation of sarcoidosis. We report the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathological findings of a patient who carried a diagnosis of sensory-predominant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) for over a decade but was ultimately found to have sarcoid polyneuropathy. A 36-year-old man presented with a several-week history of gait difficulty and muscle cramps. He had a diagnosis of CIDP but had not received lasting benefit from steroid-sparing immunosuppressive drugs. Electrodiagnostic studies were consistent with a chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with conduction blocks. After he developed systemic symptoms, tissue biopsies revealed granulomatous disease. Symptoms improved with steroid therapy. Sarcoid polyneuropathy presents a diagnostic challenge, but, in patients with atypical neuropathy, characteristic systemic symptoms, or a poor response to standard treatment, nerve and muscle biopsies can help diagnose this treatable disorder. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ultrasonographic nerve enlargement of the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots in patients with demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: distinction from patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.
Sugimoto, Takamichi; Ochi, Kazuhide; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ueno, Hiroki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Nagano, Yoshito; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu
Demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are both demyelinating polyneuropathies. The differences in nerve enlargement degree and pattern at multiple evaluation sites/levels are not well known. We investigated the differences in nerve enlargement degree and the distribution pattern of nerve enlargement in patients with demyelinating CMT and CIDP, and verified the appropriate combination of sites/levels to differentiate between these diseases. Ten patients (aged 23-84 years, three females) with demyelinating CMT and 16 patients (aged 30-85 years, five females) with CIDP were evaluated in this study. The nerve sizes were measured at 24 predetermined sites/levels from the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots (CNR) using ultrasonography. The evaluation sites/levels were classified into three regions: distal, intermediate and cervical. The number of sites/levels that exhibited nerve enlargement (enlargement site number, ESN) in each region was determined from the 24 sites/levels and from the selected eight screening sites/levels, respectively. The cross-sectional areas of the peripheral nerves were markedly larger at all evaluation sites in patients with demyelinating CMT than in patients with CIDP (p < 0.01). However, the nerve sizes of CNR were not significantly different between patients with either disease. When we evaluated ESN of four selected sites for screening from the intermediate region, the sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between demyelinating CMT and CIDP were 0.90 and 0.94, respectively, with the cut-off value set at four. Nerve ultrasonography is useful to detect nerve enlargement and can clarify morphological differences in nerves between patients with demyelinating CMT and CIDP.
Dong, Chaoling; Greathouse, Kelsey M; Beacham, Rebecca L; Palladino, Steven P; Helton, E Scott; Ubogu, Eroboghene E
The molecular determinants of pathogenic leukocyte migration across the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) are unknown. Specific disease modifying therapies for CIDP are also lacking. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 (FNCS1), an alternatively spliced fibronectin variant expressed by microvascular endothelial cells at sites of inflammation in vitro and in situ, is a counterligand for leukocyte α 4 integrin (also known as CD49d) implicated in pathogenic leukocyte trafficking in multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. We sought to determine the role of FNCS1 in CIDP patient leukocyte trafficking across the BNB in vitro and in severe chronic demyelinating neuritis in vivo using a representative spontaneous murine CIDP model. Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from 7 untreated CIDP patients were independently infused into a cytokine-treated, flow-dependent in vitro BNB model system. Time-lapse digital video microscopy was performed to visualize and quantify leukocyte trafficking, comparing FNCS1 peptide blockade to relevant controls. Fifty 24-week old female B7-2 deficient non-obese diabetic mice with spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy (SAPP) were treated daily with 2mg/kg FNCS1 peptide for 5days via intraperitoneal injection with appropriate controls. Neurobehavioral measures of disease severity, motor nerve electrophysiology assessments and histopathological quantification of inflammation and morphometric assessment of demyelination were performed to determine in vivo efficacy. The biological relevance of FNCS1 and CD49d in CIDP was evaluated by immunohistochemical detection in affected patient sural nerve biopsies. 25μM FNCS1 peptide maximally inhibited CIDP leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB in vitro. FNCS1 peptide treatment resulted in significant improvements in disease severity, motor electrophysiological parameters of demyelination and histological measures of
Mathey, Emily K; Park, Susanna B; Hughes, Richard A C; Pollard, John D; Armati, Patricia J; Barnett, Michael H; Taylor, Bruce V; Dyck, P James B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy S-Y
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an inflammatory neuropathy, classically characterised by a slowly progressive onset and symmetrical, sensorimotor involvement. However, there are many phenotypic variants, suggesting that CIDP may not be a discrete disease entity but rather a spectrum of related conditions. While the abiding theory of CIDP pathogenesis is that cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves, the relative contributions of T cell and autoantibody responses remain largely undefined. In animal models of spontaneous inflammatory neuropathy, T cell responses to defined myelin antigens are responsible. In other human inflammatory neuropathies, there is evidence of antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin or nodal antigens. In this review, the roles of the cellular and humoral immune systems in the pathogenesis of CIDP will be discussed. In time, it is anticipated that delineation of clinical phenotypes and the underlying disease mechanisms might help guide diagnostic and individualised treatment strategies for CIDP. PMID:25677463
Schady, W; Goulding, P J; Lecky, B R; King, R H; Smith, C M
OBJECTIVE: To report three patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) presenting with symptoms suggestive of cervical (one patient) and lumbar root disease. METHODS: Nerve conduction studies, EMG, and nerve biopsy were carried out, having found the nerve roots to be very enlarged on MRI, CT myelography, and at surgery. RESULTS: Clinically, peripheral nerve thickening was slight or absent. Subsequently one patient developed facial nerve hypertrophy. This was mistaken for an inner ear tumour and biopsied, with consequent facial palsy. Neurophysiological tests suggested a demyelinating polyneuropathy. Sural nerve biopsy showed in all cases some loss of myelinated fibres, inflammatory cell infiltration, and a few onion bulbs. Hypertrophic changes were much more prominent on posterior nerve root biopsy in one patient: many fibres were surrounded by several layers of Schwann cell cytoplasm. There was an excellent response to steroids in two patients but not in the third (most advanced) patient, who has benefited only marginally from intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. CONCLUSIONS: MRI of the cauda equina may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of CIDP. Images PMID:8971116
Damjan, Igor; Cvijanović, Milan; Erak, Marko
Polyneuropathies or peripheral neuropathies present a dysfunction or disease of larger number of peripheral nerves or their dysfunction. Considering their morbidity - mortality characteristics they present an important aspect in daily clinical practice. One particular polyneuropathy that deserves special review is chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, which, due to its clinical-laboratory presentation, does not include the group of "simple" neuropathies, thus requiring further examinations. Neurophysiological testing should be performed using the protocol for neuropathy examinations. Neurophysiological examination, during the electroneurographic examination, shows neurographic parameters referring to polyneuropatic demyelinating type of lesion, while the electromyographic finding records the presence of neuropathic lesions (denervation activity, great action potentials with a reduced sample). A 54-year-old patient was diagnosed to have a "complicated" demyelinating polyneuropathy according to the clinical-laboratory findings and electromyographic examination. Exclusion criteria, targeted diagnostic examinations, considering the mentioned peripheral neuropathies, pointed to acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. However, the chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy was finally differentiated during the clinical and electromyographic monitoring.
Miura, Yumako; Devaux, Jérôme J; Fukami, Yuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi; Yuki, Nobuhiro
A Spanish group recently reported that four patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy carrying IgG4 autoantibodies against contactin 1 showed aggressive symptom onset and poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin. We aimed to describe the clinical and serological features of Japanese chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients displaying the anti-contactin 1 antibodies. Thirteen of 533 (2.4%) patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy had anti-contactin 1 IgG4 whereas neither patients from disease or normal control subjects did (P = 0.02). Three of 13 (23%) patients showed subacute symptom onset, but all of the patients presented with sensory ataxia. Six of 10 (60%) anti-contactin 1 antibody-positive patients had poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas 8 of 11 (73%) antibody-positive patients had good response to corticosteroids. Anti-contactin 1 IgG4 antibodies are a possible biomarker to guide treatment option. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Quan, Weiwei; Xia, Junhui; Tong, Qiuling; Lin, Jie; Zheng, Xiaolu; Yang, Xuezhi; Xie, Dewei; Weng, Yiyun; Zhang, Xu
To investigate the clinical character, diagnosis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy accompanying myasthenia gravis so as to improve the understanding of such diseases. A case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy combined with myasthenia gravis were analyzed retrospectively with review of the literature. This man was presented with chronic progressive sensory symptoms, flaccid tetraparesis, areflexia and protein-cell dissociation of cerebrospinal fluid. Nerve conduction study was indicative of demyelinating neuropathy. He was suspected as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and treated with high-dose glucocorticoids. However, his condition worsened. Four months later, he was admitted and was diagnosed as combination of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and myasthenia gravis. Good clinical results were observed after he was treated with pyridostigmine bromide, prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil. This case warns clinicians to be aware of these two diseases presenting in the same patient, and the possible implications on treatment choices. A common immunological abnormality might exist in this rare association, but it still remains unknown.
Murata, Ken-ya; Ishiguchi, Hiroshi; Ando, Ryuki; Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi
We report a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Except for minimal biochemical abnormalities, clinical symptoms of PBC were not observed, and we diagnosed our patient with asymptomatic PBC from the results of a liver biopsy. Although the patient noticed little muscle weakness, an electrophysiological study demonstrated slow conduction velocities and prolonged distal latencies, with definite conduction blocks in the median, ulnar, and tibial nerves. The disturbed sensory pattern was asymmetrical, and sensory nerve action potentials were not evoked. From these observations, we diagnosed this patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neuropathy associated with PBC is very rare. We must differentiate demyelinating neuropathy with PBC in patients with asymmetrical sensory dominant neuropathy with high immunoglobulin M titers, and investigate for the presence of anti-mitochondrial antibodies to rule out a complication of asymptomatic PBC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peltier, Amanda C.; Donofrio, Peter D.
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common treatable chronic autoimmune neuropathy. Multiple diagnostic criteria have been established, with the primary goal of identifying neurophysiologic hallmarks of acquired demyelination. Treatment modalities have expanded to include numerous immuno-modulatory therapies, although the best evidence continues to be for corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). This review describes the pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CIDP. PMID:23117943
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune mediated disorder of the peripheral nervous system with clinical features that include weakness, sensory loss, imbalance, pain and impaired ambulation which may lead to substantial disability. This review highlights current treatment strategies for CIDP, how best to utilize proven therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin, oral prednisone, pulse dexamethasone, and plasma exchange, and when and how to use alternative immunosuppressive agents when first-line therapies are ineffective or poorly tolerated. PMID:23139706
Bril, Vera; Blanchette, Christopher M; Noone, Joshua M; Runken, M Chris; Gelinas, Deborah; Russell, James W
We reviewed the literature on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and explored real-world data on the prevalence and treatment of CIDP within DM. A literature search of Scopus was performed for the terms chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, CIDP, and prevalence, incidence, epidemiology, or diabetes; peripheral neuropathy and prevalence or diabetes. We also searched through the reference lists of the resulting publications for additional findings that may have been missed. Additional publications on guidelines for the diagnosis of CIDP and diabetic neuropathy were also included. A descriptive analysis of the 2009-2013 PharMetrics Plus™ Database was performed to estimate the prevalence and treatment of CIDP within the DM population. There is an increasing body of literature suggesting that the prevalence of CIDP tends to be higher in diabetic patients, especially in those of older age. Our real-world data seem to support published findings from the literature. For the total cohort (N=101,321,694), the percent prevalence of CIDP (n=8,173) was 0.008%; DM (n=4,026,740) was 4%. The percent prevalence of CIDP without DM (n=5,986) was 0.006%; CIDP with DM (n=2,187) was 9-fold higher at 0.054%. For patients >50years old, there was a significantly higher percentage of CIDP with DM than CIDP without DM. Approximately 50% of CIDP patients were treated with IVIg, 23%-24% with steroids, 1%-2% with PE, and 20%-23% received no treatment. In addition to the growing evidence of higher prevalence of CIDP in DM, our findings reinforce the need for heightened awareness of the association of CIDP and DM. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bril, Vera; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Noone, Joshua M.; Runken, M. Chris; Gelinas, Deborah; Russell, James W.
Purpose We reviewed the literature on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and explored real-world data on the prevalence and treatment of CIDP within DM. Methods: A literature search of Scopus was performed for the terms chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, CIDP, and prevalence, incidence, epidemiology, or diabetes; peripheral neuropathy and prevalence or diabetes. We also searched through the reference lists of the resulting publications for additional findings that may have been missed. Additional publications on guidelines for the diagnosis of CIDP and diabetic neuropathy were also included. A descriptive analysis of the 2009–2013 PharMetrics Plus™ Database was performed to estimate the prevalence and treatment of CIDP within the DM population. Results There is an increasing body of literature suggesting that the prevalence of CIDP tends to be higher in diabetic patients, especially in those of older age. Our real-world data seem to support published findings from the literature. For the total cohort (N = 101,321,694), the percent prevalence of CIDP (n = 8,173) was 0.008%; DM (n = 4,026,740) was 4%. The percent prevalence of CIDP without DM (n = 5,986) was 0.006%; CIDP with DM (n = 2,187) was 9-fold higher at 0.054%. For patients >50 years old, there was a significantly higher percentage of CIDP with DM than CIDP without DM. Approximately 50% of CIDP patients were treated with IVIg, 23%–24% with steroids, 1%–2% with PE, and 20%–23% received no treatment. Conclusions In addition to the growing evidence of higher prevalence of CIDP in DM, our findings reinforce the need for heightened awareness of the association of CIDP and DM. PMID:27389526
Chang, Chun-Wei; Wu, Hsiu-Chuan; Lyu, Rong-Kuo; Lo, Yen-Shi; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Ro, Long-Sun; Chang, Hong-Shiu; Huang, Ching-Chang; Liao, Ming-Feng; Wu, Yih-Ru; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Chu, Chun-Che; Weng, Yi-Ching; Wei, Pei-Tsi; Lo, Ai-Lun; Chang, Kuo-Hsuan
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired, or non-hereditary, chronic demyelinating neuropathy. Currently, there is no reliable molecular biomarker that can identify CIDP patients as well as monitor disease severity. We measured serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a factors involved in vasoconstrictive, inflammatory and nerve regenerative processes, in 20 CIDP, 21 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), 37 multiple sclerosis (MS), and 10 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, as well as 26 healthy control (HC) subjects. Patients with CIDP demonstrated higher serum levels of ET-1 (2.07±1.07pg/mL) than those with AIDP (0.75±0.62ng/mL, P<0.001), AD (0.78±0.49pg/mL, P<0.001), as well as HCs (1.16±0.63pg/mL, P=0.002), while levels of ET-1 in patients with MS (2.10±0.81pg/mL) and CIDP were similar. Furthermore, the serum ET-1 levels significantly correlated with Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause And Treatment (INCAT) disability scale in CIDP patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed good discrimination ability for ET-1 to distinguish CIDP patients from AIDP (AUC=0.883) or HCs (AUC=0.763). This study discloses the potential of serum ET-1 as a biomarker for CIDP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hirotani, Makoto; Nakano, Hitoshi; Ura, Shigehisa; Yoshida, Kazuto; Niino, Masaaki; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao
Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), though widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, may be associated with the occurrence of autoimmune disorders. In this case report, a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) after the initiation of IFN-alpha therapy. The neurological symptoms of this patient continued to progress even though the treatment with IFN-alpha had been withdrawn; the symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. This case may therefore provide an important clue to understand the immune mechanism of CIDP and IFN-alpha.
Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Satoh, Mamoru; Mori, Masahiro; Kazami, Takahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Ishibashi, Masumi; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kado, Sayaka; Kodera, Yoshio; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi
To identify the target molecules of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), we used proteomic-based approach in the extracted proteins from porcine cauda equina. Two of 31 CIDP patients had markedly elevated serum autoantibodies against vinculin, a cell adhesion protein. Both of the patients with anti-vinculin antibodies had similar clinical manifestation, which are compatible with those of "typical" CIDP. Immunocytochemistry showed that vinculin was stained at the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerves by serum samples. Our results suggest that vinculin is a possible immunological target molecule in a subpopulation of typical CIDP patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lim, Jia Pei; Devaux, Jérôme; Yuki, Nobuhiro
Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Whereas autoantibodies to GM1 or GD1a induce the development of acute motor axonal neuropathy, pathogenic autoantibodies have yet to be identified in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This review highlights the importance of autoantibodies to peripheral nerve proteins in the physiopathology of acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. Moreover, we listed up other potential antigens, which may become helpful biomarkers for acquired, dysimmune demyelinating neuropathies based on their critical functions during myelination and their implications in hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abraham, Hrudya; Kuzhively, Jose; Rizvi, Syed W.
Patient: Female, 40 Final Diagnosis: Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Symptoms: Gait disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report a case of SLE presenting as CIDP and discuss the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of CIDP. Case Report: A 40-year-old woman with a past medical history of SLE treated with hydroxychloroquine presented with bilateral, progressive, ascending, sensory and motor neuropathy. Physical examination showed weakness and reduced temperature of all extremities, reduced pinprick and vibration sense of the distal extremities, loss of reflexes, and walking with a wide-based unsteady gait. Laboratory investigations showed positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-(smooth muscle (SM) antibody, anti-RNP antibody, anti-SSA antibody, anti-ds-DNA antibody, and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 75 mm/hr, low C4, leukopenia, and anemia. Electromyography (EMG) confirmed the diagnosis of CIDP. The patient’s neuropathy and muscle weakness improved on treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and high-dose steroids. Conclusions: The early clinical diagnosis of CIDP, supported by serological autoantibody profiles associated with SLE, can predict a good response to steroids. Most patients with CIDP are treated successfully with steroids if the diagnosis is made early. IVIG, plasmapheresis, or immunosuppressive therapy should be considered if there is no response to steroids. PMID:28894082
Shah, Akshay; Rison, Richard A; Beydoun, Said R
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a progressive demyelinating neuropathy, which typically presents with proximal and distal neuropathic symptoms and is typically responsive to immunomodulatory therapies. Many variants have been subsequently described in the literature and have similarly shown to be responsive to immunotherapy. We present a case of a 43-year-old Middle Eastern/Arabic man presenting with symptoms of mixed sensorimotor neuropathy most evident at entrapment sites mimicking hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. His electrodiagnostic study revealed features of acquired demyelinating neuropathy and a negative genetic workup. Alternative diagnosis of CIDP was considered in the context of symptomatic disease progression, negative genetic workup, and electrodiagnosis leading to initiation of immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulins. His neuropathy responded confirming our diagnosis of an inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. We describe a previously unknown variant of CIDP with phenotypic characteristics of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and its potential for successful treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of CIDP mimicking hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.
Alessandro, Lucas; Pastor Rueda, José M; Wilken, Miguel; Querol Gutiérrez, Luis A; Marrodán, Mariano; Acosta, Julián N; Rivero, Alberto; Barroso, Fabio; Farez, Mauricio F
Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (AIDP) and Acute-onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (A-CIDP) are conditions presenting overlapping clinical features during early stages (first 4 weeks), although the latter may progress after 8 weeks. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors contributing to their differential diagnosis. Clinical records of adult patients with AIDP or A-CIDP diagnosed at our institution between January-2006 and July-2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) findings, treatment and clinical evolution were analyzed. Nerve conduction studies were performed in all patients with at least 12 months follow-up. A total of 91 patients were included (AIDP, n=77; A-CIDP, n=14). The median age was 55.5 years in patients with A-CIDP vs. 43 years in AIDP (p=0.07). The history of diabetes mellitus was more frequent in A-CIDP (29% vs. 8%, p=0.04). No significant differences between groups were observed with respect to: HIV status, presence of autoimmune disorder or oncologic disease. Cranial, motor and autonomic nerve involvement rates were similar in both groups. Patients in the A-CIDP group showed higher frequency of proprioceptive disturbances (83% vs. 28%; p<0.001), sensory ataxia (46% vs. 16%; p=0.01) and the use of combined immunotherapy with corticoids (29% vs. 3%; p=0.005). There were no significant differences in CSF findings, ICU admission or mortality rates. During the first 8 weeks both entities are practically indistinguishable. Alterations in proprioception could suggest A-CIDP. Searching for markers that allow early differentiation could favor the onset of corticotherapy without delay. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Lakshminarasimhan, Sindhuja; Venkatraman, Chandramouleeswaran; Vellaichamy, Kannan; Ranganathan, Lakshminarasimhan
A wave is a late response recognized during recording of F waves. Though they might be seen in healthy subjects, their presence assumes significance in a patient presenting with polyradiculoneuropathy. In this prospective study, 75 patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) were enrolled. They were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of A waves. Clinical features, electrophysiological parameters and extent of clinical recovery in short-term follow-up were analyzed. A waves were present in 49 out of 75 patients (65%). Most common pattern observed was multiple A waves. Prevalence of A waves was more in lower limb nerves than upper limb nerves. Occurrence of A waves correlated with the presence of conduction block. Patients with A waves had higher Hughes grade (P = 0.003) and lower Medical Research Council sum score at 6 weeks of follow-up (P = 0.04) as compared to patients without A waves. A waves are common in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy form of Guillain Barre syndrome and are considered as a marker of demyelination. Long-term follow-up studies are required to ascertain their significance in prognostication and assessing recovery.
Koutlidis, R M; Ayrignac, X; Pradat, P-F; Le Forestier, N; Léger, J-M; Salachas, F; Maisonobe, T; Fournier, E; Viala, K
Somatosensory-evoked potentials with segmental recordings were performed with the aim of distinguishing chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from other sensory neuropathies. Four groups of 20 subjects each corresponded to patients with (1) possible sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, (2) patients with sensory polyneuropathy of unknown origin, (3) patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and (4) normal subjects. The patients selected for this study had preserved sensory potentials on electroneuromyogram and all waves were recordable in evoked potentials. Somatosensory-evoked potentials evaluations were carried out by stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle, recording peripheral nerve potential in the popliteal fossa, radicular potential and spinal potential at the L4-L5 and T12 levels, and cortical at C'z, with determination of distal conduction time, proximal and radicular conduction time and central conduction time. In the group of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, 80% of patients had abnormal conduction in the N8-N22 segment and 95% had abnormal N18-N22 conduction time. In the group of neuropathies, distal conduction was abnormal in most cases, whereas 60% of patients had no proximal abnormality. None of the patients in the group of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had an abnormal N18-N22 conduction time. Somatosensory-evoked potentials with segmental recording can be used to distinguish between atypical sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and other sensory neuropathies, at the early stage of the disease. Graphical representation of segmental conduction times provides a rapid and accurate visualization of the profile of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ripellino, Paolo; Fleetwood, Thomas; Cantello, Roberto; Comi, Cristoforo
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, in which both cellular and humoral immune responses are involved. The disease is clinically heterogeneous with some patients displaying pure motor form and others also showing a variable degree of sensory dysfunction; disease evolution may also differ from patient to patient, since monophasic, progressive, and relapsing forms are reported. Underlying such clinical variability there is probably a broad spectrum of molecular dysfunctions that are and will be the target of therapeutic strategies. In this review we first explore the biological bases of current treatments and subsequently we focus on the practical management that must also take into account pharmacoeconomic issues. PMID:24527207
Mathis, Stéphane; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Magy, Laurent
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic immune-mediated neuropathy: it is clinically heterogeneous (relapsing-remitting form, chronic progressive form, monophasic form or CIDP having a Guillain-Barré syndrome-like onset), but potentially treatable. Although its pathophysiology remains largely unknown, CIDP is considered an immune-mediated neuropathy. Therefore, many immunotherapies have been proposed in this peripheral nervous system disorder, the most known efficient treatments being intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids and plasma exchange. However, these therapies remain unsatisfactory for many patients, so numerous other immunotherapeutic strategies have been evaluated, based on their immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory potency. We have performed a large review of the literature about treatment in CIDP, with a special emphasis on novel and alternative immunotherapeutic strategies.
Naddaf, Elie; Dispenzieri, Angela; Mandrekar, Jay; Mauermann, Michelle L
POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell disorder, and skin changes) syndrome may be mistaken for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Differentiating the 2 entities is crucial, as there are major treatment implications. We compared platelet counts in 136 POEMS patients and 67 CIDP controls. Of the patients with POEMS, 53.7% had thrombocytosis, compared with 1.5% of those with CIDP (P < 0.0001). The median platelet count in patients with POEMS was 467,000/μl compared with 275,000/μl in those with CIDP (P < 0.0001). Thrombocytosis is a helpful indicator to prompt clinicians to consider the diagnosis of POEMS syndrome in patients who are thought to have CIDP, and is an important reminder of the increased risk of thrombotic events in POEMS syndrome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Anastasopoulou, Stavroula; Lindefeldt, Marie; Bartocci, Marco; Wickström, Ronny
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), also known as Guillain-Barré syndrome, is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy usually triggered by infections or vaccinations. In childhood AIDP is commonly described after the first year of life. Here, we present a case of a newborn infant with AIDP manifestation directly after delivery. A newborn girl with a healthy mother, without known exposure to immunomodulating factors, was admitted to the neuropediatric department due to ascending hypotonia, weakness, pain and areflexia in the lower extremities. The clinical presentation, laboratory and neurophysiological studies supported the diagnosis of AIDP. The infant showed first signs of clinical improvement following administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and her recovery was complete at one year. AIDP should be considered as a differential diagnosis in ascending hypotonia also in the neonatal period. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rajabally, Yusuf A; Attarian, Shahram
A systematic review of the literature was performed on the association of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with malignancy. Hematological disorders are the most common association, particulalry non-Hodgkin lymphoma. CIDP frequently precedes the malignancy diagnosis, and there is a favorable CIDP response to treatment more than 70% of the time. Melanoma is the second most common association and may be accompanied by antiganglioside antibodies; CIDP shows a good response to immunotherapy. Other cancers are rare, with variable timings and presentations but good responses to immunomodulation and/or cancer therapy. Unusual neurological features such as ataxia, distal/upper limb predominance, or cranial/respiratory/autonomic involvement may suggest associated malignancy as may abdominal pain, diarrhea/constipation, poor appetite/weight loss, dermatological lesions, and lymphadenopathy. In the appropriate clinical and electrophysiological setting, CIDP associated with cancer should be considered. Immunomodulatory therapy, cancer treatment alone, or a combination may be effective. Muscle Nerve 57: 875-883, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Anadani, Mohammad; Katirji, Bashar
Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (A-CIDP) is an increasingly recognized CIDP subtype. Differentiating A-CIDP from Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is challenging but important, because there are different treatment outcomes. We report 3 patients with A-CIDP who were initially diagnosed with severe GBS but were later confirmed to have CIDP based on their clinical course and electrodiagnostic (EDx) studies. We also report on the long-term treatment of these patients and review the literature on EDx studies in this syndrome. Three patients were initially diagnosed with GBS and responded to treatment. However, all 3 had arrest in improvement or deterioration during their rehabilitation phases. EDx studies showed prominent demyelinating changes many months after the initial presentation. All responded very well to immunotherapy. Although several features may suggest the diagnosis of A-CIDP at initial presentation, close follow-up of GBS patients during the recovery phase is also needed for accurate diagnosis. EDx studies may distinguish patients with A-CIDP from GBS patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Missori, Paolo; Trompetto, Carlo; Fattapposta, Francesco
Introduction Polyneuropathy leads to postural instability and an increased risk of falling. We investigated how impaired motor impairment and proprioceptive input due to neuropathy influences postural strategies. Methods Platformless bisegmental posturography data were recorded in healthy subjects and patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Each subject stood on the floor, wore a head and a hip electromagnetic tracker. Sway amplitude and velocity were recorded and the mean direction difference (MDD) in the velocity vector between trackers was calculated as a flexibility index. Results Head and hip postural sway increased more in patients with CIDP than in healthy controls. MDD values reflecting hip strategies also increased more in patients than in controls. In the eyes closed condition MDD values in healthy subjects decreased but in patients remained unchanged. Discussion Sensori-motor impairment changes the balance between postural strategies that patients adopt to maintain upright quiet stance. Motor impairment leads to hip postural strategy overweight (eyes open), and prevents strategy re-balancing when the sensory context predominantly relies on proprioceptive input (eyes closed). PMID:26977594
Maggi, Pietro; Macri, Sheila M Cummings; Gaitán, María I; Leibovitch, Emily; Wholer, Jillian E; Knight, Heather L; Ellis, Mary; Wu, Tianxia; Silva, Afonso C; Massacesi, Luca; Jacobson, Steven; Westmoreland, Susan; Reich, Daniel S
Vascular permeability and inflammatory demyelination are intimately linked in the brain, but what is their temporal relationship? We aimed to determine the radiological correlates of the earliest tissue changes accompanying demyelination in a primate model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset. By 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), T1 maps, proton density, and T2-weighted images were acquired before and after EAE induction in 5 marmosets (every other week before lesions appeared, weekly thereafter). From scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast material, we measured the evolution of lesional blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, comparing in vivo MRI to postmortem tissue examination. On average, BBB permeability increased 3.5-fold (p < 0.0001) over the 4 weeks prior to lesion appearance. Permeability gradually decreased after lesion appearance, with attendant changes in the distribution of inflammatory cells (predominantly macrophages and microglia) and demyelination. On tissue analysis, we also identified small perivascular foci of microglia and T cells without blood-derived macrophages or demyelination. These foci had no visible MRI correlates, although permeability within the foci, but not outside, increased in the weeks before the animals died (p < 0.0001). This study provides compelling evidence that in marmoset EAE, which forms lesions strongly resembling those of MS, early changes in vascular permeability are associated with perivascular inflammatory cuffing and parenchymal microglial activation but precede the arrival of blood-derived monocytes that accompany demyelination. Prospective detection of transient permeability changes could afford an opportunity for early intervention to forestall tissue damage in newly forming lesions. © 2014 American Neurological Association.
Markvardsen, L H; Harbo, T; Sindrup, S H; Christiansen, I; Andersen, H; Jakobsen, J
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is superior to placebo treatment for maintenance of muscle strength during 12 weeks in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The present study evaluated whether SCIG preserves muscle strength for 1 year in an open-label follow-up study. Seventeen responders to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) who had participated in the previous study of SCIG versus placebo in CIDP were included. After one IVIG infusion 2 weeks prior to baseline, all continued on SCIG treatment at weekly equal dosage and were evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-points were changes in muscle strength evaluated by isokinetic dynamometry in four affected muscle groups and a composite score of muscle performance and function tests, including Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, 40-m walking test (40-MWT) and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Secondary end-points were changes of each of the listed parameters at each time point as well as an overall disability sum score (ODSS). The dose of SCIG was significantly unaltered during the follow-up period. Overall the isokinetic dynamometry value increased by 7.2% (P = 0.033) and after 3, 6 and 12 months by 5.7%, 8.2% and 6.8% (ns). The overall composite score at all time intervals and for each interval remained unchanged. Amongst the secondary parameters the MRC score increased significantly by 1.7% (P = 0.007), whereas grip strength, 40-MWT, 9-HPT and ODSS remained unchanged. SCIG preserves muscle strength and functional ability in patients with CIDP who previously responded to IVIG. SCIG should be considered as an alternative in long-term treatment of CIDP patients. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.
Lotan, I; Hellman, M A; Steiner, I
The possibility of co-association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has long been a focus of interest as well as of clinical significance. As CIDP is a potentially treatable condition, it is diagnosis in the context of DM is of great importance. However, diagnostic criteria to identify CIDP in patients with diabetes are not available. We propose a diagnostic tool that should help clinicians to decide what is the probability that a patient with diabetes might have CIDP. We list several clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory parameters that, when combined, have the power of discriminating an immune-mediated neuropathy in patients with DM. By summing the points assigned to each of these parameters, we define four levels of probability for a patient with diabetes to have CIDP. To analyze the validity of the diagnostic toll, we applied it in three different patient populations: (i) Patients with diabetes with peripheral neuropathy, (ii) Patients with CIDP without DM, and (iii) Patients with diabetes with CIDP. The scores of patients with diabetes without CIDP ranged from -7 to 2, while those of patients with DM-CIDP ranged from 2 to 20. The scores of non-diabetic patients with CIDP were similar to those of patients with DM-CIDP and ranged from 6 to 16. The mean score of patients with DM-CIDP was 9.083, while the score of patients with CIDP was 11.16 and that of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy was -3.59. These results show that this diagnostic tool is able to identify patients with diabetes with overlapping CIDP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maggi, Pietro; Cummings Macri, Sheila M.; Gaitán, María I.; Leibovitch, Emily; Wholer, Jillian E; Knight, Heather L.; Ellis, Mary; Wu, Tianxia; Silva, Afonso C.; Massacesi, Luca; Jacobson, Steven; Westmoreland, Susan; Reich, Daniel S.
Objective Vascular permeability and inflammatory demyelination are intimately linked in the brain, but what is their temporal relationship? We aimed to determine the radiological correlates of the earliest tissue changes accompanying demyelination in a primate model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset. Methods At 7 tesla MRI, T1 maps, proton density and T2-weighted images were acquired before and after EAE induction in 5 marmosets (every other week before lesions appeared, weekly thereafter). From scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast material, we measured the evolution of lesional blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability, comparing in vivo MRI to postmortem tissue examination. Results On average, BBB permeability increased 3.5 fold (p<0.0001) over the 4 weeks prior to lesion appearance. Permeability gradually decreased after lesion appearance, with attendant changes in the distribution of inflammatory cells (predominantly macrophages and microglia) and demyelination. On tissue analysis, we also identified small perivascular foci of microglia and T cells without blood-derived macrophages or demyelination. These foci had no visible MRI correlates, though permeability within the foci, but not outside, increased in the weeks before the animals died (p<0.0001). Interpretation This study provides compelling evidence that in marmoset EAE, which forms lesions strongly resembling those of MS, early changes in vascular permeability are associated with perivascular inflammatory cuffing and parenchymal microglial activation but precede the arrival of blood-derived monocytes that accompany demyelination. Prospective detection of transient permeability changes could afford an opportunity for early intervention to forestall tissue damage in newly forming lesions. PMID:25088017
Bonin, Serena; Zanotta, Nunzia; Sartori, Arianna; Bratina, Alessio; Manganotti, Paolo; Trevisan, Giusto; Comar, Manola
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in patients with particular neurologic disorders is a powerful tool to evaluate specific central nervous system inflammatory markers for diagnostic needs, because CSF represents the specific immune micro-environment to the central nervous system. CSF samples from 49 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and non-inflammatory neurologic disorders (NIND) as controls were submitted to protein expression profiles of 47 inflammatory biomarkers by multiplex Luminex bead assay to investigate possible differences in the inflammatory process for MS and CIDP. Our results showed differences in CSF cytokine levels in MS and CIDP; in particular, IL12 (p40) was significantly highly expressed in MS in comparison with CIDP and NIND, while SDF-1α and SCGF-β were significantly highly expressed in CIDP cohort when compared to MS and NIND. IL-9, IL-13, and IL-17 had higher expression levels in NIND if compared with the other groups. Our study showed that, despite some common pathogenic mechanisms, central and peripheral nervous system demyelinating diseases, such as MS and CIDP, differ in some specific inflammatory soluble proteins in CSF, underlining differences in the immune response involved in those autoimmune diseases.
Kerasnoudis, A; Pitarokoili, K; Behrendt, V; Gold, R; Yoon, M-S
We present the nerve ultrasound findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and examine their correlation with electrophysiology and functional disability. A total of 75 healthy controls and 48 CIDP patients underwent clinical, sonographic and electrophysiological evaluation a mean of 3.9 years(SD+/-2.7) after disease onset. Nerve ultrasound revealed statistically significant higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values of the median (P<.0001), ulnar (P<.0001), radial (P<.0001), tibial (P<.0001), fibular nerve(P<.0001) in most of the anatomic sites and brachial plexus (supraclavicular, P<.0001;interscalene space, P = .0118),when compared to controls. The electroneurography documented signs of permanent axonal loss in the majority of peripheral nerves. A correlation between sonographic and electrophysiological findings was found only between the motor conduction velocity and CSA of the tibial nerve at the ankle (r = -.451, P = .007). Neither nerve sonography nor electrophysiology correlated with functional disability. The CSA of the median nerve in carpal tunnel and the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal correlated with disease duration (P = .036, P = .027 respectively). CIDP seems to show inhomogenous CSA enlargement in brachial plexus and peripheral nerves, with weak correlation to electrophysiological findings. Neither nerve sonography nor electrophysiology correlated with functional disability in CIDP patients. Multicenter, prospective studies are required to proof the applicability and diagnostic values of these findings. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Voitenkov, Voitenkov Vladislav; Andrey, Klimkin; Natalia, Skripchenko; Anastasia, Aksenova
The diagnosis of polyneuropathy may be challenging at the early stages of the disease. Despite electromyography (EMG) efficacy in the establishment of polyneuropathy diagnosis, in some cases, results are dubious and neurophysiologists may implement additional techniques to ensure that conduction is affected. The aim of the study was to evaluate motor-evoked potential (MEP) characteristics in children with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). The study was conducted at a pediatric research and clinical center for infectious diseases. Twenty healthy children (7-14 years old) without signs of neurological disorders were enrolled as controls. Thirty-seven patients (8-13 years old) with AIDP were enrolled as the main group. EMG and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were performed on the 3 rd -7 th days from the onset of the first symptoms. Descriptive statistics and Student's t -test were used. Bonferroni method was applied to implement appropriate corrections for multiple comparisons. Significant differences between children with AIDP and controls on latencies of both cortical and lumbar MEPs were registered. Cortical MEP shapes were disperse in 100% of the cases and lumbar MEPs were disperse in 57% of the cases. Diagnostic TMS on the early stage of the AIDP in children may be implemented as the additional tool. The main finding in this population is lengthening of the latency of cortical and lumbar MEPs. Disperse shape of the lumbar MEPs may be used as the early sign of the acute demyelization.
Dunham, Jordon; van de Vis, Reinofke; Bauer, Jan; Wubben, Jacqueline; van Driel, Nikki; Laman, Jon D; 't Hart, Bert A; Kap, Yolanda S
Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated as a co-factor of tissue injury in inflammatory/demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models diverge from human demyelinating disorders with respect to limited oxidative injury, we observed that in a non-human primate (NHP) model for MS, namely EAE in the common marmoset, key pathological features of the disease were recapitulated, including oxidative tissue injury. Here, we investigated the presence of oxidative injury in another NHP EAE model, i.e. in rhesus macaques, which yields an acute demyelinating disease, which may more closely resemble acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) than MS. Rhesus monkey EAE diverges from marmoset EAE by abundant neutrophil recruitment into the CNS and destructive injury to white matter. This difference prompted us to investigate to which extent the oxidative pathway features elicited in MS and marmoset EAE are reflected in the acute rhesus monkey EAE model. The rhesus EAE brain was characterized by widespread demyelination and active lesions containing numerous phagocytic cells and to a lesser extent T cells. We observed induction of the oxidative stress pathway, including injury, with a predilection of p22phox expression in neutrophils and macrophages/microglia. In addition, changes in iron were observed. These results indicate that pathogenic mechanisms in the rhesus EAE model may differ from the marmoset EAE and MS brain due to the neutrophil involvement, but may in the end lead to similar induction of oxidative stress and injury.
Chang, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong; Kang, Joon Won; Lee, Young Mock; Kang, Hoon-Chul
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronically progressive or relapsing symmetric sensorimotor disorder presumed to occur because of immunologic antibody-mediated reactions. To understand the clinical courses of CIDP, we report variable CIDP courses in children with respect to initial presentation, responsiveness to medical treatment, and recurrence interval. Four patients who were diagnosed with acute-onset and relapsing CIDP courses at Severance Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea, were enrolled in this retrospective study. We diagnosed each patient on the basis of the CIDP diagnostic criteria developed in 2010 by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guidelines. We present the cases of four pediatric patients diagnosed with CIDP to understand the variable clinical course of the disease in children. Our four patients were all between 8 and 12 years of age. Patients 1 and 2 were diagnosed with acute cerebellar ataxia or Guillain-Barré syndrome as initial symptoms. While patients 1 and 4 were given only intravenous dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/day) for 5 days at the first episode, Patients 2 and 3 were given a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/day). All patients were maintained with oral prednisolone at 30 mg/day, but their clinical courses were variable in both relapse intervals and severity. We experienced variable clinical courses of CIDP in children with respect to initial presentation, responsiveness to medical treatment, and recurrence interval.
Chang, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong; Kang, Joon Won; Lee, Young Mock
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronically progressive or relapsing symmetric sensorimotor disorder presumed to occur because of immunologic antibody-mediated reactions. To understand the clinical courses of CIDP, we report variable CIDP courses in children with respect to initial presentation, responsiveness to medical treatment, and recurrence interval. Four patients who were diagnosed with acute-onset and relapsing CIDP courses at Severance Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea, were enrolled in this retrospective study. We diagnosed each patient on the basis of the CIDP diagnostic criteria developed in 2010 by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guidelines. We present the cases of four pediatric patients diagnosed with CIDP to understand the variable clinical course of the disease in children. Our four patients were all between 8 and 12 years of age. Patients 1 and 2 were diagnosed with acute cerebellar ataxia or Guillain-Barré syndrome as initial symptoms. While patients 1 and 4 were given only intravenous dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/day) for 5 days at the first episode, Patients 2 and 3 were given a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/day). All patients were maintained with oral prednisolone at 30 mg/day, but their clinical courses were variable in both relapse intervals and severity. We experienced variable clinical courses of CIDP in children with respect to initial presentation, responsiveness to medical treatment, and recurrence interval. PMID:26124851
Devaux, Jérôme J.; Miura, Yumako; Fukami, Yuki; Inoue, Takayuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kokubun, Norito; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi
Objective: We report the clinical and serologic features of Japanese patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) displaying anti-neurofascin-155 (NF155) immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies. Methods: In sera from 533 patients with CIDP, anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were detected by ELISA. Binding of IgG antibodies to central and peripheral nerves was tested. Results: Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were identified in 38 patients (7%) with CIDP, but not in disease controls or normal participants. These patients were younger at onset as compared to 100 anti-NF155–negative patients with CIDP. Twenty-eight patients (74%) presented with sensory ataxia, 16 (42%) showed tremor, 5 (13%) presented with cerebellar ataxia associated with nystagmus, 3 (8%) had demyelinating lesions in the CNS, and 20 of 25 (80%) had poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The clinical features of the antibody-positive patients were statistically more frequent as compared to negative patients with CIDP (n = 100). Anti-NF155 IgG antibodies targeted similarly central and peripheral paranodes. Conclusion: Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were associated with a subgroup of patients with CIDP showing a younger age at onset, ataxia, tremor, CNS demyelination, and a poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The autoantibodies may serve as a biomarker to improve patients' diagnosis and guide treatments. PMID:26843559
Al-Bustani, Najwa; Weiss, Michael D
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated sensory and motor demyelinating polyneuropathy that typically presents as a relapsing-remitting or progressive disorder. Cranial neuropathies infrequently occur in association with other more typical symptoms of CIDP. We report a case of CIDP with recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsy. Her physical examination showed a right sixth nerve palsy and absent deep tendon reflexes as the only indicator of her disease. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed thickening without enhancement of the trigeminal and sixth cranial nerves. Nerve conduction study (NCS) revealed a sensory and motor demyelinating polyneuropathy with conduction block and temporal dispersion in multiple nerves consistent with CIDP. Cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminic-cytologic dissociation. She had a remarkable response to intravenous immunoglobulin and remains asymptomatic without any additional immunomodulating therapy. Isolated cranial neuropathies can rarely occur as the sole manifestation of relapsing-remitting CIDP. The profound demyelination found on NCS in this case demonstrates that there can be a dramatic discordance between the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in some patients with this disorder.
Hokkoku, Keiichi; Matsukura, Kiyoshi; Uchida, Yudai; Kuwabara, Midori; Furukawa, Yuichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Sonoo, Masahiro
In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), exclusion of secondary axonal degeneration is challenging with conventional methods such as nerve conduction study (NCS), needle electromyography, and nerve biopsy. Increased echo intensity (EI) and decreased muscle thickness (MT) identified on muscle ultrasound (MUS) examination represent muscle denervation due to axonal degeneration in neurogenic disorders, suggesting MUS as a new tool to detect secondary axonal degeneration in patients with CIDP. EI and MT of abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, and first dorsal interosseous muscles were measured in 16 CIDP patients. Raw values were converted into z -scores using data from 60 normal controls (NCs). Six of 45 muscles showed abnormally high EI and low MT, suggesting denervation following secondary axonal degeneration. These six muscles belonged to two patients with long disease history, unresponsiveness to treatment, and long interval from onset to initial therapy. There were no significant differences in EI and MT ( p = .23 and .67, respectively) between the CIDP and NC groups, although NCS results revealed obvious demyelinating abnormalities in all CIDP patients, suggesting the fact that muscle structures will be preserved, and EI and MT will not change unless secondary axonal degeneration occurs in CIDP. MUS is a promising tool for evaluating secondary axonal degeneration in patients with CIDP.
Devaux, Jérôme J; Miura, Yumako; Fukami, Yuki; Inoue, Takayuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kokubun, Norito; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi; Yuki, Nobuhiro
We report the clinical and serologic features of Japanese patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) displaying anti-neurofascin-155 (NF155) immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies. In sera from 533 patients with CIDP, anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were detected by ELISA. Binding of IgG antibodies to central and peripheral nerves was tested. Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were identified in 38 patients (7%) with CIDP, but not in disease controls or normal participants. These patients were younger at onset as compared to 100 anti-NF155-negative patients with CIDP. Twenty-eight patients (74%) presented with sensory ataxia, 16 (42%) showed tremor, 5 (13%) presented with cerebellar ataxia associated with nystagmus, 3 (8%) had demyelinating lesions in the CNS, and 20 of 25 (80%) had poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The clinical features of the antibody-positive patients were statistically more frequent as compared to negative patients with CIDP (n = 100). Anti-NF155 IgG antibodies targeted similarly central and peripheral paranodes. Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were associated with a subgroup of patients with CIDP showing a younger age at onset, ataxia, tremor, CNS demyelination, and a poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The autoantibodies may serve as a biomarker to improve patients' diagnosis and guide treatments. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Ueda, Jun; Yoshimura, Hajime; Kohara, Nobuo
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a relapsing-remitting or chronic progressive demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. We report the case of a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy who experienced relapses on four occasions after experiencing pyrexia and flu-like symptoms. Our patient showed characteristic features, such as relapse after pyrexia and flu-like symptoms, remission after pyretolysis without treatment, and the absence of remarkable improvement in a nerve conduction study in the remission phase. The serum level of tumor necrosis factor-α was elevated in the relapse phase and reduced in the remission phase; thus, the induction of cytokine release by viral infection might have caused the relapses.
Hiew, Fu Liong; Ong, Jun-Jean; Viswanathan, Shanthi; Puvanarajah, Santhi
Long-term outcome in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) is very limited, especially from Asian countries. We aimed to determine the outcome of our cohort of CIDP patients and to define the relevant clinical, electrophysiological and laboratory determinants of disease activity, progression and treatment response. We retrospectively reviewed records of 23 CIDP patients attending our Neurology service at Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia between January 2000 and December 2016. We analysed data on neurological deficits, electrophysiological and laboratory parameters to determine diagnostic characteristics, correlation with disease activity and clinical outcomes following treatment. Included were 15 (65%) males and 8 (35%) females with a mean age of 42.7 years (SD 14.4). Mean duration of follow-up visit was 66 months (range 6-134 months). The cohort consists of 19 classical (sensory-motor) CIDP and 4 MADSAM. Large majority of patients (66%) had either stable active disease (CDAS 3, 44%) or were in remission (CDAS class 2, 22%) following treatment with standard immunotherapies (Intravenous Immunoglobulins, steroids or immunosuppressants). The proportion of CIDP patients in each CDAS class was comparable to published cohorts from North America and Europe. Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score was the only clinical score that differed across CDAS classes (p = .010) with significant inverse correlation (Spearman's rho -0.664, p = .001). In conclusion, treatment outcomes of our CIDP cohort was comparable to those of published series. Further studies with larger cohort of patients from other parts of Asia are important to determine the long-term outcome of this heterogenous disease in this region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Anna Hiu Yi; Fukami, Yuki; Sudo, Makoto; Kokubun, Norito; Hamada, Shinsuke; Yuki, Nobuhiro
Sialylation in Fc portion of IgG plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the working mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We aim to test whether IgG-Fc sialylation is a biomarker of disease activity for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). By using specific lectins for sialylation, galactosylation and agalactosylation, lectin-enzyme assay and lectin blotting with pretreatment of IgG degradating enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes were performed to compare the glycosylation levels of serum IgG-Fc (1) between patients of untreated CIDP (n=107) and normal control subjects (n=27), (2) among patients with untreated CIDP of different clinical severities and (3) before and after IVIG treatment of patients with CIDP (n=12). Sialylation and galactosylation of IgG-Fc were significantly reduced in patients with CIDP than normal control subjects (p=0.003 and 0.033, respectively), whereas agalactosylation was increased in CIDP (p=0.21). Ratios of sialylated/agalactosylated IgG-Fc levels were significantly reduced in CIDP (p<0.001) and inversely related to disease severity (p=0.044). After IVIG treatment, levels of sialylated IgG-Fc significantly increased (p=0.003). Sialylation of IgG-Fc is reduced in CIDP. Its level correlated with clinical severity and increased after IVIG treatment. Sialylated as well as ratio of sialylated/agalactosylated IgG-Fc could be new measures to monitor the disease severity and treatment status in CIDP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Voitenkov, Voitenkov Vladislav; Andrey, Klimkin; Natalia, Skripchenko; Anastasia, Aksenova
Context: The diagnosis of polyneuropathy may be challenging at the early stages of the disease. Despite electromyography (EMG) efficacy in the establishment of polyneuropathy diagnosis, in some cases, results are dubious and neurophysiologists may implement additional techniques to ensure that conduction is affected. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate motor-evoked potential (MEP) characteristics in children with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). Settings and Design: The study was conducted at a pediatric research and clinical center for infectious diseases. Subjects and Methods: Twenty healthy children (7–14 years old) without signs of neurological disorders were enrolled as controls. Thirty-seven patients (8–13 years old) with AIDP were enrolled as the main group. EMG and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were performed on the 3rd–7th days from the onset of the first symptoms. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and Student's t-test were used. Bonferroni method was applied to implement appropriate corrections for multiple comparisons. Results: Significant differences between children with AIDP and controls on latencies of both cortical and lumbar MEPs were registered. Cortical MEP shapes were disperse in 100% of the cases and lumbar MEPs were disperse in 57% of the cases. Conclusions: Diagnostic TMS on the early stage of the AIDP in children may be implemented as the additional tool. The main finding in this population is lengthening of the latency of cortical and lumbar MEPs. Disperse shape of the lumbar MEPs may be used as the early sign of the acute demyelization. PMID:28904571
Zis, Panagiotis; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Sarrigiannis, Ptolemaios G; Jenkins, Thomas M; Mitsikostas, Dimos-Dimitrios
Nocebo is very prevalent among neurological disorders, resulting in low adherence and treatment outcome. We sought to examine the adverse events (AE) following placebo administration in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). After a systematic literature search for RCTs for CIDP pharmacotherapy treatments, we assessed the number of AE in the placebo groups and the number discontinuations because of placebo intolerance. Our literature search strategy revealed 82 papers. Data were extracted from three RCTs fulfilling our inclusion criteria. Approximately two in five placebo-treated patients (42.0%) reported at least one AE and approximately one in fifty placebo-treated patients discontinued placebo treatment because of AEs (2.1%). All patients participating in the CIDP trials reported similar AEs independently of the study arm they belonged. Compared to other neurological diseases the nocebo effect in CIDP is significantly smaller. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paramanathan, Sansuthan; Tankisi, Hatice; Andersen, Henning; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders
This study quantifies functioning axons and reinnervation by applying two methods multiple point stimulation (MPS) MUNE, and motor unit number index (MUNIX), in patients with acute- and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP, CIDP). Nineteen patients with inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (eleven AIDP and eight CIDP) were prospectively included. MPS MUNE and MUNIX examinations on the thenar muscle group by stimulating the median nerve were applied on all patients. Motor unit size was calculated as single motor unit potential (sMUP) and motor unit size index (MUSIX). The results were compared with twenty healthy subjects. In AIDP patients mean MPS MUNE (106) and MUNIX (80) were lower than control MPS MUNE (329) and MUNIX (215) (p<0.001). In CIDP patients both MPS MUNE (88) and MUNIX (67) were lower than controls (p<0.001). In CIDP patients sMUP (63) and MUSIX (90) were higher than control sMUP (35) and MUSIX (58) (p<0.05 and p<0.01). When AIDP and CIDP groups were combined the sensitivity for MPS MUNE and MUNIX were 89.5% and 68.4%, respectively. Decreased MPS MUNE and MUNIX suggest presence of axonal loss or loss of functioning axons in AIDP and CIDP. Increased motor unit size in CIDP patients indicates compensatory reinnervation. Moreover, both MPS MUNE and MUNIX can discriminate between disease versus non-disease. Estimation of the number and the average size of motor units may have clinical value for the assessment of axonal loss or loss of functioning axons in patients with AIDP and CIDP. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ohyama, K; Koike, H; Katsuno, M; Takahashi, M; Hashimoto, R; Kawagashira, Y; Iijima, M; Adachi, H; Watanabe, H; Sobue, G
Muscle atrophy is generally mild in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) compared with the severity and duration of the muscle weakness. Muscle atrophy was evaluated using computed tomography (CT) in patients with CIDP. Thirty-one patients with typical CIDP who satisfied the diagnostic criteria for the definite CIDP classification proposed by the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society were assessed. The clinicopathological findings in patients with muscle atrophy were also compared with those in patients without atrophy. Computed tomography evidence was found of marked muscle atrophy with findings suggestive of fatty degeneration in 11 of the 31 patients with CIDP. CT-assessed muscle atrophy was in the lower extremities, particularly in the ankle plantarflexor muscles. Muscle weakness, which reflects the presence of muscle atrophy, tended to be more pronounced in the lower extremities than in the upper extremities in patients with muscle atrophy, whereas the upper and lower limbs tended to be equally affected in patients without muscle atrophy. Nerve conduction examinations revealed significantly greater reductions in compound muscle action potential amplitudes in the tibial nerves of patients with muscle atrophy. Sural nerve biopsy findings were similar in both groups. The functional prognoses after immunomodulatory therapies were significantly poorer amongst patients with muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy was present in a subgroup of patients with CIDP, including patients with a typical form of the disease. These patients tended to demonstrate predominant motor impairments of the lower extremities and poorer functional prognoses. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.
Mei, Feng; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Shen, Yun-An A; Rankin, Kelsey A; Stebbins, Karin J; Lorrain, Daniel S; Pekarek, Kara; A Sagan, Sharon; Xiao, Lan; Teuscher, Cory; von Büdingen, H-Christian; Wess, Jürgen; Lawrence, J Josh; Green, Ari J; Fancy, Stephen Pj; Zamvil, Scott S; Chan, Jonah R
Demyelination in MS disrupts nerve signals and contributes to axon degeneration. While remyelination promises to restore lost function, it remains unclear whether remyelination will prevent axonal loss. Inflammatory demyelination is accompanied by significant neuronal loss in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and evidence for remyelination in this model is complicated by ongoing inflammation, degeneration and possible remyelination. Demonstrating the functional significance of remyelination necessitates selectively altering the timing of remyelination relative to inflammation and degeneration. We demonstrate accelerated remyelination after EAE induction by direct lineage analysis and hypothesize that newly formed myelin remains stable at the height of inflammation due in part to the absence of MOG expression in immature myelin. Oligodendroglial-specific genetic ablation of the M1 muscarinic receptor, a potent negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, results in accelerated remyelination, preventing axonal loss and improving functional recovery. Together our findings demonstrate that accelerated remyelination supports axonal integrity and neuronal function after inflammatory demyelination.
Härtig, Florian; Ross, Marlene; Dammeier, Nele Maria; Fedtke, Nadin; Heiling, Bianka; Axer, Hubertus; Décard, Bernhard F; Auffenberg, Eva; Koch, Marilin; Rattay, Tim W; Krumbholz, Markus; Bornemann, Antje; Lerche, Holger; Winter, Natalie; Grimm, Alexander
As reliable biomarkers of disease activity are lacking, monitoring of therapeutic response in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) remains a challenge. We sought to determine whether nerve ultrasound and electrophysiology scoring could close this gap. In CIDP patients (fulfilling EFNS/PNS criteria), we performed high-resolution nerve ultrasound to determine ultrasound pattern sum scores (UPSS) and predominant echotexture nerve conduction study scores (NCSS) as well as Medical Research Council sum scores (MRCSS) and inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment disability scores (INCAT) at baseline and after 12 months of standard treatment. We retrospectively correlated ultrasound morphology with nerve histology when available. 72/80 CIDP patients featured multifocal nerve enlargement, and 35/80 were therapy-naïve. At baseline, clinical scores correlated with NCSS (r 2 = 0.397 and r 2 = 0.443, p < 0.01), but not or hardly with UPSS (Medical Research Council sum scores MRCSS r 2 = 0.013, p = 0.332; inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment disability scores INCAT r 2 = 0.053, p = 0.048). Longitudinal changes in clinical scores, however, correlated significantly with changes in both UPSS and NCSS (r 2 = 0.272-0.414, p < 0.0001). Combining nerve/fascicle size with echointensity and histology at baseline, we noted 3 distinct classes: 1) hypoechoic enlargement, reflecting active inflammation and onion bulbs; 2) nerve enlargement with additional hyperechogenic fascicles/perifascicular tissue in > 50% of measured segments, possibly reflecting axonal degeneration; and 3) almost no enlargement, reflecting "burned-out" or "cured" disease without active inflammation. Clinical improvement after 12 months was best in patients with pattern 1 (up to 75% vs up to 43% in pattern 2/3, Fisher's exact test p < 0.05). Nerve ultrasound has additional value not only for diagnosis, but also for classification
Villa, A M; Molina, H; Sanz, O P; Sica, R E
Chronic demyelinating inflammatory polineuropathy (CIDP) is a disease which was recognized several years ago. However, the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, there are some clues which strongly suggest that it constitutes an autoimmune disease. Since 1992 we have studied 30 cases. All them were clinically assessed and submitted to laboratory investigations encompassing nerve conduction studies, sera proteins immunoelectrophoresis, spinal fluid analysis and sural nerve biopsies. Upon clinical examination the usual findings were weakness, muscle atrophy, absence or diminished tendon jerks, paresthesias and hyposthesias. Electrophysiological studies disclosed marked slowing of the nerve conduction velocities, suggesting demyelination. Sera immunoelectrophoresis detected monoclonal gammopathy in 17% of the studied patients, which was not associated with lymphoproliferative illnesses. Of the patients 79% had increased levels of spinal fluid proteins. Seventeen patients gave their consent for performing a sural nerve biopsy; all the samples showed demyelination. In conclusion, we think that CDIP is a disease which can be recognized when the clinical assessment, the nerve conduction studies and the spinal fluid findings suggest the diagnosis. Although nerve biopsy may be strongly supporting, we believe that it has to be performed only if doubts arise from the clinical, electrophysiological or spinal fluid observations. It is worth noting that its early detection may benefit the patient through the administration of the right therapy precluding the eventual sequelae of the disease.
Cassereau, J; Letournel, F; François, S; Dubas, F; Nicolas, G
Waldenström's disease (WD) is frequently associated with a predominantly sensory neuropathy with a progressive course due to the monoclonal IgM activity against Myelin Associated Glycoprotein (MAG). However, neurolymphomatosis or chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CDIP) may occur in some patients with WD. We report a case of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia in an adult male presenting with cranial nerve palsy and rapidly progressive asymmetric polyneuropathy. Intravenous IgM treatment that provided transient amelioration was followed by a relapse involving tetraparesis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis, medullar magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiological studies led to equivocal findings suggesting the presence of either neurolymphomatosis or CIDP. Finally, sural nerve biopsy results supported the diagnosis of CIDP, which then received appropriate treatment. In patients with WD, the possible occurrence of CIDP should be investigated with a neuromuscular biopsy when other investigations are equivocal since the disease calls for a specific treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Quek, Amy May Lin; Soon, Derek; Chan, Yee Cheun; Thamboo, Thomas Paulraj; Yuki, Nobuhiro
Inflammatory neuropathies have been reported to occur in association with nephrotic syndrome. Their underlying immuno-pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. A 50-year-old woman concurrently presented with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Both neuropathy and proteinuria improved after plasma exchange and steroids. Literature review of cases of concurrent inflammatory neuropathies and nephrotic syndrome revealed similar neuro-renal presentations. This neuro-renal condition may be mediated by autoantibodies targeting myelin and podocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Delmont, Emilien; Manso, Constance; Querol, Luis; Cortese, Andrea; Berardinelli, Angela; Lozza, Alessandro; Belghazi, Maya; Malissart, Pauline; Labauge, Pierre; Taieb, Guillaume; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Illa, Isabel; Attarian, Shahram; Devaux, Jérôme J
Chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy is a heterogeneous and treatable immune-mediated disorder that lacks biomarkers to support diagnosis. Recent evidence indicates that paranodal proteins (contactin 1, contactin-associated protein 1, and neurofascin-155) are the targets of autoantibodies in subsets of patients showing distinct clinical presentations. Here, we identified neurofascin-186 and neurofascin-140 as the main targets of autoantibodies in five patients presenting IgG reactivity against the nodes of Ranvier. Four patients displayed predominantly IgG4 antibodies, and one patient presented IgG3 antibodies that activated the complement pathway in vitro. These patients present distinct clinical features compared to those with anti-neurofascin-155 IgG4. Most patients had a severe phenotype associated with conduction block or decreased distal motor amplitude. Four patients had a subacute-onset and sensory ataxia. Two patients presented with nephrotic syndromes and one patient with an IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis. Intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids were effective in three patients, and one patient remitted following rituximab treatment. Clinical remission was associated with autoantibody depletion and with recovery of conduction block and distal motor amplitude suggesting a nodo-paranodopathy. Our data demonstrate that the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy are broad and may include dysfunctions at the nodes of Ranvier in a subgroup of patients. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Vural, Atay; Doppler, Kathrin; Meinl, Edgar
Discovery of disease-associated autoantibodies has transformed the clinical management of a variety of neurological disorders. Detection of autoantibodies aids diagnosis and allows patient stratification resulting in treatment optimization. In the last years, a set of autoantibodies against proteins located at the node of Ranvier has been identified in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). These antibodies target neurofascin, contactin1, or contactin-associated protein 1, and we propose to name CIDP patients with these antibodies collectively as seropositive. They have unique clinical characteristics that differ from seronegative CIDP. Moreover, there is compelling evidence that autoantibodies are relevant for the pathogenesis. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the characteristics of autoantibodies against the node of Ranvier proteins and their clinical relevance in CIDP. We start with a description of the structure of the node of Ranvier followed by a summary of assays used to identify seropositive patients; and then, we describe clinical features and characteristics linked to seropositivity. We review knowledge on the role of these autoantibodies for the pathogenesis with relevance for the emerging concept of nodopathy/paranodopathy and summarize the treatment implications. PMID:29867996
Goedee, H S; Jongbloed, B A; van Asseldonk, J-T H; Hendrikse, J; Vrancken, A F J E; Franssen, H; Nikolakopoulos, S; Visser, L H; van der Pol, W L; van den Berg, L H
To compare the performance of neuroimaging techniques, i.e. high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when applied to the brachial plexus, as part of the diagnostic work-up of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Fifty-one incident, treatment-naive patients with CIDP (n = 23) or MMN (n = 28) underwent imaging of the brachial plexus using (i) a standardized MRI protocol to assess enlargement or T2 hyperintensity and (ii) bilateral HRUS to determine the extent of nerve (root) enlargement. We found enlargement of the brachial plexus in 19/51 (37%) and T2 hyperintensity in 29/51 (57%) patients with MRI and enlargement in 37/51 (73%) patients with HRUS. Abnormal results were only found in 6/51 (12%) patients with MRI and 12/51 (24%) patients with HRUS. A combination of the two imaging techniques identified 42/51 (83%) patients. We found no association between age, disease duration or Medical Research Council sum-score and sonographic nerve size, MRI enlargement or presence of T2 hyperintensity. Brachial plexus sonography could complement MRI in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CIDP and MMN. Our results indicate that combined imaging studies may add value to the current diagnostic consensus criteria for chronic inflammatory neuropathies. © 2017 EAN.
Vural, Atay; Doppler, Kathrin; Meinl, Edgar
Discovery of disease-associated autoantibodies has transformed the clinical management of a variety of neurological disorders. Detection of autoantibodies aids diagnosis and allows patient stratification resulting in treatment optimization. In the last years, a set of autoantibodies against proteins located at the node of Ranvier has been identified in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). These antibodies target neurofascin, contactin1, or contactin-associated protein 1, and we propose to name CIDP patients with these antibodies collectively as seropositive. They have unique clinical characteristics that differ from seronegative CIDP. Moreover, there is compelling evidence that autoantibodies are relevant for the pathogenesis. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the characteristics of autoantibodies against the node of Ranvier proteins and their clinical relevance in CIDP. We start with a description of the structure of the node of Ranvier followed by a summary of assays used to identify seropositive patients; and then, we describe clinical features and characteristics linked to seropositivity. We review knowledge on the role of these autoantibodies for the pathogenesis with relevance for the emerging concept of nodopathy/paranodopathy and summarize the treatment implications.
Lepreux, Sébastien; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Vital, Anne
A muscle biopsy is currently requested to assess the diagnosis of an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy overlapping with a systemic disease. During the past few years, the classification of inflammatory myopathy subtypes has been revisited progressively on the basis of correlations between clinical phenotypes, autoantibodies and histological data. Several syndromic entities are now more clearly defined, and the aim of the present review is to clarify the contribution of muscle biopsy in a setting of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases. PMID:29154752
Odabasi, Zeki; Oh, Shin J
In this study we report the diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NNN-SNCS) in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) in which the routine nerve conduction study was normal or non-diagnostic. The NNN-SNCS was performed to identify demyelination in the plantar nerves in 14 patients and in the median or ulnar nerve in 2 patients with sensory IDP. In 16 patients with sensory IDP, routine NCSs were either normal or non-diagnostic for demyelination. Demyelination was identified by NNN-SNCS by dispersion and/or slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) below the demyelination marker. Immunotherapy was initiated in 11 patients, 10 of whom improved or remained stable. NNN-SNCS played an essential role in identifying demyelinaton in 16 patients with sensory IDP, leading to proper treatment. Muscle Nerve 57: 414-418, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Koji; Sata, Takeyoshi
We report the successful management of anesthesia in a 46-year-old male dialysis patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). He underwent an osteosynthesis of the ankle joint using general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. The anesthetic concerns in patients with CIDP are the possibility of postoperative respiratory dysfunction due to anesthetics or muscle relaxants and that of postoperative neurological deterioration due to spinal or epidural anesthesia. In this case, sevoflurane (1.5-2%) did not cause respiratory dysfunction postoperatively and muscle relaxant effect of rocuronium was effectively reversed by sugammadex. Epidural anesthesia using ropivacaine (0.2-0.375%) and fentanyl did not worsen the neurological symptoms of CIDP post-operatively.
Guptill, Jeffrey T; Bromberg, Mark B; Zhu, Li; Sharma, Bal K; Thompson, Amy R; Krueger, Andrew; Sanders, Donald B
We determined health plan paid costs and healthcare resource usage of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). CIDP patients from 9 U.S. commercial health plans with claims in 2011 were identified from the Accordant Health Services claims database. We examined demographics, prevalence of comorbidities, prescribed drugs, place of service, and mean annual health plan paid costs per patient. From 6.5 million covered lives, 73 (56% men; mean age 47) met study entry criteria. The most prescribed therapies were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (26% of patients), gabapentin (26%), and prednisone (16%). The annual health plan paid cost was $56,953. Pharmacy cost was the major cost driver (57% of the total), and IVIg totaled 90% of the pharmacy costs. Healthcare costs for CIDP patients are substantial, with a large burden in pharmacy usage. Studies are needed to determine optimal long-term treatment strategies for CIDP, particularly related to IVIg. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dyck, Peter J; Taylor, Bruce V; Davies, Jenny L; Mauermann, Michelle L; Litchy, William J; Klein, Christopher J; Dyck, P James B
Intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIg], plasma exchange [PE], and corticosteroids are efficacious treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy [CIDP]. IVIg is effective in multifocal motor neuropathy [MMN]. NIS, NIS-weakness, sum scores of raw amplitudes of motor fiber (CMAPs) amplitudes, and Dyck/Rankin score provided reliable measures to detect and scale abnormality and reflect change; they are therefore ideal for office management of response-based immunotherapy (R-IRx) of CIDP. Using efficacious R-IRx, a large early and late therapeutic response (≥ one-fourth were in remission or had recovered) was demonstrated in CIDP. In MMN only an early improvement with late non-significant worsening was observed. The difference in immunotherapy response supports a fundamental difference between CIDP (immune attack on Schwann cells and myelin) and MMN (attack on nodes of Ranvier and axons). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pasangulapati, Suresh Babu; Murthy, T. V.; Sivadasan, Ajith; Gideon, L. Rynjah; Prabhakar, A. T.; Sanjith, Aaron; Mathew, Vivek; Alexander, Mathew
Introduction: In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), emphasis has been on motor disabilities, and autonomic dysfunction in these patients has not been addressed systematically. Materials and Methods: Autonomic function was prospectively analyzed in 38 patients with CIDP. Quantitative autonomic function testing was done using Finometer® PRO and severity of adrenergic and cardiovagal dysfunction graded according to composite autonomic severity score and sudomotor dysfunction assessed using sympathetic skin response. Results: Thirty-four (89%) patients had features of autonomic dysfunction. Thirty-three (86%) patients had cardiovagal dysfunction, 21 (55%) had adrenergic dysfunction, and 24 (63%) had sudomotor dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction was mild to moderate in the majority (86%). Conclusions: Autonomic dysfunction in CIDP is underreported and potentially amenable to therapy. Our cohort had a high proportion of adrenergic dysfunction compared to previous studies. PMID:28904461
Vo, Mary L; Chin, Russell L; Miranda, Caroline; Latov, Norman
Gait impairment is a common presenting symptom in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, gait parameters have not previously been evaluated in detail as potential independent outcome measures. We prospectively measured changes in spatiotemporal gait parameters of 20 patients with CIDP at baseline and following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), using GAITRite® a computerized walkway system with embedded sensors. Overall, study patients showed significant improvements in gait velocity, cadence, stride length, double support time, stance phase, and swing phase following IVIG treatment. Mean changes in velocity, stance phase, and swing phase, exhibited the greatest statistical significance among the subgroup that exhibited clinically meaningful improvement in Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment disability score, Medical Research Council sum score, and grip strength. Assessment of gait parameters, in particular velocity, step phase and swing phase, is a potentially sensitive outcome measure for evaluating treatment response in CIDP. Muscle Nerve 56: 732-736, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Misawa, Sonoko; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Mori, Masahiro; Ishige, Takayuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi
To identify serum cytokine networks specific to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), serum samples of two subgroups (18 patients with typical CIDP and 12 patients with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy [MADSAM]) were analyzed with multiplex magnetic bead-based cytokine assay. TNF-α, HGF, MIP-1β and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in total CIDP patients than in normal controls. Of these, HGF levels were elevated in typical CIDP patients, but not in MADSAM patients. Patients with high HGF levels showed good responses to steroid treatment. Different cytokine profiles among the CIDP subtypes presumably reflect differences in pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rafai, M A; Moutaouakil, F; El Otmani, H; Fadel, H; Boulaajaj, F Z; El Moutawakil, B; Gam, I; Slassi, I
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in children is relatively rare and treatment is based primarily on intravenous immunoglobulins or oral corticosteroids. Boluses of methylprednisolone (MP) are a seldom used alternative. We report the case of an 8-year-old child, first presented at the age of 3 years, with recurring episodes of functional impotence of both lower limbs and walking impairment, partially reversible without treatment. Clinical, progressive, and electrophysiological data and the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid were compatible with CIDP. MP boluses were administered: after a total eight monthly boluses, very satisfactory progression on the clinical and electrophysiological fronts was noted after 24 months. Childhood CIDP presents clinical, electrophysiological, progressive, and prognostic particularities, they recur readily and the outcome is good. Boluses of methylprednisolone are an alternative to the treatment of these neuropathies in childhood.
Abraham, Hrudya; Kuzhively, Jose; Rizvi, Syed W
BACKGROUND Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report a case of SLE presenting as CIDP and discuss the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of CIDP. CASE REPORT A 40-year-old woman with a past medical history of SLE treated with hydroxychloroquine presented with bilateral, progressive, ascending, sensory and motor neuropathy. Physical examination showed weakness and reduced temperature of all extremities, reduced pinprick and vibration sense of the distal extremities, loss of reflexes, and walking with a wide-based unsteady gait. Laboratory investigations showed positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-(smooth muscle (SM) antibody, anti-RNP antibody, anti-SSA antibody, anti-ds-DNA antibody, and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 75 mm/hr, low C4, leukopenia, and anemia. Electromyography (EMG) confirmed the diagnosis of CIDP. The patient's neuropathy and muscle weakness improved on treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and high-dose steroids. CONCLUSIONS The early clinical diagnosis of CIDP, supported by serological autoantibody profiles associated with SLE, can predict a good response to steroids. Most patients with CIDP are treated successfully with steroids if the diagnosis is made early. IVIG, plasmapheresis, or immunosuppressive therapy should be considered if there is no response to steroids.
Jang, Jae Hong; Cho, Charles S; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Seok, Hung Youl; Kim, Byung-Jo
Focal nerve enlargement is a characteristic finding in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We performed this study to assess the distribution of nerve enlargement through ultrasonographic examination of peripheral nerves and to correlate the ultrasonographic findings with clinical features. To compare the ultrasonographic features of 10 subjects with CIDP with those of 18 healthy controls, we bilaterally measured the cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the vagus, brachial plexus, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, sciatic, tibial, common peroneal, and sural nerves. We also analyzed correlations between CSAs and various clinical and electrophysiological features. Mean CSAs were significantly larger in CIDP patients than controls, especially at proximal and non-entrapment sites. CSAs were significantly correlated with muscle strength at initial presentation, but not at the time of ultrasonography. The CSAs of the median and ulnar nerves at the mid-forearm, tibial nerve at 7 cm proximal to the medial malleolus, and sural nerve correlated with the nerve conduction velocity of the corresponding region. Ultrasonography revealed widely distributed nerve enlargement, especially in proximal regions and non-entrapment sites, in patients with CIDP compared with healthy controls. Nerve enlargement correlated well with the electrophysiologic function of the nerve, but not current clinical status. Pattern analysis of nerve enlargement using ultrasonography is a supportive tool in the diagnosis of CIDP. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vallat, Jean-Michel; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kokubun, Norito; Oka, Nobuyuki; Mathis, Stéphane; Magy, Laurent; Sherman, Diane L; Brophy, Peter J; Devaux, Jérôme J
Antibodies to Contactin-1 and Neurofascin 155 (Nfasc155) have recently been associated with subsets of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Contactin-1 and Nfasc155 are cell adhesion molecules that constitute the septate-like junctions observed by electron microscopy in the paranodes of myelinated axons. Antibodies to Contactin-1 have been shown to affect the localization of paranodal proteins both in patient nerve biopsies and in animal models after passive transfer. However, it is unclear whether these antibodies alter the paranodal ultrastructure. We examined by electron microscopy sural nerve biopsies from two patients presenting with anti-Nfasc155 antibodies, and also four patients lacking antibodies, three normal controls, and five patients with other neuropathies. We found that patients with anti-Nfasc155 antibodies presented a selective loss of the septate-like junctions at all paranodes examined. Further, cellular processes penetrated into the expanded spaces between the paranodal myelin loops and the axolemma in these patients. These patients presented with important nerve conduction slowing and demyelination. Also, the reactivity of anti-Nfasc155 antibodies from these patients was abolished in neurofascin-deficient mice, confirming that the antibodies specifically target paranodal proteins. Our data indicate that anti-Nfasc155 destabilizes the paranodal axo-glial junctions and may participate in conduction deterioration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Finsterer, Josef; Aliyev, Rahim
BACKGROUND Whether creatine-kinase (CK) is elevated or not in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and its variants is not comprehensively investigated. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 47-year-old male who developed weakness of the left lower leg and the right index finger at age 42 years. At age 44 years, paresthesias and dysesthesias of both lower legs and mild right lower leg weakness additionally developed. CK was recurrently elevated since age 42 years but paraprotein and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG)-antibodies were negative. Nerve conduction studies at age 43 years showed an axonal and demyelinating lesion with conduction blocks. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigations revealed mild pleocytosis and elevated protein, which is why CIDP variant was diagnosed. Immunoglobulins were administered with success. Because of recurrent relapses, immunoglobulins were increased at age 45 years, resulting in stabilization. Currently, the patient is infusing immunoglobulins subcutaneously himself. CONCLUSIONS CIDP variants may go along with CK elevation, an axonal lesion, pleocytosis, and asymmetry of the lesion. A vanishing effect of immunoglobulins over time may be characteristic of CIDP variants.
Gilmore, Kevin J; Allen, Matti D; Doherty, Timothy J; Kimpinski, Kurt; Rice, Charles L
We assessed motor unit (MU) properties and neuromuscular stability in the tibialis anterior (TA) of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography. Dorsiflexion strength was assessed, and surface and concentric needle electromyography were sampled from the TA. Estimates of MU numbers were derived using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography and spike-triggered averaging. Neuromuscular transmission stability was assessed from concentric needle-detected MU potentials. CIDP patients had 43% lower compound muscle action potential amplitude than controls, and despite near-maximum voluntary activation, were 37% weaker. CIDP had 27% fewer functioning MUs in the TA, and had 90% and 44% higher jiggle and jitter values, respectively compared with controls. CIDP had lower strength and compound muscle action potential values, moderately fewer numbers of MUs, and significant neuromuscular instability compared with controls. Thus, in addition to muscle atrophy, voluntary weakness is also due to limitations of peripheral neural transmission consistent with demyelination. Muscle Nerve 56: 413-420, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kerasnoudis, Antonios; Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Gold, Ralf; Yoon, Min-Suk
We evaluated prospectively nerve ultrasound and electrophysiology as monitoring methods of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Overall 15 healthy subjects and 11 CIDP patients undergoing IVIG therapy were recruited in the study. All patients underwent clinical, ultrasound, and electrophysiological evaluation at the time point of first onset of symptoms (<6 weeks of symptoms) and 4, 8, and 12 months after onset. The intranerve cross-sectional area (CSA) variability of each nerve, but not the CSA alone, correlated with the MRC Scale score during 12-month follow-up. On the other hand, none of the electrophysiological parameters correlated with the MRC Scale Score in each of the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, in ¾ of the CIDP patients, the resolution of the conduction block correlated with the improvement in the MRC Sum score. Nerve ultrasound and in particular the intranerve CSA variability seems to be a useful method in monitoring CIDP patients. Although the sample size is small, the intranerve CSA variability seems to be more promising than neurophysiology. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Otto, M; Markvardsen, L; Tankisi, H; Jakobsen, J; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A
To characterize changes in motor nerve conduction studies (MNCS) and motor unit number index (MUNIX) following treatment with subcutaneous immunoglobulin and to assess whether these changes are related to muscle strength. Data from 23 patients participating in a randomized, controlled trial were analyzed. MNCS and MUNIX were performed before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Isokinetic strength (IMS) was measured in various muscles together with grip strength (GS). Proximally evoked compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes and MUNIX tended to be better preserved in treated patients (P=.049 and .045). Changes in other parameters did not differ between groups. There was no correlation between changes in electrophysiological parameters and IMS. Changes in GS were related to median nerve motor conduction velocity, distal motor latency, CMAP amplitudes, and distally evoked CMAP duration (P=.013-.035). Proximally evoked CMAP amplitudes appear to be the best MNCS parameter to assess treatment outcome in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning
We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Oaklander, Anne Louise; Lunn, Michael Pt; Hughes, Richard Ac; van Schaik, Ivo N; Frost, Chris; Chalk, Colin H
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic progressive or relapsing and remitting disease that usually causes weakness and sensory loss. The symptoms are due to autoimmune inflammation of peripheral nerves. CIPD affects about 2 to 3 per 100,000 of the population. More than half of affected people cannot walk unaided when symptoms are at their worst. CIDP usually responds to treatments that reduce inflammation, but there is disagreement about which treatment is most effective. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) and non-Cochrane systematic reviews of any treatment for CIDP and to compare the effects of treatments. We considered all systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any treatment for any form of CIDP. We reported their primary outcomes, giving priority to change in disability after 12 months.Two overview authors independently identified published systematic reviews for inclusion and collected data. We reported the quality of evidence using GRADE criteria. Two other review authors independently checked review selection, data extraction and quality assessments.On 31 October 2016, we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (in theCochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL Plus for systematic reviews of CIDP. We supplemented the RCTs in the existing CSRs by searching on the same date for RCTs of any treatment of CIDP (including treatment of fatigue or pain in CIDP), in the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL Plus. Five CSRs met our inclusion criteria. We identified 23 randomised trials, of which 15 had been included in these CSRs. We were unable to compare treatments as originally planned, because outcomes and outcome intervals differed. CorticosteroidsIt is uncertain whether daily oral prednisone improved impairment compared to no treatment because the quality of the
Kuwabara, Satoshi; Isose, Sagiri; Mori, Masahiro; Mitsuma, Satsuki; Sawai, Setsu; Beppu, Minako; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Misawa, Sonoko
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is currently classified into 'typical' CIDP and 'atypical' subtypes such as multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM). To assess the frequency of CIDP subtypes, and to elucidate clinical and electrophysiological features, and treatment response in each subtype. We reviewed data from 100 consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for CIDP proposed by the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate long-term outcome. Patients were classified as having typical CIDP (60%), MADSAM (34%), demyelinating acquired distal symmetric neuropathy (8%) or pure sensory CIDP (1%). Compared with patients with MADSAM, patients with typical CIDP showed more rapid progression and severe disability, and demyelination predominant in the distal nerve segments. MADSAM was characterised by multifocal demyelination in the nerve trunks. Abnormal median-normal sural sensory responses were more frequently found for typical CIDP (53% vs 13%). Patients with typical CIDP invariably responded to corticosteroids, immunoglobulin or plasmapheresis, whereas patients with MADSAM were more refractory to these treatments. The Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that 64% of patients with typical CIDP and 41% of patients with MADSAM had a clinical remission 5 years later (p=0.02). Among the CIDP spectrum, typical CIDP and MADSAM are the major subtypes, and their pathophysiology appears to be distinct. In typical CIDP, the distal nerve terminals and possibly the nerve roots, where the blood-nerve barrier is anatomically deficient, are preferentially affected, raising the possibility of antibody-mediated demyelination, whereas cellular immunity with breakdown of the barrier may be important in MADSAM neuropathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Marrali, G; Salamone, P; Casale, F; Fuda, G; Cugnasco, P; Caorsi, C; Amoroso, A; Calvo, A; Lopiano, L; Cocito, D; Chiò, A
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immunomediated condition affecting the peripheral nervous system where probably macrophages are the primary effector cells for demyelination. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalyzed by the NOX family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enzymes, can induce peroxidation and are potentially injurious to myelin. Our aim was to assess the activity of NOX2, an isoform of NOX, in a series of CIDP patients and to analyze the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) on NOX2. Thirty CIDP patients treated with IVIg and 30 control subjects were enrolled. To evaluate NOX2 activity, neutrophil and monocyte oxidative burst was measured directly in fresh whole blood using the Phagoburst™ assay, a fluorescence-activated cell sorting method. The mean fluorescence intensity, emitted in response to different stimuli, leads to the production of ROS and corresponds to the percentage of oxidizing cells and their enzymatic activity. Mean fluorescence intensity values for granulocyte and monocyte burst in patients (mean 633.3, SD 191; mean 111.8, SD 28.5) were different from those measured in healthy controls (granulocytes, mean 436.6, SD 137.0, P = 0.0003; monocytes, mean 78.2, SD 17.3, P = 0.000001). Moreover, IVIg administration increased both granulocyte (P = 0.005) and monocyte (P = 0.0009) burst. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative burst is significantly increased in CIDP patients and that treatment with IVIg enhances oxidative values, thus representing a possible IVIg therapeutic effect linked to a regulatory effect of ROS. Based on this, the development of treatments targeting the specific activation of NOX may be beneficial in autoimmune disorders. © 2016 EAN.
Sun, Rui-Di; Fu, Bing; Jiang, Jun
To investigate the role of short-latency somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). A total of 48 children with a confirmed or suspected CIDP and 40 healthy children were enrolled. Nerve electrophysiological examination and/or SSEP examination was performed (the children in the healthy control group only underwent SSEP examination). Four-lead electromyography was used for nerve electrophysiological examination, including at least 4 motor nerves and 2 sensory nerves. N6 (elbow potential), N13 (cervical cord potential), and N20 (cortex potential) of the median nerve and N8 (popliteal fossa potential), N22 (lumbar cord potential), and P39 (cortex potential) of the tibial nerve were observed by SSEP examination. Among the 48 children with CIDP, 35 had demyelination in both motor and sensory nerves, 8 had demyelination in sensory nerves, and 5 had axonal degeneration. SSEP examination showed that 7 had conduction abnormality in the trunk of the brachial plexus and/or the posterior root and 33 had damage in the lumbosacral plexus and/or the posterior root. The 40 children with abnormal findings of SSEP examination included 8 children with affected sensory nerves and 5 children with secondary axonal degeneration who did not meet the electrophysiological diagnostic criteria for CIDP. Compared with the healthy control group, the CIDP group had significantly prolonged latency periods of N13 and N22 (P<0.05). SSEP can be used for the auxiliary diagnosis of CIDP, especially in CIDP children with affected sensory nerves or secondary axonal degeneration.
Merkies, Ingemar S J; Kieseier, Bernd C
In the clinical evaluation of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), scant attention is paid to symptoms such as fatigue, pain and anxiety/depression. We aimed at addressing seminal studies that focused on the burden of these symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL) in these conditions. Fatigue, pain, and anxiety/depression are increasingly being recognized in patients with GBS and CIDP, although their pathophysiological provenance remains unknown. Fatigue and pain are significant in terms of prevalence and intensity, may be a presenting symptom, and can persist for years after apparent functional recovery, suggesting residual injury. Anxiety/depression has also been examined although studies are limited. Despite their negative impact on QoL, the long-term dynamics of these symptoms in patients with GBS and particularly CIDP receiving therapy in routine clinical practice have not been systematically evaluated. Such observations formed the basis for the ongoing (GAMEDIS) studies evaluating the effect of Gamunex on fatigue and depression in patients with CIDP, of which some preliminary data are presented. Strength and sensory deficits are the main areas of focus in patients with GBS and CIDP, but they do not explain the total reduction in QoL, suggesting the possible role of other complaints. A more comprehensive approach to patient care demands that factors such as pain, fatigue and anxiety/depression receive greater attention. The non-interventional GAMEDIS studies are expected to provide valuable insight into the long-term effectiveness of Gamunex in everyday practice. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dunnigan, Samantha K.; Ebadi, Hamid; Breiner, Ari; Katzberg, Hans D.; Barnett, Carolina; Perkins, Bruce A.; Bril, Vera
Introduction We aimed to determine whether the clinical characteristics and electrodiagnostic classification of nerve injury, and response to treatment differed in patients diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with and without diabetes. Methods CIDP patients with diabetes (CIDP+DM) (n = 67) and without diabetes (CIDP-DM) (n = 67) underwent clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCS). CIDP-DM patients were selected using age and gender matching with the existing CIDP+DM cohort. Patients treated with immunotherapies were classified as responders (R) (n = 46) or non-responders (NR) (n = 54) based on clinical response to treatment. The groups were compared using analysis of variance, contingency tables and Kruskal-Wallis analyses. Results CIDP+DM subjects had more severe neuropathy based on higher lower limb vibration potential thresholds (VPT)(p = 0.004), higher Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (TCNS) (p = 0.0009), more proximal weakness (p = 0.03), more gait abnormality (p = 0.03) and more abnormal NCS. CIDP+DM subjects had more abnormal sural NCS with lower sural sensory nerve action potential amplitudes (2.4±3.0 µV, 6.6±6.0 µV, p<0.0001) and slower sural nerve conduction velocities (38.6±5.4 m/s, 41.0±5.3 m/s, p = 0.04). CIDP-DM subjects were more likely to receive immune therapies (93% vs 57%, p = <0.0001), despite no significant differences in treatment responder rates (p = 0.71). Patients who responded to therapy had shorter duration of CIDP than non-responders (8.0±6.0 y vs 11.9±7.6 y, p = 0.004). Discussion The clinical phenotype and electrophysiological profile of CIDP patients differs according to the presence or absence of diabetes. Despite CIDP+DM patients having more severe clinical and electrophysiological neuropathy, they are less likely to receive disease-modifying/specific therapy, yet have similar response rates to treatment as those without
Kronlage, Moritz; Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Schwarz, Daniel; Godel, Tim; Heiland, Sabine; Yoon, Min-Suk; Bendszus, Martin; Bäumer, Philipp
The aims of this study were to assess diagnostic accuracy of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), to correlate DTI with electrophysiological parameters, and to evaluate whether radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) might serve as specific biomarkers of demyelinating and axonal pathology. This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Magnetic resonance neurography of upper and lower extremity nerves (median, ulnar, radial, sciatic, tibial) was performed by single-shot DTI sequences at 3.0 T in 18 patients with a diagnosis of CIDP and 18 healthy controls, matched to age and sex. The scalar readout parameters nerve fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), RD, and AD were obtained after manual segmentation and postprocessing and compared between patients and controls. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and cutoff values were calculated by maximizing the Youden index. All patients underwent a complementary electroneurography and correlation of electrophysiological markers and DTI parameters was analyzed and described by Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Nerve FA was decreased to a mean of 0.42 ± 0.08 in patients compared with 0.52 ± 0.04 in healthy controls (P < 0.001). This decrease in FA was a result of an increase of RD (P = 0.02), whereas AD did not differ between the two groups. Of all DTI parameters, FA showed best diagnostic accuracy with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.90. Optimal cutoff for an average FA of all analyzed nerves was 0.47, yielding a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.94. Fractional anisotropy and RD correlated strongly with electrophysiological markers of demyelination, whereas AD did not correlate with markers of axonal neuropathy. Diffusion tensor imaging yields valid quantitative biomarkers
Fan, Chenghe; Jin, Haiqiang; Hao, Hongjun; Gao, Feng; Sun, Yongan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Pu; Cui, Wei; Teng, Yuming; Huang, Yining
In this study we investigated the relationships between anti-ganglioside antibodies and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Samples from 48 Chinese patients diagnosed with GBS and 18 patients diagnosed with CIDP were retrospectively reviewed. In the GBS patients, 62.5% were classified as having acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), 27.1% were found to have acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), and 10.4% were unclassified. Serum IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies were detected in 46.2% of the AMAN patients and in 6.7% of the AIDP patients (P < 0.05); 5.6% of the 18 CIDP patients were IgG antibody positive, and 27.8% were IgM antibody positive. Facial palsy and sensory impairment were significantly associated with IgM antibodies. These results suggest that IgG anti-GM1 antibodies are associated with AMAN, but not with AIDP, and that IgM antibodies against GM1, GM2, and GM3 are associated with facial nerve palsy. Muscle Nerve 55: 470-475, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ju, Weina; Qi, Baochang; Wang, Xu; Yang, Yu
We report the rare case of a 74-year-old man with anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (PNS), and review and analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. The patient presented with a 5-month history of muscle weakness, progressive body aches, and weakness and numbness in both lower extremities. Before his hospitalization, he had experienced cognitive function decline; ptosis, inward gaze, and vertical gaze palsy in the right eye; and occasional visual hallucinations. Brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yielded normal results. Anti-Ma2 antibodies were detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. A 4-hour electroencephalogram showed irregular sharp slow waves and δ waves in the temporal region. Electromyography showed peripheral nerve demyelination. Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) examination revealed hypermetabolism in the lymph nodes of the whole body. Biopsy of the lymph nodes showed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A clinical diagnosis of lymphoma and PNS was made. The patient was treated with intravenous dexamethasone (15 mg/day) for 3 days. We have presented a rare case of a PNS involving both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The clinical features of this case indicated anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. PET-CT played a critical role in enabling early diagnosis and prompt treatment in this case.
Ju, Weina; Qi, Baochang; Wang, Xu; Yang, Yu
Abstract Rationale: We report the rare case of a 74-year-old man with anti-Ma2–associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (PNS), and review and analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Patient concerns: The patient presented with a 5-month history of muscle weakness, progressive body aches, and weakness and numbness in both lower extremities. Before his hospitalization, he had experienced cognitive function decline; ptosis, inward gaze, and vertical gaze palsy in the right eye; and occasional visual hallucinations. Brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yielded normal results. Anti-Ma2 antibodies were detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. A 4-hour electroencephalogram showed irregular sharp slow waves and δ waves in the temporal region. Electromyography showed peripheral nerve demyelination. Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) examination revealed hypermetabolism in the lymph nodes of the whole body. Biopsy of the lymph nodes showed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Diagnosis: A clinical diagnosis of lymphoma and PNS was made. Interventions: The patient was treated with intravenous dexamethasone (15 mg/day) for 3 days. Lessons: We have presented a rare case of a PNS involving both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The clinical features of this case indicated anti-Ma2–associated encephalitis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. PET-CT played a critical role in enabling early diagnosis and prompt treatment in this case. PMID:28984777
Leitch, Megan M; Sherman, William H; Brannagan, Thomas H
Distal acquired demyelinating symmetric polyneuropathy (DADS) is proposed as a distinct entity from classic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We report a 58-year-old woman with DADS that progressed to a severe case of classic CIDP. She had distal numbness and paresthesias, minimal distal weakness and impaired vibratory sensation. She had anti-MAG antibodies, negative Western blot, and lacked a monoclonal gammopathy. There were prolonged distal motor latencies. She remained stable for 6 years until developing proximal and distal weakness. Nerve conduction studies showed multiple conduction blocks. She developed quadriparesis despite first-line treatment for CIDP. She was started on cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. Twenty-five months after receiving chemotherapy, she had only mild signs of neuropathy off all immunotherapy. DADS may progress to classic CIDP and is unlikely to be a separate disorder. Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide may be effective for refractory CIDP. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Magliulo, Giuseppe; Iannella, Giannicola; Manno, Alessandra; Libonati, Laura; Onesti, Emanuela; Vestri, Annarita; Fegatelli, Danilo Alunni; Angeletti, Diletta; Pace, Annalisa; Gulotta, Giampiero; Gagliardi, Silvia; Inghilleri, Maurizio
To investigate the possibility of vestibular damage in a group of patients suffering from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) using a diagnostic protocol including the caloric test, C-VEMPs and O-VEMPs. Twenty patients suffering from CIDP (mean age 58.5 years, range 33-80 years; 4 women and 16 men) were investigated. To assess any eventual audio-vestibular involvement, all patients of the study underwent pure tone audiometry, Fitzgerald-Hallpike caloric vestibular test, C-VEMPs and O-VEMPs. In 11 patients with CIDP values of both O-VEMPs and C-VEMPs were either absent or abnormal. An absent trace at O-VEMPs testing occurred in 36% of these pathological patients, whereas an increase of n10 latency and amplitude was present in the other 64% . A specific diagnostic protocol including the caloric test, C-VEMPS, O-VEMPS, could be useful when employed for identifying vestibular damage in CIDP patients.
Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Misawa, Akiko; Shimada, Yoichi
There has been only one reported case of neuromuscular scoliosis following chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, no cases of scoliosis that were treated with surgery secondary to CIDP have been previously described. A 16-year-old boy with CIDP was consultant due to the progression of scoliosis with the coronal curve of 86° from T8 to T12. Posterior correction and fusion with segmental pedicle screws were performed under intraoperative spinal cord monitoring with transcranial electric motor-evoked potentials. Although the latency period was prolonged and amplitude was low, the potential remained stable. Coronal curve was corrected from 86° to 34° without neurological complications. We here describe scoliosis associated with CIDP, which was successfully treated with surgery under intraoperative spinal cord monitoring. PMID:23311940
Lockemer, Hillary Elizabeth; Sumpter, Kathryn Maria; Cope-Yokoyama, Sandy; Garg, Abhimanyu
Acquired lipodystrophy, craniopharyngioma and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are individually rare disorders, and have never before been reported in a single patient. A 15-year-7 month old Caucasian male presented with lower extremity weakness, frequent falls and abnormal fat distribution occurring over the previous 1 year. He was diagnosed with CIDP, craniopharyngioma and acquired lipodystrophy. The patient underwent tumor debulking and cranial irradiation for the craniopharyngioma, and received monthly intravenous immunoglobulin for the CIDP. The patient initially had some resolution of the lipodystrophy phenotype, but subsequently the abnormal fat distribution recurred and the patient developed additional systemic abnormalities, including mild pancytopenia and hepatic fibrosis. Our patient represents a novel association of acquired lipodystrophy, craniopharyngioma, and CIDP, possibly due to an as yet unidentified paraneoplastic autoantibody.
Segal, Laura; Discepola, Marino
Two patients with sickle cell disease presented with headaches and visual disturbances, typical complaints of this disorder. However, prompt diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension and initiation of medical therapy lead to improved symptoms and restored vision. Ophthalmologists should consider sickle cell disease to be an independent risk factor for idiopathic intracranial hypertension when a patient is being assessed for visual disturbances. Although a rare condition, idiopathic intracranial hypertension has several key signs useful in establishing a diagnosis. It is critical to recognize the warning signs and symptoms to prevent devastating ophthalmologic complications. We report the first cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in patients with the novel Quebec-Chori beta-chain variant of sickle cell disease.
Schafranski, Marcelo Derbli
We report a case of a 66-year-old Caucasian female with a diagnosis of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease (OID) refractory to azathioprine therapy. The coexistence of diabetes mellitus represented a relative contraindication to chronic prednisone use. After two infusions of rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20+ antibody, ophthalmic signs and symptoms remarkably improved. To our knowledge, this is the first case of idiopathic OID successfully treated with rituximab.
Kume, Kodai; Ikeda, Kazuyo; Kamada, Masaki; Touge, Tetsuo; Deguchi, Kazushi; Masaki, Tsutomu
A 47-year-old man with HIV infection presented with lower leg dominant dysesthesia, muscle weakness and sensory ataxia of 3 month's duration. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) showed demyelination change in the median and tibial nerves and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) in the sural nerve was not evoked. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) showed the delayed N9 latency. Diagnose of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was made. Although the CD4 lymphocyte counts were relatively preserved (466/μl), highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) was started according to a new guideline for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents recommending early initiation of treatment. After six months, HIV1-RNA was not detected and the CD4 lymphocyte counts showed a recovering trend (585/μl). His symptoms had disappeared, except for dysesthesia in the tip of a toe. Repeated NCS demonstrated full recovery from the demyelination and appearance of SNAP in the sural nerve. The improvement of his symptoms and NCS findings has been maintained for two years. Although effectiveness of immunotherapies such as oral prednisone, high-dose immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis have been reported in HIV-associated CIDP, early initiation of HAART may be also important for favorable prognosis in HIV-associated CIDP.
Kerasnoudis, Antonios; Pitarokoili, Kallia; Behrendt, Volker; Gold, Ralf; Yoon, Min-Suk
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a nerve ultrasound score (Bochum ultrasound score, BUS), clinical, and electrophysiological parameters could distinguish subacute chronic (CIDP) from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). Phase 1: The charts of 35 patients with polyradiculoneuropathy were evaluated retrospectively regarding BUS, clinical, and electrophysiological parameters (A-waves, sural nerve sparing pattern, sensory ratio>1). Phase 2: All parameters were evaluated prospectively in 10 patients with subacute polyradiculoneuropathy. Phase 1: A sum score of ≥2 points in BUS and the presence of sensory symptoms were significantly more frequent in the subacute CIDP group than in the AIDP group (P<0.001).The electrophysiological parameters showed no significant changes between the 2 groups. Phase 2: BUS (83.3%; 100%;), sensory symptoms (100%; 75%), absence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (83.3%; 75%), or bulbar palsy (83.3%; 50%) showed the best sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing subacute CIDP from AIDP. BUS is a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing subacute CIDP from AIDP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vo, Mary L; Hanineva, Aneliya; Chin, Russell L; Carey, Bridget T; Latov, Norman; Langsdorf, Jennifer A
European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society electrodiagnostic (EDx) criteria for the definite diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) require the presence of demyelinating findings (DF) in at least 2 nerves. Data are lacking, however, regarding the optimal number of nerves to test. We retrospectively reviewed EDx data from 53 patients with CIDP and compared the number of DF found on 2- and 3-limb testing. A median of 3 (range 2-5) DF were found on 2-limb testing compared with 5 (range 4-7) DF when 3 limbs were evaluated. Two-limb EDx studies were sufficient to diagnose definite CIDP in 92.3% of typical, 84.2% of asymmetric, and 66.7% of distal phenotypes. Testing a third limb increased diagnostic certainty in 11 patients (20.8%) to definite CIDP. Three-limb testing may increase diagnostic sensitivity of definite CIDP, especially in patients with atypical phenotypes. Larger prospective studies are needed to better assess the benefit of performing 3-limb EDx studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuwahara, Motoi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Oka, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Hidenori; Yanagimoto, Satoshi; Sadakane, Shuji; Fukumoto, Yuta; Yamana, Masaki; Yuhara, Yoshiko; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Morikawa, Miyuki; Kawai, Shigeru; Okazaki, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Toru; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Kusunoki, Susumu
Neurofascin155 (NF155) is a target antigen for autoantibodies in a subset of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We report the cases of 4 patients with anti-NF155 immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibody-positive CIDP who underwent sural nerve biopsies. All patients were relatively young at onset. Three patients experienced tremors, and 2 patients had severe ataxia. Although the response to intravenous immunoglobulin was poor in all patients, plasma exchange and corticosteroids were at least partially effective. Immunoadsorption plasmapheresis was performed in 1 patient but was ineffective. Electron microscopic examination of sural nerve biopsies revealed loss of paranodal transverse bands in all patients. Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibody-positive CIDP shows distinctive clinicopathological features, indicating that the IgG4 antibody is directly associated with the pathogenic mechanisms of anti-NF155 IgG4 antibody-positive CIDP. Muscle Nerve 57: 498-502, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lim, Jong Youb; Lim, Young-Ho; Choi, Eun-Hi
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS. A 44-year-old male logger complained of acute quadriplegia and dyspnea. Mechanical ventilation was initiated. He was an HBV carrier with mild elevation of hepatic enzyme, and positive for hantavirus antibody. He was diagnosed with GBS and immunoglobulin therapy was administered. After 8 months, quadriplegia and hypesthesia recurred. Immunoglobulin therapy at this time had no effect, but steroid therapy had some effect. A diagnosis of CIDP was made. After 2 months, severe extremity pain and dyspnea developed again, and steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Besides GBS, acute-onset CIDP can occur with hantavirus and HBV coinfection. Patients with this coinfection in whom GBS has been initially diagnosed should be followed up for a long time, because of the possibility of relapse or deterioration, and acute-onset CIDP should always be considered.
Knak, Kirsten L; Andersen, Linda K; Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars K
Grip strength (GS) is a common measure of general muscle strength in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, it is important to investigate the correlation and responsiveness of GS compared with isokinetic muscle strength (IKS) and function of the lower limbs. Seventy patients with CIDP were evaluated with GS, IKS, and functional measures of the lower limbs. Reevaluation was performed after 2 and 10/12 weeks. Correlation and response analyses were performed. GS correlated with IKS at the ankle (IKS ankle ; maximum Spearman's rank-order correlation [R S ] = 0.58) and with walking performance (maximum R S = -0.38). IKS ankle was more responsive to detect change (standardized response mean [SRM] = 0.57) than GS (SRM = 0.27). GS does not seem to be an appropriate surrogate measure of IKS and function of the lower limbs in patients with CIDP. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lazzaro, Carlo; Lopiano, Leonardo; Cocito, Dario
Prior researches have suggested that home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is equally effective and can be less expensive than hospital-based intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients. This economic evaluation aims at comparing costs of SCIG vs IVIG for CIDP patients in Italy. A 1-year model-based cost-minimization analysis basically populated via neurologists' opinion was undertaken from a societal perspective. Health care resources included immunoglobulin; drugs for premedication and complications (rash, headache, and hypertension) management; time of various health care professionals; pump for SCIG self-administration; infusion disposables. Non-health care resources encompassed transport and parking; losses of working and leisure time for patients and caregivers. Unit or yearly costs for resources valuation were mainly obtained from published sources. Costs were expressed in Euro (
Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Kronlage, Moritz; Bäumer, Philip; Schwarz, Daniel; Gold, Ralf; Bendszus, Martin; Yoon, Min-Suk
Background: We present a clinical, electrophysiological, sonographical and magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) study examining the complementary role of two neuroimaging methods of the peripheral nervous system for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Furthermore, we explore the significance of cross-sectional area (CSA) increase through correlations with MRN markers of nerve integrity. Methods: A total of 108 nerve segments on the median, ulnar, radial, tibial and fibular nerve, as well as the lumbar and cervical plexus of 18 CIDP patients were examined with high-resonance nerve ultrasound (HRUS) and MRN additionally to the nerve conduction studies. Results: We observed a fair degree of correlation of the CSA values for all nerves/nerve segments between the two methods, with a low random error in Bland–Altman analysis (bias = HRUS-CSA − MRN-CSA, −0.61 to −3.26 mm). CSA in HRUS correlated with the nerve T2-weighted (nT2) signal increase as well as with diffusion tensor imaging parameters such as fractional anisotropy, a marker of microstructural integrity. HRUS-CSA of the interscalene brachial plexus correlated significantly with the MRN-CSA and nT2 signal of the L5 and S1 roots of the lumbar plexus. Conclusions: HRUS allows for reliable CSA imaging of all peripheral nerves and the cervical plexus, and CSA correlates with markers of nerve integrity. Imaging of proximal segments as well as the estimation of nerve integrity require MRN as a complementary method. PMID:29552093
Mori, Masahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Suzuki, Miki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Mutoh, Tatsuro; Doi, Shizuki; Kokubun, Norito; Kamijo, Mikiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Abe, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Okada, Kazumasa; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Ko; Kusunoki, Susumu; Sobue, Gen; Kaji, Ryuji
Objective Short-term efficacy of induction therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is well established. However, data of previous studies on maintenance therapy were limited up to 24-week treatment period. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of longer-term intravenous Ig therapy for 52 weeks. Methods This study was an open-label phase 3 clinical trial conducted in 49 Japanese tertiary centres. 49 patients with CIDP who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were included. After an induction intravenous Ig therapy (0.4 g/kg/day for five consecutive days), maintenance dose intravenous Ig (1.0 g/kg) was given every 3 weeks for up to 52 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the responder rate at week 28 and relapse rate at week 52. The response and relapse were defined with the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment scale. Results At week 28, the responder rate was 77.6% (38/49 patients; 95% CI 63% to 88%), and the 38 responders continued the maintenance therapy. At week 52, 4 of the 38 (10.5%) had a relapse (95% CI 3% to 25%). During 52 weeks, 34 (69.4%) of the 49 enrolled patients had a maintained improvement. Adverse events were reported in 94% of the patients; two patients (66-year-old and 76-year-old men with hypertension or diabetes) developed cerebral infarction (lacunar infarct with good recovery), and the other adverse effects were mild and resolved by the end of the study period. Conclusions Maintenance treatment with 1.0 g/kg intravenous Ig every 3 weeks is an efficacious therapy for patients with CIDP, and approximately 70% of them had a sustained remission for 52 weeks. Thrombotic complications should be carefully monitored, particularly in elderly patients with vascular risk factors. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01824251). PMID:28768822
Lieker, Ina; Slowinski, Torsten; Harms, Lutz; Hahn, Katrin; Klehmet, Juliane
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare paralyzing inflammatory neuropathy with probably autoimmune origin. While plasma exchange (PE) constitutes a first-line treatment option for CIDP, there is only little known about the efficacy and safety of immunoadsorption (IA), a more selective apheresis procedure with assumed better tolerability. In this prospective-randomized pilot trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive 6 sessions of PE (n = 10) or IA (n = 10) treating equal plasma volumes. To evaluate efficacy, we calculated the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score at baseline (V1), after completion of 6 sessions (V2) as well as 4 weeks after completion (V3) in 9 patients per group (1 patient in each group did not complete follow-up). We additionally assessed safety and tolerability of treatments by monitoring adverse event and blood parameters. With IA, 6 out of 9 (66.7%) patients improved clinically, whereas with PE, 4 out of 9 (44.4%) patients improved, most of them immediately with completion of the apheresis treatment series. There was one adverse event (AE) out of 52 treatment sessions for the 9 patients in the IA group. In the PE group of 9 patients, there was 1 AE out of 51 sessions and a trend of greater fibrinogen reduction. No severe AE occurred in either group. The results of this pilot study suggest that IA is at least equally effective and safe compared to PE in CIDP patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Koike, Haruki; Kadoya, Masato; Kaida, Ken-Ichi; Ikeda, Shohei; Kawagashira, Yuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Kato, Daisuke; Ogata, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryo; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen
To investigate the morphological features of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with autoantibodies directed against paranodal junctional molecules, particularly focusing on the fine structures of the paranodes. We assessed sural nerve biopsy specimens obtained from 9 patients with CIDP with anti-neurofascin-155 antibodies and 1 patient with anti-contactin-1 antibodies. 13 patients with CIDP without these antibodies were also examined to compare pathological findings. Characteristic light and electron microscopy findings in transverse sections from patients with anti-neurofascin-155 and anti-contactin-1 antibodies indicated a slight reduction in myelinated fibre density, with scattered myelin ovoids, and the absence of macrophage-mediated demyelination or onion bulbs. Teased-fibre preparations revealed that segmental demyelination tended to be found in patients with relatively higher frequencies of axonal degeneration and was tandemly found at consecutive nodes of Ranvier in a single fibre. Assessment of longitudinal sections by electron microscopy revealed that detachment of terminal myelin loops from the axolemma was frequently found at the paranode in patients with anti-neurofascin-155 and anti-contactin-1 antibody-positive CIDP compared with patients with antibody-negative CIDP. Patients with anti-neurofascin-155 antibodies showed a positive correlation between the frequencies of axo-glial detachment at the paranode and axonal degeneration, as assessed by teased-fibre preparations (p<0.05). Paranodal dissection without classical macrophage-mediated demyelination is the characteristic feature of patients with CIDP with autoantibodies to paranodal axo-glial junctional molecules. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Ritter, Christian; Bobylev, Ilja; Lehmann, Helmar C
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an effective treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In most patients, the optimal IVIg dose and regime is unknown. Polyvalent immunoglobulin (Ig) G form idiotypic/anti-idiotypic antibody pairs in serum and IVIg preparations. We determined IgG dimer levels before and after IVIg treatment in CIDP patients with the aim to explore their utility to serve as a surrogate marker for treatment response. IgG was purified from serum of five controls without treatment, as well as from serum of 16 CIDP patients, two patients with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), and one patient with myasthenia gravis before and after treatment with IVIg. IgG dimer levels were determined by size exclusion chromatography. IgG dimer formation was correlated with clinical response to IVIg treatment in CIDP. Re-monomerized IgG dimer fractions were analyzed for immunoreactivity against peripheral nerve tissue. IgG dimer levels were significantly higher in post- compared to pre-IVIg infusion samples. Low post-treatment IgG dimer levels in CIDP patients were associated with clinical worsening during IVIg treatment. Re-monomerized IgG dimer fractions from CIDP patients showed immunoreactivity against peripheral nerve tissue, whereas similarly treated samples from MFS patients showed immunoreactivity against GQ1b. Assessment of IgG dimer levels could be a novel approach to monitor CIDP patients during IVIg treatment, but further studies in larger cohorts are warranted to explore their utility to serve as a potential therapeutic biomarker for IVIg treatment response in CIDP.
Stephanova, D I; Daskalova, M; Mladenov, M
Decreased conducting processes leading usually to conduction block and increased weakness of limbs during cold (cold paresis) or warmth (heat paresis) have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). To explore the mechanisms of these symptoms, the effects of temperature (from 20°C to 42°C) on nodal action potentials and their current kinetics in previously simulated case of 70% CIDP are investigated, using our temperature dependent multi-layered model of the myelinated human motor nerve fiber. The results show that potential amplitudes have a bifid form at 20°C. As in the normal case, for the CIDP case, the nodal action potentials are determined mainly by the nodal sodium currents (I Na ) for the temperature range of 20-39°C, as the contribution of nodal fast and slow potassium currents (I Kf and I Ks ) to the total ionic current (Ii) is negligible. Also, the contribution of I Kf and I Ks to the membrane repolarization is enhanced at temperatures higher than 39°C. However, in the temperature range of 20-42°C, all potential parameters in the CIDP case, except for the conduction block during hyperthermia (≥ 40°C) which is again at 45°C, worsen: (i) conduction velocities and potential amplitudes are decreased; (ii) afterpotentials and threshold stimulus currents for the potential generation are increased; (iii) the current kinetics of action potentials is slowed and (iv) the conduction block during hypothermia (≤ 25°C) is at temperatures lower than 20°C. These potential parameters are more altered during hyperthermia and are most altered during hypothermia. The present results suggest that the conducting processes in patients with CIDP are in higher risk during hypothermia than hyperthermia.
Bamrungsawad, Naruemon; Upakdee, Nilawan; Pratoomsoot, Chayanin; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Dechanont, Supinya; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Dejthevaporn, Charungthai; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been recommended for steroid-resistant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The treatment, however, is very costly to healthcare system, and there remains no evidence of its economic justifiability. This study aimed to conduct an economic evaluation (EE) of IVIG plus corticosteroids in steroid-resistant CIDP in Thailand. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the lifetime costs and outcomes for IVIG plus corticosteroids in comparison with immunosuppressants plus corticosteroids in steroid-resistant CIDP patients from a societal perspective. Efficacy and utility data were obtained from clinical literature, meta-analyses, medical record reviews, and patient interviews. Cost data were obtained from list prices, an electronic hospital database, published source, and patient interviews. All costs [in 2015 US dollars (US$)] and outcomes were discounted at 3 % annually. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. In the base-case, the incremental costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of IVIG plus corticosteroids versus immunosuppressants plus corticosteroids were US$2112.02 and 1.263 QALYs, respectively, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$1672.71 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the utility value of disabled patients was the greatest influence on ICER. At a societal willingness-to-pay threshold in Thailand of US$4672 per QALY gained, IVIG plus corticosteroids had a 92.1 % probability of being cost effective. At a threshold of US$4672 per QALY gained, IVIG plus corticosteroids is considered a cost-effective treatment for steroid-resistant CIDP patients in Thailand.
Brun, Susana; Beaino, Wissam; Kremer, Laurent; Taleb, Omar; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy; Lam, Chanh D; Greer, Judith M; de Seze, Jérôme; Trifilieff, Elisabeth
Our objective was to develop a chronic model of EAN which could be used as a tool to test treatment strategies for CIDP. Lewis rats injected with S-palmitoylated P0(180-199) peptide developed a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease. Our model fulfills electrophysiological criteria of demyelination with axonal degeneration, confirmed by immunohistopathology. The late phase of the chronic disease was characterized by accumulation of IL-17(+) cells and macrophages in sciatic nerves and by high serum IL-17 levels. In conclusion, we have developed a reliable and reproducible animal model resembling CIDP that can now be used for translational drug studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Todes, C J
The link between idiopathic Parkinson's disease and depression is examined in the light of psychosomatic theory. A view of the condition is offered as a manifestation of chronic emotional disorder in an organic sense. Predisposition arises from bereavement and/or maternal failure in early emotional development. PMID:6707677
Kuwabara, Satoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Suzuki, Miki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Mutoh, Tatsuro; Doi, Shizuki; Kokubun, Norito; Kamijo, Mikiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Abe, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Okada, Kazumasa; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Ko; Kusunoki, Susumu; Sobue, Gen; Kaji, Ryuji
Short-term efficacy of induction therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is well established. However, data of previous studies on maintenance therapy were limited up to 24-week treatment period. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of longer-term intravenous Ig therapy for 52 weeks. This study was an open-label phase 3 clinical trial conducted in 49 Japanese tertiary centres. 49 patients with CIDP who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were included. After an induction intravenous Ig therapy (0.4 g/kg/day for five consecutive days), maintenance dose intravenous Ig (1.0 g/kg) was given every 3 weeks for up to 52 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the responder rate at week 28 and relapse rate at week 52. The response and relapse were defined with the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment scale. At week 28, the responder rate was 77.6% (38/49 patients; 95% CI 63% to 88%), and the 38 responders continued the maintenance therapy. At week 52, 4 of the 38 (10.5%) had a relapse (95% CI 3% to 25%). During 52 weeks, 34 (69.4%) of the 49 enrolled patients had a maintained improvement. Adverse events were reported in 94% of the patients; two patients (66-year-old and 76-year-old men with hypertension or diabetes) developed cerebral infarction (lacunar infarct with good recovery), and the other adverse effects were mild and resolved by the end of the study period. Maintenance treatment with 1.0 g/kg intravenous Ig every 3 weeks is an efficacious therapy for patients with CIDP, and approximately 70% of them had a sustained remission for 52 weeks. Thrombotic complications should be carefully monitored, particularly in elderly patients with vascular risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01824251). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise
van Schaik, Ivo N; van Geloven, Nan; Bril, Vera; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Lewis, Richard A; Sobue, Gen; Lawo, John-Philip; Mielke, Orell; Cornblath, David R; Merkies, Ingemar S J
Subcutaneous administration of Ig (SCIg) has gained popularity as an alternative route of administration but has never been rigorously examined in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The primary objective of the PATH study (Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra) is to determine the efficacy of two different doses of SCIg IgPro20 (0.2 g/kg bw or 0.4 g/kg bw) in a 24-week maintenance treatment of CIDP in comparison to placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients who show CIDP relapse (1-point deterioration on the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score) or are withdrawn within 24 weeks after randomization for any reason. IVIg-dependent adult patients with definite or probable CIDP according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society who fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be eligible. Based on sample-size calculation and relapse assumptions in the three arms, a sample size of 58 is needed per arm (overall sample size will be 350, of which 174 will be randomized). All eligible patients will progress through three study periods: an IgG dependency period (≤12 weeks) to select those who are Ig dependent; an IVIg restabilization period (10 or 13 weeks), which will be performed using the 10 % IgPro10 product; and an SC treatment period (24 weeks, followed by a 1-week completion visit after last follow-up). Patients showing IVIg restabilization will be randomized to demonstrate the efficacy of SCIg IgPro20 maintenance treatment over placebo. After completing the study, subjects are eligible to enter a long-term, open-label, extension study of 1 year or return to their previous treatment. In case of CIDP relapse during the 24-week SC treatment period, IgPro10 rescue medication will be offered. Safety, tolerability, and patients' preference of Ig administration route will be examined. The PATH trial, which started in March
Klehmet, Juliane; Märschenz, Stefanie; Ruprecht, Klemens; Wunderlich, Benjamin; Büttner, Thomas; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Meisel, Andreas
Unlike for acute immune-mediated neuropathies (IN), anti-ganglioside autoantibody (aGAAb) testing has been recommended for only a minority of chronic IN yet. Thus, we used a multiplex semi-quantitative line immunoassay (LIA) to search for aGAAb in chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and its clinical variants. Anti-GAAb to 11 gangliosides and sulfatide (SF) were investigated by LIA in 61 patients with IN (27 typical CIDP, 12 distal-acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy, 6 multifocal-acquired demyelinating sensory/motor polyneuropathy, 10 sensory CIDP, 1 focal CIDP and 5 multifocal-motoric neuropathy), 40 with other neuromuscular disorders (OND) (15 non-immune polyneuropathies, 25 myasthenia gravis), 29 with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 54 healthy controls (HC). In contrast to IgG, positive anti-GAAB IgM against at least one ganglioside/SF was found in 17/61 (27.9%) IN compared to 2/40 (5%) in OND, 2/29 MS (6.9%) and 4/54 (7.4%) in HC (p=0.001). There was a statistically higher prevalence of anti-sulfatide (aSF) IgM in IN compared to OND (p=0.008). Further, aGM1 IgM was more prevalent in IN compared to OND and HC (p=0.009) as well as GD1b in IN compared to HC (p<0.04). The prevalence of aGM1 IgM in CIDP was lower compared to in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) (12% vs. 60%, p=0.027). Patients showing aSF, aGM1 and aGM2 IgM were younger compared to aGAAb negatives (p<0.05). Patients with aSF IgM positivity presented more frequently typical CIDP and MMN phenotypes (p<0.05, respectively). The aGAAb LIA revealed an elevated frequency of at least one aGAAb IgM in CIDP/MMN patients. Anti-SF, aGM1 and aGM2 IgM were associated with younger age and anti-SF with IN phenotypes.
Diederich, Jan-Markus; Staudt, Maximilian; Meisel, Christian; Hahn, Katrin; Meinl, Edgar; Meisel, Andreas; Klehmet, Juliane
The objective of this study is to investigate whether chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and its subtypes differ in their type 1 T-helper (TH1) cell response against nodal/paranodal neurofascin (NF186, NF155) as well as myelin protein zero (P0 180-199) and myelin basic protein (MBP 82-100). Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to detect antigen-specific T cell responses in 48 patients suffering typical CIDP ( n = 18), distal acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy ( n = 8), multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor polyneuropathy (MADSAM; n = 9), and sensory CIDP ( n = 13) compared to other non-immune polyneuropathy (ON; n = 19) and healthy controls ( n = 9). Compared to controls, MADSAM and sensory CIDP patients showed broadest IFN-γ T cell responses to all four antigens. Positive IFN-γ responses against two or more antigens were highly predictive for CIDP (positive predictive value = 0.95) and were found in 77% of CIDP patients. Patients with limited antigen-specific response were females, more severely affected with neuropathic pain and proximal paresis. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of NF186 in MADSAM was 0.94 [95% confidential interval (CI) 0.82-1.00] compared to ON. For sensory CIDP, AUC of P0 180-199 was 0.94 (95% CI 0.86-1.00) and for MBP 82-100 0.95 (95% CI 0.88-1.00) compared to ON. Cell-mediated immune responses to (para)nodal and myelin-derived antigens are common in CIDP. TH1 response against NF186 may be used as a biomarker for MADSAM and TH1 responses against P0 180-199 and MBP 82-100 as biomarkers for sensory CIDP. Larger multicenter studies study are warranted in order to establish these immunological markers as a diagnostic tools.
The use of IVIG to treat a wide variety of immune-driven diseases has grown rapidly, although the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Increasing demand for IVIG coupled with concerns regarding potential transmissible agents has led to worldwide supply shortages. National agencies have therefore produced guidelines for its use, with the latest England and Wales guideline being published in 2011. Due to the rarity of the rheumatic diseases, the evidence for IVIG use has been shown to be lacking in some areas and promising in others. Conditions in which IVIG has been shown to have benefit include ITP, Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy occurring in the context of rheumatic disease, as well as in SLE, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and ANCA-associated vasculitides. This review looks at current IVIG use and is designed to be an aid for rheumatologists when considering the use of IVIG in clinical practice. PMID:25406359
European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society - first revision.
Van den Bergh, P Y K; Hadden, R D M; Bouche, P; Cornblath, D R; Hahn, A; Illa, I; Koski, C L; Léger, J-M; Nobile-Orazio, E; Pollard, J; Sommer, C; van Doorn, P A; van Schaik, I N
Consensus guidelines on the definition, investigation, and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have been previously published in European Journal of Neurology and Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System. To revise these guidelines. Disease experts, including a representative of patients, considered references retrieved from MEDLINE and Cochrane Systematic Reviews published between August 2004 and July 2009 and prepared statements that were agreed in an iterative fashion. The Task Force agreed on Good Practice Points to define clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria for CIDP with or without concomitant diseases and investigations to be considered. The principal treatment recommendations were: (i) intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (Recommendation Level A) or corticosteroids (Recommendation Level C) should be considered in sensory and motor CIDP; (ii) IVIg should be considered as the initial treatment in pure motor CIDP (Good Practice Point); (iii) if IVIg and corticosteroids are ineffective, plasma exchange (PE) should be considered (Recommendation Level A); (iv) if the response is inadequate or the maintenance doses of the initial treatment are high, combination treatments or adding an immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory drug should be considered (Good Practice Point); (v) symptomatic treatment and multidisciplinary management should be considered (Good Practice Point).
European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guideline on management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society--First Revision.
Consensus guidelines on the definition, investigation, and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have been published (J Peripher Nerv Syst 2005; 10: 220-228, Eur J Neurol 2006; 13: 326-332). To revise these guidelines. Disease experts, including a representative of patients, considered references retrieved from MEDLINE and Cochrane Systematic Reviews published between August 2004 and July 2009 and prepared statements that were agreed in an iterative fashion. The Task Force agreed on Good Practice Points to define clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria for CIDP with or without concomitant diseases and investigations to be considered. The principal treatment recommendations were: (i) intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (Recommendation Level A) or corticosteroids (Recommendation Level C) should be considered in sensory and motor CIDP; (ii) IVIg should be considered as the initial treatment in pure motor CIDP (Good Practice Point); (iii) if IVIg and corticosteroids are ineffective, plasma exchange (PE) should be considered (Recommendation Level A); (iv) if the response is inadequate or the maintenance doses of the initial treatment are high, combination treatments or adding an immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory drug should be considered (Good Practice Point); (v) symptomatic treatment and multidisciplinary management should be considered (Good Practice Point).
Isose, Sagiri; Misawa, Sonoko; Sonoo, Masahiro; Shimuzu, Toshio; Oishi, Chizuko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Nasu, Saiko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Mitsuma, Satsuki; Beppu, Minako; Omori, Shigeki; Komori, Tetsuo; Kokubun, Norito; Inaba, Akira; Hirashima, Fumiko; Kuwabara, Satoshi
In current electrodiagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, the cutoff values of distal compound muscle action potential (DCMAP) duration are defined using electromyogram low-cut filter setting of 20 Hz. We aimed to assess effects of low-cut filter on DCMAP duration (10 vs. 20 Hz). We prospectively measured DCMAP duration in 130 normal controls and 42 patients, fulfilling diagnostic criteria for typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy by European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society. Distal compound muscle action potential duration was significantly shortened with 20-Hz than 10-Hz filtering. When the cutoff values were defined as the upper limit of normal (ULN, mean + 2.5SD), the sensitivity/specificity was 67%/95% in 10-Hz recordings, and 69%/95% in 20-Hz recordings. This diagnostic accuracy was similar to that defined by receiver operating characteristic analyses. Distal compound muscle action potential duration significantly affected by the low-cut electromyogram filter setting, but with at least 10 and 20 Hz, the diagnostic accuracy is similar.
Berger, Melvin; Harbo, Thomas; Cornblath, David R; Mielke, Orell
Subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) administration may be preferred over the intravenous route (IVIG) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) because it minimizes 'end of cycle' treatment-related fluctuations, reduces systemic adverse effects, improves convenience/quality of life and potentially lowers overall costs. Early reports of the use of highly concentrated SCIG preparations suggested they were effective and well-tolerated in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This was confirmed in the Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra ® study of 172 subjects randomized to receive maintenance therapy with placebo or one of two doses of IgPro20 (20% IgG stabilized with L-Proline) for 6 months. Risk of relapse was reduced by SCIG in a dose-related manner as compared with placebo. A total of 88% of polyneuropathy and treatment with hizentra subjects felt the subcutaneous method was 'easy to learn'. Local adverse events were mostly mild or moderate, and systemic adverse events were infrequent. Some patients may prefer maintenance therapy with SCIG over IVIG.
Yamada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yamamoto, K
CSF volumes in the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure are increased in both idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, though the differences in these volumes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease have not been well-described. Using CSF segmentation and volume quantification, we compared the distribution of CSF in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease. CSF volumes were extracted from T2-weighted 3D spin-echo sequences on 3T MR imaging and quantified semi-automatically. We compared the volumes and ratios of the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces after classification in 30 patients diagnosed with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, 10 with concurrent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, 18 with Alzheimer disease, and 26 control subjects 60 years of age or older. Brain to ventricle ratios at the anterior and posterior commissure levels and 3D volumetric convexity cistern to ventricle ratios were useful indices for the differential diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus or idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease from Alzheimer disease, similar to the z-Evans index and callosal angle. The most distinctive characteristics of the CSF distribution in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were small convexity subarachnoid spaces and the large volume of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure. The distribution of the subarachnoid spaces in the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was the most deformed among these 3 groups, though the mean ventricular volume of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was intermediate between that of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease groups. The z-axial expansion of the lateral ventricle and compression of the brain just above the ventricle were the common findings in the parameters for differentiating
Since the incidental discovery in 1981 that intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are immunomodulatory, they have been investigated in a large number of putative autoimmune diseases. This has led to licensing for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki disease, and in neurological disorders for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Although not licensed, randomized controlled trials have also shown IVIg efficacy in other neuroimmunological diseases such as multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), myasthenia gravis, dermatomyositis, and stiff-person syndrome. However, other indications are currently being explored including Alzheimer's disease, postpolio syndrome, and narcolepsy. There are even reports from experimental studies in stroke. The results of recently published clinical trials in both the classical neuroimmunological disorders as well as for new indications are reported and their role in clinical practice is discussed. PMID:21180569
Ulrych, J; Krška, Z
Treatment of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease is constantly developing. Biological therapy has become a standard part of conservative treatment, and gene and cell therapy of these diseases is in preclinical phase. Surgical therapy also offers some progress in the treatment, such as the increasingly preferred laparoscopic approach offering the numerous benefits of minimally invasive surgery or a tendency to perform stapled anastomosis. A retrospective analysis of patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel operated on at the First Department of Surgery, General University Hospital in the years 2007-2011 was performed. Within this period, 179 patients diagnosed with Crohns disease were operated on. 30 patients underwent acute operation and 149 patients were indicated for elective surgery. In the same period, 40 patients with ulcerative colitis were indicated for surgery, of whom 22 patients for acute surgery and 18 for elective surgery. Multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease is crucial and patients should be treated in specialized centres. New possibilities of conservative treatment and progress in surgical therapy mutually correlate, and thus the choice of a correct therapeutic procedure requires specific cooperation between the surgeon and the gastroenterologist.
Robert, Florence; Edan, Gilles; Nicolas, Guillaume; Pouget, Jean; Vial, Christophe; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Puget, Sophie
To assess the efficacy and safety of intraveinous immunoglobulin (IV Ig) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) at 4, 7 and 12months. A national multicenter retrospective study was conducted by LFB Biotehcnologies in patients with CIDP who had received at least one cycle of a 5% polyvalent IV Ig, Tegeline(®), from LFB biomédicaments between 1995 and 2004. The primary endpoint was the efficacy of IV Ig at 4 months, which was defined as the responder rate based on the modified Rankin scale. Several secondary endpoints were assessed: safety and efficacy (i.e., responders according to the investigators' overall assessment of the patients' status) at 4, 7 and 12 months. The analysis was performed at 7 months only (due to missing data for 12 months and few patients). A total of 26 patients were included who had received between 1 and 6 cycles of IV Ig (mean 3±2) with a median follow-up of 9.9 months. The responder rate at 4 months based on the modified Rankin scale was 52% (95% CI 0.313-0.722), whereas the responder rate with placebo reported in the literature (meta-analysis including results from van Schaik and an ICE study) is 18% (P<0.001). Responder patients at 4 months were still responders at 7 months. The overall safety of IV Ig was good, with adverse events of mild to moderate severity, which resolved without sequelae and were expected adverse events of IV Ig. This retrospective study confirmed both the efficacy of IV Ig at 4 months in the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and the favorable safety profile of the product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cornaggia, Matteo; Leutner, Monica; Mescoli, Claudia; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Gullotta, Renzo
The incidence of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is growing in western countries, making their histological diagnosis an everyday task for all pathologists. Reviews from the literature strongly suggest that such diagnosis cannot be performed on the histological ground alone but requires a clinical-pathological approach. Moreover, bewildering variations can be observed in the terminology employed to report either individual lesions or diagnostic categories. The aim of the present paper is to suggest a practical diagnostic algorithm summarizing the main data from the literature. Particular emphasis has been placed on minimum clinical information required and the accurate definition of individual lesions. Diagnostic categories to employ and to avoid in daily practice have furthermore been stressed. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Vogl, Ursula; Leitner, Gerda; Dal-Bianco, Assunta; Bojic, Marija; Mitterbauer, Margit; Rabitsch, Werner; Kalhs, Peter; Schulenburg, Axel
Neurologic complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are rare but poorly understood. We present a case report of a 57-year-old-male patient who was diagnosed in 2009 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). He received two standard induction chemotherapies, as well as a following consolidation. Six months later, an allogeneic HSCT was performed. Shortly after HSCT the patient developed progressive polyneuropathy of the lower legs and hypoesthesia. Five months later a severe dementia followed. All images of the brain and spine showed no specific pathologies. High dose corticosteroids and immunoglobulins did not improve the neurologic symptoms. Due to severe worsening of the neuropsychiatric status and the clinical presentation, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was suspected. Therefore, the patient received ten cycles of plasmapheresis. The patient showed a significant improvement of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive status. Immune mediated neuropathies after allogeneic HSCT, such as CIDP, have great variability in symptoms and presentation and are challenging to diagnose and treat. Plasmapheresis is a safe and efficient treatment for patients with unclear persisting autoimmune neuropathy after HSCT.
Kalita, Jayantee; Kumar, Mritunjai; Misra, Usha K
There have been few reports on subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in children. We compared clinical and laboratory findings of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). One hundred forty children with GBS were included. Based on nerve conduction study (NCS) findings, patients were subclassified as AIDP, AMAN, acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), and equivocal. Clinically, 72.1% of patients had pure motor, 24.3% motor sensory, and 3.4% Miller Fisher syndrome. Based on NCS, 67.8% of patients had AIDP, 23.6% had AMAN, and 4.3% had AMSAN. By 3 months, 2.1% patients had died, 47.1% had complete recovery, and 24.3% had poor recovery (wheelchair-bound). Children with AMAN had more frequent lower limb weakness (P = 0.02) and a lower probability of complete recovery (P = 0.01) at 3 months than children with AIDP (56% vs. 30%). AIDP is the most common GBS subtype in children. It is characterized by better recovery at 3 months when compared with AMAN. Muscle Nerve 57: 761-765, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wali, Ahmad; Kanwar, Dureshahwar; Khan, Safoora A; Khan, Sara
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy are the most common variants of Guillian-Barre syndrome documented in the Asian population. However, the variability of early neurophysiologic findings in the Asian population compared to western data has not been documented. Eighty-seven cases of AIDP were retrospectively reviewed for their demographic, clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory data. Mean age of subjects was 31 ± 8 years with males more commonly affected. Motor symptoms (97%) at presentation predominated. Common early nerve conduction findings included low motor amplitudes (85%), recordable sural sensory responses (85%), and absent H-reflex responses (65%). Prolonged F-latencies were found most commonly in posterior tibial nerves (23%) in the lower limbs and median and ulnar nerves (18%) in the upper limbs. Blink reflex (BR) studies were performed in 57 patients and were abnormal in 80% of those with clinical facial weakness and in 17 of 52 patients (33%) with no clinical cranial nerve signs, suggesting subclinical cranial nerve involvement. Abnormal motor and sensory amplitudes are seen early. Prolonged distal latencies, temporal dispersion/conduction blocks and sural sparing pattern are other common early nerve conduction study findings of AIDP seen in the Pakistani population. There are no significant differences in abnormalities of conduction velocities and delayed reflex responses compared to published data. The BR can help in the early diagnosis of AIDP. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.
Wilders, M M; Drexhage, H A; Kokjé, M; Verspaget, H W; Meuwissen, S G
Antigen presenting veiled cells have recently been described in cell suspensions prepared from the gut wall of patients with chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). The normal gut wall is virtually devoid of these cells. In this report we describe a phenomenon known as peripolesis studied by phase contrast cinematography. This is a process in which lymphocytes are seen to wander around larger target cells. These could be identified ultrastructurally as Ia positive veiled cells. In most cases peripolesis was followed by lysis of the target cell. Peripolesis was recorded in cell suspensions of three out of seven patients with ulcerative colitis and in three out of nine patients with Crohn's disease; furthermore peripolesis was observed in one out of two patients with non-classifiable CIBD. In four cell suspensions showing peripolesis, cell lysis could be recorded and was especially striking in ulcerative colitis. Peripolesis involving veiled cells was previously described in delayed hypersensitivity reactions. This study lends support to the concept that delayed allergic reactivity plays a part in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The antigens involved are, however, completely unknown. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6380839
Role of "Sural Sparing" Pattern (Absent/Abnormal Median and Ulnar with Present Sural SNAP) Compared to Absent/Abnormal Median or Ulnar with Normal Sural SNAP in Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.
Surpur, Spurthi Sunil; Govindarajan, Raghav
Sural sparing defined as absent/abnormal median sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude or absent/abnormal ulnar SNAP amplitude with a normal sural SNAP amplitude is thought to be a marker for inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. If sural sparing pattern specifically defined as absent/abnormal median and ulnar SNAP amplitude with normal sural SNAP amplitude (AMUNS) is sensitive and specific when compared with either absent/abnormal median and normal sural (AMNS) or absent/abnormal ulnar and normal sural (AUNS) for acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), select non-diabetic axonopathies (AXPs), and diabetic neuropathies (DNs). Retrospective analysis from 2001 to 2010 on all newly diagnosed AIDP, CIDP, select non-diabetic AXP, and DN. There were 20 AIDP and 23 CIDP. Twenty AXP and 50 DN patients between 2009 and 2010 were included as controls. AMUNS was seen in 65% of AIDP, 39% CIDP compared with 10% of AXP and 6% for DN with sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 92%, whereas the specificity of AMNS/AUNS was 73% and its sensitivity was 58%. If a patient has AMUNS they are >12 times more likely to have AIDP ( p < 0.001). Sural sparing is highly specific but not sensitive when compared with either AMNS or AUNS in AIDP but does not add to sensitivity or specificity in CIDP.
Baslaim, Muna M; Khayat, Hind A; Al-Amoudi, Shefaa A
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign inflammatory breast disease that presents with variable local manifestations. We describe here the different management protocols based on the clinical presentation of these patients. A retrospective review of 20 histopathologic confirmed cases of IGM seen over a period of 10 years was performed. The median age was 34 years (age range: 21-45 years). All were married, parous with history of breast feeding. Ill-defined mass mimicking carcinoma was the commonest presentation (70%); however, with the presence of signs of inflammation like pain (55%), redness (40%), and peau d'orange (40%), an inflammatory process appeared more likely. Axillary lymph node enlargement was infrequently seen (40%). Radiologic findings (mammography and ultrasound) were nonspecific. Histopathology showed the characteristic lobular distribution of granulomatous inflammation in all cases. Surgically, 7 patients had abscess drainage with open biopsy, and 7 patients had lumpectomy. Six patients with diffuse breast involvement were diagnosed by core needle biopsy only. Microbial cultures showed no growth. Antibiotics were given empirically when signs of inflammation where present. Two patients needed further abscess drainage followed by persistent sinus excision 3-6 weeks later. The median follow-up was 24 months (range: 15-42 months). Seventeen patients (85%) were recurrence-free, and 3 patients (15%) were lost to follow-up. Management of IGM cases needs to be tailored according to the clinical presentation. Precise radiologic and pathologic data interpretation by a multidisciplinary breast team will facilitate diagnosis and minimize unnecessary intervention.
Hu-Torres, Sandra; Foster, C Stephen
The purpose of this review is to comprehensively explain the differential diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. Web-based literature review. Main diagnostic decisions are made through a thorough anterior segment exam and a comprehensive exploration of past medical and family history. High clinical suspicion of other uveitic entities occurring in children is necessary and must be excluded by the practitioner before immediate diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis is made.
Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Ogata, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryo; Yoneyama, Masami; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Hiroshi
To evaluate the usefulness of 3D nerve-sheath signal increased with inked rest-tissue rapid acquisition of relaxation enhancement imaging (SHINKEI) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). This institutional review board-approved retrospective study included 14 CIDP patients and nine normal subjects. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast ratio (CR), and the size of the cervical ganglions and roots were measured by two raters. The SNRs of the ganglions and roots were larger in patients with CIDP (9.55 ± 3.87 and 9.81 ± 3.64) than in normal subjects (7.21 ± 2.42 and 5.70 ± 2.14, P < 0.0001, respectively). The CRs of the ganglions and roots were larger in patients with CIDP (0.77 ± 0.08 and 0.68 ± 0.12) than in normal subjects (0.72 ± 0.07 and 0.53 ± 0.11, P < 0.0001, respectively). The sizes of the ganglions and the roots were larger in patients with CIDP (6.44 ± 1.61 mm and 4.89 ± 1.94 mm) than in normal subjects (5.24 ± 1.02 mm and 3.39 ± 0.80 mm, P < 0.0001, respectively). Patients with CIDP could be distinguished from controls on 3D SHINKEI. • 3D SHINKEI could visualize brachial plexus with high spatial resolution. • CIDP patients showed increased SNR, CR, and the size of brachial plexus. • 3D SHINKEI could discriminate CIDP patients from normal subjects.
Markvardsen, L H; Sindrup, S H; Christiansen, I; Olsen, N K; Jakobsen, J; Andersen, H
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is effective as maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We investigated whether multiple subcutaneous infusions are as effective as conventional therapy with intravenous loading doses in treatment-naive patients with CIDP. Twenty patients fulfilling the clinical and electrophysiological criteria for CIDP were included and treated with either SCIG (0.4 g/kg/week) for 5 weeks or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (0.4 g/kg/day) for 5 days. After 10 weeks, patients were switched to the opposite treatment arm and followed for a further 10 weeks. All participants were evaluated at weeks 0, 2, 5 and 10 during both therapies. Primary outcome was combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary outcomes were disability, clinical evaluation of muscle strength and the performance of various function tests. All participants received both therapies, 14 completing the protocol. Overall, cIKS increased by 7.4 ± 14.5% (P = 0.0003) during SCIG and by 6.9 ± 16.8% (P = 0.002) during IVIG, the effect being similar (P = 0.80). Improvement of cIKS peaked 2 weeks after IVIG and 5 weeks after SCIG. Disability improved during SCIG treatment only. Muscle strength determined by manual muscle testing improved after 5 and 10 weeks during SCIG but only after 5 weeks during IVIG. The remaining parameters improved equally during both treatments. Plasma immunoglobulin G levels at baseline and improvement of cIKS were related. In treatment-naive patients with CIDP, short-lasting SCIG and IVIG therapy improve motor performance to a similar degree, but with earlier maximal improvement following IVIG than SCIG treatment. © 2016 EAN.
Ali, Mohammad Javed
The objective of this perspective is to present a separate disease description of "idiopathic canalicular inflammatory disease" and outline the diagnostic criteria and early experiences with its investigations and management. Retrospective case series of 44 canaliculi of 22 eyes of 11 patients presenting at a tertiary care Dacryology service over a period of 2 years with typical clinical patterns of inflammatory canaliculitis and its outcomes were studied. All the patients underwent microbiological work-up with culture and sensitivity, dacryoendoscopy imaging, serial Fourier domain ocular coherence tomography, and collagen vascular profiles. Stages in the evolution of the disease were studied. All patients were treated initially with topical steroids followed by punctal dilatation and placement of mini-monoka stents. Five patients in addition had a small biopsy from the inflamed portion of the vertical canaliculus. Stents were extubated at 6 weeks. Forty-four canaliculi were diagnosed to have idiopathic canalicular inflammatory disease during the study period. There was a female preponderance (81.8%, 9/11) and the mean age at presentation was 57 years. All patients presented with unilateral epiphora without any discharge, pain, or swelling. Collagen vascular profiles and screening for autoimmune diseases were negative. Clinical picture ranged from stages 1 to 5, consisting of edema, progressive centripetal vascularization, pouting of vascularized mucosa, membrane formation, and progressive scarring. The presentation begins in 1 eye and usually involves the other eye at a mean of 6 months. Ocular coherence tomography and dacryoendoscopy were of adjunctive value in the diagnosis. Histopathological examination was suggestive of a chronic inflammation. All patients had relentless progression to end-stage disease, although delayed significantly by steroids and monoka intubation. Idiopathic canalicular inflammatory disease has a distinct and typical clinical behavior and
Hannon, M J; Orr, C; Moran, C; Behan, L A; Agha, A; Ball, S G; Thompson, C J
Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, although many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data have suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood-onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone magnetic resonance imaging scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. Thirty-three percent had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not, therefore, be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Chorney, M.J.; Venditti, C.P.; Harris, J.M.
Despite the existence of many useful reagents which exist to aid in the positional cloning of the idiopathic hermochromatosis disease gene (HFE), the nature and precise location of this common genetic disease has remained elusive. Our group has pursued an MHC-based positional cloning approach which has centered on the precise physical definition of HLA-A variant chromosomes. Using deletion breakpoint locations in combination with genetic data derived from the Brittany founder population, we have used cDNA selection techniques to isolate new members of distinct multigene families which reside in the HFE critical region (distal to the HLA-A9 breakpoint/proximal to HLA-F). Wemore » have also initiated an independent set of cytogenetic and physical mapping studies to position the marker D6S105 with respect to the telomeric end of the class I subregion. Toward this end, we have performed double labelling FISH experiments which have allowed the localization of D6S105-containing YACs with respect to the HLA-A subregion and to the major G-bands which contain these loci. We have also derived single-copy probes, cosmids and cDNA clones from the region which have been used to create a physical map around D6S105. The combination of the cytogenetic and physical mapping data indicate that D6S105 is at least 2 Mb from HLA-A and that the distal limit of the MHC class I region may extend much further into the the euchromatic region of 6p21.3 than previously expected. A mega-YAC walk is now in progress to link the two loci. Finally, we have identified and characterized a family which is segregating a balanced inversion in phase with HFE. The breakpoint locations of this mutant chromosome may be important in the precise positioning of the HFE gene and attempts to define coding sequences in the proximity of this rearrangement are underway.« less
... be used even as a first-line therapy. Physiotherapy may improve muscle strength, function and mobility, and ... be used even as a first-line therapy. Physiotherapy may improve muscle strength, function and mobility, and ...
Markvardsen, Lars H; Vaeggemose, Michael; Ringgaard, Steffen; Andersen, Henning
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown that fractional anisotropy (FA) is lower in peripheral nerves in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We examined whether DTI correlates to muscle strength or impairment. MRI of sciatic and tibial nerves was performed on 3-T MR scanner by obtaining T2- and DTI-weighted sequences with fat saturation. On each slice of T2-weighted (T2w) and DTI, the tibial and sciatic nerves were segmented and served for calculation of signal intensity. On DTI images, pixel-by-pixel calculation of FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was done. Muscle strength at knee and ankle was determined by isokinetic dynamometry and severity of CIDP by neuropathy impairment score (NIS). Fourteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin were compared to gender- and age-matched controls. T2w values expressed as a nerve/muscle ratio (nT2w) were unchanged in CIDP versus controls 0.93 ± 0.21 versus 1.02 ± 0.21 (P = 0.10). FA values were lower in CIDP compared to controls 0.38 ± 0.07 versus 0.45 ± 0.05 (P < 0.0001), and ADC values were higher in CIDP versus controls 1735 ± 232 versus 1593 ± 116 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s (P = 0.005). In CIDP, FA values correlated to clinical impairment (NIS) (r = -0.57, P = 0.03), but not to muscle strength. FA value in the sciatic nerve distinguishes CIDP from controls with a sensitivity and a specificity of 92.9 %. CIDP patients have unchanged nT2w values, lower FA values, and higher ADC values of sciatic and tibial nerves compared to controls. FA values correlated to NIS but were unrelated to muscle strength. DTI of sciatic nerves seems promising to differentiate CIDP from controls.
Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Christiansen, Ingelise; Jakobsen, Johannes
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is recommended treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Recent studies have demonstrated that subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is feasible, safe, and effective in both disorders. IVIG leads to transient hemolysis and, consequently, we hypothesized that frequent small doses of SCIG exerts less hemolytic activity than a few larger doses of IVIG. In an open-label study, 23 three patients treated with IVIG for CIDP or MMN were switched to SCIG at an equal dosage. IVIG was administered two to three times for 6 weeks. Two weeks after the last IVIG infusion at Week 8, SCIG was initiated with injections twice or thrice weekly until Week 20. Blood samples were drawn 2 weeks after IVIG at Weeks 2 and 8 and during SCIG at Weeks 14 and 20 determining hemoglobin (Hb) and hemolytic variables. Seventeen patients completed the study. At enrollment, the Hb level was 138 ± 12 g/L, haptoglobin level was 1.4 ± 0.5 g/L, reticulocyte count was 58.7 × 10 9 ± 21.3 × 10 9 /L, and bilirubin level was 6.6 ± 2.3 µmol/L. The average of the two blood samples drawn at comparable intervals during IVIG and SCIG showed that Hb increased from 135 ± 15 to 138 ± 15 g/L (p = 0.03). During IVIG the hemolytic variables showed signs of mild hemolysis that improved during SCIG, haptoglobin increasing from 1.2 ± 0.5 to 1.5 ± 0.6 g/L (p = 0.002), reticulocytes decreasing from 71.9 × 10 9 ± 35.8 × 10 9 to 54.5 × 10 9 ± 16.3 × 10 9 /L (p = 0.02), and bilirubin decreasing from 7.3 ± 2.8 to 5.8 ± 1.8 µmol/L (p = 0.001). A switch from IVIG to SCIG was associated with a slight increase of Hb levels and an improvement of laboratory variables related to hemolytic activity. © 2016 AABB.
Pomarino, David; Martin, Stephan; Pomarino, Andrea; Morigeau, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia
Idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is a pathological gait pattern in which children walk on their tip toes with no orthopedic or neurological reason. Physiological characteristics of the gastrocnemius muscles, the Achilles tendon, and the foot of toe walkers differ from subjects with a plantigrade walking pattern. McArdle's disease is characterized by the inability to break down muscle glycogen. It is an autosomal-recessive condition, characterized by low exercise tolerance, muscular atrophy at the shoulder girdle, episodes of myoglobinuria after vigorous physical activities and the occurrence of the second wind phenomenon. The aim of this review is to present the case studies of two subjects who were originally diagnosed as idiopathic toe walkers, but were then found to have McArdle's disease. This review will describe some physical characteristics that distinguish McArdle´s disease from Idiopathic toe walkers.
Lee, Hwajeong; Westerhoff, Maria; Shen, Bo; Liu, Xiuli
-Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease manifests with different clinical phenotypes showing varying behavior and risk for neoplasia. The clinical questions that are posed to pathologists differ depending on phase of the disease and the clinical circumstances. Understanding the clinical aspects of the dynamic disease process will enhance the role of pathology in optimizing the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. -To review clinical and surgical aspects of inflammatory bowel disease that are relevant to practicing pathologists. -The literature was reviewed. -Diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease require an integrated evaluation of clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, and pathologic features. Therefore, close interaction between clinicians and pathologists is crucial. Having this team approach improves understanding of the pertinent clinical and surgical aspects of the disease and assists in the recognition of unusual presentation of variants, as well as mimics of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, by pathologists.
Song, Ju Sun; Hwang, Jiwon; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kang, Eun-Suk
Some patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) related to connective tissue disease (CTD) have a delayed diagnosis of the underlying CTD when the ILD is categorized as idiopathic. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of myositis autoantibodies in patients diagnosed with idiopathic ILD and investigated the clinical significance stemming from the presence of the antibodies. A total 32 patients diagnosed with idiopathic ILD were enrolled in this study. We analyzed a panel of 11 myositis autoantibody specificities in the patients using a line blot immunoassay. Then, we divided them into myositis autoantibody-positive and -negative groups and compared the clinical features and laboratory data between the two groups. Of the 32 idiopathic ILD patients, 12 patients had myositis autoantibodies encompassing 9 specificities, except for anti-Mi-2 and anti-PM-Scl 100 (12/32, 38%). Anti-synthetase autoantibodies including Jo-1, EJ, OJ, PL-7, and PL-12 were present in 7 patients (7/32, 22%). The group with myositis autoantibodies presented more frequently with the symptom of mechanic's hand and showed abnormal pulmonary function test results with low forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, total lung capacity, and high lactate dehydrogenase values in blood when compared with the group without myositis antibodies. We strongly suggest that patients undergo an evaluation of myositis autoantibodies, if they are diagnosed with idiopathic ILD in the presence of clinical characteristics including mechanic's hand, arthralgia, and autoantibodies which are insufficient to make a diagnosis of a specific CTD category.
Shome, Debraj; Toshniwal, Svetlana; Jain, Vandana; Natarajan, Sundaram; Vemuganti, Geeta K
A 41-year-old woman was examined for left upper eyelid retraction. Remaining ocular and systemic examination was unremarkable. Orbital CT demonstrated an ill-defined, extraconal, superior orbital soft-tissue mass involving the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. Incisional biopsy with histopathology demonstrated idiopathic orbital inflammation. The patient was started on a gradually tapering dose of oral steroids, for 6 weeks. On follow-up, the eyelid retraction had resolved. We report this case to demonstrate that idiopathic inflammatory orbital disease, localized to the superior orbit, may cause isolated upper eyelid retraction without associated proptosis. This condition resolves with medical therapy, leading to symmetrical palpebral apertures.
de Melo Roiz, Roberta; Azevedo Cacho, Enio Walker; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.; Barasnevicius Quagliato, Elizabeth Maria Aparecida
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) has been defined as a chronic progressive neurological disorder with characteristics that generate changes in gait pattern. Several studies have reported that appropriate external influences, such as visual or auditory cues may improve the gait pattern of patients with IPD. Therefore, the objective of this…
To examine the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency [25(OH)D=19 ng/ml] and insufficiency [25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml], and to determine factors associated with ...
Nuzzo, Alexandre; Zappa, Magaly; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram
Mesenteric panniculitis (MP) is mostly an associated sign of an intra-abdominal or systemic inflammatory primary disease. Nevertheless, etiological and differential diagnosis of idiopathic MP can be challenging when an associate primary cause is not in the foreground. We report here the case of an isolated small bowel Crohn's disease, long time considered as idiopathic MP. This patient presented to our department with a 10-year history of acute abdominal symptoms evolving with flare-up and remission. A diagnosis of idiopathic MP was made based on compatible CT-scan features along with normal laboratory tests and upper and lower bowel endoscopies. As symptoms recurred, a steroid course was proposed which dramatically improved his condition for years. Finally, an explorative laparoscopy was performed because of concern of malignancy when he returned to our unit with a steroid refractory flare-up and weight loss, along with MP nodes growing up to 10 mm. Crohn's disease was eventually diagnosed, based on histopathological middle-gut bowel resection and numerous granulomas in mesenteric nodes without necrosis. This case emphasizes the importance of excluding inflammatory intestinal lesions before making the diagnosis of idiopathic MP (fecal calprotectin, magnetic resonance enterography, wireless capsule endoscopy).
Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O
The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.
Emilsson, Louise; Andersson, Bert; Elfström, Peter; Green, Peter H.R.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
Background Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a rare disease of largely unknown origin. Previous studies have suggested an increased prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in patients with DCM. These studies, however, were based on a maximum of 5 patients with both CD and DCM. In the present large Swedish population-based cohort study, we examined the risk of idiopathic DCM in patients with CD determined by small-intestinal histopathology. Methods and Results From 2006 to 2008, we collected duodenal/jejunal biopsy data on CD (equal to villous atrophy, Marsh stage 3, n=29 071 unique individuals) from (all) 28 pathology departments in Sweden. These individuals were compared with 144 429 reference individuals matched for age, sex, calendar year, and county. Data on DCM were obtained through the National Patient Register and confirmed by patient charts and echocardiography data. During follow-up, 17 patients with CD and 52 reference individuals developed idiopathic DCM. Thus, patients with CD were at an increased risk of idiopathic DCM (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 3.00), although the risk estimate failed to attain statistical significance (P=0.052). Conclusion This nationwide study found a moderately but not statistically significantly increased risk of idiopathic DCM in patients with biopsy-verified CD. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001594 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001594.) PMID:23130142
... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...
Song, Ju Sun; Hwang, Jiwon; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo
Purpose Some patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) related to connective tissue disease (CTD) have a delayed diagnosis of the underlying CTD when the ILD is categorized as idiopathic. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of myositis autoantibodies in patients diagnosed with idiopathic ILD and investigated the clinical significance stemming from the presence of the antibodies. Materials and Methods A total 32 patients diagnosed with idiopathic ILD were enrolled in this study. We analyzed a panel of 11 myositis autoantibody specificities in the patients using a line blot immunoassay. Then, we divided them into myositis autoantibody-positive and -negative groups and compared the clinical features and laboratory data between the two groups. Results Of the 32 idiopathic ILD patients, 12 patients had myositis autoantibodies encompassing 9 specificities, except for anti-Mi-2 and anti-PM-Scl 100 (12/32, 38%). Anti-synthetase autoantibodies including Jo-1, EJ, OJ, PL-7, and PL-12 were present in 7 patients (7/32, 22%). The group with myositis autoantibodies presented more frequently with the symptom of mechanic's hand and showed abnormal pulmonary function test results with low forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, total lung capacity, and high lactate dehydrogenase values in blood when compared with the group without myositis antibodies. Conclusion We strongly suggest that patients undergo an evaluation of myositis autoantibodies, if they are diagnosed with idiopathic ILD in the presence of clinical characteristics including mechanic's hand, arthralgia, and autoantibodies which are insufficient to make a diagnosis of a specific CTD category. PMID:25837172
The frequencies of Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their HLA ligands in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy are similar to those in Guillian Barre syndrome but differ from those of controls, suggesting a role for NK cells in pathogenesis.
Blum, Stefan; Csurhes, Peter; McCombe, Pamela
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired inflammatory neuropathy, which has similar clinical and pathological features to Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), but differs in time course. We investigated the frequency of genes encoding Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their HLA ligands in subjects with CIDP, in subjects with GBS and in healthy controls. There were no differences in KIR gene frequency among the 3 groups. The gene frequencies for HLA-B Bw4-I were significantly greater in CIDP than HC, but did not differ from GBS. The frequency of the combination of 3DL1/HLA-B Bw4I was greater in CIDP than HC, but did not differ from that of GBS. These data raise the possibility of NK cell function being an important factor in the pathogenesis of CIDP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koo, Bon Kwon; Choi, Donghoon; Kwon, Kihwan
A 34-year-old man presenting with a left inguinal mass was diagnosed as having idiopathic multiple aneurysmal disease and pseudoaneurysm of a left superficial femoral artery. A stent-graft was successfully deployed percutaneously at the left superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. Less invasive treatment should be used to avoid vascular complications in patients with idiopathic multiple aneurysmal disease, especially in those who have a progressive course or a history of prior complications after surgical repair.
Hayes, Madeline; Gao, Xiaochong; Yu, Lisa X; Paria, Nandina; Henkelman, R. Mark; Wise, Carol A.; Ciruna, Brian
Scoliosis is a complex genetic disorder of the musculoskeletal system, characterized by three-dimensional rotation of the spine. Curvatures caused by malformed vertebrae (congenital scoliosis (CS)) are apparent at birth. Spinal curvatures with no underlying vertebral abnormality (idiopathic scoliosis (IS)) most commonly manifest during adolescence. The genetic and biological mechanisms responsible for IS remain poorly understood due largely to limited experimental models. Here we describe zygotic ptk7 (Zptk7) mutant zebrafish, deficient in a critical regulator of Wnt signalling, as the first genetically defined developmental model of IS. We identify a novel sequence variant within a single IS patient that disrupts PTK7 function, consistent with a role for dysregulated Wnt activity in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that embryonic loss-of-gene function in maternal-zygotic ptk7 mutants (MZptk7) leads to vertebral anomalies associated with CS. Our data suggest novel molecular origins of, and genetic links between, congenital and idiopathic forms of disease. PMID:25182715
Olgun Yazar, Hülya; Yazar, Tamer; Yancar Demir, Esra; Cankaya, Soner; Enginyurt, Özgür
In this study the aim was to collect data to assess the mental health of carers for patients with diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) according to disease stage and to examine precautions to reduce the patient and disease load on carers. The study included 144 patients with staging according to modified Hoehn and Yahr criteria and 144 patient relatives who provided care support for patients every day, for some or all of the day, and who were over the age of 18 years and accepted participation in the research. Our prospective and cross-sectional study performed detailed neurological examination of patients, and after completing the 'Personal Information Form' with the interviewer every patient, with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) according to 'UK Brain Bank' diagnostic criteria, had the 'Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)' and 'Modified Hoehn and Yahr scale (HYS)' applied. Carers first completed the 'Personal Information Form' and then had the 'Short Symptom Inventory (SSI)' applied. As the stage of disease increased, the points for all sub-scales of the Short Symptom Inventory increased. With the parallel increase in disease scores and UPDRS stage scores, the points obtained by carers on the SSI sub-scales increased. This data shows that with progressing disease stage, the load on the carer increases and mental health begins to be disrupted.
Background Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign, inflammatory chronic condition of unclear etiology. This case is reported because it illustrates how idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can mimic other diseases, making it difficult to associate the presenting symptoms and the correct diagnosis; This disease is a challenge for clinicians to diagnose, manage and avoid iatrogenic complications, and requires consultation with experts in several specialties. Case presentation The patient was 30 years old, South-American, eleven weeks pregnant, and with an apparent infectious mastitis. She presented with progressive worsening of her breast symptoms and multiple negative laboratory tests. She suffered different side effects from several prescribed treatments and endured a prolonged recovery. The article emphasizes the need for ruling out common pathologies to arrive at the correct diagnosis such as bacterial and fungal infections; granulomatous conditions like tuberculosis and sarcoidosis; and inflammatory breast carcinoma. It also describes frequently used pharmacological and supplementary forms of treatment for patients with this condition. Conclusion Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare unusual condition of unknown etiology. Pathological confirmation is required for its diagnosis and optimal management is still unclear. The presentation and management of this case is intended to advance its awareness to physicians from different specialties. PMID:23497626
Suárez Ferrer, Cristina; Llop Herrera, Elba; Calvo Moya, Marta; Vera Mendoza, María Isabel; González Partida, Irene; González Lama, Yago; Matallana Royo, Virginia; Calleja Panero, José Luis; Abreu García, Luis
The possibility of developing idiopathic portal hypertension has been described with thiopurine treatment despite compromises the prognosis of these patients, the fact its true prevalence is unknown. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients followed at our unit, to determine the prevalence of diagnosis of idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) and its relationship with thiopurine treatment. At the time of the analysis, 927/1,419 patients were under treatment with thiopurine drugs (65%). A total of 4 patients with IBD type Crohn's disease with idiopathic portal hypertension probably related to the thiopurine treatment were identified (incidence of 4.3 cases per 1,000). Seventy-five percent of patients started with signs or symptoms of portal hypertension. Only one patient was asymptomatic but the diagnosis of IPH because of isolated thrombocytopenia is suspected. However, note that all patients had thrombocytopenia previously. Abdominal ultrasound with fibroscan, hepatic vein catheterization and liver biopsy were performed on all of them as part of the etiology of portal hypertension. In the abdominal ultrasound, indirect portal hypertension data were observed in all patients (as splenomegaly) cirrhosis was also ruled out. The fibroscan data showed significant liver fibrosis (F2-F3). Idiopathic portal hypertension following thiopurine treatment in IBD patients is a rare occurrence, but it must be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis for early diagnosis, especially in patients undergoing thiopurine treatment over a long period. The presence of thrombocytopenia is often the only predictor of its development in the preclinical stage.
Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves
Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination.
Lukáš, K; Dastych, M; Novotný, A; Prokopová, L; Zbořil, V
Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Both can be treated with medications that induce and maintain remission. The choice of medication is influenced by the balance between drug potency and potential side-effects, previous response to treatment, and the presence of extraintestinal manifestations or complications. After remission has been achieved, the goal of treatment is to maintain the symptom-free status. 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives have efficacy for maintenance of remission in patients with distal disease. Thiopurines are recommended for the long-term therapy. For the patients who do not have a response to immunosuppressive therapy or cannot tolerate it, anti-TNF-α agents are gradually being adopted. Effective in the remission maintenance are thiopurines, infliximab and adalimumab.
Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F
Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.
Tanner, Jared J.; Couret, Michelle; Goicochea, Shelby; Mareci, Thomas H.; Price, Catherine C.
In this study, we investigate the organization of the structural connectome in cognitively well participants with Parkinson’s disease (PD-Well; n = 31) and a subgroup of participants with Parkinson’s disease who have amnestic disturbances (PD-MI; n = 9). We explore correlations between connectome topology and vulnerable cognitive domains in Parkinson’s disease relative to non-Parkinson’s disease peers (control, n = 40). Diffusion-weighted MRI data and deterministic tractography were used to generate connectomes. Connectome topological indices under study included weighted indices of node strength, path length, clustering coefficient, and small-worldness. Relative to controls, node strength was reduced 4.99% for PD-Well (p = 0.041) and 13.2% for PD-MI (p = 0.004). We found bilateral differences in the node strength between PD-MI and controls for inferior parietal, caudal middle frontal, posterior cingulate, precentral, and rostral middle frontal. Correlations between connectome and cognitive domains of interest showed that topological indices of global connectivity negatively associated with working memory and displayed more and larger negative correlations with neuropsychological indices of memory in PD-MI than in PD-Well and controls. These findings suggest that indices of network connectivity are reduced in PD-MI relative to PD-Well and control participants. PMID:29911667
Hwang, Jeong-Hwa; Misumi, Shigeki; Sahin, Hakan; Brown, Kevin K; Newell, John D; Lynch, David A
To compare the computed tomographic (CT) features of idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with those of pulmonary fibrosis related to collagen vascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the CT scans of 177 patients with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, of which 97 had idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia and 80 had CVD. The CT images were systematically scored for the presence and extent of pulmonary and extrapulmonary abnormalities. Computed tomographic diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) was assigned. A CT pattern of UIP was identified in 59 (60.8%) of patients with idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia compared with 15 (18.7%) of those patients with CVD; conversely, the CT diagnosis of NSIP was made in 51 (64%) of patients with CVD compared with 36 (37%) of patients with idiopathic disease (P < 0.01). In 113 patients who had lung biopsy, the CT diagnoses of UIP and NSIP were concordant with the histologic diagnoses in 36 of 50 patients and 34 of 41 patients, respectively. Pleural effusions, esophageal dilation, and pericardial abnormalities were more frequent in patients with CVD than in patients with idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Compared with patients with CVD, those patients with an idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia showed a higher prevalence of a UIP pattern and lower prevalence of an NSIP pattern as determined by CT. Identification of coexisting extrapulmonary abnormalities on CT can support a diagnosis of CVD.
Background Expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeats in the non-coding region of the C9ORF72 gene was recently identified as being responsible for over 40% of the cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, in various extrapyramidal syndromes including supranuclear gaze palsy and corticobasal degeneration, and in addition, has been found to be a rare genetic cause of isolated Parkinsonism. To our knowledge, there is no published data concerning the neuropsychological evaluation of patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease related with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. Case presentation We report the results of the comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation in a newly described case in the literature (the sixth) of a patient presenting isolated idiopathic Parkinson’s disease associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. The decrease in the patient’s prefrontal functions resulted in a slight decrease in global efficiency. These abnormalities did not appear to be different, with respect to the deficit observed and the intensity of the cognitive impairment, from those classically observed in cases of sporadic idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Our patient also exhibited a significant impairment in visual gnosis. Conclusions If confirmed in other patients, visuoperceptive deficits in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease could represent a red flag that should prompt the clinician to perform addition diagnostic procedures. A thorough neuropsychological assessment may prove to be useful for detecting idiopathic Parkinson’s disease in patients who are suspected of having repeat abnormalities of C9ORF72 expansions. PMID:23987827
Hamilton, Roy; Patel, Sunil; Lee, Edward B; Jackson, Eric M; Lopinto, Joanna; Arnold, Steven E; Clark, Christopher M; Basil, Anuj; Shaw, Leslie M; Xie, Sharon X; Grady, M Sean; Trojanowski, John Q
To determine the impact of cortical Alzheimer disease pathology on shunt responsiveness in individuals treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), 37 patients clinically diagnosed with iNPH participated in a prospective study in which performance on neurologic, psychometric, and gait measures before and 4 months after shunting was correlated with amyloid β plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles observed in cortical biopsies obtained during shunt insertion. No complications resulted from biopsy acquisition. Moderate to severe pathology was associated with worse baseline cognitive performance and diminished postoperative improvement on NPH symptom severity scales, gait measures, and cognitive instruments compared to patients lacking pathology.
Hamilton, Roy; Patel, Sunil; Lee, Edward B.; Jackson, Eric M.; Lopinto, Joanna; Arnold, Steven E.; Clark, Christopher M.; Basil, Anuj; Shaw, Leslie M.; Xie, Sharon X.; Grady, M. Sean; Trojanowski, John Q.
To determine the impact of cortical Alzheimer disease pathology on shunt responsiveness in individuals treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), 37 patients clinically diagnosed with iNPH participated in a prospective study in which performance on neurologic, psychometric, and gait measures before and 4 months after shunting was correlated with amyloid β plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles observed in cortical biopsies obtained during shunt insertion. No complications resulted from biopsy acquisition. Moderate to severe pathology was associated with worse baseline cognitive performance and diminished postoperative improvement on NPH symptom severity scales, gait measures, and cognitive instruments compared to patients lacking pathology. PMID:20687117
Han, MeiLan K; Zhou, Yueren; Murray, Susan; Tayob, Nabihah; Noth, Imre; Lama, Vibha N; Moore, Bethany B; White, Eric S; Flaherty, Kevin R; Huffnagle, Gary B; Martinez, Fernando J
The role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. We investigated whether unique microbial signatures were associated with progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Patients (aged 35-80 years) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis within 4 years of diagnosis from the Correlating Outcomes with biochemical Markers to Estimate Time-progression (COMET) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis study were followed up for a maximum of 80 weeks. Progression-free survival was defined as time to death, acute exacerbation, lung transplant, or decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) of 10% or greater or decrease in diffusion capacity of the lung (DLCO) of 15% or greater. DNA was isolated from 55 samples of bronchoscopic alveolar lavage. 454 pyrosequencing was used to assign operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to bacteria based on a 3% sequence divergence. Adjusted Cox models were used to identify OTUs that were significantly associated with progression-free survival at a p<0.10. These OTUs were then used in the analysis of the principal components. The association between principal components and microbes with high factor loadings and progression-free survival were assessed with Cox regression analyses. The COMET study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01071707. Mean FVC was 70.1% (SD 17.0) and DLCO 42.3% (14.0) of predicted. Disease progression was significantly associated with increased relative abundance of two OTUs-Streptococcus OTU 1345 (relative risk 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18; p=0.0009) and Staphylococcus OTU 1348 (1.16, 1.03-1.31, p=0.012). Thresholds for relative abundance of each OTU associated with progression-free survival were more than 3.9% for Streptococcus OTU 1345 (10.19, 2.94-35.35; p=0.0002) and more than 1.8% for Staphylococcus OTU 1348 (5.06, 1.71-14.93; p=0.003). These preliminary data suggest progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with the presence of specific members within the
Gullett, Joseph M.; Price, Catherine C.; Nguyen, Peter; Okun, Michael S.; Bauer, Russell M.; Bowers, Dawn
Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often exhibit deficits in visuospatial functioning throughout the course of their disease. These deficits should be carefully assessed as they may have implications for patient safety and disease severity. One of the most commonly administered tests of visuospatial ability, the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO), consists of 30 pairs of lines requiring the patient to match the orientation of two lines to an array of 11 lines on a separate page. Reliable short forms have been constructed out of the full JLO form, but the reliability of these forms in PD has yet to be examined. Recent functional MRI studies examining the JLO demonstrate right parietal and occipital activation, as well as bilateral frontal activation and PD is known to adversely affect these pathways. We compared the reliability of the original full form to three unique short forms in a sample of 141 non-demented, idiopathic PD patients and 56 age and education matched controls. Results indicated that a two-thirds length short form can be used with high reliability and classification accuracy in patients with idiopathic PD. The other short forms performed in a similar, though slightly less reliable manner. PMID:23957375
Steinlechner, Susanne; Hagenah, Johann; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Bäumer, Tobias; Brüggemann, Norbert; Kasten, Meike; Münchau, Alexander; Klein, Christine; Lencer, Rebekka
Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with movement disorders is common. Often, psychiatric symptoms manifest before the onset of the movement disorder, thus not representing a mere reaction to its burden. How the disease mechanisms of psychiatric and movement disorders are related is still poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence rates of specific psychiatric disorders between different movement disorders including isolated focal dystonia (IFD, N = 91), monogenic Parkinson's disease (PD, N = 41), idiopathic PD (N = 45), and a sample from a Northern Germany general population (TACOS Study; N = 4075). Our results indicate an odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0] for general axis I disorders in IFD, an OR of 2.5 (CI 1.4-4.7) in monogenic PD, and an OR of 1.4 (CI 0.8-2.6) in idiopathic PD. More specifically, the monogenic PD group showed the highest ORs for affective disorders including depression (OR = 4.9), bipolar disorder (OR = 17.4), and hypomanic episodes (OR = 17.0), whereas IFD expressed the highest rates of anxiety disorders (OR = 3.3). Psychotic symptoms were only observed in the PD groups but not in IFD. Our findings underline the notion that psychiatric disorders are part of the phenotypic spectrum of movement disorders. Moreover, they suggest that IFD, monogenic PD, and idiopathic PD are associated with specific psychiatric disorders indicating disturbances in a different neural circuitry for sensorimotor control.
Evans, Christopher M.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Lynch, David; Kurche, Jonathan; Warg, Laura; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable complex genetic disorder that is associated with sequence changes in 7 genes (MUC5B, TERT, TERC, RTEL1, PARN, SFTPC, and SFTPA2) and with variants in at least 11 novel loci. We have previously found that 1) a common gain-of-function promoter variant in MUC5B rs35705950 is the strongest risk factor (genetic and otherwise), accounting for 30-35% of the risk of developing IPF, a disease that was previously considered idiopathic; 2) the MUC5B promoter variant can potentially be used to identify individuals with preclinical pulmonary fibrosis and is predictive of radiologic progression of preclinical pulmonary fibrosis; and 3) MUC5B may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis with MUC5B message and protein expressed in bronchiolo-alveolar epithelia of IPF and the characteristic IPF honeycomb cysts. Based on these considerations, we hypothesize that excessive production of MUC5B either enhances injury due to reduced mucociliary clearance or impedes repair consequent to disruption of normal regenerative mechanisms in the distal lung. In aggregate, these novel considerations should have broad impact, resulting in specific etiologic targets, early detection of disease, and novel biologic pathways for use in the design of future intervention, prevention, and mechanistic studies of IPF. PMID:27630174
Çakmakçı Karadoğan, Dilek; Balkarlı, Ayşe; Önal, Özgür; Altınışık, Göksel; Çobankara, Veli
Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) is a non-invasive diagnostic test that is mostly used for early diagnosis of collagen tissue diseases (CTDs). We aimed to evaluate whether NFC findings could be a clue for discriminating idiopathic interstitial lung diseases (ILD) from CTD associated ILDs (CTD-ILD). Additionally it was aimed to determine whether NFC could be helpful in discriminating usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern from non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. We grouped patients into three main groups: 15 CTD-ILD, 18 idiopathic ILD, and 17 patients in the control group. The CTD-ILD group was split into two subgroups: 8 patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SJS)-associated ILD and 7 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ILD. The idiopathic-ILD group consisted of 10 idiopathic NSIP and 8 IPF patients. The control group consisted of 10 SJS and 7 RA patients without lung disease. None of the patients were on acute exacerbation at the time of examination, and none had Reynaud's phenomenon. Mean capillary density was significantly reduced only in the CTD-ILD group as compared to the control group (p= 0.006). In subgroup analysis, it was determined that RA-ILD, IPF, and SJS-ILD subgroups had more severe capillaroscopic abnormalities. Mean capillary density in patients with the UIP pattern was reduced compared to patients with the NSIP pattern and those in the control group; p values were 0.008 and < 0.001, respectively. This study is to be the first describing and comparing the nailfold capillaroscopic findings of patients with NSIP and UIP patterns. NFC findings can be helpful in discriminating UIP patterns from NSIP patterns. But to show its role in differentiating idiopathic disease, more studies with more patients are needed.
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a progressive dysfunction of the nervous system. Often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous structures, they include diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease and other dementias, Genetic Brain Disorders, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s Disease), Huntington’s Disease, Prion Diseases, and others. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases has increased over the last years. This has had a major impact both on patients and their families and has exponentially increased the medical bill by hundreds of billions of Euros. Therefore, understanding the role of environmental and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PD is crucial to develop preventive strategies. While some authors believe that PD is mainly genetic and that the aging of the society is the principal cause for this increase, different studies suggest that PD may be due to an increased exposure to environmental toxins. In this article we review epidemiological, sociological and experimental studies to determine which hypothesis is more plausible. Our conclusion is that, at least in idiopathic PD (iPD), the exposure to toxic environmental substances could play an important role in its aetiology. PMID:24826210
Skandarajah, Anita; Marley, Leah
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign breast disease, which can be protracted, disfiguring and may be linked to an underlying autoimmune disorder. The clinical presentation may mimic bacterial mastitis or carcinoma. To review the mode of presentation, diagnosis, management, resolution and incidence of IGM in three tertiary breast centres and propose guidelines for management. The breast and anatomical databases of three centres were reviewed from January 2000 to December 2013 to identify patients with histological diagnosis of IGM. Clinical and demographic characteristics were retrieved and treatment modalities and time to resolution were recorded. Seventeen patients were identified with a median age of 40. The majority of patients were premenopausal, multiparous and presented with a mass. All patients had initial treatment as infectious mastitis. The diagnosis was made by core biopsy in 71%. Eleven patients required immunosuppressive treatment with steroids and four of these patients required a steroid-sparing agent because of steroidal side effects, recurrence or persistence of symptoms. The median time to resolution was 3 months (0-24 months). One patient had subsequent systemic Wegener's granulomatosis diagnosed. Idiopathic granulomatosis mastitis requires histological confirmation, close monitoring, exclusion of underlying systemic autoimmune conditions and judicious use of steroids and steroid-sparing agents such as methotrexate. It has a protracted course with some patients relapsing quickly upon cessation of steroids. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Yazar, Tamer; Yazar, Hülya Olgun; Zayimoğlu, Emel; Çankaya, Soner
In this study, the aim was to identify the incidence of sarcopenia and dynapenia according to disease stage among idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients and collect data to illuminate precautions related to reducing the disease load. The study was completed with 166 patients divided by stage according to modified Hoehn and Yahr (HYR) criteria and 249 healthy volunteers aged from 18 to 39 and 68 to 75 years met the inclusion criteria. In our prospective and cross-sectional study, patients with IPD according to "UK Brain Bank" diagnostic criteria had the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and HYR scales applied. The patient and control groups had skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI), muscle power, and physical performance assessed. Diagnosis of sarcopenia used the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) diagnostic criteria. In our study, in parallel with the increase in disease stage among IPD patients, the incidence of sarcopenia (led by severe sarcopenia) and dynapenia was high compared to that among the control group of the same age. In the early stages of chronic progressive diseases like IPD, identification of sarcopenia and dynapenia is important considering the limitations of disease-preventive effects in treatments applied after diagnosis.
Idiopathic recurrent pericarditis affects 30-50% of patients with a previous attack of pericarditis. The etiopathogenesis is incompletely understood and most cases remain idiopathic with a presumed immune-mediated pathogenesis. The mainstay of therapy is aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug plus colchicine and the possible adjunct of a low-to-moderate dose of a corticosteroid in more difficult cases. Colchicine as an adjunct to anti-inflammatory therapy reduces by 50% the subsequent recurrent rate. For true refractory cases with failure of standard combination therapies, new and emerging options especially include human intravenous immunoglobulins and biological agents (i.e., anakinra). The outcome of idiopathic recurrent pericarditis is good with a negligible risk of developing constrictive pericarditis. Thus, it is important to reassure patients on their prognosis, explaining the nature of the disease and the likely course. Moreover, therapeutic choices should include less toxic agents and favor cheaper drugs whenever possible.
Tanner, Jared J; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Price, Catherine C
Analyses of subcortical gray structure volumes in non-demented idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) often, but not always, show volume loss of the putamen, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. There is building evidence that structure morphometry might be more sensitive to disease-related processes than volume. To assess morphometric differences of subcortical structures (putamen, caudate nucleus, thalamus, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala) as well as the hippocampus in non-demented individuals with PD relative to age and education matched non-PD peers. Prospective recruitment of idiopathic no-dementia PD and non-PD peers as part of a federally funded investigation. T1-weighted isovoxel metrics acquired via 3-T Siemens Verio for all individuals [PD n = 72 (left side onset n = 27, right side onset n = 45); non-PD n = 48]. FIRST (FMRIB Software Library) applications provided volumetric and vertex analyses on group differences for structure size and morphometry. Group volume differences were observed only for putamen and hippocampi (PD < non-PD) with hippocampal volume significantly associating with disease duration. Group shape differences were observed for bilateral putamen, caudate nucleus, and hippocampus with greater striatal atrophy contralateral to side of motor symptom onset. Hippocampal shape differences disappeared when removing the effects of volume. The putamen was the primary structure to show both volume and shape differences in PD, indicating that the putamen is the predominant site of basal ganglia atrophy in early- to mid-stage PD. Side of PD symptom onset associates with contralateral striatal atrophy. Left-onset PD might experience more extensive striatal atrophy than right-onset PD. Hippocampus morphometric results suggest possible primary atrophy of CA3/4 and dentate gyrus.
Suchodolski, Jan S; Markel, Melissa E; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Unterer, Stefan; Heilmann, Romy M; Dowd, Scot E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Minamoto, Yasushi; Dillman, Enricka M; Steiner, Jörg M; Cook, Audrey K; Toresson, Linda
Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32), dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12), dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13), and dogs with active (n = 9) and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10) were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI). Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal microbiome of dogs with defined disease phenotypes.
Suchodolski, Jan S.; Markel, Melissa E.; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F.; Unterer, Stefan; Heilmann, Romy M.; Dowd, Scot E.; Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Minamoto, Yasushi; Dillman, Enricka M.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Cook, Audrey K.; Toresson, Linda
Background Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32), dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12), dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13), and dogs with active (n = 9) and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10) were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI). Conclusions Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal
Montgomery, Erwin B; Koller, William C; LaMantia, Theodora J K; Newman, Mary C; Swanson-Hyland, Elizabeth; Kaszniak, Alfred W; Lyons, Kelly
We developed a test battery as an inexpensive and objective aid for the early diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) and its differential diagnoses. The test battery incorporates tests of motor function, olfaction, and mood. In the motor task, a wrist flexion-and-extension task to different targets, movement velocities were recorded. Olfaction was tested with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Mood was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. An initial regression model was developed from the results of 19 normal control subjects and 18 patients with early, mild, probable iPD. Prospective application to an independent validation set of 122 normal control subjects and 103 patients resulted in an 88% specificity rate and 69% sensitivity rate, with an area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve of 0.87. Copyright © 2000 Movement Disorder Society.
Porcaro, Federica; Di Marco, Antonio; Cutrera, Renato
Aspirin hypersensitivity associated with chronic rhinosinusitis-with or without nasal polyposis-and asthma resistant to conventional therapy defines the aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). We describe the case of a 15-year-old female patient with adverse reaction to aspirin, chronic rhinosinusitis, and severe asthma. She also experienced chronic idiopathic urticaria worsened by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. AERD was diagnosed based on clinical history and symptoms. Given the poor responsiveness to standard therapy for respiratory and cutaneous symptoms, omalizumab was administered for 24 weeks with control of respiratory symptoms and short term improvement of cutaneous symptoms. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:E26-E28. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shaw, Jonathon; Marshall, Tracey; Morris, Helen; Hayton, Conal; Chaudhuri, Nazia
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common cause of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and carries a worse prognosis than many cancers. Until recently, there were no active treatment options available for patients with IPF, meaning palliation or lung transplantation in selected patients were the only options. The management of IPF has changed dramatically over the last decade with the advent of two antifibrotic agents; pirfenidone and nintedanib. These new agents have been shown to reduce decline in lung function and pirfenidone has been shown to reduce mortality. The changing landscape of IPF diagnosis and management present a number of issues that may be encountered including management of side effects related to antifibrotic therapy. This article aims to give an overview of the holistic approach to the management of patients with IPF, including antifibrotic management, symptom management and the invaluable role of the ILD specialist nurse.
Shaw, Jonathon; Marshall, Tracey; Morris, Helen; Chaudhuri, Nazia
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common cause of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and carries a worse prognosis than many cancers. Until recently, there were no active treatment options available for patients with IPF, meaning palliation or lung transplantation in selected patients were the only options. The management of IPF has changed dramatically over the last decade with the advent of two antifibrotic agents; pirfenidone and nintedanib. These new agents have been shown to reduce decline in lung function and pirfenidone has been shown to reduce mortality. The changing landscape of IPF diagnosis and management present a number of issues that may be encountered including management of side effects related to antifibrotic therapy. This article aims to give an overview of the holistic approach to the management of patients with IPF, including antifibrotic management, symptom management and the invaluable role of the ILD specialist nurse. PMID:29268540
Williams, U. E.; Oparah, S. K.; Philip-Ephraim, E. E.
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration. It is the commonest cause of permanent disability in young adults. Environmental and genetic factors have been suggested in its etiology. Currently available disease modifying drugs are only effective in controlling inflammation but not prevention of neurodegeneration or accumulation of disability. Search for an effective neuroprotective therapy is at the forefront of multiple sclerosis research. PMID:27355035
Choi, Yoo-Im; Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between daily activities and manual dexterity in persons with Parkinson disease. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants were 25 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. This study used two clinical tools, the box-and-block test and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, to investigate the relationship between manual dexterity and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living score. [Results] A positive correlation was observed between the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living and the box-and-block test scores on the more and less affected sides. Moreover, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living score had a greater correlation with the box-and-block test score on the less affected side than that on the more affected side. [Conclusion] Manual dexterity and activities of daily living showed a positive correlation in individuals with Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that manual dexterity is an important factor for predicting physical performance in daily living in persons with Parkinson disease.
Billiard, Michel; Sonka, Karel
Idiopathic hypersomnia continues to evolve from the concept of "sleep drunkenness" introduced by Bedrich Roth in Prague in 1956 and the description of idiopathic hypersomnia with two forms, polysymptomatic and monosymptomatic, by the same Bedrich Roth in 1976. The diagnostic criteria of idiopathic hypersomnia have varied with the successive revisions of the International classifications of sleep disorders, including the recent 3rd edition. No epidemiological studies have been conducted so far. Disease onset occurs most often during adolescence or young adulthood. A familial background is often present but rigorous studies are still lacking. The key manifestation is hypersomnolence. It is often accompanied by sleep of long duration and debilitating sleep inertia. Polysomnography (PSG) followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) is mandatory, as well as a 24 h PSG or a 2-wk actigraphy in association with a sleep log to ensure a total 24-h sleep time longer than or equal to 66O minutes, when the mean sleep latency on the MSLT is longer than 8 min. Yet, MSLT is neither sensitive nor specific and the polysomnographic diagnostic criteria require continuous readjustment and biologic markers are still lacking. Idiopathic hypersomnia is most often a chronic condition though spontaneous remission may occur. The condition is disabling, sometimes even more so than narcolepsy type 1 or 2. Based on neurochemical, genetic and immunological analyses as well as on exploration of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep, various pathophysiological hypotheses have been proposed. Differential diagnosis involves a number of diseases and it is not yet clear whether idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy type 2 are not the same condition. Until now, the treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia has mirrored that of the sleepiness of narcolepsy type 1 or 2. The first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of modafinil have just been published, as well as a double
Vicentine, Fernando P P; Herbella, Fernando A M; Allaix, Marco E; Silva, Luciana C; Patti, Marco G
Idiopathic achalasia (IA) and Chagas' disease esophagopathy (CDE) share several similarities. The comparison between IA and CDE is important to evaluate whether treatment options and their results can be accepted universally. High-resolution manometry (HRM) has proved a better diagnostic tool compared to conventional manometry. This study aims to evaluate HRM classifications for idiopathic achalasia in patients with CDE. We studied 98 patients: 52 patients with CDE (52 % females, mean age, 57 ± 14 years) and 46 patients with IA (54 % females; mean age 48 ± 19 years). All patients underwent a HRM and barium esophagogram. The Chicago classification was distributed in IA as Chicago I, 35 %; Chicago II, 63 %; and Chicago III, 2 %, and in CDE as Chicago I, 52 %; Chicago II, 48 %; and Chicago III, 0 % (p = 0.1, 0.1, and 0.5, respectively). All patients had the classic Rochester type. CDE patients had more pronounced degrees of esophageal dilatation (p < 0.002). The degree of esophageal dilatation did not correlate with Chicago classification (p = 0.08). In nine (9 %) patients, the HRM pattern changed during the test from Chicago I to II. Our results show that (a) HRM classifications for IA can be applied in patients with CDE and (b) HRM classifications did not correlate with the degree of esophageal dilatation. HRM classifications may reflect esophageal repletion and pressurization instead of muscular contraction. The correlation between manometric findings and treatment outcomes for CDE needs to be answered in the near future.
Mora, Ana L.; Rojas, Mauricio; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal age-associated disease that is characterized by progressive and irreversible scarring of the lung. The pathogenesis of IPF is not completely understood and current therapies are limited to those that reduce the rate of functional decline in patients with mild-to-moderate disease. In this context, new therapeutic approaches that substantially improve the survival time and quality of life of these patients are urgently needed. Our incomplete understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of IPF and the lack of appropriate experimental models that reproduce the key characteristics of the human disease are major challenges. As ageing is a major risk factor for IPF, age-related cell perturbations such as telomere attrition, senescence, epigenetic drift, stem cell exhaustion, loss of proteostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction are becoming targets of interest for IPF therapy. In this Review, we discuss current and emerging therapies for IPF, particularly those targeting age-related mechanisms, and discuss future therapeutic approaches. PMID:29081515
Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Steve; Ke, Xiayi; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Flynn, Edward; Packham, Jon; Worthington, Jane; Thomson, Wendy
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been extremely successful in the search for susceptibility risk factors for complex genetic autoimmune diseases. As more studies are published, evidence is emerging of considerable overlap of loci between these diseases. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), another complex genetic autoimmune disease, the strategy of using information from autoimmune disease GWAS or candidate gene studies to help in the search for novel JIA susceptibility loci has been successful, with confirmed association with two genes, PTPN22 and IL2RA. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that shares similar clinical and pathological features with JIA and, therefore, recently identified confirmed RA susceptibility loci are also excellent JIA candidate loci. Objective To determine the overlap of disease susceptibility loci for RA and JIA. Methods Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nine RA-associated loci were genotyped in Caucasian patients with JIA (n=1054) and controls (n=3531) and tested for association with JIA. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using the genetic analysis software, PLINK. Results Two JIA susceptibility loci were identified, one of which was a novel JIA association (STAT4) and the second confirmed previously published associations of the TRAF1/C5 locus with JIA. Weak evidence of association of JIA with three additional loci (Chr6q23, KIF5A and PRKCQ) was also obtained, which warrants further investigation. Conclusion All these loci are good candidates in view of the known pathogenesis of JIA, as genes within these regions (TRAF1, STAT4, TNFAIP3, PRKCQ) are known to be involved in T-cell receptor signalling or activation pathways. PMID:19674979
Hoy, Sheridan M; Keating, Gillian M
Rasagiline (Azilect®), a selective, irreversible, monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is available in the EU, the US and in several other countries worldwide, including Canada and Israel. It is indicated for the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to levodopa in patients [corrected]with end-of-dose fluctuations in the EU and for the treatment of adult patients with the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease in the US. This article reviews the pharmacological properties, therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of rasagiline as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease. Oral rasagiline as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to levodopa was effective in the symptomatic treatment of adult patients with Parkinson's disease participating in double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational studies. In patients with early Parkinson's disease, monotherapy with rasagiline 1 mg/day (recommended dosage) significantly slowed the rate of worsening (i.e. an increase in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] score) in the ADAGIO and TEMPO studies, with the results from the ADAGIO study for rasagiline 1 mg/day suggesting a slowing of clinical progression. However, at the higher dosage of 2 mg/day, rasagiline met the primary endpoint in the TEMPO study and the first, but not the second, of three hierarchical primary endpoints in the ADAGIO study. Compared with delayed-start rasagiline monotherapy, early initiation was associated with a slower long-term progression of the clinical signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease in the TEMPO study. As adjunctive therapy to levodopa in the LARGO and PRESTO studies, rasagiline 0.5 and/or 1 mg/day significantly reduced the total daily 'off' time (primary efficacy endpoint) and significantly improved the Clinical Global Impression score, the UPDRS activities of daily living subscale score during 'off' time and the UPDRS
Roumiguié, M; Guillotreau, J; Castel-Lacanal, E; Malavaud, B; De Boissezon, X; Marque, P; Rischmann, P; Gamé, X
to assess the sexual function in men with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. a cross-sectional study was performed in 35 men, mean age 68 ± 9 years, with idiopathic Parkinson's disease followed in a single urological department. The 15 questions International Index of the Erectile Function was sent by postal mail. the answer's rate was 42.9% (15 patients). The mean age of the responders was 68.7 ± 10.0 years. Mean duration of the disease was 10.4 ± 6.8 years. Sexual dysfunction was the second cause for consultation in urology. Despite a sustained sexual desire, patients had an altered sexual function with low erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction and total satisfaction scores. According to the Cappelleri's classification, the erectile dysfunction was severe in 54% of the cases and moderate in 26.6%. Age, institutionalization and overactive bladder symptoms were associated with erectile, orgasmic function and intercourse satisfaction alteration, sexual desire alteration, intercourse and global satisfaction alteration, respectively. men with idiopathic Parkinson's disease had a severe sexual dysfunction. The sexual desire was usually maintained but all the other domains were severely altered. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pawlukowska, Wioletta; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rotter, Iwona; Amernik, Katarzyna; Honczarenko, Krystyna; Nowacki, Przemysław
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). It is frequently heralded by speech disturbances, which are one of its first symptoms. The aim of this paper is to share our own experience concerning the correlation between the severity of speech disorders and the PD duration, its severity and the intake of L-dopa. The research included 93 patients with idiopathic PD, aged 26-86 years (mean age 65.1 years). Participants were examined neurologically according to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Hoehn and Yahr Scale. They were also assessed by Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment. Considerable and severe disorders were concurrent with impairments in the mobility of the tongue, lips, the jaw as well as the pitch and loudness of the voice. The strongest correlation but at a moderate level was found to exist between the severity of labial impairment, voice loudness and the length of the disease. There was also a positive correlation between lip movement while the motions were being diversified, lip arrangement while speaking and the intake of L-dopa. As PD progresses a significant decline in vocal articulation can be observed, which is due to reduced mobility within the lips and the jaw. Exacerbation of articulation disorders resulting from progression of the disease does not materially influence the UPDRSS scores. L-dopa has been found to positively affect the mobility of the lips while the patient is speaking and their arrangement at rest. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Kusko, Rebecca L; Brothers, John F; Tedrow, John; Pandit, Kusum; Huleihel, Luai; Perdomo, Catalina; Liu, Gang; Juan-Guardela, Brenda; Kass, Daniel; Zhang, Sherry; Lenburg, Marc; Martinez, Fernando; Quackenbush, John; Sciurba, Frank; Limper, Andrew; Geraci, Mark; Yang, Ivana; Schwartz, David A; Beane, Jennifer; Spira, Avrum; Kaminski, Naftali
Despite shared environmental exposures, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are usually studied in isolation, and the presence of shared molecular mechanisms is unknown. We applied an integrative genomic approach to identify convergent transcriptomic pathways in emphysema and IPF. We defined the transcriptional repertoire of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF, or normal histology lungs using RNA-seq (n = 87). Genes increased in both emphysema and IPF relative to control were enriched for the p53/hypoxia pathway, a finding confirmed in an independent cohort using both gene expression arrays and the nCounter Analysis System (n = 193). Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression of HIF1A, MDM2, and NFKBIB members of this pathway in tissues from patients with emphysema or IPF. Using reads aligned across splice junctions, we determined that alternative splicing of p53/hypoxia pathway-associated molecules NUMB and PDGFA occurred more frequently in IPF or emphysema compared with control and validated these findings by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the nCounter Analysis System on an independent sample set (n = 193). Finally, by integrating parallel microRNA and mRNA-Seq data on the same samples, we identified MIR96 as a key novel regulatory hub in the p53/hypoxia gene-expression network and confirmed that modulation of MIR96 in vitro recapitulates the disease-associated gene-expression network. Our results suggest convergent transcriptional regulatory hubs in diseases as varied phenotypically as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and IPF and suggest that these hubs may represent shared key responses of the lung to environmental stresses.
Lumbar plexus in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: Evaluation with 3D nerve-sheath signal increased with inked rest-tissue rapid acquisition of relaxation enhancement imaging (3D SHINKEI).
Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Kamei, Ryotato; Momosaka, Daichi; Ogata, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryo; Yoneyama, Masami; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Hiroshi
To evaluate whether 3D SHINKEI in the lumbar plexus could identify patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Twenty-one patients with CIDP and 15 non-CIDP patients were studied in this retrospective study. The SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), contrast ratio (CR) and the size of the lumbar ganglions and roots were measured. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The SNRs of the ganglions and roots were larger in patients with CIDP (8.30±4.87 and 8.24±4.92) than in non-CIDP patients (4.95±2.05 and 5.08±1.97, P<0.0001, respectively). The CNRs of the ganglions and roots were larger in patients with CIDP (40.79±43.19 and 37.16±48.31) than in non-CIDP patients (25.90±10.41 and 18.37±32.83, P<0.0001, respectively). The CRs of the ganglions and roots were larger in patients with CIDP (0.74±0.13 and 0.66±0.17) than in non-CIDP patients (0.72±0.12 and 0.50±0.17, P=0.004 and P<0.0001, respectively). The sizes of the ganglions and the roots were larger in patients with CIDP (6.62±1.81mm and 5.76±3.24mm) than in non-CIDP patients (5.23±1.17mm and 4.24±1.11mm, P<0.0001, respectively). ROC analysis showed the best diagnostic performance with the CNR of the roots. Patients with CIDP could be distinguished from controls on 3D SHINKEI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Léger, Jean-Marc; De Bleecker, Jan L; Sommer, Claudia; Robberecht, Wim; Saarela, Mika; Kamienowski, Jerzy; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew; Mielke, Orell; Tackenberg, Björn; Shebl, Amgad; Bauhofer, Artur; Zenker, Othmar; Merkies, Ingemar S J
This prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label Phase III study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Privigen(®) (10% liquid human intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIG], stabilized with L-proline) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients received one induction dose of Privigen (2 g/kg body weight [bw]) and up to seven maintenance doses (1 g/kg bw) at 3-week intervals. The primary efficacy endpoint was the responder rate at completion, defined as improvement of ≥1 point on the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability scale. The preset success criterion was the responder rate being ≥35%. Of the 31 screened patients, 28 patients were enrolled including 13 (46.4%) IVIG-pretreated patients. The overall responder rate at completion was 60.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.41%-76.43%). IVIG-pretreated patients demonstrated a higher responder rate than IVIG-naïve patients (76.9% vs. 46.7%). The median (25%-75% quantile) INCAT score improved from 3.5 (3.0-4.5) points at baseline to 2.5 (1.0-3.0) points at completion, as did the mean (standard deviation [SD]) maximum grip strength (66.7 [37.24] kPa vs. 80.9 [31.06] kPa) and the median Medical Research Council sum score (67.0 [61.5-72.0] points vs. 75.5 [71.5-79.5] points). Of 108 adverse events (AEs; 0.417 AEs per infusion), 95 AEs (88.0%) were mild or moderate in intensity and resolved by the end of study. Two serious AEs of hemolysis were reported that resolved after discontinuation of treatment. Thus, Privigen provided efficacious and well-tolerated induction and maintenance treatment in patients with CIDP. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Peripheral Nerve Society.
Al-Bachari, Sarah; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Emsley, Hedley Ca; Parkes, Laura M
Neurovascular changes are likely to interact importantly with the neurodegenerative process in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Markers of neurovascular status (NVS) include white matter lesion (WML) burden and arterial spin labelling (ASL) measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT). We investigated NVS in IPD, including an analysis of IPD clinical phenotypes, by comparison with two control groups, one with a history of clinical cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (control positive, CP) and one without CVD (control negative, CN). Fifty-one patients with IPD (mean age 69.0 ± 7.7 years) (21 tremor dominant (TD), 24 postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) and six intermediates), 18 CP (mean age 70.1 ± 8.0 years) and 34 CN subjects (mean age 67.4 ± 7.6 years) completed a 3T MRI scan protocol including T 2 -weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and ASL. IPD patients showed diffuse regions of significantly prolonged AAT, small regions of lower CBF and greater WML burden by comparison with CN subjects. TD patients showed lower WML volume by comparison with PIGD patients. These imaging data thus show altered NVS in IPD, with some evidence for IPD phenotype-specific differences.
Adewusi, Joy K; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Vinagre-Aragón, Ana; O'Connor, Karen Ruth; Khan, Aijaz; Grünewald, Richard Adam; Zis, Panagiotis
Neuropathic symptoms are commonly reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), but robust data on the epidemiology of such symptoms are lacking. The present study sought to investigate the prevalence and determinants of peripheral sensory neuropathic symptoms (PSNS) in idiopathic PD (IPD) and ascertain the effects of such symptoms on the patients' quality of life (QoL). Patients with IPD and age-matched and gender-matched controls were screened for neuropathic symptoms using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. The impact of neuropathic symptoms on QoL was investigated using the 36-Item Short Form Survey. Fifty-two patients and 52 age-matched and gender-matched controls were recruited. PSNS were reported more frequently in patients with IPD than in the control subjects (57.7 versus 28.8%, p = 0.003). No significant relationships were found between PD-related clinical characteristics (i.e. disease severity and duration, duration of exposure to levodopa) and the presence of PSNS. Significant correlations were found between the number of PSNS and physical functioning (Spearman's Rho - 0.351), even after adjusting for age, gender and Hoehn and Yahr score. Our results support the notion of a greater prevalence of PSNS in IPD patients as compared to the general population, which, at least in part, may be secondary to large and/or small fibre peripheral neuropathy. This warrants further investigation in larger studies that include detailed neurophysiological assessments.
Atkins, Christopher Peter; Gilbert, Daniel; Brockwell, Claire; Robinson, Sue; Wilson, Andrew Malcolm
Sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are two common forms of interstitial lung disease. Fatigue is a recognised feature of sarcoidosis but an association between IPF and fatigue has not been investigated. To investigate the frequency and severity of fatigue in these groups, and variables affecting fatigue scores. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of patients with sarcoidosis and IPF followed-up at a single hospital was undertaken. Questionnaire data included validated measures of fatigue, anxiety, depression, sleepiness and dyspnoea, plus measures of disease severity including spirometry data. Questionnaires were administered to 232 patients (82 healthy volunteers, 73 sarcoidosis patients and 77 IPF patients). Sarcoidosis patients had statistically higher sleepiness scores but no significant difference was seen between overall measures of fatigue, anxiety or depression. Stratification by severity revealed a non-statistically significant tendency towards more severe fatigue scores in sarcoidosis. Regression analysis failed to identify any significant predictor variables measured in the sarcoidosis cohort, though in the IPF group both dyspnoea and sleepiness scores were significant predictors of fatigue (R2=0.74). Both sarcoidosis and IPF patients suffer with fatigue, although sarcoidosis patients tended towards reporting more severe fatigue scores, suggesting a subgroup with severe fatigue. The fatigue experienced by the two groups appears to be different; sarcoidosis patients report greater frequency of mental fatigue whereas IPF patients appear to suffer exhaustion, potentially related to dyspnoea. Dyspnoea and sleepiness scores modeled the majority of fatigue in the IPF group, whereas no single factor was able to predict fatigue in sarcoidosis.
Damaskos, Christos; Davakis, Spyridon; Vailas, Michail; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Kontos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM), is a rare entity of chronic inflammatory disorder of the breast of unknown etiology. Very few cases have been described so far, almost exclusively in women. Here we describe a case of IGM in a 53-year-old man presented with a right breast mass, progressively enlarging during the last 6 months. Due to the findings of clinical examination and CT-scan, the suspicion for a potentially malignant lesion was given and the decision for surgical resection was made. Microscopic analysis of the specimen showed non-caseating granulomas around mammary lobules, findings compatible with IGM. The patient is recurrence-free at 18-month follow-up. IGM is a rare benign inflammatory breast disease, usually seen in females of reproductive age. Establishing a diagnosis can be challenging for a surgeon and requires a high index of suspicion as most patients are initially misdiagnosed by their primary care physicians. Steroids and immunosuppressive drugs are considered as fundamental treatment modalities but they are correlated with increased rates of disease response and recurrence. On the contrary, surgical resection demonstrated significantly superior results compared to steroid-alone treatment in terms of recurrence and post-treatment recovery. PMID:28856149
Hinks, Anne; Martin, Paul; Flynn, Edward; Eyre, Steve; Packham, Jon; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Thomson, Wendy
There is strong evidence suggesting that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) shares many susceptibility loci with other autoimmune diseases. To investigate variants robustly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or coeliac disease (CD) for association with JIA. Sixteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already identified as susceptibility loci for T1D/CD were selected for genotyping in patients with JIA (n=1054) and healthy controls (n=3129). Genotype and allele frequencies were compared using the Cochrane-Armitage trend test implemented in PLINK. One SNP in the LPP gene, rs1464510, showed significant association with JIA (p(trend)=0.002, OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.30). A second SNP, rs653178 in ATXN2, also showed nominal evidence for association with JIA (p(trend)=0.02, OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.25). The SNP, rs17810546, in IL12A showed subtype-specific association with enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subtype (p(trend)=0.005, OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.94). Evidence for a novel JIA susceptibility locus, LPP, is presented. Association at the SH2B3/ATXN2 locus, previously reported to be associated with JIA in a US series, also supports this region as contributing to JIA susceptibility. In addition, a subtype-specific association of IL12A with ERA is identified. All findings will require validation in independent JIA cohorts.
Moris, Demetrios; Damaskos, Christos; Davakis, Spyridon; Vailas, Michail; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Kontos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM), is a rare entity of chronic inflammatory disorder of the breast of unknown etiology. Very few cases have been described so far, almost exclusively in women. Here we describe a case of IGM in a 53-year-old man presented with a right breast mass, progressively enlarging during the last 6 months. Due to the findings of clinical examination and CT-scan, the suspicion for a potentially malignant lesion was given and the decision for surgical resection was made. Microscopic analysis of the specimen showed non-caseating granulomas around mammary lobules, findings compatible with IGM. The patient is recurrence-free at 18-month follow-up. IGM is a rare benign inflammatory breast disease, usually seen in females of reproductive age. Establishing a diagnosis can be challenging for a surgeon and requires a high index of suspicion as most patients are initially misdiagnosed by their primary care physicians. Steroids and immunosuppressive drugs are considered as fundamental treatment modalities but they are correlated with increased rates of disease response and recurrence. On the contrary, surgical resection demonstrated significantly superior results compared to steroid-alone treatment in terms of recurrence and post-treatment recovery.
Michelin, Cintia Maria; Aikawa, Nadia Emi; Diniz, João Carlos; Jesus, Adriana Almeida; Koda, Yu Kar; Silva, Clovis Artur
In a 28-year period, 5508 patients were followed at our Paediatric Rheumatology Division and 712 (13%) patients had juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (ILAR criteria). One (0.14%) of them had association with celiac disease (CD), with predominance of gastrointestinal manifestations and this case was described herein. A 10-years-old female patient was hospitalized with persistent fever, weight loss, asthenia, anorexia and an evanescent pink macular rash. After one week, she presented arthritis of left knee and ankle with duration of 75 days. The initial laboratory exams revealed anemia and elevation of inflammatory markers. Immunological tests were positive for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. The diagnosis of systemic JIA was established and indomethacin (2.0 mg/kg/day) was started with improvement of arthritis. The patient evolved with vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain and upper gastrointestinal barium study showed areas of small bowel dilatation and thickening of folds, suggestive of malabsorption syndrome. Colonoscopy was normal and small intestinal biopsy was compatible with CD. We reported a case of a rare association of early diagnosis of systemic JIA occurring simultaneously with CD. This study reinforces the importance of taking into account the possible association of organ-specific autoimmune diseases during JIA course.
Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Simpson, David M.
Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autonomic neuropathy, progressive polyradiculopathy due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, myopathy and other rarer disorders. PMID:19771594
The evaluation of the hypothesis of an infectious etiology to some neurological diseases comprises four different situations. First, numerous neurological diseases have an obvious infectious etiology (encephilitis, meningoencephilitis). Second, some neurological disorders were primarily suspected to be have an infectious etiology, but the causative microorganism was discovered either longtime after the princeps description of the disease (neurologic Whipple disease, due to Tropheryma whippelii), or at the same time (tropical spastic para-paresis secondary to HTLV-I infection). Third, for other neurological diseases, an infectious etiology that was not suspected at time of their anatomoclinic descriptions, was further demonstrated in the context of a generally complex physiopathology (Guillain-Barré syndrome and infection by Campylobacter jejuni). Finally, some idiopathic neurological diseases could be related to well known or yet unknown microorganisms, in association with some environmental factors, and with a particular genetic or acquired susceptibility of the host. The evaluation of an infectious etiology to these idiopathic neurological disorders must be envisioned according to 3 possibilities: 1) generally, the neurological disease is well defined, but its etiology remains unknown and an infectious hypothesis could be relevant (multiple sclerosis, post-polio syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis); 2) sometimes, a microorganism that is not associated with a known disease, and then qualified as "orphelin", could be associated with neurological disorders (spumaretrovirus); 3) finally, a new neurological disease could be associated with a known or yet unknown microorganism, directly or indirectly. In conclusion, some idiopathic neurological diseases could have an infectious etiology, with physiopathologic, diagnostic, prophylactic (vaccination) and therapeutic (use of anti-infectious drugs) consequences.
Gurleyik, Gunay; Aktekin, Ali; Aker, Fugen; Karagulle, Hikmet; Saglamc, Abdullah
Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast with obscure etiology that mimics invasive carcinoma both clinically and radiologically. The treatment of IGLM remains controversial. The aim of proper management is to use a combination of medical and surgical treatment of this benign condition to achieve a good cosmetic result and low recurrence rate. A retrospective analysis of 19 patients with IGLM is performed based on the findings of clinical, radiological, and pathological examinations. The results of two treatments are presented: medical treatment with oral corticosteroids, and consecutive surgical excision after a follow-up period of 20 months (range, 6-75 months). The majority of patients treated in this paper were young (mean, 34 years) parous women with a history of hormonal medication use. The main clinical finding is large, irregular, and painful mass. Hypoechoic lobulated, irregular tubular or oval shaped masses had been imaged by ultrasound. Mammographic findings were an ill-defined mass, enlarged axillary lymph nodes, asymmetric density, and architectural distortion. Diagnoses of IGLM had been established by cytological or histological examination. Symptoms subside and inflammatory changes regressed with medical treatment. The remaining lesions were excised by consecutive breast conserving surgery. The disease recurred in one patient during the follow-up period. IGLM is an inflammatory breast disease found in young women who present with a large painful irregular mass, which mimics carcinoma, as a physical change. Breast imaging modalities are not helpful to differentiate IGLM from invasive cancer. The correct diagnosis is established by cytological or histological examination. Medical treatment with corticosteroids provides significant regression of the inflammatory disease, allowing more conservative surgery. Consecutive surgical excision of the remaining lesions with good cosmetic results
Aktekin, Ali; Aker, Fugen; Karagulle, Hikmet; Saglamc, Abdullah
Purpose Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast with obscure etiology that mimics invasive carcinoma both clinically and radiologically. The treatment of IGLM remains controversial. The aim of proper management is to use a combination of medical and surgical treatment of this benign condition to achieve a good cosmetic result and low recurrence rate. Methods A retrospective analysis of 19 patients with IGLM is performed based on the findings of clinical, radiological, and pathological examinations. The results of two treatments are presented: medical treatment with oral corticosteroids, and consecutive surgical excision after a follow-up period of 20 months (range, 6-75 months). Results The majority of patients treated in this paper were young (mean, 34 years) parous women with a history of hormonal medication use. The main clinical finding is large, irregular, and painful mass. Hypoechoic lobulated, irregular tubular or oval shaped masses had been imaged by ultrasound. Mammographic findings were an ill-defined mass, enlarged axillary lymph nodes, asymmetric density, and architectural distortion. Diagnoses of IGLM had been established by cytological or histological examination. Symptoms subside and inflammatory changes regressed with medical treatment. The remaining lesions were excised by consecutive breast conserving surgery. The disease recurred in one patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion IGLM is an inflammatory breast disease found in young women who present with a large painful irregular mass, which mimics carcinoma, as a physical change. Breast imaging modalities are not helpful to differentiate IGLM from invasive cancer. The correct diagnosis is established by cytological or histological examination. Medical treatment with corticosteroids provides significant regression of the inflammatory disease, allowing more conservative surgery. Consecutive surgical excision of the remaining
Unger, Sofia; Corte, Tamera J.; Keller, Michael; Wolters, Paul J.; Richeldi, Luca; Cerri, Stefania; Prêle, Cecilia M.; Hansbro, Philip M.; Argraves, William Scott; Oliver, Rema A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Black, Judith L.; Burgess, Janette K.
BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanisms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are unknown. This progressive disease has high mortality rates, and current models for prediction of mortality have limited value in identifying which patients will progress. We previously showed that the glycoprotein fibulin-1 is involved in enhanced proliferation and wound repair by mesenchymal cells and, thus, may contribute to lung fibrosis in IPF. METHODS: Serum, lung tissue, and lung function values were obtained from four independent locations (Sydney, NSW, and Perth, WA, Australia; San Francisco, CA; and Modena, Italy). Patients with IPF were followed for a minimum of 1 year and progression was defined as a significant decline in lung function or death. Primary parenchymal lung fibroblasts of 15 patients with and without IPF were cultured under nonstimulatory conditions. Fibulin-1 levels in serum, and secreted or deposited by fibroblasts, were measured by western blot and in lung tissue by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Serum fibulin-1 levels were increased in patients with IPF compared with subjects without lung disease (P = .006). Furthermore, tissue fibulin-1 levels were increased in patients with IPF (P = .02) and correlated negatively with lung function (r = −0.9, P < .05). Primary parenchymal fibroblasts from patients with IPF produced more fibulin-1 than those from subjects without IPF (P < .05). Finally, serum fibulin-1 levels at first blood draw predicted disease progression in IPF within 1 year (area under the curve , 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.86; P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: Fibulin-1 is a novel potential biomarker for disease progression in IPF and raises the possibility that it could be used as a target for the development of new treatments. PMID:24832167
Jaffar, Jade; Unger, Sofia; Corte, Tamera J; Keller, Michael; Wolters, Paul J; Richeldi, Luca; Cerri, Stefania; Prêle, Cecilia M; Hansbro, Philip M; Argraves, William Scott; Oliver, Rema A; Oliver, Brian G; Black, Judith L; Burgess, Janette K
The underlying mechanisms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are unknown. This progressive disease has high mortality rates, and current models for prediction of mortality have limited value in identifying which patients will progress. We previously showed that the glycoprotein fibulin-1 is involved in enhanced proliferation and wound repair by mesenchymal cells and, thus, may contribute to lung fibrosis in IPF. Serum, lung tissue, and lung function values were obtained from four independent locations (Sydney, NSW, and Perth, WA, Australia; San Francisco, CA; and Modena, Italy). Patients with IPF were followed for a minimum of 1 year and progression was defined as a significant decline in lung function or death. Primary parenchymal lung fibroblasts of 15 patients with and without IPF were cultured under nonstimulatory conditions. Fibulin-1 levels in serum, and secreted or deposited by fibroblasts, were measured by western blot and in lung tissue by immunohistochemistry. Serum fibulin-1 levels were increased in patients with IPF compared with subjects without lung disease (P = .006). Furthermore, tissue fibulin-1 levels were increased in patients with IPF (P = .02) and correlated negatively with lung function (r = -0.9, P < .05). Primary parenchymal fibroblasts from patients with IPF produced more fibulin-1 than those from subjects without IPF (P < .05). Finally, serum fibulin-1 levels at first blood draw predicted disease progression in IPF within 1 year (area under the curve , 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.86; P = .012). Fibulin-1 is a novel potential biomarker for disease progression in IPF and raises the possibility that it could be used as a target for the development of new treatments.
Wagner, Jeffrey; Fleseriu, Cara M; Ibrahim, Aly; Cetas, Justin S
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in patients with Cushing disease (CD), after treatment, is rarely described, in adults. The cause is believed to be multifactorial, potentially related to a relative decrease in cortisol after surgical resection or medical treatment of a corticotroph pituitary adenoma. We investigate our center's CD database (140 surgically and 60 medically [primary or adjunct] treated patients) for cases of IIH, describe our center's experience with symptomatic IIH, and review treatment strategies in adults with CD after transsphenoidal resection. We present the case of a 22-year-old woman who presented with worsening headache, nausea, vomiting, blurry vision, diplopia, visual loss, and facial numbness 14 weeks after surgical resection of adrenocorticotropic hormone-positive pituitary adenoma. Her CD had been in remission since surgery, with subsequent adrenal insufficiency (AI), which was initially treated with supraphysiologic glucocorticoid replacement, tapered down to physiologic doses at the time the IIH symptoms developed. Symptomatic IIH is rare in adult patients but can be severe and result in permanent vision loss. A high index of suspicion should be maintained and a fundus examination is necessary to exclude papilledema, whenever there are suggestive symptoms that initially may overlap with AI. It is possible that some cases of mild IIH are misdiagnosed as GC withdrawal or AI; however, further studies are needed. Treatment consists of reinitiation of higher steroid doses together with acetazolamide with or without cerebrospinal fluid diversion and the priority is to preserve vision and reverse any visual loss. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lim, S W; Zhao, Y; Chua, E; Law, H Y; Yuen, Y; Pavanni, R; Wong, M C; Ng, I S; Yoon, C S; Puong, K Y; Lim, S H; Tan, E K
Recent reports of SCA2 and SCA3 patients who presented with levodopa responsive parkinsonism have generated considerable interest as they have implications for genetic testing. It is unclear whether ethnic race alone or founder effects within certain geographical region explain such an association. In this study, we conducted genetic analysis of SCA2, 3, 17 in an ethnic Chinese cohort with early onset and familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls. A total of 191 subjects comprising of 91 PD and 100 healthy controls were examined. We identified one positive case of SCA2 in an early-onset sporadic PD patient who had CAG 36 repeats, yielding a prevalence of 2.2% in early-onset sporadic PD patients and less than 1.0% in our study PD population. The size of the repeats was lower than the expanded repeats (38-57) in SCA2 patients with ataxia in our population. All the children of the patient were physically normal even though some of them carried the repeat expansion of similar size. No cases and controls were positive for SCA3 and SCA17. We do not think routine screening of SCA2, SCA3 and SCA17 for all idiopathic PD patients is cost-effective in our ethnic Chinese population. However, SCA2 should be a differential diagnosis in young onset sporadic PD when genetic mutations of other known PD genes have been excluded.
Rubio, C P; Martínez-Subiela, S; Hernández-Ruiz, J; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Cerón, J J; Allenspach, K
The objective of this work was to study and compare a panel of various serum biomarkers evaluating both the antioxidant response and oxidative damage in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eighteen dogs with IBD and 20 healthy dogs were enrolled in the study. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP), total thiol concentrations, and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity were evaluated in serum to determine antioxidant response. To evaluate oxidative status, ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species production (ROS) concentrations in serum were determined. Mean concentrations of all antioxidant biomarkers analyzed, with exception of FRAP, were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the sera of dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. The oxidant markers studied were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in sera of dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. These findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress could play an important role in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peng, Ruoqi; Sridhar, Sriram; Tyagi, Gaurav; Phillips, Jonathan E; Garrido, Rosario; Harris, Paul; Burns, Lisa; Renteria, Lorena; Woods, John; Chen, Leena; Allard, John; Ravindran, Palanikumar; Bitter, Hans; Liang, Zhenmin; Hogaboam, Cory M; Kitson, Chris; Budd, David C; Fine, Jay S; Bauer, Carla M T; Stevenson, Christopher S
The preclinical model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, used to investigate mechanisms related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), has incorrectly predicted efficacy for several candidate compounds suggesting that it may be of limited value. As an attempt to improve the predictive nature of this model, integrative bioinformatic approaches were used to compare molecular alterations in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and patients with IPF. Using gene set enrichment analysis we show for the first time that genes differentially expressed during the fibrotic phase of the single challenge bleomycin model were significantly enriched in the expression profiles of IPF patients. The genes that contributed most to the enrichment were largely involved in mitosis, growth factor, and matrix signaling. Interestingly, these same mitotic processes were increased in the expression profiles of fibroblasts isolated from rapidly progressing, but not slowly progressing, IPF patients relative to control subjects. The data also indicated that TGFβ was not the sole mediator responsible for the changes observed in this model since the ALK-5 inhibitor SB525334 effectively attenuated some but not all of the fibrosis associated with this model. Although some would suggest that repetitive bleomycin injuries may more effectively model IPF-like changes, our data do not support this conclusion. Together, these data highlight that a single bleomycin instillation effectively replicates several of the specific pathogenic molecular changes associated with IPF, and may be best used as a model for patients with active disease.
Yi, G.; Goldman, J. H.; Keeling, P. J.; Reardon, M.; McKenna, W. J.; Malik, M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical importance of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Time domain analysis of 24 hour HRV was performed in 64 patients with DCM, 19 of their relatives with left ventricular enlargement (possible early DCM), and 33 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Measures of HRV were reduced in patients with DCM compared with controls (P < 0.05). HRV parameters were similar in relatives and controls. Measures of HRV were lower in DCM patients in whom progressive heart failure developed (n = 28) than in those who remained clinically stable (n = 36) during a follow up of 24 (20) months (P = 0.0001). Reduced HRV was associated with NYHA functional class, left ventricular end diastolic dimension, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and peak exercise oxygen consumption (P < 0.05) in all patients. DCM patients with standard deviation of normal to normal RR intervals calculated over the 24 hour period (SDNN) < 50 ms had a significantly lower survival rate free of progressive heart failure than those with SDNN > 50 ms (P = 0.0002, at 12 months; P = 0.0001, during overall follow up). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that SDNN < 50 ms identified, independently of other clinical variables, patients who were at increased risk of developing progressive heart failure (P = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: HRV is reduced in patients with DCM and related to disease severity. HRV is clinically useful as an early non-invasive marker of DCM deterioration. PMID:9068391
Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C A
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD.
Kreuter, Michael; Spagnolo, Paolo; Wuyts, Wim; Renzoni, Elisabetta; Koschel, Dirk; Bonella, Francesco; Maher, Toby M; Kolb, Martin; Weycker, Derek; Kirchgässler, Klaus-Uwe; Costabel, Ulrich
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a potential risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) progression; however, the impact of antacid therapy (AAT) is under debate. To evaluate the effect of AAT on IPF progression in pirfenidone-treated patients. This post hoc analysis included patients with IPF who received pirfenidone in 3 trials (CAPACITY [PIPF-004/PIPF-006] and ASCEND [PIPF-016]). Pulmonary function, exercise tolerance, survival, hospitalizations, and adverse events (AEs) over 52 weeks were analyzed by baseline AAT use. Disease progression was defined as a decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) of ≥10%, a decrease in 6-min walking distance of ≥50 m, or death over 1 year. Of 623 patients, 44% received AAT. No significant differences were found at 52 weeks (AAT versus non-AAT, respectively) in disease progression (24.9 vs. 30.6%; p = 0.12), all-cause mortality rate (2.9 vs. 4.0%; p = 0.47), IPF-related mortality rate (1.1 vs. 2.0%; p = 0.37), all-cause hospitalization rate (16.1 vs. 18.3%; p = 0.48), or mean change in percent FVC (-2.7 vs. -3.1%; p = 0.44). A relative, but not absolute, FVC decline of ≥10% favored AAT (15 vs. 22%; p = 0.03). Severe gastrointestinal AEs (3.7 vs. 0.9%; p = 0.015) and severe pulmonary infections (3.7 vs. 1.1%; p = 0.035) were more frequent with AAT. AAT and pirfenidone had outcomes comparable to those of pirfenidone alone in patients with IPF, underscoring the need for prospective trials to elucidate the role of AAT with or without antifibrotic drugs as a treatment for IPF. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Shamir, Ron; Klein, Christine; Amar, David; Vollstedt, Eva-Juliane; Bonin, Michael; Usenovic, Marija; Wong, Yvette C; Maver, Ales; Poths, Sven; Safer, Hershel; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Lesage, Suzanne; Lavi, Ofer; Deuschl, Günther; Kuhlenbaeumer, Gregor; Pawlack, Heike; Ulitsky, Igor; Kasten, Meike; Riess, Olaf; Brice, Alexis; Peterlin, Borut; Krainc, Dimitri
To examine whether gene expression analysis of a large-scale Parkinson disease (PD) patient cohort produces a robust blood-based PD gene signature compared to previous studies that have used relatively small cohorts (≤220 samples). Whole-blood gene expression profiles were collected from a total of 523 individuals. After preprocessing, the data contained 486 gene profiles (n = 205 PD, n = 233 controls, n = 48 other neurodegenerative diseases) that were partitioned into training, validation, and independent test cohorts to identify and validate a gene signature. Batch-effect reduction and cross-validation were performed to ensure signature reliability. Finally, functional and pathway enrichment analyses were applied to the signature to identify PD-associated gene networks. A gene signature of 100 probes that mapped to 87 genes, corresponding to 64 upregulated and 23 downregulated genes differentiating between patients with idiopathic PD and controls, was identified with the training cohort and successfully replicated in both an independent validation cohort (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79, p = 7.13E-6) and a subsequent independent test cohort (AUC = 0.74, p = 4.2E-4). Network analysis of the signature revealed gene enrichment in pathways, including metabolism, oxidation, and ubiquitination/proteasomal activity, and misregulation of mitochondria-localized genes, including downregulation of COX4I1 , ATP5A1 , and VDAC3 . We present a large-scale study of PD gene expression profiling. This work identifies a reliable blood-based PD signature and highlights the importance of large-scale patient cohorts in developing potential PD biomarkers. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Dong, Siwen; Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Texter, Karen; Jaggi, Preeti
To estimate the incidence of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) within 6 months after treatment for presumed Kawasaki disease (KD) (presumed patients with KD with subsequent diagnosis of SoJIA [pKD/SoJIA]) and describe presentation differences from sole KD. We identified patients treated for KD at Nationwide Children's Hospital and from the Pediatric Health Information System from 2009-2013. We then identified the subset of children, pKD/SoJIA, who received an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for SoJIA and had it listed at least once 3 months after and within 6 months after KD diagnosis. Demographic characteristics, readmission rates, treatments, and complications were noted. A literature review was also performed to identify clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data of previously documented patients with KD later diagnosed with SoJIA. There were 6745 total treated patients with KD in the Pediatric Health Information System database during the study period; 10 patients were identified to have pKD/SoJIA (0.2% of cohort). Those with pKD/SoJIA were predominantly Caucasian compared with patients with KD (90% and 46.8%, respectively; P=.003). Macrophage activation syndrome was more common in patients with pKD/SoJIA than in sole patients with KD (30% and 0.30%, respectively; P<.001). Fifteen cases of pKD/SoJIA were identified by literature and chart review, 12 of whom were initially diagnosed with incomplete KD. We reported a 0.2% incidence of pKD/SoJIA, which was associated with Caucasian race, macrophage activation syndrome, and an incomplete KD phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lipp, Axel; Trbojevic, Radmila; Paul, Friedemann; Fehlner, Andreas; Hirsch, Sebastian; Scheel, Michael; Noack, Cornelia; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf
Detection and discrimination of neurodegenerative Parkinson syndromes are challenging clinical tasks and the use of standard T1- and T2-weighted cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is limited to exclude symptomatic Parkinsonism. We used a quantitative structural MR-based technique, MR-elastography (MRE), to assess viscoelastic properties of the brain, providing insights into altered tissue architecture in neurodegenerative diseases on a macroscopic level. We measured single-slice multifrequency MRE (MMRE) and three-dimensional MRE (3DMRE) in two neurodegenerative disorders with overlapping clinical presentation but different neuropathology - progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP: N = 16) and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD: N = 18) as well as in controls (N = 18). In PSP, both MMRE (Δμ = - 28.8%, Δα = - 4.9%) and 3DMRE (Δ|G*|: - 10.6%, Δφ: - 34.6%) were significantly reduced compared to controls, with a pronounced reduction within the lentiform nucleus (Δμ = - 34.6%, Δα = - 8.1%; Δ|G*|: - 7.8%, Δφ: - 44.8%). MRE in PD showed a comparable pattern, but overall reduction in brain elasticity was less severe reaching significance only in the lentiform nucleus (Δμ n.s., Δα = - 7.4%; Δ|G*|: - 6.9%, Δφ: n.s.). Beyond that, patients showed a close negative correlation between MRE constants and clinical severity. Our data indicate that brain viscoelasticity in PSP and PD is differently affected by the underlying neurodegeneration; whereas in PSP all MRE constants are reduced and changes in brain softness (reduced μ and |G*|) predominate those of viscosity (α and φ) in PD.
Minamoto, Yasushi; Otoni, Cristiane C; Steelman, Samantha M; Büyükleblebici, Olga; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E; Suchodolski, Jan S
Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease in dogs. The combination of an underlying host genetic susceptibility, an intestinal dysbiosis, and dietary/environmental factors are suspected as main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. However, actual mechanisms of the host-microbe interactions remain elusive. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles between healthy dogs (n = 10) and dogs with IBD before and after 3 weeks of medical therapy (n = 12). Fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes and by an untargeted metabolomics approach, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity and distinct microbial communities were observed in dogs with IBD compared to the healthy control dogs. While Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented, Erysipelotrichia, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia were underrepresented in dogs with IBD. The functional gene content was predicted from the 16 S rRNA gene data using PICRUSt, and revealed overrepresented bacterial secretion system and transcription factors, and underrepresented amino acid metabolism in dogs with IBD. The serum metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate, hexuronic acid, ribose, and gluconic acid lactone were significantly more abundant in dogs with IBD. Although a clinical improvement was observed after medical therapy in all dogs with IBD, this was not accompanied by significant changes in the fecal microbiota or in serum metabolite profiles. These results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and a functional alteration of the GI microbiota in dogs with IBD, which persisted even in the face of a clinical response to medical therapy.
Minamoto, Yasushi; Otoni, Cristiane C; Steelman, Samantha M; Büyükleblebici, Olga; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E; Suchodolski, Jan S
Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease in dogs. The combination of an underlying host genetic susceptibility, an intestinal dysbiosis, and dietary/environmental factors are suspected as main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. However, actual mechanisms of the host-microbe interactions remain elusive. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles between healthy dogs (n = 10) and dogs with IBD before and after 3 weeks of medical therapy (n = 12). Fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes and by an untargeted metabolomics approach, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity and distinct microbial communities were observed in dogs with IBD compared to the healthy control dogs. While Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented, Erysipelotrichia, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia were underrepresented in dogs with IBD. The functional gene content was predicted from the 16 S rRNA gene data using PICRUSt, and revealed overrepresented bacterial secretion system and transcription factors, and underrepresented amino acid metabolism in dogs with IBD. The serum metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate, hexuronic acid, ribose, and gluconic acid lactone were significantly more abundant in dogs with IBD. Although a clinical improvement was observed after medical therapy in all dogs with IBD, this was not accompanied by significant changes in the fecal microbiota or in serum metabolite profiles. These results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and a functional alteration of the GI microbiota in dogs with IBD, which persisted even in the face of a clinical response to medical therapy. PMID:25531678
Kreuter, Michael; Bonella, Francesco; Maher, Toby M; Costabel, Ulrich; Spagnolo, Paolo; Weycker, Derek; Kirchgaessler, Klaus-Uwe; Kolb, Martin
Data are conflicting regarding the possible effects of statins in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of statin therapy on disease-related outcomes in IPF. Patients randomised to placebo (n=624) in three controlled trials of pirfenidone in IPF (CAPACITY 004 and 006, ASCEND) were categorised by baseline statin use. Outcomes assessed during the 1-year follow-up included disease progression, mortality, hospitalisation and composite outcomes of death or ≥10% absolute decline in FVC and death or ≥50 m decline in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). At baseline, 276 (44%) patients were statin users versus 348 (56%) non-users. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, except statin users were older and had higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. In multivariate analyses adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics, statin users had lower risks of death or 6MWD decline (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.99, p=0.0465), all-cause hospitalisation (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.94, p=0.0289), respiratory-related hospitalisation (HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.80, p=0.0063) and IPF-related mortality (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.95, p=0.0393) versus non-users. Non-significant treatment effects favouring statin use were observed for disease progression (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.52 to 1.07, p=0.1135), all-cause mortality (HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.24 to 1.21, p=0.1369) and death or FVC decline (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.07, p=0.1032). This post hoc analysis supports the hypothesis that statins may have a beneficial effect on clinical outcomes in IPF. Prospective clinical trials are required to validate these observations. NCT01366209, NCT00287729 and NCT00287716. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M
SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep
Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Rizzo, Giovanni; Scaglione, Cesa; Capellari, Sabina; Fileccia, Enrico; Avoni, Patrizia; Liguori, Rocco
Phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn) in skin nerves mainly in the proximal sites is a promising neurodegenerative biomarker for idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). However, the p-syn spine distribution particularly in patients with unilateral motor dysfunctions remains undefined. This study aimed to investigate in IPD p-syn differences between left and right cervical spine sites in patients with prevalent unilateral motor symptoms, and cervical and thoracic spine sites in patients with bilateral motor symptoms. We enrolled 28 IPD patients fulfilling clinical diagnostic criteria associated with abnormal nigro-striatal DatScan and cardiac MIBG: 15 with prevalently unilateral motor symptoms demonstrated by DatScan; 13 with bilateral motor symptoms and DatScan abnormalities. Patients underwent skin biopsy searching for intraneural p-syn deposits: skin samples were taken from C7 paravertebral left and right sites in unilateral patients and from cervical (C7) and thoracic (Th12) paravertebral spine regions in bilateral patients. Unilateral patients displayed 20% of abnormal p-syn deposits in the affected motor site, 60% in both sites and 20% only in the non-affected site. P-syn was found in all patients in C7 but in only 62% of patients in Th12. Our data showed that cervical p-syn deposits displayed a uniform distribution between both sides not following the motor dysfunction in unilateral patients, and skin nerve p-syn deposits demonstrated a spine gradient with the cervical site expressing the highest positivity. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kapoor, Prashant; Greipp, Patricia T.; Schaefer, Eric W.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Kamal, Arif H.; Gonzalez-Paz, Natalia C.; Kumar, Shaji; Greipp, Philip R.
OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical features, natural history, and outcome of a well-defined cohort of 25 consecutive patients with idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) evaluated at a tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records of patients diagnosed as having SCLS from November 1, 1981, through April 30, 2008, were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze patient demographics, clinical features, complications, and therapeutic interventions. RESULTS: Of the 34 patients whose records were reviewed, 25 fulfilled all diagnostic criteria for SCLS. The median age at diagnosis of SCLS was 44 years. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 4.9 years, and median time to diagnosis from symptom onset was 1.1 years (interquartile range, 0.5-4.1 years). Flulike illness or myalgia was reported by 14 patients (56%) at onset of an acute attack of SCLS, and rhabdomyolysis developed in 9 patients (36%). Patients with a greater decrease in albumin level had a higher likelihood of developing rhabdomyolysis (p=.03). Monoclonal gammopathy, predominantly of the IgG-κ type, was found in 19 patients (76%). The progression rate to multiple myeloma was 0.7% per person-year of follow-up. The overall response rate to the different therapies was 76%, and 24% of patients sustained durable (>2 years) complete remission. The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 76% (95% confidence interval, 59%-97%). CONCLUSION: Systemic capillary leak syndrome, a rare disease that occurs in those of middle age, is usually diagnosed after a considerable delay from onset of symptoms. The degree of albumin decrement during an attack correlates with development of rhabdomyolysis. A reduction in the frequency and/or the severity of attacks was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients who were offered empirical therapies. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma appears to be comparable to that of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. PMID:20634497
Morén, C; González-Casacuberta, Í; Navarro-Otano, J; Juárez-Flores, D; Vilas, D; Garrabou, G; Milisenda, J C; Pont-Sunyer, C; Catalán-García, M; Guitart-Mampel, M; Tobías, E; Cardellach, F; Valldeoriola, F; Iranzo, A; Tolosa, E
To determine potential mitochondrial and oxidative alterations in colon biopsies from idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. Colonic biopsies from 7 iRBD subjects, 9 subjects with clinically diagnosed PD, and 9 healthy controls were homogenized in 5% w/v mannitol. Citrate synthase (CS) and complex I (CI) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Oxidative damage was assessed either by lipid peroxidation, through malondialdehyde and hydroxyalkenal content by spectrophotometry, or through antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), and catalase (CAT) by western blot. The presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions was assessed by long PCR and electrophoresis. Nonsignificant trends to CI decrease in both iRBD (45.69 ± 18.15; 23% decrease) and PD patients (37.57 ± 12.41; 37% decrease) were found compared to controls (59.51 ± 12.52, p : NS). Lipid peroxidation was maintained among groups (iRBD: 27.46 ± 3.04, PD: 37.2 ± 3.92, and controls: 31.71 ± 3.94; p : NS). Antioxidant enzymes SOD2 (iRBD: 2.30 ± 0.92, PD: 1.48 ± 0.39, and controls: 1.09 ± 0.318) and Gpx1 (iRBD 0.29 ± 0.12, PD: 0.56 ± 0.33, and controls: 0.38 ± 0.16) did not show significant differences between groups. CAT was only detected in 2 controls and 1 iRBD subject. One iRBD patient presented a single mtDNA deletion.
van Hooren, Michel R A; Baijens, Laura W J; Vos, Rein; Pilz, Walmari; Kuijpers, Laura M F; Kremer, Bernd; Michou, Emilia
This study explores whether changes in voice- and swallow-related QoL are associated with progression of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Furthermore, it examines the relationship between patients' perception of both voice and swallowing disorders in IPD. Prospective clinical study, quality of life (QoL). One-hundred mentally competent IPD patients with voice and swallowing complaints were asked to answer four QoL questionnaires (Voice Handicap Index, MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, Visual Analog Scale [VAS] voice, and Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]). Differences in means for the QoL questionnaires and their subscales within Hoehn and Yahr stage groups were calculated using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires was determined with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Scores on both voice and swallow questionnaires suggest an overall decrease in QoL with progression of IPD. A plateau in QoL for VAS voice and the DSS was seen in the early Hoehn and Yahr stages. Finally, scores on voice-related QoL questionnaires were significantly correlated with swallow-related QoL outcomes. Voice- and swallow-related QoL decreases with progression of IPD. A significant association was found between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires. Healthcare professionals can benefit from voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires in a multidimensional voice- or swallow-assessment protocol. The patient's perception of his/her voice and swallowing disorders and its impact on QoL in IPD should not be disregarded. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Kertelge, Lena; Brüggemann, Norbert; Schmidt, Alexander; Tadic, Vera; Wisse, Claudia; Dankert, Sylwia; Drude, Laura; van der Vegt, Joyce; Siebner, Hartwig; Pawlack, Heike; Pramstaller, Peter P; Behrens, Maria Isabel; Ramirez, Alfredo; Reichel, Dirk; Buhmann, Carsten; Hagenah, Johann; Klein, Christine; Lohmann, Katja; Kasten, Meike
Olfaction is typically impaired in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), but its role is uncertain in monogenic PD. Diminished color discrimination has been suggested as another early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction but not been systematically studied. Furthermore, it is unknown whether both deficits are linked. We examined 100 patients with IPD, 27 manifesting mutation carriers (MC), 20 nonmanifesting mutation carriers (NMC), and 110 controls. Participants underwent a standardized neurological examination, the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) color discrimination test, and mutation testing in known PD genes. The monogenic group consisted of 15 Parkin (6MC/9NMC), 17 PINK1 (10MC/7NMC), 8 LRRK2 (4MC/4NMC), 3 SNCA (MC), and 4 ATP13A2 (MC) carriers. Olfaction was most impaired in IPD (UPSIT percentiles 10.1 ± 13.5) compared with all other groups (MC 13.8 ± 11.9, NMC 19.6 ± 13.0, controls 33.8 ± 22.4). Within MC, carriers of two mutations in Parkin and PINK1 showed higher UPSIT percentiles than LRRK2 and SNCA carriers. Color discrimination was reduced in IPD (FM total error score 134.8 ± 92.7). In MC (122.4 ± 142.4), the reduction was most pronounced in LRRK2, NMC (80.0 ± 38.8) were comparable with controls (97.2 ± 61.1). UPSIT and FM scores were correlated in the control (r = -0.305; P = 0.002) and the IPD group (r = -0.303; P = 0.006) but not among mutation carriers. First, we confirmed olfaction and color discrimination to be impaired in IPD and suggest olfaction to be a premotor sign. Second, olfaction differed between carriers with one and two mutations in Parkin/PINK1-associated PD. Third, olfaction and color discrimination impairment do not necessarily evolve in parallel. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.
Caba, L M; Ferrairó, J I T; Torres, I M; Costa, J F V; Muñoz, R B; Martin, A L
The diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism (VP) is based on a series of clinical criteria and neuroimaging findings. An increase in transcranial Doppler ultrasonography pulsatility index (PI) has been described as a frequent finding in patients with VP. We aimed to confirm this association and to determine the PI value with the highest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of VP. PI was determined in all patients admitted to Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe due to parkinsonism between January 2012 and June 2016. We assessed the probability of having VP based on PI values in patients with a definite diagnosis of either VP or idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). A ROC curve was created to determine the PI value with the highest sensitivity and specificity. We assessed a total of 146 patients with suspected parkinsonism; 54 (37%) were diagnosed with IPD and 15 (10%) with VP. Patients with VP were significantly older than those with IPD (mean age of 79 vs 68.5, P=.00144) and had a higher PI (median of 1.29 [IQR: 1.09-1.38] vs 0.96 [IQR: 0.89-1.16], P=.01328). In our sample, a PI of 1.09 conferred 84% sensitivity and 70% specificity. In our series, the PI was significantly higher in patients with VP than in those with IPD. We therefore support the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography for the initial assessment of elderly patients with akinetic-rigid syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Werny, David; Elfers, Clinton; Perez, Francisco A; Pihoker, Catherine; Roth, Christian L
Pediatric cohorts of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) have shown varying prevalences for the different causes of CDI, including idiopathic. The objective of the study was to determine the causes of CDI at a pediatric tertiary care center and to characterize their clinical outcomes. All patients with CDI at Seattle Children's Hospital were identified and retrospectively analyzed. From 2000 to 2013, 147 patients with CDI were encountered (mean age 7 y at diagnosis, mean follow-up 6.2 y). The different causes of CDI were grouped, and age of diagnosis, anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies (APHDs), and presence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS) were analyzed. Patients with idiopathic CDI had infundibular thickening measured using a systematic method. Brain malformations caused 24% of CDI cases, and 12.2% were idiopathic. Four of 22 patients with initially idiopathic CDI were diagnosed with an underlying condition, none occurring later than 2.5 years from diagnosis. APHDs were as common in the brain malformation group as they were in the tumor/infiltrative group (72% vs 85%; P = .09). The PPBS was present in at least 13% of patients and in 19% of those with brain malformations. Patients with idiopathic CDI and stalk thickening on the initial magnetic resonance imaging were more likely to have an underlying diagnosis (40% vs 0%; P = .03). Brain malformations were a more common cause of pediatric CDI than previously reported. These patients have a high rate of APHDs, and many have persistence of the PPBS. Idiopathic CDI is an uncommon diagnosis, and none of our patients were diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis or germinoma for more than 3 years from CDI diagnosis. Providers can consider less frequent magnetic resonance imaging after this time point. A systematic method of infundibular measurement on the initial magnetic resonance imaging may predict an underlying germinoma or Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Pugliese, Camila; van der Vinne, Roberta T A; Campos, Lucia M A; Guardieiro, Priscila R; Saviolli, Cynthia; Bonfá, Eloisa; Pereira, Rosa M R; Viana, Vilma S; Borba, Eduardo F; Silva, Clovis A
The impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in periodontal diseases is controversial probably due to gender and age heterogeneity. We therefore evaluated a homogeneous female post-pubertal JIA population for these conditions. Thirty-five JIA patients and 35 gender/age comparable healthy controls were evaluated according to demographic data, complete periodontal evaluation, fasting lipoproteins, and anti-lipoprotein lipase antibodies. JIA scores, laboratorial tests, X-rays, and treatment were also assessed. Current age was similar in JIA patients and controls (11.90 ± 2.0 vs. 12.50 ± 3.0 years, p = 0.289). Complete periodontal assessments revealed that gingival index, dental plaque, gingival bleeding, and clinical dental attachment indices were alike in JIA patients and controls (p > 0.05), except for gingival enlargement in former group (p < 0.0001). Further analysis of patients with and without gingivitis revealed that cyclosporine use was more often observed in JIA patients with gingivitis (37 vs. 0%, p = 0.01), whereas no differences were evidenced in demographic, JIA scores, inflammatory markers, and lipid profile in both groups. Of note, two parameters of periodontal assessment were correlated with JIA scores [gingival index (GI) and Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) (r s = +0.402, p = 0.020)] and plaque index (PI) and visual analog scale (VAS) physician (r s = +0.430, p = 0.013). In addition, evaluation of dental assessment demonstrated that JIA activity scores had positive correlation with decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF-T) and junvenile athritis disease activity score (JADAS) (r s = +0.364,p = 0.037), VAS physician (r s = +0.401,p = 0.021) and VAS patient (r s = +0.364,p = 0.037). We demonstrated, using rigorous criteria, that periodontal and dental condition in JIA is similar to controls. In spite of that, the finding of a correlation with disease parameters
Laureti, S.; Casucci, G.; Santeusanio, F.
X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a genetic disease associated with demyelination of the central nervous system, adrenal insufficiency, and accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in tissue and body fluids. ALD is due to mutation of a gene located in Xq28 that encodes a peroxisomal transporter protein of unknown function. The most common phenotype of ALD is the cerebral form (45%) that develops in boys between 5-12 yr. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) involves the spinal cord and peripheral nerves in young adults (35%). Adrenal insufficiency (Addison`s disease) is frequently associated with AMN or cerebral ALD and may remain the only clinical expressionmore » of ALD (8% of cases). The prevalence of ALD among adults with Addison`s disease remains unknown. To evaluate this prevalence, we performed biochemical analysis of very long chain fatty acids in 14 male patients (age ranging from 12-45 yr at diagnosis) previously diagnosed as having primary idiopathic adrenocortical insufficiency. In 5 of 14 patients (35%), elevated plasma concentrations of very long chain fatty acids were detected. None of these patients had adrenocortical antibodies. By electrophysiological tests and magnetic resonance imaging it was determined that two patients had cerebral ALD, one had adrenomyeloneuropathy with cerebral involvement, and two had preclinical AMN. Our data support the hypothesis that ALD is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in children and adults. 30 refs., 5 tabs.« less
Braak, H; Rüb, U; Gai, W P; Del Tredici, K
The progressive, neurodegenerative process underlying idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with the formation of proteinaceous inclusion bodies that involve a few susceptible neuronal types of the human nervous system. In the lower brain stem, the process begins in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and advances from there essentially upwards through susceptible regions of the medulla oblongata, pontine tegmentum, midbrain, and basal forebrain until it reaches the cerebral cortex. With time, multiple components of the autonomic, limbic, and motor systems become severely impaired. All of the vulnerable subcortical grays and cortical areas are closely interconnected. Incidental cases of idiopathic Parkinson's disease may show involvement of both the enteric nervous system and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. This observation, combined with the working hypothesis that the stereotypic topographic expansion pattern of the lesions may resemble that of a falling row of dominos, prompts the question whether the disorder might originate outside of the central nervous system, caused by a yet unidentified pathogen that is capable of passing the mucosal barrier of the gastrointestinal tract and, via postganglionic enteric neurons, entering the central nervous system along unmyelinated praeganglionic fibers generated from the visceromotor projection cells of the vagus nerve. By way of retrograde axonal and transneuronal transport, such a causative pathogen could reach selectively vulnerable subcortical nuclei and, unimpeded, gain access to the cerebral cortex. The here hypothesized mechanism offers one possible explanation for the sequential and apparently uninterrupted manner in which vulnerable brain regions, subcortical grays and cortical areas become involved in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Russell, Anne-Marie; Ripamonti, Elena; Vancheri, Carlo
'Living with IPF and an exploration of Esbriet® - a new treatment' was an exploratory, qualitative, real-world survey of European patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) who were receiving treatment with pirfenidone prior to its commercial availability. The aim of the survey was to probe the impact of IPF on patients' quality of life; the role of healthcare professionals and caregivers; the information needs of both patients and their caregivers; and patients' perceptions of pirfenidone as a new treatment option for IPF. Patients from the UK, Germany and Italy, with a diagnosis of IPF (duration >3 months), who were being treated with pirfenidone, were recruited from patient support groups, specialist centres and advocacy groups. Semi-structured, qualitative, in-depth patient interviews of 1-h duration were conducted by an independent researcher. Patients were initially asked about their experiences of living with IPF and then prompted to describe their experiences of taking pirfenidone. Techniques utilised included: the bubble-speech technique; the icon cards projective exercise; and the free association exercise. All interviews were transcribed and analysed by an independent researcher. Forty-five patients (71% male) were interviewed (mean age 68.5 years; mean time since diagnosis 3.5 years); 87% of patients reported that diagnosis took >1 year. Patients reported that IPF had a significant physical and emotional impact on their quality of life. The beneficial role played by caregivers and interstitial lung disease specialist nurses (where available) was specifically highlighted. Although most patients were keen for information on IPF, this was often of poor quality, out of date, or in English only. Patients' perceptions of pirfenidone were largely positive and associated with 'hope' but were also influenced by the level of side effects experienced. This survey highlights the impact of IPF on patients' lives, and the need to adequately support both
Hayward, Rachel M; Nicolin, Gary; Kennedy, Charles; Joy, Harriet; Davies, Justin H
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in childhood and has a wide-ranging aetiology including the involvement of uncontrolled proliferation of dendritic cells in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, characteristic of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). DI may manifest as a sequela of multisystem LCH disease involving skin, bone, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. In very rare cases patients diagnosed with LCH exhibit neurodegenerative changes, such as severe ataxia, tremor, dysarthria and intellectual impairment. We report a 2 1/2-year-old boy who presented initially with apparent idiopathic DI, developed anterior pituitary hormone deficiency and progressive neurological deterioration secondary to neurodegenerative LCH.
Martínez-Hernández, L; Casamian-Sorrosal, D; Barrera-Chacón, R; Cuesta-Gerveno, J M; Belinchón-Lorenzo, S; Gómez Nieto, L C; Duque-Carrasco, F J
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a systemic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. Myocarditis in CanL has been described previously in CanL by histopathological analysis of post-mortem specimens and by evaluation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels. However, the degree of myocardial damage at different stages of CanL and the role that concurrent azotaemia plays in this myocardial injury are unknown. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate and compare the presence of myocardial injury in dogs at different stages of clinical CanL and in dogs with severe idiopathic chronic kidney disease (CKD) by measuring cTnI. Forty-eight dogs were included in the study, divided into four groups: (1) group A (10 healthy dogs); (2) group B (17 dogs with CanL without renal azotaemia, classified as mild to severe in the LeishVet scheme); (3) group C (11 dogs with CanL and renal azotaemia, classified as very severe in the LeishVet scheme); and (4) group D (10 dogs with idiopathic CKD). Dogs in group C had significantly higher cTnI than dogs in groups B and D, although cTnI was also elevated in these groups. Dogs in group A had normal cTnI values. Dogs in groups D and C had similar renal IRIS classification scorers. Severe lymphoplasmocytic myocarditis and a positive real time PCR of L. infantum DNA were observed in all dogs in group C. Dogs with very severe CanL exhibit more myocardial injury than dogs with milder CanL or dogs with idiopathic CKD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; Tobin, W Oliver
Oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently presents in people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. Thermal-tactile stimulation (TTS) is a sensory technique whereby stimulation is provided to the anterior faucial pillars to speed up the pharyngeal swallow. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of TTS on the timing of swallow in a cohort of people with IPD and known oropharyngeal dysphagia. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). TTS did not significantly alter median oral transit time on either fluid or paste consistency. TTS significantly reduced temporal measures of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in the IPD population. Significant results may be attributed to the role of sensory stimulation in improving motor function in IPD, with emphasis on the impaired glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in this population. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect.
Lechien, J R; Blecic, S; Huet, K; Delvaux, V; Piccaluga, M; Roland, V; Harmegnies, B; Saussez, S
To investigate voice quality (VQ) impairments in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and to explore the impact of medical treatments and L-Dopa challenge testing on voice. Relevant studies published between January 1980 and June 2017 describing VQ evaluations in IPD were retrieved using PubMed, Scopus, Biological Abstracts, BioMed Central and Cochrane databases. Issues of clinical relevance, including IPD treatment efficiency and voice quality outcomes, were evaluated for each study. The grade of recommendation for each publication was determined according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence levels. The database research yielded 106 relevant publications, of which 33 studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 964 patients with IPD. Data were extracted by 3 independent physicians who identified 21, 11 and 1 trials with IIIb, IIb and IIa evidence levels, respectively. The main VQ assessment tools used were acoustic testing (N = 27), aerodynamic testing (N = 10), subjective measurements (N = 8) and videolaryngostroboscopy (N = 3). The majority of trials (N = 32/33) identified subjective or objective VQ improvements after medical treatment (N = 10) or better VQ evaluations in healthy subjects compared to patients with IPD (N = 22). Especially, our analysis supports that VQ overall improves during the L-Dopa challenge testing, making the VQ evaluation an additional tool for the IPD diagnosis. The methodology used to assess subjective and objective VQ substantially varied from 1 study to another. All of the included studies took into consideration the patient's clinical profile in the VQ analysis. The majority of studies supported that VQ assessments remain useful as outcome measures of the effectiveness of medical treatment and could be helpful for the IPD diagnosis based on L-Dopa challenge testing. Further controlled studies using standardised and transparent methodology for measuring acoustic parameters are necessary to
Fenny, Nana; Grammer, Leslie C
Idiopathic anaphylaxis is a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes have been thoroughly evaluated and excluded. The pathogenesis of idiopathic anaphylaxis remains uncertain, although increased numbers of activated lymphocytes and circulating histamine-releasing factors have been implicated. Signs and symptoms of patients diagnosed with idiopathic anaphylaxis are indistinguishable from the manifestations of other forms of anaphylaxis. Treatment regimens are implemented based on the frequency and severity of patient symptoms and generally include the use of epinephrine autoinjectors, antihistamines, and steroids. The prognosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis is generally favorable with well-established treatment regimens and effective patient education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario; van Veenendaal, Mira; Dolman, Koert M; van Rossum, Marion A J; van den Berg, J Merlijn; Kuijpers, Taco W
To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in discriminating between active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and to compare physical examination outcomes with MRI outcomes in the assessment of disease status in JIA patients. Consecutive JIA patients with knee involvement were prospectively studied using an open-bore MRI. Imaging findings from 146 JIA patients were analysed (59.6% female; mean age, 12.9 years). Patients were classified as clinically active or inactive. MRI features were evaluated using the JAMRIS system, comprising validated scores for synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions and bone erosions. Inter-reader reliability was good for all MRI features (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87-0.94). No differences were found between the two groups regarding MRI scores of bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions or bone erosions. Synovial hypertrophy scores differed significantly between groups (P = 0.016). Nonetheless, synovial hypertrophy was also present in 14 JIA patients (35.9%) with clinically inactive disease. Of JIA patients considered clinically active, 48.6% showed no signs of MRI-based synovitis. MRI can discriminate between clinically active and inactive JIA patients. However, physical examination is neither very sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity compared with MRI. Subclinical synovitis was present in >35% of presumed clinically inactive patients. • MRI is sensitive for evaluating juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) disease activity. • Contrast-enhanced MRI can distinguish clinically active and inactive JIA patients. • Subclinical synovitis is present in 35.9 % of presumed clinically inactive patients. • Physical examination is neither sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity.
Sapir, Shimon; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Story, Brad H.; Fox, Cynthia
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of intensive voice treatment targeting vocal loudness (the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment [LSVT]) on vowel articulation in dysarthric individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: A group of individuals with PD receiving LSVT (n = 14) was compared to a group of individuals with PD not receiving LSVT…
Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Trachana, Maria; Agakidis, Charalampos; Pratsidou-Gertsi, Polyxeni; Taparkou, Anna; Lampoudi, Sotiria; Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou, Florentia
Studies in adults with rheumatoid arthritis reported low serum ghrelin that increased following anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) infusion. Data on juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to explore serum ghrelin levels in patients with JIA and the possible association with anti-TNF treatment, disease activity, and nutritional status. Fifty-two patients with JIA (14/52 on anti-TNF treatment) were studied. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis was inactive in 3 of 14 anti-TNF-treated patients and in 11 of 38 non-anti-TNF-treated patients. The nutritional status, energy intake/requirements, appetite, and fasting serum ghrelin levels were assessed. Ghrelin control values were obtained from 50 individuals with minor illness matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Ghrelin levels in patients with JIA were significantly lower than in controls (P < .001, confidence interval [CI] = -101 to -331). Analysis according to anti-TNF treatment and disease activity showed that ghrelin levels were comparable to control values only in 3 patients with anti-TNF-induced remission. Ghrelin in non-anti-TNF-treated patients in remission was low. Multiple regression analysis showed that disease activity (P = .002, CI = -84.16 to -20.01) and anti-TNF treatment (P = .003, CI = -82.51 to -18.33) were significant independent predictors of ghrelin after adjusting for other potential confounders. Ghrelin did not correlate with nutritional status, energy balance, and appetite. Serum ghrelin is low in patients with JIA and is restored to values similar to those in controls following anti-TNF-induced remission. Our study provides evidence that TNF blockade is independently associated with serum ghrelin, which possibly contributes to anti-TNF-induced remission. These preliminary results could form the basis for future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wootla, Bharath; Eriguchi, Makoto; Rodriguez, Moses
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with varied clinical presentations and heterogeneous histopathological features. The underlying immunological abnormalities in MS lead to various neurological and autoimmune manifestations. There is strong evidence that MS is, at least in part, an immune-mediated disease. There is less evidence that MS is a classical autoimmune disease, even though many authors state this in the description of the disease. We show the evidence that both supports and refutes the autoimmune hypothesis. In addition, we present an alternate hypothesis based on virus infection to explain the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:22666554
Elsner, Bernhard; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, with the severity of the disability usually increasing with disease duration. IPD affects patients' health-related quality of life, disability, and impairment. Current rehabilitation approaches have limited effectiveness in improving outcomes in patients with IPD, but a possible adjunct to rehabilitation might be non-invasive brain stimulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate cortical excitability, and hence to improve these outcomes in IPD. To assess the effectiveness of tDCS in improving motor and non-motor symptoms in people with IPD. We searched the following databases (until February 2016): the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library ; 2016 , Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Science Citation Index, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Rehabdata, and Inspec. In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we searched trial registers and reference lists, handsearched conference proceedings, and contacted authors and equipment manufacturers. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and randomised controlled cross-over trials that compared tDCS versus control in patients with IPD for improving health-related quality of life , disability, and impairment. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality (JM and MP) and extracted data (BE and JM). If necessary, we contacted study authors to ask for additional information. We collected information on dropouts and adverse events from the trial reports. We included six trials with a total of 137 participants. We found two studies with 45 participants examining the effects of tDCS compared to control (sham tDCS) on our primary outcome measure, impairment, as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). There was very low quality evidence for no effect of tDCS on change in global UPDRS score ( mean
Boros, Christina; Whitehead, Ben
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood, occurring in approximately 1:500 children. Despite a recent expansion in treatment options and improvement of outcomes, significant morbidity still occurs. This article outlines the clinical manifestations, assessment, detection of complications, treatment options and monitoring requirements, with the aid of guidelines recently published by The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, which provide practical support for general practitioners to ensure best practice care and to prevent lifelong disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. General practice plays an important role in the early detection, initial management and ongoing monitoring of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Early detection involves understanding the classification framework for subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and being aware of the clinical manifestations and how to look for them, through history, examination and appropriate investigation. The major extra-articular manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis are uveitis and growth disturbance. Treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate, biologic agents, and corticosteroids. Management using a multidisciplinary approach can prevent long term sequelae. Unfortunately, approximately 50% of children will have active disease as adults.
Suchodolski, Jan S; Dowd, Scot E; Wilke, Vicky; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E
Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6) and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7) or severe IBD (n = 7) as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, p<0.001). Proportions of Fusobacteria (p = 0.010), Bacteroidaceae (p = 0.015), Prevotellaceae (p = 0.022), and Clostridiales (p = 0.019) were significantly more abundant in healthy dogs. In contrast, specific bacterial genera within Proteobacteria, including Diaphorobacter (p = 0.044) and Acinetobacter (p = 0.040), were either more abundant or more frequently identified in IBD dogs. In conclusion, dogs with spontaneous IBD exhibit alterations in microbial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation.
Suchodolski, Jan S.; Dowd, Scot E.; Wilke, Vicky; Steiner, Jörg M.; Jergens, Albert E.
Background Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6) and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7) or severe IBD (n = 7) as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, p<0.001). Proportions of Fusobacteria (p = 0.010), Bacteroidaceae (p = 0.015), Prevotellaceae (p = 0.022), and Clostridiales (p = 0.019) were significantly more abundant in healthy dogs. In contrast, specific bacterial genera within Proteobacteria, including Diaphorobacter (p = 0.044) and Acinetobacter (p = 0.040), were either more abundant or more frequently identified in IBD dogs. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, dogs with spontaneous IBD exhibit alterations in microbial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation. PMID:22720094
Hadizadeh, Hasti; Farhadi, Farzaneh; Delbari, Ahmad; Lökk, Johan
As one of the most frequent symptoms, measurement of fatigue is an issue of interest in Parkinson's disease (PD). The fatigue severity scale (FSS) is one of the recommended questionnaires for this purpose. The aim of our study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Persian version of the FSS (FSS-Per) to assess fatigue in PD patients. Ninety nondemented idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients were consecutively recruited from an outpatient referral movement disorder clinic. In addition to the disease severity scales, the FSS-Per was used for fatigue measurement. The internal consistency coefficient was larger than 0.8 for all of the items with a total Cronbach's alpha of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95–0.97). The FSS-Per score correlated with the UPDRS score (r = 0.55, P < 0.001) and the “Hoehn and Yahr” (HY) stage (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). The total score of the FSS-Per significantly discriminated IPD patients with more severe disability (HY stage > 2) versus those with less severe disease (HY stage ≤2) (AUC = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72–0.90)). The FSS-Per fulfilled a high internal consistency and construct validity to measure the severity of fatigue in Iranian IPD patients. These acceptable psychometric properties were reproducible in subgroups of IPD patients regarding different levels of education, disease severity, sex and age groups. PMID:24089644
Åhrman, Emma; Hallgren, Oskar; Malmström, Lars; Hedström, Ulf; Malmström, Anders; Bjermer, Leif; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Malmström, Johan
Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a common feature in lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here, we applied a sequential tissue extraction strategy to describe disease-specific remodeling of human lung tissue in disease, using end-stages of COPD and IPF. Our strategy was based on quantitative comparison of the disease proteomes, with specific focus on the matrisome, using data-independent acquisition and targeted data analysis (SWATH-MS). Our work provides an in-depth proteomic characterization of human lung tissue during impaired tissue remodeling. In addition, we show important quantitative and qualitative effects of the solubility of matrisome proteins. COPD was characterized by a disease-specific increase in ECM regulators, metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3) and matrix metalloproteinase 28 (MMP-28), whereas for IPF, impairment in cell adhesion proteins, such as collagen VI and laminins, was most prominent. For both diseases, we identified increased levels of proteins involved in the regulation of endopeptidase activity, with several proteins belonging to the serpin family. The established human lung quantitative proteome inventory and the construction of a tissue-specific protein assay library provides a resource for future quantitative proteomic analyses of human lung tissues. We present a sequential tissue extraction strategy to determine changes in extractability of matrisome proteins in end-stage COPD and IPF compared to healthy control tissue. Extensive quantitative analysis of the proteome changes of the disease states revealed altered solubility of matrisome proteins involved in ECM regulators and cell-ECM communication. The results highlight disease-specific remodeling mechanisms associated with COPD and IPF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leslie, Kevin O
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal lung disease occurring in older individuals. Despite 50 years of accrued data about the disease, little progress has been made in slowing functional loss or in decreasing patient mortality. To present a novel hypothesis on the etiology and pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Published data are reviewed regarding the epidemiology, clinical presentation, natural history, radiologic findings, and pathologic findings in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be predisposed genetically to tractional injury to the peripheral lung. The result is recurrent damage to the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, preferentially at the outer edges of the basilar lung lobules where tractional stress is high during inspiration, compliance is relatively low, and there is a greater tendency for alveolar collapse at end-expiration. A distinctive "reticular network of injury" (the fibroblast focus) forms, attended by a prolonged phase of wound repair (tear and slow repair). Discrete areas of alveolar collapse are observed in scar at the periphery of the lung lobules. The cycle repeats over many years resulting in progressive fibrous remodeling and replacement of the alveoli in a lobule by bronchiolar cysts surrounded by scar (honeycomb lung). Abnormalities in surfactant function are proposed as a potential mechanism of initial lung damage. Age of onset may be a function of a required threshold of environmental exposures (eg, cigarette smoking) or other comorbid injury to the aging lung. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented and potential mechanisms are discussed. A potential role for contributing cofactors is presented.
Valko, P O; Waldvogel, D; Weller, M; Bassetti, C L; Held, U; Baumann, C R
A comprehensive study of both fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in association with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related symptoms and treatment has not been performed yet. To assess the frequency and severity of fatigue and EDS in patients with idiopathic PD and to study their relation to motor and non-motor symptoms and dopaminergic treatment. We prospectively assessed Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) scores, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores, severity (Unified PD Rating Scale, UPDRS, part III; Hoehn & Yahr staging) and duration of the disease, and the current dopaminergic treatment in 88 consecutive patients with idiopathic PD. Fatigue was found in 52 (59%), EDS in 42 (48%), and both complaints in 31 (35%) patients. Fatigued patients had higher UPDRS III scores (23.5 ± 11.1 vs. 18.6 ± 7.6, P = 0.03), higher Hoehn & Yahr staging (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 2.1 ± 0.7, P = 0.03), and higher BDI scores (13.4 ± 7.1 vs. 9.1 ± 5.8, P = 0.004) than non-fatigued patients. In contrast, UPDRS III, Hoehn & Yahr, and BDI scores did not differ between patients with or without EDS. However, the type of dopaminergic treatment (levodopa monotherapy versus combination of levodopa/dopamine agonists) was associated with significant differences in ESS (8.5 ± 5.2 vs. 10.8 ± 4.3, P = 0.04), but not FSS scores (4.1 ± 1.5 vs. 4.3 ± 1.5, P = 0.55). Disease duration correlated with ESS scores (r = 0.32, P = 0.003), but not with FSS scores (r = -0.02, P = 0.82). In PD, there is a significant overlap of fatigue and EDS, but the two symptoms are differently correlated with the severity of motor symptoms, disease duration, depression, and dopaminergic treatment. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.
Bargagli, Elena; Lavorini, Federico; Pistolesi, Massimo; Rosi, Elisabetta; Prasse, Antje; Rota, Emilia; Voltolini, Luca
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease with a poor prognosis and an undefined etiopathogenesis. Oxidative stress contributes to alveolar injury and fibrosis development and, because transition metals are essential to the functioning of most proteins involved in redox reactions, a better knowledge of metal concentrations and metabolism in the respiratory system of IPF patients may provide a valuable complementary approach to prevent and manage a disease which is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed in later stages. The present review summarizes and discusses literature data on the elemental composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), induced sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from patients affected by IPF and healthy subjects. Available data are scanty and the lack of consistent methods for the collection and analysis of lung and airways lining fluids makes it difficult to compare the results of different studies. However, the elemental composition of BAL samples from IPF patients seems to have a specific profile that can be distinguished from that of patients with other interstitial lung diseases (ILD) or control subjects. Suggestions are given towards standard sampling and analytical procedures of BAL samples, in the aim to assess typical element concentration patterns and their potential role as biomarkers of IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Oliveira-Ramos, Filipa; Eusébio, Mónica; M Martins, Fernando; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Furtado, Carolina; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Cordeiro, Inês; Ferreira, Joana; Cerqueira, Marcos; Figueira, Ricardo; Brito, Iva; Canhão, Helena; Santos, Maria José; Melo-Gomes, José A; Fonseca, João Eurico
To determine how adult juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients fulfil classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, evaluate their outcomes and determine clinical predictors of inactive disease, functional status and damage. Patients with JIA registered on the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt) older than 18 years and with more than 5 years of disease duration were included. Data regarding sociodemographic features, fulfilment of adult classification criteria, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index-articular (JADI-A) and Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index-extra-articular (JADI-E) damage index and disease activity were analysed. 426 patients were included. Most of patients with systemic JIA fulfilled criteria for Adult Still's disease. 95.6% of the patients with rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive polyarthritis and 57.1% of the patients with RF-negative polyarthritis matched criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 38.9% of the patients with extended oligoarthritis were classified as RA while 34.8% of the patients with persistent oligoarthritis were classified as spondyloarthritis. Patients with enthesitis-related arthritis fulfilled criteria for spondyloarthritis in 94.7%. Patients with psoriatic arthritis maintained this classification. Patients with inactive disease had lower disease duration, lower diagnosis delay and corticosteroids exposure. Longer disease duration was associated with higher HAQ, JADI-A and JADI-E. Higher JADI-A was also associated with biological treatment and retirement due to JIA disability and higher JADI-E with corticosteroids exposure. Younger age at disease onset was predictive of higher HAQ, JADI-A and JADI-E and decreased the chance of inactive disease. Most of the included patients fulfilled classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, maintain active disease and have functional impairment. Younger age at disease onset was predictive of higher disability and decreased the
Elshoff, Jan-Peer; Hudson, John; Picchietti, Daniel L; Ridel, Keith; Walters, Arthur S; Doggett, Kimberly; Moran, Kimberly; Oortgiesen, Marga; Ramirez, Francisco; Schollmayer, Erwin
To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of rotigotine transdermal system in adolescents with moderate-to-severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS). This multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation study enrolled patients ≥13 to <18 years of age. Rotigotine transdermal patches were applied daily and up-titrated weekly: 0.5, 1, 2, 3 mg/24 h. Blood samples were collected on the final day of each dose step. Primary PK variables were the apparent total body clearance (CL/f; L/h) and volume of distribution at steady state (V SS /f; L) of unconjugated rotigotine for each dose step, calculated for the PK per-protocol set (PKPPS). Other PK, safety, and efficacy variables (International RLS Study Group Rating Scale [IRLS]; Clinical Global Impressions Item 1 [CGI-1]) were assessed. Of 24 patients who received rotigotine, 23 completed all dose steps and 17 formed the PKPPS. Least-squares mean (95% confidence interval) CL/f and V SS /f values were broadly similar across all dose steps (CL/f: 0.5 mg/24 h: 676.86 [408.50-1121.51]; 1 mg/24 h: 671.72 [459.11-982.80]; 2 mg/24 h: 937.56 [658.50-1334.89]; 3 mg/24 h: 1088.77 [723.47-1638.53]; V SS /f: 5403.16 [2850.67-10,241.17]; 6220.79 [3842.05-10,072.28]; 7114.01 [4547.88-11,128.07]; 6037.92 [3598.36-10,131.41]). Among 23 patients with efficacy data, mean IRLS and CGI-1 scores improved at each dosage level. Adverse events reported by ≥3 patients were nausea (seven) and application site reactions (four). Key PK properties of rotigotine in adolescent patients with moderate-to-severe idiopathic RLS were comparable to those previously observed in adults. Rotigotine improved RLS symptoms and was well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01495793. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Tianming; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Young, Geoffrey; Li, Kaiming; Yeung, Benson H.Y.; Guo, Lei; Man, Gene C.W.; Lam, Wynnie W.M.; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Cheng, Jack C.Y.
Purpose To investigate whether regional brain volumes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients differ from matched control subjects as AIS subjects are reported to have poor performance on combined visual and proprioceptive testing and impaired postural balance in previous studies. Materials and Methods Twenty AIS female patients with typical right-convex thoracic curve (age range,11−18 years; mean, 14.1 years) and 26 female controls (mean age, 14.8 years) underwent three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (3D-MPRAGE) MR imaging. Volumes of 99 preselected neuroanatomical regions were compared by statistical parametric mapping and atlas-based hybrid warping. Results Analysis of variance statistics revealed significant mean volumetric differences in 22 brain regions between AIS and controls. Ten regions were larger in AIS including the left frontal gyri and white matter in left frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, corpus callosum and brainstem. Twelve regions were smaller in AIS, including right-sided descending white matter tracts (anterior and posterior limbs of the right internal capsule and the cerebral peduncle) and deep nucleus (caudate), bilateral perirhinal cortices, left hippocampus and amygdala, bilateral precuneus gyri, and left middle and inferior occipital gyri. Conclusion Regional brain volume difference in AIS subjects may help to explain neurological abnormalities in this group. PMID:18302230
Walters, H M; Pan, N; Lehman, T J A; Adams, A; Kalliolias, G D; Zhu, Y S; Santiago, F; Nguyen, J; Sitaras, L; Cunningham-Rundles, S; Walsh, T J; Toussi, S S
The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively cytokine levels and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients treated with and without tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. TNF-α inhibitor-naive JIA subjects were followed prospectively for 6 months. Cytokine levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17 were measured at baseline for JIA subjects and healthy controls (HCs). Cytokine levels were then measured at four time-points after initiation of TNF-α inhibition for anti-TNF-α-treated (anti-TNF) JIA subjects, and at two subsequent time-points for other JIA (non-TNF) subjects. JIA disease activity by Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) disability index/pain score and physician joint count/global assessment was recorded. Sixteen anti-TNF, 31 non-TNF and 16 HCs were analysed. Among JIA subjects, those with higher baseline disease activity (subsequent anti-TNFs) had higher baseline TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 than those with lower disease activity (non-TNFs) (P < 0·05). TNF-α and IL-10 increased, and IL-6 and IL-8 no longer remained significantly higher after TNF-α inhibitor initiation in anti-TNF subjects. Subgroup analysis of etanercept versus adalimumab-treated subjects showed that TNF-α and IL-17 increased significantly in etanercept but not adalimumab-treated subjects, despite clinical improvement in both groups of subjects. JIA subjects with increased disease activity at baseline had higher serum proinflammatory cytokines. TNF-α inhibition resulted in suppression of IL-6 and IL-8 in parallel with clinical improvement in all anti-TNF-treated subjects, but was also associated with elevated TNF-α and IL-17 in etanercept-treated subjects. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.
Schlatzer, Daniela M.; Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Ewing, Rob M.; Ilchenko, Serguei; Tomcheko, Sara E.; Eid, Saada; Ho, Vincent; Yanik, Greg; Chance, Mark R.; Cooke, Kenneth R.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the only curative therapy for many malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a frequently fatal complication that limits successful outcomes. Preclinical models suggest that IPS represents an immune mediated attack on the lung involving elements of both the adaptive and the innate immune system. However, the etiology of IPS in humans is less well understood. To explore the disease pathway and uncover potential biomarkers of disease, we performed two separate label-free, proteomics experiments defining the plasma protein profiles of allogeneic SCT patients with IPS. Samples obtained from SCT recipients without complications served as controls. The initial discovery study, intended to explore the disease pathway in humans, identified a set of 81 IPS-associated proteins. These data revealed similarities between the known IPS pathways in mice and the condition in humans, in particular in the acute phase response. In addition, pattern recognition pathways were judged to be significant as a function of development of IPS, and from this pathway we chose the lipopolysaccaharide-binding protein (LBP) protein as a candidate molecular diagnostic for IPS, and verified its increase as a function of disease using an ELISA assay. In a separately designed study, we identified protein-based classifiers that could predict, at day 0 of SCT, patients who: 1) progress to IPS and 2) respond to cytokine neutralization therapy. Using cross-validation strategies, we built highly predictive classifier models of both disease progression and therapeutic response. In sum, data generated in this report confirm previous clinical and experimental findings, provide new insights into the pathophysiology of IPS, identify potential molecular classifiers of the condition, and uncover a set of markers potentially of interest for patient stratification as a basis for individualized therapy. PMID:22337588
Celik, Orcun; Ipekci, Tumay; Kazimoglu, Hatem
Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis is a rare scrotal benign disease. Its distinct features are painless, non-pruritic, semi-soft palpable calcific transdermal nodules. We report a 42-year-old-man with asymptomatic multiple calcified scrotal skin nodules for 10 years. Under spinal anesthesia, the affected scrotal skin was excised and the nodules removed. We aim to explain the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment modalities of this rare disease.
DePianto, Daryle J; Chandriani, Sanjay; Abbas, Alexander R; Jia, Guiquan; N'Diaye, Elsa N; Caplazi, Patrick; Kauder, Steven E; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Karnik, Satyajit K; Ha, Connie; Modrusan, Zora; Matthay, Michael A; Kukreja, Jasleen; Collard, Harold R; Egen, Jackson G; Wolters, Paul J; Arron, Joseph R
There is microscopic spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pathological changes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue, which may relate to heterogeneity in pathophysiological mediators of disease and clinical progression. We assessed relationships between gene expression patterns, pathological features, and systemic biomarkers to identify biomarkers that reflect the aggregate disease burden in patients with IPF. Gene expression microarrays (N=40 IPF; 8 controls) and immunohistochemical analyses (N=22 IPF; 8 controls) of lung biopsies. Clinical characterisation and blood biomarker levels of MMP3 and CXCL13 in a separate cohort of patients with IPF (N=80). 2940 genes were significantly differentially expressed between IPF and control samples (|fold change| >1.5, p<0.05). Two clusters of co-regulated genes related to bronchiolar epithelium or lymphoid aggregates exhibited substantial heterogeneity within the IPF population. Gene expression in bronchiolar and lymphoid clusters corresponded to the extent of bronchiolisation and lymphoid aggregates determined by immunohistochemistry in adjacent tissue sections. Elevated serum levels of MMP3, encoded in the bronchiolar cluster, and CXCL13, encoded in the lymphoid cluster, corresponded to disease severity and shortened survival time (p<10(-7) for MMP3 and p<10(-5) for CXCL13; Cox proportional hazards model). Microscopic pathological heterogeneity in IPF lung tissue corresponds to specific gene expression patterns related to bronchiolisation and lymphoid aggregates. MMP3 and CXCL13 are systemic biomarkers that reflect the aggregate burden of these pathological features across total lung tissue. These biomarkers may have clinical utility as prognostic and/or surrogate biomarkers of disease activity in interventional studies in IPF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Allen, Steven G.; Soliman, Amr S.; Toy, Kathleen; Omar, Omar S.; Youssef, Tamer; Karkouri, Mehdi; Ayad, Essam; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmed; Tahri, Ali; Oltean, Hanna N.; Kleer, Celina G.; Merajver, Sofia D.
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a benign, frequently severe chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast. Its etiology remains unknown and reported cases vary in their presentation and histologic findings with an optimal treatment algorithm yet to be described owing mainly to the disease’s heterogeneity. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic fibroinflammatory condition characterized by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with many IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Immunosuppressive therapy is considered to be an effective first-line therapy for IgG4-RD. We sought to clarify and classify chronic mastitis according to the histologic findings of IgG4-RD mastitis with respect to IGM and to develop a robust diagnostic framework to help select patients for optimal treatment strategies. Using the largest collection to date (43 cases from Egypt and Morocco), we show that despite sharing many features, IGM and IgG4-RD mastitis are separate diseases. To diagnostically separate the diseases, we created a classification schema – termed the Michigan Classification – based upon our large series of cases, the consensus statement on IgG4-RD, and the histologic description of IGM in the literature. Using our classification, we discerned 17 cases of IgG4-RD and 8 cases of IGM among the 43 chronic mastitis cases, with 18 indeterminate cases. Thus our Michigan Classification can form the basis of rational stratification of chronic mastitis patients between these two clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous diseases. PMID:27279578
Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Mittoo, Shikha; Huscher, Dörte; Khanna, Dinesh; Dellaripa, Paul F; Distler, Oliver; Flaherty, Kevin R; Frankel, Sid; Oddis, Chester V; Denton, Christopher P; Fischer, Aryeh; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia M; LeSage, Daphne; Merkel, Peter A; Phillips, Kristine; Pittrow, David; Swigris, Jeffrey; Antoniou, Katerina; Baughman, Robert P; Castelino, Flavia V; Christmann, Romy B; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Collard, Harold R; Cottin, Vincent; Danoff, Sonye; Highland, Kristin B; Hummers, Laura; Shah, Ami A; Kim, Dong Soon; Lynch, David A; Miller, Frederick W; Proudman, Susanna M; Richeldi, Luca; Ryu, Jay H; Sandorfi, Nora; Sarver, Catherine; Wells, Athol U; Strand, Vibeke; Matteson, Eric L; Brown, Kevin K; Seibold, James R
Clinical trial design in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) has been hampered by lack of consensus on appropriate outcome measures for reliably assessing treatment response. In the setting of connective tissue diseases (CTDs), some measures of ILD disease activity and severity may be confounded by non-pulmonary comorbidities. The Connective Tissue Disease associated Interstitial Lung Disease (CTD-ILD) working group of Outcome Measures in Rheumatology-a non-profit international organisation dedicated to consensus methodology in identification of outcome measures-conducted a series of investigations which included a Delphi process including >248 ILD medical experts as well as patient focus groups culminating in a nominal group panel of ILD experts and patients. The goal was to define and develop a consensus on the status of outcome measure candidates for use in randomised controlled trials in CTD-ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A core set comprising specific measures in the domains of lung physiology, lung imaging, survival, dyspnoea, cough and health-related quality of life is proposed as appropriate for consideration for use in a hypothetical 1-year multicentre clinical trial for either CTD-ILD or IPF. As many widely used instruments were found to lack full validation, an agenda for future research is proposed. Identification of consensus preliminary domains and instruments to measure them was attained and is a major advance anticipated to facilitate multicentre RCTs in the field.
Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Mittoo, Shikha; Huscher, Dörte; Khanna, Dinesh; Dellaripa, Paul F; Distler, Oliver; Flaherty, Kevin R; Frankel, Sid; Oddis, Chester V; Denton, Christopher P; Fischer, Aryeh; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia M; LeSage, Daphne; Merkel, Peter A; Phillips, Kristine; Pittrow, David; Swigris, Jeffrey; Antoniou, Katerina; Baughman, Robert P; Castelino, Flavia V; Christmann, Romy B; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Collard, Harold R; Cottin, Vincent; Danoff, Sonye; Highland, Kristin B; Hummers, Laura; Shah, Ami A; Kim, Dong Soon; Lynch, David A; Miller, Frederick W; Proudman, Susanna M; Richeldi, Luca; Ryu, Jay H; Sandorfi, Nora; Sarver, Catherine; Wells, Athol U; Strand, Vibeke; Matteson, Eric L; Brown, Kevin K; Seibold, James R
Rationale Clinical trial design in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) has been hampered by lack of consensus on appropriate outcome measures for reliably assessing treatment response. In the setting of connective tissue diseases (CTDs), some measures of ILD disease activity and severity may be confounded by non-pulmonary comorbidities. Methods The Connective Tissue Disease associated Interstitial Lung Disease (CTD-ILD) working group of Outcome Measures in Rheumatology—a non-profit international organisation dedicated to consensus methodology in identification of outcome measures—conducted a series of investigations which included a Delphi process including >248 ILD medical experts as well as patient focus groups culminating in a nominal group panel of ILD experts and patients. The goal was to define and develop a consensus on the status of outcome measure candidates for use in randomised controlled trials in CTD-ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Results A core set comprising specific measures in the domains of lung physiology, lung imaging, survival, dyspnoea, cough and health-related quality of life is proposed as appropriate for consideration for use in a hypothetical 1-year multicentre clinical trial for either CTD-ILD or IPF. As many widely used instruments were found to lack full validation, an agenda for future research is proposed. Conclusion Identification of consensus preliminary domains and instruments to measure them was attained and is a major advance anticipated to facilitate multicentre RCTs in the field. PMID:24368713
Phom, Limamanen; Achumi, Bovito; Alone, Debasmita P.; Muralidhara
Abstract Selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra underlies the basic motor impairments of Parkinson's disease (PD). Curcumin has been used for centuries in traditional medicines in India. Our aim is to understand the efficacy of genotropic drug curcumin as a neuroprotective agent in PD. Analysis of different developmental stages in model organisms revealed that they are characterized by different patterns of gene expression which is similar to that of developmental stages of human. Genotropic drugs would be effective only during those life cycle stages for which their target molecules are available. Hence there exists a possibility that targets of genotropic compounds such as curcumin may not be present in all life stages. However, no reports are available in PD models illustrating the efficacy of curcumin in later phases of adult life. This is important because this is the period during which late-onset disorders such as idiopathic PD set in. To understand this paradigm, we tested the protective efficacy of curcumin in different growth stages (early, late health stage, and transition phase) in adult Drosophila flies. Results showed that it can rescue the motor defects during early stages of life but is ineffective at later phases. This observation was substantiated with the finding that curcumin treatment could replenish depleted brain dopamine levels in the PD model only during early stages of life cycle, clearly suggesting its limitation as a therapeutic agent in late-onset neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. PMID:25238331
Sokai, Akihiko; Handa, Tomohiro; Chen, Fengshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Aoyama, Akihiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Toyohiro; Nagai, Sonoko; Chin, Kazuo; Date, Hiroshi; Mishima, Michiaki
Lung perfusions after single lung transplantation (SLT) have not been fully clarified in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The present study aimed to investigate temporal changes in native lung perfusion and their associated clinical factors in patients with ILD who have undergone SLT. Eleven patients were enrolled. Perfusion scintigraphy was serially performed up to 12 months after SLT. Correlations between the post-operative perfusion ratio in the native lung and clinical parameters, including pre-operative perfusion ratio and computed tomography (CT) volumetric parameters, were evaluated. On average, the perfusion ratio of the native lung was maintained at approximately 30% until 12 months after SLT. However, the ratio declined more significantly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) than in other ILDs (p = 0.014). The perfusion ratio before SLT was significantly correlated with that at three months after SLT (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.048). The temporal change of the perfusion ratio in the native lung did not correlate with those of the CT parameters. The pre-operative perfusion ratio may predict the post-operative perfusion ratio of the native lung shortly after SLT in ILD. Perfusion of the native lung may decline faster in IPF compared with other ILDs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oltmanns, Ute; Kahn, Nicolas; Palmowski, Karin; Träger, Annette; Wenz, Heinrich; Heussel, Claus Peter; Schnabel, Philipp A; Puderbach, Michael; Wiebel, Matthias; Ehlers-Tenenbaum, Svenja; Warth, Arne; Herth, Felix J F; Kreuter, Michael
Pirfenidone is a novel antifibrotic drug for the treatment of mild-to-moderate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, adverse events may offset treatment benefits and compliance. To assess recent course of disease, adverse events and compliance in patients who started pirfenidone. In an observational cohort study, 63 patients with mild-to-moderate IPF who started pirfenidone between May 2011 and June 2013 were reviewed. Pulmonary function, adverse events and treatment compliance were recorded at each clinic visit. Disease progression was defined as a reduction of vital capacity ≥10% and/or diffusion capacity (DLCO) ≥15%. Follow-up time on pirfenidone treatment was 11 (±7) months. Sixty-six percent of the patients continued with pirfenidone monotherapy and 34% of the patients received pirfenidone combined with corticosteroids (CCS) and/or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). There was a nonsignificant reduction in mean decline of percent predicted forced vital capacity after treatment start (0.7 ± 10.9%) compared to the pretreatment period (6.6 ± 6.7%, p = 0.098). Sixty-two percent of the patients had stable disease on pirfenidone treatment. Adverse events affected 85% of the patients, leading to discontinuation of pirfenidone in 20%. Adverse events and treatment discontinuation were seen more frequently in patients with concomitant CCS and/or NAC treatment. Adverse events affect the majority of patients treated with pirfenidone, but are mostly manageable with supportive measures. In this heterogeneous patient group, a nonsignificant effect of pirfenidone treatment on pulmonary function was seen, underlining the need for more data on patient selection criteria and efficacy of pirfenidone, particularly in patients with coexistent emphysema and concomitant NAC/CCS treatment.
Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders including polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathies (NMs). The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies share many similarities. They present acutely, subacutely, or chronically with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for associated distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies also share a variable degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and a nonspecifically abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy. The muscle pathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates of variable distribution within the muscle fascicle. Despite these similarities, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group. The overlap syndrome (OS) refers to the association of PM, DM, or NM with connective tissue disease, such as scleroderma or systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition to elevated antinuclear antibodies (ANA), patients with OS may be weaker in the proximal arms than the legs mimicking the pattern seen in some muscular dystrophies. In this review, we focus on DM, PM, and NM and examine current and promising therapies. PMID:23117947
Saha, Soma; Saini, Savita; Makharia, Govind K; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Goswami, Ravinder
Patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH) require variable doses of calcium and 1-α-(OH)D. The reasons for such variability are not clear. As autoimmune mechanisms may play a role in IH, there is a possibility of coexistent coeliac disease with calcium/vitamin D malabsorption. We assessed the prevalence of coeliac disease and antitissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (anti-tTGAbs) in IH and analysed the effect of a gluten-free diet on calcaemic control. A total of 171 patients with IH and 126 healthy controls were screened for anti-tTGAb. IH patients with anti-tTGAb >20 RU/ml underwent duodenoscopy and intestinal biopsy; those with biopsy-proven coeliac disease were followed up on a gluten-free diet. Eleven of 171 (6·4%) patients with IH and seven of 126 (5·6%) controls had anti-tTGAb (P = 0·81). There was no difference in the clinical and biochemical parameters at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up of 7·2 ± 4·8 year (mean serum total calcium = 1·88 ± 0·16 vs 1·82 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·52; phosphorus = 1·81 ± 0·17 vs 1·87 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·53) in IH patients with and without anti-tTGAb. Although CaSRAb positivity was comparable in the two groups, IH patients with anti-tTGAb had higher TPOAb positivity (45·5% vs 12·8%, P = 0·02). Coeliac disease was diagnosed in only 2/9 patients with IH on biopsy, both of whom showed improved calcaemic control with a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of coeliac autoimmunity (6·4%) and coeliac disease (1·2%) in patients with IH seems to be similar to that in the general population. Notwithstanding this modest prevalence, it is important to be aware of the potential occurrence of coeliac disease with IH and the beneficial effect of a gluten-free diet on calcium control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hashash, Jana G; Hartman, Douglas J
The inflammatory mechanisms that lead to the clinical symptoms that are grouped under the term inflammatory bowel disease have not been fully characterized. Although a specific mechanism has not been identified, inflammatory bowel disease is believed to be related to an inability by the immune system to shut active inflammation within the intestine. Many contributing factors have been implicated in the disease process. Based on population studies, patients with inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk for neoplastic development. Although no specific immune cell has been implicated in neoplastic development within this patient population, several immune cells have been implicated as possible etiologies in inflammatory bowel disease. In this review, we will review the clinical evidence about the risk for neoplastic development in inflammatory bowel disease and the current clinical guidelines to survey this patient population. We will also review the pathologic assessment of inflammation within this patient population as well the underlying immune cells and cytokines that have been implicated in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi; Korbo, Lise; Friberg, Lars; Jennum, Poul
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients without RBD, and 10 healthy controls were included and assessed with (123)I-N-omega-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning ((123)I-FP-CIT SPECT), neurological examination, and polysomnography. iRBD patients and PD patients with RBD had increased EMG-activity compared to healthy controls. (123)I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen-region was highest in controls, followed by iRBD patients, and lowest in PD patients. In iRBD patients, EMG-activity in the mentalis muscle was correlated to (123)I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Araya, Jun; Hara, Hiromichi; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Takasaka, Naoki; Ito, Saburo; Kobayashi, Kenji; Nakayama, Katsutoshi
Aging is associated with impairments in homeostasis. Although aging and senescence are not equivalent, the number of senescent cells increases with aging. Cellular senescence plays important roles in tissue repair or remodeling, as well as embryonic development. Autophagy is a process of lysosomal self-degradation that maintains a homeostatic balance between the synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular proteins. Autophagy diminishes with aging; additionally, accelerated aging can be attributed to reduced autophagy. Cellular senescence has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease of accelerated lung aging, presumably by impairing cell repopulation and by aberrant cytokine secretion in the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. The possible participation of autophagy in the pathogenic sequence of COPD has been extensively explored. Although it has been reported that increased autophagy may induce epithelial cell death, an insufficient reserve of autophagy can induce cellular senescence in bronchial epithelial cells of COPD. Furthermore, advanced age is one of the most important risk factors for the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Telomere shortening is found in blood leukocytes and alveolar epithelial cells from patients with IPF. Accelerated senescence of epithelial cells plays a role in IPF pathogenesis by perpetuating abnormal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Insufficient autophagy may be an underlying mechanism of accelerated epithelial cell senescence and myofibroblast differentiation in IPF. Herein, we review the molecular mechanisms of cellular senescence and autophagy and summarize the role of cellular senescence and autophagy in both COPD and IPF. Copyright Â© 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Belhassen, B; Viskin, S
Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.
Soccorso, Giampiero; Sarkhy, Ahmed; Lindley, Richard M; Marven, Sean S; Thomson, Mike
In adults, small bowel diaphragm disease is a rare complication of small bowel enteropathy secondary to the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The main clinical manifestations are gastrointestinal bleeding and subacute obstruction, and management can be challenging. We present a case of a 5-year-old girl with small bowel diaphragm disease. To our knowledge, this is the first idiopathic case (no history of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use) in the pediatric age group. This report describes an integrated successful definitive therapeutic method of double-balloon enteroscopy and minimal invasive bowel surgery for small bowel pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Erkus, Edip; Kocak, Mehmet Z; Aktas, Gulali; Ozen, Mehmet; Atak, Burcin M; Duman, Tuba T; Tekce, Buket K; Savli, Haluk
Cold agglutinin disease is a very rare condition associated with agglutination of erythrocytes in cold environment usually due to IgM type antibodies. Other than hemolytic anemias, it may interfere with routine hemogram tests due to miscalculation of red blood cell count (RBC) and other hemogram parameters calculated with involvement of RBC. Awareness of the condition is important to overcome laboratory errors. We studied a peripheral blood smear and repeated the hemogram test at 37°C to establish the diagnosis of cold agglutinin disease. Initial hemogram test results of the fifty-eight year-old man was as follows: RBC: 1.34 M/µL, hemoglobin (Hb): 12.4 g/dL, hematocrit (Htc): 11.8%, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH): 92.4 pg, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC): 105 gr/dL. Despite the standard indirect Coombs test being negative, repeated tests at room temperature was 4+. We suspected cold agglutinin disease and repeated the hemogram test using the Bain-Marie method at 37°C and the test results showed RBC: 3.4 M/µL, hemoglobin: 12.6 g/dL, hematocrit: 30.2%, MCH: 31.7 pg, and MCHC: 41.8 g/dL. Inappropriate hemogram results may be a sign of underlying cold agglutinin disease. Hemolytic anemia not always accompanies the disease; however, cold exposure may trigger erythrocyte agglutination in vitro and may cause erratic laboratory results.
Lindell, Kathleen Oare; Olshansky, Ellen; Song, Mi-Kyung; Zullo, Thomas G.; Gibson, Kevin F.; Kaminski, Naftali; Hoffman, Leslie A.
BACKGROUND Patients were recruited from the Dorothy P. and Richard P. Simmons Center for Interstitial Lung Disease, located within the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis results in scarring of the lung and respiratory failure, and has a median survival of 3 to 5 years from the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and their care partners could be more optimally managed by a disease-management intervention entitled “Program to Reduce Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Improve Management,” which nurses delivered using the format of a support group. We hypothesized that participation would improve perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and decrease symptom burden. METHODS Subjects were 42 participants randomized to an experimental (10 patient/care partner dyads) or control (11 patient/care partner dyads) group. Experimental group participants attended the 6-week program, and controls received usual care. Before and after the program, all participants completed questionnaires designed to assess symptom burden and HRQoL. Patients and care partners in the intervention group were also interviewed in their home to elicit information on their experience after participating in the Program to Reduce Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Improve Management. RESULTS After the intervention, experimental group patients rated their HRQoL less positively (P = .038) and tended to report more anxiety (P = .077) compared with controls. Care partners rated their stress at a lower level (P = .018) compared with controls. Course evaluations were uniformly positive. Post-study qualitative interviews with experimental group participants suggested benefits not exemplified by these scores. Patient participants felt less isolated, were able to put their disease into perspective, and valued participating in research and helping others. CONCLUSION
Lindell, Kathleen Oare; Olshansky, Ellen; Song, Mi-Kyung; Zullo, Thomas G; Gibson, Kevin F; Kaminski, Naftali; Hoffman, Leslie A
Patients were recruited from the Dorothy P. and Richard P. Simmons Center for Interstitial Lung Disease, located within the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis results in scarring of the lung and respiratory failure, and has a median survival of 3 to 5 years from the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and their care partners could be more optimally managed by a disease-management intervention entitled "Program to Reduce Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Improve Management," which nurses delivered using the format of a support group. We hypothesized that participation would improve perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and decrease symptom burden. Subjects were 42 participants randomized to an experimental (10 patient/care partner dyads) or control (11 patient/care partner dyads) group. Experimental group participants attended the 6-week program, and controls received usual care. Before and after the program, all participants completed questionnaires designed to assess symptom burden and HRQoL. Patients and care partners in the intervention group were also interviewed in their home to elicit information on their experience after participating in the Program to Reduce Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Improve Management. After the intervention, experimental group patients rated their HRQoL less positively (P = .038) and tended to report more anxiety (P = .077) compared with controls. Care partners rated their stress at a lower level (P = .018) compared with controls. Course evaluations were uniformly positive. Post-study qualitative interviews with experimental group participants suggested benefits not exemplified by these scores. Patient participants felt less isolated, were able to put their disease into perspective, and valued participating in research and helping others. Further exploration of the impact of disease
Shattuck-Hufnagel, S.; Choi, J. Y.; Moro-Velázquez, L.; Gómez-García, J. A.
Although a large amount of acoustic indicators have already been proposed in the literature to evaluate the hypokinetic dysarthria of people with Parkinson’s Disease, the goal of this work is to identify and interpret new reliable and complementary articulatory biomarkers that could be applied to predict/evaluate Parkinson’s Disease from a diadochokinetic test, contributing to the possibility of a further multidimensional analysis of the speech of parkinsonian patients. The new biomarkers proposed are based on the kinetic behaviour of the envelope trace, which is directly linked with the articulatory dysfunctions introduced by the disease since the early stages. The interest of these new articulatory indicators stands on their easiness of identification and interpretation, and their potential to be translated into computer based automatic methods to screen the disease from the speech. Throughout this paper, the accuracy provided by these acoustic kinetic biomarkers is compared with the one obtained with a baseline system based on speaker identification techniques. Results show accuracies around 85% that are in line with those obtained with the complex state of the art speaker recognition techniques, but with an easier physical interpretation, which open the possibility to be transferred to a clinical setting. PMID:29240814
Bandopadhyay, Rina; Kingsbury, Ann E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Reid, Andrew R.; Evans, Ian M.; Hope, Andrew D.; Pittman, Alan M.; Lashley, Tammaryn; Canet-Aviles, Rosa; Miller, David W.; McLendon, Chris; Strand, Catherine; Leonard, Andrew J.; Abou-Sleiman, Patrick M.; Healy, Daniel G.; Ariga, Hiroyashi; Wood, Nicholas W.; de Silva, Rohan; Revesz, Tamas; Hardy, John A.; Lees, Andrew J.
Two mutations in the DJ-1 gene on chromosome1p36 have been identified recently to cause early-onset, autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. As no information is available regarding the distribution of DJ-1 protein in the human brain, in this study we used a monoclonal antibody for DJ-1 to map its distribution in frontal cortex and substantia…
Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A.; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A.; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C.; Mackay, Clare E.
Abstract See Postuma (doi:10.1093/aww131) for a scientific commentary on this article. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson’s disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson’s disease and 10 control subjects received 123I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye
Ille, Rottraut; Wabnegger, Albert; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Kögl-Wallner, Mariella; Wenzel, Karoline; Schienle, Anne
A specific non-motor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) concerns difficulties to accurately identify facial emotions. Findings are numerous but very inconsistent, ranging from general discrimination deficits to problems for specific emotions up to no impairment at all. By contrast, only a few studies exist about emotion experience, altered affective traits and states in PD. To investigate the decoding capacity for affective facial expressions, affective experience of emotion-eliciting images and affective personality traits in PD. The study sample included 25 patients with mild to moderate symptom intensity and 25 healthy controls (HC) of both sexes. The participants were shown pictures of facial expressions depicting disgust, fear, and anger as well as disgusting and fear-relevant scenes. Additionally, they answered self-report scales for the assessment of affective traits. PD patients had more problems in controlling anger and disgust feelings than HC. Higher disgust sensitivity in PD was associated with lower functioning in everyday life and lower capacity to recognize angry faces. Furthermore, patients reported less disgust towards poor hygiene and spoiled food and they stated elevated anxiety. However, the clinical group displayed intact facial emotion decoding and emotion experience. Everyday life functionality was lowered in PD and decreased with stronger motor impairment. Furthermore, disease duration was negatively associated to correct classification of angry faces. Our data indicate that problems with emotion regulation may appear already in earlier disease stages of PD. By contrast, PD patients showed appropriate emotion recognition and experience. However, data also point to a deterioration of emotion recognition capacity with the course of the disease. Compensatory mechanisms in PD patients with less advanced disease are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Papadaki, H A; Eliopoulos, D G; Valatas, V; Eliopoulos, G D
This study describes the frequency and the type of anemia seen in patients with nonimmune chronic idiopathic neutropenia of adults (NI-CINA). We found that NI-CINA patients had low hemoglobin levels and increased serum concentrations of erythropoietin (EPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The hemoglobin levels correlated positively with the number of circulating neutrophils and inversely with the levels of EPO and TNF-alpha but not of IL-1beta. Anemia, defined as the reduction of the hemoglobin below 12.0 g/dl for women and 13.3 g/dl for men, was found in 23 out of 148 patients studied, a proportion of 15.5%. Two of the anemic patients had iron deficiency anemia (8.7%), 11 had anemia of chronic disease (ACD; 47.8%) presenting with normal or slightly reduced erythrocytic indices, low serum iron, and increased serum ferritin, and the remaining ten had anemia of undefined pathogenesis (AUP; 43.5%) with normal or slightly decreased erythrocytic indices, serum iron ranging from 43 to 88 microg/dl, and ferritin values ranging from 12 to 50 ng/ml. We conclude that ACD is the more frequent type of anemia seen in patients with NI-CINA, and that pro-inflammatory cytokines, notably TNF-alpha, may be involved in the pathogenesis of both ACD and AUP, given that serum levels of the cytokine were significantly increased and that the EPO response to anemia was blunted in these patients. These findings further support our previously reported suggestion for the possible existence, in NI-CINA patients, of an unrecognized low-grade chronic inflammatory process that may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder.
Price, Catherine C.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Tanner, Jared; Garvan, Cyndi; Ward, Jade; Akbar, Farheen; Bowers, Dawn; Rice, Mark; Okun, Michael
BACKGROUND Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) demarks cognitive decline after major surgery but has been studied to date in “healthy” adults. Although individuals with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) commonly undergo elective surgery, these individuals have yet to be prospectively followed despite hypotheses of increased POCD risk. OBJECTIVE To conduct a pilot study examining cognitive change pre-post elective orthopedic surgery for PD relative to surgery and non-surgery peers. METHODS A prospective one-year longitudinal design. No-dementia idiopathic PD individuals were actively recruited along with non-PD “healthy” controls (HC) undergoing knee replacement surgery. Non-surgical PD and HC controls were also recruited. Attention/processing speed, inhibitory function, memory recall, animal (semantic) fluency, and motor speed were assessed at baseline (pre-surgery), three-weeks, three-months, and one-year post- orthopedic surgery. Reliable change methods examined individual changes for PD individuals relative to control surgery and control non-surgery peers. RESULTS Over two years we screened 152 older adult surgery or non-surgery candidates with 19 of these individuals having a diagnosis of PD. Final participants included 8 PD (5 surgery, 3 non-surgery), 47 Control Surgery, and 21 Control Non-Surgery. Eighty percent (4 of the 5) PD surgery declined greater than 1.645 standard deviations from their baseline performance on measures assessing processing speed and inhibitory function. This was not observed for the non-surgery PD individuals. CONCLUSION This prospective pilot study demonstrated rationale and feasibility for examining cognitive decline in at-risk neurodegenerative populations. We discuss recruitment and design challenges for examining post-operative cognitive decline in neurodegenerative samples. PMID:26683785
Gao, Feng; Hobson, Anthony Robert; Shang, Zhan Min; Pei, Yan Xiang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jian Xin; Huang, Wan Nong
The cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unknown, yet gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is highly prevalent in this population. GERD prevalence was studied, and esophageal function tests (EFT) were assessed in Chinese IPF patients. We prospectively studied 69 IPF patients who undertook both stationary High Resolution esophageal Manometry/Impedance (HRiM) and 24-hour esophageal Multi-Channel Intraluminal Impedance with pH Recordings (MII/pH). Patients were divided into GERD+ and GERD- groups according to pH results. Controls were HRiM treated healthy volunteers, and patients without IPF received HRiM and MII/pH diagnosed with GERD. 69 IPF patients, 62 healthy volunteers, and 88 IPF negative GERD patients were selected. GERD prevalence in IPF was 43/69 (62.3%), and 58.1% of patients presented with at least one typical symptom. Symptoms had a sensitivity of 58.1%, a specificity of 61.6%, a positive predictive value of 71.4% and a negative predictive of 47.1%. Compared with healthy volunteers, IPF patients had significantly decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), upper esophageal sphincter pressure (UESP) and complete bolus transit rate (CBTR). By contrast, IPF patients had increased total bolus transit time and prevalence of weak peristalsis. MII/pH showed that one third of IPF patients had abnormal distal and proximal reflux, especially non-acid reflux. Compared with GERD patients without IPF, GERD patients with IPF had significantly decreased CBTR and UESP with increased bolus exposure time. GERD prevalence in IPF was high, but symptoms alone were an unreliable predictor of reflux. IPF patients had lower LESP and UESP, impaired esophageal peristalsis and bolus clearance function with more proximal reflux events.
Wallace, Carol A; Giannini, Edward H; Huang, Bin; Itert, Lukasz; Ruperto, Nicolino
To prospectively validate the preliminary criteria for clinical inactive disease (CID) in patients with select categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We used the process for development of classification and response criteria recommended by the American College of Rheumatology Quality of Care Committee. Patient-visit profiles were extracted from the phase III randomized controlled trial of infliximab in polyarticular-course JIA (i.e., patients considered to resemble those with select categories of JIA) and sent to an international group of expert physician raters. Using the physician ratings as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the preliminary criteria. Modifications to the criteria were made, and these were sent to a larger group of pediatric rheumatologists to determine quantitative, face, and content validity. Variables weighted heaviest by physicians when making their judgment were the number of joints with active arthritis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), physician's global assessment, and duration of morning stiffness. Three modifications were made: the definition of uveitis, the definition of abnormal ESR, and the addition of morning stiffness. These changes did not alter the accuracy of the preliminary set. The modified criteria, termed the "criteria for CID in select categories of JIA," have excellent feasibility and face, content, criterion, and discriminant validity to detect CID in select categories of JIA. The small changes made to the preliminary criteria set did not alter the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.954) or accuracy (91%), but have increased face and content validity. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Kondoh, Shun; Chiba, Hirofumi; Nishikiori, Hirotaka; Umeda, Yasuaki; Kuronuma, Koji; Otsuka, Mitsuo; Yamada, Gen; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Homma, Sakae; Takahashi, Hiroki
The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) shows great inter-individual differences. It is important to standardize the severity classification to accurately evaluate each patient׳s prognosis. In Japan, an original severity classification (the Japanese disease severity classification, JSC) is used. In the United States, the new multidimensional index and staging system (the GAP model) has been proposed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the model performance for the prediction of mortality risk of the JSC and GAP models using a large cohort of Japanese patients with IPF. This is a retrospective cohort study including 326 patients with IPF in the Hokkaido prefecture from 2003 to 2007. We obtained the survival curves of each stage of the GAP and JSC models to perform a comparison. In the GAP model, the prognostic value for mortality risk of Japanese patients was also evaluated. In the JSC, patient prognoses were roughly divided into two groups, mild cases (Stages I and II) and severe cases (Stages III and IV). In the GAP model, there was no significant difference in survival between Stages II and III, and the mortality rates in the patients classified into the GAP Stages I and II were underestimated. It is difficult to predict accurate prognosis of IPF using the JSC and the GAP models. A re-examination of the variables from the two models is required, as well as an evaluation of the prognostic value to revise the severity classification for Japanese patients with IPF. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Galiè, Nazzareno; Denton, Christopher P; Dardi, Fabio; Manes, Alessandra; Mazzanti, Gaia; Li, Baohui; Varanese, Lucio; Esler, Anne; Harmon, Cathi; Palazzini, Massimiliano
The primary objective of this post hoc analysis was to evaluate clinical outcomes of tadalafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with connective tissue disease (CTD-PAH) compared with patients with idiopathic/heritable PAH (I/H-PAH) for primary and key secondary efficacy endpoints, and safety. This analysis included adult patients with CTD-PAH or I/H-PAH who participated in the PHIRST and PHIRST-2 studies. Patients were randomized 1:1:1:1:1 to tadalafil (2.5, 10, 20, or 40mg) or placebo in the PHIRST study and the majority of these patients were subsequently assigned 40mg in PHIRST-2. Patients taking 20mg in PHIRST without demonstrating clinical worsening continued on 20mg in PHIRST-2. Outcomes analyzed included 6MWD, WHO-FC, and incidence and time to first occurrence of clinical worsening. Safety was assessed through evaluation of adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory data, electrocardiograms, and physical examinations. Increased 6MWD in PHIRST was maintained in both CTD-PAH and I/H-PAH subgroups for 52weeks. Patients with CTD-PAH tended to be older, were more likely female, had lower exercise capacity, were more likely to have clinical worsening, and experienced AEs more frequently than patients with I/H-PAH. The effect of tadalafil treatment in patients enrolled in both PHIRST studies was detectable for both I/H-PAH and CTD-PAH subgroups. In general, subgroup differences were modest. Patients with CTD-PAH may perform less well than patients with I/H-PAH in safety and efficacy measures in all treatment groups, which is similar to other studies demonstrating a worse prognosis for patients with CTD-PAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ciaramella, Antonio; Salani, Francesca; Bizzoni, Federica; Pontieri, Francesco E; Stefani, Alessandro; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Assogna, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Bossù, Paola
The role of inflammation in Parkinson's Disease (PD) is well appreciated, but its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Our objective was to determine whether dendritic cells (DC), a unique type of migratory immune cells that regulate immunological response and inflammation have an impact on PD. In a case-control study including 80 PD patients and 80 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, the two main blood subsets of plasmacytoid and myeloid DC were defined by flow cytometry analysis. Clinical evaluation of subjects consisting of cognition and depression assessment was performed using the Mini Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory. The severity of motor symptoms was measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Part III. Comparison between patient and control DC measures and their relationships with clinical assessments were evaluated.The following main results were obtained: 1) the level of circulating DC (mainly the myeloid subset) was significantly reduced in PD patients in comparison with healthy controls; 2) after controlling for depressive and cognitive characteristics, the frequency of myeloid DC was confirmed as one of the independent determinants of PD; 3) the number of both myeloid and plasmacytoid DC was negatively associated with motor symptom severity. Overall, the decline of blood DC, perhaps due to the recruitment of immune cells to the site of disease-specific lesions, can be considered a clue of the immune alteration that characterizes PD, suggesting innovative exploitations of DC monitoring as a clinically significant tool for PD treatment. Indeed, this study suggests that reduced peripheral blood DC are a pathologically-relevant factor of PD and also displays the urgency to better understand DC role in PD for unraveling the immune system contribution to disease progression and thus favoring the development of innovative therapies ideally based on immunomodulation.
Background Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) enables quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and total cerebral blood (tCBF) flow and may be of value for the etiological diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. This investigation aimed to study CSF flow and intracerebral vascular flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and to compare the results with patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and with healthy elderly volunteers (HEV). Methods Ten a-MCI and 9 mild AD patients were identified in a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological assessment. They underwent brain MRI; PC-MRI pulse sequence was performed with the following parameters: two views per segment; flip angle: 25° for vascular flow and 20° for CSF flow; field-of-view (FOV): 14 × 14 mm²; matrix: 256 × 128; slice thickness: 5 mm; with one excitation for exams on the 3 T machine, and 2 excitations for the 1.5 T machine exams. Velocity (encoding) sensitization was set to 80 cm/s for the vessels at the cervical level, 10 or 20 cm/s for the aqueduct and 5 cm/s for the cervical subarachnoid space (SAS). Dynamic flow images were analyzed with in-house processing software. The patients' results were compared with those obtained for HEVs (n = 12), and for NPH patients (n = 13), using multivariate analysis. Results Arterial tCBF and the calculated pulsatility index were significantly greater in a-MCI patients than in HEVs. In contrast, vascular parameters were lower in NPH patients. Cervical CSF flow analysis yielded similar values for all four populations. Aqueductal CSF stroke volumes (in μl per cardiac cycle) were similar in HEVs (34 ± 17) and AD patients (39 ± 18). In contrast, the aqueductal CSF was hyperdynamic in a-MCI patients (73 ± 33) and even more so in NPH patients (167 ± 89). Conclusion Our preliminary data show that a-MCI patients present with high systolic arterial peak
Kupsch, A; Earl, C
With the exception of thalamotomy for drug-refractory tremor, surgical therapy for Parkinson's disease has been almost abandoned as treatment for Parkinsonian symptoms between 1965 and 1985. Reasons for this development relate to inconsistent postoperative results, complications associated with stereotactic surgical techniques and, most importantly, the advent of levodopa, which is still considered to be the gold standard in pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease. However, both, the long-term experience with L-DOPA therapy on the one hand and the progress of advanced stereotactic techniques and fetal graft research on the other hand have lead to reconsideration of surgical therapy in Parkinson's disease for patients, who can not be treated satisfactorily with medication. Both lesions (via thermocoagulation) and/or neurostimulation (via chronic intracerebral implantation of electrodes) in thalamic nuclei (nucleus ventralis oralis posterior/intermedialis thalami; VOP/VIM) may alleviate rest tremor in PD patients. In principle neurostimulation has the significant advantage of reversibility with regard to side effects in comparison to lesion surgery. Furthermore ventro-posterior pallidotomy or chronic stimulation in this structures may ameliorate bradykinesia and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Additionally, "switching-off" the subthalamic nucleus by neurostimulation has been reported to reduce rigidity, bradykinesia and levodopa-induced ON-OFF-fluctuations. On the other hand, neuronal transplantation of fetal nigral dopamine precursor cells aims at restoring the striatal dopamine deficit. Both animal and clinical experiments have shown that fetal grafts survive intrastriatal transplantation and may ensue moderate to satisfactory improvements, especially in regard to bradykinesia and ON-OFF-fluctuations. Further progress in the field of neuronal transplantation will largely depend on the development of alternative cell resources.
Talai, Sahand; Boelmans, Kai; Sedlacik, Jan; Forkert, Nils D.
Parkinsonian syndromes encompass a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, which can be classified into various subtypes. The differentiation of these subtypes is typically conducted based on clinical criteria. Due to the overlap of intra-syndrome symptoms, the accurate differential diagnosis based on clinical guidelines remains a challenge with failure rates up to 25%. The aim of this study is to present an image-based classification method of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), an atypical variant of PD. Therefore, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameter maps were calculated based on diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. Mean ADC values were determined in 82 brain regions using an atlas-based approach. The extracted mean ADC values for each patient were then used as features for classification using a linear kernel support vector machine classifier. To increase the classification accuracy, a feature selection was performed, which resulted in the top 17 attributes to be used as the final input features. A leave-one-out cross validation based on 56 PD and 21 PSP subjects revealed that the proposed method is capable of differentiating PD and PSP patients with an accuracy of 94.8%. In conclusion, the classification of PD and PSP patients based on ADC features obtained from diffusion MRI datasets is a promising new approach for the differentiation of Parkinsonian syndromes in the broader context of decision support systems.
Boeve, Bradley F.
Summary Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with Lewy body disease (LBD) pathology in central and peripheral nervous system structures. While the etiology of PD is not fully understood, recent clinicopathologic analyses by Braak and colleagues have led to the development of a staging system of LBD pathology in the evolution of prototypical PD. This system posits a relatively predictable topography of progression of LBD pathology in the central nervous system, from olfactory structures and the medulla, which then progresses rostrally from the medulla to the pons, then midbrain/substantia nigra, then limbic, and then neocortical structures. If this topography and temporal evolution of LBD pathology indeed occur, one could hypothesize that other manifestations of LBD which reflect degeneration of olfactory and pontomedullary structures may begin many years prior to the development of prominent nigral degeneration and the associated parkinsonian features of classic PD. One such manifestation of prodromal PD is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is a parasomnia manifested by vivid dreams associated with dream enactment behavior during REM sleep. Animal and human studies have implicated lesions or dysfunction in REM sleep and motor control circuitry in the pontomedullary structures cause RBD phenomenology, and degeneration of these structures could explain the presence of RBD years or decades prior to the onset of parkinsonism in those who develop PD. This review incorporates the rapidly growing literature on RBD and other prodromal features of PD as it pertains to the Braak staging system, and presents a framework from which many hypotheses can be (and already are being) tested. An important outcome of this framework will be to determine the natural history of RBD and associated features in the evolution to PD in the current era of no disease-modifying therapies – these natural history data will
Peces, Ramón; Martínez-Ara, Jorge; Peces, Carlos; Picazo, Mariluz; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Vega, Cristina; Azorín, Sebastián; Selgas, Rafael
We report the case of a 38-year-old male with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and concomitant nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy (MN). A 3-month course of prednisone 60 mg daily and losartan 100 mg daily resulted in resistance. Treatment with chlorambucil 0.2 mg/kg daily, low-dose prednisone, plus an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for 6 weeks resulted in partial remission of his nephrotic syndrome for a duration of 10 months. After relapse of the nephrotic syndrome, a 13-month course of mycophenolate mofetil (MFM) 2 g daily and low-dose prednisone produced complete remission for 44 months. After a new relapse, a second 24-month course of MFM and low-dose prednisone produced partial to complete remission of proteinuria with preservation of renal function. Thirty-six months after MFM withdrawal, complete remission of nephrotic-range proteinuria was maintained and renal function was preserved. This case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed for ADPKD patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria in order to exclude coexisting glomerular disease and for appropriate treatment/prevention of renal function deterioration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to MN in a patient with ADPKD treated with MFM, with remission of proteinuria and preservation of renal function after more than 10 years. Findings in this patient also suggest that MFM might reduce cystic cell proliferation and fibrosis, preventing progressive renal scarring with preservation of renal function. PMID:21552769
Horneff, Gerd; Becker, Ingrid
The aim of this study was to define improvement thresholds for the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS). Physicians' and parents' judgements on treatment efficacy, the ACR paediatric response measure (PedACR) and JADAS were extracted from BIKER. Patients were categorized by baseline classes in the 10-joint JADAS (JADAS10) as low (5 to <15), moderate (15 to <25) and high (25 to ≤40). Cut-offs for defining improvement following treatment with biologics or MTX were chosen by calculating the interquartile ranges (IQRs) of the judgement groups and considering the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the resulting model. Differences in the change of JADAS10 by JIA category were also analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. A total of 1315 treatment courses were analysed. The ANOVA of the JIA categories showed no significant differences of the mean JADAS10 in all baseline classes and IQRs also showed good overall limits. Therefore all JIA categories were combined for a collective cut-off. Analysis by baseline class revealed clear cut-off points. Improvement could be defined by the minimal decrease in the JADAS10 in baseline class low by 4 (41%), moderate by 10 (53%) and high by 17 (57%). The model shows values for accuracy from 75.6 to 85.5% and comparable values for sensitivity and specificity. Improvement after 3 months can be defined efficiently by the decrease of the JADAS10, depending on the baseline JADAS10 score, which specifies low, moderate or high disease activity. Our model demonstrates clear cut-off values. The JADAS10 may be used in addition to ACR criteria in clinical trials. Also, since the JADAS10 can easily be calculated at each patient visit, it also can be used for clinical decisions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Hyldgaard, Charlotte; Altraja, Alan; Sjåheim, Tone; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Sköld, Magnus; Hilberg, Ole
Introduction Differences in the organisation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) in the Nordic countries are not well described. Diagnostic setups, treatment modalities and follow-up plans may vary due to national, cultural and epidemiological features. The aim of the present study was to describe the different organisation of diagnostics and treatment of IPF and ILD in the Nordic countries. Methods All university and regional hospitals with respiratory physicians were invited to respond to a questionnaire collecting data on the number of physicians, nurses, patients with ILD/IPF, the presence of and adherence to disease-specific national and international guidelines, diagnosis and treatment including ILD-specific palliation and rehabilitation programmes. Results Twenty-four university and 22 regional hospitals returned the questionnaire. ILD and IPF incidence varied between 1.4 and 20/100,000 and 0.4 and 10/100,000, respectively. Denmark and Estonia have official national plans for the organisation of ILD. The majority of patients are managed at the university hospitals. The regional hospitals each manage 46 (5–200) patients with ILD and 10 (0–20) patients with IPF. There are from one to four ILD centres in each country with a median of two ILD specialists employed. Specialised ILD nurses are present in nine hospitals. None of the Nordic countries have national guidelines made by health authorities. The respiratory societies in Sweden, Norway and Denmark have developed national guidelines. All hospitals except two use the ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT IPF guidelines from 2011. The limited number of ILD specialists, ILD-specialised radiologists and pathologists and the low volume of ILD centres were perceived as bottlenecks for implementation of guidelines. Twenty of the 24 university hospitals have multidisciplinary conferences (MDCs). Pulmonologists and radiologists take part in all MDCs while pathologists only participate at 17
Trotti, Lynn Marie
Idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) is a chronic neurologic disorder of daytime sleepiness, accompanied by long sleep times, unrefreshing sleep, difficulty in awakening, cognitive dysfunction, and autonomic symptoms. The cause is unknown; a genetic predisposition is suggested. Autonomic, inflammatory, or immune dysfunction has been proposed. Diagnosis involves a clinical history and objective testing. There are no approved treatments for IH, but modafinil is typically considered first-line. A substantial fraction of patients with IH are refractory or intolerant to standard treatments, and different treatment strategies using novel therapeutics are necessary. Even with current treatment options, quality of life and safety may remain impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moses, P L; Ellis, L M; Anees, M R; Ho, W; Rothstein, R I; Meddings, J B; Sharkey, K A; Mawe, G M
Background and aims: The precise aetiology of achalasia is unknown although autoimmunity has been implicated and is supported by several studies. We screened sera from patients with achalasia or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) to test for circulating antimyenteric neuronal antibodies. Methods: Serum was obtained from 45 individuals with achalasia, 16 with GORD, and 22 normal controls. Serum was used in immunohistochemistry to label whole mount preparations of ileum and oesophagus of the guinea pig and mouse. Also, sections of superior cervical and dorsal root ganglia, and spinal cord were examined. Results: Positive immunostaining of the myenteric plexus was detected in significantly more achalasia and GORD samples than control samples (achalasia, p<0.001; GORD, p<0.01), and immunoreactivity was significantly more intense with achalasia and GORD serum samples than controls (achalasia, p<0.01; GORD, p<0.05). There was no correlation between intensity of immunoreactivity and duration of achalasia symptoms. In most cases, achalasia and GORD sera stained all ileal submucosal and myenteric neurones, and oesophageal neurones. Immunostaining was not species specific; however, immunostaining was largely specific for enteric neurones. Western blot analysis failed to reveal specific myenteric neuronal proteins that were labelled by antibodies in achalasia or GORD serum. Conclusions: These data suggest that antineuronal antibodies are generated in response to tissue damage or some other secondary phenomenon in achalasia and GORD. We conclude that antineuronal antibodies found in the serum of patients with achalasia represent an epiphenomenon and not a causative factor. PMID:12692044
Doo, Kyeong-Hee; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ho; Park, Hi-Joon; Park, Seong-Uk
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and safety of combined treatment using acupuncture and bee venom acupuncture (BVA) as an adjunctive treatment for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Eleven patients (7 men and 4 women) with idiopathic PD who had been receiving a stable dose of anti-parkinsonian medication for at least 4 weeks. Participants received conventional treatment for 12 weeks. Subsequently, they received additional treatment with acupuncture and BVA twice weekly for 12 weeks while still maintaining conventional treatment. All participants were assessed at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks by using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL), the speed and number of steps required to walk 20 m, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Maximum excursion and directional control, measured by computerized dynamic posturography (Balance Master(®) System, NeuroCom, San Carlos, CA), were used to assess postural stability. Patients who underwent 12 weeks of twice-weekly combined treatment with acupuncture and BVA showed significant improvements in gait speed, PDQL score, activities of daily living (UPDRS part II), motor symptoms (UPDRS part III), and combined UPDRS part II+III scores compared with assessments after conventional treatment. Combined treatment with acupuncture and BVA showed promising results as a safe adjunctive therapy for PD.
Rosen, Jan B; Rott, Elisa; Ebersbach, Georg; Kalbe, Elke
Moral decision-making essentially contributes to social conduct. Although patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show deficits in (non-moral) decision making and related neuropsychological functions, i.e. executive functions, theory of mind (ToM), and empathy, moral decision-making has rarely been examined in PD patients. We examined possible alterations of moral decision-making and associated functions in PD. Twenty non-demented PD patients and 23 age- and education-matched healthy control participants were examined with tests that assess reasoning, executive functions (set-shifting and planning), ToM and empathy, decision-making under risk, and moral intuitions. Moral decision-making was assessed with a close-to-everyday moral dilemma paradigm that opposes socially oriented "altruistic" choices to self-beneficial "egoistic" choices in 20 moral dilemma short stories (10 high and 10 low emotional). Concurrently, electrodermal activity was recorded. PD patients made more egoistic moral decisions than healthy controls. Remarkably, while reasoning, planning and empathy correlated with moral decision-making in the control group, in the PD group neuropsychological functions and dopaminergic medication did not correlate with moral decisions. No evidence for reduced skin conductance responses in PD patients and no relationships between skin conductance responses and moral decisions were observed. This study provides evidence for moral decision-making dysfunctions in PD patients who made more egoistic moral decisions. As a possible underlying mechanism, reduced exercise of attentional control due to a dysfunctional interplay between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia is discussed. Future research will have to determine the impact of PD patients' moral decision-making dysfunctions on everyday life and further determine correlates of the deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Polzer, Christin; Ebersbach, Georg; Kalbe, Elke
Cognitive impairments in theory of mind (ToM), executive processing, and decision-making are frequent and highly relevant symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These functions have been related to moral decision-making. Their association to moral decision-making in PD, however, has not been studied yet. It was hypothesized that moral decisions in patients with PD differ from those in healthy control participants, and that more egoistic decisions are related to ToM as well as executive dysfunctions in patients with PD. Nineteen patients with PD and 20 healthy control participants were examined with an everyday moral decision-making task, comprised of 10 low and 10 high emotional forced-choice moral dilemma short stories with egoistic and altruistic options. All participants received an elaborate neuropsychological test battery. Electrodermal skin conductance responses were recorded to examine possible unconscious emotional reactions during moral decision-making. The groups performed comparably in total scores of moral decision-making. Although ToM did not differ between groups, it was inversely related to altruistic moral decisions in the healthy control group, but not in patients with PD. Executive functions were not related to moral decision-making. No differences were found for skin conductance responses, yet they differed from zero in both groups. Our findings indicate that moral decisions do not differ between patients with PD and healthy control participants. However, different underlying processes in both groups can be presumed. While healthy control participants seem to apply ToM to permit egoistic moral decisions in low emotional dilemmas, patients with PD seem to decide independently from ToM. These mechanisms as well as neuropsychological and neurophysiological correlates are discussed.
Tanner, Jared J; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Schwab, Nadine A; Hizel, Loren P; Nguyen, Peter T; Okun, Michael S; Price, Catherine C
A 71-year-old (MN) with an 11-year history of left onset tremor diagnosed as Parkinson's disease (PD) completed longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. MRI scans showed an asymmetric caudate nucleus (right < left volume). We describe this asymmetry at baseline and the progression over time relative to other subcortical gray, frontal white matter, and cortical gray matter regions of interest. Isolated structural changes are compared to MN's cognitive profiles. MN completed yearly MRIs and neuropsychological assessments. For comparison, left onset PD (n = 15) and non-PD (n = 43) peers completed the same baseline protocol. All MRI scans were processed with FreeSurfer and the FMRIB Software Library to analyze gray matter structures and frontal fractional anisotropy (FA) metrics. Processing speed, working memory, language, verbal memory, abstract reasoning, visuospatial, and motor functions were examined using reliable change methods. At baseline, MN had striatal volume and frontal lobe thickness asymmetry relative to peers with mild prefrontal white matter FA asymmetry. Over time only MN's right caudate nucleus showed accelerated atrophy. Cognitively, MN had slowed psychomotor speed and visuospatial-linked deficits with mild visuospatial working memory declines longitudinally. This is a unique report using normative neuroimaging and neuropsychology to describe an individual diagnosed with PD who had striking striatal asymmetry followed secondarily by cortical thickness asymmetry and possible frontal white matter asymmetry. His decline and variability in visual working memory could be linked to ongoing atrophy of his right caudate nucleus.
Tanner, Jared J.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Schwab, Nadine A.; Hizel, Loren P.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Okun, Michael S.; Price, Catherine C.
Objective A 71-year old (MN) with an 11-year history of left onset tremor diagnosed as Parkinson’s disease (PD) completed longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. MRI scans showed an asymmetric caudate nucleus (right< left volume). We describe this asymmetry at baseline and the progression over time relative to other subcortical gray, frontal white matter, and cortical gray matter regions of interest. Isolated structural changes are compared to MN’s cognitive profiles. Method MN completed yearly MRIs and neuropsychological assessments. For comparison, left onset PD (n=15) and non-PD (n=43) peers completed the same baseline protocol. All MRI scans were processed with FreeSurfer and the FMRIB Software Library (FSL) to analyze gray matter structures and frontal fractional anisotropy (FA) metrics. Processing speed, working memory, language, verbal memory, abstract reasoning, visuospatial, and motor functions were examined using reliable change methods. Results At baseline MN had striatal volume and frontal lobe thickness asymmetry relative to peers with mild prefrontal white matter FA asymmetry. Over time only MN’s right caudate nucleus showed accelerated atrophy. Cognitively, MN had slowed psychomotor speed and visuospatial-linked deficits with mild visuospatial working memory declines longitudinally. Conclusions This is a unique report using normative neuroimaging and neuropsychology to describe an individual diagnosed with PD who had striking striatal asymmetry followed secondarily by cortical thickness asymmetry and possible frontal white matter asymmetry. His decline and variability in visual working memory could be linked to ongoing atrophy of his right caudate nucleus. PMID:27813459
Valko, Philipp O.; Hauser, Sabrina; Sommerauer, Michael; Werth, Esther; Baumann, Christian R.
Background This study has two main goals: 1.) to determine the potential influence of dopaminergic drugs on sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 2.) to elucidate whether NREM and REM sleep differentially impact SDB severity in PD. Methods Retrospective clinical and polysomnographic study of 119 consecutive PD patients and comparison with age-, sex- and apnea-hypopnea-index-matched controls. Results SDB was diagnosed in 57 PD patients (48%). Apnea-hypopnea index was significantly higher in PD patients with central SDB predominance (n = 7; 39.3±16.7/h) than obstructive SDB predominance (n = 50; 20.9±16.8/h; p = 0.003). All PD patients with central SDB predominance appeared to be treated with both levodopa and dopamine agonists, whereas only 56% of those with obstructive SDB predominance were on this combined treatment (p = 0.03). In the whole PD group with SDB (n = 57), we observed a significant decrease of apnea-hypopnea index from NREM to REM sleep (p = 0.02), while controls revealed the opposite tendency. However, only the PD subgroup with SDB and treatment with dopamine agonists showed this phenomenon, while those without dopamine agonists had a similar NREM/REM pattern as controls. Conclusions Our findings suggest an ambiguous impact of dopamine agonists on SDB. Medication with dopamine agonists seems to enhance the risk of central SDB predominance. Loss of normal muscle atonia may be responsible for decreased SDB severity during REM sleep in PD patients with dopamine agonists. PMID:24968233
Edelstyn, Nicola M J; John, Christopher M; Shepherd, Thomas A; Drakeford, Justine L; Clark-Carter, David; Ellis, Simon J; Mayes, Andrew R
Medicated, non-dementing mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) patients usually show recall/recollection impairments but have only occasionally shown familiarity impairments. We aimed to assess two explanations of this pattern of impairment. Recollection typically improves when effortful planning of encoding and retrieval processing is engaged. This depends on prefrontally-dependent executive processes, which are often disrupted in PD. Relative to an unguided encoding and retrieval of words condition (C1), giving suitable guidance at encoding alone (C2) or at encoding and retrieval (C3) should, if executive processes are disrupted, improve PD recollection more than control recollection and perhaps raise it to normal levels. Familiarity, being a relatively automatic kind of memory, whether impaired or intact, should be unaffected by guidance. According to the second explanation, PD deficits are amnesia-like and caused by medial temporal lobe dysfunction and although poorer recollection, which is caused by hippocampal disruption, may be improved by guidance, it should not improve more than control recollection. Familiarity impairment will also occur if the perirhinal cortex is disrupted, but will be unimproved by guidance. Without guidance, recollection/recall was impaired in thirty PD patients relative to twenty-two healthy controls and remained relatively equally impaired when full guidance was provided (C1 vs C3), both groups improving to broadly the same extent. Although impaired, and markedly less so than recollection, familiarity was not improved by guidance in both groups. The patients showed elevated rates of subclinical depressive symptoms, which weakly correlated with recall/recollection in all three conditions. PD executive function was also deficient and correlated with unguided/C1 recollection only. Our results are consistent with a major cause of the patients' recall/recollection impairments being hippocampal disruption, probably exacerbated by
Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Molina-Molina, María
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the radiological and/or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Its aetiology is unknown, but probably comprises the action of endogenous and exogenous micro-environmental factors in subjects with genetic predisposition. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic findings of high-resolution computed tomography scans and pulmonary biopsies in absence of interstitial lung diseases of other aetiologies. Its clinical evolution is variable, although the mean survival rate is 2-5 years as of its clinical presentation. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may present complications and comorbidities which modify the disease's clinical course and prognosis. In the mild-moderate disease, the treatment consists of the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. In severe disease, the best therapeutic option is pulmonary transplantation. In this paper we review the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wong, Ka Kit; Raffel, David M; Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Altinok, Gulcin; Gilman, Sid; Frey, Kirk A
The objective of this study was to detect regional patterns of cardiac sympathetic denervation in idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) using 11 C-hydroxyephedrine ( 11 C-HED) PET and determine the denervation rate over 2 y. We obtained 62 cardiac 11 C-HED PET scans in 39 patients (30 men and 9 women; mean age ± SD, 61.9 ± 5.9 y), including 23 patients with follow-up scans at 2 y. We derived 11 C-HED retention indices (RIs; mL of blood/min/mL of tissue) reflecting nerve density and integrity for 480 left ventricular (LV) sectors. We compared IPD patients with 33 healthy controls using z score analysis; RI values ≤ 2.5 SDs were considered abnormal. We expressed global and regional LV denervation as the percentage extent of z score severity and severity-extent product (SEP) on 9-segment bullseye maps and decline in cardiac sympathetic innervation as the 2-y difference in SEP (diff-SEP). Baseline 11 C-HED PET in the 39 IPD patients revealed an RI mean of 0.052 ± 0.022 mL of blood/min/mL of tissue. In comparison with data from normal controls, 12 patients had normal 11 C-HED PET, 5 showed mild denervation (percentage extent < 30%), and 22 had moderate to severe denervation (percentage extent > 30%, z score ≤ 2.5 SD). In the 23 paired PET scans, worsening cardiac denervation (global diff-SEP > 9) occurred in 14 of 23 (60.9%) patients over 2 y, including percentage LV abnormality (59% increasing to 66%), z-severity (-2.4 down to -2.5), and SEP (-195 to -227) (P = 0.0062). We found a mean annual decline of 4.6% ± 5.6 (maximum, 13%) in 11 C-HED retention from a baseline global RI mean of 0.0481 ± 0.0218 to 0.0432 ± 0.0220 (P = 0.0009). At baseline, 5 patients with normal uptake had no interval change; 3 with mild denervation developed interval decline in lateral and inferior segments (diff-SEP -82 to -99) compared with anterior and septal segments (-65 to -79), whereas the reverse pattern occurred in 15 patients with severe baseline denervation. Progressive decline
Shugaiv, Erkingul; Kiyat-Atamer, Asli; Tüzün, Erdem; Deymeer, Feza; Oflazer, Piraye; Parman, Yesim; Akman-Demir, Gulsen
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic, recurrent and inflammatory disorder. Neurological involvement is rare and affects mainly the central nervous system (CNS) in the form of brainstem meningoencephalitis or dural sinus thrombosis. Peripheral neuropathy is usually not observed during the course of BD but some reports have shown electrophysiologic evidence of subclinical neuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex and cranial neuropathy in BD patients. The co-occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, with other autoimmune or systemic diseases is rare. We present a case of BD with clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis of GBS. The findings of the patient were discussed with reference to literature.
Iyoki, Takaya; Maehana, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Masumori, Naoya
About half of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis might be classified as a IgG4-related disease, a newly characterized disease that is especially known to be sensitive to steroid therapy. We developed a new protocol for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal fibrosis, which included aggressive diagnosis of IgG4- related disease. We retrospectively reviewed 22 cases with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis that were diagnosed and treated according to our protocol. Of them, 10 patients (45.5%) had no evidence of IgG4- related disease (non-IgG4RD group), whereas 12 patients (54.5%) were diagnosed with IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD group). All patients received steroid therapy, and 13 patients (59.1%) underwent ureteral stenting or received prednisolone (PNS). There was no severe adverse event and planned steroid therapy was completed in all patients. In principle, maintenance steroid therapy was continued after induction therapy in the IgG4RD group, whereas steroid therapy was discontinued in the non-IgG4RD group. Regression of retroperitoneal plaque was achieved in all 22 patients. Four (57.1%) out of 7 patients and 3 (50.0%) out of 6 patients achieved freedom from ureteral stent or PNS in the non-IgG4RD group and IgG4RD group, respectively. All 3 patients with PNS became catheter-free after treatment, whereas only 4 (40.0%) of the 10 patients withureteral stent could become stent-free. Steroid therapy could be discontinued in 7 patients (70.0%) in the non-IgG4RD group. The results of this study suggest that similar efficacy of steroid therapy can be expected in the non-IgG4RD group and IgG4RD group.
Wolf, Hans-Heinrich; Kornhuber, Malte Erich; Weis, Joachim; Posa, Andreas
This report describes the clinical course over almost one decade of a male patient presenting with immune-mediated pure autonomic neuropathy resembling a distinct variant of chronic dysimmune polyneuropathies. We suppose autoantibodies directed against epitopes on autonomic axons or neurons causative for the symptoms.
Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail.
Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail. PMID:25516860
Toussi, Sima S; Pan, Nancy; Walters, Heather M; Walsh, Thomas J
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly administered to children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (pIBD). Adult studies indicate that TNF-α inhibitors lead to an increased risk of serious infections compared to other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. We report herein a systematic literature review detailing the epidemiology and types of infections reported in children with JIA and pIBD treated with TNF-α inhibitors. The most frequently reported infections were mild and characterized as viral in etiology. Severe bacterial and fungal infections also occurred, but were less common and possibly associated with intrinsic risk factors and concurrent immunosuppressive therapy. Few pediatric patients developed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, likely due to effective screening. There were 8 infectious fatalities in children treated with TNF-α inhibitors. Overall, although rare, serious infections occur in immunocompromised children and adolescents with JIA and pIBD receiving TNF-α inhibitors.
Manganese- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neurotoxicity display differences in morphological, electrophysiological and genome-wide alterations: implications for idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Raghunath, Narayana Reddy; Narwade, Santosh Chandrakant; Pandareesh, Mirazkar Dasharatha Rao; Sabitha, Kollarkandi Rajesh; Aiyaz, Mohamad; Chand, Bipin; Sule, Manas; Ghosh, Krittika; Kumar, Senthil; Shankarappa, Bhagyalakshmi; Soundararajan, Soundarya; Alladi, Phalguni Anand; Purushottam, Meera; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Deobagkar, Deepti Dileep; Laxmi, Thenkanidiyoor Rao; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease and manganese-induced atypical parkinsonism are characterized by movement disorder and nigrostriatal pathology. Although clinical features, brain region involved and responsiveness to levodopa distinguish both, differences at the neuronal level are largely unknown. We studied the morphological, neurophysiological and molecular differences in dopaminergic neurons exposed to the Parkinson's disease toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP + ) and manganese (Mn), followed by validation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and Mn mouse models. Morphological analysis highlighted loss of neuronal processes in the MPP + and not the Mn model. Cellular network dynamics of dopaminergic neurons characterized by spike frequency and inter-spike intervals indicated major neuronal population (~ 93%) with slow discharge rates (0-5 Hz). While MPP + exposure suppressed the firing of these neurons, Mn neither suppressed nor elevated the neuronal activity. High-throughput transcriptomic analysis revealed up-regulation of 694 and 603 genes and down-regulation of 428 and 255 genes in the MPP + and Mn models respectively. Many differentially expressed genes were unique to either models and contributed to neuroinflammation, metabolic/mitochondrial function, apoptosis and nuclear function, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and cytoskeleton. Analysis of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway with implications for neuritogenesis and neuronal proliferation revealed contrasting profile in both models. Genome-wide DNA methylomics revealed differences between both models and substantiated the epigenetic basis of the difference in the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway. We conclude that idiopathic Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism have divergent neurotoxicological manifestation at the dopaminergic neuronal level with implications for pathobiology and evolution
Inglese, Matilde; Petracca, Maria
Although the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases is increasing as a consequence of the growing aging population, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms leading to these diseases remains obscure. Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system and the most frequent cause of disability among young people after traumatic brain injury, is characterized by inflammatory/demyelinating and neurodegenerative processes that occurr earlier in life. The ability to make an early diagnosis of MS with the support of conventional MRI techniques, provides the opportunity to study neurodegeneration and the underlying pathophysiological processes in earlier stages than in classical neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes mechanisms of neurodegeneration common to MS and to Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and amiotrophic lateral sclerosis, and provides a brief overview of the neuroimaging studies employing MRI and PET techniques to investigate and monitor neurodegeneration in both MS and classical neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23117868
Takeuchi, Tomiko; Muraoka, Koko; Yamada, Megumi; Nishio, Yuri; Hozumi, Isao
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare, intractable disease with unknown etiology. IBGC3 is a familial genetic disease defined by genetic mutations in the major causative gene ( SLC20A2 ). People with IBGC3 experience distress from the uncommon nature of their illness and uncertainty about treatment and prognoses. The present study aimed to describe the lives and illness of people with IBGC3. Participants were recruited from patients aged 20 years or older enrolled in a genetic study, who were diagnosed with IBGC3 and wanted to share their experiences. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Interviews were conducted between December 2012 and February 2014, and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data analysis was performed to identify categories and subcategories. Efforts were made to ensure the credibility, transferability, dependability, conformability, and validity of the data. Six thematic categories, 17 subcategories, and 143 codes emerged. The six categories were: (1) Frustration and anxiety with progression of symptoms without a diagnosis; (2) Confusion about diagnosis with an unfamiliar disease; (3) Emotional distress caused by a genetic disease; (4) Passive attitude toward life, being extra careful; (5) Taking charge of life, becoming active and engaged; and (6) Requests for healthcare. The qualitative data analysis indicated a need for genetic counseling, access to disease information, establishment of peer and family support systems, mental health services, and improvement in early intervention and treatment for the disease.
Orczyk, Krzysztof; Świdrowska-Jaros, Joanna; Smolewska, Elżbieta
The Lyme arthritis is a common manifestation of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete. Despite its infectious background, the inflammation clinically and histopatologically resembles juvenile idiopathic arthritis. As it affects a considerable number of Lyme disease patients, it should be routinely considered in differential diagnosis. Development of arthritis is partially dependent on spirochetal factors, including the ribosomal spacer type and the sequence of outer surface protein C. Immunological background involves Th1-related response, but IL-17 provides an additional route of developing arthritis. Autoimmune mechanisms may lead to antibiotic-refractory arthritis. The current diagnostic standard is based on a 2-step testing: ELISA screening and immunoblot confirmation. Other suggested methods contain modified two-tier test with C6 ELISA instead of immunoblot. An initial 28-day course of oral antibiotics (doxycycline, cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin) is a recommended treatment. Severe cases require further anti-inflammatory management. Precise investigation of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is advisable.
Movahedi, Masoud; Tavakol, Marzieh; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Tavakol, Zahra; Momenzadeh, Kaveh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Dabbaghzade, Abbas; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Rezaei, Nima
Chronic urticaria is the most common skin diseases, characterized by chronic cutaneous lesions which severely debilitates patients in several aspects of their everyday life. Vitamin D is known to exert several actions in the immune system and to influence function and differentiation of mast cells, central role players in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were recruited in this study along with one hundred and eighty seven sex-matched and age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. For each patient, urticaria activity score was calculated and autologous serum skin test was done. Vitamin D metabolic statue was measured in serum as 25 hydroxyvitamin D using enzyme immunoassay method. Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria significantly showed lower levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. There was a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score. This study showed that patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria had reduced levels of vitamin D, while vitamin D deficiency could increase susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria.
Weitzman, Elissa R; Wisk, Lauren E; Salimian, Parissa K; Magane, Kara M; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Hersh, Aimee O; Kimura, Yukiko; Mandl, Kenneth D; Ringold, Sarah; Natter, Marc
Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) often have poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) despite advances in treatment. Patient-centered research may shed light on how patient experiences of treatment and disease contribute to HRQOL, pinpointing directions for improving care and enhancing outcomes. Parent proxies of youth enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry shared patient-reported outcomes about their child's HRQOL and experiences of disease and treatment burden (pain interference, morning stiffness, history of medication side effects and methotrexate intolerance). Contributions of these measures to HRQOL were estimated using generalized estimating equations accounting for site and patient demographics. Patients ( N = 180) were 81.1% white non-Hispanic and 76.7% female. Mean age was 11.8 (SD = 3.6) years, mean disease duration was 7.7 years (SD = 3.5). Mean Total Pediatric Quality of Life was 76.7 (SD = 18.2). Mean pain interference score was 50.1 (SD = 11.1). Nearly one-in-five (17.8%) youth experienced >15 min of morning stiffness on a typical day, more than one quarter (26.7%) reported ≥1 serious medication side effect and among 90 methotrexate users, 42.2% met criteria for methotrexate intolerance. Measures of disease and treatment burden were independently negatively associated with HRQOL (all p -values <0.01). Negative associations among measures of treatment burden and HRQOL were attenuated after controlling for disease burden and clinical characteristics but remained significant. For youth with JIA, HRQOL is multidimensional, reflecting disease as well as treatment factors. Adverse treatment experiences undermine HRQOL even after accounting for disease symptoms and disease activity and should be assessed routinely to improve wellbeing.
Cai, Jiang-Ping; Chen, Wan-Jin; Lin, Yu; Cai, Bin; Wang, Ning
To assess the safety and efficacy of rasagiline for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) among individuals currently receiving levodopa. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing rasagiline with placebo/no treatment in individuals with PD currently receiving levodopa. Outcome measures included improvement in motor functions; symptomatic improvement; improvement in quality of life; adverse effects. Random-effect meta-analytical techniques were conducted for the outcome measure and subgroup analyses. Three RCTs were included (n = 1002). The results showed significantly greater improvements in daily 'on' time without dyskinesia in levodopa-treated participants with idiopathic PD receiving 1 mg/day rasagiline compared to placebo (n = 712, 2 RCTs, MD 0.80, CI 0.45 to 1.15; p < 0.00001), and significantly greater improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor performance scores during 'on' time in participants receiving 0.5-1 mg/day rasagiline (0.5 mg/day: n = 282, MD -2.91, CI -4.59 to -1.23; p = 0.0007; 1 mg/day: n = 712, 2 RCTs, MD -2.91, CI -4.02 to -1.80; p < 0.00001). There were no significant differences in adverse effects. 0.5 to 1 mg/day rasagiline in addition to levodopa is a safe and well-tolerated combination therapy for individuals with Parkinson's disease.
... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri) En Español Read in Chinese What is idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder that ...
Pelajo, Christina F; Angeles-Han, Sheila T; Prahalad, Sampath; Sgarlat, Caitlin M; Davis, Trevor E; Miller, Laurie C; Lopez-Benitez, Jorge M
To examine the association between ethnicity and disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to determine the association of ethnicity with disease severity and disability in this population. CARRAnet, a US database containing information (collected between May 2010 and June 2011) on almost 3,000 subjects with JIA, was used. Demographic variables were compared between Hispanic patients and non-Hispanic patients. Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were used to compare indicators of disease activity, as well as imaging evidence of joint damage, and Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) scores between ethnicities. Two linear regression models were used to determine the association of ethnicity with number of active joints in JIA, and the association between ethnicity and disability (CHAQ scores). A total of 2,704 patients with JIA (277 Hispanic; 2,427 non-Hispanic) were included. Income and health insurance coverage were higher in non-Hispanics. RF-positive polyarticular JIA, positive RF and anti-CCP, as well as use of systemic steroids were more frequent in Hispanics. Imaging evidence of joint damage was present in 32 % of the Hispanic patients compared to 24 % of the non-Hispanic patients (p = 0.008). In multivariate linear regression analyses, the number of active joints was significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics (p = 0.03), as well as CHAQ scores (p = 0.003), after adjusting for confounders. Hispanic patients with JIA had higher disease activity than non-Hispanic patients, as well as higher disease severity and disability. Since ethnicity influences disease activity, severity, and disability, different management and treatment plans should be planned accordingly.
Bielak, M; Husmann, E; Weyandt, N; Haas, J-P; Hügle, B; Horneff, G; Neudorf, U; Lutz, T; Lilienthal, E; Kallinich, T; Tenbrock, K; Berendes, R; Niehues, T; Wittkowski, H; Weißbarth-Riedel, E; Heubner, G; Oommen, P; Klotsche, J; Foell, Dirk; Lainka, E
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a complex disease with an autoinflammatory component of unknown etiology related to the innate immune system. A major role in the pathogenesis has been ascribed to proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6), and effective drugs inhibiting their signaling are being developed. This study evaluates sJIA patients treated with the IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ) concerning clinical response rate, disease course and adverse effects in a real-life clinical setting. In 2009 a clinical and research consortium was established, including an online registry for autoinflammatory diseases (AID) ( https://aid-register.de ). Data for this retrospective TCZ study were documented by 13 centers. From 7/2009 to 4/2014, 200 patients with sJIA were recorded in the AID-registry. Out of these, 46 (19 m, 27 f, age 1-18 years) received therapy with TCZ. Long term treatment (median 23 months) has been documented in 24/46 patients who were evaluated according to Wallace criteria (active disease 6/24, inactive disease 5/24, remission 13/24 cases). Under observation co-medication were used in 40/46 cases. Adverse events were reported in 11/46 patients. The clinical response rate (no clinical manifestation, no increased inflammation parameters) within the first 12 weeks of treatment was calculated to be 35%. Out of 200 sJIA children reported in the German AID-registry, 46 were treated with TCZ, showing a clinical response rate of 35% during the first 12 weeks, and inactive disease and/or remission under medication in 75% after one year. Adverse events were seen in 24% and severe adverse events in 4%. The AID-Registry is funded by the BMBF (01GM08104, 01GM1112D, 01GM1512D).
Anderson, Kirstie N.; Pilsworth, Samantha; Sharples, Linda D.; Smith, Ian E.; Shneerson, John M.
Study Objectives: To review the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of idiopathic hypersomnia as well as the long-term response to treatment. Setting: The Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Patients and Design: A large database of more than 6000 patients with sleep disorders was reviewed. A retrospective study of the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of 77 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia was performed. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy was performed. The response to drug treatment was assessed in 61 patients over a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. Measurements and Results: Idiopathic hypersomnia was 60% as prevalent as narcolepsy. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy showed that those with idiopathic hypersomnia were more likely to have prolonged unrefreshing daytime naps, a positive family history, increased slow-wave sleep, and a longer sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. The results of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test were not helpful in predicting disease severity or treatment response. The clinical features were heterogeneous and of variable severity. The majority of patients with idiopathic hypersomnia had symptoms that remained stable over many years, but 11% had spontaneous remission, which was never seen in narcolepsy. Two thirds of patients with idiopathic hypersomnolence had a sustained improvement in daytime somnolence with medication, although a third needed high doses or combinations of drugs. Conclusions: Idiopathic hypersomnolence has characteristic clinical and polysomnographic features but the prolonged latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test raises doubt about the validity of this test within the current diagnostic criteria. The disease often responds well to treatment and a substantial minority of patients appear to spontaneously improve. Citation: Anderson KN; Pilsworth S; Sharples LD; Smith IE; Shneerson JM. Idiopathic
Ellis, Justine A; Munro, Jane E; Chavez, Raul A; Gordon, Lavinia; Joo, Jihoon E; Akikusa, Jonathan D; Allen, Roger C; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a complex autoimmune rheumatic disease of largely unknown cause. Evidence is growing that epigenetic variation, particularly DNA methylation, is associated with autoimmune disease. However, nothing is currently known about the potential role of aberrant DNA methylation in JIA. As a first step to addressing this knowledge gap, we have profiled DNA methylation in purified CD4+ T cells from JIA subjects and controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from 14 oligoarticular and polyarticular JIA cases with active disease, and healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Genome-scale methylation analysis was carried out using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Methylation data at >25,000 CpGs was compared in a case-control study design. Methylation levels were significantly different (FDR adjusted p<0.1) at 145 loci. Removal of four samples exposed to methotrexate had a striking impact on the outcome of the analysis, reducing the number of differentially methylated loci to 11. The methotrexate-naive analysis identified reduced methylation at the gene encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL32, which was subsequently replicated using a second analysis platform and a second set of case-control pairs. Our data suggests that differential T cell DNA methylation may be a feature of JIA, and that reduced methylation at IL32 is associated with this disease. Further work in larger prospective and longitudinal sample collections is required to confirm these findings, assess whether the identified differences are causal or consequential of disease, and further investigate the epigenetic modifying properties of therapeutic regimens.
Clinically inactive disease in a cohort of children with new-onset polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with early aggressive therapy: time to achievement, total duration, and predictors.
Wallace, Carol A; Giannini, Edward H; Spalding, Steven J; Hashkes, Philip J; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Zeft, Andrew S; Szer, Ilona S; Ringold, Sarah; Brunner, Hermine I; Schanberg, Laura E; Sundel, Robert P; Milojevic, Diana S; Punaro, Marilynn G; Chira, Peter; Gottlieb, Beth S; Higgins, Gloria C; Ilowite, Norman T; Kimura, Yukiko; Johnson, Anne; Huang, Bin; Lovell, Daniel J
To determine the elapsed time while receiving aggressive therapy to the first observation of clinically inactive disease (CID), total duration of CID and potential predictors of this response in a cohort of children with recent onset of polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (poly-JIA). Eighty-five children were randomized blindly to methotrexate (MTX), etanercept, and rapidly tapered prednisolone (MEP) or MTX monotherapy and assessed for CID over 1 year of treatment. Patients who failed to achieve intermediary endpoints were switched to open-label MEP treatment. Fifty-eight (68.2%) of the 85 patients achieved CID at 1 or more visits including 18 who received blinded MEP, 11 while receiving MTX monotherapy, and 29 while receiving open-label MEP. Patients starting on MEP achieved CID earlier and had more study days in CID compared to those starting MTX, but the differences were not significantly different. Patients given MEP (more aggressive therapy) earlier in the disease course were statistically more likely to have a higher proportion of followup visits in CID than those with longer disease course at baseline. Those who achieved American College of Rheumatology Pediatric 70 response at 4 months had a significantly greater proportion of followup visits in CID, compared to those who failed to achieve this improvement (p < 0.0001). Of the 32 patients who met criteria for CID and then lost CID status, only 3 fulfilled the definition of disease flare. Shorter disease duration prior to treatment, a robust response at 4 months, and more aggressive therapy result in a higher likelihood and longer duration of CID in patients with poly-JIA. The original trial from which data for this analysis were obtained is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00443430.
Alexanderson, Helene; Del Grande, Maria; Bingham, Clifton O; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Sarver, Catherine; Clegg-Smith, Katherine; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Song, Yeong Wook; Christopher-Stine, Lisa
The newly formed Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Myositis Special Interest Group (SIG) was established to examine patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) in myositis. At OMERACT 11, a literature review of PROM used in the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and other neuromuscular conditions was presented. The group examined in more detail 2 PROM more extensively evaluated in patients with IIM, the Myositis Activities Profile, and the McMaster-Toronto Arthritis Patient Preference Disability Questionnaire, through the OMERACT filter of truth, discrimination, and feasibility. Preliminary results from a qualitative study of patients with myositis regarding their symptoms were discussed that emphasized the range of symptoms experienced: pain, physical tightness/stiffness, fatigue, disease effect on emotional life and relationships, and treatment-related side effects. Following discussion of these results and following additional discussions since OMERACT 11, a research agenda was developed. The next step in evaluating PROM in IIM will require additional focus groups with a spectrum of patients with different myositis disease phenotypes and manifestations across a range of disease activity, and from multiple international settings. The group will initially focus on dermatomyositis and polymyositis in adults. Qualitative analysis will facilitate the identification of commonalities and divergent patient-relevant aspects of disease, insights that are critical given the heterogeneous manifestations of these diseases. Based on these qualitative studies, existing myositis PROM can be examined to more thoroughly assess content validity, and will be important to identify gaps in domain measurement that will be required to develop a preliminary core set of patient-relevant domains for IIM.
Berntson, Lillemor; Nordal, Ellen; Aalto, Kristiina; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Herlin, Troels; Zak, Marek; Nielsen, Susan; Rygg, Marite
We investigated associations of HLA-B27 with clinical manifestations and longterm outcome in a near population-based setting among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We studied clinical and serological data from 410 patients with HLA-B27 results among 440 prospectively collected patients with JIA with 8-year followup data in a Nordic database. The study was structured to be as close to a population-based study as possible. HLA-B27 was analyzed in 93% of patients, and was positive in 21% of the cohort, in 18.4% of the girls and in 25.9% of the boys. Boys who were HLA-B27-positive had significantly higher age at onset compared to HLA-B27-negative boys and compared to both HLA-B27-negative and positive girls. This difference in onset age in relation to HLA-B27 was not found in girls. HLA-B27 was associated with clinical signs of sacroiliitis, enthesitis, and tenosynovitis in boys, but not in girls. After 8 years of disease, 46 children (11.2%) were classified as having enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA). Boys with ERA had clinical signs of sacroiliitis more often than girls with ERA. HLA-B27-positive children, as well as children with clinical signs of sacroiliitis, enthesitis, and hip arthritis, had higher odds of not being in remission off medication after 8 years of disease. In this near population-based Nordic JIA cohort we found significant differences between HLA-B27-positive boys and girls in age at disease onset, clinical signs of sacroiliitis, and ERA classification. HLA-B27 was negatively associated with longterm remission status, possibly because of its association with clinical disease characteristics, such as sacroiliitis, rather than being a general marker of persistent disease.
Toussi, Sima S.; Pan, Nancy; Walters, Heather M.; Walsh, Thomas J.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly administered to children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (pIBD). Adult studies indicate that TNF-α inhibitors lead to an increased risk of serious infections compared to other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. We report herein a systematic literature review detailing the epidemiology and types of infections reported in children with JIA and pIBD treated with TNF-α inhibitors. The most frequently reported infections were mild and characterized as viral in etiology. Severe bacterial and fungal infections also occurred, but were less common and possibly associated with intrinsic risk factors and concurrent immunosuppressive therapy. Few pediatric patients developed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, likely due to effective screening. There were 8 infectious fatalities in children treated with TNF-α inhibitors. Overall, although rare, serious infections occur in immunocompromised children and adolescents with JIA and pIBD receiving TNF-α inhibitors. PMID:23899685
Taguchi, Yoshio; Ebina, Masahito; Hashimoto, Seishu; Ogura, Takashi; Azuma, Arata; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Suga, Moritaka; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakata, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Kudoh, Shoji; Nukiwa, Toshihiro
A phase III clinical trial of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in Japan has revealed that pirfenidone attenuated the decline in vital capacity (VC) and improved progression-free survival (PFS). We conducted an extended analysis of the pirfenidone trial to investigate its efficacy with respect to IPF severity in the trial population. Patients in the phase III trial were stratified by baseline pulmonary functions including %VC predicted, %diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide predicted, and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry on exertion and were categorized into mild, moderate, and severe groups of functional impairment. The efficacy of pirfenidone for VC and PFS over 52 weeks was compared among the three sub-populations. Of 264 patients, 102 (39%), 90 (34%), and 72 patients (27%) were classified as having mild, moderate, and severe grades of functional impairment, respectively. This classification was associated with arterial oxygen partial pressure at rest and degree of dyspnea at baseline. While pirfenidone attenuated VC decline at all grades of severity, covariance analysis revealed pirfenidone to have better efficacy in the sub-population with mild-grade IPF. Mixed model repeated measures analysis confirmed that pirfenidone markedly attenuated VC decline in patients with mild-grade IPF compared to its effects in patients with moderate or severe IPF. Pirfenidone also improved PFS markedly in patients with mild-grade IPF. This extended analysis suggested that pirfenidone exerted better therapeutic effects in patients with milder IPF. Further analysis with a larger population is needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hinks, A; Cobb, J; Ainsworth, H C; Marion, M C; Comeau, M E; Sudman, M; Han, B; Becker, M L; Bohnsack, J F; de Bakker, P I W; Haas, J P; Hazen, M; Lovell, D J; Nigrovic, P A; Nordal, E; Punnaro, M; Rosenberg, A M; Rygg, M; Wise, C A; Videm, V; Wedderburn, L R; Yarwood, A; Yeung, R S M; Prahalad, S; Langefeld, C D; Raychaudhuri, S; Thompson, S D; Thomson, W
Objectives Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases, comprising seven categories. Genetic data could potentially be used to help redefine JIA categories and improve the current classification system. The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region is strongly associated with JIA. Fine-mapping of the region was performed to look for similarities and differences in HLA associations between the JIA categories and define correspondences with adult inflammatory arthritides. Methods Dense genotype data from the HLA region, from the Immunochip array for 5043 JIA cases and 14 390 controls, were used to impute single-nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA classical alleles and amino acids. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate genetic correlation between the JIA categories. Conditional analysis was used to identify additional effects within the region. Comparison of the findings with those in adult inflammatory arthritic diseases was performed. Results We identified category-specific associations and have demonstrated for the first time that rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarticular JIA and oligoarticular JIA are genetically similar in their HLA associations. We also observe that each JIA category potentially has an adult counterpart. The RF-positive polyarthritis association at HLA-DRB1 amino acid at position 13 mirrors the association in adult seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interestingly, the combined oligoarthritis and RF-negative polyarthritis dataset shares the same association with adult seronegative RA. Conclusions The findings suggest the value of using genetic data in helping to classify the categories of this heterogeneous disease. Mapping JIA categories to adult counterparts could enable shared knowledge of disease pathogenesis and aetiology and facilitate transition from paediatric to adult services. PMID:27998952
Hinks, A; Bowes, J; Cobb, J; Ainsworth, H C; Marion, M C; Comeau, M E; Sudman, M; Han, B; Becker, M L; Bohnsack, J F; de Bakker, P I W; Haas, J P; Hazen, M; Lovell, D J; Nigrovic, P A; Nordal, E; Punnaro, M; Rosenberg, A M; Rygg, M; Smith, S L; Wise, C A; Videm, V; Wedderburn, L R; Yarwood, A; Yeung, R S M; Prahalad, S; Langefeld, C D; Raychaudhuri, S; Thompson, S D; Thomson, W
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases, comprising seven categories. Genetic data could potentially be used to help redefine JIA categories and improve the current classification system. The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region is strongly associated with JIA. Fine-mapping of the region was performed to look for similarities and differences in HLA associations between the JIA categories and define correspondences with adult inflammatory arthritides. Dense genotype data from the HLA region, from the Immunochip array for 5043 JIA cases and 14 390 controls, were used to impute single-nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA classical alleles and amino acids. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate genetic correlation between the JIA categories. Conditional analysis was used to identify additional effects within the region. Comparison of the findings with those in adult inflammatory arthritic diseases was performed. We identified category-specific associations and have demonstrated for the first time that rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarticular JIA and oligoarticular JIA are genetically similar in their HLA associations. We also observe that each JIA category potentially has an adult counterpart. The RF-positive polyarthritis association at HLA-DRB1 amino acid at position 13 mirrors the association in adult seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interestingly, the combined oligoarthritis and RF-negative polyarthritis dataset shares the same association with adult seronegative RA. The findings suggest the value of using genetic data in helping to classify the categories of this heterogeneous disease. Mapping JIA categories to adult counterparts could enable shared knowledge of disease pathogenesis and aetiology and facilitate transition from paediatric to adult services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Farrokhi, Farnoosh; Vaezi, Michael F
Idiopathic achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder characterized by esophageal aperistalsis and abnormal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation in response to deglutition. It is a rare disease with an annual incidence of approximately 1/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 1/10,000. The disease can occur at any age, with a similar rate in men and women, but is usually diagnosed between 25 and 60 years. It is characterized predominantly by dysphagia to solids and liquids, bland regurgitation, and chest pain. Weight loss (usually between 5 to 10 kg) is present in most but not in all patients. Heartburn occurs in 27%–42% of achalasia patients. Etiology is unknown. Some familial cases have been reported, but the rarity of familial occurrence does not support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance is a significant etiologic factor. Association of achalasia with viral infections and auto-antibodies against myenteric plexus has been reported, but the causal relationship remains unclear. The diagnosis is based on history of the disease, radiography (barium esophagogram), and esophageal motility testing (esophageal manometry). Endoscopic examination is important to rule out malignancy as the cause of achalasia. Treatment is strictly palliative. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options (pneumatic dilation, surgical myotomy, and pharmacologic agents) aimed at reducing the LES pressure and facilitating esophageal emptying by gravity and hydrostatic pressure of retained food and liquids. Although it cannot be permanently cured, excellent palliation is available in over 90% of patients. PMID:17894899
Tieu, Joanna; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Limaye, Vidya
Knowledge on idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) has evolved with the identification of myositis-associated and myositis-specific antibodies, development of histopathological classification and the recognition of how these correlate with clinical phenotype and response to therapy. In this paper, we outline key advances in diagnosis and histopathology, including the more recent identification of antibodies associated with immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Ongoing longitudinal observational cohorts allow further classification of these patients with IIM, their predicted clinical course and response to specific therapies. Registries have been developed worldwide for this purpose. A challenging aspect in IIM, a multisystem disease with multiple clinical subtypes, has been defining disease status and clinically relevant improvement. Tools for assessing activity and damage are now recognised to be important in determining disease activity and guiding therapeutic decision-making. The International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies (IMACS) group has developed such tools for use in research and clinical settings. There is limited evidence for specific treatment strategies in IIM. With significant development in the understanding of IIM and improved classification, longitudinal observational cohorts and trials using validated outcome measures are necessary, to provide important information for evidence-based care in the clinical setting. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ungprasert, Patompong; Wilton, Katelynn M; Ernste, Floranne C; Kalra, Sanjay; Crowson, Cynthia S; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Bartholmai, Brian J
To evaluate the correlation between measurements from quantitative thoracic high-resolution CT (HRCT) analysis with "Computer-Aided Lung Informatics for Pathology Evaluation and Rating" (CALIPER) software and measurements from pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). A cohort of patients with IIM-associated ILD seen at Mayo Clinic was identified from medical record review. Retrospective analysis of HRCT data and PFTs at baseline and 1 year was performed. The abnormalities in HRCT were quantified using CALIPER software. A total of 110 patients were identified. At baseline, total interstitial abnormalities as measured by CALIPER, both by absolute volume and by percentage of total lung volume, had a significant negative correlation with diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), total lung capacity (TLC), and oxygen saturation. Analysis by subtype of interstitial abnormality revealed significant negative correlations between ground glass opacities (GGO) and reticular density (RD) with DLCO and TLC. At one year, changes of total interstitial abnormalities compared with baseline had a significant negative correlation with changes of TLC and oxygen saturation. A negative correlation between changes of total interstitial abnormalities and DLCO was also observed, but it was not statistically significant. Analysis by subtype of interstitial abnormality revealed negative correlations between changes of GGO and RD and changes of DLCO, TLC, and oxygen saturation, but most of the correlations did not achieve statistical significance. CALIPER measurements correlate well with functional measurements in patients with IIM-associated ILD.
Harris, Dale M; Rantalainen, Timo; Muthalib, Makii; Johnson, Liam; Teo, Wei-Peng
The use of virtual reality games (known as "exergaming") as a neurorehabilitation tool is gaining interest. Therefore, we aim to collate evidence for the effects of exergaming on the balance and postural control of older adults and people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Six electronic databases were searched, from inception to April 2015, to identify relevant studies. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to calculate effect sizes between experimental and control groups. I (2) statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. 325 older adults and 56 people with IPD who were assessed across 11 -studies. The results showed that exergaming improved static balance (SMD 1.069, 95% CI 0.563-1.576), postural control (SMD 0.826, 95% CI 0.481-1.170), and dynamic balance (SMD -0.808, 95% CI -1.192 to -0.424) in healthy older adults. Two IPD studies showed an improvement in static balance (SMD 0.124, 95% CI -0.581 to 0.828) and postural control (SMD 2.576, 95% CI 1.534-3.599). Our findings suggest that exergaming might be an appropriate therapeutic tool for improving balance and postural control in older adults, but more -large-scale trials are needed to determine if the same is true for people with IPD.
vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Tarpy, David R; Lengerich, Eugene J; Pettis, Jeffery S
Using standard epidemiological methods, this study set out to quantify the risk associated with exposure to easily diagnosed factors on colony mortality and morbidity in three migratory beekeeping operations. Fifty-six percent of all colonies monitored during the 10-month period died. The relative risk (RR) that a colony would die over the short term (∼50 days) was appreciably increased in colonies diagnosed with Idiopathic Brood Disease Syndrome (IBDS), a condition where brood of different ages appear molten on the bottom of cells (RR=3.2), or with a "queen event" (e.g., evidence of queen replacement or failure; RR=3.1). We also found that several risk factors-including the incidence of a poor brood pattern, chalkbood (CB), deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and exceeding the threshold of 5 Varroa mites per 100 bees-were differentially expressed in different beekeeping operations. Further, we found that a diagnosis of several factors were significantly more or less likely to be associated with a simultaneous diagnosis of another risk factor. These finding support the growing consensus that the causes of colony mortality are multiple and interrelated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martinez, Alberto R M; Faber, Ingrid; Nucci, Anamarli; Appenzeller, Simone; França, Marcondes C
Systemic manifestations are frequent in autoimmune rheumatic diseases and include peripheral nervous system damage. Neuron cell body, axons and myelin sheath may all be affected in this context. This involvement results in severe and sometimes disabling symptoms. Sensory, motor and autonomic features may be present in different patterns that emerge as peculiar clinical pictures. Prompt recognition of these neuropathies is pivotal to guide treatment and reduce the risks of long term disability. In this review, we aim to describe the main immune-mediated neuropathies associated to rheumatic diseases: sensory neuronopathies, multiple mononeuropathies and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, with an emphasis on clinical features and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Bollo, Elena; Fernández-Fabrellas, Estrella; Franquet, Tomás; Molina-Molina, Maria; Montero, Maria Angeles; Serrano-Mollar, Anna
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is defined as a chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia limited to the lung, of unknown cause, with poor prognosis and few treatment options. In recent years there has been an increase in their prevalence, probably due to the optimization of diagnostic methods and increased life expectancy. The ATS/ERS Consensus (2000) established the diagnostic criteria and recommendations for the assessment of the disease course and treatment. Later studies have helped to redefine diagnostic criteria and treatment options. In 2011, an international consensus was published, establishing diagnostic criteria and new treatment strategies. These guidelines have been updated with the newest aspects of diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A level of evidence has been identified for the most relevant questions, particularly with regard to treatment options. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Kirstie N; Pilsworth, Samantha; Sharples, Linda D; Smith, Ian E; Shneerson, John M
To review the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of idiopathic hypersomnia as well as the long-term response to treatment. The Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK. A large database of more than 6000 patients with sleep disorders was reviewed. A retrospective study of the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of 77 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia was performed. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy was performed. The response to drug treatment was assessed in 61 patients over a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. Idiopathic hypersomnia was 60% as prevalent as narcolepsy. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy showed that those with idiopathic hypersomnia were more likely to have prolonged unrefreshing daytime naps, a positive family history, increased slow-wave sleep, and a longer sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. The results of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test were not helpful in predicting disease severity or treatment response. The clinical features were heterogeneous and of variable severity. The majority of patients with idiopathic hypersomnia had symptoms that remained stable over many years, but 11% had spontaneous remission, which was never seen in narcolepsy. Two thirds of patients with idiopathic hypersomnolence had a sustained improvement in daytime somnolence with medication, although a third needed high doses or combinations of drugs. Idiopathic hypersomnolence has characteristic clinical and polysomnographic features but the prolonged latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test raises doubt about the validity of this test within the current diagnostic criteria. The disease often responds well to treatment and a substantial minority of patients appear to spontaneously improve.
Warner, H. A.; Kinnear, D. G.; Cameron, D. G.
Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 and 5Fig. 6 PMID:13998948
Gavini, S; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although the mechanism remains unclear. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration may lead to lung fibrosis, while increased pulmonary workload may also worsen GER. Comparing the GER profile of IPF patients to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with similar lung function may help delineate the role of GER in IPF pathogenesis. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF and COPD patients undergoing pre-lung transplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) off acid suppression at a tertiary center in 2008-2014. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Baseline demographics, pulmonary function test, and MII-pH results were recorded. Univariate analyses were performed using Fisher's exact (binary variables) and Student's t (continuous variables) tests. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. A total of 90 subjects (54 IPF, 36 COPD) met inclusion criteria. Compared to COPD, IPF patients had increased total reflux episodes (65.9 vs 46.1, p = 0.02), proximal reflux episodes (30.3 vs 20.3, p = 0.04), and prevalence of abnormal total reflux episodes (38.9% vs 16.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analyses, abnormal total reflux episodes (OR: 4.9, p = 0.05) and bolus reflux exposure time (OR: 4, p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with IPF. Abnormal reflux was significantly more prevalent among IPF patients after controlling for lung disease severity. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration likely plays a role in fibrosis in IPF. A significant portion of IPF patients had increased non-acid reflux. Therapies aiming to prevent reflux of gastric contents may be more beneficial than antisecretory medications alone in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ključevšek, Damjana; Emeršič, Nina; Toplak, Nataša; Avčin, Tadej
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome of cervical spine arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), who received anti-TNFα early in the course of cervical spine arthritis. Medical charts and imaging of JIA patients with cervical spine involvement were reviewed in this retrospective study. Data, including age at disease onset, JIA type, disease activity, treatment and clinical outcome were collected. Initial and followup MRI examinations of cervical spine were performed according to the hospital protocol to evaluate the presence of inflammation and potential chronic/late changes. Fifteen JIA patients with MRI proved cervical spine inflammation (11 girls, 4 boys, median age 6.3y) were included in the study: 9 had polyarthritis, 3 extended oligoarthritis, 2 persistent oligoarthritis and 1 juvenile psoriatic arthritis. All children were initially treated with high-dose steroids and methotrexate. In addition, 11 patients were treated with anti-TNFα drug within 3 months, and 3 patients within 7 months of cervical spine involvement confirmed by MRI. Mean observation time was 2.9y, mean duration of anti-TNFα treatment was 2.2y. Last MRI showed no active inflammation in 12/15 children, allowing to stop biological treatment in 3 patients, and in 3/15 significant reduction of inflammation. Mild chronic changes were found on MRI in 3 children. Early treatment with anti-TNFα drugs resulted in significantly reduced inflammation or complete remission of cervical spine arthritis proved by MRI, and prevented the development of serious chronic/late changes. Repeated MRI examinations are suggested in the follow-up of JIA patients with cervical spine arthritis.
Elmer, Lawrence W; Surmann, Erwin; Boroojerdi, Babak; Jankovic, Joseph
This prospective, open-label extension (SP702; NCT00594165) of a 6-month double-blind, randomized study investigated the long-term safety and tolerability of rotigotine transdermal system in early Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with early-stage idiopathic PD received transdermal rotigotine for up to 6 years at optimal dose (up to 16 mg/24h). Adjunctive levodopa was allowed. Primary outcomes included adverse events (AEs) and extent of rotigotine exposure. Other outcomes included time to levodopa, incidence of dyskinesias, and efficacy using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II+III total score. Of 217 patients entering the open-label study, 47% were still in the study upon closure; 24% withdrew because of AEs and 6% because of lack of efficacy. The median exposure to rotigotine was 1910 days (≈ 5 years, 3 months; range 1-2188 days). Most common AEs were somnolence (23% per patient-year), falls (17%), peripheral edema (14%), nausea (12%), and application site reactions (ASRs; 12%). 3% withdrew because of ASRs. 26% patients did not initiate levodopa; of those who did, fewer than half started levodopa in the first year. Dyskinesias were reported by 25% patients; the majority (83%) reported their first episode after initiating levodopa. Mean UPDRS II+III total scores remained below double-blind baseline for up to 2 years of open-label treatment. This is the longest interventional study of rotigotine conducted to date. Transdermal rotigotine was generally well tolerated for up to 6 years; AEs reported were similar to those observed in shorter studies and led to discontinuation in only 24% patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory diseases in childhood: "Lessons from clinical trials of anti-cytokine monoclonal antibodies for Kawasaki disease, systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndrome".
Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Nozawa, Tomo; Kanetaka, Taichi; Sato, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Kazuko; Sakurai, Nodoka; Hara, Ryoki; Mori, Masaaki
Inflammation has often been considered to be a nonspecific response and to play a bridging role in the activation of adaptive immunity. However, it is now accepted that inflammation is the product of an independent innate immune system closely linked to the adaptive immune system. The key mediators of inflammation are inflammatory cytokines, as determined by multiple lines of evidence both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the crucial role of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, anti-cytokine treatment has been developed as a therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and inflammatory bowel diseases. We recently completed several clinical trials of anti-cytokine treatment for children with systemic inflammatory diseases: anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody (tocilizumab) for children with two subtypes of JIA (poly-JIA and systemic JIA), anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody (infliximab) for children with Kawasaki disease, and anti-IL-1-β monoclonal antibody (canakinumab) for children with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome. This review summarizes the basis of inflammation in terms of innate immunity and adaptive immunity in these systemic inflammatory diseases, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of these biologic agents, and attempts to determine the roles of individual inflammatory cytokines in disease pathogenesis.
Bruce, Beau B.; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.
Purpose Provide an update on various features of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Design Perspective. Methods Selected articles on the epidemiology, clinical and imaging features, natural history, pathophysiology, and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension were reviewed and interpreted in the context of the authors’ clinical and research experience. Results Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is primarily a disease of obese women of childbearing age, but it can affect patients of any weight, sex, and age. Although a relatively rare disorder, idiopathic intracranial hypertension’s associated costs in the U.S. entail hundreds of millions of dollars. Even following treatment, headaches are frequently persistent and may require the continued involvement of a neurologist. Quality of life reductions and depression are common among idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients. However, visual dysfunction, especially visual field abnormalities, represents the major morbidity of this disorder, and serial automated perimetry remains the primary mode of patient monitoring. Patients who are men, black, very obese, or anemic are at higher risk of visual loss. Vitamin A metabolism, adipose tissue as an actively secreting endocrine tissue, and cerebral venous abnormalities are areas of active study regarding idiopathic intracranial hypertension’s pathophysiology. Treatment studies show that lumbar puncture is a valuable treatment (in addition to its crucial diagnostic role) and that weight management is critical. However, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of acetazolamide, CSF diversion procedures, and cerebral venous stenting. Conclusions Many questions remain unanswered about idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Ongoing studies, especially an ongoing NIH-funded clinical trial of acetazolamide, should provide more insight into this important, yet poorly understood syndrome of isolated intracranial hypertension. PMID:21696699
... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21452260 . Long AR, Rouster-Stevens KA. The role of exercise therapy ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21131338 . Wu EY, Bryan AR, Rabinovich CE. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In: Kliegman RM, ...
Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Dietrich, Sascha; Brune, Maik; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O
To investigate obesity as susceptibility factor in patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were obtained from 146 patients with AA amyloidosis. Control groups comprised 40 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 controls without any inflammatory disease. Patients with AA amyloidosis had either familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) or long-standing rheumatic diseases as underlying inflammatory disease (n = 111, median age 46 years). However, in a significant proportion of patients with AA amyloidosis no primary disease was identified (idiopathic AA; n = 37, median age 60 years). Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were more obese and older than patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to FMF or rheumatic diseases. Serum leptin levels correlated with the body mass index (BMI) in all types of AA amyloidosis. Elevated leptin levels of more than 30 µg/l were detected in 18% of FMF/rheumatic + AA amyloidosis and in 40% of patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis (p = .018). Finally, the SAA1 polymorphism was confirmed as a susceptibility factor for AA amyloidosis irrespective of the type of the disease. Obesity, age and the SAA1 polymorphism are susceptibility factors for idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Recent advances in treatment of FMF and rheumatic disorders will decrease the incidence of AA amyloidosis due to these diseases. Idiopathic AA, however, might be an emerging problem in the ageing and increasingly obese population.
Ringold, Sarah; Beukelman, Timothy; Nigrovic, Peter A; Kimura, Yukiko
To measure the associations between self-reported race and ethnicity and disease outcomes, including joint damage, pain, and functional ability, in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A cross-sectional analysis of children with JIA enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry between May 2010 and March 2012. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square testing were used to compare patient characteristics between race (white, African American, or Asian) and ethnicity (Non-Hispanic and Non-Latino; Hispanic or Latino) categories. Logistic regression was used to measure the associations between each race or ethnicity category and the outcome of interest. Race category was available for 4292 of 4682 children (93% white, 5% African American, Asian 3%). Ethnicity data were available for 4644 (11% Hispanic or Latino). African American children with polyarticular-course JIA had an elevated OR for joint damage on radiographic imaging compared to white children (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.1; p = 0.04). Hispanic/Latino children had increased odds of having disability scores > 75th percentile (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1; p < 0.01) compared to non-Hispanic/Latino children; however, these odds were no longer significant when the cohort was limited to children with polyarticular-course JIA. Asian children had decreased odds of higher pain and functional disability compared to white children (p < 0.05). Race and ethnicity were variably associated with joint damage, pain, and functional ability. Understanding outcome variation between different race and ethnicity groups may help to optimize care for children with JIA.
Pulmonary arterial capacitance in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: relation to pulmonary vascular resistance, exercise capacity, and survival.
Sajan, Imran; Manlhiot, Cedric; Reyes, Janette; McCrindle, Brian W; Humpl, Tilman; Friedberg, Mark K
Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), whether idiopathic PAH (iPAH) or PAH associated with congenital heart disease (aPAH), carries high morbidity and mortality. Low pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC), defined as right ventricular stroke volume/pulmonary artery pulse pressure, is a risk factor for mortality in adults with PAH. However, the relation of PAC to pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), exercise endurance, and survival is poorly defined in children. Catheterization and clinical data of children with PAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg) were reviewed. Children with pulmonary shunts, stents, collaterals, or pulmonary venous hypertension were excluded. Primary outcomes were 6-minute walk distance and freedom from death/lung transplant. Forty-seven patients were studied. Nineteen (43%) had iPAH, and 28 (57%) had aPAH (7.1 ± 6.2 vs 8.4 ± 5.5 years, P = .45). Patients with iPAH had higher PVR indexed for body surface area (PVRi), lower indexed PAC (PACi), lower exercise tolerance, and lower freedom from death/lung transplant than patients with aPAH. Both higher PVRi (P < .0001) and lower PACi (P = .02) were associated with shorter 6-minute walk distance. A PACi <0.70 mL/mm Hg per square meter or >1.25 mL/mm Hg per square meter and a PVRi >13 Wood units × m(2) were associated with decreased freedom from death or lung transplant. The relationships between PVRi and PACi and survival were independent of each other and not confounded by etiologic group. Low PACi and high PVRi are independently associated with low 6-minute walk distance and survival in children with PAH. Therefore, both should be assessed for better prognostication and management in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Barohn, Richard J.; Amato, Anthony
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) consist of rare heterogenous autoimmune disorders that present with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis (IBM). Besides frequent creatine kinase (CK) elevation, the electromyogram confirms the presence of an irritative myopathy. Extramuscular involvement affects a significant number of cases with interstitial lung disease (ILD), cutaneous in dermatomyositis (DM), systemic or joint manifestations and increased risk of malignancy especially in DM. Myositis specific autoantibodies influence phenotype of the IIM. Jo-1 antibodies are frequently associated with ILD and the newly described HMG-CoA reductase antibodies are characteristic of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). Muscle pathology ranges from inflammatory exudates of variable distribution, to intact muscle fiber invasion, necrosis, phagocytosis and in the case of IBM rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. Despite many similarities, the IIM are a quite heterogeneous from the histopathological and pathogenetic standpoints in addition to some clinical and treatment-response difference. The field has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of these rare disorders. In this review, we focus on DM, polymyositis (PM) and NM and examine current and promising therapies. The reader interested in more details on IBM is referred to the corresponding chapter in this issue. PMID:25037081
Al-Jarrah, Adil; Taranikanti, Varna; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Al-Jabri, Asma; Sawhney, Sukhpal
Objectives: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign disorder of the breast whose aetiology is controversial, and is often misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as mammary malignancy; as a result, it may be incorrectly treated. Although no standard treatment is available for this chronic disease, surgery with or without corticosteroids has been tried with controversial results. This study discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, recurrence, and follow-up data of IGM with a review of relevant literature. Methods: From 2009–2012, the Breast Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, conducted a clinical study on 20 patients with breast lumps. Their clinical and radiological examinations were indeterminate, and a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis was established only by histopathology. Results: The majority of the patients were cases of unknown aetiology, who presented with a unilateral breast mass. A few patients had a mass with an abscess, along with axillary lymphadenopathy. A total of 4 patients were suspected of malignancy using radiology. In all patients, sterilised pus was sent for culture and sensitivity. Microscopy showed the characteristic pattern of granulomatous inflammation. All patients were treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks, and the mean follow-up period was 15 months (11–33 months). All patients had complete remission with no further recurrence. Conclusion: This single largest study of cases of IGM in Oman highlights the pitfalls in diagnosing this non-neoplastic disease of unknown aetiology and uncertain pathogenesis. It emphasises IGM’s excellent response to antibiotics, which is crucial, as IGM is a disease which is notoriously difficult and controversial to treat. PMID:23862029
Auboire, Laurent; Boutemy, Jonathan; Constans, Jean Marc; Le Gallou, Thomas; Busson, Philippe; Bienvenu, Boris
Although occipital neuralgia is usually caused by degenerative arthropathy, nearly 20 other aetiologies may lead to this condition. We present the first case report of hypertrophic pachymeningitis revealed by isolated occipital neuralgia. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a plausible cause of occipital neuralgia and may present without cranial-nerve palsy. There is no consensus on the treatment for idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis, but the usual approach is to start corticotherapy and then to add immunosuppressants. When occipital neuralgia is not clinically isolated or when a first-line treatment fails, another disease diagnosis should be considered. However, the cost effectiveness of extended investigations needs to be considered.
The following distinguish the physical examination in scoliosis: it is extensive, it is revealing, and it influences treatment. Throughout this discussion, reference frequently is made to evaluation for underlying neural disease. Idiopathic scoliosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, and a neural etiology of spinal deformity must be ruled out in every case.
Prabhakaran, Vasudevan; Drevets, Douglas A; Ramajayam, Govindan; Manoj, Josephine J; Anderson, Michael P; Hanas, Jay S; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Oommen, Anna; Carabin, Hélène
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a neglected tropical disease, inflicts substantial health and economic costs on people living in endemic areas such as India. Nevertheless, accurate diagnosis using brain imaging remains poorly accessible and too costly in endemic countries. The goal of this study was to test if blood monocyte gene expression could distinguish patients with NCC-associated epilepsy, from NCC-negative imaging lesion-free patients presenting with idiopathic epilepsy or idiopathic headaches. Patients aged 18 to 51 were recruited from the Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India, between January 2013 and October 2014. mRNA from CD14+ blood monocytes was isolated from 76 patients with NCC, 10 Recovered NCC (RNCC), 29 idiopathic epilepsy and 17 idiopathic headaches patients. A preliminary microarray analysis was performed on six NCC, six idiopathic epilepsy and four idiopathic headaches patients to identify genes differentially expressed in NCC-associated epilepsy compared with other groups. This analysis identified 1411 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes in patients with NCC compared to Idiopathic Epilepsy. Fifteen genes up-regulated in NCC patients compared with other groups were selected based on possible relevance to NCC, and analyzed by qPCR in all patients' samples. Differential gene expression among patients was assessed using linear regression models. qPCR analysis of 15 selected genes showed generally higher gene expression among NCC patients, followed by RNCC, idiopathic headaches and Idiopathic Epilepsy. Gene expression was also generally higher among NCC patients with single cyst granulomas, followed by mixed lesions and single calcifications. Expression of certain genes in blood monocytes can distinguish patients with NCC-related epilepsy from patients with active Idiopathic Epilepsy and idiopathic headaches. These findings are significant because they may lead to the development of new tools to
Ryu, Jay H; Moua, Teng; Daniels, Craig E; Hartman, Thomas E; Yi, Eunhee S; Utz, James P; Limper, Andrew H
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occurs predominantly in middle-aged and older adults and accounts for 20% to 30% of interstitial lung diseases. It is usually progressive, resulting in respiratory failure and death. Diagnostic criteria for IPF have evolved over the years, and IPF is currently defined as a disease characterized by the histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia occurring in the absence of an identifiable cause of lung injury. Understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has shifted away from chronic inflammation and toward dysregulated fibroproliferative repair in response to alveolar epithelial injury. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is likely a heterogeneous disorder caused by various interactions between genetic components and environmental exposures. High-resolution computed tomography can be diagnostic in the presence of typical findings such as bilateral reticular opacities associated with traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis in a predominantly basal and subpleural distribution, along with subpleural honeycombing. In other circumstances, a surgical lung biopsy may be needed. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute deteriorations (acute exacerbation). Although progress continues in unraveling the mechanisms of IPF, effective therapy has remained elusive. Thus, clinicians and patients need to reach informed decisions regarding management options including lung transplant. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed using the search terms idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and usual interstitial pneumonia, limited to human studies in the English language published from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2013, and supplemented by key references published before the year 2000. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Deibel, S H; Weishaupt, N; Regis, A M; Hong, N S; Keeley, R J; Balog, R J; Bye, C M; Himmler, S M; Whitehead, S N; McDonald, R J
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease of complex etiology, involving multiple risk factors. When these risk factors are presented concomitantly, cognition and brain pathology are more severely compromised than if those risk factors were presented in isolation. Reduced cholinergic tone and elevated amyloid-beta (Aβ) load are pathological hallmarks of AD. The present study sought to investigate brain pathology and alterations in learning and memory when these two factors were presented together in rats. Rats received either sham surgeries, cholinergic depletions of the medial septum, intracerebroventricular Aβ25-35 injections, or both cholinergic depletion and Aβ25-35 injections (Aβ+ACh group). The Aβ+ACh rats were unimpaired in a striatal dependent visual discrimination task, but had impaired acquisition in the standard version of the Morris water task. However, these rats displayed normal Morris water task retention and no impairment in acquisition of a novel platform location during a single massed training session. Aβ+ACh rats did not have exacerbated brain pathology as indicated by activated astroglia, activated microglia, or accumulation of Aβ. These data suggest that cholinergic depletions and Aβ injections elicit subtle cognitive deficits when behavioural testing is conducted shortly after the presentation of these factors. These factors might have altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity and thus resemble early AD pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
El Gazzar, Iman I; Fathy, Hanan M; Gheita, Tamer A; Nour El-Din, Abeer M; Rasheed, Enas Abdel; Bassyouni, Rasha H; Kenawy, Sanaa A
The study aims to evaluate the clinical significance of serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and -308 A/G promoter polymorphism in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and find any association to the subsets, clinical and laboratory features, disease activity, and damage as well as functional disability. Forty-eight JIA children and 30 controls were included in the present study. Juvenile arthritis disease activity score in 27 joints (JADAS-27) was calculated, juvenile arthritis damage index (JADI) was assessed, and Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) measured the functional status. Serum TNF-α was assayed by ELISA and gene (-308) promoter polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The 48 JIA children (mean age 11.5 ± 2.8 years) were 13 systemic, 17 oligoarticular, and 18 polyarticular onset. The serum TNF-α was significantly higher in patients (90.4 ± 6.3 ng/ml) compared to control (3.5 ± 2.6 ng/ml) (p < 0.0001) with a tendency to be higher in the polyarticular subtype. All controls had TNF-α -308 GG alleles. The frequency of GG genotype tended to be higher in systemic onset compared to oligoarticular and polyarticular subtypes. The serum TNF-α significantly correlated with JADAS-27 (r = 0.32, p = 0.03) and CHAQ (r = 0.37, p = 0.01) and negatively with the presence of GG alleles (r = -0.48, p = 0.001). The GG alleles were significantly negatively associated with C-reactive protein (r = -0.32, p = 0.03) with a tendency to negatively correlate with JADAS-27, CHAQ, and JADI-extrarticular (r = -0.28, p = 0.06; r = -0.25, p = 0.09 and r = -0.25, p = 0.09, respectively). There is evidence of a possible influence of the -308 SNP promoter position on the production of TNF-α, the severity of JIA which may consequently influence the response to anti-TNF-α treatment.
Kennedy, Barry; Branagan, Peter; Moloney, Fiachra; Haroon, Muhammad; O'Connell, Oisin J; O'Connor, Terence M; O'Regan, Kevin; Harney, Sinead; Henry, Michael T
SSc-ILD and IPF demonstrate significant morbidity and mortality. Predicting disease progression is challenging in both diseases. We sought a serum biomarker that could identify patients with SSc-ILD or IPF and prospectively predict short-term decline in lung function in these patients. 10 healthy controls, 5 SSc w/o ILD, 6 SSc-ILD and 13 IPF patients underwent venesection. An array of cytokines including KL-6, SP-D and MMP7 were measured. PFTs were obtained at baseline and six months. Cytokine measurements were correlated with PFTs. KL-6 in IPF patients (633 ng/ml, IQR 492-1675) was significantly elevated compared to controls (198 ng/ml, IQR 52-360, p<0.01) and SSc w/o ILD patients (192 ng/ml, IQR 0-524, p<0.05); KL-6 in SSc-ILD patients (836 ng/ml, IQR 431-1303) was significantly higher than in controls (p<0.05). SP-D was significantly higher in IPF patients (542 ng/ml, IQR 305-577) compared to controls (137 ng/ml, IQR 97-284, p<0.01) or to SSc w/o ILD patients (169 ng/ml, IQR 137-219, p<0.05). In comparison with controls (0.0 ng/ml, IQR 0.0-0.6), MMP7 was significantly higher in both IPF patients (2.85 ng/ml, IQR 1.5-3.6, p<0.05) and SSc-ILD patients (5.41 ng/ml, IQR 2.6-7.2, p<0.001). Using a cut-off level of 459ng/ml for KL-6 and of 1.28 ng/ml for MMP7, 18 out of 19 patients with ILD had a serum value of either KL-6 or MMP7 above these thresholds. For all ILD patients, baseline serum SP-D correlated with ΔFVC %pred over six months (r=-0.63, p=0.005, 95% CI -0.85 to -0.24). Combining KL-6 with MMP7 may be a useful screening tool for patients at risk of ILD. SP-D may predict short-term decline in lung function.
Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P
Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.
Yang, Ivana V
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease of unknown etiology. Development of IPF is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Gene-expression profiling studies have taught us quite a bit about the biology of this fatal disease, but epigenetic marks may be the missing link that connects the environmental exposure in genetically predisposed individuals to transcriptome changes associated with the development of IPF. This review will begin with an introduction to the disease, followed by brief summaries of studies of gene expression in IPF and epigenetic marks associated with exposures relevant to IPF. The majority of the discussion will focus on epigenetic studies conducted so far in IPF, the limitations, challenges and future directions in this field. PMID:22449190
Yang, Ivana V
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease of unknown etiology. Development of IPF is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Gene-expression profiling studies have taught us quite a bit about the biology of this fatal disease, but epigenetic marks may be the missing link that connects the environmental exposure in genetically predisposed individuals to transcriptome changes associated with the development of IPF. This review will begin with an introduction to the disease, followed by brief summaries of studies of gene expression in IPF and epigenetic marks associated with exposures relevant to IPF. The majority of the discussion will focus on epigenetic studies conducted so far in IPF, the limitations, challenges nd future directions in this field.
Takizawa, Ken; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Kuroda, Kagayaki
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not only ascertain morphological features, but also measures physiological properties such as fluid velocity or pressure gradient. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in patients with morphological abnormalities such as enlarged brain ventricles and subarachnoid spaces. We used a time-resolved three dimensional phase contrast (3D-PC) MRI technique to quantitatively evaluate CSF dynamics in the Sylvian aqueduct of healthy elderly individuals and patients with either idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) presenting with ventricular enlargement. Nineteen healthy elderly individuals, ten iNPH patients, and seven AD patients (all subjects ≥ 60 years old) were retrospectively evaluated 3D-PC MRI. The CSF velocity, pressure gradient, and rotation in the Sylvian aqueduct were quantified and compared between the three groups using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no statistically significant difference in velocity among the three groups. The pressure gradient was not significantly different between the iNPH and AD groups, but was significantly different between the iNPH group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001), and similarly, between the AD group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001). Rotation was not significantly different between the iNPH and AD groups, but was significantly different between the iNPH group and healthy controls (p < 0.001), and similarly, between the AD group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001). Quantitative analysis of CSF dynamics with time resolved 3D-PC MRI revealed differences and similarities in the Sylvian aqueduct between healthy elderly individuals, iNPH patients, and AD patients. The results showed that CSF motion is in a hyperdynamic state in both iNPH and AD patient groups compared to healthy elderly individuals, and that iNPH patients and AD patients display similar CSF motion profiles.
Flaherty, Kevin R.; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; King, Talmadge E.; Raghu, Ganesh; Colby, Thomas V.; Wells, Athol; Bassily, Nadir; Brown, Kevin; du Bois, Roland; Flint, Andrew; Gay, Steven E.; Gross, Barry H.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Knapp, Robert; Louvar, Edmund; Lynch, David; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Quick, John; Thannickal, Victor J.; Travis, William D.; Vyskocil, James; Wadenstorer, Frazer A.; Wilt, Jeffrey; Toews, Galen B.; Murray, Susan; Martinez, Fernando J.
Rationale: Treatment and prognoses of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) varies by diagnosis. Obtaining a uniform diagnosis among observers is difficult. Objectives: Evaluate diagnostic agreement between academic and community-based physicians for patients with DPLDs, and determine if an interactive approach between clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists improved diagnostic agreement in community and academic centers. Methods: Retrospective review of 39 patients with DPLD. A total of 19 participants reviewed cases at 2 community locations and 1 academic location. Information from the history, physical examination, pulmonary function testing, high-resolution computed tomography, and surgical lung biopsy was collected. Data were presented in the same sequential fashion to three groups of physicians on separate days. Measurements and Main Results: Each observer's diagnosis was coded into one of eight categories. A κ statistic allowing for multiple raters was used to assess agreement in diagnosis. Interactions between clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists improved interobserver agreement at both community and academic sites; however, final agreement was better within academic centers (κ = 0.55–0.71) than within community centers (κ = 0.32–0.44). Clinically significant disagreement was present between academic and community-based physicians (κ = 0.11–0.56). Community physicians were more likely to assign a final diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared with academic physicians. Conclusions: Significant disagreement exists in the diagnosis of DPLD between physicians based in communities compared with those in academic centers. Wherever possible, patients should be referred to centers with expertise in diffuse parenchymal lung disorders to help clarify the diagnosis and provide suggestions regarding treatment options. PMID:17255566
Wolters, Paul J.; Collard, Harold R.; Jones, Kirk D.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with aging that is characterized by the histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Although an understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF is incomplete, recent advances delineating specific clinical and pathologic features of IPF have led to better definition of the molecular pathways that are pathologically activated in the disease. In this review we highlight several of these advances, with a focus on genetic predisposition to IPF and how genetic changes, which occur primarily in epithelial cells, lead to activation of profibrotic pathways in epithelial cells. We then discuss the pathologic changes within IPF fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and we conclude with a summary of how these profibrotic pathways may be interrelated. PMID:24050627
Cançado, Guilherme Grossi Lopes; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia
We report the case of a 64-year-old patient diagnosed with extensive ileal Crohn´s disease who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome after starting biological therapy with adalimumab. Neurologic involvement associated with inflammatory bowel diseases is recognized as an extra-intestinal manifestation. After the breakthrough of antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) agents, an increasing number of cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies have been reported; however, only one case has been described in a patient with Crohn´s disease. Although a causal relationship between Guillain-Barré syndrome and TNF-α antagonist therapy cannot be proven, this report emphasizes the need to monitor for neurologic signs and symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, with or without biological therapy, to avoid severe and irreversible complications associated with demyelinating diseases.
Pravica, Vera; Popadic, Dusan; Savic, Emina; Markovic, Milos; Drulovic, Jelena; Mostarica-Stojkovic, Marija
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by unpredictable and variable clinical course. Etiology of MS involves both genetic and environmental factors. New technologies identified genetic polymorphisms associated with MS susceptibility among which immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented. Although individual genes contribute only a small part to MS susceptibility, they might be used as biomarkers, thus helping to identify accurate diagnosis, predict clinical disease course and response to therapy. This review focuses on recent progress in research on MS genetics with special emphasis on the possibility to use single nucleotide polymorphism of candidate genes as biomarkers of susceptibility to disease and response to therapy.
Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L
To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.
Hornberger, Brad J; Elmore, James M; Roehrborn, Claus G
Scrotal lymphedema (scrotal elephantiasis) is a condition that has historically been described in areas endemic to filariasis. We present a unique case of a 22-year-old man with idiopathic lymphedema isolated to the scrotum. After acquired causes of lymphedema were ruled out, the patient was treated with scrotectomy and scrotal reconstruction.
Grace, Mary; Balachandran, Venu; Menon, Sooraj
Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder characterized clinically by polyuria and polydipsia, and an abnormal urinary concentration without any identified etiology. We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a 60-year-old lady in the absence of secondary causes like trauma, infection, and infiltrative disorders of brain.
Sripathi, Smiti; Ayachit, Anurag; Bala, Archana; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Kumar, Sandeep
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, which is often difficult to differentiate both clinically and radiologically from infectious aetiologies such as tuberculosis, fungal infections, and also from malignancy, thus posing a diagnostic dilemma. We present a pictorial review of the commonly encountered imaging findings in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis on mammography and ultrasound. Mammographic and ultrasound findings of histopathologically proven cases of granulomatous mastitis are discussed. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis has varied and non-specific appearances on ultrasound and mammography. Histopathology is essential to establish diagnosis. • Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis often poses a diagnostic dilemma for the radiologist by mimicking malignancy. • It has varied and non-specific appearances on mammography and ultrasound. • Histopathology is mandatory to establish the diagnosis and decide management.
Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Minden, Kirsten; Föll, Dirk; Pleyer, Uwe
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common systemic disease causing uveitis in childhood, with a prevalence of 10 per 100 000 persons. JIA often takes a severe inflammatory course, and its complications often endanger vision. This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective literature search up to 18 August 2014 and on the current interdisciplinary S2k guideline on the diagnostic evaluation and anti-inflammatory treatment of juvenile idiopathic uveitis. Uveitis arises in roughly 1 in 10 patients with JIA. Regular eye check-ups should be performed starting as soon as JIA is diagnosed. 75-80% of patients are girls; antinuclear antibodies are found in 70-90%. The risk to vision is higher if JIA begins in the preschool years. As for treatment, only a single, small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a small number of prospective trials have been published to date. Topical corticosteroids should be given as the initial treatment. Systemic immunosuppression is needed if irritation persists despite topical corticosteroids, if new complications arise, or if the topical steroids have to be given in excessively high doses or have unacceptable side effects. If the therapeutic effect remains inadequate, conventional and biological immune modulators can be given as add-on (escalation) therapy. Treatment lowers the risk of uveitis and its complications and thereby improves the prognosis for good visual function. Severely affected patients should be treated in competence centers to optimize their long-term outcome. Multidisciplinary, individualized treatment is needed because of the chronic course of active inflammation and the ensuing high risk of complications that can endanger vision. Future improvements in therapy will be aided by prospective, population-based registries and by basic research on biomarkers for the prediction of disease onset, prognosis, tissue damage, and therapeutic response.
Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr
Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3D spinal deformity in frontal, sagittal and axial planes, with high relevance in the pediatric population especially in adolescents and females between 10 years of age and the end of growth spurt and skeletal maturity. The radiographic manifestation is a curve greater than 10° measured by Cobb method associated with vertebral rotation. "Idiopathic" diagnosis has to be done after neuroanatomical anomalies of the posterior cerebral fosa and spinal canal have been ruled out. The physical finding of a thoracic or lumbar hump is the clinical manifestation of vertebral rotation seen in a forward bending test (Adam's Test). It is recommended that all curves with a magnitude greater than 20° have to be controlled and treated by a spinal surgeon being observation, bracing and surgery the different treatment options based on the extent, progression of deformity and basically the clinical condition of the patient. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Oetgen, Matthew E; Peden, Sean
Toe walking is a bilateral gait abnormality in which a normal heel strike is absent and most weight bearing occurs through the forefoot. This abnormality may not be pathologic in patients aged <2 years, but it is a common reason for referral to an orthopaedic surgeon. Toe walking can be caused by several neurologic and developmental abnormalities and may be the first sign of a global developmental problem. Cases that lack a definitive etiology are categorized as idiopathic. A detailed history, with careful documentation of the developmental history, and a thorough physical examination are required in the child with a primary report of toe walking. Treatment is based on age and the severity of the abnormality. Management includes observation, stretching, casting, bracing, chemodenervation, and surgical lengthening of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex and/or Achilles tendon. An understanding of idiopathic toe walking as well as treatment options and their outcomes can help the physician individualize treatment to achieve optimal results.
Kujawska-Danecka, Hanna; Masiak, Anna; Smoleńska, Zaneta; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew
The peripheral nervous system is usually involved in the majority of systemic connective tissue diseases, particularly in systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, vasculitis and systemic sclerosis. The pathogenesis of lesions in the peripheral nervous system associated with the autoimmune process is complex and it appears that two mechanisms, immunological and ischemic, are of greatest importance. Structures of the nervous system may be damaged by several autoantibodies (e.g. antineuronal, anti-nerve growth factor, anti-neurotrophins), by cytotoxic effects ofproinflammatory cytokines and by activated cells of the immune system. Local ischemia and hypoxia of neurons caused by inflammation of vasa nervosum represents the second significant mechanism leading to damage of nerve fibres in the peripheral nervous system. We present 3 cases with involvement of the peripheral nervous system as a dominant feature in the clinical picture of systemic connective tissue diseases. Clinical conditions in which the peripheral nervous system is involved include peripheral sensory and sensorimotor polyneuropathy, mononeuropathies, cranial neuropathies, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillian-Barré syndrome), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, plexopathy, myasthenia gravis, and dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms reported by the patient and disclosed during neurologic examination. The importance of electrophysiologic tests is advocated. Selection of treatment depends on the patient's clinical condition, as well as on the clinical form and type of disease. Treatment relies principally on glucocorticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, cyclophosphamide, and other immunosuppressive drugs. Plasmapheresis and rituximab are administered in severe cases. Rehabilitation of the patient appears to be an important element of therapy. Cases with neurologic symptoms as the first and often the sole
Ochi, Hirofumi; Fujihara, Kazuo
The present review aims to discuss the recent advances in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system in Asia. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asia is lower than that in Western countries, although it has been increasing recently. Meanwhile, there seems to be no major difference in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) prevalence in various regions or ethnicities. Thus, the ratios of NMO/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) to MS are higher in Asia as compared with Western countries, indicating that the differential diagnosis between NMO/NMOSD and MS is a major challenge in Asia. Although the detection of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-antibody is critical in distinguishing NMO/NMOSD from MS, some patients with NMO/NMOSD phenotype are seronegative for AQP4-antibody, and a fraction of those patients possess autoantibody against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. The clinical profile of Asian MS seems to be essentially similar to that in Western MS after careful exclusion of NMO/NMOSD, although some unique genetic and/or environmental factors may modify the disease in Asians. MS prevalence has been low but is increasing in Asia. In contrast, NMO/NMOSD prevalence seems relatively constant in the world. Asian MS is not fundamentally different from Western MS, but some genetic and/or environmental differences may cause some features unique to Asian patients.
Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease; Parkinson's Disease; Basal Ganglia Disease; Brain Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases; Movement Disorders; Nervous System Diseases; Neurodegenerative Diseases; Parkinsonian Disorders
Dianzani, C; Gaspardini, F; Persichetti, P; Brunetti, B; Pizzuti, A; Margiotti, K; Degener, A M
Scrotal elephantiasis is very rare disease in industrialized countries, where it is mainly due to surgery, irradiation or malignancies. It can be defined as idiopathic only when the possible congenital, infectious and compressive causes are excluded. We report a case of massive scrotal lymphoedema in an adult Caucasian patient, in Italy. He presented an extremely voluminous scrotal mass measuring 50 x 47 x 13 cm (weight 18 kg), which extended below his knees, invalidating all his daily activities. The patient was hospitalized in order to undergo to surgical treatment. Although genetic causes were searched and the possible role of infectious agents and compressive factors was evaluated, no etiology was ascertained. Histopathologic examination showed non-specific chronic inflammation, confirming the diagnosis of idiopathic elephantiasis. One year after surgical treatment, the patient is healthy without recurrence signs.
Riggio, Oliviero; Gioia, Stefania; Pentassuglio, Ilaria; Nicoletti, Valeria; Valente, Michele; d’Amati, Giulia
The term idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) has been recently proposed to replace terms, such as hepatoportal sclerosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, incomplete septal cirrhosis, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia, used to describe patients with a hepatic presinusoidal cause of portal hypertension of unknown etiology, characterized by features of portal hypertension (esophageal varices, nonmalignant ascites, porto-venous collaterals), splenomegaly, patent portal, and hepatic veins and no clinical and histological signs of cirrhosis. Physicians should learn to look for this condition in a number of clinical settings, including cryptogenic cirrhosis, a disease known to be associated with INCPH, drug administration, and even chronic alterations in liver function tests. Once INCPH is clinically suspected, liver histology becomes mandatory for the correct diagnosis. However, pathologists should be familiar with the histological features of INCPH, especially in cases in which histology is not only requested to exclude liver cirrhosis. PMID:27555800
Riggio, Oliviero; Gioia, Stefania; Pentassuglio, Ilaria; Nicoletti, Valeria; Valente, Michele; d'Amati, Giulia
The term idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) has been recently proposed to replace terms, such as hepatoportal sclerosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, incomplete septal cirrhosis, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia, used to describe patients with a hepatic presinusoidal cause of portal hypertension of unknown etiology, characterized by features of portal hypertension (esophageal varices, nonmalignant ascites, porto-venous collaterals), splenomegaly, patent portal, and hepatic veins and no clinical and histological signs of cirrhosis. Physicians should learn to look for this condition in a number of clinical settings, including cryptogenic cirrhosis, a disease known to be associated with INCPH, drug administration, and even chronic alterations in liver function tests. Once INCPH is clinically suspected, liver histology becomes mandatory for the correct diagnosis. However, pathologists should be familiar with the histological features of INCPH, especially in cases in which histology is not only requested to exclude liver cirrhosis.
Staropoli, John F; Xin, Winnie; Sims, Katherine B
Norrie disease is a rare X-linked congenital retinal vasculopathy that may be accompanied by sensorineural deafness, mental retardation, and other neurological deficits. Here we present a family in which Norrie disease co-segregated with either early-onset idiopathic pulmonary hypertension or sudden death preceded by a period of progressive dyspnea. Neither Norrie disease, nor its atypical variants described to date, have been associated with this extended clinical phenotype. Molecular analysis of the Norrie disease gene (NDP) and adjacent loci was performed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and comparative genomic hybridisation. Affected males in this family showed an inherited hemizygous deletion restricted to NDP and two immediately telomeric genes, monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), which encode closely related enzymes that metabolize biogenic amines including serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Sequencing of the deletion junction showed an unusual pattern in which a region of microhomology flanked intervening genomic sequence. Because abnormalities of biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, we propose that presumed MAO deficiency in these patients may represent a novel risk factor for pulmonary hypertension, particularly forms with very early onset. Fine-mapping of other microdeletions at this locus may provide insights into additional mechanisms for nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements at this and other chromosomal loci.
Mehdizadeh, Maryam; Lajevardi, Laleh; Habibi, Seyed Amir Hassan; ArabBaniasad, Mina; Baghoori, Delaram; Daneshjoo, Fatemeh; Taghizadeh, Ghorban
Background: Despite the negative effect of fear of falling during functioning and social participation of patients with Parkinson' disease, so far, only few studies have investigated its effect on the quality of life in these patients. We aimed to investigate the association between fear of falling and quality of life controlling for balance impairments based on hip and ankle strategy in drug On- and Off-phase of patients with idiopathic Parkinson' disease. Methods: In this non-experimental cross-sectional study, 139 patients with idiopathic Parkinson' disease (100 male, 39 female) by mean± SD age of 60.2±12.27 years, mean±SD time since diagnosis of 6.7±5.53 years and mean±SD Hoehn and Yahr stage of 2.8±1.49 were selected by a simple non-probability method. Balance function was measured by a functional reach test with hip and ankle strategy. The Persian version of the selfcompleted Fall Efficacy Scale-International and Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire was used to evaluate fear of falling and quality of life, respectively. Results: The results showed that the score of all dimensions of quality of life (i.e., mobility, activities of daily living, emotional wellbeing, stigma, social support, cognition, communication and bodily discomfort) were significantly affected by the intensity of fear of falling. Multiple regression analysis indicated a significant association between fear of falling and quality of life in a way that fear of falling explained 11% to 47% and 12% to 43% of variance in drug On-phase, as well as 8% to 45% and 9% to 48% of variance in the drug Off-phase in dimensions of quality of life after controlling for balance function based on hip and ankle strategy, respectively. In the drug On-phase, the strongest association (R=0.85, p<0.001) was found between fear of falling and mobility dimension of quality of life. In the drug Off-phase, the strongest relation was observed between fear of falling and mobility (R=0.82, p<0.001) as
Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF. Appropriate multidisciplinary assessment in ongoing registries is required to achieve this. This review summarizes the current status of the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of IPF. PMID:27625576
Pereira, Frederick A; Mudgil, Adarsh V; Macias, Edgar S; Karsif, Karen
Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare breast condition with prominent skin findings. It is typically seen in young parous women. Painful breast masses, draining sinuses, scarring, and breast atrophy are the main clinical manifestations. IGLM can resemble a variety of other inflammatory and neoplastic processes of the breast. It is thought to result from obstruction and rupture of breast lobules. Extravasated breast secretions then induce an inflammatory reaction. Corynebacteria have also been implicated in the pathogenesis. Treatment is surgical, but systemic corticosteroids, methotrexate, and antibiotics also play a role. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Fulton, Blair G; Ryerson, Christopher J
Major risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include older age and a history of smoking, which predispose to several pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases. IPF can be associated with additional comorbidities through other mechanisms as either a cause or a consequence of these diseases. We review the literature regarding the management of common pulmonary and extra-pulmonary comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, venous thromboembolism, sleep-disordered breathing, gastroesophageal reflux disease, coronary artery disease, depression and anxiety, and deconditioning. Recent studies have provided some guidance on the management of these diseases in IPF; however, most treatment recommendations are extrapolated from studies of non-IPF patients. Additional studies are required to more accurately determine the clinical features of these comorbidities in patients with IPF and to evaluate conventional treatments and management strategies that are beneficial in non-IPF populations. PMID:26451121
Higgins, J; Gillard, J; Owler, B; Harkness, K; Pickard, J
Background: Venous sinus disease must be excluded before diagnosing idiopathic intracranial hypertension but is found only rarely in typical cases. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) is the technique of choice for investigating this, and provides images that are diagnostic and easy to interpret. However, recent work using more invasive techniques has documented pressure gradients and stenoses in the lateral venous sinuses in many cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Objective: To examine the reason for this discrepancy and to establish whether there are characteristic appearances on MRV in idiopathic intracranial hypertension that are routinely overlooked in clinical practice. Methods: MRVs from 20 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension were reviewed, unblinded, by two neuroradiologists, and their appearances rated for focal narrowings and signal gaps. A control group of 40 asymptomatic volunteers, matched for age and sex with the patient group, was recruited prospectively for MRV, and their scans rated in the same way. Results: The lateral sinuses presented a range of appearances with quite different distributions in the two groups (p<0.001). Bilateral lateral sinus flow gaps were seen in 13 of 20 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in none of 40 controls. Conclusions: A historical failure to use normal healthy controls to establish the boundaries between imaging artefact, normal anatomical variant, and disease means that the pathological significance of the different appearances of the lateral sinuses on MRV has not so far been appreciated. PMID:15026510
Ringstad, Geir; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Eide, Per Kristian
Abstract The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer’s disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, three female and 12 male) and eight reference subjects (mean age 41.1 + 13.0 years, six female and two male) with suspected cerebrospinal fluid leakage (seven) and intracranial cyst (one). The imaging protocol included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with equal sequence parameters before and at multiple time points through 24 h after intrathecal injection of the contrast agent gadobutrol at the lumbar level. All study subjects were kept in the supine position between examinations during the first day. Gadobutrol enhancement was measured at all imaging time points from regions of interest placed at predefined locations in brain parenchyma, the subarachnoid and intraventricular space, and inside the sagittal sinus. Parameters demonstrating gadobutrol enhancement and clearance in different locations were compared between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and reference subjects. A characteristic flow pattern in idiopathic normal hydrocephalus was ventricular reflux of gadobutrol from the subarachnoid space followed by transependymal gadobutrol migration. At the brain surfaces, gadobutrol propagated antegradely along large leptomeningeal arteries in all study subjects, and preceded glymphatic enhancement in adjacent brain tissue, indicating a pivotal role of intracranial pulsations for glymphatic
Ringstad, Geir; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Eide, Per Kristian
The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, three female and 12 male) and eight reference subjects (mean age 41.1 + 13.0 years, six female and two male) with suspected cerebrospinal fluid leakage (seven) and intracranial cyst (one). The imaging protocol included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with equal sequence parameters before and at multiple time points through 24 h after intrathecal injection of the contrast agent gadobutrol at the lumbar level. All study subjects were kept in the supine position between examinations during the first day. Gadobutrol enhancement was measured at all imaging time points from regions of interest placed at predefined locations in brain parenchyma, the subarachnoid and intraventricular space, and inside the sagittal sinus. Parameters demonstrating gadobutrol enhancement and clearance in different locations were compared between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and reference subjects. A characteristic flow pattern in idiopathic normal hydrocephalus was ventricular reflux of gadobutrol from the subarachnoid space followed by transependymal gadobutrol migration. At the brain surfaces, gadobutrol propagated antegradely along large leptomeningeal arteries in all study subjects, and preceded glymphatic enhancement in adjacent brain tissue, indicating a pivotal role of intracranial pulsations for glymphatic function. In
Couluris, Marisa; Kinder, Brent W; Xu, Ping; Gross-King, Margaret; Krischer, Jeffrey; Panos, Ralph J
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive interstitial lung disease with no current effective therapies. Treatment has focused on antifibrotic agents to stop proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen deposition in the lung. We present the first clinical trial data on the use of losartan, an antifibrotic agent, to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of losartan on progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis measured by the change in percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) after 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the change in forced expiratory volume at 1 second, diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, 6-minute walk test distance, and baseline/transition dyspnea index. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and a baseline %FVC of ≥50 % were treated with losartan 50 mg by mouth daily for 12 months. Pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk, and breathlessness indices were measured every 3 months. Twenty participants with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were enrolled and 17 patients were evaluable for response. Twelve patients had a stable or improved %FVC at study month 12. Similar findings were observed in secondary end-point measures, including 58, 71, and 65 % of patients with stable or improved forced expiratory volume at 1 second, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and 6-minute walk test distance, respectively. No treatment-related adverse events that resulted in early study discontinuation were reported. Losartan stabilized lung function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis over 12 months. Losartan is a promising agent for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and has a low toxicity profile.
Prasad, Seetharam; Jaiprakash, Padmapriya; Dave, Aniket; Pai, Deepti
Objective To study idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with respect to its various clinical features, etiologic factors, treatment modalities and complications. Material and methods Retrospective study of all patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2014 at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India (a tertiary care referral centre). The research was performed according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was taken from the patient before invasive procedures including surgery. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0 wherever appropriate. Results 73 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis during the time period were included. One patient was a male (1.37%), rest were all females (98.63%). The mean age of presentation was 32.67 years (range 23 to 66 years). 70 patients (95.89%) were parous females. Average duration since last childbirth was 4.6 years (range: 3 months to 33 years). 8 patients (10.95%) were lactating. History of oral contraceptive pill use was present in 40 patients (54.79%). The right breast was affected in 44 patients (60.27%), and the left breast in 29 patients (39.73%). None of the patients had bilateral disease. The most common symptom was a painless lump (61.64%). Rest of the patients (38.36%) presented with features of a breast abscess. 19 out of 39 FNACs done (48.72%) were positive for granulomatous mastitis. 59 were primarily managed surgically (lumpectomy/wide excision-33, incision & drainage-26). One patient was treated primarily with prednisolone. 13 patients did not receive specific treatment, and were only kept on regular follow-up. Patients managed with lumpectomy/wide excision had the least rate of complications & recurrence (18.18%). Conclusion Patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can present with a wide variety of symptoms which mimic other more common conditions. Surgical
Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S
In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Arthur, Victoria L; Shuldiner, Emily; Remmers, Elaine F; Hinks, Anne; Grom, Alexei A; Foell, Dirk; Martini, Alberto; Gattorno, Marco; Özen, Seza; Prahalad, Sampath; Zeft, Andrew S; Bohnsack, John F; Ilowite, Norman T; Mellins, Elizabeth D; Russo, Ricardo; Len, Claudio; Oliveira, Sheila; Yeung, Rae S M; Rosenberg, Alan M; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Anton, Jordi; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Rösen-Wolff, Angela; Minden, Kirsten; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Thomson, Wendy; Kastner, Daniel L; Woo, Patricia; Ombrello, Michael J
To determine whether systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) susceptibility loci identified by candidate gene studies demonstrated association with sJIA in the largest study population assembled to date. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 11 previously reported sJIA risk loci were examined for association in 9 populations, including 770 sJIA cases and 6947 control subjects. The effect of sJIA-associated SNPs on gene expression was evaluated in silico in paired whole genome and RNA sequencing data from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) of 373 European 1000 Genomes Project subjects. The relationship between sJIA-associated SNPs and response to anakinra treatment was evaluated in 38 US patients for whom treatment response data were available. We found no association of the 26 SNPs previously reported as sJIA-associated. Expanded analysis of the regions containing the 26 SNPs revealed only one significant association, the promoter region of IL1RN (p<1E-4). sJIA-associated SNPs correlated with IL1RN expression in LCLs, with an inverse correlation between sJIA risk and IL1RN expression. The presence of homozygous IL1RN high expression alleles correlated strongly with non-response to anakinra therapy (OR 28.7 [3.2, 255.8]). IL1RN was the only candidate locus associated with sJIA in our study. The implicated SNPs are among the strongest known determinants of IL1RN and IL1RA levels, linking low expression with increased sJIA risk. Homozygous high expression alleles predicted non-response to anakinra therapy, nominating them as candidate biomarkers to guide sJIA treatment. This is an important first step towards the personalized treatment of sJIA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Gavini, S; Borges, L F; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Pathogenesis may be related to chronic micro-aspiration. We aimed to assess objective measures of GER on multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) and their relationship with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results, and to compare the performance of pH/acid reflux parameters vs corresponding MII/bolus parameters in predicting pulmonary dysfunction in IPF. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF patients undergoing prelung transplant evaluation with MII-pH off acid suppression, and having received PFT within 3 months. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Severe pulmonary dysfunction was defined using diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≤40%. Six pH/acid reflux parameters with corresponding MII/bolus reflux measures were specified a priori. Multivariate analyses were applied using forward stepwise logistic regression. Predictive value of each parameter for severe pulmonary dysfunction was calculated by area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve or c-statistic. Forty-five subjects (67% M, age 59, 15 mild-moderate vs 30 severe) met criteria for inclusion. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were similar between pulmonary dysfunction groups. Abnormal total reflux episodes and prolonged bolus clearance time were significantly associated with pulmonary dysfunction severity on univariate and multivariate analyses. No pH parameters were significant. The c-statistic of each pH parameter was lower than its MII counterpart in predicting pulmonary dysfunction. MII/bolus reflux, but not pH/acid reflux, was associated with pulmonary dysfunction in prelung transplant patients with IPF. MII-pH may be more valuable than pH testing alone in characterizing GER in IPF. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Imoto, S; Kitaya, T; Kodama, T; Hasebe, T; Mukai, K
We report a case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis in a 35-year-old Japanese woman, who came to our hospital complaining of a tender mass in her right breast. Because the results of initial aspiration cytology were considered highly suspicious for carcinoma, modified radical mastectomy was performed. However, the final histological diagnosis was granulomatous lobular mastitis with no evidence of malignancy. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease of unknown etiology. Since the clinical manifestations are similar to those of mammary carcinoma, this condition has been misdiagnosed as carcinoma and treated as such. A review of the literature revealed that idiopathic granulomatous mastitis has tended to occur in young patients with a history of childbirth or oral contraceptive usage. Clinical or imaging diagnosis has often been difficult. Complete resection or corticosteroid therapy can be recommended as the optimal treatment. Since 38% of patients experience recurrence, long-term follow-up is indicated.
Kuhlen, James L.; Virkud, Yamini V.
Idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA) is a life-threatening allergic disease and the most common diagnosis given to patients following an anaphylactic event. The inability of the healthcare provider and the patient to identify the trigger for anaphylaxis makes standard allergen avoidance measures ineffectual. IA is diagnosed after other causes of anaphylaxis have been excluded. Mast cell activation syndromes (MCAS), mastocytosis, IgE to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (α-gal), and certain medications have recently been recognized as causes of anaphylaxis that were previously labeled idiopathic. This review will describe the epidemiology and proposed theories of pathogenesis for IA, its diagnostic approach, its clinical management, and examine newly recognized disorders that were previously labeled as idiopathic anaphylaxis. PMID:25725228
Puszczewicz, Mariusz J; Tuchocka-Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Majewski, Dominik; Kołczewska, Aleksandra
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a systemic pathology of connective tissue characterized by a chronic inflammatory process with an autoimmune background whereas multiple sclerosis is a demyelination disease with an important role of immune disorders in its pathogenesis. The etiology in both cases remains unknown. The coincidence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and multiple sclerosis was described a just a few patients. We now report on a 31-year-old woman with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In the present case, the main problem was to find the right proper medication for a very, aggressive course of multiple sclerosis and for arthritis. Treatment with interferon-beta and methylprednisolone led to remission with just minor side-effects.
Aquino, José Luis Braga de; Said, Marcelo Manzano; Pereira, Douglas Rizzanti; Amaral, Paula Casals do; Lima, Juliana Carolina Alves; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida
Idiopathic esophageal achalasia is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter in response to swallowing, with consequent dysphagia. To demonstrate the results of surgical therapy in these patients, evaluating the occurred local and systemic complications. Were studied retrospectively 32 patients, 22 of whom presented non-advanced stage of the disease (Stage I/II) and 10 with advanced disease (Stage III/IV). All of them had the clinical conditions to be submitted to surgery. The diagnoses were done by clinical, endoscopic, cardiological, radiological and esophageal manometry analysis. Pre-surgical evaluation was done with a questionnaire based on the most predisposing factors in the development of the disease and the surgical indication was based on the stage of the disease. The patients with non-advanced stages were submitted to cardiomyotomy with fundoplication, wherein in the post-surgical early assessment, only one (4,4%) presented pulmonary infection, but had a good outcome. In patients with advanced disease, seven were submitted to esophageal mucosectomy preserving the muscular layer, wherein one patient (14,2%) presented dehiscence of gastric cervical esophagus anastomosis as well as pulmonary infection; all of these complications were resolved with proper specific treatment; the other three patients with advanced stage were submitted to transmediastinal esophagectomy; two of them presented hydropneumothorax with good evolution, and one of them also presented fistula of the cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but with spontaneous healing after conservative treatment and nutritional support. The two patients with fistula of the cervical anastomosis progressed to stenosis, with good results after endoscopic dilations. In the medium and long term assessment done in 23 patients, all of them reported improvement in life quality, with return to swallowing. The
Guido, Maria; Sarcognato, Samantha; Sacchi, Diana; Colloredo, Guido
Idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is an under-recognized vascular liver disease of unknown etiology, characterized by clinical signs of portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis. By definition, any disorder known to cause portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis and any cause of chronic liver disease must be excluded to make a diagnosis of idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. However, the diagnosis is often difficult because the disease resembles cirrhosis and there is no gold standard test. Liver biopsy is an essential tool: it is able to exclude cirrhosis and other causes of portal hypertension and it allows the identification of the characteristic lesions. Nonetheless, the histological diagnosis of idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is not always straightforward, in particular by needle biopsy samples, because there is no pathognomonic lesion, but rather a variety of vascular changes which are unevenly distributed, very subtle, and not all necessarily identified in a single specimen. Pathologists should be able to recognize several patterns of injury, involving portal/periportal areas as well as parenchymal structures.The histological features of idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension are described in this review, focusing on their interpretation in needle biopsy specimens.
Harris, Dale M.; Rantalainen, Timo; Muthalib, Makii; Johnson, Liam; Teo, Wei-Peng
The use of virtual reality games (known as “exergaming”) as a neurorehabilitation tool is gaining interest. Therefore, we aim to collate evidence for the effects of exergaming on the balance and postural control of older adults and people with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Six electronic databases were searched, from inception to April 2015, to identify relevant studies. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to calculate effect sizes between experimental and control groups. I2 statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. 325 older adults and 56 people with IPD who were assessed across 11 studies. The results showed that exergaming improved static balance (SMD 1.069, 95% CI 0.563–1.576), postural control (SMD 0.826, 95% CI 0.481–1.170), and dynamic balance (SMD −0.808, 95% CI −1.192 to −0.424) in healthy older adults. Two IPD studies showed an improvement in static balance (SMD 0.124, 95% CI −0.581 to 0.828) and postural control (SMD 2.576, 95% CI 1.534–3.599). Our findings suggest that exergaming might be an appropriate therapeutic tool for improving balance and postural control in older adults, but more large-scale trials are needed to determine if the same is true for people with IPD. PMID:26441634
Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan
Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P < 0.001) and lower leptin levels (2.21 ± 2.0 vs. 5.21 ± 2.4, P < 0.001) than those of the control subjects. Nesfatin-1 levels were significantly associated with only leptin levels, after adjusting for age and BMI (r = –0.371, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The present study is the first to evaluate nesfatin-1 levels in relation with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in children with chronic malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.
chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy , and polyneuropathy associated with IgM paraproteinemia. creased the sensitivity but improved the...paraproteine- were employees of or visitors to the Infectious Diseases Divi- ,,i- hronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy , sion of Vanderbilt... polyneuropathy ," is an inflammatory de- jejuni infection before onset of neurologic symptoms. myelinating disease of peripheral nerves characterized
Breiner, Ari; Brannagan, Thomas H
There have been 15 formal sets of criteria published for the diagnosis of CIDP. No study to date has compared the sensitivity and specificity of all published criteria in the same patient population. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with CIDP (n = 56) and controls with diabetic polyneuropathy (n = 37) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 39) who were followed in an academic neuromuscular practice. The sensitivity and specificity of each CIDP criterion was calculated, including clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic components. Sensitivities ranged from 1.8% to 87.5%; the Dyck (87.5%), Neuropathy Association (75%), and European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS; 73.2%) criteria ranked highest. Specificities ranged from 65.6% to 100% and, among the 3 most sensitive criteria, the EFNS (90.8%) and Neuropathy Association (82.9%) criteria were most specific. In our patient population, the EFNS and Neuropathy Association criteria stand out due to high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fluorescence optical imaging and musculoskeletal ultrasonography in juvenile idiopathic polyarticular disease before and during antirheumatic treatment - a multicenter non-interventional diagnostic evaluation.
Klein, Ariane; Just, Georg Werner; Werner, Stephanie Gabriele; Oommen, Prasad T; Minden, Kirsten; Becker, Ingrid; Langer, Hans-Eckhard; Klee, Dirk; Horneff, Gerd
Valid detection of inflamed joints is essential for correct classification, therapeutic decisions, prognosis and assessment of treatment efficacy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) enables visualization of inflammation in arthritis of finger and hand joints and might be used for monitoring. A 24-week observational study in polyarticular JIA patients newly starting treatment with methotrexate or an approved biologic was performed in three centers. Patients were evaluated clinically, by gray-scale ultrasonography (GSUS), power-Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) and FOI at baseline, week 12 and week 24. Of 37 patients enrolled, 24 patients started methotrexate and 13 patients a biologic for the first time (etanercept n = 11, adalimumab and tocilizumab n = 1 each). Mean JADAS 10 decreased significantly from 17.7 at baseline to 12.2 and 7.2 at week 12 and 24 respectively. PedACR 30/50/70/100 response rates at week 24 were 85%/73%/50%/27%. The total number of clinically active joints in hand and fingers at baseline/week 12/week 24 was 262 (23.6%)/162 (16.4%)/162 (9.0%). By GSUS, at baseline/week 12/week 24, 192 (19.4%)/135 (16.1%)/83 (11.5%) joints showed effusions and 186 (18.8%)/107 (12.7%)/69 (9.6%) showed synovial thickening, and by PDUS 68 (6.9%)/15 (1.8%)/36 (5%) joints showed hyperperfusion. Any sign of arthritis was detected by US in a total of 243 joints (24.5%) at baseline, 161 joints (19.2%) at week 12 and 123 joints (17%) at week 24. By FOI at baseline/week 12/week 24, 430 (38.7%)/280 (29.2%)/215 (27.6%) showed a signal enhancement in at least one phase. Summarizing all three points of time, the highest numbers of signals were detected by FOI with 32% of joints, especially in phase 2, while by US 20.7% and by clinical examination 17.5% of joints were active. A high number of joints (21.1%) had FOI signals but were inactive by clinical examination. A total 20.1% of joints with signals in FOI did not show effusion
Del Río Solá, M Lourdes; González Fajardo, José Antonio; Vaquero Puerta, Carlos
Oral anticoagulant therapy for more than 6 months in patients with an episode of idiopathic thromboembolic disease is controversial. The objective was to determine predictive clinical signs that identify patients at increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A prospective study which included 306 consecutive patients with a first episode of idiopathic DVT from June 2012 to June 2014. Predictor variables of recurrent thromboembolic disease and episodes of recurrence during follow-up of the patients (28.42 months) were collected. We performed a multivariate analysis to analyze possible predictors (P<.20) and an analysis of Kaplan-Meier to establish mean recurrence-free survival. We identified 91 episodes of residual vein thrombosis on follow-up of the patients (37.5% men and 20.3% women) (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.25-2.71). In the Cox regression analysis stratified by gender, variables showed significant presence of hyperechoic thrombus (P=.001) in males, and persistence of residual thrombus in women (P=.046). The mean recurrence-free survival was shorter in both groups. The presence of echogenic thrombus in men and the existence of residual DVT in women were 2 clinical signs associated with increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic DVT in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lo, Yi-Fang; Huang, Yu-Chu
Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering. Scoliosis may be treated either conservatively or surgically, based on the severity of the disease. Bracing is the most widely adopted method of conservative treatment. However, the main goal of bracing is to inhibit the progression of the spinal curvature rather than to cure scoliosis. The clinical effectiveness of bracing in Taiwan has often been underutilized as a result of financial or other factors such as the availability of the treatment. The purpose of the present review is to clarify the effectiveness of bracing for AIS by elucidating the pathophysiology of scoliosis and examining the recent clinical evidence. The importance of preventative care and the unique contribution of nursing care to treatment has to date been under-recognized. The positive support that nurses provide to the families of the patients during the early phases of treatment as well as to the patients themselves, including helping them exercise appropriately and wear the brace correctly, is an essential component of effective treatment. Learning how to work with and to adapt to the brace being part of the body is an important part of the treatment as well as a way to avoid pain. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate this learning process and, overall, to provide health education.
Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin
Chronic idiopathic constipation is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that encompasses a wide profile of symptoms. Current treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation are of limited value; therefore, a novel strategy is necessary with an increased effectiveness and safety. Recently, the inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter has become a promising target for constipation-associated diseases. Enhanced delivery of bile acids into the colon achieves an accelerated colonic transit, increased stool frequency, and relief of constipation-related symptoms. This article provides insight into the mechanism of action of ileal bile acid transporter inhibitors and discusses their potential clinical use for pharmacotherapy of constipation in chronic idiopathic constipation.
Wolters, Paul J; Blackwell, Timothy S; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loyd, James E; Kaminski, Naftali; Jenkins, Gisli; Maher, Toby M; Molina-Molina, Maria; Noble, Paul W; Raghu, Ganesh; Richeldi, Luca; Schwarz, Marvin I; Selman, Moises; Wuyts, Wim A; Schwartz, David A
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, irreversible, and typically fatal lung disease characterised by subpleural fibrosis, subepithelial fibroblast foci, and microscopic honeycombing. Although understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms continues to evolve, evidence indicates that distal airway and alveolar epithelial cells are central drivers of the disease. In this Viewpoint, we review the history of naming and classifications used to define the disease now referred to as IPF, in the context of understanding the clinical presentation, causes, and pathogenesis of the disease. We aim to generate discussion on whether, given the substantial progress made in understanding the clinical, genetic, cellular, and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of IPF, a change of name should be considered. To initiate this discussion, we offer new suggestions to update the name of this disease and new approaches to classify all forms of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:29413083
Orozco, H; Takahashi, T; García-Tsao, G; Mercado, M A; Diliz, H; Hernández-Ortiz, J
Patients with portal hypertension without a demonstrable cause have been reported in the literature under several different terms, such as tropical splenomegaly, phlebosclerosis, obliterative portal venopathy of the liver, hepatoportal sclerosis, noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH). Such patients have been described worldwide, with a greater frequency in India and Japan. The etiology of IPH is still unknown, although some of the theories that have been proposed are: exposure to toxic substances or drugs, relationship with the hepatitis-B virus, immunologic abnormalities, systemic or intra-abdominal infections and clotting abnormalities. The main histopathologic findings are periportal fibrosis, obliteration of small portal veins and sclerosis of the interhepatic portal system. Although these abnormalities could be secondary to portal hypertension, it has been proposed that the vascular changes are the primary event that leads to portal hypertension. The site of increased resistance in IPH is found at the presinusoidal level with some component at the sinusoidal and postsinusoidal level. The main symptoms and signs in IPH are upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding secondary to esophago-gastric varices, symptoms related to anemia, and splenomegaly. The long-term prognosis for patients with IPH is better than for cirrhotic patients, with a 77% survival at ten years. Variceal bleeding is the main cause of death, and some treatment to prevent bleeding or its recurrence is warranted. Although no comparative trial has been performed in IPH patients, the surgical management could be the first choice for elective treatment in these patient without liver failure, because of the high re-bleeding rates with chronic sclerotherapy. Pharmacologic management could be considered for prophylactic treatment of these patients.
Zou, Li-Ping; Guo, Yu-Hong; Fang, Fang; Jin, Hong; Wu, Hu-Sheng; Mix, Eilhard
Stroke in children is a relatively uncommon condition and frequently associated with other diseases like cardiopathies, sickle cell disease and chronic smoking. In contrast to stroke in adults, it is rarely caused by atherosclerosis, hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Childhood stroke of unknown causes is called idiopathic stroke. The etiology of idiopathic stroke is unknown. However, several so-called idiopathic diseases develop on the basis of a genetic predisposition. As an approach to investigate this possibility in idiopathic childhood ischemic stroke, we studied the relationship between clinical and immunogenetic features in this disease. We demonstrate that the gene frequencies and relative risk of HLA-B51 were markedly increased in our patients compared with controls (p < 0.001). Thirteen of seventeen HLA-B51-positive patients had had a preceding respiratory infection, which was a higher proportion than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the patient group, the alleles HLA-DRB1*0802, -DRAI*0401 and -DQBI*0402 were also significantly increased, defining the haplotype DRB1*0802-DRA1*0401-DQB1*0402 as a high-risk haplotype for idiopathic childhood ischemic stroke. Transient viral or bacterial infections, which involve vasculitis and vascular occlusion in the brain, can trigger idiopathic childhood ischemic stroke on the basis of an genetic predisposition. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an aging-associated, progressive, and irreversible lung disease of unknown etiology, elusive pathogenesis, and very limited therapeutic options. The hallmarks of IPF are aberrant activation of alveolar epithelial cells and accumulation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts along with excessive production of extracellular matrix. The linkage of aging with this disorder is uncertain, but a number of changes associated with aging, including telomere attrition, cell senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction, have been revealed in IPF lungs. Also, aging seems to confer a profibrotic phenotype upon fibroblasts and to increase the severity of the fibrogenic response in non-IPF fibrotic lung disorders. Better knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking aging to IPF will advance understanding of its pathogenesis and may provide new therapeutic windows to treatment of this devastating disease.
Buatois, Simon; Retout, Sylvie; Frey, Nicolas; Ueckert, Sebastian
This manuscript aims to precisely describe the natural disease progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and evaluate approaches to increase the drug effect detection power. An item response theory (IRT) longitudinal model was built to describe the natural disease progression of 423 de novo PD patients followed during 48 months while taking into account the heterogeneous nature of the MDS-UPDRS. Clinical trial simulations were then used to compare drug effect detection power from IRT and sum of item scores based analysis under different analysis endpoints and drug effects. The IRT longitudinal model accurately describes the evolution of patients with and without PD medications while estimating different progression rates for the subscales. When comparing analysis methods, the IRT-based one consistently provided the highest power. IRT is a powerful tool which enables to capture the heterogeneous nature of the MDS-UPDRS.
Karadag, Berrin; Cat, Huseyin; Aksoy, Selma; Ozulu, Banu; Ozturk, Ali Osman; Oguz, Sukru; Altuntas, Yuksel
The most frequent health problems seen in senility are chronic and degenerative diseases. A 75-year-old male patient with the complaints of weight loss and difficulty in swallowing was admitted to our hospital from a nursing home. Upper system fiber-optic gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and a mass at the junction of the hypopharynx and esophagus just below recessus piriformis obstructing almost the whole of the lumen and blocking the distal passage was detected. Computed tomography revealed marked narrowing secondary to osseous hypertrophy in the air column of the hypopharynx and proximal esophagus. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis or Forestier’s disease is an idiopathic disease characterized by the ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament of vertebra and some of the extraspinal ligaments. In the present case we aim to discuss an elderly patient who suffered from dysphagia and weight loss and the diagnostic stages. PMID:20355249
Brownell, Robert; Kaminski, Naftali; Woodruff, Prescott G; Bradford, Williamson Z; Richeldi, Luca; Martinez, Fernando J; Collard, Harold R
Precision medicine is defined by the National Institute of Health's Precision Medicine Initiative Working Group as an approach to disease treatment that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. There has been increased interest in applying the concept of precision medicine to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in particular to search for genetic and molecular biomarker-based profiles (so called endotypes) that identify mechanistically distinct disease subgroups. The relevance of precision medicine to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is yet to be established, but we believe that it holds great promise to provide targeted and highly effective therapies to patients. In this manuscript, we describe the field's nascent efforts in genetic/molecular endotype identification and how environmental and behavioral subgroups may also be relevant to disease management.
Brownell, Robert; Kaminski, Naftali; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Bradford, Williamson Z.; Richeldi, Luca; Martinez, Fernando J.
Precision medicine is defined by the National Institute of Health’s Precision Medicine Initiative Working Group as an approach to disease treatment that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. There has been increased interest in applying the concept of precision medicine to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in particular to search for genetic and molecular biomarker-based profiles (so called endotypes) that identify mechanistically distinct disease subgroups. The relevance of precision medicine to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is yet to be established, but we believe that it holds great promise to provide targeted and highly effective therapies to patients. In this manuscript, we describe the field’s nascent efforts in genetic/molecular endotype identification and how environmental and behavioral subgroups may also be relevant to disease management. PMID:26991475
Nowilaty, Sawsan R.; Al-Shamsi, Hanan N.; Al-Khars, Wajeeha
Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT), also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurring predominantly in males, and causing visual loss as a result of macular edema. Group II, the most common, is bilateral occurring in both middle-aged men and women, and presenting with telangiectasis that is more difficult to detect on biomicroscopy, but with characteristic and diagnostic angiographic and optical coherence tomography features. Vision loss is due to retinal atrophy, not exudation, and subretinal neovascularization is common. Group III is very rare characterized predominantly by progressive obliteration of the perifoveal capillary network, occurring usually in association with a medical or neurologic disease. This paper presents a current review of juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis, reviewing the classification of these entities and focusing primarily on the two most common types encountered in clinical practice, i.e., groups I and II, describing their clinical features, histopathology, natural history, complications, latest results from imaging modalities and functional studies, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities. PMID:20844678
Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Ramos Casals, Manel; Grau Junyent, Josep M
The aim of this article is to study the evidence-based knowledge related to the use of biological therapies in patients diagnosed with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (dermatomyositis, polymyositis and inclusion body myositis). In this review the leading published studies related to the use of biological therapy in patients with myositis are analysed; mainly those with high methodological standards, that means randomized and controlled studies. Methodological drawbacks due to the rarity and heterogeneity of these complex diseases are also addressed. Up to now is not possible to ascertain the biologics as a recommended therapy in patients with myositis, at least based in the current evidence-based knowledge, although it can not be neglected as a therapeutic option in some clinical situations, taking into account the scarce of effective treatments in those patients, especially in refractory myositis. Future studies probably will help to better define the role of biological therapies in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lee, Hwajeong; Rehman, Aseeb Ur; Fiel, M. Isabel
Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension is a poorly defined clinical condition of unknown etiology. Patients present with signs and symptoms of portal hypertension without evidence of cirrhosis. The disease course appears to be indolent and benign with an overall better outcome than cirrhosis, as long as the complications of portal hypertension are properly managed. This condition has been recognized in different parts of the world in diverse ethnic groups with variable risk factors, resulting in numerous terminologies and lack of standardized diagnostic criteria. Therefore, although the diagnosis of idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension requires clinical exclusion of other conditions that can cause portal hypertension and histopathologic confirmation, this entity is under-recognized clinically as well as pathologically. Recent studies have demonstrated that variable histopathologic entities with different terms likely represent a histologic spectrum of a single entity of which obliterative portal venopathy might be an underlying pathogenesis. This perception calls for standardization of the nomenclature and formulation of widely accepted diagnostic criteria, which will facilitate easier recognition of this disorder and will highlight awareness of this entity. PMID:26563701
Sheldon, Claire A.; Paley, Grace L.; Xiao, Rui; Kesler, Anat; Eyal, Ori; Ko, Melissa W.; Boisvert, Chantal J.; Avery, Robert A.; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Phillips, Paul H.; Heidary, Gena; McCormack, Shana E.; Liu, Grant T.
Purpose To examine anthropometric and maturational characteristics at diagnosis in pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Design Retrospective, international, multisite study. Participants Pediatric patients (2–18 years of age at diagnosis) with IIH. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index (BMI), height, and weight Z-scores; sexual maturation. Methods Cases of IIH were identified retrospectively based on diagnostic code, pediatric neuroophthalmologist databases, or both and updated diagnostic criteria (2013) were applied to confirm definite IIH. Anthropometric measurements were converted into age- and gender-specific height, weight, and BMI Z-scores CDC 2000 growth charts. When available, sexual maturation was noted. Results Two hundred thirty-three cases of definite IIH were identified across 8 sites. In boys, a moderate association between age and BMI Z-scores was noted (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30–0.66; P < 0.001; n = 72), and in girls, a weak association was noted (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.47; P < 0.001; n = 161). The average patient was more likely to be overweight at diagnosis at age 6.7 years in girls and 8.7 years in boys, and obese at diagnosis at age 12.5 years in girls and 12.4 years in boys. Compared with age- and gender-matched reference values, early adolescent patients were taller for age (P = 0.002 in girls and P = 0.02 in boys). Data on Tanner staging, menarchal status, or both were available in 25% of cases (n = 57/233). Prepubertal participants (n = 12) had lower average BMI Z-scores (0.95±1.98) compared with pubertal participants (n = 45; 1.92±0.60), but this result did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). Conclusions With updated diagnostic criteria and pediatric-specific assessments, the present study identifies 3 subgroups of pediatric IIH: a young group that is not overweight, an early adolescent group that is either overweight
Billiard, M; Rondouin, G; Espa, F; Dauvilliers, Y; Besset, A
In 1976 Bedrich Roth coined the term "idiopathic hypersomnia" and described two forms of the disease, one monosymptomatic, manifested only by excessive daytime sleepiness, and one polysymptomatic, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep of abnormally long duration and signs of "sleep drunkenness" on awakening. In comparison with that of narcolepsy, the pathophysiology of idiopathic hypersomnia remains poorly known. There are two main reasons for that: the absence of clinical and polysomnographic criteria pathognomonic or at least characteristic of the condition, as the cataplexies and the sleep onset REM periods of narcolepsy, and also the absence of a natural animal model comparable with the canine model of narcolepsy. The first investigations have stressed the frequent familial pattern of idiopathic hypersomnia. Later on biochemical assays have been performed in the CSF with results in favour of a dysfunction of noradrenergic systems. In the light of the two process model of sleep regulation in which sleep propensity is determined by a homeostatic process S and a circadian process C and of the later three-process model of regulation in which sleepiness/alertness are simulated by the combined action of a homeostatic process, a circadian process and sleep inertia, we suggest that idiopathic hypersomnia is not a pathological entity in itself, but rather the consequence of chronic sleep deprivation in very long sleepers.
Kalenyak, Katja; Isaiah, Anitha; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Burgener, Iwan A
We report the first study to evaluate the intestinal mucosal microbiota of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD) before and after treatment. It was hypothesized that differences in the microbial composition exist between both disease groups and within groups pre- vs. post-treatment. Duodenal and colonic biopsies were obtained endoscopically from 24 dogs (15 FRD, 9 IBD) before and after treatment. The intestinal microbiota was evaluated by Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The global bacterial composition did not differ between IBD and FRD dogs, nor between treatment status. However, several bacterial taxa showed a difference in abundance. Comparing disease groups, an unclassified genus of Neisseriaceae was abundant in the duodenum in the IBD group, whereas Bilophila occurred more frequently in the duodenum and Burkholderia in the colon of FRD dogs. Comparing the microbiota pre- and post-treatment revealed Enterococcus, Corynebacterium and Proteobacteria to be enriched in the duodenum of FRD dogs pre-treatment, while Bacteroides was abundant in the colon post-treatment. In dogs with IBD, Bacteroides also reached significant abundance in the colon post-treatment. In conclusion, some differences in individual bacterial taxa were identified between IBD and FRD dogs and between treatment status. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Prognostic significance of surfactant protein A, surfactant protein D, Clara cell protein 16, S100 protein, trefoil factor 3, and prostatic secretory protein 94 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease.
Doubková, Martina; Karpíšek, Michal; Mazoch, Jiri; Skřičková, Jana; Doubek, Michael
Identification of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers may facilitate diagnosis and prognostication in various lung disorders. Serum and BALF levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A), surfactant protein D (SP-D), Clara cell protein 16 (CC16), S100 protein, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and prostatic secretory protein 94 (PSP94) were evaluated in 94 consecutive patients (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n=18), sarcoidosis (n=25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=51)), and in 155 healthy controls. Biomarkers were measured at diagnosis and compared with disease characteristics. Both uniparametric and multiparametric analyses were used. Seven significant correlations were found: 1) BALF PSP94 level correlated with prognosis of sarcoidosis (P=0.035); 2) BALF SP-D level with pulmonary functions in IPF (P=0.032); 3) BALF SP-D and TFF3 with IPF mortality (P=0.049 and 0.017, respectively); 4) serum TFF3 level with COPD mortality (P=0.006,); 5) serum SP-A with pulmonary functions impairment in IPF (P=0.011); 6) serum SP-D level was associated with HRCT interstitial score in IPF (P=0.0346); and 7) serum SP-A was associated with staging of COPD according to spirometry (P<0.001). Moreover, our analysis showed that some biomarker levels differed significantly among the diseases: 1) BALF SP-D level differed between sarcoidosis and IPF; 2) serum SP-A level differed among IPF, sarcoidosis, COPD and was also different from healthy controls; 3) serum S100A6, S100A11 levels differed among IPF, sarcoidosis, COPD from healthy controls 4) serum SP-D, CC16, TFF-3 levels distinguished IPF patients from healthy controls; and 5) serum CC16, TFF3, PSP94 distinguished COPD patients from healthy controls. Our study shows that some of selected biomarkers should have prognostic value in the analysed lung disorders. On the other hand, these biomarkers do not appear to be unequivocally suitable for differential diagnosis of these disorders.
Achour, I; Chakroun, A; Ayedi, S; Ben Rhaiem, Z; Mnejja, M; Charfeddine, I; Hammami, B; Ghorbel, A
Idiopathic facial palsy is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy in children. Controversy exists regarding treatment options. The objectives of this study were to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the outcome of idiopathic facial palsy in children to suggest appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of idiopathic facial palsy from 2007 to 2012. A total of 37 cases (13 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 13.9 years were included in this analysis. The mean duration between onset of Bell's palsy and consultation was 3 days. Of these patients, 78.3% had moderately severe (grade IV) or severe paralysis (grade V on the House and Brackmann grading). Twenty-seven patients were treated in an outpatient context, three patients were hospitalized, and seven patients were treated as outpatients and subsequently hospitalized. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight of them also received antiviral treatment. The complete recovery rate was 94.6% (35/37). The duration of complete recovery was 7.4 weeks. Children with idiopathic facial palsy have a very good prognosis. The complete recovery rate exceeds 90%. However, controversy exists regarding treatment options. High-quality studies have been conducted on adult populations. Medical treatment based on corticosteroids alone or combined with antiviral treatment is certainly effective in improving facial function outcomes in adults. In children, the recommendation for prescription of steroids and antiviral drugs based on adult treatment appears to be justified. Randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population are recommended to define a strategy for management of idiopathic facial paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Becker, Ingrid; Horneff, Gerd
To examine the effects of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors on the risk for serious infections and other influencing factors in a registry. Patients exposed for the first time to etanercept, adalimumab, or methotrexate and serious infections were identified in the German Biologic Registry for Pediatric Rheumatology (BIKER) registry. Serious infection rates per 1,000 observation-years and relative risks were calculated. Cox regression identified risk factors and provided hazard ratios (HRs) for occurrence of infections. A total of 3,350 patients with 5,919 observation-years fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study. The first biologic agents were etanercept (1,720 cases) and adalimumab (177 cases). A total of 1,453 patients were treated with methotrexate and no biologic agent. In total, 28 serious infections were reported in 26 patients (4.7 per 1,000 patient-years), 5 with methotrexate (1.6 per 1,000 patient-years), 21 with etanercept (8.1 per 1,000 patient-years), and 2 with adalimumab (9.7 per 1,000 patient-years). Significant univariate risk factors for infection were therapy with biologic agents, disease duration before therapy start, corticosteroid medication, nonbiologic premedications, higher clinical Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score including maximal 10 joints (cJADAS10) at therapy start, and higher mean cJADAS10 during therapy. In multivariate Cox regression, only biologic therapy and cJADAS10 at therapy start remained significant. Risk for infection was increased by etanercept (univariate HR 6.0 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.0-17.5]) or adalimumab (HR 7.3 [95% CI 1.3-40.0]) compared to methotrexate as well as by an elevated cJADAS10 at therapy start (HR 1.1 [95% CI 1.0-1.2] per unit increase). The total rate of serious infections reported in the BIKER registry seems low. Treatment with etanercept or adalimumab increases the risk for serious infection slightly, compared to methotrexate. Disease activity expressed by cJADAS10 appears to
Wall, Michael; Kupersmith, Mark J.; Kieburtz, Karl D.; Corbett, James J.; Feldon, Steven E.; Friedman, Deborah I.; Katz, David M.; Keltner, John L.; Schron, Eleanor B.; McDermott, Michael P.
IMPORTANCE To our knowledge, there are no large prospective cohorts of untreated patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) to characterize the disease. OBJECTIVE To report the baseline clinical and laboratory features of patients enrolled in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We collected data at baseline from questionnaires, examinations, automated perimetry, and fundus photography grading. Patients (n = 165) were enrolled from March 17, 2010, to November 27, 2012, at 38 academic and private practice sites in North America. All participants met the modified Dandy criteria for IIH and had a perimetric mean deviation between −2 dB and −7 dB. All but 4 participants were women. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Baseline and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS The mean (SD) age of our patients was 29.0 (7.4) years and 4 (2.4%) were men. The average (SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 39.9 (8.3). Headache was the most common symptom (84%). Transient visual obscurations occurred in 68% of patients, back pain in 53%, and pulse synchronous tinnitus in 52%. Only 32% reported visual loss. The average (SD) perimetric mean deviation in the worst eye was −3.5 (1.1) dB, (range, −2.0 to −6.4 dB) and in the best eye was −2.3 (1.1) dB (range, −5.2 to 0.8 dB). A partial arcuate visual field defect with an enlarged blind spot was the most common perimetric finding. Visual acuity was 85 letters or better (20/20) in 71% of the worst eyes and 77% of the best eyes. Quality of life measures, including the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire–25 and the Short Form–36 physical and mental health summary scales, were lower compared with population norms. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial represents the largest prospectively analyzed cohort of untreated patients with IIH. Our data show
... Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 80. Katugampola RP, Finlay AY. Livedo reticularis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: ...
... a support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone. These organizations are good resources for information on lung disease: American Lung ...
... 50 More than 60% Pulmonary rehabilitation Lung transplantation Pirfenidone or nintedanib 50–70% die in 5 years. ... In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names Pirfenidone ESBRIET nintedanib OFEV Interstitial Lung Diseases Overview of ...
Ley, Brett; Brown, Kevin K.
Molecular biomarkers are highly desired in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), where they hold the potential to elucidate underlying disease mechanisms, accelerated drug development, and advance clinical management. Currently, there are no molecular biomarkers in widespread clinical use for IPF, and the search for potential markers remains in its infancy. Proposed core mechanisms in the pathogenesis of IPF for which candidate markers have been offered include alveolar epithelial cell dysfunction, immune dysregulation, and fibrogenesis. Useful markers reflect important pathological pathways, are practically and accurately measured, have undergone extensive validation, and are an improvement upon the current approach for their intended use. The successful development of useful molecular biomarkers is a central challenge for the future of translational research in IPF and will require collaborative efforts among those parties invested in advancing the care of patients with IPF. PMID:25260757
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228 PMID:22221904
Tona, Francesco; Bellotto, Fabio; Laveder, Francesco; Meneghin, Alessia; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Marcolongo, Renzo
Although idiopathic acute pericarditis is usually a self-limiting disease, in many patients it may recur over a period of months or years. Even if some evidence seems to suggest the possible role of a deranged immune reactivity in the pathogenesis of idiopathic recurrent pericarditis, the etiology of the disease is still unknown. Furthermore, whi